Science.gov

Sample records for idiopathic sclerosing mesenteritis

  1. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon).

    PubMed

    Serafimidis, Costas; Katsarolis, Ioannis; Vernadakis, Spyros; Rallis, George; Giannopoulos, George; Legakis, Nikolaos; Peros, George

    2006-02-13

    Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon) is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  2. Crohn's disease mistaken for long-standing idiopathic mesenteric panniculitis: A case report and management algorithm.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Alexandre; Zappa, Magaly; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Bouhnik, Yoram

    2016-09-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis (MP) is mostly an associated sign of an intra-abdominal or systemic inflammatory primary disease. Nevertheless, etiological and differential diagnosis of idiopathic MP can be challenging when an associate primary cause is not in the foreground. We report here the case of an isolated small bowel Crohn's disease, long time considered as idiopathic MP. This patient presented to our department with a 10-year history of acute abdominal symptoms evolving with flare-up and remission. A diagnosis of idiopathic MP was made based on compatible CT-scan features along with normal laboratory tests and upper and lower bowel endoscopies. As symptoms recurred, a steroid course was proposed which dramatically improved his condition for years. Finally, an explorative laparoscopy was performed because of concern of malignancy when he returned to our unit with a steroid refractory flare-up and weight loss, along with MP nodes growing up to 10 mm. Crohn's disease was eventually diagnosed, based on histopathological middle-gut bowel resection and numerous granulomas in mesenteric nodes without necrosis. This case emphasizes the importance of excluding inflammatory intestinal lesions before making the diagnosis of idiopathic MP (fecal calprotectin, magnetic resonance enterography, wireless capsule endoscopy).

  3. Clinical and nutritional outcomes in children with idiopathic superior mesenteric artery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shiu, Jr-Rung; Chao, Hsun-Chin; Luo, Chih-Cheng; Lai, Ming-Wei; Kong, Man-Shan; Chen, Shih-Yen; Chen, Chien-Chang; Wang, Chao-Jan

    2010-08-01

    There are no available data for outcomes in children's idiopathic superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) strictly treated conservatively. The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical and nutritional outcome in children with idiopathic SMAS. A 1-year prospective observation study of effects of treatment and outcome was performed in 27 children (8 boys, 19 girls) with idiopathic SMAS who underwent an upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series, ultrasound measurement of the aortomesenteric angle, treatment, clinical assessment, growth evaluation, and regular clinical visits for more than 12 months. Mean age of the patients was 11.77 +/- 2.15 years. The major clinical complaints were postprandial pain or fullness (88.9%), vomiting (55.6%), and early satiety (51.9%). Eight patients (29.6%) had weight loss. The UGI series revealed typical features of SMAS. The aortomesenteric angle on ultrasound was 10 degrees to 19 degrees. The height of most patients (92.6%) was above the 10th percentile, whereas 15 (55.6%) patients weighed below the 10th percentile. Six patients underwent surgical intervention (3 for obstruction and 3 for persistent anorexia with weight loss), and their clinical symptoms and weight status improved steadily during the follow-up months. Among the 21 patients not subject to surgical intervention, 11 (52.4%) experienced a reduction of symptoms >50% after 3 months of treatment, and weight-for-age percentile increased significantly after 6 months of treatment. Overall, a significant increase in the weight-for-age status was seen in the patients with surgical treatment or with medication only after 6 and 12 months of treatment. An aortomesenteric angle <20 degrees is a constant phenomenon in children with idiopathic SMAS. A duodenojejunostomy can effectively relieve the obstructive symptoms, such as anorexia, and improve nutritional status, whereas long-term medical treatment may aid in relieving the clinical symptoms, promoting appetite, and improving

  4. Radiotherapy With or Without Surgery for Patients With Idiopathic Sclerosing Orbital Inflammation Refractory or Intolerant to Steroid Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Yeon-Sil, E-mail: yeonkim7@catholic.ac.kr; Yang, Suk Woo

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients with idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation (ISOI) treated with radiotherapy with or without surgery. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 22 patients with histopathologically confirmed ISOI who had been refractory or intolerant to steroid therapy and treated with radiation with or without surgery. The radiation dose ranged from 20 to 40 Gy (median, 20 Gy) at 2 Gy per fraction. Presenting signs and treatment outcomes were assessed. Results: Proptosis was the most common sign at presentation, seen in 19 (86.3%) patients, followed by restriction of extraocular movements in 10 (45.4%) patients. Response to radiotherapymore » was complete in 15 (68.1%) patients, partial in 3 (13.6%) patients, and none in 4 (18.2%) patients. At the median follow-up of 34 months, 14 (63.6%) patients had progression-free state of symptoms and signs, with the progression-free duration ranging from 3 to 75 months (median, 41.5 months), whereas 8 (36.4%) patients had recurrent or persistent disease although they had received radiotherapy. Of the 14 progression-free patients, 6 underwent a bimodality treatment of debulking surgery of ocular disease and radiotherapy. They had had no recurrent disease. Cataract was the most common late complications, and 2 patients experienced a Grade 3 cataract. Conclusion: Our study suggests that for patients with ISOI who are refractory or intolerant to steroid therapy, 20 Gy of radiotherapy appears to be effective for the control of disease with acceptable complications, especially when it is combined with surgery.« less

  5. Mesenteric angiography

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arteriogram - abdomen; Mesenteric angiogram Images Mesenteric arteriography References Kaufman JA. Fundamentals of angiography. In: Kaufman JA, Lee MJ, eds. Vascular and Interventional Radiology: ...

  6. Secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Peña-Pérez, Carlos Alberto; Ponce-Medrano, Juan Alberto Díaz

    2018-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare idiopathic condition with immunopathogenic mechanisms where there is chronic progressive destruction of the biliary tree. Secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC) is clinically comparable to PSC, but is caused by specific processes which directly damage the biliary tree; examples include recurrent pancreatitis, bile duct malignancy, congenital bile duct abnormalities. A new cause of SSC has been described during or following significant critical illness associated with severe respiratory insufficiency, vasopressor requirement, shock and sepsis. This condition rapidly progresses to cirrhosis, frequently requiring liver transplantation for definitive management. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  7. Bilateral sclerosing orbital pseudotumour in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Sripathi, Smiti; Shenoy, Poonam Mohan; Ayachit, Anurag; Kadavigere, Rajagopal

    2014-01-01

    Sclerosing pseudotumour of the orbit is a rare idiopathic chronic inflammatory process, which greatly mimics neoplasms both clinically and on imaging studies. It is therefore important to differentiate this entity from true neoplasms and to rule out any systemic associations. We present a rare case of sclerosing orbital pseudotumour in an adult man with no systemic illnesses who presented with painless progressive proptosis of both eyes and showed a gradual initial response to steroid therapy but relapsed after a 2-year interval. PMID:24876210

  8. Bilateral sclerosing orbital pseudotumour in an adult.

    PubMed

    Sripathi, Smiti; Shenoy, Poonam Mohan; Ayachit, Anurag; Kadavigere, Rajagopal

    2014-05-29

    Sclerosing pseudotumour of the orbit is a rare idiopathic chronic inflammatory process, which greatly mimics neoplasms both clinically and on imaging studies. It is therefore important to differentiate this entity from true neoplasms and to rule out any systemic associations. We present a rare case of sclerosing orbital pseudotumour in an adult man with no systemic illnesses who presented with painless progressive proptosis of both eyes and showed a gradual initial response to steroid therapy but relapsed after a 2-year interval. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Emerging treatments for primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A; Carey, Elizabeth J; Lindor, Keith D

    2017-05-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, cholestatic, idiopathic liver disease that can progress to end-stage liver disease, cirrhosis and cholangiocarcinoma. PSC is an uncommon and highly heterogeneous disease, associated with inflammatory bowel disease and a complex pathophysiology. To date, no medical therapies have proved effective. The only available treatment for end-stage PSC is liver transplant, but recurrence is a significant complication. Areas covered: This review will explore previously tested treatments, discuss current treatment strategies and present viewpoints about future emerging therapies in PSC. We searched PubMed using the noted keywords. We included data from full-text articles published in English. Further relevant articles were identified from the reference lists of review articles. Expert commentary: The development of new therapies in PSC has been challenging. However, with greater awareness of the disease nowadays, new insights into the disease may help in the design of future therapeutic agents in PSC and ultimately in effective therapies.

  10. Degenrative Fibroid and Sclerosing Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, Michael; Bagley, John; Iqbal, Pervis

    2012-01-01

    Sclerosing peritonitis is a rare condition characterised by ascites, peritoneal and bowel wall thickening. Causes reported in the literature include luteal ovarian the comas, peritoneal dialysis, peritoneal chemotherapy and liver cirrhosis. We report an interesting case of a woman presenting with diarrhoea, abdominal distension, ascites and pleural effusion. She was subsequently diagnosed with Sclerosing Peritonitis caused by a degenerating fibroid which was successfully treated by Total Abdominal Hysterectomy and Bilateral Salpingoophrectomy. PMID:22928130

  11. [Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)].

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2011-11-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive and fatal central nervous system disorder that results from a persistent SSPE virus infection. The efficacy of inosine pranobex, an antiviral/immunomodulator agent, remains controversial. Intraventricular interferon-alpha combined with oral inosine pranobex slows the progressive course of SSPE, but does not cure the disease. We examined a wide variety of antiviral compounds for their inhibitory effects on SSPE virus strains in vitro and in vivo, and found that ribavirin had potent inhibitory activity against SSPE. We tried to treat SSPE patients first with high-dose intravenous ribavirin therapy, and then with intraventricular ribavirin therapy. Ribavirin therapy seemed to have a certain effect on clinical courses of patients with SSPE. To reach the conclusion that ribavirin therapy is clinically effective, clinical trials on many cases will be required.

  12. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Bellman, M. H.; Dick, G.

    1978-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is now considered to be caused by measles virus. There are four diagnostic criteria, namely the clinical picture, a characteristic EEG, serology of serum and CSF and brain histology. A register of cases in the U.K. has been kept since 1971, and up to September 1977, ninety-six patients have been reported. The male/female ratio is 2 : 1. The disease most commonly affects children between the ages of nine and eleven years who usually have had measles at a very early age. The average delay between the measles infection and onset of SSPE was 6.8 years and of the thirty-four patients known to have died the average survival times was 1.2 years. There are still many questions about the pathogenesis and epidemiology of SSPE that have yet to be answered. PMID:724581

  13. Genetics Home Reference: primary sclerosing cholangitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in a southern European population. Dig Liver Dis. 2003 Aug;35(8): ... haplotypes in primary sclerosing cholangitis patients from five European populations. Tissue Antigens. 1999 May;53(5):459- ...

  14. Subareolar Sclerosing Ductal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Esther; D'Alfonso, Timothy M; Arafah, Maria; Marrero Rolon, Rebecca; Ginter, Paula S; Hoda, Syed A

    2017-02-01

    Subareolar sclerosing duct hyperplasia (SSDH) remains to be fully characterized nearly 20 years after initial description. Thirty-five SSDH cases diagnosed over a 16-year period (January 2000 to December 2015) were reviewed. All patients were female (mean age = 59 years, range = 18-80) who had presented with a unilateral solitary lesion (left 22, right 13) with a mean size of 1.3 cm (range = 0.4-3.0 cm), and showed florid and papillary epithelial hyperplasia with dense sclerosis without involvement of nipple or areolar epidermis. Significant lesions concurrent within SSDH included low-grade adenosquamous carcinoma (n = 1), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS; n = 1), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS; n = 1), and atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH; n = 13). No case of SSDH recurred in a mean follow-up of 44 months (range = 6-189). Subsequent significant lesions occurred in 6 patients: DCIS (n = 3; ipsilateral 2, contralateral 1), ipsilateral ADH (n = 2), and ipsilateral atypical lobular hyperplasia (n = 1). Long-term follow-up for patients with SSDH is indicated as DCIS can occur subsequently in either breast.

  15. Primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marina G; Lindor, Keith D

    2008-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts, resulting in end-stage liver disease and reduced life expectancy. PSC primarily affects young and middle-aged men, often in association with underlying inflammatory bowel disease. The etiology of PSC includes immune-mediated components and elements of undefined nature. A cholestatic picture of liver biochemistries with elevations in serum alkaline phosphatase, nonspecific autoantibodies such as perinuclear antineutrophilic antibody, antinuclear antibodies and smooth muscle antibodies, and diffuse multifocal biliary strictures, resulting in a ‘beaded’ appearance on radiographic studies, are the hallmarks of the disease. No effective medical therapy is currently available, although clinical studies are in progress. Ursodeoxycholic acid at high doses (28 mg/kg/day to 30 mg/kg/day) is the most promising agent but is unproven so far. Liver transplantation is currently the only life-extending therapy for patients with end-stage disease, although recurrent disease can be observed in the transplanted liver. The multiple complications of PSC include pruritus, fatigue, vitamin deficiencies, metabolic bone disease, peristomal varices, bacterial cholangitis, dominant biliary strictures, gallbladder stones and polyps, and malignancy, particularly cholangiocarcinoma, which is the most lethal complication of PSC. PMID:18701947

  16. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar

    2008-12-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a subacute encephalopathy of childhood and young adolescence. Infrequently, SSPE can occur in adults and pregnant women. It is caused by an aberrant measles virus, known as the SSPE virus. SSPE virus differs from wild-type measles viruses in the form of several mutations affecting the viral genome. The matrix gene is most commonly affected by these mutations. The characteristic clinical manifestations of SSPE include behavioral changes, cognitive decline, myoclonic jerks, seizures, abnormalities in vision, bilateral pyramidal signs and coma. Ocular changes may occur in up to 50% of patients. The most characteristic ophthalmological lesion is necrotizing retinitis. Cortical blindness can be the early feature of SSPE. The diagnosis of SSPE is often difficult in the early stages. In a typical case diagnosis is based on clinical, electroencephalographic, and cerebrospinal fluid findings. At present, there is no effective treatment to completely cure SSPE. Oral isoprinosine and intrathecal or intraventricular alpha-interferon may prolong survival to some extent. Immunization against measles is currently the most effective strategy against SSPE.

  17. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Michael H; Meatherall, Bonnie; Nikolic, Ana; Cannon, Kristine; Fonseca, Kevin; Joseph, Jeffrey T; MacDonald, Judy; Pabbaraju, Kanti; Tellier, Raymond; Wong, Sallene; Koch, Marcus W

    2016-03-01

    We present a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis that developed in a previously healthy 29-year-old pregnant woman who had returned from a trip to rural India shortly before the onset of symptoms. She was admitted to hospital at 27 weeks' gestation with a history of cognitive decline and difficulty completing simple tasks. She had no clinical signs of infection. The working diagnosis was autoimmune encephalitis, although extensive investigations did not lead to a final classifying diagnosis. The patient became comatose and developed hypertension, and an emergency caesarean section was done at 31 weeks to deliver the child, who seemed healthy. The patient died about 6 weeks after the onset of symptoms. The patient was found to have had subacute sclerosing panencephalitis at autopsy. In this Grand Round, we review the clinical features and treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and the epidemiological and public health aspects of the case. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CT appearance of mesenteric saponification.

    PubMed

    Paris, A; Willing, S J

    1991-01-01

    Although saponification of the pancreas is a frequent finding on computed tomography, saponification of extrapancreatic mesenteric sites has not been previously recognized. A case is presented of acute pancreatitis in which serial scans over a four-year period documented calcifications in old extrapancreatic phlegmons. Saponification from pancreatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mesenteric calcifications.

  19. Mesenteric venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Harnik, Ian G; Brandt, Lawrence J

    2010-10-01

    First differentiated from arterial causes of acute mesenteric ischemia 75 years ago, acute mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is an uncommon disorder with non-specific signs and symptoms, the diagnosis of which requires a high index of suspicion. The location, extent, and rapidity of thrombus formation determine whether intestinal infarction ensues. Etiologies, when identified, usually can be separated into local intra-abdominal factors and inherited or acquired hypercoagulable states. The diagnosis is most often made by contrast-enhanced computed tomography, though angiography and exploratory surgery still have important diagnostic as well as therapeutic roles. Anticoagulation prevents clot propagation and is associated with decreased recurrence and mortality. Thrombectomy and thrombolysis may preserve questionably viable bowel and should be considered under certain circumstances. Evidence of infarction mandates surgery and resection whenever feasible. Although its mortality rate has fallen over time, acute MVT remains a life-threatening condition requiring rapid diagnosis and aggressive management. Chronic MVT may manifest with complications of portal hypertension or may be diagnosed incidentally by noninvasive imaging. Management of chronic MVT is directed against variceal hemorrhage and includes anticoagulation when appropriate; mortality is largely dependent on the underlying risk factor.

  20. Measles virus–specific plasma cells are prominent in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis CSF

    PubMed Central

    Owens, G.P.; Ritchie, A.M.; Gilden, D.H.; Burgoon, M.P.; Becker, D.; Bennett, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the specificity of expanded CD138+ plasma cell clones recovered from the CSF of a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) for measles virus (MV). Methods IgG variable region sequences of single-antibody-secreting CD138+ cells sorted from SSPE CSF were amplified by single-cell PCR and analyzed. Human IgG1 recombinant antibodies (rAbs) were produced from four expanded CD138+ clones and assayed for immunoreactivity against MV proteins. Results Clonal expansion was a prominent feature of the SSPE plasma cell repertoire, and each of the four rAbs assayed was specific for either the MV fusion or the MV nucleocapsid protein. Conclusions Expanded plasma cell clones in the CSF of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis produce disease-relevant antibodies. Recombinant antibodies derived from CSF B cells could provide a tool to identify target antigens in idiopathic inflammatory disorders. PMID:17515543

  1. [Mesenteric volvulus associated with mesenteric lipoma: about a case].

    PubMed

    Dème, Hamidou; Badji, Nfally; Akpo, Léra Géraud; Touré, Mouhamed Hamine; Draha, Ronald; Niang, Fallou Gallas; Diop, Abdoulaye Dione; Niang, El Hadj

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 7-year old patient presenting for acute paroxysmal abdominal pain at the level of epigastrium associated with vomiting without involving blockage of materials and gas. Clinical examination and laboratory tests were unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasound was requested as a first line investigationa and showed a right echogenic homogeneous flank and iliac fossa mass with regular contours without vascular Doppler signal and associated with "whirl sign" of mesenteric vessels. On CT scan this mass was seen as a well-defined lipoma formation, exerting a mass effect on the cecum, which was in direct contact with mesenteric volvulus. Arrangement of the mesenteric vessels at their origin was normal. The diagnosis of mesenteric volvulus associated with lipoma was retained. Surgical management and histological analysis of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis. This clinical case aims to highlight the contribution of ultrasound and CT scan in the diagnosis of midgut volvulus.

  2. Survey of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yusaku; Hashimoto, Koichi; Iinuma, Kazuie; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Ichiyama, Takashi; Kusuhara, Koichi; Nomura, Keiko; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Aiba, Hideo; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2012-12-01

    Investigators conducted a retrospective epidemiological study of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a fatal disease caused by measles infection, over the past few years in Japan. Data on 118 cases obtained from a questionnaire sent to attending physicians were analyzed. The annual incidence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was approximately 0.03 cases per million from 2001 to 2005. Children infected with measles at a young age (<12 months) showed a high incidence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and those infected before 6 months of age showed earlier onset. Because a positive correlation was found between the prevalence of measles and the onset of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, particularly among children infected at an early age, it is vital to eradicate measles infection by vaccination.

  3. Pseudotumor cerebri secondary to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ayçiçek, Ali; Işcan, Akin; Ceçe, Hasan

    2009-05-01

    Unusual presentations are not rare in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Five patients initially diagnosed with pseudotumor cerebri were ultimately determined to have pseudotumor cerebri secondary to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The present study retrospectively reviewed 56 cases history, neurologic symptoms, and clinical and laboratory data, as well as the outcomes. On admission, five patients (group 1) presenting with pseudotumor cerebri exhibited bilateral papilledema, and in each of them cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed small lateral ventricles, effacement of the subarachnoid space, and no mass lesion. On admission, 51 patients (group 2) had no pseudotumor cerebri findings. The year of original measles infection, the interval between measles and onset of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and initial neurologic symptoms were similar, but length of symptoms before diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was shorter in group 1, and the clinical stage of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis on admission was more advanced in group 2. Cerebrospinal fluid mean open pressure was 378 +/- 22 H(2)O in group 1 and 146 +/- 28 H(2)O in group 2; cerebrospinal fluid antibody was 2038 +/- 768 U/L in group 1 and was 664 +/- 214 U/L in group 2. Only three of the five patients with pseudotumor cerebri had typical periodic discharges on electroencephalographic examination. These findings suggest that subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can cause pseudotumor cerebri.

  4. Retrograde open mesenteric stenting for acute mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Blauw, Juliette T M; Meerwaldt, Robert; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; Kolkman, Jeroen J; Gerrits, Dick; Geelkerken, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) encompasses the sequels of end-stage untreated chronic mesenteric ischemia and acute mesenteric artery thrombosis. Percutaneous mesenteric artery stenting (PMAS) is the preferred treatment of patients with AMI but is not always feasible. Retrograde open mesenteric stenting (ROMS) is a hybrid technique that combines the advantages of open surgical and endovascular approaches. The literature on the results of this new technique is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of ROMS in a consecutive series of patients with AMI. All patients with emergent mesenteric revascularization for AMI between January 2007 and September 2011 were entered in our prospective registry. Technical success, mortality, patency, clinical success, and complication rate at 30 days and 6 and 12 months were assessed. Sixty-eight patients presented with AMI and 54 underwent PMAS, of which four were unsuccessful and followed by ROMS. Eleven patients were directly treated with ROMS, making a total of 15 patients (10 women and five men; median age, 66 years [interquartile range, 54-73 years]). In all patients, only the superior mesenteric artery was revascularized. In nine of the 15 patients, all three mesenteric arteries were severely stenotic or occluded. Technical success was achieved in 14 patients. At ROMS in two patients, the small bowel was severely ischemic. One of these patients needed a partial bowel resection because of irreversible transmural ischemia. At 30 days, the mortality rate was 20% and the primary patency was 92%. Ten patients underwent unplanned relaparotomy, of whom one needed resection of a large part of the small bowel. At 12 months, the mortality rate was still 20%. The primary patency was 83%. Primary assisted patency was 91%, and secondary patency was 100%. Clinical success at 30 days, 6 months, and 12 months, respectively, was 73%, 67%, and 67%. AMI is still a devastating event. If PMAS is not feasible, ROMS is a reliable

  5. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Jose; Issacson, Richard S; Koppel, Barbara S

    2010-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic encephalitis occurring after infection with measles virus. The prevalence of the disease varies depending on uptake of measles vaccination, with the virus disproportionally affecting regions with low vaccination rates. The physiopathology of the disease is not fully understood; however, there is evidence that it involves factors that favour humoral over cellular immune response against the virus. As a result, the virus is able to infect the neurons and to survive in a latent form for years. The clinical manifestations occur, on average, 6 years after measles virus infection. The onset of SSPE is insidious, and psychiatric manifestations are prominent. Subsequently, myoclonic seizures usually lead to a final stage of akinetic mutism. The diagnosis is clinical, supported by periodic complexes on electroencephalography, brain imaging suggestive of demyelination, and immunological evidence of measles infection. Management of the disease includes seizure control and avoidance of secondary complications associated with the progressive disability. Trials of treatment with interferon, ribavirin, and isoprinosine using different methodologies have reported beneficial results. However, the disease shows relentless progression; only 5% of individuals with SSPE undergo spontaneous remission, with the remaining 95% dying within 5 years of diagnosis.

  6. Idiopathic anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Fenny, Nana; Grammer, Leslie C

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic anaphylaxis is a diagnosis of exclusion after other causes have been thoroughly evaluated and excluded. The pathogenesis of idiopathic anaphylaxis remains uncertain, although increased numbers of activated lymphocytes and circulating histamine-releasing factors have been implicated. Signs and symptoms of patients diagnosed with idiopathic anaphylaxis are indistinguishable from the manifestations of other forms of anaphylaxis. Treatment regimens are implemented based on the frequency and severity of patient symptoms and generally include the use of epinephrine autoinjectors, antihistamines, and steroids. The prognosis of idiopathic anaphylaxis is generally favorable with well-established treatment regimens and effective patient education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A case of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia limited to the mesentery.

    PubMed

    Kambe, N; Okabe, R; Osada, H; Ogawa, M; Kishimoto, M; Fukushima, R; Kondo, H; Ohmori, K

    2018-04-30

    An entire, female, mixed-breed cat of unknown age was presented with a 6-week history of lethargy, anorexia and vomiting. There was an increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood, including neutrophils and eosinophils; moderate anaemia; ascites; and possible mesenteric peritonitis. Exploratory laparotomy revealed firm, multifocal small nodules in the mesentery. As the nodules were surgically unresectable, they were biopsied. Histologically, the nodules were composed of thin trabeculae of dense collagen fibres mixed with plump fibroblasts and numerous eosinophils, consistent with feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia. Bacteria were not detected on histological examination of the nodules and cytology of the ascites. Remission of disease occurred following treatment with prednisolone and ciclosporin A for 22 days and antibiotics for 40 days. After remission, ciclosporin A was administered for 236 days and then discontinued. Eosinophilia also resolved after treatment with ciclosporin A. The cat is still alive and in good condition on day 689. This report describes what may be an atypical case of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia, lacking involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, and was apparently cured by treatment that involved ciclosporin A. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Nandedkar, Shirish; Malukani, Kamal; Nayak, Renu; Patidar, Ekta

    2014-03-01

    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction characterized by total or partial encapsulation of the small intestine by a thick fibrous membrane and is a difficult preoperative diagnosis. A series of seven cases of SEP is reported. Modalities of preoperative diagnosis along with clinical presentation, operative findings, and histopathology are discussed.

  9. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: The Foothold in Undervaccination.

    PubMed

    Holt, Rebecca L; Kann, Dylan; Rassbach, Caroline E; Schwenk, Hayden T; Ritter, Jana M; Rota, Paul A; Elbers, Jorina

    2016-12-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal complication of measles infection. We present a case of a fully vaccinated 3-year-old boy who was diagnosed with and treated for autoimmune encephalitis before arriving at a diagnosis of SSPE. We discuss the challenges of diagnosing SSPE in developed countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Familial subacute sclerosing panencephalitis associated with short latency.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod; Gupta, Vineet B; Eisenhut, Michael

    2008-03-01

    The familial recurrence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is rare. The study of such cases and a comparison of intrafamilial with sporadic cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may shed light on important pathogenetic factors. We report on the occurrence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in two brothers from rural India, who contracted measles infection simultaneously at ages 3 and 11 years. They developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis 21 and 37 months later, respectively. A diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was based on history, electroencephalographic changes, and significantly raised levels of cerebrospinal-fluid anti-measles virus immunoglobulin G. A comparison of intrafamilial with sporadic cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis revealed that latency in familial subacute sclerosing panencephalitis involved a median of 6.4 years (range, 1.0-10.9), significantly (P < 0.05) shorter than in sporadic cases with a median of 9.7 years (range, 2.7-23.4). This difference was because of significantly later infection with measles virus and an earlier onset of encephalitis. We describe the first siblings affected by subacute sclerosing panencephalitis from the Indian subcontinent. We confirmed a more rapid manifestation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis after measles virus infection in intrafamilial compared with sporadic subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  11. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with recurrent febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Ayşe; Çıtak Kurt, Ayşegül Neşe; Hirfanoğlu, Tuğba; Aydın, Kürşad; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a devastating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by persistent mutant measles virus infection. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can have atypical clinical features at the onset. Herein, we report an unusual case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with recurrent febrile seizures. The disease progressed with an appearance of myoclonic jerks, periodic high amplitude generalized complexes on EEG, and elevated titers of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid leading to the final diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  12. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Recurrent Febrile Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Kartal, Ayşe; Çıtak Kurt, Ayşegül Neşe; Hirfanoğlu, Tuğba; Aydın, Kürşad; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a devastating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by persistent mutant measles virus infection. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can have atypical clinical features at the onset. Herein, we report an unusual case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with recurrent febrile seizures. The disease progressed with an appearance of myoclonic jerks, periodic high amplitude generalized complexes on EEG, and elevated titers of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid leading to the final diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. PMID:25802788

  13. Brainstem involvement in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pawan; Singh, Dileep; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Kohli, Neera

    2011-01-01

    The parieto-occipital region of the brain is most frequently and severely affected in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). The basal ganglia, cerebellum and corpus callosum are less commonly involved. Brainstem involvement is rarely described in SSPE, and usually there is involvement of other regions of the brain. We describe a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with brain magnetic resonance imaging showing extensive brainstem involvement without significant involvement of other cortical structures. Though rarely described in SSPE, one should be aware of such brainstem and cerebellum involvement, and SSPE should be kept in mind when brainstem signal changes are seen in brain MRI with or without involvement of other regions of brain to avoid erroneous reporting.

  14. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in immunized Thai children.

    PubMed

    Khusiwilai, Khanittha; Viravan, Sorawit

    2011-12-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with high mortality and poor prognosis. This is caused by persistent defective measles virus infection. Clinical presentations are variable including behavioral-cognitive change, myoclonic seizure, visual problem, spasticity or abnormal movement. The authors report a case of 10 year-old boy, previously healthy with complete immunization, presenting with frequent myoclonic jerks, abnormal movements, spasticity and altered mental status. Electroencephalographic (EEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and laboratory findings are typical for SSPE.

  15. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as mania

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Ashish; Khandelwal, Ashish; Jain, Manish; Jiloha, R. C.

    2011-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, invariably fatal degenerative disease of the central nervous system developing after measles infection. Besides neurological symptoms as initial presenting symptoms, rare reports of its presentation with pure psychiatric symptoms have been reported. We here report a case of 14 year old male who initially presented with manic symptoms and then subsequently diagnosed to be suffering from SSPE. Improtance of ruling our organic conditions is emphasized. PMID:21808475

  16. Cytogenetic study of a pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma.

    PubMed

    Pareja, María J; Vargas, María T; Sánchez, Ana; Ibáñez, José; González-Cámpora, Ricardo

    2009-11-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH) is an uncommon benign tumor that presents as a solitary asymptomatic and slow-growing nodule. It occurs in both young and old persons; peak incidence is in the fifth decade. Both sexes are affected by this tumor, but women more frequently than men. On histological examination, PSH shows prominent sclerotization and vascularization of the tissue. Recent studies conclude that PSH derives from type II pneumocytes, but the potential for progression and histogenesis remains controversial. We report a case of pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma in a 61-year-old woman with a neoplastic node 1 cm in diameter. The karyotype was 46,XX,t(8;18),der(14;15),+14 in all the cells analyzed. PTEN (10q23) and IgH (14q32) probes were analyzed in interphase nuclei and paraffin-embedded tissues of tumor cells. These chromosome abnormalities could provide information about the relationship of genetic changes to the biological properties of sclerosing hemangioma tumors.

  17. Sclerosing Meningioma : Radiological and Clinical Characteristics of 21 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ho; Se, Young-Bem; Dho, Yun-Sik; Choi, Seung Hong; Park, Sung-Hye

    2016-01-01

    Objective A rare subtype of meningioma, sclerosing meningioma is not included in the current World Health Organization classification of meningiomas and is classified into the category of other morphological variation subtypes. Sclerosing meningioma is often misdiagnosed to other non-benign meningioma or malignant neoplasm, so it is important to diagnose sclerosing type correctly. We analyzed the radiological and clinical characteristics of a series of sclerosing meningiomas. Methods Twenty-one patients who underwent surgery in one institute with a histopathologically proven sclerosing meningioma were included from 2006 to 2014. Eighteen tumors were diagnosed as a pure sclerosing-type meningioma, and 3 as mixed type. Magnetic resonance image was taken for all patients including contrast enhancement image. Computed tomography (CT) scan was taken for 16 patients. One neuroradiologist and 1 neurosurgeon reviewed all images retrospectively. Results In the all 16 patients with preoperative CT images, higher attenuation was observed in the meningioma than in the brain parenchyma, and calcification was observed in 11 (69%). In 15 of the 21 patients (71%), a distinctive very low signal intensity appeared as a dark color in T2-weighted images. Nine of these 15 tumors (60%) exhibited heterogeneous enhancement, and 6 (40%) exhibited homogeneous enhancement that was unlike the homogeneous enhancing pattern shown by conventional meningiomas. Ten patients had a clear tumor margin without peritumoral edema. Conclusion Although these peculiar radiological characteristics are not unique to sclerosing meningioma, we believe that they are distinctive features that may be helpful for distinguishing sclerosing meningioma from other subtypes. PMID:27847571

  18. Emerging pharmacologic therapies for primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Angela C; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; LaRusso, Nicholas F; Gores, Gregory J

    2017-05-01

    The only currently approved treatment for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is liver transplantation, with a median time to transplant of 12-18 years after diagnosis. There are a number of emerging drugs that have the potential to meet this critically unmet need that will be summarized and discussed herein. Although the cause of PSC is unknown, there are a number of novel therapeutics under development. These drugs target presumed pathogenic mechanisms largely extrapolated from ex-vivo and in-vivo preclinical models, as well as translational observations. Future therapeutic strategies for PSC may include a multitude of complex pathogenic mechanisms encompassing pathways of immunomodulation, the microbiome and inflammation-related fibrosis.

  19. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Praticò, A D; Saporito, M; Iacono, O; Castellano-Chiodo, D; Pavone, P

    2011-02-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive neurological disorder of childhood and early adolescence caused by persistent defective measles virus. Clinical manifestations appear many years after the acute measles infection. The incidence of SSPE has substantially declined after the introduction of an effective vaccine. We report a case of a child with SSPE that began with atonia, dysarthria, and intellectual deterioration without the presence of any particular EEG anomalies. We have reported this girl who was affected by this severe affliction in the hope that, because of the rarity of SSPE, it would not go undiagnosed.

  20. Idiopathic hypersomnia.

    PubMed

    Billiard, Michel; Sonka, Karel

    2016-10-01

    Idiopathic hypersomnia continues to evolve from the concept of "sleep drunkenness" introduced by Bedrich Roth in Prague in 1956 and the description of idiopathic hypersomnia with two forms, polysymptomatic and monosymptomatic, by the same Bedrich Roth in 1976. The diagnostic criteria of idiopathic hypersomnia have varied with the successive revisions of the International classifications of sleep disorders, including the recent 3rd edition. No epidemiological studies have been conducted so far. Disease onset occurs most often during adolescence or young adulthood. A familial background is often present but rigorous studies are still lacking. The key manifestation is hypersomnolence. It is often accompanied by sleep of long duration and debilitating sleep inertia. Polysomnography (PSG) followed by a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) is mandatory, as well as a 24 h PSG or a 2-wk actigraphy in association with a sleep log to ensure a total 24-h sleep time longer than or equal to 66O minutes, when the mean sleep latency on the MSLT is longer than 8 min. Yet, MSLT is neither sensitive nor specific and the polysomnographic diagnostic criteria require continuous readjustment and biologic markers are still lacking. Idiopathic hypersomnia is most often a chronic condition though spontaneous remission may occur. The condition is disabling, sometimes even more so than narcolepsy type 1 or 2. Based on neurochemical, genetic and immunological analyses as well as on exploration of the homeostatic and circadian processes of sleep, various pathophysiological hypotheses have been proposed. Differential diagnosis involves a number of diseases and it is not yet clear whether idiopathic hypersomnia and narcolepsy type 2 are not the same condition. Until now, the treatment of idiopathic hypersomnia has mirrored that of the sleepiness of narcolepsy type 1 or 2. The first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of modafinil have just been published, as well as a double

  1. Cholinergic innervation of human mesenteric lymphatic vessels.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, V; Bianchi, E; Taurone, S; Mignini, F; Cavallotti, C; Artico, M

    2013-11-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmission within the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels has been poorly studied. Therefore, our aim is to analyse the cholinergic nerve fibres of lymphatic vessels using the traditional enzymatic techniques of staining, plus the biochemical modifications of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Specimens obtained from human mesenteric lymphatic vessels were subjected to the following experimental procedures: 1) drawing, cutting and staining of tissues; 2) staining of total nerve fibres; 3) enzymatic staining of cholinergic nerve fibres; 4) homogenisation of tissues; 5) biochemical amount of proteins; 6) biochemical amount of AChE activity; 6) quantitative analysis of images; 7) statistical analysis of data. The mesenteric lymphatic vessels show many AChE positive nerve fibres around their wall with an almost plexiform distribution. The incubation time was performed at 1 h (partial activity) and 6 h (total activity). Moreover, biochemical dosage of the same enzymatic activity confirms the results obtained with morphological methods. The homogenates of the studied tissues contain strong AChE activity. In our study, the lymphatic vessels appeared to contain few cholinergic nerve fibres. Therefore, it is expected that perivascular nerve stimulation stimulates cholinergic nerves innervating the mesenteric arteries to release the neurotransmitter AChE, which activates muscarinic or nicotinic receptors to modulate adrenergic neurotransmission. These results strongly suggest, that perivascular cholinergic nerves have little or no effect on the adrenergic nerve function in mesenteric arteries. The cholinergic nerves innervating mesenteric arteries do not mediate direct vascular responses.

  2. The role of CT in predicting the need for surgery in patients diagnosed with mesenteric phlebosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Ching; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Westphalen, Antonio Carlos; Liao, Chun-Han; Chen, Cheng-Hong; Chen, Chun-Ming; Lin, Chien-Heng

    2016-10-01

    To determine if imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) can predict the need of surgery in patients with idiopathic mesenteric phlebosclerosis (IMP).This retrospective study included 28 patients with IMP. Abdominal CT images were reviewed to determine the extent and severity of mesenteric calcifications and the presence of findings related to colitides. We compared the number of colonic segments with mesenteric venous calcification, a total calcification score, and the rate of colonic wall thickening, pericolic fat stranding, and bowel loop dilatation between patients undergoing surgery (surgery group) and patients without surgery (nonsurgery group). Comparisons were made using the Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher exact test. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was also performed. Inter-reader agreement for the calcification scores was analyzed using kappa statistics.The number of colonic segments with mesenteric venous calcification and the total calcification scores were both significantly higher in the surgery group than the nonsurgery group (4.33 vs 2.96, P = 0.003; and 15.00 vs 8.96, P <0.001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristics to identify patients who need surgery were 0.96 and 0.92, respectively. The prevalence of bowel loop dilatation in the surgery group was also significantly higher than that in the nonsurgery group (16% vs 100%, P = 0.011).Evaluation of the severity and extent of IMP based on the total mesenteric venous calcification score, number of involved colonic segments, and the presence bowel loop dilatation on CT may be useful to indicate the outcomes of conservative treatment and need for surgery.

  3. Clinical features and management of primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marina G; Lindor, Keith D

    2008-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the bile ducts, resulting in cirrhosis and need for liver transplantation and reduced life expectancy. The majority of cases occur in young and middle-aged men, often in association with inflammatory bowel disease. The etiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis includes immune-mediated components and elements of undefined nature. No effective medical therapy has been identified. The multiple complications of primary sclerosing cholangitis include metabolic bone disease, dominant strictures, bacterial cholangitis, and malignancy, particularly cholangiocarcinoma, which is the most lethal complication of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Liver transplantation is currently the only life-extending therapeutic alternative for patients with end-stage disease, although recurrence in the allografted liver has been described. A PSC-like variant attracting attention is cholangitis marked by raised levels of the immunoglobulin G4 subclass, prominence of plasma cells within the lesions, and steroid responsiveness. PMID:18528931

  4. Acute mesenteric ischemia after heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Goleanu, V; Alecu, L; Lazar, O

    2014-01-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a rare but very severe complication of heart surgery, due especially to the delay in setting the correct diagnosis and choosing the appropriate treatment. There are 4 types, but the most frequent is nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI). The main mechanism is represented by great decrease or maldistribution of the splenic blood flow, with negative impact on the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, bacterial translocation and multiorganic failure. We present a retrospective study conducted on patients who underwent open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass with non-pulsatile flow. 4 cases of angiographically confirmed NOMI (non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia) were identified. When, based on clinical examination and laboratory findings, acute mesenteric ischemia was suspicioned, superior mesenteric artery angiography was performed via the femoral artery. The main risk factors were represented by: age over 70 years old, left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) 35%,aortic clamping time 100 min., chronic kidney failure,counter-pulsation balloon implant, inotropic medication use,like levosimendan, use of blood components 1 unit of erythrocyte mass. Clinical signs were nonspecific. All patients presented hypoventilation, arterial hypotension, oliguria and,from a biological standpoint, metabolic acidosis and leucocytosis. Superior mesenteric artery angiography was the investigation method of choice. Treatment approach was initially medical, followed by resection of the intestine.Mortality was 100%. Acute mesenteric ischemia is a rare but very severe complication in cardiac surgery. It is primordial that the main risk factors be known, and in case of diagnosis suspicion, that it be set as early as possible, along with immediate initiation of an appropriate course of treatment. Celsius.

  5. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Raut, Tushar Premraj; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Naphade, Pravin Umakant

    2012-12-14

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slowly progressing inflammatory and degenerative disorder of the brain caused by a mutant measles virus. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings (periodic complexes) and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. SSPE can have atypical clinical features at the onset. The authors here report a case of a 3-year-old child who presented with vision loss followed 15 months later by quadriparesis with bladder involvement. These clinical features resembled that of neuromyelitis optica. However, as the disease progressed, appearance of myoclonic jerks, periodic discharges on EEG and positive cerebrospinal fluid serology for measles led to the final diagnosis of SSPE.

  6. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and chronic viral encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Anlar, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic infection of the central nervous system associated with the presence of mutant measles virus in the brain. It presents as a progressive, usually fatal disease. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria and an elevated titer of measles antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Electroencephalography and imaging studies provide supportive laboratory data. A brain biopsy is indicated only when CSF serology is negative or equivocal in a suspected case to assess the presence of inclusion bodies, measles virus antigens, or viral RNA. Among many drugs and methods tried in the treatment, the highest rate of stabilization or improvement was obtained with intraventricular human lymphoblastoid interferon-α and oral inosiplex. Further research for more available and efficient therapeutic regimens is warranted. Measles and SSPE are preventable by maintenance of high rates of immunization in the population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Tushar Premraj; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Naphade, Pravin Umakant

    2012-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slowly progressing inflammatory and degenerative disorder of the brain caused by a mutant measles virus. The diagnosis of SSPE is based on characteristic clinical and EEG findings (periodic complexes) and demonstration of elevated antibody titres against measles in cerebrospinal fluid. SSPE can have atypical clinical features at the onset. The authors here report a case of a 3-year-old child who presented with vision loss followed 15 months later by quadriparesis with bladder involvement. These clinical features resembled that of neuromyelitis optica. However, as the disease progressed, appearance of myoclonic jerks, periodic discharges on EEG and positive cerebrospinal fluid serology for measles led to the final diagnosis of SSPE. PMID:23242079

  8. Basal ganglia lesions in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Kelson James; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto Gonçalves; Rosemberg, Sérgio; Nitrini, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The parieto-occipital region of the brain is the most frequently and severely affected in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). The basal ganglia, cerebellum and corpus callosum are less commonly involved. We describe a patient with SSPE confirmed by neuropathology based on brain magnetic resonance imaging showing extensive basal ganglia involvement and no significant involvement of other cortical structures. Though rarely described in SSPE, clinicians should be aware of this involvement. SSPE should be kept in mind when changes in basal ganglia signal are seen on brain magnetic resonance imaging with or without involvement of other regions of the human brain to avoid erroneous etiological diagnosis of other pathologies causing rapidly progressive dementia. PMID:29213810

  9. Serial diffusion-weighted imaging in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kanemura, Hideaki; Aihara, Masao

    2008-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may be associated with clinical features of frontal lobe dysfunction. We previously reported that frontal lobe volume falls significantly as clinical stage progresses, using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging-based brain volumetry. The hypothesis that frontal volume increases correlate with clinical improvement, however, was not tested in our previous study. Therefore, we reevaluated our patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, to determine whether apparent diffusion coefficient maps can characterize the clinical course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. We studied an 8-year-old boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, using serial diffusion-weighted imaging magnetic resonance imaging, and measured the regional apparent diffusion coefficient. The regional apparent diffusion coefficient of the frontal lobe decreased significantly with clinical progression, whereas it increased to within normal range during clinical improvements. The apparent diffusion coefficient of the other regions did not change. These results suggest that the clinical signs of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis are attributable to frontal lobe dysfunction, and that apparent diffusion coefficient measurements may be useful in predicting the clinical course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  10. Survival in Nonocclusive Mesenteric Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuyoshi, Akira; Obama, Kazutaka; Shinkura, Nobuhiko; Ito, Takashi; Zaima, Masazumi

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to establish a procedure for early diagnosis and treatment of nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI). Background: NOMI has a high mortality rate, and early diagnosis and treatment are important for improving survival in patients with this condition. Methods: The subjects were 22 patients treated at our hospital over 13 years. Diagnostic criteria for NOMI were established based on the first 13 cases. In the 9 more recent cases, we performed abdominal contrast multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) upon suspicion of NOMI based on these criteria. Imaging allowed definite diagnosis of NOMI, and continuous intravenous high-dose PGE1 administration was initiated immediately after diagnosis (dose, 0.01–0.03 μg/kg per min; mean administration period, 4.8 days). Results: Nine of the first 13 patients died of multiple organ failure associated with multiple intestinal necrosis. These cases suggested that NOMI may develop when 3 of the following 4 criteria are met after cardiovascular surgery or maintenance dialysis in elderly patients: symptoms of the ileus develop slowly from abdominal symptoms, such as an unpleasant abdominal feeling or pain; a requirement for catecholamine treatment; an episode of hypotension; and slow elevation of the serum transaminase level. In the 9 recent cases, definite diagnosis was made from spasm of the principal arteries in arterial volume rendering and curved planar reformation MDCT images. Early treatment with PGE1 prevented acute-stage NOMI in 8 of the 9 cases. Conclusions: Early diagnosis of NOMI is possible using the above criteria and MDCT, and initiation of PGE1 treatment may increase survival in patients with NOMI. PMID:17667501

  11. Melorheostosis: a Rare Sclerosing Bone Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Anupam; Clarke, Bart L

    2017-08-01

    Melorheostosis is a rare sclerosing bone dysplasia that affects both cortical bone and adjacent soft tissue structures in a sclerotomal distribution. In this review, we describe the natural history, radiological features, proposed pathogenesis, and management options for this debilitating condition. Since its first description in 1922, about 400 cases of melorheostosis have been reported, either as single reports or in small case series. Melorheostosis affects the appendicular skeleton more commonly than the axial skeleton and usually presents with lower limb deformity. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical and radiological features that help differentiate this condition from other sclerosing bone dysplasias. LEM domain-containing protein 3 (LEMD3) gene mutations have been demonstrated in several familial cases, but these have been more strongly correlated with other hereditary dysplasias, such as osteopoikilosis, and are not thought to be the causative gene for melorheostosis. The exact etiology of classic sporadically occurring melorheostosis remains unknown, with possible causes being somatic LEMD3 mutations, somatic mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor-beta pathway, mutations in multiple genes, or other non-genetic causes. Management in recent years has involved nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates in addition to traditional orthopedic surgical approaches and physical therapy. Melorheostosis may present as mixed or atypical osseous involvement in addition to the classically described "dripping candle wax" appearance of hyperostosis. Some patients may have overlap with osteopoikilosis or Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome. In the future, better characterization of genetic and developmental factors predisposing to melorheostosis may lead to the development of targeted therapy for this condition, as well as for more commonly encountered skeletal abnormalities.

  12. Idiopathic Hypersomnia.

    PubMed

    Trotti, Lynn Marie

    2017-09-01

    Idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) is a chronic neurologic disorder of daytime sleepiness, accompanied by long sleep times, unrefreshing sleep, difficulty in awakening, cognitive dysfunction, and autonomic symptoms. The cause is unknown; a genetic predisposition is suggested. Autonomic, inflammatory, or immune dysfunction has been proposed. Diagnosis involves a clinical history and objective testing. There are no approved treatments for IH, but modafinil is typically considered first-line. A substantial fraction of patients with IH are refractory or intolerant to standard treatments, and different treatment strategies using novel therapeutics are necessary. Even with current treatment options, quality of life and safety may remain impaired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute mesenteric ischemia: a vascular emergency.

    PubMed

    Klar, Ernst; Rahmanian, Parwis B; Bücker, Arno; Hauenstein, Karlheinz; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Luther, Bernd

    2012-04-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is still fatal in 50% to 70% of cases. This consensus paper was written with the participation of physicians from all of the involved specialties for the purpose of improving outcomes. Mesenteric ischemia must be recognized as a vascular emergency requiring rapid and efficient clinical evaluation and treatment. We reviewed pertinent literature that was retrieved by a PubMed search on the terms "mesenteric ischemia" AND "arterial" OR "venous" OR "clinical presentation" OR "diagnosis" OR "therapy" OR "surgery" OR " interventional radiology." Our review also took account of the existing guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association. Intensive discussions among the participating physicians, representing all of the specialties involved in the management of mesenteric ischemia, led to the creation of this interdisciplinary paper. Biphasic contrast-enhanced computerized tomography is the diagnostic tool of choice for the detection of arterial or venous occlusion. If non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia is suspected, angiography should be performed, with the option of intraarterial pharmacotherapy to induce local vasodilation. Endovascular techniques have become increasingly important in the treatment of arterial occlusion. Embolic central mesenteric artery occlusion requires surgical treatment; surgery is also needed in case of peritonitis. Portal-vein thrombosis can be treated by local thrombolysis through a transhepatically placed catheter. This should be done within 3 to 4 weeks of the event to prevent later complications of portal hypertension. Rapid diagnosis (within 4 to 6 hours of symptom onset) and interdisciplinary cooperation in the provision of treatment are required if the poor outcome of this condition is to be improved.

  14. Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis complicating appendicular masses.

    PubMed

    Echtibi, Salma S; Bashir, Masoud O; Ahmed, Misbah U; Branicki, Frank J; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2003-09-01

    Mesenteric vein thrombosis (MVT) is rare. Its diagnosis is usually difficult and delayed. Herein, we report 2 patients who developed MVT as a complication of an appendicular mass. One of them had appendectomy and developed fever 10 days postoperatively. The other was treated conservatively. An abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scan with intravenous contrast was helpful in diagnosing the superior MVT in both patients, which were not suspected. Intravenous contrast should be used when performing CT of an appendicular mass. Special interest should be directed at studying the superior mesenteric vein. Early diagnosis of our patients helped to start early medical treatment with anticoagulation.

  15. Sclerosant extravasation as a complication of sclerosing endotherapy for bleeding gastric varices.

    PubMed

    Cheng, H-C; Cheng, P-N; Tsai, Y-M; Tsai, H-M; Chen, C-Y

    2004-03-01

    We report here the case of a 65-year-old woman who suffered intraperitoneal sclerosant leakage after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for bleeding gastric varices. In total, 3 ml of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and Lipiodol mixture was injected. The patient developed mild fever and pain over the left upper quadrant and flank after the procedure. In addition to a Lipiodol-filled gastric varix, the imaging studies disclosed a wide spread of Lipiodol over the left peritoneal cavity. The patient was kept fasting with parenteral antibiotics and nutrition. She responded well to the treatment, and all of the symptoms had subsided 6 days later.

  16. Multicystic recurrence of hydrocele testis after sclerosing with polidocanol followed by spontaneous cure.

    PubMed

    Fariña, L A; Villavicencio, H

    1995-01-01

    Scrotal ultrasound has been used to confirm the resolution of hydrocele testis after sclerosing with different solutions, and so, early recurrences with a multicystic appearance were occasionally observed. This finding was considered a complication of the sclerosant treatment needing a surgical option [1]. We have observed that a multilocular recurrence of hydrocele after percutaneous sclerosing with polidocanol is frequently followed by spontaneous cure.

  17. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Thakkar, Mayur Deepak; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a fatal infectious disease of childhood caused by persistence of the measles virus in the brain. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis remains elusive and rare. We report a child who developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis following a short latency period and a rapidly progressive course with HIV co-infection. PMID:27777245

  18. Resected case of eosinophilic cholangiopathy presenting with secondary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Fumihiko; Asano, Takehide; Amano, Hodaka; Yoshida, Masahiro; Toyota, Naoyuki; Wada, Keita; Kato, Kenichiro; Takada, Tadahiro; Fukushima, Junichi; Kondo, Fukuo; Takikawa, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholangiopathy is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tract and causes sclerosing cholangitis. We report a patient with secondary sclerosing cholangitis with eosinophilic cholecystitis. A 46-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice. Computed tomography revealed dilatation of both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, diffuse thickening of the wall of the extrahepatic bile duct, and thickening of the gallbladder wall. Under the diagnosis of lower bile duct carcinoma, he underwent pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy and liver biopsy. On histopathological examination, conspicuous fibrosis was seen in the lower bile duct wall. In the gallbladder wall, marked eosinophilic infiltration was seen. Liver biopsy revealed mild portal fibrosis. He was diagnosed as definite eosinophilic cholecystitis with sclerosing cholangitis with unknown etiology. The possible etiology of sclerosing cholangitis was consequent fibrosis from previous eosinophilic infiltration in the bile duct. The clinicopathological findings of our case and a literature review indicated that eosinophilic cholangiopathy could cause a condition mimicking primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Bile duct wall thickening in patients with eosinophilic cholangitis might be due to fibrosis of the bile duct wall. Eosinophilic cholangiopathy might be confused as PSC with eosinophilia. PMID:19294772

  19. Chronic mesenteric volvulus in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Spevakow, Andrea B.; Nibblett, Belle Marie D.; Carr, Anthony P.; Linn, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    A chronic, partial mesenteric volvulus was found on laparotomy of an adult Bernese mountain dog with a 4-month history of intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. The dog had elevated cholestatic and hepatocellular leakage enzymes, increased bile acids, azotemia, isosthenuria, and a hypokalemic, hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis. The dog recovered fully following reduction of the volvulus. PMID:20357947

  20. Primary sclerosing cholangitis - the Norwegian experience.

    PubMed

    Schrumpf, Erik; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Karlsen, Tom H

    2015-06-01

    Research related to primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) has since 1980 been a major activity at the Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet. The purpose of this publication is to describe the development of this research, the impact of this research on the clinical handling of the patients, and finally to describe what we believe are the most urgent, remaining problems to be solved. During the early years, our research dealt primarily with clinical aspects of the disease. The concomitant inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) seen in most patients with PSC was a major interest and we also started looking into genetic associations of PSC. Prognosis, malignancy development and treatment with special emphasis on transplantation have later been dealt with. These activities has had impact on several aspects of PSC management; when and how to diagnose PSC and variant forms of PSC, how to handle IBD in PSC and how to deal with the increased rate of malignancy? The problems remaining to be solved are many. What is the role of the gut and the gut microbiota in the development of PSC? Do the PSC patients have an underlying disturbance in the bile homeostasis? And how does the characteristic type of fibrosis in PSC develop? The genetic studies have supported a role for the adaptive immune system in the disease development, but how should this be dealt with? Importantly, the development of malignancy in PSC is still not understood, and we lack appropriate medical treatment for our patients.

  1. New Therapeutic Strategies for Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Kate D; Chapman, Roger W

    2016-02-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease, which in the majority of patients progresses to liver transplantation or death. To date, no medical treatment has been proven to be of benefit, although ursodeoxycholic acid is widely used. The etiopathogenesis of PSC is unclear, although it is associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Various hypotheses have been suggested, which have led to different therapeutic strategies. Recent studies have suggested that the microbiome may play a role in PSC, raising the possibility of efficacy of antibiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation. Gut-homing T cells may be important in the pathogenesis of PSC, and several agents are in development, targeting various receptors, integrins, and ligands on this pathway, including VAP-1, MAdCAM-1, α4β7, and CCR9. Nuclear receptor agonists such as obeticholic acid and fibrates hold promise, as do other therapies that alter bile acid composition such as norUDCA. Antifibrotic agents such as Loxl2 inhibitors are also being assessed. In conclusion, it is likely that an effective drug therapy for PSC will become available over the next decade. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Intestinal microbiota in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Hov, Johannes R; Kummen, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Alterations of the gut-liver axis have been linked to the pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) since the disease was first described. The purpose of this review is to discuss multiple recent studies on the intestinal microbiota in human PSC and experimental models of this disease. Data are available from eight cross-sectional studies of human PSC, which include a variable number of patients (n = 11-85), material (mucosal or fecal), and microbiota profiling methodology. Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, a pattern of differences is observed that could represent a theme or signature of the PSC gut microbiota, characterized by low diversity and with alterations in multiple bacterial taxa. In experimental models of PSC, re-derivation of animals into germ-free facilities may either aggravate or attenuate the disease, depending on host genetics and putative disease mechanisms (e.g., fibrotic or immune-driven processes, respectively). The present data provide a strong rationale to explore the functional consequences of the observed gut microbial alterations and their influence on the pathogenesis in PSC. Studies of gut microbiota as biomarker and treatment target may potentially also lead to early translation into clinical practice.

  3. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: clinical and demographic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rafique, Arshad; Amjad, Nida; Chand, Prem; Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Rana, Muhammad Suleman; Ahmed, Khalid; Ibrahim, Shahnaz

    2014-08-01

    To determine the clinical and demographic characteristics of children diagnosed with Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Case series. The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2000 to June 2012. A retrospective analysis was done, regarding medical charts of 43 children under the age of 16 years with a discharge diagnosis of SSPE. Demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. RESULTS were expressed as percentages. Most of the 43 patients were male (72%). The average age at presentation was 8.7 years with average duration of symptoms being 100.6 days. History of measles was present in 17 patients (39.5%). All children had seizures at presentation and 65% had cognitive impairment. Most patients required poly therapy for control of seizures. Sodium valproate was the most commonly used anti-epileptic agent; Isoprinosine was tried in 22 (51%) patients. CSF for antimeasles antibodies was positive in approximately 86% of the 40 (93%) children. EEG showed burst suppression pattern in 36 (83.7%) cases. Forty-two patients (97.6%) were discharged home in a vegetative state. SSPE is progressive neurodegenerative disorder. It can be prevented by timely immunization against measles. Measles antibody in the CSF is diagnostic for SSPE and is helpful in early diagnosis. Most patients experience a gradual but progressive decline in motor and cognitive functions.

  4. Intraductal location of the sclerosing adenosis of the breast.

    PubMed

    Unal, Bulent; Gur, A Serhat; Bhargava, Rohit; Edington, Howard; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Soran, Atilla

    2009-01-01

    Sclerosing adenosis is a benign breast disease with non-specific images on ultrasound or mammogram. It can mimic infiltrating carcinoma when the above mentioned imaging techniques are used. Herein we present a patient with breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and subsequently underwent mastectomy. Ductoscopy was performed to the mastectomised breast specimen as per the ductoscopy research protocol. Ductoscopy revealed several nodular lesions in the duct with no additional demonstrable intraductal pathology. The lesions were reported as sclerosing adenosis by pathologist. As to our knowledge, this is the first case in literature that demonstrates the use of ductoscopy in diagnosing the sclerosing adenosis in the breast tissue. Ductoscopy and development of ductoscopy guided biopsy techniques may be used as an early diagnostic method for the ductal breast lesions (Fig. 2, Ref. 10). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  5. Mineral Oil-induced Sclerosing Lipogranuloma of the Penis

    PubMed Central

    Bjurlin, Marc A.; Carlsen, Jens; Grevious, Mark; Jordan, Michael D.; Taylor, Aisha; Divakaruni, Naveen

    2010-01-01

    Sclerosing lipogranuloma of the penis results from injection of high viscosity fluid for the purpose of penile augmentation and may have devastating cosmetic and sexual function consequences. Although rare, sclerosing lipogranuloma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous induration or nodules of the male genitalia as it may mimic carcinoma and poses a diagnostic challenge in patients reluctant to admit to injection therapy. Surgical excision with penile reconstruction is the mainstay of treatment. The authors present a case of a 35-year-old Myanmarese man with a sclerosing lipogranuloma of the penis due to injection of mineral oil successfully managed with penile biopsy and excision with split-thickness skin graft phalloplasty and provide a review of the current literature. PMID:20877525

  6. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis the same as Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis? Yes, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is a new ... of chronic inflammatory diseases that affect children. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) is the older term that was used ...

  7. Current therapies and future perspectives in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Tatli, Burak; Ekici, Bariş; Ozmen, Meral

    2012-04-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a progressive neurological disorder of children and young adults caused by a measles virus that became defective by persisting in the host. According to the results of clinical trials, antiviral and/or immunomodulatory therapy can slow the progression of the disease and improve life expectancy in patients. However, its long-term effects and eventual outcome remain debatable due to conflicting results and its lack of effect on the rapidly progressive form of the disease. Possible future therapies for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis are RNAi and antiapoptotic agents, which are currently in the hypothetical and experimental stages of research.

  8. Sclerosing Cholangitis: Clinicopathologic Features, Imaging Spectrum, and Systemic Approach to Differential Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Nieun; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Seung Soo; Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing cholangitis is a spectrum of chronic progressive cholestatic liver disease characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, and stricture of the bile ducts, which can be classified as primary and secondary sclerosing cholangitis. Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic progressive liver disease of unknown cause. On the other hand, secondary sclerosing cholangitis has identifiable causes that include immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing disease, recurrent pyogenic cholangitis, ischemic cholangitis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related cholangitis, and eosinophilic cholangitis. In this review, we suggest a systemic approach to the differential diagnosis of sclerosing cholangitis based on the clinical and laboratory findings, as well as the typical imaging features on computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with MR cholangiography. Familiarity with various etiologies of sclerosing cholangitis and awareness of their typical clinical and imaging findings are essential for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.

  9. Epilepsy in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Jović, Nebojša J

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease of childhood and early adolescence caused by defective measles virus. The initial symptoms of SSPE usually involve regression in cognitive functioning and behavior or recurrent myoclonic jerks. Seizures revealing SSPE and epilepsy during the clinical course can occur. The aim of the study was to analyze clinical and EEG characteristics of both initially occurred seizures and epilepsy which developed in the course of the disease. Retrospective study was carried out on 19 children (14 boys, 5 girls) with SSPE diagnosed and treated at our Clinic from 1995 to 2010. Seizures revealed SSPE in our patients aged from 6.5 to 11.5 years (mean 8.6 years). SSPE onset ranged from 4.5 to 16.5 years (mean 10.05). Complete vaccination was performed in nine patients. Cognitive and behavioral decline was preceeded by 6-18 months in two children with intractable focal motor seizures with secondary generalization, one child with complex partial seizures and one with atypical absences. During the clinical course of the disease epilepsy developed in 10 (52.6%) cases, including four patients with seizures as the initial SSPE sign. It occurred mainly in the first year, while in three cases seizures appeared between 1 and 5 years of the disease evolution. Myoclonus was present independently from seizures. No significant inter-group differences were found relating to the type of SSPE progression and history of epilepsy. The only child with fulminant SSPE presented with initial seizures. Favorable seizure control was achieved in 60.0% patients. Intractable epilepsy developed in four patients. Atypical SSPE presentation can include mainly focal intractable seizures. Epilepsy developed during clinical course in 52.6% cases. No significant influence was found of the history of epilepsy on the type of SSPE progression.

  10. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: A clinical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Jagtap, Sujit Abajirao; Nair, M D; Kambale, Harsha J

    2013-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis affecting primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune resistant measles virus. The aim of the present study is to describe the clinical profile and natural history of patients with SSPE. We collected data of patients with SSPE during 2004-2010 who fulfilled Dyken's criteria. We analyzed demographical, clinical, electrophysiological, and imaging features. Study included 34 patients, 26 (76.5%) males with age of onset from 3 to 31 years. Twenty one patients were below 15 years of age formed childhood SSPE and 13 above 15 years of age constituted adult onset group. 85.3% had low-socioeconomic status. Eleven received measles vaccination and seven were unvaccinated. 59.9% patients had measles history. Most common presenting symptom was scholastic backwardness (52.5%) followed by seizures (23.5%). Three patients each had cortical blindness, macular degeneration, decreased visual acuity, and optic atrophy. Electroencephalographic (EEG) showed long interval periodic complexes and cerebrospinal fluid anti-measles antibody was positive in all. Magnetic resonance imaging was done in 70.5% with was abnormal in 52.5%. Mean incubation period of SSPE after measles was 9.6 years. The follow-up duration was 1-10 years, (average of 2 years). Only one patient died from available data of follow-up, 9 were stable and 10 deteriorated in the form of progression of staging. SSPE is common in low-socioeconomic status. The profile of adult onset did not differ from childhood onset SSPE, except for a longer interval between measles infection and presence of the ophthalmic symptom as presenting feature in adult onset group.

  11. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: A clinical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Sujit Abajirao; Nair, M. D.; Kambale, Harsha J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis affecting primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune resistant measles virus. The aim of the present study is to describe the clinical profile and natural history of patients with SSPE. Methods: We collected data of patients with SSPE during 2004-2010 who fulfilled Dyken's criteria. We analyzed demographical, clinical, electrophysiological, and imaging features. Results: Study included 34 patients, 26 (76.5%) males with age of onset from 3 to 31 years. Twenty one patients were below 15 years of age formed childhood SSPE and 13 above 15 years of age constituted adult onset group. 85.3% had low-socioeconomic status. Eleven received measles vaccination and seven were unvaccinated. 59.9% patients had measles history. Most common presenting symptom was scholastic backwardness (52.5%) followed by seizures (23.5%). Three patients each had cortical blindness, macular degeneration, decreased visual acuity, and optic atrophy. Electroencephalographic (EEG) showed long interval periodic complexes and cerebrospinal fluid anti-measles antibody was positive in all. Magnetic resonance imaging was done in 70.5% with was abnormal in 52.5%. Mean incubation period of SSPE after measles was 9.6 years. The follow-up duration was 1-10 years, (average of 2 years). Only one patient died from available data of follow-up, 9 were stable and 10 deteriorated in the form of progression of staging. Conclusion: SSPE is common in low-socioeconomic status. The profile of adult onset did not differ from childhood onset SSPE, except for a longer interval between measles infection and presence of the ophthalmic symptom as presenting feature in adult onset group. PMID:24339595

  12. Epilepsia partialis continua in children with fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kravljanac, Ruzica; Jovic, Nebojsa; Djuric, Milena; Nikolic, Ljubica

    2011-12-01

    Various inflammatory diseases of central nervous system, including subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, could cause epilepsia partialis continua. Two boys with epilepsia partialis continua with onset in terminal phase of atypical subacute sclerosing panencephalitis have been reported. Children were not vaccinated against measles, and the second case had history of measles at an early age. In both cases, the onset of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was characterized by altered behavior and cognitive decline with very fast mental and neurological deterioration. One boy was suffering from complex partial seizures and myoclonic jerks synchronous with periodic electroencephalographic pattern. Diagnosis was proved by increased titers of antimeasles antibodies in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. In terminal phase of the disease, epilepsia partialis continua of localized group of the muscles was diagnosed, with good response to intravenous infusion of midazolam. Surface electroencephalographic recordings during epilepsia partialis continua did not show the epileptic discharges. During the terminal phase of the disease, no other type of seizures and movement disorders were recognized, except epilepsia partialis continua. In spite of the treatment, period from the onset of disease to death lasted less than 3 months, suggesting very fulminant course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  13. A close look at EEG in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Demir, Nurhak; Cokar, Ozlem; Bolukbasi, Feray; Demirbilek, Veysi; Yapici, Zuhal; Yalcinkaya, Cengiz; Direskeneli, Guher Saruhan; Yentur, Sibel; Onal, Emel; Yilmaz, Gulden; Dervent, Aysin

    2013-08-01

    To define atypical clinical and EEG features of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis that may require an overview of differential diagnosis. A total of 66 EEGs belonging to 53 (17 females and 36 males) consecutive patients with serologically confirmed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were included in this study. Patient files and EEG data were evaluated retrospectively. EEGs included in the study were sleep-waking EEGs and/or sleep-waking video-EEG records with at least 2 hours duration. Cranial MRIs of the patients taken 2 months before or after the EEG records were included. Age range at the onset of the disease was 15 to 192 months (mean age: 80.02 months). Epilepsy was diagnosed in 21 (43%) patients. Among epileptic seizures excluding myoclonic jerks, generalized tonic-clonic type constituted the majority (58%). Tonic seizures were documented during the video-EEG recordings in four patients. Epileptogenic activities were found in 56 (83%) EEG recordings. They were localized mainly in frontal (58%), posterior temporal, parietal, occipital (26%), and centrotemporal (8%) regions. Multiple foci were detected in 26 recordings (39%). Epileptiform activities in the 39 (59%) EEGs appeared as unilateral or bilateral diffuse paroxysmal discharges. Recognition of uncommon clinical and EEG findings of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, especially in countries where subacute sclerosing panencephalitis has not been eliminated yet, could be helpful in prevention of misdiagnosis and delay in the management of improvable conditions.

  14. High-Dose Intravenous Ribavirin Therapy for Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Shigeta, Shiro; Mori, Shuichi; Tomoda, Akemi; Shiraishi, Seiji; Miike, Teruhisa; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    Two patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were treated safely and effectively with high doses of intravenous ribavirin combined with intraventricular alpha interferon. The ribavirin concentrations maintained in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid were higher than those which inhibit SSPE virus replication in vitro and in vivo. PMID:11181386

  15. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri) En Español Read in Chinese What is idiopathic intracranial hypertension? Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder that ...

  16. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Pradeep Kumar; Thakkar, Mayur Deepak; Kulshreshtha, Dinkar; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Thacker, Anup Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a fatal infectious disease of childhood caused by persistence of the measles virus in the brain. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis remains elusive and rare. We report a child who developed subacute sclerosing panencephalitis following a short latency period and a rapidly progressive course with HIV co-infection. © 2016 Marshfield Clinic.

  17. Increased endothelin-1 vasoconstriction in mesenteric resistance arteries after superior mesenteric ischaemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Revelles, S; Caracuel, L; Márquez-Martín, A; Dantas, AP; Oliver, E; D'Ocon, P; Vila, E

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays an important role in the maintenance of vascular tone. We aimed to evaluate the influence of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) on mesenteric resistance artery vasomotor function and the mechanism involved in the changes in vascular responses to ET-1. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH SMA from male Sprague-Dawley rats was occluded (90 min) and following reperfusion (24 h), mesenteric resistance arteries were dissected. Vascular reactivity was studied using wire myography. Protein and mRNA expression, superoxide anion (O2•−) production and ET-1 plasma concentration were evaluated by immunofluorescence, real-time quantitative PCR, ethidium fluorescence and elisa, respectively. KEY RESULTS I/R increased ET-1 plasma concentration, ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction and ETB mRNA expression, and down-regulated ETA mRNA expression. Immunofluorescence confirmed mRNA results and revealed an increase in ETB receptors in the mesenteric resistance artery media layer after I/R. Therefore, the ETB receptor agonist sarafotoxin-6 induced a contraction that was inhibited by the ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 only in vessels, with and without endothelium, from I/R rats. Furthermore, BQ788 potentiated ET-1 vasoconstriction only in sham rats. Endothelium removal in rings from I/R rats unmasked the inhibition of ET-1 vasoconstriction by BQ788. Endothelium removal, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and superoxide dismutase abolished the differences in ET-1 vasoconstriction between sham and I/R rats. We also found that I/R down-regulates endothelial NOS mRNA expression and concomitantly enhanced O2•− production by increasing NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX-1) and p47phox mRNA. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Mesenteric I/R potentiated the ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction by a mechanism that involves up-regulation of muscular ETB receptors and decrease in NO bioavailability. PMID:21806604

  18. Oxidant and antioxidant status in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Caksen, Hüseyin; Ozkan, Mustafa; Cemek, Mustafa; Cemek, Fatma

    2014-11-01

    We analyzed serum alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, retinol, and ascorbic acid levels and malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione concentrations on erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid in 30 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis to evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status. Serum alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, retinol, ascorbic acid levels, and erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid reduced glutathione concentrations were decreased; however, erythrocyte and cerebrospinal fluid malondialdehyde levels were increased in the patients. Cerebrospinal fluid malondialdehyde levels were different between clinical stages of the disease (P < .05). Higher cerebrospinal fluid malondialdehyde level was associated with the more severe clinical stage. A positive correlation was found between cerebrospinal fluid malondialdehyde level and clinical stages (r = 0.42; P < .05) and between erythrocyte malondialdehyde level and clinical stages (r = 0.40; P < .05). Our findings showed presence of oxidative damage in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and that antioxidants were increased as defense mechanisms of the organism against oxidative damage. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Measles-vaccinated Israeli boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Har-Even, Ronly; Aichenbaum, Sergio; Rabey, Jose M; Livne, Amir; Bistritzer, Tzvy

    2011-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a rare neurologic disorder of childhood and adolescence. We describe a 16-year-old boy who manifested the disease despite proper vaccinations. He was hospitalized because of bedwetting, involuntary limb movements, abnormal speech, and balance disturbances. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against measles were strongly positive, with a high relative cerebrospinal fluid/serum ratio. Polymerase chain reaction for measles produced negative results. Electroencephalography registered slow activity with high voltage discharges every few seconds, and with triphasic complex morphology. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse white matter changes, mostly around the posterior regions and lateral ventricles. Treatment with valproic acid, levetiracetam, carbamazepine, and intravenous immunoglobulin G was ineffective. Inosiplex and interferon-β-1a were also administrated. The patient became comatose, with generalized myoclonic jerks, and died 1 year later. An autopsy was not performed. This patient illustrates that subacute sclerosing panencephalitis should be suspected among young vaccinated subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Changes on CT scan during acute relapse.

    PubMed

    Modi, G; Campbell, H; Bill, P

    1989-01-01

    A 19-year-old female patient presented in an acute state of akinetic mutism. Serological analysis of serum and cerebrospinal fluid demonstrated the presence of antibodies to measles virus. CT scan carried out during this acute phase of relapse demonstrated white matter enhancement affecting the cortical white matter of the frontal lobes and corpus callosum. These features indicate that active demyelination occurs during acute relapse in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and suggest that immunotherapy should be considered during this acute phase.

  1. Atypical subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with short onset latency.

    PubMed

    Saurabh, Kumar; Gupta, Ratan; Khare, Shashi; Sharma, Shobha

    2013-02-01

    An 11-month-old boy presented with focal seizures, myoclonic jerks and altered sensorium of one month duration, with a history of measles at eight months of age. A diagnosis of Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was made on the basis of typical EEG changes and presence of anti-measles antibody in cerebrospinal fluid. A differential diagnosis of SSPE should be considered in all forms of acute encephalopathy in infants for early diagnosis and management.

  2. Impact of Body Mass Index on Outcomes after Mesenteric Revascularization for Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Mansukhani, Neel A; Hekman, Katherine E; Yoon, Dustin Y; Helenowski, Irene B; Hoel, Andrew W; Rodriguez, Heron E; Pearce, William H; Eskandari, Mark K; Tomita, Tadaki M

    2018-04-01

    Historically, patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) are underweight with a low body mass index (BMI). However, with the recent obesity epidemic many of these patients now are overweight with a high BMI. We evaluated the impact of BMI on outcomes after mesenteric revascularization for CMI. A retrospective chart review of patients undergoing open or endovascular mesenteric revascularization for CMI between January 2000 and June 2015 was performed. Demographics, comorbidities, BMI, Society for Vascular Surgery-combined comorbidity score, treatment modality, postoperative complications, reintervention, and all-cause mortality were analyzed. The primary end point for the study was all-cause mortality at 5 years. Patients were stratified using the World Health Organization BMI criteria. Univariate, Kaplan-Meier survival, and multivariate analyses were performed. In the study period, 104 unique patients underwent mesenteric revascularization for CMI, for 77 of whom BMI information was available. Of these 77, 30 patients were treated by endovascular revascularization, and 47 patients were treated by open revascularization. Overall, 27 (35.1%) were overweight or obese with a BMI ≥25. Median follow-up time was 41 months. High BMI patients were less likely to have weight loss at the time of surgery (P = 0.004). Stratified by BMI <25 versus BMI ≥25, 5-year survival for patients treated by open revascularization was 90% versus 50% (P = 0.02); survival for patients treated by endovascular revascularization was 27% vs. 53% (P = 0.37). Multivariate survival analysis identified active smoking, hypertensive chronic kidney disease, open repair with the use of venous conduit instead of prosthetic conduit (P < 0.001), and history of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) (P = 0.002), as independent predictors of increased all-cause mortality. BMI needs to be considered in assessing and counseling patients on outcomes of mesenteric revascularization for CMI, as a

  3. IgG4-negative autoimmune pancreatitis with sclerosing cholangitis and colitis: possible association with primary sclerosing cholangitis?

    PubMed

    Saeki, Keita; Hozawa, Shigenari; Miyata, Naoteru; Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Soma, Hiromitsu; Iwao, Yasushi; Kameyama, Kaori; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) with cholangiography and histopathology showing features characteristic of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and colitis. A 55-year-old previously-healthy man was diagnosed with anti-nuclear antibody (ANA)-positive AIP according to the finding of serum biochemistry, abdominal US (ultrasonography), CT (computed tomography) and ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography). However, bead-like strictures of intrahepatic bile ducts were also found and liver tissue showed onion skin-like periductal fibrosis but no anti-IgG4-positive cells. In addition, colon fiberscopy showed a pancolitis similar to ulcerative colitis indicating that, in this case, there may be an association with PSC. Here, we report a rare case of IgG4-negative AIP with sclerosing cholangitis and colitis with many clinical features that support an association with PSC.

  4. Midazolam or diazepam administration during electroencephalography helps to diagnose subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Kutluhan; Sahin, Derya Aydin

    2010-08-01

    Although diagnostic contribution of intravenous diazepam administration during electroencephalography (EEG) recording in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis has been known, no another drug with less potential side effects has been studied in this procedure. In this study, diazepam is compared with midazolam in 25 subacute sclerosing panencephalitis-diagnosed children and 10 children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis-suggesting symptoms, normal EEG findings and no certain diagnosis. Neither midazolam nor diazepam affected typical periodic slow-wave complexes. However, in the patients with atypical EEG abnormalities, midazolam, like diazepam, attenuated sharp or sharp-and-slow waves, and therefore made the identification of periodic slow-wave paroxysms easier. In the patients with normal EEGs, both midazolam and diazepam revealed typical periodic complexes on EEG recording in the same 3 patients. Cerebrospinal fluid examination verified the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The findings suggest that midazolam or diazepam administration increases the contribution of EEG recording in atypical cases with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  5. Mesenteric fibromatosis with intestinal involvement mimicking a gastrointestinal stromal tumour

    PubMed Central

    Wronski, Marek; Ziarkiewicz-Wroblewska, Bogna; Slodkowski, Maciej; Cebulski, Wlodzimierz; Gornicka, Barbara; Krasnodebski, Ireneusz W.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Mesenteric fibromatosis or intra-abdominal desmoid tumour is a rare proliferative disease affecting the mesentery. It is a locally aggressive tumour that lacks metastatic potential, but the local recurrence is common. Mesenteric fibromatosis with the intestinal involvement can be easily confused with other primary gastrointestinal tumours, especially with that of the mesenchymal origin. Case report We report a case of a 44-year-old female who presented with an abdominal mass that radiologically and pathologically mimicked a gastrointestinal stromal tumour. Conclusions The diagnosis of mesenteric fibromatosis should always be considered in the case of mesenchymal tumours apparently originating from the bowel wall that diffusely infiltrate the mesentery. PMID:22933936

  6. CT imaging of blunt traumatic bowel and mesenteric injuries.

    PubMed

    LeBedis, Christina A; Anderson, Stephan W; Soto, Jorge A

    2012-01-01

    Delayed diagnosis of a bowel or mesenteric injury resulting in hollow viscus perforation leads to significant morbidity and mortality from hemorrhage, peritonitis, or abdominal sepsis. The timely diagnosis of bowel and mesenteric injuries requiring operative repair depends almost exclusively on their early detection by the radiologist on computed tomography examination, because the clinical signs and symptoms of these injuries are not specific and usually develop late. Therefore, the radiologist must be familiar with the often-subtle imaging findings of bowel and mesenteric injury that will allow for appropriate triage of a patient who has sustained blunt trauma to the abdomen or pelvis. 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Multicenter study of retrograde open mesenteric artery stenting through laparotomy for treatment of acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Oderich, Gustavo S; Macedo, Rodrigo; Stone, David H; Woo, Edward Y; Panneton, Jean M; Resch, Timothy; Dias, Nuno V; Sonesson, Björn; Schermerhorn, Marc L; Lee, Jason T; Kalra, Manju; DeMartino, Randall R; Sandri, Giuliano de A; Ramos Tenorio, Emanuel J

    2018-03-13

    Retrograde open mesenteric stenting (ROMS) through laparotomy was introduced as an alternative to surgical bypass in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the indications and outcomes of ROMS for treatment of AMI and chronic mesenteric ischemia. We reviewed the clinical data and outcomes of all consecutive patients treated by ROMS in seven academic centers from 2001 to 2013. ROMS was performed through laparotomy with retrograde access into the target mesenteric artery and stent placement using a retrograde or antegrade approach. End points were early (<30 days) and late mortality, morbidity, patency rates, and freedom from symptom recurrence and reintervention. There were 54 patients, 13 male and 41 female, with a mean age of 72 ± 11 years. Indications for ROMS were AMI in 44 patients (81%) and subacute-on-chronic mesenteric ischemia with flush mesenteric occlusion in 10 patients (19%). A total of 56 target mesenteric vessels were stented, including 52 superior mesenteric arteries and 4 celiac axis lesions, with a mean treatment length of 42 ± 26 mm. Retrograde mesenteric access was used in all patients, but 16 patients also required a simultaneous antegrade brachial approach. The retrograde puncture was closed primarily in 34 patients and with patch angioplasty in 17 patients; 1 patient had manual compression. Bowel resection was needed in 29 patients (66%) with AMI because of perforation or gangrene. Technical success was achieved in all (98%) except one patient for whom ROMS failed, who was treated by bypass. Early mortality was 45% (20/44) for AMI and 10% (1/10) for subacute-on-chronic mesenteric ischemia (P = .04). Early morbidity was 73% for AMI and 50% for subacute-on-chronic mesenteric ischemia (P = .27). Patient survival for the entire cohort was 43% ± 9% at 2 years. Primary patency and secondary patency at 2 years were 76% ± 8% and 90% ± 8%, respectively. Freedom from symptom recurrence

  8. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21452260 . Long AR, Rouster-Stevens KA. The role of exercise therapy ... nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21131338 . Wu EY, Bryan AR, Rabinovich CE. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. In: Kliegman RM, ...

  9. Defibrotide modulates prostaglandin production in the rat mesenteric vascular bed.

    PubMed

    Peredo, H A

    2002-10-01

    Defibrotide 1 microM, a polydeoxyribonucleotide extracted from mammalian organs, reduced the contractile responses to noradrenaline (NA) in the rat isolated and perfused mesenteric vascular bed, in intact as well as in de-endothelialized preparations. Defibrotide was without effect on the acetylcholine-induced relaxations of U-46619-precontracted mesenteric vascular beds. Moreover, defibrotide increased 6-keto prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) (stable metabolite of prostacyclin) release sixfold in the presence, but not in the absence of the endothelium, with no modification on the release of other prostanoids. Defibrotide also inhibited the NA-induced increase in PGF(2alpha) release, in both intact and de-endothelialized mesenteric vascular beds. In conclusion, the present results show that defibrotide modulates PG production in the mesenteric bed and that the observed inhibition of the contractile responses should be due to the impairment of the NA-induced increase in PGF(2alpha) release.

  10. Perforated mesenteric Meckel's diverticulum in an adult: a real variant?

    PubMed Central

    Gueye, M.L.; Thiam, O.; Seck, M.; Gueye, M.N.; Toure, A.O.; Cisse, M.; Ka, O.; Dieng, M.; Toure, C.T.

    2015-01-01

    A Meckel's diverticulum is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. It is a real diverticulum that is usually located on the anti-mesenteric edge in the last meter of the ileum. Its location on the mesenteric edge has been rarely reported. It may lead to several complications including perforation that may be life-threatening for the patient. We report herein a case of perforated mesenteric Meckel's diverticulum in an adult patient. Upon surgical exploration by laparotomy, we found a perforated Meckel's diverticulum located on the mesenteric edge of the ileum 60 cm from the ileocoecal junction and 400 ml of seropurulent peritoneal fluid. The patient underwent a segmental ileal resection and an end-to-end anastomosis. The postoperative outcomes were marked by a persistent peritonitis that required successful revision surgery. PMID:26330235

  11. Mesenteric panniculitis patients requiring emergency surgery: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Duman, Mustafa; Koçak, Osman; Fazli, Olgaç; Koçak, Cengiz; Atici, Ali Emre; Duman, Uğur

    2012-04-01

    Mesenteric panniculitis is a rare, benign disease characterized by a chronic non-specific inflammatory process of mesenteric fat tissue with unknown etiology. The small bowel mesentery is affected mostly. This process rarely involves the large intestine mesentery. Mesenteric panniculitis includes symptoms as abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, and fever. In our cases, we had difficulty in the preoperative diagnosis as the clinical changes imitated an obstruction or ischemia of the small bowel. All the cases required emergency abdominal surgery and partial jejunal resection. The aim of this article was to present three cases of mesenteric panniculitis of the small bowel mesentery requiring emergency surgery together with a short review of the literature.

  12. An 111In-Pentetreotide Positive Sclerosing Pneumocytoma.

    PubMed

    Savelli, Giordano; Bnà, Claudio; Zambelli, Claudia; Illuminati, Sonia; Bonello, Luke

    2017-04-01

    A 43-year-old woman had an incidental lung mass identified on shoulder x-ray performed for pain. Contrast-enhanced CT showed a 38-mm mass in the medial segment of the right middle lobe, with features suggestive of carcinoid tumor. A In-pentetreotide scan showed intense uptake; furthermore, fine needle aspiration biopsy yielded neuroendocrine cells confirming the carcinoid hypothesis. However, definitive surgical histology showed a sclerosing pneumocytoma. This could potentially suggest that such rare tumors, with metastatic potential, could respond to somatostatin analogue treatment.

  13. Atypical clinical course subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as acute Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Komur, Mustafa; Arslankoylu, Ali E; Okuyaz, Cetin; Kuyucu, Necdet

    2012-01-01

    We report a 14-year-old boy who presented with loss of consciousness and gait instability. The electroencephalogram (EEG) showed generalized slowing with irregular activity and cerebral magnetic imaging revealed asymmetrical nonspecific signals on basal ganglia. His second electroencephalogram revealed periodical generalized high-voltage slow wave complexes which did not disappear with diazepam induction. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was considered and the diagnosis was confirmed with the identification of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings show that SSPE should be in mind in the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and highlight the significance of EEG in the diagnosis of unidentified cases. PMID:23248691

  14. Catatonia as presenting clinical feature of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Dayal, Prabhoo; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2014-01-01

    Catatonia is not a usual clinical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), especially in the initial stages of illness. However, there is only one reported case of SSPE presenting as catatonia among children. In this report, however, there were SSPE-specific changes on EEG and the catatonia failed to respond to lorazepam. We describe a case of SSPE in a child presenting as catatonia that presented with clinical features of catatonia and did not have typical EEG findings when assessed at first contact. He responded to lorazepam and EEG changes emerged during the course of follow-up. PMID:24891908

  15. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and mesenteric artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Paramesware Achutha

    2003-12-01

    The role of the isoprenoid pathway in vascular thrombosis, especially mesenteric artery occlusion and its relation to hemispheric dominance, was assessed in this study. The following parameters were measured in patients with mesenteric artery occlusion and individuals with right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance: (1) plasma HMG CoA reductase, digoxin, dolichol, ubiquinone, and magnesium levels; (2) tryptophan/tyrosine catabolic patterns; (3) free radical metabolism; (4) glycoconjugate metabolism; and (5) membrane composition. In patients with mesenteric artery occlusion there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, low ubiquinone, and elevated free radical levels. The RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity and serum magnesium were decreased. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and reduction in tyrosine catabolites in the serum. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in these patients. The biochemical patterns obtained in mesenteric artery occlusion is similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. But all the patients with mesenteric artery occlusion were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Mesenteric artery occlusion occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function. Hemispheric chemical dominance may thus control the risk for developing vascular thrombosis in individuals.

  16. Multidetector CT of Surgically Proven Blunt Bowel and Mesenteric Injury.

    PubMed

    Bates, David D B; Wasserman, Michael; Malek, Anita; Gorantla, Varun; Anderson, Stephan W; Soto, Jorge A; LeBedis, Christina A

    2017-01-01

    Blunt traumatic injury is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Unintentional injury represents the leading cause of death in the United States for all persons between the ages of 1 and 44 years. In the setting of blunt abdominal trauma, the reported rate of occurrence of bowel and mesenteric injuries ranges from 1% to 5%. Despite the relatively low rate of blunt bowel and mesenteric injury in patients with abdominal and pelvic trauma, delays in diagnosis are associated with increased rates of sepsis, a prolonged course in the intensive care unit, and increased mortality. During the past 2 decades, as multidetector computed tomography (CT) has emerged as an essential tool in emergency radiology, several direct and indirect imaging features have been identified that are associated with blunt bowel and mesenteric injury. The imaging findings in cases of blunt bowel and mesenteric injury can be subtle and may be seen in the setting of multiple complex injuries, such as multiple solid-organ injuries and spinal fractures. Familiarity with the various imaging features of blunt bowel and mesenteric injury, as well as an understanding of their clinical importance with regard to the care of the patient, is essential to making a timely diagnosis. Once radiologists are familiar with the spectrum of findings of blunt bowel and mesenteric injury, they will be able to make timely diagnoses that will lead to improved patient outcomes. © RSNA, 2017.

  17. Expression patterns of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yiş, Uluç; Tüfekçi, Uğur Kemal; Genç, Şermin; Çarman, Kürşat Bora; Bayram, Erhan; Topçu, Yasemin; Kurul, Semra Hız

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is caused by persistent brain infection of mutated virus, showing inflammation, neurodegeneration, and demyelination. Although many factors are emphasized in the pathogenesis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, the exact mechanism of neurodegeneration remains unknown. Micro-RNAs are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional levels. Micro-RNAs are essential for normal immune system development; besides they are also implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression patterns of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. We enrolled 39 patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and 41 healthy controls. Quantitative analysis of micro-RNAs 146a, 181a, and 155 were performed using specific stem-loop primers followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. All of 3 micro-RNAs were upregulated in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients. In addition, the level of micro-RNA 155 expression was higher in stage 3 patients. But, micro-RNA 146a and 181a expression levels showed no association or correlation with clinically relevant data. Alteration of peripheral blood mononuclear cell micro-RNAs in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may shed new light on the pathogenesis of disease and may contribute to the aberrant systemic rise in mRNA levels in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Polyarteritis nodosa clinically mimicking nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Hiroshi; Saito, Shinichiro; Ishii, Tomonori; Yamaya, Hideyuki; Miyagi, Shigehito; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Kawagishi, Naoki; Nose, Masato; Harigae, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the case of a 74-year-old Japanese man with segmental intestinal necrosis, which developed after treatment with pulsed methylprednisolone for mononeuritis multiplex. The patient was weakly positive for myeloperoxidase (MPO)-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). Computed tomography and surgical findings were compatible with nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI). He underwent small intestinal resection by emergency surgery and an intestinal fistula was made. Pathologically, necrotizing vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis was present in medium to small-sized arteries, which was equivalent to Arkin’s classification II-IV. Most of the arteries had fibrous intimal thickening, which was considered to obstruct the arteries and thus cause segmental intestinal necrosis. A diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) was made, and intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse therapy was added to the therapeutic regimen. This patient was successfully treated with these multidisciplinary therapies and his stoma was finally closed. This is a very rare and indicative case of PAN weakly positive for MPO-ANCA and clinically mimicking NOMI, which occurred even after treatment with pulsed methylprednisolone. PMID:23801874

  19. Percutaneous Retrograde Recanalization of the Celiac Artery by Way of the Superior Mesenteric Artery for Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, George, E-mail: joseph59@gmail.com; Chacko, Sujith Thomas

    2013-02-15

    A 52-year-old man presented with recurrent postprandial abdominal pain, sitophobia, and progressive weight loss. Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) due to subtotal occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and flush occlusion of the celiac artery (CA) was diagnosed. Retrograde recanalization of the CA by way of a collateral channel from the SMA was performed using contemporary recanalization equipment. The CA and SMA were then stented, resulting in sustained resolution of CMI-related symptoms.

  20. Thalidomide suppresses sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in a rat experimental model.

    PubMed

    Mondello, Stefania; Mazzon, Emanuela; Di Paola, Rosanna; Crisafulli, Concetta; Mondello, Paolo; Buemi, Michele; Aloisi, Carmelo; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2009-09-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is an alternative treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a life-threatening complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of thalidomide, which is used for the treatment of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, on the development of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis induced by chlorhexidine gluconate (CG). A peritoneal fibrosis model was established using rats treated intraperitoneally with injections of CG. Thalidomide was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg three times per week. When compared with CG-treated rats, thalidomide (100 mg/kg orally)-treated mice subjected to CG-induced peritoneal fibrosis experienced a significantly lower rate in the extent and severity of histological signs of peritoneal injury. Thalidomide also caused a substantial reduction of 1) the rise in myeloperoxidase activity (mucosa); 2) the expression in the tissue of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, transforming growth factor-beta, and vascular endothelial growth factor; 3) the increase in staining (immunohistochemistry) for nitrotyrosine and for poly(ADP ribose), as well as 4) the nuclear factor-kappaB activation caused by CG in the peritoneum. Thus, thalidomide treatment reduces the degree of peritoneal fibrosis caused by CG. We propose that this evidence may help clarify the potential therapeutic actions of thalidomide in patients with peritoneal fibrosis.

  1. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis of the Brainstem as a Clinical Entity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jason; Ciacci, Joseph D.

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare progressive neurological disorder of early adolescence caused by persistent infection of the measles virus, which remains prevalent worldwide despite an effective vaccine. SSPE is a devastating disease with a characteristic clinical course in subcortical white matter; however, atypical presentations of brainstem involvement may be seen in rare cases. This review summarizes reports to date on brainstem involvement in SSPE, including the clinical course of disease, neuroimaging presentations, and guidelines for treatment. A comprehensive literature search was performed for English-language publications with keywords “subacute sclerosing panencephalitis” and “brainstem” using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (March 1981–September 2017). Eleven articles focusing on SSPE of the brainstem were included. Predominant brainstem involvement remains uncharacteristic of SSPE, which may lead to misdiagnosis and poor outcome. A number of case reports have demonstrated brainstem involvement associated with other intracranial lesions commonly presenting in later SSPE stages (III and IV). However, brainstem lesions can appear in all stages, independent of higher cortical structures. The varied clinical presentations complicate diagnosis from a neuroimaging perspective. SSPE of the brainstem is a rare but important clinical entity. It may present like canonical SSPE or with unique clinical features such as absence seizures and pronounced ataxia. While SSPE generally progresses to the brainstem, it can also begin with a primary focus of infection in the brainstem. Awareness of varied SSPE presentations can aid in early diagnosis as well as guide management and treatment. PMID:29112137

  2. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis of the Brainstem as a Clinical Entity.

    PubMed

    Upadhyayula, Pavan S; Yang, Jason; Yue, John K; Ciacci, Joseph D

    2017-11-07

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare progressive neurological disorder of early adolescence caused by persistent infection of the measles virus, which remains prevalent worldwide despite an effective vaccine. SSPE is a devastating disease with a characteristic clinical course in subcortical white matter; however, atypical presentations of brainstem involvement may be seen in rare cases. This review summarizes reports to date on brainstem involvement in SSPE, including the clinical course of disease, neuroimaging presentations, and guidelines for treatment. A comprehensive literature search was performed for English-language publications with keywords "subacute sclerosing panencephalitis" and "brainstem" using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (March 1981-September 2017). Eleven articles focusing on SSPE of the brainstem were included. Predominant brainstem involvement remains uncharacteristic of SSPE, which may lead to misdiagnosis and poor outcome. A number of case reports have demonstrated brainstem involvement associated with other intracranial lesions commonly presenting in later SSPE stages (III and IV). However, brainstem lesions can appear in all stages, independent of higher cortical structures. The varied clinical presentations complicate diagnosis from a neuroimaging perspective. SSPE of the brainstem is a rare but important clinical entity. It may present like canonical SSPE or with unique clinical features such as absence seizures and pronounced ataxia. While SSPE generally progresses to the brainstem, it can also begin with a primary focus of infection in the brainstem. Awareness of varied SSPE presentations can aid in early diagnosis as well as guide management and treatment.

  3. A Recurrence of Bilateral Diffuse Sclerosing Lobular Hyperplasia of Breast: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Elfituri, Osama; Sonawane, Snehal; Xu, Haoliang; Warso, Michael A; Wiley, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Mammary sclerosing lobular hyperplasia is an uncommon benign fibroproliferative lesion of adolescent and young women, often of African American heritage with an incidence of ~3%. Patients generally complain of a palpable, painless, or slightly tender and well-defined lump in breast. Very rarely, this lesion may be bilateral and diffuse. The definitive diagnosis of sclerosing lobular hyperplasia requires histopathologic evaluation. Here, we describe a case of diffuse sclerosing lobular hyperplasia in a 29-year-old African American woman that required bilateral mastectomy and recurred bilaterally requiring second resections. This appears to be the first report of this phenomenon.

  4. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Boros, Christina; Whitehead, Ben

    2010-09-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood, occurring in approximately 1:500 children. Despite a recent expansion in treatment options and improvement of outcomes, significant morbidity still occurs. This article outlines the clinical manifestations, assessment, detection of complications, treatment options and monitoring requirements, with the aid of guidelines recently published by The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, which provide practical support for general practitioners to ensure best practice care and to prevent lifelong disability in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. General practice plays an important role in the early detection, initial management and ongoing monitoring of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Early detection involves understanding the classification framework for subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and being aware of the clinical manifestations and how to look for them, through history, examination and appropriate investigation. The major extra-articular manifestations of juvenile idiopathic arthritis are uveitis and growth disturbance. Treatment options include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, methotrexate, biologic agents, and corticosteroids. Management using a multidisciplinary approach can prevent long term sequelae. Unfortunately, approximately 50% of children will have active disease as adults.

  5. Anticoagulation therapy dramatically improved severe sigmoiditis with findings resembling inflammatory bowel disease, which was caused by mesenteric venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Yohei; Kanai, Takanori; Iwasaki, Eisuke; Naganuma, Makoto; Yamagishi, Yoshiyuki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Iwao, Yasushi; Ogata, Haruhiko; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Mukai, Makio; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2012-12-01

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis is an insidious disease, with a high mortality rate typically attributed to the long delay in diagnosis. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are important. Here, we present a patient with idiopathic inferior mesenteric venous (IMV) thrombosis. A 65-year-old man presented with constant abdominal pain associated with fever and bloody diarrhea. He was diagnosed with severe ulcerative colitis and was treated with mesalazine and prednisolone. The prednisolone was tapered because of liver dysfunction, and he received total parenteral nutrition for a month. His abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea worsened, and he lost 5 kg of weight. He was then transferred to our institute. Computed tomography showed thickening of the left colon. Colonoscopy showed diffuse colitis with multiple ulcers, large edematous folds, congested mucosa, and stenosis of the sigmoid colon, with sparing of the rectum, raising the possibility of IMV thrombosis. Angiography confirmed IMV thrombosis. Anticoagulation therapy was initiated with intravenous heparin followed by oral warfarin. His abdominal pain and diarrhea resolved, and he was discharged from hospital. Six months later, he remained asymptomatic with normal colonoscopic findings.

  6. A New Sclerosing Agent in the Treatment of Venous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Sannier, K.; Dompmartin, A.; Théron, J.; Labbé, D.; Barrellier, M.T.; Leroyer, R.; Touré, P.; Leroy, D.

    2004-01-01

    Summary Absolute ethanol is the most effective agent in the treatment of venous malformation (VM) although it is quite risky to use because of the danger of diffusion beyond the target. To reduce this risk, we have developed an alcoholic sclerosing solution that is less diffusible. The viscosity of absolute ethanol was enhanced with monographic ethyl-cellulose at a concentration of 5.88% ie 0.75 g in 15 ml of absolute ethanol 95%. 23 patients with VM located on the buttock (1), hand (2), leg (1) and face (19) were treated. A mean volume of 1.99 ml of the solution was injected directly into the VM. Each patient had an average of 2.8 procedures. Sixteen patients were done under general anaesthesia and seven with local anaesthesia. Evaluation was performed by the patient, the dermatologist of the treating multidisciplinary team and a dermatological group not involved in the treatment of the patients. Patients were evaluated after a mean delay of 24.52 months. Evaluation of the cosmetic result was made with a five point scale and the global result with a three point scale. VM pain was evaluated by the patients with a Visual Analogue Scale. The aesthetic results were graded as satisfactory (> 3) for the patient and the dermatologist of the multidisciplinary team. However the results were not as good with the independent dermatological group evaluation. The pain was significantly less important after the treatment (p << 0.001). Among the 23 patients, the local adverse events were nine necrosis with or without ethylcellulose fistula followed by only two surgical procedures. There were no systemic adverse events. Sclerotherapy of VM is usually performed with absolute ethanol or ethibloc. The main advantage of our sclerosing mixture is that it expands like a balloon when injected slowly in a aqueous media. Because of the important increase in viscosity the volume of injected solution is much lower than ethanol alone and the risk of systemic reactions is lower. Contrary to

  7. BILATERAL SUBRETINAL FLUID AND RETINAL VASCULOPATHY ASSOCIATED WITH SUBACUTE SCLEROSING PANENCEPHALITIS.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Aniruddha; Singh, Ramandeep; Kumar, Abiraj; Dogra, Mangat R; Gupta, Amod

    2017-01-01

    To report a case of bilateral retinopathy associated with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. History and clinical examination, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography. We report a rare case of unilateral, followed by bilateral retinopathy, subretinal fluid, and vasculopathy in a young boy. History of missed measles vaccination, behavioral and neurologic symptoms, and electroencephalogram suggested a diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography was performed to document changes in the retinal microstructure through the natural course of the disease. Within 8 weeks, the changes progressed to retinal atrophy in both eyes. The progressive course of retinitis associated with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can be monitored on optical coherence tomography. Retinitis is subacute sclerosing panencephalitis rapidly progressive from the acute stage to the stage of atrophy, involving full thickness of the retina.

  8. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as schizophrenia with an alpha coma pattern in a child.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Ayşe; Kurt, Ayşegül Neşe Çitak; Gürkaş, Esra; Aydin, Kurşad; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe

    2014-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system, can present atypically with uncharacteristic electroencephalographic (EEG) features at its onset albeit typically with progressive mental deterioration, behavioral changes, and myoclonic jerks. An atypical presentation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can lead to a delay in diagnosis, thus hindering early treatment. Herein, we describe a 14-year-old girl who presented with insomnia, amnesia, auditory and visual hallucinations. The patient's electroencephalography on admission showed an alpha coma pattern. In spite of antipsychiatric treatment (olanzapine 20 mg/d) for 3 months, a progressive deterioration in neurologic function was observed. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was suspected and diagnosis was confirmed by increased titers of measles antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. The attention of pediatricians should be drawn to psychiatric symptoms as possible initial presentations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in order to avoid needless diagnostic and treatment procedures. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Bilateral optic neuritis--the only ocular finding in a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Pinar Altiaylik; Ozkan, Mehpare; Sekeroglu, Hande Taylan; Kadayifcilar, Sibel; Yuksel, Deniz; Aksoy, Ayse

    2014-02-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a rare disease of central nervous system caused by defective measles virus. Chorioretinitis with macular involvement is the mostly observed ocular finding in the disease. Other reported ocular findings in the disease are cortical blindness, hemianopsia, nystagmus, extraocular muscle paresis and optic atrophy. We present a rare case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with isolated bilateral optic neuritis as the only ocular finding without macular involvement.

  10. Medical treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Holtmeier, J; Leuschner, U

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) has been in common use since 1985. In PBC, treatment with UDCA improves laboratory data, liver histology, enables a longer transplantation-free interval and prolongs disease survival. Because UDCA is unable to cure the disease newer drugs or combination therapies are still needed. Studies with UDCA and immunosuppressants such as prednisone, budesonide and azathioprine have shown that in selected patients combination therapy may be superior to UDCA monotherapy. PSC is treated successfully with UDCA and endoscopic dilatation of the bile duct strictures. Treatment of extrahepatic manifestations of cholestatic liver disease such as pruritus, fatigue, osteoporosis and steatorrhea can be problematic and time-consuming. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine induced subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Belgamwar, R B; Prasad, S; Appaya, P

    1997-11-01

    The incidence of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by the measles virus, has declined with widespread use of measles vaccine. The risk of SSPE after measles vaccination has been estimated at 0.7/million doses. This paper reports the case of a 15-year-old girl from India who developed SSPE presumably as a result of a delayed effect of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. She presented with a 2-month history of behavioral disturbances, a deterioration in school performance, forgetfulness, silly smiling, handwriting changes, social withdrawal, and ataxia. The girl had received MMR vaccine at 9 months of age and had no past history of measles. Her measles antibody titre was 1:625 in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cell application in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Kuşkonmaz, Bariş; Uçkan, Duygu; Yalnizoğlu, Dilek; Günel, Mintaze; Karli Oğuz, Kader; Konuşkan, Bahadir; Anlar, Banu

    2015-09-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a serious, often fatal disease that responds poorly to current treatment modalities. Recently, the ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to produce neurotrophic factors and inflammatory molecules has placed them among potential treatment agents for neurological conditions. We report the results of four patients treated with MSC for SSPE. The patients were followed up clinically, and by periodical laboratory evaluations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electroencephalography. One patient deteriorated to stage III of the disease, two patients remained in the same stage, and one died from disease progression and respiratory problems. Neurological findings and electroencephalography scores were consistent with the clinical course of the patient whereas MRI showed new inflammatory lesions in two patients. This is the first report of the application of MSC in SSPE. No benefit is demonstrated. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  13. Notes from the Field: Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Death - Oregon, 2015.

    PubMed

    Liko, Juventila; Guzman-Cottrill, Judith A; Cieslak, Paul R

    2016-01-15

    In 2015, the Oregon Health Authority was notified of the death of a boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), a rare and fatal complication of measles. The patient, aged 14 years, had reportedly been vaccinated against measles in the Philippines at age 8 months. However, the patient contracted measles at age 1 year while still in the Philippines. He had been well until 2012, when his neurodegenerative symptoms began. After the diagnosis of SSPE was made, the patient remained in home hospice care until his death. Investigators from the Oregon Health Authority and the Oregon Health and Science University reviewed the patient's medical records and interviewed the parents. Vaccination against measles can prevent not only acute measles and its complications, but also SSPE.

  14. Atypical magnetic resonance imaging features in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Biplab; Goyal, Manoj Kumar; Modi, Manish; Mehta, Sahil; Chakravarthi, Sudheer; Lal, Vivek; Vyas, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is rare chronic, progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection with measles virus. No cure for SSPE exists, but the condition can be managed by medication if treatment is started at an early stage. Methods and Results: Heterogeneity of imaging findings in SSPE is not very uncommon. But pial and gyral enhancements are very rarely noticed. Significant asymmetric onset as well as pial-gyral enhancements is not reported. Herein we present a case of 16 years adolescent of SSPE having remarkable asymmetric pial-gyral enhancements, which were misinterpreted as tubercular infection. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and treatment is encouraging in SSPE, although it is not curable with current therapy. Clinico-radiological and electrophysiological correlation is very important in diagnosis of SSPE, more gravely in patients having atypical image findings as in our index case. PMID:27293348

  15. Atypical magnetic resonance imaging features in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Das, Biplab; Goyal, Manoj Kumar; Modi, Manish; Mehta, Sahil; Chakravarthi, Sudheer; Lal, Vivek; Vyas, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is rare chronic, progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection with measles virus. No cure for SSPE exists, but the condition can be managed by medication if treatment is started at an early stage. Heterogeneity of imaging findings in SSPE is not very uncommon. But pial and gyral enhancements are very rarely noticed. Significant asymmetric onset as well as pial-gyral enhancements is not reported. Herein we present a case of 16 years adolescent of SSPE having remarkable asymmetric pial-gyral enhancements, which were misinterpreted as tubercular infection. Early diagnosis and treatment is encouraging in SSPE, although it is not curable with current therapy. Clinico-radiological and electrophysiological correlation is very important in diagnosis of SSPE, more gravely in patients having atypical image findings as in our index case.

  16. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis resembling Rasmussen's encephalitis on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Jakkani, Ravi Kanth; Sureka, Jyoti; Panwar, Sanuj

    2015-09-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, slowly progressing but invariably fatal disease that is related to a prior measles virus infection and most commonly affects paediatric patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the modality of choice for determining such changes in white matter. SSPE typically demonstrates bilateral but asymmetric periventricular and subcortical white matter involvement. We herein report a rare case of unilateral white matter involvement in a 13-year-old boy with SSPE that closely simulated Rasmussen's encephalitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an atypical presentation on MR imaging in which SSPE was a rare cause of unilateral brain parenchymal involvement in a patient with intractable seizures.

  17. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) the story of a vanishing disease.

    PubMed

    Gadoth, Natan

    2012-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), is a devastating "slow virus" brain disease which affects young children who had measles some 6-7 years earlier. Although, the pandemic of SSPE during 1960-1980's was almost eradicated due to mass immunization, the disease is still taking the life of young children in countries where measles immunization is incomplete and in world regions where genetic polymorphism to this particular infection is present. The present review was written for the fortunate young generation of pediatricians and pediatric neurologists who probably have not seen a case of SSPE during their career, and for those who work in counties where the disease has not been eradicated. It is also a reminder that with full coverage of measles immunization this devastating disease can be fully eradicated. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a Toddler: Changing Epidemiological Trends

    PubMed Central

    Aulakh, Roosy; Tiwari, Abhimanyu

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a devastating “slow virus” brain disease resulting from persistent measles virus infection of neurons. The age at presentation is usually 8 to 11 years with onset usually occurring 2–10 years after measles infection. We report a 2-and-half-year-old boy who presented with progressively increasing myoclonic jerks and subtle cognitive decline. He was diagnosed as a case of SSPE based on clinical features, typical electroencephalographic finding, and elevated cerebrospinal fluid/serum measles antibody titers. He had measles 4 months prior to onset of symptoms. This case along with review of recently published reports suggests progressively decreasing latency period between measles infection and onset of symptoms observed in cases with SSPE. Clinical implication would mean investigating for SSPE even in infants or toddlers with compatible clinical features and recent history of measles infection. PMID:24416610

  19. Fulminant adult-onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Faivre, Anthony; Souraud, Jean-Baptiste; McGonigal, Aileen; Alla, Philippe; Grapperon, Jacques; Valance, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    We present the case of a young adult who developed acute encephalopathy with severe status epilepticus and rapid deterioration to vegetative state and death within 6 weeks. Although the clinical picture, MRI and EEG findings were atypical, the hypothesis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was suggested by markedly increased intrathecal IgG synthesis in the cerebrospinal fluid, and diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of high antimeasles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid and brain biopsy findings. Acute SSPE is an exceptionally rare and little-known form of SSPE with protean symptomatology, and this case is to our knowledge the first observation of SSPE presenting with status epilepticus in adults. Our case reinforces the need to include, even in developed countries, SSPE as a diagnostic possibility in unexplained acute encephalopathies. PMID:21686559

  20. Idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia: two topographic facial pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Juan A; Cuadrado, María L; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gili, Pablo; Caminero, Ana B; Cebrián, José L

    2010-09-01

    To describe 2 topographic facial pain conditions with the pain clearly localized in the eye (idiopathic ophthalmodynia) or in the nose (idiopathic rhinalgia), and to propose their distinction from persistent idiopathic facial pain. Persistent idiopathic facial pain, burning mouth syndrome, atypical odontalgia, and facial arthromyalgia are idiopathic facial pain syndromes that have been separated according to topographical criteria. Still, some other facial pain syndromes might have been veiled under the broad term of persistent idiopathic facial pain. Through a 10-year period we have studied all patients referred to our neurological clinic because of facial pain of unknown etiology that might deviate from all well-characterized facial pain syndromes. In a group of patients we have identified 2 consistent clinical pictures with pain precisely located either in the eye (n=11) or in the nose (n=7). Clinical features resembled those of other localized idiopathic facial syndromes, the key differences relying on the topographic distribution of the pain. Both idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia seem specific pain syndromes with a distinctive location, and may deserve a nosologic status just as other focal pain syndromes of the face. Whether all such focal syndromes are topographic variants of persistent idiopathic facial pain or independent disorders remains a controversial issue.

  1. Idiopathic scrotal elephantiasis.

    PubMed

    Hornberger, Brad J; Elmore, James M; Roehrborn, Claus G

    2005-02-01

    Scrotal lymphedema (scrotal elephantiasis) is a condition that has historically been described in areas endemic to filariasis. We present a unique case of a 22-year-old man with idiopathic lymphedema isolated to the scrotum. After acquired causes of lymphedema were ruled out, the patient was treated with scrotectomy and scrotal reconstruction.

  2. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of rare disorders including polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and autoimmune necrotizing myopathies (NMs). The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies share many similarities. They present acutely, subacutely, or chronically with marked proximal and symmetric muscle weakness, except for associated distal and asymmetric weakness in inclusion body myositis. The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies also share a variable degree of creatine kinase (CK) elevation and a nonspecifically abnormal electromyogram demonstrating an irritative myopathy. The muscle pathology demonstrates inflammatory exudates of variable distribution within the muscle fascicle. Despite these similarities, the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group. The overlap syndrome (OS) refers to the association of PM, DM, or NM with connective tissue disease, such as scleroderma or systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition to elevated antinuclear antibodies (ANA), patients with OS may be weaker in the proximal arms than the legs mimicking the pattern seen in some muscular dystrophies. In this review, we focus on DM, PM, and NM and examine current and promising therapies. PMID:23117947

  3. Idiopathic central diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Grace, Mary; Balachandran, Venu; Menon, Sooraj

    2011-10-01

    Idiopathic central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a rare disorder characterized clinically by polyuria and polydipsia, and an abnormal urinary concentration without any identified etiology. We report a case of central diabetes insipidus in a 60-year-old lady in the absence of secondary causes like trauma, infection, and infiltrative disorders of brain.

  4. [Acute mesenteric ischemia: do biomarkers contribute to diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Rosero, Olivér; Harsányi, László; Szijártó, Attila

    2014-10-12

    Acute mesenteric ischemia is an emergency condition that requires immediate therapy. Despite advances in the fields of surgery and intensive therapy, the mortality of this condition remains high. This is due to the broad variability of clinical presentations and non-specific laboratory findings, which delay the diagnosis allowing the ischemia to progress and further worsening the patients' chances of survival. Thus, there is a significant need for reliable and enhanced serological markers of intestinal ischemia. The authors review the traditionally used and novel experimental serological markers for early diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia.

  5. Mesenteric ischemia: Pathogenesis and challenging diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.

    PubMed

    Mastoraki, Aikaterini; Mastoraki, Sotiria; Tziava, Evgenia; Touloumi, Stavroula; Krinos, Nikolaos; Danias, Nikolaos; Lazaris, Andreas; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-02-15

    Mesenteric ischemia (MI) is an uncommon medical condition with high mortality rates. ΜΙ includes inadequate blood supply, inflammatory injury and eventually necrosis of the bowel wall. The disease can be divided into acute and chronic MI (CMI), with the first being subdivided into four categories. Therefore, acute MI (AMI) can occur as a result of arterial embolism, arterial thrombosis, mesenteric venous thrombosis and non-occlusive causes. Bowel damage is in proportion to the mesenteric blood flow decrease and may vary from minimum lesions, due to reversible ischemia, to transmural injury, with subsequent necrosis and perforation. CMI is associated to diffuse atherosclerotic disease in more than 95% of cases, with all major mesenteric arteries presenting stenosis or occlusion. Because of a lack of specific signs or due to its sometime quiet presentation, this condition is frequently diagnosed only at an advanced stage. Computed tomography (CT) imaging and CT angiography contribute to differential diagnosis and management of AMI. Angiography is also the criterion standard for CMI, with mesenteric duplex ultrasonography and magnetic resonance angiography also being of great importance. Therapeutic approach of MI includes both medical and surgical treatment. Surgical procedures include restoration of the blood flow with arteriotomy, endarterectomy or anterograde bypass, while resection of necrotic bowel is always implemented. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results of surgical treatment for MI and to present the recent literature in order to provide an update on the current concepts of surgical management of the disease. Mesh words selected include MI, diagnostic approach and therapeutic management.

  6. [Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].

    PubMed

    2016-12-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a 3D spinal deformity in frontal, sagittal and axial planes, with high relevance in the pediatric population especially in adolescents and females between 10 years of age and the end of growth spurt and skeletal maturity. The radiographic manifestation is a curve greater than 10° measured by Cobb method associated with vertebral rotation. "Idiopathic" diagnosis has to be done after neuroanatomical anomalies of the posterior cerebral fosa and spinal canal have been ruled out. The physical finding of a thoracic or lumbar hump is the clinical manifestation of vertebral rotation seen in a forward bending test (Adam's Test). It is recommended that all curves with a magnitude greater than 20° have to be controlled and treated by a spinal surgeon being observation, bracing and surgery the different treatment options based on the extent, progression of deformity and basically the clinical condition of the patient. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  7. Idiopathic toe walking.

    PubMed

    Oetgen, Matthew E; Peden, Sean

    2012-05-01

    Toe walking is a bilateral gait abnormality in which a normal heel strike is absent and most weight bearing occurs through the forefoot. This abnormality may not be pathologic in patients aged <2 years, but it is a common reason for referral to an orthopaedic surgeon. Toe walking can be caused by several neurologic and developmental abnormalities and may be the first sign of a global developmental problem. Cases that lack a definitive etiology are categorized as idiopathic. A detailed history, with careful documentation of the developmental history, and a thorough physical examination are required in the child with a primary report of toe walking. Treatment is based on age and the severity of the abnormality. Management includes observation, stretching, casting, bracing, chemodenervation, and surgical lengthening of the gastrocnemius-soleus complex and/or Achilles tendon. An understanding of idiopathic toe walking as well as treatment options and their outcomes can help the physician individualize treatment to achieve optimal results.

  8. Endovascular Treatment of Totally Occluded Superior Mesenteric Artery by Retrograde Crossing via the Villemin Arcade

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G., E-mail: urossi76@hotmail.com; Seitun, Sara

    2013-06-15

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is a rare disorder that is commonly caused by progressive atherosclerotic stenosis or occlusion of one or more mesenteric arteries. Endovascular treatment for symptomatic CMI represents a viable option, especially in high-operative risk patients. We report a case of acute symptomatic CMI with chronic totally occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) associated with significant stenosis of celiac trunk (CT) and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) that underwent endovascular treatment of all the three mesenteric arteries: stenting of CT and IMA stenosis, and recanalization of the SMA occlusion by retrograde crossing via the Villemin arcade.

  9. Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis.

    PubMed

    Celik, Orcun; Ipekci, Tumay; Kazimoglu, Hatem

    2013-12-01

    Idiopathic scrotal calcinosis is a rare scrotal benign disease. Its distinct features are painless, non-pruritic, semi-soft palpable calcific transdermal nodules. We report a 42-year-old-man with asymptomatic multiple calcified scrotal skin nodules for 10 years. Under spinal anesthesia, the affected scrotal skin was excised and the nodules removed. We aim to explain the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment modalities of this rare disease.

  10. Oral and maxillofacial sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma: report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Folk, Gretchen S; Williams, Stephen B; Foss, Robert B; Fanburg-Smith, Julie C

    2007-09-01

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) has distinctive morphology and occurs mainly in deep soft tissue of adult extremities. Approximately 59 cases of SEF have been reported, with only 12 previously described in head and neck locations. Lesions involving the oral and maxillofacial region (OMFR) and intraosseous examples are rare. We present five cases of OMFRSEF. The OMF Pathology Department Registry was searched for cases coded from 1990 to the present as "SEF," "fibrosarcoma not otherwise specified" or "neoplasm of uncertain histiogenesis." Inclusion required OMFR location, an abundantly sclerotic sarcoma with epithelioid features, and lack of other phenotype by immunohistochemistry. Five cases of SEF included 3 males and 2 females. The age of the patients were: 19, 22, 35, 47 and 47 years. Tumor location included the infra-temporal fossa, buccal mucosa (recurrence extending into bone), anterior mandible (intraosseous primary, focally extending into soft tissue), and left parotid and submandibular gland (with metaplastic bone) regions. Tumor sizes ranged from 1.0 to 5.7 cm, median 3.5 cm. Histologically, the tumors were well delineated and multinodular, separated by fibrous septae. The spindled to primarily epithelioid tumor cells formed moderately cellular sheets and cords of irregularly contoured medium to large, round to oval, occasionally overlapping nuclei, indistinct nucleoli, wispy eosinophilic (retracting) cytoplasm, and distinctive cytoplasmic borders, embedded in osteoid-like stroma. Hemangiopericytoid (HPC-like) vessels were observed. Despite numerous apoptotic cells, mitoses were generally low; necrosis was present in two cases. Three tumors were graded as 2/3 and two 1/3. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for vimentin, 1 case focally for CD34, whereas all cases were negative for S100 protein, keratins, EMA, desmin, and SMA. Wide or radical excision was performed with no adjuvant therapy. Follow-up revealed that 4 cases recurred

  11. Morphological changes in vascular and circulating blood cells following exposure to detergent sclerosants.

    PubMed

    Cooley-Andrade, O; Connor, D E; Ma, D D F; Weisel, J W; Parsi, K

    2016-04-01

    To investigate morphological changes in vascular and circulating blood cells following exposure to detergent sclerosants sodium tetradecyl sulfate and polidocanol. Samples of whole blood, isolated leukocytes, platelets, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts were incubated with varying concentrations of sclerosants. Whole blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined by light and bright field microscopy. Phalloidin and Hoechst stains were used to analyze cytoplasmic and nuclear morphology by fluorescence microscopy. Endothelial cell and fibroblasts were analyzed by live cell imaging. Higher concentrations of sclerosants induced cell lysis. Morphological changes in intact cells were observed at sublytic concentrations of detergents. Low concentration sodium tetradecyl sulfate induced erythrocyte acanthocytosis and macrocytosis, while polidocanol induced Rouleaux formation and increased the population of target cells and stomatocytes. Leukocytes showed swelling, blebbing, vacuolation, and nuclear degradation following exposure to sodium tetradecyl sulfate, while polidocanol induced pseudopodia formation, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation. Platelets exhibited pseudopodia with sodium tetradecyl sulfate and a "fried egg" appearance with polidocanol. Exposure to sodium tetradecyl sulfate resulted in size shrinkage in both endothelial cell and fibroblasts, while endothelial cell developed distinct spindle morphology. Polidocanol induced cytoplasmic microfilament bundles in both endothelial cell and fibroblasts. Patchy chromatin condensation was observed following exposure of fibroblasts to either agent. Detergent sclerosants are biologically active at sublytic concentrations. The observed morphological changes are consistent with cell activation, apoptosis, and oncosis. The cellular response is concentration dependent, cell-specific, and sclerosant specific. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Coexistence of glandular papilloma and sclerosing pneumocytoma in the bronchiole.

    PubMed

    Kitawaki, Yuko; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Taniuchi, Shinji; Saito, Ryoko; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Sato, Ryoko; Aoyama, Yayoi; Onodera, Yoshiaki; Inoshita, Naoko; Matsuda, Yasushi; Watanabe, Mika; Sasano, Hironobu

    2018-04-25

    Both glandular papilloma (GP) and sclerosing pneumocytoma (SP) are rare tumors in the lung. We herein report an extremely rare case of coexistence of these two uncommon tumors. The patient was a 40-year-old Japanese woman with no chief complaint. A solitary nodule of the lung was detected using chest computed tomography. The transbronchial biopsy revealed that the tumor histologically corresponded to GP. The patient subsequently underwent partial resection of the right upper lobe. Histological examination of the resected specimens further revealed that the mass contained two different and independent elements and displayed typically histological features of GP and SP. Molecular analysis further revealed the presence of BRAF V600E and AKT1 E17K mutations in GP, whereas only AKT1 mutation was detected in SP. To our knowledge, this is the first case of coexistence of GP and SP in the bronchiole harboring common AKT1 mutation and different BRAF V600E mutational status. © 2018 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Papillary bile duct dysplasia in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, J; Wahlstrom, H E; Batts, K P; Wiesner, R H

    1992-06-01

    A 62-year-old man with a 20-year history of chronic ulcerative colitis and a 9-year history of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) underwent orthotopic liver transplantation because of symptoms related to PSC and cholangiographic features compatible with a biliary neoplasm. Study of the excised liver revealed papillary mucosal lesions in the common hepatic duct and the right and left hepatic ducts as well as cholangiectases and other features typically associated with PSC. The papillary lesions consisted of abundant fibrovascular stroma covered by biliary epithelium with low-grade and high-grade dysplasia. Some periductal glands were also dysplastic. These features distinguished papillary dysplasia from classic biliary papillomatosis. Only one focus of microinvasion was found; there were no metastases. Among 60 cases of PSC in whom the entire liver could be studied after orthotopic liver transplantation, this was the only instance of unequivocal dysplasia. However, in one specimen, papillary hyperplasia was found. Detailed macroscopic and microscopic rereview of 23 livers from our patients with the longest history of PSC (range, 5-24 years) failed to reveal any additional cases with dysplasia. It is concluded that (a) papillary mucosal lesions in PSC may represent papillary dysplasia without invasion; (b) these lesions may evolve from papillary hyperplasia; (c) the process may be largely, if not entirely, in situ; and (d) the prevalence of dysplasia and carcinoma of bile ducts may be less than the 7%-9% reported in the literature for malignancies associated with PSC.

  14. PD-1 gene polymorphism in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Piskin, Ibrahim Etem; Calık, Mustafa; Abuhandan, Mahmut; Kolsal, Ebru; Celik, Sevim Karakas; Iscan, Akın

    2013-08-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive inflammatory and degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Several factors influence the risk of chronic brain infection with the mutant measles virus. However, to date, no pathogenic mechanism that may predispose to SSPE has been determined. Studies have indicated that specific polymorphisms in certain host genes are probably involved in impairing the ability of host immune cells to eradicate the measles virus in SSPE patients. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), a member of the CD28 family, is a negative regulator of the immune system. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether PD-1 gene polymorphisms affect susceptibility to the development of SSPE in Turkish children. In total, 109 subjects (54 SSPE patients and 55 healthy controls) were genotyped for the PD-1.9 C/T (rs2227982) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). The distributions of T alleles in the PD-1.9 polymorphism in SSPE patients and healthy controls were 2.8 and 10.9%, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups; the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 0.06 to 0.85 and the odds ratio (OR) was 0.23 (χ(2) test). Thus, we identified an association between SSPE and the PD-1 rs2227982 gene polymorphism; the frequency of T alleles was higher in controls than in SSPE patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and immune thrombocytopenia: More than a coincidence?

    PubMed

    Oncel, I; Saltik, S; Anlar, B

    2018-02-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive disease caused by persistent measles virus (MV). It has an incidence of 0.4-2.0/million in Turkey. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a bleeding disorder whose estimated incidence is 4.2/100.000 person/years in the pediatric age group. We observed three cases with ITP in our cohort of 315 pediatric SSPE cases, an incidence higher than coincidentally expected in the general population. We hypothesize an association between SSPE and ITP. Our three cases had measles 1-2 years before the onset of ITP and 8-10 years before first symptoms of SSPE. A common immunogenetic background creating susceptibility to infection and autoimmunity might play a role. Alternatively, chronic antigenic stimulation by the MV leading to synthesis of cross-reacting antibodies against platelets, or treatment of ITP with immunoglobulins or steroids might affect or alter the development and manifestation of SSPE. The co-occurrence of these two disorders of viral and immune pathogenesis may draw attention to similar observations and provide clues for their mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid apolipoprotein E levels in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Deniz; Ichiyama, Takashi; Yilmaz, Deniz; Anlar, Banu

    2012-04-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) have been shown in 20% of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) cases. NFTs contain paired helical filaments formed by hyperphosphorylated tau. The intraneuronal tau metabolism and the rate of formation of paired helical filaments can be regulated by interactions between tau and isoforms of Apolipoprotein E (Apo E). Tau binds in vitro to Apo E3, interferes with the hyperphosphorylation of tau and may reduce the formation of NFTs. We investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Apo E levels in SSPE (n=37) and age-matched control (n=38) groups. The median level of total Apo E and Apo E4 were lower in the SSPE than the control group (p<0.001 and p=0.002). On the other hand, median Apo E3 level (0.28±0.23 μg/ml) was higher in the SSPE group (p<0.001). Such elevated levels of ApoE3 might play a role in controlling the formation of NFTs in SSPE. Because NFT-associated neurodegeneration is a slow process, comparison of the long-term clinical course of SSPE cases with high and low Apo E3 levels might provide further understanding or the role of these molecules in this disease, and help the planning of neuroprotective treatment. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuronal loss is an early component of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Deniz; Diren, Barış; Ulubay, Hakan; Altunbaşak, Sakir; Anlar, Banu

    2014-09-02

    We performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies in a group of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in order to estimate the pathologic process underlying the phenotypic variability. Patients with SSPE who had MRI including DTI and MRS examinations were evaluated according to their clinical status as determined by the SSPE Scoring System and their mental age as determined by tests appropriate for age and developmental level. Comparisons of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and metabolite ratios of frontal periventricular white matter, parieto-occipital periventricular white matter, and globus pallidus in both hemispheres were made between control and SSPE groups, and between SSPE subgroups. Control (n = 18) and SSPE (n = 39) groups differed in all DTI and MRS parameters except FA, choline (Cho), and Cho/creatine (Cr). SSPE cases had higher ADC and lower N-acetylaspartate (NAA), NAA/Cho, and NAA/Cr in all regions of interest, suggesting cell loss. Disease progression rate and neurologic deficit appeared to be associated with the degree of ADC elevation and NAA reduction: the group with severe global deterioration had the lowest NAA (230.75 ± 197.97 in forceps minor), and rapid progression was associated with acute reduction in NAA. The combination of MRS and diffusion MRI findings suggests neuronal loss can be a primary target in rapidly or subacutely progressing SSPE, and preservation or regeneration of axonal structure may be beneficial in chronic cases. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Granzyme B gene polymorphism associated with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yentur, Sibel P; Aydin, Hatice Nur; Gurses, Candan; Demirbilek, Veysi; Kuru, Umit; Uysal, Serap; Yapici, Zuhal; Baris, Safa; Yilmaz, Gülden; Cokar, Ozlem; Onal, Emel; Gokyigit, Ayşen; Saruhan-Direskeneli, Güher

    2014-10-01

     Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a late complication of measles infection. Immune dysfunction related to genetic susceptibility has been considered in disease pathogenesis. A functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of granzyme B gene (GZMB) reported in several pathologies may also be involved in susceptibility to SSPE.  An SNP (rs8192917, G → A, R→Q) was screened in 118 SSPE patients and 221 healthy controls (HC) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Frequencies were compared between groups. In vitro production of GZMB was measured in controls with different genotypes.  The SNP had a minor allele (G) frequency of 0.22 in patients and 0.31 in controls. GG genotype was significantly less frequent in patients (odds ratio, 0.23). G allele carriers produced relatively higher levels of GZMB, when stimulated in vitro.  These findings implicate possible effect of this genetic polymorphism in susceptibility to SSPE which needs to be confirmed in bigger populations. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in a child.

    PubMed

    Goraya, Jatinder; Marks, Harold; Khurana, Divya; Legido, Agustin; Melvin, Joseph

    2009-07-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) typically presents with progressive mental deterioration, behavioral changes, and myoclonic jerks. Atypical presentations are not unknown and may result in diagnostic delays. A 9-year-old girl presented with poor balance and ataxia following an episode of upper respiratory tract infection. Neurological examination revealed mild hemiparesis and ataxia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed scattered areas of T2 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensities in the white matter consistent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Despite treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulins, and plasmapheresis, progressive neurological worsening occurred. Later during the course of her illness, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was suspected from the appearance of burst-suppression pattern on electroencephalogram, and the diagnosis confirmed by elevated titers of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. Physicians taking care of children need to be aware of atypical presentations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and must have a high index of suspicion to prevent diagnostic delays and avoid unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

  20. Novel Rat Model of Repetitive Portal Venous Embolization Mimicking Human Non-Cirrhotic Idiopathic Portal Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sabine; Hinüber, Christian; Hittatiya, Kanishka; Schierwagen, Robert; Uschner, Frank Erhard; Strassburg, Christian P; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Spengler, Ulrich; Trebicka, Jonel

    2016-01-01

    Non-cirrhotic idiopathic portal hypertension (NCIPH) is characterized by splenomegaly, anemia and portal hypertension, while liver function is preserved. However, no animal models have been established yet. This study assessed a rat model of NCIPH and characterized the hemodynamics, and compared it to human NCIPH. Portal pressure (PP) was measured invasively and coloured microspheres were injected in the ileocecal vein in rats. This procedure was performed weekly for 3 weeks (weekly embolization). Rats without and with single embolization served as controls. After four weeks (one week after last embolization), hemodynamics were investigated, hepatic fibrosis and accumulation of myofibroblasts were analysed. General characteristics, laboratory analyses and liver histology were collected in patients with NCIPH. Weekly embolization induced a hyperdynamic circulation, with increased PP. The mesenteric flow and hepatic hydroxyproline content was significantly higher in weekly embolized compared to single embolized rats (mesenteric flow +54.1%, hydroxyproline +41.7%). Mesenteric blood flow and shunt volumes increased, whereas splanchnic vascular resistance was decreased in the weekly embolization group. Fibrotic markers αSMA and Desmin were upregulated in weekly embolized rats. This study establishes a model using repetitive embolization via portal veins, comparable with human NCIPH and may serve to test new therapies.

  1. Rapidly progressive subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting with acute loss of vision.

    PubMed

    Ekici, Bariş; Calişkan, Mine; Tatli, Burak; Aydinli, Nur; Ozmen, Meral

    2011-12-01

    A 10-year-old male presented with vision loss and behavioral changes. He had midpoint pupils with no reaction to light and normal funduscopic examination. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral cortical lesions at parieto-occipital lobes. Elevated measles antibody titers in the cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Despite oral inosiplex and supportive care, patient developed generalized seizures with frequent myoclonic jerks and rapidly progressed into coma. Cortical blindness in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can be an early indicator for fulminant course.

  2. [Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of the thyroid: description of a case].

    PubMed

    Cavazza, A; Toschi, E; Valcavi, R; Piana, S; Scotti, R; Carlinfante, G; Gardini, G

    1999-02-01

    A case of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of the thyroid gland is described. The patient, a 32 year-old female with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, presented with a 4 cm nodule of the right lobe of the thyroid gland. The tumour was constituted by squamoid cords infiltrating a dense fibro-jaline stroma rich in eosinophils. The patient is alive and well 14 months after surgery. The literature is briefly reviewed and the differential diagnosis is discussed. In the Author's opinion, sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of the tyroid is a well defined clinicopathological entity.

  3. Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Frederick A; Mudgil, Adarsh V; Macias, Edgar S; Karsif, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous lobular mastitis (IGLM) is a rare breast condition with prominent skin findings. It is typically seen in young parous women. Painful breast masses, draining sinuses, scarring, and breast atrophy are the main clinical manifestations. IGLM can resemble a variety of other inflammatory and neoplastic processes of the breast. It is thought to result from obstruction and rupture of breast lobules. Extravasated breast secretions then induce an inflammatory reaction. Corynebacteria have also been implicated in the pathogenesis. Treatment is surgical, but systemic corticosteroids, methotrexate, and antibiotics also play a role. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia: A Rare Cause of Chronic Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Barret, Maximilien; Martineau, Chloé; Rahmi, Gabriel; Pellerin, Olivier; Sapoval, Marc; Alsac, Jean-Marc; Fabiani, Jean-Noël; Malamut, Georgia; Samaha, Elia; Cellier, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia is a rare disease with nonspecific clinical symptoms, such as chronic postprandial abdominal pain and weight loss. Diagnostic modalities and revascularization techniques have evolved during the past 20 years. The significance of stenosis in a single splanchnic vessel remains unclear. Our aims were to assess the outcomes of 2 revascularization techniques and report on the diagnostic modalities of splanchnic vessel stenoses. The demographic data, medical history, technical characteristics, and outcomes of the revascularization procedures were recorded for all of the patients admitted for endovascular revascularization or open surgical revascularization of the splanchnic vessels as treatment for chronic mesenteric ischemia in our tertiary referral center since 2000. Fifty-four patients were included in this study: 43 received endovascular revascularization, and 11 had open surgical revascularization. The symptoms were abdominal pain, weight loss, and diarrhea in 98%, 53%, and 25% of the cases, respectively. Computed tomography angiography was the key diagnostic tool for 60% of the patients. A single-vessel stenosis was found in one-third of the patients. Endovascular and open revascularization had similar early and late outcomes, and no 30-day mortality was observed. However, we did observe higher morbidity in the open revascularization group (73% vs 19%, P <.03). Chronic mesenteric ischemia may be diagnosed in the presence of a splanchnic syndrome and stenosis of a single splanchnic vessel, typically assessed using computed tomography angiography. In selected patients, endovascular revascularization had similar efficacy as, and lower complication rates than open revascularization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differentiating immunoglobulin g4-related sclerosing cholangitis from hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Taku; Kamisawa, Terumi; Hara, Seiichi; Kuruma, Sawako; Chiba, Kazuro; Kuwata, Go; Fujiwara, Takashi; Egashira, Hideto; Koizumi, Koichi; Fujiwara, Junko; Arakawa, Takeo; Momma, Kumiko; Kurata, Masanao; Honda, Goro; Tsuruta, Koji; Itoi, Takao

    2013-03-01

    Few studies have differentiated immunoglobulin G (IgG) 4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) from hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CC). Thus, we sought to investigate useful features for differentiating IgG4-SC from hilar CC. We retrospectively compared clinical, serological, imaging, and histological features of six patients with IgG4-SC and 42 patients with hilar CC. In patients with hilar CC, obstructive jaundice was more frequent (p<0.01), serum total bilirubin levels were significantly higher (p<0.05), serum CA19-9 levels were significantly higher (p<0.01), and serum duke pancreatic monoclonal antigen type 2 levels were frequently elevated (p<0.05). However, in patients with IgG4-SC, the serum IgG (p<0.05) and IgG4 (p<0.01) levels were significantly higher and frequently elevated. The pancreas was enlarged in all IgG4-SC patients but only in 17% of hilar CC patients (p<0.01). Salivary and/or lacrimal gland swelling was detected in only 50% of IgG4-SC patients (p<0.01). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography revealed that the hilar or hepatic duct was completely obstructed in 83% of hilar CC patients (p<0.01). Lower bile duct stenosis, apart from hilar bile duct stenosis, was more frequent in IgG4-SC patients (p<0.01). Bile duct wall thickening in areas without stenosis was more frequent in IgG4-SC patients (p<0.01). An integrated diagnostic approach based on clinical, serological, imaging, and histological findings is necessary to differentiate IgG4-SC from hilar CC.

  6. Differentiating Immunoglobulin G4-Related Sclerosing Cholangitis from Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Taku; Hara, Seiichi; Kuruma, Sawako; Chiba, Kazuro; Kuwata, Go; Fujiwara, Takashi; Egashira, Hideto; Koizumi, Koichi; Fujiwara, Junko; Arakawa, Takeo; Momma, Kumiko; Kurata, Masanao; Honda, Goro; Tsuruta, Koji; Itoi, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Few studies have differentiated immunoglobulin G (IgG) 4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) from hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CC). Thus, we sought to investigate useful features for differentiating IgG4-SC from hilar CC. Methods We retrospectively compared clinical, serological, imaging, and histological features of six patients with IgG4-SC and 42 patients with hilar CC. Results In patients with hilar CC, obstructive jaundice was more frequent (p<0.01), serum total bilirubin levels were significantly higher (p<0.05), serum CA19-9 levels were significantly higher (p<0.01), and serum duke pancreatic monoclonal antigen type 2 levels were frequently elevated (p<0.05). However, in patients with IgG4-SC, the serum IgG (p<0.05) and IgG4 (p<0.01) levels were significantly higher and frequently elevated. The pancreas was enlarged in all IgG4-SC patients but only in 17% of hilar CC patients (p<0.01). Salivary and/or lacrimal gland swelling was detected in only 50% of IgG4-SC patients (p<0.01). Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography revealed that the hilar or hepatic duct was completely obstructed in 83% of hilar CC patients (p<0.01). Lower bile duct stenosis, apart from hilar bile duct stenosis, was more frequent in IgG4-SC patients (p<0.01). Bile duct wall thickening in areas without stenosis was more frequent in IgG4-SC patients (p<0.01). Conclusions An integrated diagnostic approach based on clinical, serological, imaging, and histological findings is necessary to differentiate IgG4-SC from hilar CC. PMID:23560161

  7. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine concentrations in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Omer Faruk; Ichiyama, Takashi; Anlar, Banu

    2010-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a neurodegenerative disease due to persistent measles virus infection. Its immunopathogenesis is unknown. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-4 concentrations were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from 30 SSPE patients and 19 control subjects by cytometric bead array. CSF and serum IFN-gamma, IL-12 and IL-18 levels were measured in 18 SSPE patients by ELISA. Serum IL-4 and IL-10 (p<0.001), CSF IL-4 (p<0.001) and IL-6 (p=0.049) concentrations were lower, and serum IL-2 concentrations, higher (p=0.001) in SSPE patients. Serum TNF-alpha and IL-6, CSF TNF-alpha, IL-10, and IL-2 concentrations were not different between SSPE and control groups. Serum IFN-gamma levels were higher in stage I and II than stage III patients (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference between stages in terms of other cytokines. The levels of Th2-type cytokines: IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 were suppressed in our SSPE cases. This finding, along with relatively elevated IFN-gamma and IL-2 levels, may suggest more active effector T cells compared to regulatory T cells (Treg), especially induced Treg, in early disease. High serum IL-2 concentrations might indicate peripheral Th1 activation. Discrepancies between various reports in the literature should be examined in view of the ages, stage and treatments of the patients studied. The interplay of various cytokines or cellular systems which may vary over time and between patients. Studies of treatment measures favoring the preservation of the early inflammatory response may be of interest in SSPE. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xaubet, Antoni; Ancochea, Julio; Molina-Molina, María

    2017-02-23

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia associated with the radiological and/or histological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Its aetiology is unknown, but probably comprises the action of endogenous and exogenous micro-environmental factors in subjects with genetic predisposition. Its diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic findings of high-resolution computed tomography scans and pulmonary biopsies in absence of interstitial lung diseases of other aetiologies. Its clinical evolution is variable, although the mean survival rate is 2-5 years as of its clinical presentation. Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may present complications and comorbidities which modify the disease's clinical course and prognosis. In the mild-moderate disease, the treatment consists of the administration of anti-fibrotic drugs. In severe disease, the best therapeutic option is pulmonary transplantation. In this paper we review the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis in Crohn`s disease: CT diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Coralnick, J.R.; Budin, J.A.; Sedarat, A.

    1996-01-01

    Mesenteric vein thrombosis has been described in association with such risk factors as coagulation disorders, postoperative dehydration, sepsis, and trauma. CT and ultrasound have greatly facilitated early diagnosis, and the features of superior mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis are well recognized. We present a case of inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis in a patient with Crohn`s disease. To our knowledge, this entity has not been reported in the radiologic literature. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Diffuse sclerosing variant of thyroid carcinoma presenting as Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Vukasović, Anamarija; Kuna, Sanja Kusacić; Ostović, Karmen Trutin; Prgomet, Drago; Banek, Tomislav

    2012-11-01

    The aim of report is to present a case of a rare diffuse sclerosing variant of a papillary thyroid carcinoma. A 15-year old girl referred for ultrasound examination because of painless thyroid swelling lasting 10 days before. An ultrasound of the neck showed diffusely changed thyroid parenchyma, without nodes, looking as lymphocytic thyroiditis Hashimoto at first, but with snow-storm appearance, predominantly in the right lobe. Positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-AT) also suggested Hashimoto thyroiditis. Repeated US-FNAB (fine needle-aspiration biopsy) of the right lobe revealed diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and patient underwent total thyreoidectomy. Patohistologic finding confirmed diffuse sclerosing variant of a papillary thyroid carcinoma in the both thyroid lobes and several metastatic lymph nodes. Two months later patient recived radioablative therapy with 3700 MBq (100 mCi) of 1-131 followed by levothyroxine replacement. At the moment, patient is without evidence of local or distant metastases and next regular control is scheduled in 6 months. In conclusion, a diffuse sclerosing variant is rare form of papillary thyroid carcinoma that echographically looks similar to Hashimoto thyroiditis and sometimes could be easily overlooked.

  11. ALTA injection sclerosing therapy:non-excisional treatment of internal hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Hidenori; Asanoma, Michihito; Miyamoto, Hideyuki; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) is a new sclerosing therapy for internal hemorrhoids. This injection therapy is a four-step direct injection sclerosing procedure intended to shrink and harden internal hemorrhoids to eliminate hemorrhoidal prolapse and bleeding. The aim of this study was to assess the short term efficacy of this treatment. The procedure was conducted using a four-step injection process under perianal local anesthesia. The entry point for the four-step injection of ALTA is the submucosa of the superior pole, the submucosa in the central part, the mucous lamina propria in the central part and the submucosa at the inferior pole of hemorrhoid. From January 2009 to March 2010, we performed the ALTA sclerosing therapy on 28 patients (14 men and 14 women; mean age, 64.6 years), including 5 second-degree, 16 third-degree and 7 fourth-degree hemorrhoids. There were 6 postoperative complications (2 cases of low grade fever, 2 anal pains, 1 necrosis at injection site and 1 perianal dermatitis). All symptoms of prolapse or bleeding disappeared after 29 postoperative days. There were 3 recurrent cases (10.7%). ALTA sclerosing therapy is a useful and less invasive treatment for internal hemorrhoids.

  12. Case report 834: Chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis of the mandible with long bone periostitis.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A; Carneiro, R; Pollock, L; Shaw, D

    1994-04-01

    We present the case of a patient with primary chronic osteomyelitis of the mandible, the radiological appearance of which is compatible with a diagnosis of chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis. The accompanying femoral and tibial periosteal reactive new bone formation and the benign clinical course suggest that this presentation may represent a form of chronic multifocal osteomyelitis.

  13. Generation of sclerosant foams by mechanical methods increases the foam temperature.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lulu; Wong, Kaichung; Connor, David; Fakhim, Babak; Behnia, Masud; Parsi, Kurosh

    2017-08-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of agitation on foam temperature. Methods Sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol were used. Prior to foam generation, the sclerosant and all constituent equipment were cooled to 4-25℃ and compared with cooling the sclerosant only. Foam was generated using a modified Tessari method. During foam agitation, the temperature change was measured using a thermocouple for 120 s. Results Pre-cooling all the constituent equipment resulted in a cooler foam in comparison with only cooling the sclerosant. A starting temperature of 4℃ produced average foam temperatures of 12.5 and 13.2℃ for sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol, respectively. It was also found that only cooling the liquid sclerosant provided minimal cooling to the final foam temperature, with the temperature 20 and 20.5℃ for sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol, respectively. Conclusion The foam generation process has a noticeable impact on final foam temperature and needs to be taken into consideration when creating foam.

  14. An evaluation of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Abuhandan, M; Cece, H; Calik, M; Karakas, E; Dogan, F; Karakas, O

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging to the diagnosis and staging of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The study comprised 26 patients diagnosed with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis at our clinic who were undergoing regular follow-up, and a control group of 18 subjects. Clinical staging was determined by Risk and Haddad classification; 12 at Stage II and 14 at Stage III. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance images were taken of six areas (frontal, parieto-occipital, cerebellar, deep white matter, thalamus and basal ganglia) and by calculating the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values, and a comparison was made between the stages and with the control group. The ADC values of all the areas of the subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients were found to be significantly higher compared to the control group (p < 0.05). While the mean ADC values of the deep white matter, basal ganglia, frontal and parieto-occipital areas of the Stage II patients were found to be significant compared to the control group (p < 0.05), there was no significance in the other areas (p > 0.05). The ADC values of all the areas of the Stage III patients were found to be significantly high compared to the Stage II values (p < 0.05). Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging can be used with other diagnostic criteria to confirm diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and to reveal differences between the stages.

  15. An evaluation of neuropeptide Y status in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients.

    PubMed

    Abuhandan, M; Calik, M; Almaz, V; Taskın, A; Cakmak, A; Selek, S

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the neuropeptide Y values of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The study comprised 38 patients diagnosed with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis at our clinic, who were being routinely followed-up, together with a control group of 36. Using the Risk and Haddad classification for clinical staging, 16 patients were determined as Stage II and 22 patients as Stage III. Neuropeptide Y values were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay methods. The neuropeptide Y values of the all patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were found to be significantly high compared to the control group (p<0.01). The neuropeptide Y values of the Stage III group were found to be significantly high compared to the Stage II and control groups (p<0.05). The neuropeptide Y values of the Stage II group were not determined to be significant compared to the control group (p≤0.05). Neuropeptide Y can be considered a useful parameter to confirm diagnosis at advanced stages and to establish differences between stages in patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  16. Case Report and Molecular Analysis of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in a South African Child

    PubMed Central

    Vardas, Eftyhia; Leary, P. M.; Yeats, Jane; Badrodien, Waseila; Kreis, Stephanie

    1999-01-01

    This is the first case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis from South Africa in which the molecular characteristics of the causative measles virus were examined. The virus found is classified as genotype D3, which has not previously been found in Africa and was last circulating in the United States before 1992. PMID:9986851

  17. An unusual case of acute encephalitic syndrome: Is it acute measles encephalitis or subacute sclerosing panencephalitis?

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravindra K; Malhotra, Hardeep S; Rizvi, Imran; Kumar, Neeraj; Jain, Amita

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a late complication of measles infection and develops usually 6 to 15 years after the primary measles infection. Fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is an infrequently encountered form wherein the disease rapidly progresses to death. A six-year old male child presented with fever, abnormal movements of the left side of body followed by weakness of the left side of the body, and involuntary abnormal movements of right upper and lower limbs. On examination, he was drowsy and was unable to communicate. He had right-sided hemiballismus. He also had left-sided hemiparesis and the left plantar reflex was extensor. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed elevated protein and cells. In the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, anti-measles IgG antibodies were found to be positive. No other viral marker was noted in the cerebrospinal fluid. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed extensive damage to the right temporal, parietal, and to a lesser extent, the frontal region as well as subcortical structures of these regions. Electroencephalography revealed generalized slowing of waves. Over a period of the next 3 days, the intensity and frequency of choreiform movements markedly reduced and the patient developed periodic generalized myoclonus, which was predominantly present on the right side. The patient succumbed to his illness and died after one month. Fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis may have unusual clinical manifestations such as hemiballismus. In fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, neuroimaging may show extensive cortical damage.

  18. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE): an insight into the diagnostic errors from a tertiary care university hospital.

    PubMed

    Prashanth, L K; Taly, A B; Sinha, S; Ravi, V

    2007-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive disease caused by wild-type measles virus leading to premature death. Early diagnosis may help in medical interventions and counseling. The aim of this study was to ascertain diagnostic errors and their possible causes. Retrospective case record analysis of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, evaluated over a 10-year period, was performed. The following data were analyzed: initial symptoms and diagnosis, interval between onset of symptoms to diagnosis, and implications of delayed diagnosis. Among the 307 patients evaluated, initial diagnosis by various health care professionals was other than subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in 242 patients (78.8%). These included seizures, absence seizures, metachromatic leukodystrophy, Schilder's disease, cerebral palsy, hemiparkinsonism, Wilson's disease, vasculitis, spinocerebellar ataxia, motor neuron disease, nutritional amblyopia, tapetoretinal degeneration, catatonic schizophrenia, and malingering, among others. The interval between precise diagnosis and first reported symptom was 6.2 +/- 11.3 months (range, 0.2-96 months; median, 3 months). Forty-four patients (14.3%) who had symptoms for more than 1 year before the precise diagnosis had a protracted course as compared to the rest of the cohort ( P = .0001). Early and accurate diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis needs a high index of suspicion.

  19. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Belhassen, B; Viskin, S

    1993-06-01

    Important data have recently been added to our understanding of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias occurring in the absence of demonstrable heart disease. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) is usually of monomorphic configuration and can be classified according to its site of origin as either right monomorphic (70% of all idiopathic VTs) or left monomorphic VT. Several physiopathological types of monomorphic VT can be presently individualized, according to their mode of presentation, their relationship to adrenergic stress, or their response to various drugs. The long-term prognosis is usually good. Idiopathic polymorphic VT is a much rarer type of arrhythmia with a less favorable prognosis. Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation may represent an underestimated cause of sudden cardiac death in ostensibly healty patients. A high incidence of inducibility of sustained polymorphic VT with programmed ventricular stimulation has been found by our group, but not by others. Long-term prognosis on Class IA antiarrhythmic medications that are highly effective at electrophysiologic study appears excellent.

  20. Less promising results with sclerosing ethoxysclerol injections for midportion achilles tendinopathy: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    van Sterkenburg, Maayke N; de Jonge, Milko C; Sierevelt, Inger N; van Dijk, C Niek

    2010-11-01

    Local injections of the sclerosing substance polidocanol (Ethoxysclerol) have shown good clinical results in patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. After training by the inventors of the technique, sclerosing Ethoxysclerol injections were applied on a group of patients in our center. Sclerosing Ethoxysclerol injections will yield good results in the majority of patients. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. In 113 patients (140 tendons) with Achilles tendinopathy, we identified 62 patients (70 tendons) showing neovascularization on color Doppler ultrasound. Fifty-three Achilles tendons (48 patients) were treated with sclerosing Ethoxysclerol injections, with intervals of 6 weeks and a maximum of 5 sessions. Treatment was completed when neovascularization or pain had disappeared, or when there was no positive treatment effect after 3 to 4 sessions. Forty-eight patients (20 women and 28 men) with a median age of 45 years, (range, 33-68 years) were treated. Median symptom duration was 23 months (range, 3-300 months). Fifty-three tendons were treated with a median of 3 sessions of Ethoxysclerol injections. Six weeks after the last injection, 35% of patients had no complaints, 9% had minimal symptoms, 42% were the same, and 14% had more complaints. Women were 3.8 times (95% confidence interval: 1.1-13.8) more likely to have unsatisfactory outcome than men. Pain correlated positively with neovessels on ultrasound (P < .01). At 2.7 to 5.1 year follow-up, 53% had received additional (surgical/conservative) treatment; 3 of these patients (7.5%) still had complaints of Achilles tendinopathy. In 6 patients, complaints that were still present 6 weeks after treatment had resolved spontaneously by final follow-up. Our study did not confirm the high beneficial value of sclerosing neovascularization in patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Despite the retrospective design of our study, we consider it important to stress that injection of Ethoxysclerol may

  1. Malignancies in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis – A Continuing Threat

    PubMed Central

    Bonato, Giulia; Cristoferi, Laura; Strazzabosco, Mario; Fabris, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease of unknown etiology, primarily targeting cholangiocytes at any portion of the biliary tree. No effective medical treatments are currently available. A unique feature of PSC is its close association (about 80%) with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), mainly ulcerative colitis (UC). As in many chronic inflammatory conditions, cancer development can complicate PSC, accounting for >40% of deaths. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) and colorectal carcinoma (CRC) have been variably associated to PSC, with a prevalence up to 13–14%. The risk of cancer is one of the most challenging issues in the management of PSC; it raises several questions about cancer surveillance, early diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Key Messages Among the different cancers complicating PSC, CCA is the most relevant, because it is more frequent (incidence of 0.5–1.5%) and because the prognosis is poor (5-year survival <10%). Early diagnosis of CCA in PSC can be difficult because lesions may not be evident in radiological studies. Surgical resection provides disappointing results; liver transplantation combined with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is being proposed, but this approach is limited to a highly selected group of patients and is available only in a few specialized centers. Similar to CCA, GBC carries a dismal prognosis. Since it is difficult to discriminate GBC from other gallbladder abnormalities, cholecystectomy has been proposed in all gallbladder lesions detected in PSC, regardless of their size. CRC is a frequent complication of PSC associated to UC; its incidence steadily increases with time of colitis, reaching up to 20–30% of the patients after 20 years. Colonoscopy with extensive histologic sampling at an annual/biannual interval is an effective surveillance strategy. However, when dysplastic lesions are detected, preemptive proctocolectomy should be considered. Conclusions PSC

  2. Variations in primary sclerosing cholangitis across the age spectrum.

    PubMed

    Eaton, John E; McCauley, Bryan M; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Juran, Brian D; Schlicht, Erik M; de Andrade, Mariza; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N

    2017-10-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) typically develops in middle-age adults. Little is known about phenotypic differences when PSC is diagnosed at various ages. Therefore, we sought to compare the clinical characteristics of a large PSC cohort based on the age when PSC was diagnosed. We performed a multicenter retrospective review to compare the features of PSC among those diagnosed between 1-19 (n = 95), 20-59 (n = 662), and 60-79 years (n = 102). Those with an early diagnosis (ED) of PSC were more likely to have small-duct PSC (13%) than those with a middle-age diagnosis (MD) (5%) and late diagnosis (LD) groups (2%), P < 0.01, and appeared to have a decrease risk of hepatobiliary malignancies: ED versus MD: hazard ratio (HR), 0.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06-1.03, and ED versus LD: HR, 0.07; 95% CI 0.01-0.62. Cholangiocarcinoma was diagnosed in 78 subjects (ED n = 0, MD n = 66, and LD n = 12) and was more likely to be diagnosed within a year after the PSC diagnosis among those found to have PSC late in life: ED 0% (0/95), MD 2% (14/662), and LD 6% (6/102), P = 0.02. Similarly, hepatic decompensation was more common among those with LD-PSC versus younger individuals: LD versus MD: HR, 1.64; 95% CI 0.98-2.70, and LD versus ED: HR, 2.26; 95% CI 1.02-5.05. Those diagnosed with PSC early in life are more likely to have small-duct PSC and less likely to have disease-related complications. Clinicians should be vigilant for underlying cholangiocarcinoma among those with PSC diagnosed late in life. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Hemagglutinin-specific neutralization of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Alía, Miguel Ángel; Muller, Claude P; Russell, Stephen J

    2018-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, lethal complication of measles caused by particular mutants of measles virus (MeV) that persist in the brain despite high levels of neutralizing antibodies. We addressed the hypothesis that antigenic drift is involved in the pathogenetic mechanism of SSPE by analyzing antigenic alterations in the MeV envelope hemagglutinin protein (MeV-H) found in patients with SSPE in relation to major circulating MeV genotypes. To this aim, we obtained cDNA for the MeV-H gene from tissue taken at brain autopsy from 3 deceased persons with SSPE who had short (3-4 months, SMa79), average (3.5 years, SMa84), and long (18 years, SMa94) disease courses. Recombinant MeVs with a substituted MeV-H gene were generated by a reverse genetic system. Virus neutralization assays with a panel of anti-MeV-H murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or vaccine-immunized mouse anti-MeV-H polyclonal sera were performed to determine the antigenic relatedness. Functional and receptor-binding analysis of the SSPE MeV-H showed activity in a SLAM/nectin-4-dependent manner. Similar to our panel of wild-type viruses, our SSPE viruses showed an altered antigenic profile. Genotypes A, G3, and F (SSPE case SMa79) were the exception, with an intact antigenic structure. Genotypes D7 and F (SSPE SMa79) showed enhanced neutralization by mAbs targeting antigenic site IIa. Genotypes H1 and the recently reported D4.2 were the most antigenically altered genotypes. Epitope mapping of neutralizing mAbs BH015 and BH130 reveal a new antigenic site on MeV-H, which we designated Φ for its intermediate position between previously defined antigenic sites Ia and Ib. We conclude that SSPE-causing viruses show similar antigenic properties to currently circulating MeV genotypes. The absence of a direct correlation between antigenic changes and predisposition of a certain genotype to cause SSPE does not lend support to the proposed antigenic drift as a pathogenetic

  4. Hemagglutinin-specific neutralization of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis viruses

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Claude P.; Russell, Stephen J.

    2018-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive, lethal complication of measles caused by particular mutants of measles virus (MeV) that persist in the brain despite high levels of neutralizing antibodies. We addressed the hypothesis that antigenic drift is involved in the pathogenetic mechanism of SSPE by analyzing antigenic alterations in the MeV envelope hemagglutinin protein (MeV-H) found in patients with SSPE in relation to major circulating MeV genotypes. To this aim, we obtained cDNA for the MeV-H gene from tissue taken at brain autopsy from 3 deceased persons with SSPE who had short (3–4 months, SMa79), average (3.5 years, SMa84), and long (18 years, SMa94) disease courses. Recombinant MeVs with a substituted MeV-H gene were generated by a reverse genetic system. Virus neutralization assays with a panel of anti-MeV-H murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or vaccine-immunized mouse anti-MeV-H polyclonal sera were performed to determine the antigenic relatedness. Functional and receptor-binding analysis of the SSPE MeV-H showed activity in a SLAM/nectin-4–dependent manner. Similar to our panel of wild-type viruses, our SSPE viruses showed an altered antigenic profile. Genotypes A, G3, and F (SSPE case SMa79) were the exception, with an intact antigenic structure. Genotypes D7 and F (SSPE SMa79) showed enhanced neutralization by mAbs targeting antigenic site IIa. Genotypes H1 and the recently reported D4.2 were the most antigenically altered genotypes. Epitope mapping of neutralizing mAbs BH015 and BH130 reveal a new antigenic site on MeV-H, which we designated Φ for its intermediate position between previously defined antigenic sites Ia and Ib. We conclude that SSPE-causing viruses show similar antigenic properties to currently circulating MeV genotypes. The absence of a direct correlation between antigenic changes and predisposition of a certain genotype to cause SSPE does not lend support to the proposed antigenic drift as a pathogenetic

  5. [Mesenteric lymphadenopathy - a valid health problem in children].

    PubMed

    Sikorska-Wiśniewska, Grazyna; Liberek, Anna; Góra-Gebka, Magdalena; Bako, Wanda; Marek, Andrzej; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Jankowska, Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    of the study is to evaluate the reasons of mesenteric lymphadenopathy and its clinical picture in hospitalized children. the study was performed on 127 children (49 girls and 78 boys age of 8 months to 18 years; mean age 9 years and 3 months) hospitalized in the Department of Paediatrics, and Paediatric Gastroenterology and Oncology, Medical University of Gdansk. Ultrasonography showed enlarged abdominal lymph nodes in all children. According to definition of mesenteric lymphadenopathy, the clinical course of disease was analyzed in children, in whom there were at least three lymph nodes in ultrasonography with the peroneal diameter of 5 mm or more. Inflammatory parameters were examined in all children. In selected cases culture, viral and parasitic, as well as endoscopic examination, were also performed. analyzing accompanying clinical symptoms, it was found, that abdominal pain was the most dominant complaint in children with mesenteric lymphadenopathy; it was observed in 63 children (49.6%). In 33 (26%) of them the pain was the sole complaint, while in the rest vomiting and fever were present. 8 children (6.3%) with generalized lymphadenopathy were diagnosed. Ultrasonographic evaluation demonstrated that numerous enlarged lymph nodes were present the most frequently, in 65 (51.2%), less numerous, in 42 (33.1%), while sparse lymph nodes were seen only in 20 (15.7%) children. In 85 patients (66.9%) long axis of the lymph nodes reached min. 10 mm, in 39 (30.1%) was smaller than 10 mm, in 3 (2.4%) exceed 20 mm. Conglomerates of lymph nodes were described in 9 (7.1%) patients with various diagnosis (acute diarrhea - 3 children, ulcerative colitis - 3 children, celiac disease, cytomegaly, lambliosis). Tendency to invagination was observed in 5 (3.9%) children. In 4 of them acute infection (acute diarrhea, pneumonia) with high inflammatory parameters was diagnosed. Elevated inflammatory parameters were present in 42 (33.1%) patients. Examining the reasons of the

  6. Acute mesenteric ischemia of arterial origin: importance of early revascularization.

    PubMed

    Plumereau, F; Mucci, S; Le Naoures, P; Finel, J B; Hamy, A

    2015-02-01

    The goal of our study was to show that survival was better when early revascularization was performed rather than gastrointestinal resection in the management of acute mesenteric ischemia of arterial origin. The reports of patients managed in our center between January 2005 and May 2012 for acute mesenteric ischemia of arterial origin were analyzed retrospectively. Data on clinical, laboratory and radiologic findings, the interval before treatment, the operative findings and the surgical procedures were collected. Follow-up information included the postoperative course, and mortality at 48 h, 30 days and 1 year, the latter being compared between patients undergoing revascularization versus gastrointestinal resection. Of 43 patients treated during this period, 20 had gastrointestinal lesions deemed to be beyond all therapeutic resources, 13 were treated with gastrointestinal resection without revascularization, while 10 underwent early revascularization. There were no statistically significant differences found in the extent of involvement between the two groups (P=0.22). Mortality at 48 h, 30 days and 1 year was 8% (n=1), 30% (n=4) and 68% (n=8) in patients who underwent enterectomy vs. 0% (n=0), 0% (n=0) and 10% (n=1) in patients who underwent revascularization procedures. The difference at 1 year was statistically significant (P=0.02). At 1 year, two patients in the revascularized group had a short bowel syndrome vs. one in the non-revascularized group. Acute mesenteric ischemia of arterial origin is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Optimal management should include early revascularization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Postconditioning: "Toll-erating" mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion injury?

    PubMed

    Rosero, Olivér; Ónody, Péter; Kovács, Tibor; Molnár, Dávid; Fülöp, András; Lotz, Gábor; Harsányi, László; Szijártó, Attila

    2017-04-01

    Postconditioning may prove to be a suitable method to decrease ischemia-reperfusion injury of intestine after mesenteric arterial occlusion. Toll-like-receptor-4 is involved in the pathophysiology of organ damage after ischemia-reperfusion; therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of postconditioning on the mucosal expression of toll-like-receptor-4. Male Wistar rats (n = 10/group) underwent 60 minutes of superior mesenteric artery occlusion followed by 6 hours of reperfusion in 3 groups: sham-operated, ischemia-reperfusion, and a postconditioned group. Postconditioning was performed by 6 alternating cycles of 10 seconds of reperfusion/reocclusion. Blood and tissue samples were collected at the end of reperfusion. Intestinal histopathologic changes and immunohistochemical expression of mucosal caspase-3, antioxidant status, and protein levels of high-mobility group box-1 and toll-like-receptor-4 were assessed. Immunofluorescent labeling and confocal microscopic analysis of toll-like-receptor-4 were performed. Mucosal and serum levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α protein were measured. Histologic alterations in the postconditioned group were associated with decreased caspase-3 positivity, less toll-like-receptor-4 mRNA, and less protein expression of high-mobility group box-1 and toll-like-receptor-4 in the intestinal villi compared with the ischemia-reperfusion group. Furthermore, a significantly improved antioxidant state of the intestinal mucosa and less mucosal and serum protein levels of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were detected in the postconditioned group. Small intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in male Wistar rats caused by the occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery was ameliorated by the use of postconditioning, showing a more favorable inflammatory response, which may be attributed to the decreased mucosal expression of toll-like-receptor-4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. A systematic approach for the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic peptic ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chen-Shuan; Chiang, Tsung-Hsien; Lee, Yi-Chia

    2015-01-01

    An idiopathic peptic ulcer is defined as an ulcer with unknown cause or an ulcer that appears to arise spontaneously. The first step in treatment is to exclude common possible causes, including Helicobacter pylori infection, infection with other pathogens, ulcerogenic drugs, and uncommon diseases with upper gastrointestinal manifestations. When all known causes are excluded, a diagnosis of idiopathic peptic ulcer can be made. A patient whose peptic ulcer is idiopathic may have a higher risk for complicated ulcer disease, a poorer response to gastric acid suppressants, and a higher recurrence rate after treatment. Risk factors associated with this disease may include genetic predisposition, older age, chronic mesenteric ischemia, smoking, concomitant diseases, a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and higher stress. Therefore, the diagnosis and management of emerging disease should systematically explore all known causes and treat underlying disease, while including regular endoscopic surveillance to confirm ulcer healing and the use of proton-pump inhibitors on a case-by-case basis. PMID:26354049

  9. [Mesenteric circulation evaluation during myocardial revascularization with different temperature modes of extracorporeal circulation].

    PubMed

    Iavorovskiĭ, A G; Novikova, O V; Aksel'rod, B A; Guleshov, V A; Amelina, M A; Bulganina, N A; Morozov, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The Mesenteric blood circulation during myocardium revasculization was investigated 40 patients were divided in 2 groups: 1st group - normothermia CPB, 2nd group hypothermia CPB. It was found that reduced mesenteric perfusion occurred in both groups, but it was more pronounced in hypothermia CPB group and was caused by a significant deterioration of the microcirculation.

  10. TRPM8 Channel Activation Induced by Monoterpenoid Rotundifolone Underlies Mesenteric Artery Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Darizy Flavia; de Almeida, Monica Moura; Chaves, Cinthia Guedes; Braz, Ana Letícia; Gomes, Maria Aparecida; Pinho-da-Silva, Leidiane; Pesquero, Jorge Luiz; Andrade, Viviane Aguiar; Leite, Maria de Fátima; de Albuquerque, José George Ferreira; Araujo, Islania Giselia Albuquerque; Nunes, Xirley Pereira; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Cruz, Jader dos Santos; Correia, Nadja de Azevedo; de Medeiros, Isac Almeida

    2015-01-01

    In this study, our aims were to investigate transient receptor potential melastatin-8 channels (TRPM8) involvement in rotundifolone induced relaxation in the mesenteric artery and to increase the understanding of the role of these thermosensitive TRP channels in vascular tissue. Thus, message and protein levels of TRPM8 were measured by semi-quantitative PCR and western blotting in superior mesenteric arteries from 12 week-old Spague-Dawley (SD) rats. Isometric tension recordings evaluated the relaxant response in mesenteric rings were also performed. Additionally, the intracellular Ca2+ changes in mesenteric artery myocytes were measured using confocal microscopy. Using PCR and western blotting, both TRPM8 channel mRNA and protein expression was measured in SD rat mesenteric artery. Rotundifolone and menthol induced relaxation in the isolated superior mesenteric artery from SD rats and improved the relaxant response induced by cool temperatures. Also, this monoterpene induced an increase in transient intracellular Ca2+. These responses were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with capsazepine or BCTC, both TRPM8 channels blockers. The response induced by rotundifolone was not significantly attenuated by ruthenium red, a non-selective TRP channels blocker, or following capsaicin-mediated desensitization of TRPV1. Our findings suggest that rotundifolone induces relaxation by activating TRPM8 channels in rat superior mesenteric artery, more selectively than menthol, the classic TRPM8 agonist, and TRPM8 channels participates in vasodilatory pathways in isolated rat mesenteric arteries. PMID:26599698

  11. TRPM8 Channel Activation Induced by Monoterpenoid Rotundifolone Underlies Mesenteric Artery Relaxation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Darizy Flavia; de Almeida, Monica Moura; Chaves, Cinthia Guedes; Braz, Ana Letícia; Gomes, Maria Aparecida; Pinho-da-Silva, Leidiane; Pesquero, Jorge Luiz; Andrade, Viviane Aguiar; Leite, Maria de Fátima; de Albuquerque, José George Ferreira; Araujo, Islania Giselia Albuquerque; Nunes, Xirley Pereira; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Cruz, Jader dos Santos; Correia, Nadja de Azevedo; de Medeiros, Isac Almeida

    2015-01-01

    In this study, our aims were to investigate transient receptor potential melastatin-8 channels (TRPM8) involvement in rotundifolone induced relaxation in the mesenteric artery and to increase the understanding of the role of these thermosensitive TRP channels in vascular tissue. Thus, message and protein levels of TRPM8 were measured by semi-quantitative PCR and western blotting in superior mesenteric arteries from 12 week-old Spague-Dawley (SD) rats. Isometric tension recordings evaluated the relaxant response in mesenteric rings were also performed. Additionally, the intracellular Ca2+ changes in mesenteric artery myocytes were measured using confocal microscopy. Using PCR and western blotting, both TRPM8 channel mRNA and protein expression was measured in SD rat mesenteric artery. Rotundifolone and menthol induced relaxation in the isolated superior mesenteric artery from SD rats and improved the relaxant response induced by cool temperatures. Also, this monoterpene induced an increase in transient intracellular Ca2+. These responses were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with capsazepine or BCTC, both TRPM8 channels blockers. The response induced by rotundifolone was not significantly attenuated by ruthenium red, a non-selective TRP channels blocker, or following capsaicin-mediated desensitization of TRPV1. Our findings suggest that rotundifolone induces relaxation by activating TRPM8 channels in rat superior mesenteric artery, more selectively than menthol, the classic TRPM8 agonist, and TRPM8 channels participates in vasodilatory pathways in isolated rat mesenteric arteries.

  12. Mesenteric-portal axis thrombosis and deep venous thrombosis in a patient with inferior vena cava agenesis.

    PubMed

    Lluis Pons, Laia; Chahri Vizcarro, Nadia; Llaverias Borrell, Silvia; Miquel Abbad, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    Splenoportal axis thrombosis not associated with cirrhosis or neoplasms has a prevalence lower than 5 per 10,000 people. An etiologic factor responsible for portal thrombosis is finally identified in most cases, usually systemic thrombogenic factors or predisposing local factors. However, despite a detailed study of all etiologic factors, up to 30% of cases are eventually considered as idiopathic in origin. We report the case of a 41-year-old patient who presented with abdominal pain and lower extremity edema. The patient was diagnosed with portal and mesenteric-portal confluence thrombosis, bilateral deep venous thrombosis and right lumbar vein thrombosis based on an abdominal CT scan. This was associated with a likely congenital inferior vena cava agenesis. This malformation is present in approximately 5% of patients with deep vein thrombosis even though it represents a rare cause of portal thrombosis. The fact that several thromboses developed simultaneously makes this a unique and isolated case in the current literature as no similar cases have been reported thus far.

  13. Non-occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia in Patients with Methamphetamine Use.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jamie E; Brown, Ian E; Olson, Kristin A; Iverson, Katherine; Cocanour, Christine S; Galante, Joseph M

    2018-02-17

    Data suggest that methamphetamine may increase the risk of non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI). We describe patterns of presentation and outcomes of patients with methamphetamine use who present with NOMI to a single institution. This is an observational study of patients from January 2015 to September 2017 with methamphetamine use who presented with NOMI at an academic medical center in Northern California. We summarize patient co-morbidities, clinical presentation, operative findings, pathologic findings, hospital course, and survival. Ten patients with methamphetamine use and severe NOMI were identified. One patient was readmitted with a perforated duodenal ulcer, for a total of 11 encounters. Most presented with acute (n=3) or acute-on-chronic (n=4) abdominal pain. Distribution of ischemia ranged from perforated duodenal ulcer (n=3), ischemia of the distal ileum (n=1), ischemia of entire small bowel (n=2), and patchy necrosis of entire small bowel and colon (n=5). Six patients died, three within one week of admission and three between 3-8 months. Methamphetamine use may be associated with significant microvascular compromise, increasing the risk of mesenteric ischemia. Providers in areas with high prevalence of methamphetamine use should have a high index of suspicion for intestinal ischemia in this patient population. Patients with methamphetamine use admitted for trauma or other pathology may be at particular risk of ischemia and septic shock, especially in the setting of dehydration. Use of vasoconstrictors in this patient population may also exacerbate intestinal ischemia. Level 5; Case series.

  14. Mesenteric extraskeletal osteosarcoma with telangiectatic features: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Joo, Jae Kyoon; Kim, Dong Yi; Lee, Ji Shin; Choi, Chan; Lee, Jae Hyuk

    2007-05-15

    Extraskeletal osteosarcoma is a rare malignant mesenchymal tumor, with a predominant occurrence in the extremities. Only two cases of mesenteric extraskeletal osteosarcoma have been documented. We describe an unusual case of extraskeletal osteosarcoma with telangiectatic features occurring in the mesentery. A 67-year-old male presented with blood-tinged stool of 1-month's duration. On colonoscopy, a solid mass was detected protruding from the colon wall. Computed tomography showed a 15 x 9.7 cm heterogeneously enhancing mass, with mottled calcification and a cystic portion, occupying the left upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity. Curative resection of the tumor was performed, and the excised tumor was composed of large multilocular cysts containing old hematomas and necrotic debris. The histology revealed an osteosarcoma showing osteoid formation and blood-filled spaces lined with atypical cells. Despite postoperative chemotherapy, he developed a recurrent peritoneal mass and multiple lung metastases 3 months postoperatively. Given the rarity of cases of mesenteric extraskeletal osteosarcoma, its biologic behavior at this location remains to be determined. However, extraskeletal osteosarcoma with telangiectatic features is an uncommon entity to be recognized because of the possible fatal outcome related to the tumors.

  15. Mesenteric extraskeletal osteosarcoma with telangiectatic features: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Hwa; Joo, Jae Kyoon; Kim, Dong Yi; Lee, Ji Shin; Choi, Chan; Lee, Jae Hyuk

    2007-01-01

    Background Extraskeletal osteosarcoma is a rare malignant mesenchymal tumor, with a predominant occurrence in the extremities. Only two cases of mesenteric extraskeletal osteosarcoma have been documented. We describe an unusual case of extraskeletal osteosarcoma with telangiectatic features occurring in the mesentery. Case presentation A 67-year-old male presented with blood-tinged stool of 1-month's duration. On colonoscopy, a solid mass was detected protruding from the colon wall. Computed tomography showed a 15 × 9.7 cm heterogeneously enhancing mass, with mottled calcification and a cystic portion, occupying the left upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity. Curative resection of the tumor was performed, and the excised tumor was composed of large multilocular cysts containing old hematomas and necrotic debris. The histology revealed an osteosarcoma showing osteoid formation and blood-filled spaces lined with atypical cells. Despite postoperative chemotherapy, he developed a recurrent peritoneal mass and multiple lung metastases 3 months postoperatively. Conclusion Given the rarity of cases of mesenteric extraskeletal osteosarcoma, its biologic behavior at this location remains to be determined. However, extraskeletal osteosarcoma with telangiectatic features is an uncommon entity to be recognized because of the possible fatal outcome related to the tumors. PMID:17504524

  16. Modification by choline of adrenergic transmission in rat mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Malik, K. U.; McGiff, J. C.

    1971-01-01

    1. The action of choline on the vasoconstrictor responses of the perfused mesenteric arteries of the rat to sympathetic nerve stimulation and to injected noradrenaline has been investigated. 2. The infusion of choline (500 μg/ml), for periods of 15 s, increased the response to sympathetic nerve stimulation, whereas the infusion of the same concentration for 20 min greatly reduced the response to nerve stimulation. Choline (up to 500 μg/ml), infused either for short or long periods, did not alter the response to injected noradrenaline. 3. The inhibitory action of choline on the response to nerve stimulation was abolished either by an increase in the calcium concentration from 1·8 to 5·4 mM or by simultaneous infusion of (+)-amphetamine or atropine. 4. The results suggest that choline in concentrations of 500 μg/ml has the same effect on adrenergic transmission in mesenteric arteries as acetylcholine at concentrations of 5 ng/ml. PMID:4339884

  17. Lindnera (Pichia) fabianii blood infection after mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Frederic; Noel, Thierry; Accoceberry, Isabelle

    2012-04-01

    Lindnera (Pichia) fabianii (teleomorph of Candida fabianii) is a yeast species rarely involved in human infections. This report describes the first known human case of a Lindnera fabianii blood infection after mesenteric ischemia. The 53-year-old patient was hospitalized in the intensive care unit after a suicide attempt and was suffering from a mesenteric ischemia and acute renal failure. Lindnera fabianii was recovered from an oropharyngeal swab, then isolated from stool and urine samples before the diagnosis of the blood infection. Caspofungin intravenous treatment was associated with a successful outcome. Final unequivocal identification of the strain was done by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and regions of 18S rDNA gene and of the translation elongation factor-1α gene. Until our work, the genomic databases did not contain the complete ITS region of L. fabianii as a single nucleotide sequence (encompassing ITS1, the 5.8S rDNA and ITS2), and misidentification with other yeast species, e.g., Lindnera (Pichia) mississippiensis, could have occurred. Our work demonstrates that the usual DNA barcoding method based on sequencing of the ITS region may fail to provide the correct identification of some taxa, and that partial sequencing of the EF1α gene may be much more effective for the accurate delineation and molecular identification of new emerging opportunistic yeast pathogens.

  18. Successful Treatment of Mesenteric Varices After Living Donor Liver Transplantation with Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration Via an Abdominal Wall Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Osamu, E-mail: osamu-3643ik@do9.enjoy.ne.jp; Tamura, Yoshitaka; Nakasone, Yutaka

    2010-06-15

    Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration is an established treatment for gastric varices; it has been used more rarely to treat mesenteric varices. We report a 12-year-old girl who had received a living donor liver transplant and suffered melena due to ruptured mesenteric varices. We addressed treatment of the mesenteric varices by retrograde transvenous obliteration of an abdominal wall collateral vein detected by superior mesenteric arteriography.

  19. Intravascular stenting in the superior mesenteric artery for chronic abdominal angina.

    PubMed

    Busquet, J

    1997-11-01

    Abdominal angina is an early clinical expression of occlusive mesenteric arterial insufficiency, a condition that requires aggressive treatment to prevent intestinal infarction. We report a case of chronic mesenteric ischemia in a young polyvascular man who had symptoms of abdominal angina. An aortic angiogram revealed a significant ostial stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) associated with an occlusion of the inferior mesenteric artery. After predilation of the ostial portion of the SMA, significant residual stenosis remained. A balloon-expandable Palmaz P154 stent was deployed, restoring adequate luminal dimensions and blood flow. The patient was discharged after 2 days and remains asymptomatic at 5 months. Intraluminal stenting for treatment of mesenteric ischemia represents a viable alternative to surgical revascularization in selected cases.

  20. A case of atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric artery aneurysm secondary to high flow state.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Nicola; Esposito, Giovanni; Cefalì, Pietro; Setti, Marco

    2011-07-01

    Inferior mesenteric artery aneurysms are very rare and they are among the rarest of visceral artery aneurysms. Sometimes, the distribution of the blood flow due to chronic atherosclerotic occlusion of some arteries can establish an increased flow into a particular supplying district (high flow state). A high flow state in a stenotic inferior mesenteric artery in compensation for a mesenteric occlusive disease can produce a rare form of aneurysm. We report the case of an atherosclerotic inferior mesenteric aneurysm secondary to high flow state (association with occlusion of the celiac trunk and severe stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery), treated by open surgical approach. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Barohn, Richard J.; Amato, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) consist of rare heterogenous autoimmune disorders that present with marked proximal and symmetric muscle weakness, except for distal and asymmetric weakness in inclusion body myositis (IBM). Besides frequent creatine kinase (CK) elevation, the electromyogram confirms the presence of an irritative myopathy. Extramuscular involvement affects a significant number of cases with interstitial lung disease (ILD), cutaneous in dermatomyositis (DM), systemic or joint manifestations and increased risk of malignancy especially in DM. Myositis specific autoantibodies influence phenotype of the IIM. Jo-1 antibodies are frequently associated with ILD and the newly described HMG-CoA reductase antibodies are characteristic of autoimmune necrotizing myopathy (NM). Muscle pathology ranges from inflammatory exudates of variable distribution, to intact muscle fiber invasion, necrosis, phagocytosis and in the case of IBM rimmed vacuoles and protein deposits. Despite many similarities, the IIM are a quite heterogeneous from the histopathological and pathogenetic standpoints in addition to some clinical and treatment-response difference. The field has witnessed significant advances in our understanding of pathophysiology and treatment of these rare disorders. In this review, we focus on DM, polymyositis (PM) and NM and examine current and promising therapies. The reader interested in more details on IBM is referred to the corresponding chapter in this issue. PMID:25037081

  2. Idiopathic (primary) achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Farnoosh; Vaezi, Michael F

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder characterized by esophageal aperistalsis and abnormal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation in response to deglutition. It is a rare disease with an annual incidence of approximately 1/100,000 and a prevalence rate of 1/10,000. The disease can occur at any age, with a similar rate in men and women, but is usually diagnosed between 25 and 60 years. It is characterized predominantly by dysphagia to solids and liquids, bland regurgitation, and chest pain. Weight loss (usually between 5 to 10 kg) is present in most but not in all patients. Heartburn occurs in 27%–42% of achalasia patients. Etiology is unknown. Some familial cases have been reported, but the rarity of familial occurrence does not support the hypothesis that genetic inheritance is a significant etiologic factor. Association of achalasia with viral infections and auto-antibodies against myenteric plexus has been reported, but the causal relationship remains unclear. The diagnosis is based on history of the disease, radiography (barium esophagogram), and esophageal motility testing (esophageal manometry). Endoscopic examination is important to rule out malignancy as the cause of achalasia. Treatment is strictly palliative. Current medical and surgical therapeutic options (pneumatic dilation, surgical myotomy, and pharmacologic agents) aimed at reducing the LES pressure and facilitating esophageal emptying by gravity and hydrostatic pressure of retained food and liquids. Although it cannot be permanently cured, excellent palliation is available in over 90% of patients. PMID:17894899

  3. with idiopathic chronic malnutrition

    PubMed

    Acar, Sezer; Çatlı, Gönül; Küme, Tuncay; Tuhan, Hale; Gürsoy Çalan, Özlem; Demir, Korcan; Böber, Ece; Abacı, Ayhan

    2018-04-30

    Background/aim: Nesfatin-1, an anorexigenic molecule, seems to play a role in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation of nesfatin-1 with anthropometric and metabolic (ghrelin, leptin) parameters in children with idiopathic chronic malnutrition. Materials and methods: The study included 37 underweight and 38 healthy children who were similar regarding age, sex, and pubertal status. Anthropometric and biochemical (nesfatin-1, ghrelin, and leptin levels) variables were assessed. Results: A total of 37 underweight subjects (mean age 10.5 ± 2.6 years) and 38 heathy subjects (mean age 10.3 ± 2.3 years) were recruited. Underweight children had significantly higher nesfatin-1 (2.76 ± 0.4 vs. 1.56 ± 0.7, P < 0.001) and lower leptin levels (2.21 ± 2.0 vs. 5.21 ± 2.4, P < 0.001) than those of the control subjects. Nesfatin-1 levels were significantly associated with only leptin levels, after adjusting for age and BMI (r = –0.371, P = 0.001). Conclusion: The present study is the first to evaluate nesfatin-1 levels in relation with anthropometric and metabolic parameters in children with chronic malnutrition, who were subsequently found to have significantly higher nesfatin-1 levels. Our study underlines that nesfatin-1 may play a role in the development of malnutrition by inhibiting food intake in children.

  4. Idiopathic inflammatory myositis.

    PubMed

    Tieu, Joanna; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Limaye, Vidya

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge on idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) has evolved with the identification of myositis-associated and myositis-specific antibodies, development of histopathological classification and the recognition of how these correlate with clinical phenotype and response to therapy. In this paper, we outline key advances in diagnosis and histopathology, including the more recent identification of antibodies associated with immune-mediated necrotising myopathy (IMNM) and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Ongoing longitudinal observational cohorts allow further classification of these patients with IIM, their predicted clinical course and response to specific therapies. Registries have been developed worldwide for this purpose. A challenging aspect in IIM, a multisystem disease with multiple clinical subtypes, has been defining disease status and clinically relevant improvement. Tools for assessing activity and damage are now recognised to be important in determining disease activity and guiding therapeutic decision-making. The International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies (IMACS) group has developed such tools for use in research and clinical settings. There is limited evidence for specific treatment strategies in IIM. With significant development in the understanding of IIM and improved classification, longitudinal observational cohorts and trials using validated outcome measures are necessary, to provide important information for evidence-based care in the clinical setting. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Air contamination in the sclerosing foam for the treatment of varicose veins.

    PubMed

    de Franciscis, S; Nobile, Cga; Larosa, E; Montemurro, R; Serra, R

    2016-03-01

    Fluids and drugs formulated for intravenous infusion may potentially promote the growth of microorganisms that can cause infections. The aim of this study is to test the sterility of sclerosing foam. Polidocanol was used for the production of the foam. The Tessari method was used in order to generate the foam. The preparation was carried out both in the operating theater and in an outpatient room. A validation test with microorganisms was also performed. The measurements showed no evident growth of microorganisms and in the validation tests the foam appeared to even display bacteriostatic and/or bactericide properties. Sclerosing foam seems to be safe from a microbiological point of view. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. [Immunologic parameters in pericholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis with and without ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Hopf, U; Riecken, E O; Zeitz, M; Eckhardt, R; Lobeck, H; Malchus, R; Möller, B

    1983-10-07

    Immunological parameters and histocompatibility antigens (HLA) were determined in seven patients with non-bacterial cholangitis. Four patients had pericholangitis and ulcerative colitis, three had primary sclerosing cholangitis, one of these with ulcerative colitis. All 7 patients had antinuclear antibodies; however, there were no antibodies against DNA, against mitochondria or liver membrane antigens. One patient had low-titre rheuma factors. Immunoglobulins G, A and M and complement components C3 and C4 were mostly in the normal range. HLA constellation was positive for B8 in 6 patients. These were male patients with disease manifestations between the 12th and 45th year of life. The results support the concept that pericholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis with or without ulcerative colitis are related hepatological disease entities with an immunological pathogenesis and an underlying genetical determination.

  7. Sclerosing cholangitis and intracranial lymphoma in a child with classical Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, Pandiarajan; Suri, Deepti; Rawat, Amit; Lau, Yu Lung; Bhatia, Anmol; Das, Ashim; Srinivasan, Anirudh; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) are predisposed to malignancy and autoimmunity in addition to infections. We report a male child with WAS, who had presented with recurrent pneumonia, eczema, thrombocytopenia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and vasculitic skin lesions. Genetic analysis revealed a classical genotype WAS 155C>T; R41X. At 2 years of follow-up, he developed persistent headache and progressive hepatomegaly. Brain imaging showed a mass in the right frontal region, which on histopathology was shown to be high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed features of sclerosing cholangitis. This report extends the clinical spectrum and highlights unusual manifestations of sclerosing cholangitis and intracranial lymphoma in a patient with WAS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Sclerosing lymphangitis of the penis associated with marked penile oedema and skin erosions.

    PubMed

    Karray, Mehdi; Litaiem, Noureddine; Jones, Mariem; Zeglaoui, Faten

    2017-07-27

    Sclerosing lymphangitis of the penis is a benign, under-reported condition consisting of a asymptomatic firm cord-like swelling around the coronal sulcus of the penis usually affecting men in the second or third decade of life. Penile oedema and erosions are rarely reported. Clinical signs may be remarkable contrasting with the self-limited character of the disease. We report a new case of sclerosing lymphangitis of the penis occurring in a 59-year-old patient marked by penile swelling and several overlying skin erosions, and discuss the clinical features and the pathogenesis aspects of the disease. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Adult fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: pathological and molecular studies--a case report.

    PubMed

    Souraud, J B; Faivre, A; Waku-Kouomou, D; Gaillard, T; Aouad, N; Meaudre, E; Wild, F T; Fouet, B; Soulard, R

    2009-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is an uncommon progressive neurological disorder caused by a persistent defective measles virus, typically affecting children. We describe a case of fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a 25-year-old male. Brain tissue biopsy showed histologic evidence of encephalitis with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies (Cowdry Type A and B), intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, perivascular lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and gliosis. Immunohistochemical studies were positive using an anti-measles antibody. Reverse transcriptase-PCR detected measles virus RNA and phylogenetic analysis indicated a C2 genotype. The rare adult-onset form is often atypical and difficult to diagnose and should be included in the differential diagnosis of subacute "unexplained" neurological diseases and uncommon infectious disorders.

  10. Aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

    PubMed

    Altintoprak, Fatih; Kivilcim, Taner; Ozkan, Orhan Veli

    2014-12-16

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The most common clinical presentation is an unilateral, discrete breast mass, nipple retraction and even a sinus formation often associated with an inflammation of the overlying skin. The etiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is still obscure. Its treatment remains controversial. The cause may be the autoimmune process, infection, a chemical reaction associated with oral contraceptive pills, or even lactation. Various factors, including hormonal imbalance, autoimmunity, unknown microbiological agents, smoking and α 1-antitrypsin deficiency have been suggested to play a role in disease aetiology. In this review, causing factors in the aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis are reviewed in detail.

  11. Aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Altintoprak, Fatih; Kivilcim, Taner; Ozkan, Orhan Veli

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is a rare chronic inflammatory lesion of the breast that can clinically and radiographically mimic breast carcinoma. The most common clinical presentation is an unilateral, discrete breast mass, nipple retraction and even a sinus formation often associated with an inflammation of the overlying skin. The etiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis is still obscure. Its treatment remains controversial. The cause may be the autoimmune process, infection, a chemical reaction associated with oral contraceptive pills, or even lactation. Various factors, including hormonal imbalance, autoimmunity, unknown microbiological agents, smoking and α 1-antitrypsin deficiency have been suggested to play a role in disease aetiology. In this review, causing factors in the aetiology of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis are reviewed in detail. PMID:25516860

  12. A Unique Triad: Ulcerative Colitis, Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis, and Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Syeda; Hasan, Syed Askari; Khalid, Sameen; Abbass, Aamer; Albors-Mora, Melanie

    2018-01-15

    Ulcerative colitis is an autoimmune disorder leading to chronic intestinal inflammation. It can present with a wide range of associated extra-intestinal manifestations. We present a case of an 18-year-old man diagnosed with ulcerative colitis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and primary sclerosing cholangitis during the same hospitalization. The unique triad of these diseases gives important clues to the immunological factors involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  13. Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the parotid gland presenting with a Warthin tumor.

    PubMed

    Tokyol, Ciğdem; Aktepe, Fatma; Hastürk, Güler Senyıldız; Yıldız, Hüseyin; Miman, Murat Cem

    2012-01-01

    Sclerosing polycystic adenosis (SPA) frequently presents as an isolated process, however it may involve adjacent benign salivary gland neoplasia. In this article, we present a 77-year-old female case with a 10-year history of a slow-growing mass of the left parotid gland of SPA presenting with a Warthin tumor. The patient underwent left superficial parotidectomy. The histopathological examination revealed SPA and multifocal Warthin tumor.

  14.  Alkaline phosphatase normalization is a biomarker of improved survival in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Hilscher, Moira; Enders, Felicity B; Carey, Elizabeth J; Lindor, Keith D; Tabibian, James H

    2016-01-01

     Introduction. Recent studies suggest that serum alkaline phosphatase may represent a prognostic biomarker in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. However, this association remains poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance and clinical correlates of alkaline phosphatase normalization in primary sclerosing cholangitis. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with a new diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis made at an academic medical center. The primary endpoint was time to hepatobiliaryneoplasia, liver transplantation, or liver-related death. Secondary endpoints included occurrence of and time to alkaline phosphatase normalization. Patients who did and did not achieve normalization were compared with respect to clinical characteristics and endpoint-free survival, and the association between normalization and the primary endpoint was assessed with univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards analyses. Eighty six patients were included in the study, with a total of 755 patient-years of follow-up. Thirty-eight patients (44%) experienced alkaline phosphatase normalization within 12 months of diagnosis. Alkaline phosphatase normalization was associated with longer primary endpoint-free survival (p = 0.0032) and decreased risk of requiring liver transplantation (p = 0.033). Persistent normalization was associated with even fewer adverse endpoints as well as longer survival. In multivariate analyses, alkaline phosphatase normalization (adjusted hazard ratio 0.21, p = 0.012) and baseline bilirubin (adjusted hazard ratio 4.87, p = 0.029) were the only significant predictors of primary endpoint-free survival. Alkaline phosphatase normalization, particularly if persistent, represents a robust biomarker of improved long-term survival and decreased risk of requiring liver transplantation in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.

  15. Wild-type Measles Virus in Brain Tissue of Children with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Barrero, Paola Roxana; Grippo, Jorge; Viegas, Mariana

    2003-01-01

    We studied eight children who had measles at 6 to 10 months of age during the 1998 Argentine measles outbreak and in whom subacute sclerosing panencephalitis developed 4 years later. We report the genetic characterization of brain tissue–associated measles virus samples from three patients. Phylogenetic relationships clustered these viruses with the wild-type D6 genotype isolated during the 1998 outbreak. The children received measles vaccine; however, vaccinal strains were not found. PMID:14609476

  16. MRI and MR spectroscopy findings of a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis affecting the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Mehmet; Sığırcı, Ahmet; Yakıncı, Cengiz

    2015-07-10

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, slowly progressive, fatal, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease that is seen mostly in children and young adolescents, and primarily affects the parieto-occipital lobes. The corpus callosum, cerebellum and basal ganglia are less frequently involved. MR spectroscopy (MRS) may illustrate the pathophysiological features of SSPE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report of MRS findings of corpus callosum involvement in a stage 3 SSPE case. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. MRI and MR spectroscopy findings of a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis affecting the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Öztürk, Mehmet; Sığırcı, Ahmet; Yakıncı, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, slowly progressive, fatal, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease that is seen mostly in children and young adolescents, and primarily affects the parieto-occipital lobes. The corpus callosum, cerebellum and basal ganglia are less frequently involved. MR spectroscopy (MRS) may illustrate the pathophysiological features of SSPE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report of MRS findings of corpus callosum involvement in a stage 3 SSPE case. PMID:26163552

  18. Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jarrah, Adil; Taranikanti, Varna; Lakhtakia, Ritu; Al-Jabri, Asma; Sawhney, Sukhpal

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign disorder of the breast whose aetiology is controversial, and is often misdiagnosed clinically and radiologically as mammary malignancy; as a result, it may be incorrectly treated. Although no standard treatment is available for this chronic disease, surgery with or without corticosteroids has been tried with controversial results. This study discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, recurrence, and follow-up data of IGM with a review of relevant literature. Methods: From 2009–2012, the Breast Unit at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, conducted a clinical study on 20 patients with breast lumps. Their clinical and radiological examinations were indeterminate, and a diagnosis of granulomatous mastitis was established only by histopathology. Results: The majority of the patients were cases of unknown aetiology, who presented with a unilateral breast mass. A few patients had a mass with an abscess, along with axillary lymphadenopathy. A total of 4 patients were suspected of malignancy using radiology. In all patients, sterilised pus was sent for culture and sensitivity. Microscopy showed the characteristic pattern of granulomatous inflammation. All patients were treated with antibiotics for 6 weeks, and the mean follow-up period was 15 months (11–33 months). All patients had complete remission with no further recurrence. Conclusion: This single largest study of cases of IGM in Oman highlights the pitfalls in diagnosing this non-neoplastic disease of unknown aetiology and uncertain pathogenesis. It emphasises IGM’s excellent response to antibiotics, which is crucial, as IGM is a disease which is notoriously difficult and controversial to treat. PMID:23862029

  19. [Idiopathic portal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Orozco, H; Takahashi, T; García-Tsao, G; Mercado, M A; Diliz, H; Hernández-Ortiz, J

    1991-01-01

    Patients with portal hypertension without a demonstrable cause have been reported in the literature under several different terms, such as tropical splenomegaly, phlebosclerosis, obliterative portal venopathy of the liver, hepatoportal sclerosis, noncirrhotic portal fibrosis and idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH). Such patients have been described worldwide, with a greater frequency in India and Japan. The etiology of IPH is still unknown, although some of the theories that have been proposed are: exposure to toxic substances or drugs, relationship with the hepatitis-B virus, immunologic abnormalities, systemic or intra-abdominal infections and clotting abnormalities. The main histopathologic findings are periportal fibrosis, obliteration of small portal veins and sclerosis of the interhepatic portal system. Although these abnormalities could be secondary to portal hypertension, it has been proposed that the vascular changes are the primary event that leads to portal hypertension. The site of increased resistance in IPH is found at the presinusoidal level with some component at the sinusoidal and postsinusoidal level. The main symptoms and signs in IPH are upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding secondary to esophago-gastric varices, symptoms related to anemia, and splenomegaly. The long-term prognosis for patients with IPH is better than for cirrhotic patients, with a 77% survival at ten years. Variceal bleeding is the main cause of death, and some treatment to prevent bleeding or its recurrence is warranted. Although no comparative trial has been performed in IPH patients, the surgical management could be the first choice for elective treatment in these patient without liver failure, because of the high re-bleeding rates with chronic sclerotherapy. Pharmacologic management could be considered for prophylactic treatment of these patients.

  20. Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Kevin R.; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; King, Talmadge E.; Raghu, Ganesh; Colby, Thomas V.; Wells, Athol; Bassily, Nadir; Brown, Kevin; du Bois, Roland; Flint, Andrew; Gay, Steven E.; Gross, Barry H.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Knapp, Robert; Louvar, Edmund; Lynch, David; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Quick, John; Thannickal, Victor J.; Travis, William D.; Vyskocil, James; Wadenstorer, Frazer A.; Wilt, Jeffrey; Toews, Galen B.; Murray, Susan; Martinez, Fernando J.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Treatment and prognoses of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) varies by diagnosis. Obtaining a uniform diagnosis among observers is difficult. Objectives: Evaluate diagnostic agreement between academic and community-based physicians for patients with DPLDs, and determine if an interactive approach between clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists improved diagnostic agreement in community and academic centers. Methods: Retrospective review of 39 patients with DPLD. A total of 19 participants reviewed cases at 2 community locations and 1 academic location. Information from the history, physical examination, pulmonary function testing, high-resolution computed tomography, and surgical lung biopsy was collected. Data were presented in the same sequential fashion to three groups of physicians on separate days. Measurements and Main Results: Each observer's diagnosis was coded into one of eight categories. A κ statistic allowing for multiple raters was used to assess agreement in diagnosis. Interactions between clinicians, radiologists, and pathologists improved interobserver agreement at both community and academic sites; however, final agreement was better within academic centers (κ = 0.55–0.71) than within community centers (κ = 0.32–0.44). Clinically significant disagreement was present between academic and community-based physicians (κ = 0.11–0.56). Community physicians were more likely to assign a final diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis compared with academic physicians. Conclusions: Significant disagreement exists in the diagnosis of DPLD between physicians based in communities compared with those in academic centers. Wherever possible, patients should be referred to centers with expertise in diffuse parenchymal lung disorders to help clarify the diagnosis and provide suggestions regarding treatment options. PMID:17255566

  1. Kindler syndrome in a patient with colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis: coincidence or association?

    PubMed

    Roda, Ângela; Travassos, Ana Rita; Soares-de-Almeida, Luís; Has, Cristina

    2018-03-15

    Kindler syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive genodermatosis, caused by mutations in the FERMT1 gene. It is thought to be primarily a skin disease, but other organs may also be involved. We report a case of a novel mutation of FERMT1 gene in a patient with a probable new phenotype of Kindler syndrome, including colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. A 42-year-old man, born to first cousin parents, was referred to our outpatient dermatology clinic with an unknown dermatosis since birth. He presented with neonatal blistering and developed photosensitivity and changes in skin pigmentation during childhood. Since the age of 20, he has had regular follow-up in the gastroenterology clinic, owing to esophageal stenosis, ulcerative colitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Clinical examination revealed jaundice, poikiloderma, diffuse cigarette paper-like atrophy on dorsal surfaces of the hands, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. Skin biopsy showed epidermal atrophy covered by orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis. DNA molecular analysis revealed FERMT1 homozygous mutation c.1179G>A, p.W393X, which has not been reported before. The intestinal phenotype of Kindler syndrome has already been defined previously. However, to the best of our knowledge, no other case of primary sclerosing cholangitis in a patient with Kindler syndrome has been reported.

  2. The features of mucosa-associated microbiota in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Torres, J; Bao, X; Goel, A; Colombel, J-F; Pekow, J; Jabri, B; Williams, K M; Castillo, A; Odin, J A; Meckel, K; Fasihuddin, F; Peter, I; Itzkowitz, S; Hu, J

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the role of the microbiome in primary sclerosing cholangitis. To explore the mucosa-associated microbiota in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients across different locations in the gut, and to compare it with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-only patients and healthy controls. Biopsies from the terminal ileum, right colon, and left colon were collected from patients and healthy controls undergoing colonoscopy. Microbiota profiling using bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing was performed on all biopsies. Forty-four patients were recruited: 20 with PSC (19 with PSC-IBD and one with PSC-only), 15 with IBD-only and nine healthy controls. The overall microbiome profile was similar throughout different locations in the gut. No differences in the global microbiome profile were found. However, we observed significant PSC-associated enrichment in Barnesiellaceae at the family level, and in Blautia and an unidentified Barnesiellaceae at the genus level. At the operational taxa unit level, most shifts in PSC were observed in Clostridiales and Bacteroidales orders, with approximately 86% of shifts occurring within the former order. The overall microbiota profile was similar across multiple locations in the gut from the same individual regardless of disease status. In this study, the mucosa associated-microbiota of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis was characterised by enrichment of Blautia and Barnesiellaceae and by major shifts in operational taxa units within Clostridiales order. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as acute cerebellar ataxia and brain stem hyperintensities.

    PubMed

    Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Sankhyan, Naveen; Padmanabh, Hansashree; Sahu, Jitendra Kumar; Vyas, Sameer; Singhi, Pratibha

    2016-05-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a devastating neurodegenerative disease with a characteristic clinical course. Atypical presentations may be seen in 10% of the cases. To describe the atypical clinical and radiological features of SSPE in a child form endemic country. A 5-year-old boy presented with acute-onset cerebellar ataxia without associated encephalopathy, focal motor deficits, seizures or cognitive decline. He had varicella-like illness with vesicular, itchy truncal rash erupting one month prior to the onset of these symptoms. He underwent detailed neurological assessment, relevant laboratory and radiological investigations. Neuroimaging revealed peculiar brain stem lesions involving the pons and cerebellum suggestive of demyelination. With a presumptive diagnosis of clinically isolated syndrome of demyelination, he was administered pulse methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg/day for 5 days). Four weeks later he developed myoclonic jerks. Electroencephalogram showed characteristic periodic complexes time-locked with myoclonus. CSF and serum anti-measles antibody titres were elevated (1:625). Our report highlights that subacute sclerosing panencephalitis can present atypically as isolated acute cerebellar ataxia and peculiar involvement of longitudinal and sparing of transverse pontine fibres. The predominant brainstem abnormalities in the clinical setting may mimick acute demyelinating syndrome. Hence, it is important to recognize these features of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in children, especially in the endemic countries. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Sclerosing Features: An Uncommon and Potentially Aggressive Variant.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Shira; Gru, Alejandro A; Noland, Mary M; Rowe, David M; Wick, Mark R

    2018-05-08

    Sclerosing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), also known as "desmoplastic" SCC, is a rare subtype of cutaneous malignancy. This variant is clinically significant because it is associated with an increased risk of local recurrence and metastasis. We herein present 16 examples of sclerotic SCC of the skin in 8 men and 3 women, with a median age of 66 years. The most common site of origin for this tumor is the skin of the head and neck, including the scalp (5 tumors in 2 different patients), forehead (3 cases), nasal ala (2 cases), neck (2 cases in the same patient), ear (2 cases), cheek (1 case), and chest (1 case). Microscopically, sclerosing SCCs are characterized by cellular cords, nests, and islands, as well as scattered single cells infiltrating densely desmoplastic and collagenized connective tissue. The differential diagnosis principally includes sclerosing basal cell carcinoma, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, and desmoplastic trichoepithelioma. The main goals of this study are to further characterize these lesions pathologically, and increase general awareness of this SCC subtype.

  5. Changes in mesenteric, renal, and aortic flows with +Gx acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. L.; Erickson, H. H.; Sandler, H.

    1974-01-01

    Previous studies in man and dogs have indicated that the splanchnic bed might contribute to the maintenance of arterial pressure during +Gx acceleration. Eight mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented with Doppler flow probes around the superior mesenteric (SMA) and renal arteries (RA) as well as the terminal aorta (TA). A solid-state pressure transducer was placed in the aorta distal to the flow probe. Using alpha-chloralose anesthesia following a 2-4 week recovery period, the animals were subjected to 120 sec at levels of 5, 10 and 15 +Gx acceleration on a 7.6-m radius centrifuge. The results indicate that both an active component and a mechanical component contribute to the maintenance of arterial pressure during +Gx acceleration.

  6. Blood pressure and mesenteric resistance arterial function after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Chapman, Justin; Xue, Hong; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; McCarron, David A.

    2002-01-01

    Ground studies indicate that spaceflight may diminish vascular contraction. To examine that possibility, vascular function was measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats immediately after an 18-day shuttle flight. Isolated mesenteric resistance arterial responses to cumulative additions of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside were measured using wire myography within 17 h of landing. After flight, maximal contraction to norepinephrine was attenuated (P < 0.001) as was relaxation to acetylcholine (P < 0.001) and sodium nitroprusside (P < 0.05). At high concentrations, acetylcholine caused vascular contraction in vessels from flight animals but not in vessels from vivarium control animals (P < 0.05). The results are consistent with data from ground studies and indicate that spaceflight causes both endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent alterations in vascular function. The resulting decrement in vascular function may contribute to orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight.

  7. Endovascular Management of Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm and Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Govindarajan, E-mail: gnarayanan@med.miami.ed; Mohin, Geetika, E-mail: geetika77@yahoo.co; Barbery, Katuska, E-mail: kbarbery@med.miami.ed

    2008-11-15

    The uncommon presentation of an arterioportal fistula (APF) involving the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) associated with a pseudoaneurysm represents a therapeutic challenge. We present the case of a 24-year-old female admitted to the hospital after multiple gunshot wounds to the abdomen; the patient underwent multiple surgeries and, in the process, developed a SMA pseudoaneurysm and fistula. The vascular interventional radiology team was consulted for treatment of the pseudoaneurysm and fistula. A covered stent was inserted percutaneously to exclude the APF and the pseudoaneurysm in a single procedure. The patient returned to our service after 21 months for a follow-up CTmore » scan, which demonstrated the stent and the distal vasculature to be patent.« less

  8. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage from adhesion-related mesenteric varices.

    PubMed Central

    Moncure, A C; Waltman, A C; Vandersalm, T J; Linton, R R; Levine, F H; Abbott, W M

    1976-01-01

    As a result of this retrospective analysis of hemorrhage from a porta-systemic venous shunt occurring within the small intestine, we believe that the early diagnosis of the syndrome is strongly suggested by the presence of varices in unusual locations demonstrated by the venous phase of mesenteric arteriography. In all patients portal hypertension was present, and in all the affected bowel was adherent to postoperative adhesions on old suture lines. The syndrome was treated variously with lysis of adhesions, bowel resection, or portal-systemic shunt. Those patients with excellent hepatic reserve survived and had no further gastrointestinal bleeding. Images Fig. 1a. Fig. 1b. Fig. 1c. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4a. Fig. 4b. Fig. 5. PMID:1082310

  9. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome in a young military basic trainee.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Steven G; Thompson, Andrew J; Bebarta, Vikhyat S

    2013-03-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old military trainee that presented to the emergency department with a 3-week history of diffuse abdominal pain, 1 to 2 hours postprandially. The timing, onset, quality, and location of her pain was concerning for intestinal angina. Her serum chemistry, hematology, and liver function tests were normal. The radiologist's interpretation of the computed tomography angiogram of the abdomen was an abnormally narrow takeoff angle of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) from the aorta near the third portion of the duodenum. She was diagnosed with SMA syndrome and received additional evaluation and treatment by her gastroenterologist and surgeon. SMA syndrome is rare and can cause bowel obstruction, perforation, gastric wall pneumatosis, and portal venous gas formation. Computed tomography angiography can be used to promptly diagnose this syndrome in the emergency department. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Enhancement by vasopressin of adrenergic responses in human mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Medina, P; Noguera, I; Aldasoro, M; Vila, J M; Flor, B; Lluch, S

    1997-03-01

    Vasopressin not only acts directly on blood vessels through V1-receptor stimulation but also may modulate adrenergic-mediated responses in animal experiments in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether subpressor concentrations of vasopressin could modify the constrictor responses to norepinephrine and electrical stimulation of the perivascular nerves in human mesenteric arteries. Human mesenteric artery rings (3-3.5 mm long, 0.8-1.2 mm OD) were obtained from 38 patients undergoing abdominal operations. The arterial rings were suspended in organ bath chambers for isometric recording of tension. Vasopressin (3 x 10(-11) M) enhanced the contractions elicited by electrical stimulation at 2, 4, and 8 Hz (by 100, 100, and 72%, respectively) and produced a leftward shift of the concentration-response curves to norepinephrine (half-maximal effective concentration decreased from 2.2 x 10(-6) to 5.0 x 10(-7) M; P < 0.05) without any alteration in maximal contractions. Vasopressin also potentiated KCl- and calcium-induced contractions. The V1-receptor antagonist 1-[beta-mercapto-beta,beta-cyclopentamethylenepropionic acid-2-O-methyl-tyrosine, 8-arginine]vasopressin (10(-6) M) prevented the potentiation evoked by vasopressin in all cases. The calcium antagonist nifedipine (10(-6) M) did not affect the potentiation of electrical stimulation and norepinephrine induced by vasopressin but abolished KCl-induced contractions. The results suggest that vasopressin, in addition to its direct vasoconstrictor effect, strongly potentiates the responses to adrenergic stimulation and KCl depolarization. Both the direct and indirect effects of vasopressin appear to be mediated by V1-receptor stimulation. The amplifying effect of vasopressin on constrictor responses may be relevant in those clinical situations characterized by increased plasma vasopressin levels.

  11. Effect of perturbations and a meal on superior mesenteric artery flow in patients with orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujimura, J.; Camilleri, M.; Low, P. A.; Novak, V.; Novak, P.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.

    1997-01-01

    Our aims were to evaluate to role of superior mesenteric blood flow in the pathophysiology of orthostatic hypotension in patients with generalized autonomic failure. METHODS: Twelve patients with symptomatic neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and 12 healthy controls underwent superior mesenteric artery flow measurements using Doppler ultrasonography during head-up tilt and tilt plus meal ingestion. Autonomic failure was assessed using standard tests of the function of the sympathetic adrenergic, cardiovagal and postganglionic sympathetic sudomotor function. RESULTS: Superior mesenteric flow volume and time-averaged velocity were similar in patients and controls at supine rest; however, responses to cold pressor test and upright tilt were attenuated (p < 0.05) in patients compared to controls. Head-up tilt after the meal evoked a profound fall of blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow in the patients; the reduction of mesenteric blood flow correlated (r = 0.89) with the fall of blood pressure in these patients, providing another manifestation of failed baroreflexes. We make the novel finding that the severity of postprandial orthostatic hypotension regressed negatively with the postprandial increase in mesenteric flow in patients with orthostatic hypotension. CONCLUSION: Mesenteric flow is under baroreflex control, which when defective, results in, or worsens orthostatic hypotension. Its large size and baroreflexivity renders it quantitatively important in the maintenance of postural normotension. The effects of orthostatic stress can be significantly attenuated by reducing the splanchnic-mesenteric volume increase in response to food. Evaluation of mesenteric flow in response to eating and head-up tilt provide important information on intra-abdominal sympathetic adrenergic function, and the ability of the patient to cope with orthostatic stress.

  12. Non-surgical management of superior mesenteric artery thrombosis using spinal cord stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tod, Laura; Ghosh, Jonathan; Lieberman, Ilan; Baguneid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    We report the use of a spinal cord stimulator (SCS) for non-surgical management of superior mesenteric artery thrombosis. A 59-year-old woman with polycythaemia rubra vera presented with extensive superior mesenteric artery thrombosis not amenable to surgical or endovascular revascularisation. A SCS was implanted for analgesia thereby allowing enteral feeding to be tolerated during the acute period. Four months later the patient developed a focal ischaemic jejunal stricture and underwent resection of a short segment of small bowel with primary anastomosis that healed without complication. Spinal cord stimulation can facilitate non-surgical management of mesenteric ischaemia. PMID:23917358

  13. Mesenteric vascular thrombosis associated with disseminated abdominal visceral hemangiosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Currao, Rachael L; Buote, Nicole J; Flory, Andrea B; Liu, Serena M

    2011-01-01

    An adult castrated male cat was evaluated because of a 4 day history of lethargy and partial anorexia. Physical examination revealed abdominal pain with a palpable fluid wave. Cytologic and biochemical analyses of peritoneal effusion were suggestive of septic peritonitis. On surgical exploration of the abdomen, the mesenteric vessels had no palpable pulses and they contained gross thromboses. The intestines were white with no visible peristalsis. Necropsy findings included disseminated, poorly differentiated hemangiosarcoma throughout the abdomen. Mesenteric arterioles contained fibrin thrombi. To the author's knowledge, no previous reports exist of complete mesenteric vascular thrombosis associated with disseminated abdominal visceral hemangiosarcoma in a cat.

  14. Re-evaluation of the colic irrigation from the superior mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, J P; Van der Schuren, G

    1976-01-01

    156 abdominal preparations were explored by arteriography, corrosion and dissection. The ileocolic artery is the most constant collateral of the superior mesenteric artery. It provides a ramus colicus which is often confused with a true arteria colica dextra. The a. colica dextra, arising on the superior mesenteric artery, is found in only 13% of the abdominal preparations. The PNA 'a. colica media' covers a system of individually varying vessels: a. colica media, common stem of r. anguli coli and r. coli transversi; a. anguli coli, a. coli transversi; a. colica sinistra accessoria and a. coli transversi accessoria. Both mesenteric arteries may be linked by a intermesenteric arch (12%).

  15. Pediatric Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Claire A.; Paley, Grace L.; Xiao, Rui; Kesler, Anat; Eyal, Ori; Ko, Melissa W.; Boisvert, Chantal J.; Avery, Robert A.; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Phillips, Paul H.; Heidary, Gena; McCormack, Shana E.; Liu, Grant T.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine anthropometric and maturational characteristics at diagnosis in pediatric idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Design Retrospective, international, multisite study. Participants Pediatric patients (2–18 years of age at diagnosis) with IIH. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index (BMI), height, and weight Z-scores; sexual maturation. Methods Cases of IIH were identified retrospectively based on diagnostic code, pediatric neuroophthalmologist databases, or both and updated diagnostic criteria (2013) were applied to confirm definite IIH. Anthropometric measurements were converted into age- and gender-specific height, weight, and BMI Z-scores CDC 2000 growth charts. When available, sexual maturation was noted. Results Two hundred thirty-three cases of definite IIH were identified across 8 sites. In boys, a moderate association between age and BMI Z-scores was noted (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30–0.66; P < 0.001; n = 72), and in girls, a weak association was noted (Pearson’s correlation coefficient, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20–0.47; P < 0.001; n = 161). The average patient was more likely to be overweight at diagnosis at age 6.7 years in girls and 8.7 years in boys, and obese at diagnosis at age 12.5 years in girls and 12.4 years in boys. Compared with age- and gender-matched reference values, early adolescent patients were taller for age (P = 0.002 in girls and P = 0.02 in boys). Data on Tanner staging, menarchal status, or both were available in 25% of cases (n = 57/233). Prepubertal participants (n = 12) had lower average BMI Z-scores (0.95±1.98) compared with pubertal participants (n = 45; 1.92±0.60), but this result did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.09). Conclusions With updated diagnostic criteria and pediatric-specific assessments, the present study identifies 3 subgroups of pediatric IIH: a young group that is not overweight, an early adolescent group that is either overweight

  16. [Idiopathic facial paralysis in children].

    PubMed

    Achour, I; Chakroun, A; Ayedi, S; Ben Rhaiem, Z; Mnejja, M; Charfeddine, I; Hammami, B; Ghorbel, A

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic facial palsy is the most common cause of facial nerve palsy in children. Controversy exists regarding treatment options. The objectives of this study were to review the epidemiological and clinical characteristics as well as the outcome of idiopathic facial palsy in children to suggest appropriate treatment. A retrospective study was conducted on children with a diagnosis of idiopathic facial palsy from 2007 to 2012. A total of 37 cases (13 males, 24 females) with a mean age of 13.9 years were included in this analysis. The mean duration between onset of Bell's palsy and consultation was 3 days. Of these patients, 78.3% had moderately severe (grade IV) or severe paralysis (grade V on the House and Brackmann grading). Twenty-seven patients were treated in an outpatient context, three patients were hospitalized, and seven patients were treated as outpatients and subsequently hospitalized. All patients received corticosteroids. Eight of them also received antiviral treatment. The complete recovery rate was 94.6% (35/37). The duration of complete recovery was 7.4 weeks. Children with idiopathic facial palsy have a very good prognosis. The complete recovery rate exceeds 90%. However, controversy exists regarding treatment options. High-quality studies have been conducted on adult populations. Medical treatment based on corticosteroids alone or combined with antiviral treatment is certainly effective in improving facial function outcomes in adults. In children, the recommendation for prescription of steroids and antiviral drugs based on adult treatment appears to be justified. Randomized controlled trials in the pediatric population are recommended to define a strategy for management of idiopathic facial paralysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A Case of Traumatic Mesenteric Bleeding Controlled by only Transcatheter Arterial Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Asayama, Yoshiki, E-mail: asayama@elf.coara.or.jp, E-mail: asayama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Shunichi; Isoda, Takuro

    We report a case of mesenteric hematoma following blunt abdominal trauma that was successfully treated with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) and did not require surgical repair. A 43-year-old man with blunt abdominal trauma caused in a factory accident was admitted with a stable general condition and laboratory data. On CT examination, a large mesenteric hematoma with extravasation of contrast media was observed. TAE was first attempted to control the bleeding. A superior mesenteric angiogram showed extravasation of contrast medium from a branch of the ileocolic artery and obstruction of the cecal branch. After successful TAE using microcoils, the distal portionmore » of the cecal branch was still preserved via collateral circulation. No abdominal symptoms have occurred during the 7 months following TAE. In mesenteric injury cases with limited intestinal damage, TAE may therefore be a reasonable alternative to emergent laparotomy.« less

  18. Ectopic Enterobius Vermicularis Infestation; An Extremely Rare Cause Of Mesenteric Lymphadenopathy Mimicking Tuberculous Lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Summaiya; Tariq, Muhammad Usman; Ahmed, Zubair

    2018-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (EV) is a pinworm which commonly resides in the lumen of the intestinal tract and lays eggs on the perianal skin. However, rarely the worm can infest various other sites in the body and cases with infestation of such ectopic sites have been reported in literature. Rare cases of mesenteric lymph node involvement have also been reported. We report a case in a young male who presented with signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis. During surgery, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were identified. Histological examination revealed adult worm in the appendiceal lumen. Histological examination of mesenteric lymph node revealed degenerated worm surrounded by caseating chronic granulomatous inflammation. We conclude that EV infestation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of enlarged mesenteric lymph node with chronic granulomatous inflammation, especially in young patients and when accompanying bowel tissue also reveal the helminth.

  19. Further observations on mesenteric vasoconstriction, survival and the clotting defect after endotoxin administration

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, M. M.; Greenway, C. V.; Innes, I. R.; Lister, G. E.; Murthy, V. S.; Scott, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    1. The initial response after endotoxin administration (3 mg/kg) in cats involved pulmonary vasoconstriction. This was not seen when endotoxin was given by slow infusion and it could be prevented after a bolus injection of endotoxin by pretreatment of the cats with aspirin (10 mg/kg). Intense mesenteric vasoconstriction occurred in all the cats. 2. The mesenteric vasoconstriction was a specific response of the mesenteric blood vessels. At the time the mesenteric bed constricted, the renal bed dilated, the hepatic arterial bed remained unchanged and the smooth muscle of the intestinal wall relaxed. 3. Arterial blood from cats with a fully developed mesenteric vasoconstriction after endotoxin administration was perfused through a normal intestine. No immediate vasoconstriction developed but the perfused intestine constricted slowly over 60 minutes. This suggests that mesenteric constriction was not due to circulating vasoconstrictor factors or the intestinal innervation, but involved a slow local mechanism within the intestine. It could not be prevented or reversed by a variety of pharmacological agents. 4. These observations suggest that endotoxin caused a unique type of mesenteric vasoconstriction in cats by a local mechanism which took up to 60 min to develop, was sufficiently potent to reduce mesenteric flow to <30% control, and was maintained until death of the cats. Blood from these animals did not clot when placed in a glass tube. 5. The mesenteric constriction and the clotting defect could be prevented by repeated administration of aminophylline and dextran solution before and after a bolus intravenous injection of endotoxin. Arterial pressure and mesenteric flow were maintained for at least 10 h in these experiments. Inadequate treatment intensified rather than reduced the intestinal mucosal damage. 6. Cats were treated with aspirin, endotoxin and the optimal regimen for prevention of the mesenteric constriction and allowed to recover from the anaesthetic

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Diagnosis of Volvulus through Mesenteric Defect in Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Scott; Al-Qaraghouli, Mohammed; Hussain, Naveed; Finck, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Antenatal midgut volvulus is a rare surgical emergency in which bowel is severely compromised. Rarely the etiology is a mesenteric defect. Early diagnosis is essential and lifesaving in the immediate newborn period. Typically upper gastrointestinal or ultrasound imaging can be suggestive of the diagnosis of volvulus in the neonate. Sometimes, however, the diagnosis may be elusive. Herein, we report on the use of neonatal magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose a midgut volvulus that occurred through a congenital mesenteric defect. PMID:27551577

  1. Infrarenal aorta as the donor site for bypasses to the superior mesenteric artery for chronic mesenteric ischemia: A prospective clinical series of 24 patients.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Calio', Francesco G; Pasqua, Rocco; Masci, Federica; Vietri, Francesco

    2017-11-01

    Treatment of symptomatic, chronic mesenteric ischemia is indicated to relieve symptoms and prevent acute ischemia and death. Current therapeutic options include endovascular and open surgery. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the results of bypasses to the superior mesenteric artery arising from the infrarenal aorta or infrarenal aortic grafts. From January 1999 to December 2016, 24 consecutive patients with a mean age of 61 years underwent a prosthetic bypass to the superior mesenteric artery. Nine patients (37%) presented with an associated clinically important stenosis of the celiac artery and 10 (42%) of the inferior mesenteric artery. Five patients (21%) received preoperative parenteral nutrition. Four patients (17%) underwent dual antiplatelet treatment. The donor site was the infrarenal aorta in 19 patients (79%) and an infrarenal, Dacron graft was used in 5 (21%). The origin of the bypass was from the distal infrarenal aorta or Dacron graft in 19 patients (79%) and from the proximal infrarenal aorta in 5 patients (21%). The graft material consisted of 7 mm polytetrafluoroethylene in 19 cases (79%) and 7 mm Dacron in 5 cases (21%). A concomitant bypass to the inferior mesenteric artery was performed in 4 patients (17%). The primary end points were postoperative mortality, morbidity, graft infection, late survival, primary patency, and symptom-free rate. The secondary end point was postoperative hemorrhagic complications. No postoperative mortality occurred. Postoperative morbidity included a prolonged postoperative ileus in 4 patients (17%), transitory postoperative increases in serum creatinine concentrations in 3 patients (12%), and myocardial ischemia in 2 patients (8%). No postoperative hemorrhagic complications or graft infection were observed. Overall, the cumulative survival rate was 77% at 60 months. The overall late-patency rate and freedom from recurrence of symptoms were both 87% at 60 months. Infrarenal aorta and

  2. Role of Carbamazepine in the Symptomatic Treatment of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, Sandhya; Crawford, John Ross

    2013-01-01

    We describe the clinical presentation and clinical course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a 13-year-old previously healthy boy who recently immigrated to the United States from Iraq. He presented with macular retinopathy, followed by progressive myoclonus and encephalopathy. After extensive workup, a diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was suspected by the presence of period epileptiform discharges on electroencephalogram and confirmed by elevated measles titers in the cerebrospinal fluid. Combination immunomodulatory therapy with isoprinosine, ribavirin, and intra-Ommaya interferon alpha did not result in clinical improvement. Within days following the administration of carbamazepine, there was remarkable improvement in the myoclonus and he was able to ambulate independently for a period of 4 months at which time he unfortunately progressed to a vegetative state. This case highlights the importance of carbamazepine as a potential first line symptomatic treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and provides a review of the literature on the subject. PMID:23533854

  3. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD), only fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or fed low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha). BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue. PMID:26618193

  4. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Mesenteric Fat Deposition and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet Mice.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Chi H L; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Mesenteric fat belongs to visceral fat. An increased deposition of mesenteric fat contributes to obesity associated complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the therapeutic effects of bardoxolone methyl (BARD) on mesenteric adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were administered oral BARD during HFD feeding (HFD/BARD), only fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or fed low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to analyse mesenteric morphology and macrophages, while Western blot was used to assess the expression of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and energy expenditure proteins. Supplementation of drinking water with BARD prevented mesenteric fat deposition, as determined by a reduction in large adipocytes. BARD prevented inflammation as there were fewer inflammatory macrophages and reduced proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha). BARD reduced the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, suggesting an antioxidative stress effect. BARD upregulates energy expenditure proteins, judged by the increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) proteins. Overall, BARD induces preventive effect in HFD mice through regulation of mesenteric adipose tissue.

  5. Follow-up of renal and mesenteric artery revascularization with duplex ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, David C.; Houston, Gordon T.M.; Anderson, Caroline; Jameson, Margot; Popatia, Shelley

    1996-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the long-term anatomic results of renal revascularization procedures using duplex ultrasonography. Design A case series. Setting A university-affiliated hospital. Patients Twenty-five patients who had undergone renal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) (18 arteries), renal bypass (10 arteries) and mesenteric bypass (6 arteries). The mean follow-up was 22 months (range from 3 to 48 months) for those who underwent renal PTA, 23 months (range from 1.5 to 70 months) for those who underwent renal bypass and 34 months (range from 8 to 144 months) for those who underwent mesenteric bypass. Main Outcome Measures Patency rates for the three procedures as assessed by duplex ultrasonography. Results Duplex ultrasonography demonstrated patency without stenosis after renal and mesenteric artery revascularization in 14 arteries subjected to renal PTA, 9 arteries subjected to renal bypass and 6 arteries subjected to mesenteric bypass. Three arteries that had renal PTA had recurrent vessel stenosis and one had occlusion. One artery that had renal bypass showed occlusion. Conclusions Renal PTA, renal bypass and mesenteric bypass are durable procedures at 2 years of follow-up, and duplex ultrasonography is a valuable method for assessing the patency of arteries after renal and mesenteric revascularization. PMID:8599785

  6. Use of intraoperative mesenteric portovenography in congenital portosystemic shunt surgery.

    PubMed

    White, Robert N; Macdonald, Nicholas J; Burton, Carolyn A

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective study of the use of intraoperative mesenteric portovenography (IOMP) in the surgical management of congenital portosystemic shunts in 100 dogs and cats was performed. Each portovenogram was scored using a subjective visual analogue scale (VAS) and was assessed for the presence of portal atresia or hypoplasia. VAS scores and portal hypoplasia assessments were obtained for portovenogram images obtained for each animal both before shunt manipulation (preligation) and following the temporary, complete ligation of the vessel (postligation). In each patient, surgical records were reviewed to ascertain the degree of shunt attenuation that was achieved at surgery. Hepatic portal vasculature was significantly different on postligation compared with preligation IOMP. Sixty-two percent of animals had apparent portal hypoplasia or atresia on their preligation IOMP. The majority of these (81%) had an improvement in portal vasculature on postligation IOMP. It was concluded that both preligation and postligation IOMP provided valuable information regarding the morphology of congenital portosystemic shunts. An accurate assessment of an animal's portal vasculature could only be made following the interpretation of a postligation portovenogram, and these findings significantly influenced the surgical management of the patient. Although individuals with high postligation VAS scores were more likely to achieve full shunt attenuation at surgery, there was no quantifiable relationship between IOMP findings and the degree of shunt attenuation achieved.

  7. The Significance of the Angle between Superior Mesenteric Artery and Aorta in Spontaneous Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongyin; Yi, Jie; Xu, Huanming; Guo, Wei; Wang, Lijun; Chen, Duanduan; Xiong, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the significance of the angle between superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and distal aorta in spontaneous isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection (SISMAD) by clinical and biomechanical analyses. Thirty-seven patients with SISMAD (1 asymptomatic) and 148 controls (1:4 matched for age [mean 50.2 years], gender [92% male], and body mass index, and being ruled out for arterial disease) underwent aortic computed tomography angiography. SMA-distal aorta angle, measured on sagittal plane, was compared along with baseline characteristics (body mass index, smoking history, and comorbidities) between groups, and assessed as tool to evaluate SISMAD risk after stratification into 4 angle-interval categories. Flow analysis and fluid-structure interaction study were conducted based on patient-specific models with ultrasound-measured boundary conditions to further reveal the flow pattern and loading distribution in the 4 angle-interval categories. SISMAD patients versus controls had larger mean SMA-distal aorta angle (73 ± 19.8° vs. 50 ± 18.81°, P < 0.001), and more frequently smoking history (62% vs. 40%, P = 0.02) and hypertension (59% vs. 34%, P < 0.001), all multivariate predictors of no SISMAD (odds ratio 0.946 [95% confidence interval 0.927-0.966]; 0.415 [0.198-0.87]; and 0.252 [0.117-0.544], respectively). Odds ratio for SISMAD increased with increasing SMA-distal aorta angle (1, 10, 57, and 73 for <50°, 50-69°, 70-90°, and >90°, respectively; P < 0.05 for >70°). In silico study confirmed that larger angle is associated with higher stress in the arterial wall and higher oscillatory shear index in the vessel lumen at the SMA superior convex, where dissection commonly occurs. Besides smoking history and hypertension, SISMAD was positively associated with a morphological parameter, the SMA-distal aorta angle. This might be due to the greater wall stress and oscillatory stress index in the arterial convex with a

  8. Penile sclerosing lipogranulomas and disfigurement from use of "1Super Extenze" among Laotian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Manny, Ted; Pettus, Joseph; Hemal, Ashok; Marks, Malcolm; Mirzazadeh, Majid

    2011-12-01

    Subcutaneous penile injection of various oils for penile augmentation has been described among men in Laos. We have now treated three Laotian immigrants with penile disfigurement secondary to sclerosing lipogranulomas, also known as paraffinoma, induced by injection of a mineral oil compound marketed as "1Super Extenze," which they purchased in the United States. This series describes the clinical course and management of complications associated with the use of "1Super Extenze" in three Laotian men. Surgeons excised all grossly affected tissue and performed reconstruction using skin grafting, Z-plasty, and tissue advancement, respectively. Tissue from the penile shaft of each patient and a local lymph node in one patient was examined microscopically. Mass spectroscopy was performed on an aliquot of "1Super Extenze." Urinary function, sexual function, and cosmesis of the three reported cases, chemical composition of "1Super Extenze," and microscopic analysis of penile and regional lymphatic tissue. Short-term cosmetic and functional outcomes were acceptable after surgical intervention. Histologic findings consistent with sclerosing lipogranulomas were seen in specimens from affected subcutaneous and lymphatic tissue. "1Super Extenze" proved to be composed of mineral oil with tocopherol acetate (vitamin E). Injection of "1Super Extenze" into the penile shaft results in sclerosing lipogranulomas, which can cause severe sexual and urinary complications. Surgical resection of all grossly involved tissue with appropriate reconstruction can mitigate these problems. This series supports previous recommendations in the literature that men should avoid the use of non-medical foreign bodies and fillers as means of penile augmentation. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Autoimmune hepatitis/sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome in childhood: a 16-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gregorio, G V; Portmann, B; Karani, J; Harrison, P; Donaldson, P T; Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2001-03-01

    To investigate whether sclerosing cholangitis with an autoimmune serology characteristic of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and AIH are distinct entities, we studied 55 consecutive children with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of liver disease and circulating antinuclear (ANA), anti-smooth muscle (SMA), and/or liver-kidney-microsomal type 1 (LKM1) autoantibodies. They underwent liver biopsy, direct cholangiography, sigmoidoscopy, and rectal biopsy at presentation. Twenty-eight were diagnosed as AIH in the absence and 27 autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC) in the presence of radiological features of cholangiopathy. Twenty-six ASC and 20 AIH had ANA and/or SMA; 1 ASC and 8 AIH LKM1 autoantibody. Similarities between the 2 conditions included most clinical and biochemical parameters and a lower frequency of HLA DR4. Inflammatory bowel disease and histological biliary changes were more common in ASC; coagulopathy, hypoalbuminemia, lymphocytic periportal hepatitis, and HLA DR3 were more common in AIH. Histological biliary changes were observed in 65% of ASC and 31% of AIH patients. Eighty-nine percent responded to immunosuppression. Follow-up liver biopsies from 17 ASC and 18 AIH patients had similarly reduced inflammatory activity and no progression to cirrhosis. Sixteen follow-up cholangiograms from AIH patients and 9 from ASC patients were unchanged, while 8 ASC patients showed a progressive cholangiopathy. One child with AIH and ulcerative colitis developed sclerosing cholangitis 8 years after presentation. At 2 to 16 years (median, 7 years) from presentation, all patients are alive, including 4 ASC patients who underwent liver transplantation. In conclusion, ASC and AIH are similarly prevalent in childhood; cholangiography is often needed to distinguish between these 2 entities, which are likely to lie within the same disease process.

  10. Involvement of herbal medicine as a cause of mesenteric phlebosclerosis: results from a large-scale nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Seiji; Kobayashi, Taku; Tomioka, Hideo; Ohtsu, Kensei; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2017-03-01

    Mesenteric phlebosclerosis (MP) is a rare disease characterized by venous calcification extending from the colonic wall to the mesentery, with chronic ischemic changes from venous return impairment in the intestine. It is an idiopathic disease, but increasing attention has been paid to the potential involvement of herbal medicine, or Kampo, in its etiology. Until now, there were scattered case reports, but no large-scale studies have been conducted to unravel the clinical characteristics and etiology of the disease. A nationwide survey was conducted using questionnaires to assess possible etiology (particularly the involvement of herbal medicine), clinical manifestations, disease course, and treatment of MP. Data from 222 patients were collected. Among the 169 patients (76.1 %), whose history of herbal medicine was obtained, 147 (87.0 %) used herbal medicines. The use of herbal medicines containing sanshishi (gardenia fruit, Gardenia jasminoides Ellis) was reported in 119 out of 147 patients (81.0 %). Therefore, the use of herbal medicine containing sanshishi was confirmed in 70.4 % of 169 patients whose history of herbal medicine was obtained. The duration of sanshishi use ranged from 3 to 51 years (mean 13.6 years). Patients who discontinued sanshishi showed a better outcome compared with those who continued it. The use of herbal medicine containing sanshishi is associated with the etiology of MP. Although it may not be the causative factor, it is necessary for gastroenterologists to be aware of the potential risk of herbal medicine containing sanshishi for the development of MP.

  11. Intestinal Volvulus in Idiopathic Steatorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Warner, H. A.; Kinnear, D. G.; Cameron, D. G.

    1963-01-01

    Volvulus of the intestine has recently been observed in three patients with idiopathic steatorrhea in relapse. Two patients gave a history of intermittent abdominal pain, distension and obstipation. Radiographic studies during these attacks revealed obstruction at the level of the sigmoid colon. Reduction under proctoscopic control was achieved in one instance, spontaneous resolution occurring in the other. The third patient presented as a surgical emergency and underwent operative reduction of a small intestinal volvulus. Persistence of diarrhea and weight loss postoperatively led to further investigation and a diagnosis of idiopathic steatorrhea. In all cases, treatment resulted in clinical remission with a coincident disappearance of obstructive intestinal symptoms. The pathogenesis of volvulus in sprue is poorly understood. Atonicity and dilatation of the bowel and stretching of the mesentery likely represent important factors. The symptoms of recurrent abdominal pain and distension in idiopathic steatorrhea necessitate an increased awareness of intestinal volvulus as a complication of this disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Figs. 4 and 5Fig. 6 PMID:13998948

  12. [Physical therapy for idiopathic scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Steffan, K

    2015-11-01

    The objective is the description and summary of the current state of idiopathic scoliosis treatment with physical therapy based on new scientific knowledge and concluded from more than 15 years of experience as a leading physician in two well-known clinics specializing in the conservative treatment of scoliosis. Based on current scientific publications on physical therapy in scoliosis treatment and resulting from the considerable personal experience gained working with conservative treatment and consulting scoliosis patients (as inpatients and outpatients), the current methods of physical therapy have been compared and evaluated. Physical therapy according to Schroth and Vojta therapy are at present the most common and effective methods in the physical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. These methods can be applied during inpatient or outpatient treatment or intensified in the practice of specialized therapists. As there are only a few scientific studies on this subject, the author's findings are based mainly on his own experiences of the conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. Athough these experiences are the results of over 15 years of working in the field of therapy, and the Schroth method in combination with corrective bracing presents highly promising results, it would nevertheless be desirable to conduct detailed scientific studies to verify the effectiveness of conservative treatment.

  13. Synchronous occurrence of breast cancer and pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma: management and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Seretis, Charalampos; Nakos, Georgios; Kantounakis, Ioannis; Stoumpos, Charalampos; Spiliopoulos, Kyriakos

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH) is a rare tumor accounting for 0.2-1% of all primary lung tumors. Simultaneous occurrence of PSH with breast cancer has very rarely been reported in the literature. We describe here a case of simultaneous occurrence of PSH with breast cancer. A pathological diagnosis of PSH was confirmed by computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy. Due to the patient's poor performance status and the benign nature of PSH, surgical excision was not considered and the patient was managed conservatively with regular follow-up. Although surgical excision is the preferred treatment for PSH, conservative management may be a reasonable option in carefully selected patients.

  14. A new sclerosant therapy for testicular hydrocele with aspiration and injection of OK-432.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Hibi, H; Miyake, K

    1994-01-01

    Twenty patients with testicular hydrocele were treated with a new sclerosing therapy consisting of intrascrotal injection of OK-432 (group A Streptococcus pyogenes of human origin). The median observation period after treatment was 6 months (range 2-13 months). Eighteen patients required only one treatment. Two patients had recurrences and received repeat injection. There have been no serious side effects except for fever of 2-3 days' duration and local inflammatory reaction. Sclerotherapy with OK-432 is an efficient and easy method which can be recommended as a primary treatment for hydrocele.

  15. Genome-wide association analysis in primary sclerosing cholangitis identifies two non-HLA susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Melum, Espen; Franke, Andre; Schramm, Christoph; Weismüller, Tobias J; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils; Offner, Felix A; Juran, Brian D; Laerdahl, Jon K; Labi, Verena; Björnsson, Einar; Weersma, Rinse K; Henckaerts, Liesbet; Teufel, Andreas; Rust, Christian; Ellinghaus, Eva; Balschun, Tobias; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Ellinghaus, David; Bergquist, Annika; Sauer, Peter; Ryu, Euijung; Hov, Johannes Roksund; Wedemeyer, Jochen; Lindkvist, Björn; Wittig, Michael; Porte, Robert J; Holm, Kristian; Gieger, Christian; Wichmann, H-Erich; Stokkers, Pieter; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y; Runz, Heiko; Stiehl, Adolf; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sterneck, Martina; Vermeire, Severine; Beuers, Ulrich; Villunger, Andreas; Schrumpf, Erik; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Manns, Michael P; Schreiber, Stefan; Karlsen, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic bile duct disease affecting 2.4–7.5% of individuals with inflammatory bowel disease. We performed a genome-wide association analysis of 2,466,182 SNPs in 715 individuals with PSC and 2,962 controls, followed by replication in 1,025 PSC cases and 2,174 controls. We detected non-HLA associations at rs3197999 in MST1 and rs6720394 near BCL2L11 (combined P = 1.1 × 10−16 and P = 4.1 × 10−8, respectively). PMID:21151127

  16. Psychosocial reactions in the spouses of patients suffering polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Hakola, H P

    1990-01-01

    Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLO-SL) is a rare hereditary disease affecting both brain and bones. Skeletal symptoms begin in early adulthood and neuropsychiatric symptoms at approximately age 30. Progressive dementia associated with an accentuated frontal lobe syndrome handicaps the patients. The author describes inadequate psychosocial reactions of the spouses of 21 Finnish PLO-SL patients. The reactions included rejection and divorce in 8 cases and rejection without divorce in 1 case. Jealousy, violence, and alcoholism were common in male spouses. The author suggests that some of the spouses' negative psychosocial reactions may be lessened if the family is informed early about the nature of the disorder.

  17. Gain of Function Mutations of PIK3CD as a Cause of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Heather N; Niemela, Julie; Hintermeyer, Mary K; Garofalo, Mary; Stoddard, Jennifer; Verbsky, James W; Rosenzweig, Sergio D; Routes, John M

    2015-01-01

    Gain of function (GOF) mutation in the p110δ catalytic subunit of the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PIK3CD) is the cause of a primary immunodeficiency (PID) characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections and lymphoproliferation. We describe a family of two adults and three children with GOF mutation in PIK3CD, all with recurrent sinopulmonary infections and varied infectious and non-infectious complications. The two adults have Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) without evidence of Cryptosporidium parvum infection and have required liver transplantation. PSC is a novel phenotype of GOF mutation in PIK3CD.

  18. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Presenting with Isolated Positive Psychotic and Catatonic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Arpit; Ranjan, Rajeev; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare slowly progressing neurological illness. Although patients with SSPE initially present with symptoms such as myoclonic jerks, cognitive decline, and personality/behavioral changes usually, rarely pure psychiatric symptoms (e.g., mania, psychosis, and catatonia) have also been reported during the initial course of the illness. We report an unusual case of an adolescent with SSPE presenting with prominent positive psychotic and catatonic symptoms with the absence of classical symptoms of SSPE in initial course of illness and further discussed the relevant literature. PMID:28852257

  19. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as rapidly progressive young-onset dementia.

    PubMed

    Chakor, Rahul Tryambak; Santosh, Nandanavana Subbareddy

    2013-07-01

    Onset of dementia before 65 years of age is termed as young-onset dementia (YOD). Very little literature exists regarding the clinical features and diagnoses of dementia in younger individuals. We present a case series of four patients of age 10 to 23 years with severe dementia within 18 months of clinical onset (rapidly progressive dementia). Three patients had generalised periodic complexes typical of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) on electroencephalogram (EEG). All patients had elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG measles antibodies. Our case series highlights that SSPE is an important cause of rapidly progressive YOD in developing countries like India.

  20. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Presenting with Isolated Positive Psychotic and Catatonic Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Arpit; Ranjan, Rajeev; Sagar, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare slowly progressing neurological illness. Although patients with SSPE initially present with symptoms such as myoclonic jerks, cognitive decline, and personality/behavioral changes usually, rarely pure psychiatric symptoms (e.g., mania, psychosis, and catatonia) have also been reported during the initial course of the illness. We report an unusual case of an adolescent with SSPE presenting with prominent positive psychotic and catatonic symptoms with the absence of classical symptoms of SSPE in initial course of illness and further discussed the relevant literature.

  1. Indication of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability in adult-onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE).

    PubMed

    Schreurs, Annabel; Stålberg, Erik V; Punga, Anna Rostedt

    2008-04-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by a persistent infection of immune-resistant measles virus. Diagnostic hallmarks include widespread cortical dysfunction on EEG, myoclonus, white matter abnormalities on neuroradiological examination and the presence of IgG anti-measles antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid. We present the first case of SSPE with signs of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, observed as extra discharges following the compound motor action potential at motor nerve stimulation. In addition we demonstrate the importance of SSPE in the differential diagnosis of adult patients with psychiatric and neurological symptoms.

  2. Use of a sclerosing agent (1% polidocanol) to treat an orbital mucocele in a dog.

    PubMed

    Stuckey, Jane Ashley; Miller, William W; Almond, Gregory T

    2012-05-01

    A case of a salivary gland mucocele in a dog causing nonpainful exopthalmos with dorsolateral deviation of the globe and protrusion of the third eyelid. Diagnosis was made via ultrasound and confirmed with computed tomography. Aspiration of the cystic material along with injection of a sclerosing agent, 1% polidocanol (Aethoxysklerol), was used to destroy the mucocele. Follow-up monthly examination post injection confirmed resolution of clinical signs to date, namely abnormal globe position, with no complications observed. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. [Clinical research progress of mesenteric internal hernia after Roux-en-Y reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhengrong; Guo, Wenjun

    2017-03-25

    Postoperative internal hernia is a rare clinical complication which often occurs after digestive tract reconstruction. Roux-en-Y anastomosis is a common type of digestive tract reconstruction. Internal hernia after Roux-en-Y reconstruction, which occurs mainly in the mesenteric defect caused by incomplete closure of mesenteric gaps in the process of digestive tract reconstruction, is systematically called, in our research, as mesenteric internal hernia after Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Such internal hernia can be divided, according to the different structures of mesentric defect, into 3 types: the type of mesenteric defect at the jejunojejunostomy (J type), the type of Petersen's defect (P type), and the type of mesenteric defect in the transverse mesocolon (M type). Because of huge differences in the number of cases and follow-up time among existing research reports, the morbidity of internal hernia after LRYGB fluctuates wildly between 0.2% and 9.0%. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of mesenteric internal hernia after Roux- en-Y reconstruction may result in disastrous consequences such as intestinal necrosis. Clinical manifestations of internal hernia vary from person to person: some, in mild cases, may have no symptoms at all while others in severe cases may experience acute intestinal obstruction. Despite the difference, one common manifestation of internal hernia is abdominal pain. Surgical treatment should be recommended for those diagnosed as internal hernia. A safer and more feasible way to conduct the manual reduction of the incarcerated hernia is to start from the distal normal empty bowel and trace back to the hernia ring mouth, enabling a faster identification of hernia ring and its track. The prevention of mesenteric internal hernia after Roux-en-Y reconstruction is related to the initial surgical approach and the technique of mesenteric closure. Significant controversy remains on whether or not the mesenteric defect should be closed in laparoscopic Roux

  4. 2'-Hydroxyflavanone ameliorates mesenteric angiogenesis and portal-systemic collaterals in rats with liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hsin, I-Fang; Lee, Jing-Yi; Huo, Teh-Ia; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Huang, Hui-Chun; Hsu, Shao-Jung; Wang, Sun-Sang; Ho, Hsin-Ling; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Portal-systemic collaterals lead to dreadful consequences in patients with cirrhosis. Angiogenesis participates in the development of liver fibrosis, hyperdynamic circulation, and portal-systemic collaterals. 2'-Hydroxyflavanone (2'-HF), one of the citrus fruits flavonoids, is known to have antiangiogenesis effect without adverse response. However, the relevant effects in liver fibrosis have not been surveyed. Male Wistar rats received thioacetamide (TAA, 100 mg/kg tiw, i.p.) for 6 weeks to induce liver fibrosis. On the 29th to 42nd day, rats randomly received 2'-HF (100 mg/kg, qod, i.p.) or vehicle (corn oil). On the 43rd day, after hemodynamic measurements, the followings were surveyed: (i) severity of collaterals; (ii) mesenteric angiogenesis; (iii) mesenteric proangiogenic factors protein expressions; (iv) Mesenteric vascular endothelial cells apoptosis; and (v) Mesenteric expressions of proteins regulating apoptosis. Compared with the vehicle group, 2'-HF did not significantly change body weight, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and portal pressure in TAA rats. 2'-HF significantly alleviated the severity of collaterals, but the mesenteric phospho-ERK, ERK, phospho-Akt, Akt, COX1, COX2, VEGF, and VEGFR-2 protein expressions were not altered. The apoptotic index of 2'-HF group was significantly higher and the mesenteric protein expressions of pro-apoptotic factors, NFkB 50, NFkB 65, Bax, phospho-p53, 17 kD cleaved caspase 3, and 17 kD casepase 3 were up-regulated. 2'-HF does not influence the hemodynamics but alleviated the severity of collaterals in rats with liver fibrosis and early portal hypertension. This is, at least partly, attributed to enhanced apoptosis of mesenteric vascular endothelial cells. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Sclerotherapy of idiopathic hydroceles and epididymal cysts: a historical comparison trial of 5% phenol versus tetracycline.

    PubMed

    East, J M; DuQuesnay, D

    2007-12-01

    Operating time for idiopathic hydroceles and epididymal cysts is scarce as these conditions compete with an increasing caseload of more consequential surgical disease. Therapy is often relegated to repeated aspiration. Sclerotherapy appears to be effective in a majority of published trials, but comparative effectiveness, efficacy and safety of most agents, including phenol versus tetracycline, has not been established A deliberate strategy of re-treatment until cure is not universally practised, with surgery still being offered after single-treatment failures. Two trials, the first consisting of 53 scrotal cysts treated with 5% phenol-in-water and the second, 42 cysts treated with tetracycline, are compared for effectiveness, efficacy and safety of sclerotherapy per se and of re-treatment. Intention-to-treat analysis yields similar cure rates (no re-accumulation three months after last injection) for phenol and tetracycline (83% and 81% respectively, p = 0.8). Per-protocol analysis also yields similar cure rates (100% and 97% respectively, p = 0.26) and mean number of injections to cure (1.34 and 1.12 respectively, p = 0.069), with range 1-4 and 1-3 respectively. Severe pain following tetracycline injection required administration of pre-injection cord block. Other complications occurred equally (25% and 25.7% respectively, p = 0.94) and were trivial except for one case of chronic haematocele treated by orchiectomy in the tetracycline group. Phenol (5%) and tetracycline are equally efficacious sclerosants for idiopathic scrotal cysts, achieving almost 100% cure with re-treatment and matching the efficacy of surgery. Concern about post-treatment fertility applies equally to surgery and demands informed consent for both modalities.

  6. Treatment of symptomatic isolated dissection of superior mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhihui; Fu, Weiguo; Chen, Bin; Guo, Daqiao; Xu, Xin; Wang, Yuqi

    2013-02-01

    To present the short- to midterm outcomes after management of 14 patients with symptomatic isolated dissection of superior mesenteric artery (SIDSMA) and propose a preliminary treatment algorithm. SIDSMA is a rare but potentially fatal entity. However, most of these reports were isolated case reports, and a consensus treatment protocol remains lacking so far. It would be meaningful to propose a reasonable treatment algorithm for it. Patients with SIDSMA who were treated in our center between July 2007 and June 2011 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Based upon the abdominal pain and signs, the clinical manifestations have been retrospectively classified into grade I (peritonitis absent) and grade II (peritonitis present). Medical treatment mainly included anticoagulation, antiplatelet, and bowel rest. Endovascular stent placement and surgical fenestration with exploratory laparotomy have been selected according to the grade classification. Computed tomographic angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, or duplex scans have been used for diagnosis and follow-up. Fourteen consecutive patients with SIDSMA were collected; among them, 13 cases belonged to grade I and one to grade II. The mean duration from the onset to the admission was 12 ± 12 days (range, 0.5-45 days). The mean distance from the primary tear to the ostium of superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was 26 ± 4 mm (range, 15-32 mm). Medical treatment was given for 13 patients of grade I for the first 3 to 5 days after admission, and the abdominal pain remarkably or completely resolved in four patients who received continued medical treatment, whereas the other unresolved nine patients were converted to endovascular stent placement that succeeded in four and failed in five patients. Since these five cases were free from peritoneal signs, medical treatment was given again instead of an immediate surgical intervention, and ultimately achieved complete alleviation of abdominal pain within the

  7. Early endovascular treatment of superior mesenteric occlusion secondary to thromboemboli.

    PubMed

    Jia, Z; Jiang, G; Tian, F; Zhao, J; Li, S; Wang, K; Wang, Y; Jiang, L; Wang, W

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate our early experience with endovascular revascularization in patients with acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). A retrospective review was conducted of all patients who underwent endovascular revascularization for acute thromboembolic SMA occlusion from May 2005 to May 2012. Endovascular revascularization was performed using aspiration, intra-arterial thrombolysis, and adjunctive stent-placement techniques. Laparotomy was performed if the patient developed clinical signs of advanced bowel ischemia after endovascular procedure. Twenty-one patients underwent endovascular revascularization for acute thromboembolic SMA occlusion. All presented with acute-onset abdominal pain. Three patients had rebound tenderness before the procedure. Computed tomography angiography revealed complete occlusion in seven cases and incomplete occlusion in 14 cases, with no evidence of free gas or bowel necrosis. The median duration from onset of symptoms to revascularization was 8.7 ± 4.1 hours (range, 2-18 hours). Completely successful endovascular revascularization occurred in six cases (aspiration alone, 3 cases; combined aspiration and urokinase, 3 cases); partial success was achieved in 15 cases (aspiration alone, 4 cases; combined aspiration and urokinase, 10 cases; and combined aspiration, urokinase, and stent placement, 1 case). Laparotomy was required in five patients, all of whom had SMA main trunk complete occlusion and required small bowel resection. The 30-day mortality for all patients was 9.5%. During a median follow-up of 26 months, 15 patients remained asymptomatic, three patients reported occasional abdominal pain, and one patient had temporary short-bowel syndrome. Percutaneous revascularization is a promising alternative to surgery for acute SMA occlusion in selected patients who have no signs of advanced bowel ischemia. Early diagnosis followed by prompt endovascular intervention with close postprocedural monitoring is

  8. Microbiological analysis of bile and its impact in critically ill patients with secondary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Voigtländer, Torsten; Leuchs, Ensieh; Vonberg, Ralf-Peter; Solbach, Philipp; Manns, Michael P; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Lankisch, Tim O

    2015-05-01

    Secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients (SSC-CIP) is an emerging disease entity with unfavourable outcome. Our aim was to analyze the microbial spectrum in bile of patients with SSC-CIP and to evaluate the potential impact on the empiric antibiotic treatment in these patients. 169 patients (72 patients with SSC-CIP and 97 patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)) were included in a prospective observational study between 2010 and 2013. Bile was obtained during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) and microbiologically analyzed. Patients with SSC displayed a significantly different microbiological profile in bile. Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and non-albicans species of Candida were more frequent in SSC compared to patients with PSC (p < 0.05). Patients with SSC showed a higher incidence of drug or multi-drug resistant organisms in bile (p = 0.001). The antimicrobial therapy was adjusted in 64% of patients due to resistance or presence of microorganisms not covered by the initial therapy regimen. Patients with SSC-CIP have a distinct microbial profile in bile. Difficult to treat organisms are frequent and an ERC with bile fluid collection for microbiological analysis should be considered in case of insufficient antimicrobial treatment. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The behavior pattern of parents of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis concerning alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Işıkay, Sedat

    2017-01-01

    Işıkay S. The behavior pattern of parents of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis concerning alternative medicine. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 288-294. The aim of the study was to examine the attitude of the parents of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) patients regarding alternative treatment methods and compare with those of the parents of epilepsy patients. The study comprised 39 SSPE and 53 epilepsy patients who were under follow-up in Gaziantep Children`s Hospital. A questionnaire designed to inquire about the knowledge (13 questions) and behavior (11 questions) of parents about alternative medicine methods was given to the caregiver of all patients. The ratio of parents using alternative medicine methods was 29/39 (74.4%) in the SSPE group and 8/53 (15.1%) in the epilepsy group. Less than half of the parents of SSPE patients reported talking about it with their doctors. These results show parents facing a chronic debilitating disease frequently seek benefit from alternative methods. Most define this treatment as complementary to the established medical treatment. However, potential and unrecognized adverse events of alternative methods and their interference with regular medical treatment can be of importance, especially because treating physicians are seldom informed about concurrent use.

  10. Pruritus is associated with severely impaired quality of life in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Gotthardt, Daniel Nils; Rupp, Christian; Bruhin, Miriam; Schellberg, Dieter; Weiss, Karl H; Stefan, Reinhard; Donnerstag, Nadine; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Löwe, Bernd; Juenger, Jana; Sauer, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Quality of life, fundamental to the individual patient, has shown a lack of correlation with severity in research on several diseases. Thus, we aimed to identify factors associated with quality of life in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. The Short Form Health Survey and the Patient Health Questionnaire were used to assess quality of life and depression. Complete data sets of 113 patients were analyzed for correlation with sex, age, presence of concomitant inflammatory bowel disease and dominant stenosis, frequency of pruritus, and Mayo Risk Score. Physical functioning decreased with age (P<0.001). Further, women experienced more prominent role limitations because of physical (P<0.03) and emotional (P<0.01) problems. Although patients' quality of life and depression scores were only slightly lower than normal, more frequent pruritus was associated with a considerable reduction in quality of life in terms of physical and social functioning, general and mental health, bodily pain, vitality, and roles (because of physical problems) (P<0.01). It did not differ significantly according to the Mayo Risk Score or the presence of dominant stenoses. Depression scores were only significantly affected in patients with more frequent pruritus. Pruritus severely affects quality of life in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and is associated with depression to varying extents, although the most commonly used parameters of disease severity do not correspond to quality of life in these patients. These findings need to be considered with respect to treatment outcomes and indications for liver transplantation.

  11. Detergent sclerosants at sub-lytic concentrations induce endothelial cell apoptosis through a caspase dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Cooley-Andrade, Osvaldo; Cheung, Kelvin; Chew, An-Ning; Connor, David Ewan; Parsi, Kurosh

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the apoptotic effects of detergent sclerosants sodium tetradecylsulphate (STS) and polidocanol (POL) on endothelial cells at sub-lytic concentrations. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated and labelled with antibodies to assess for apoptosis and examined with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Isolated HUVECs viability was assessed using propidium iodide staining. Early apoptosis was determined by increased phosphatidylserine exposure by lactadherin binding. Caspase 3, 8, 9 and Bax activation as well as inhibitory assays with Pan Caspase (Z-VAD-FMK) and Bax (BI-6C9) were assessed to identify apoptotic pathways. Porimin activation was used to assess cell membrane permeability. Cell lysis reached almost 100 % with STS at 0.3 % and with POL at 0.6 %. Apoptosis was seen with both STS and POL at concentrations ranging from 0.075 to 0.15 %. PS exposure increased with both STS and POL and exhibited a dose-dependent trend. Active Caspase 3, 8 and 9 but not Bax were increased in HUVECs stimulated with low concentrations of both STS and POL. Inhibitory assays demonstrated Caspase 3, 8, 9 inhibition at low concentrations (0.075 to 0.6 %) with both STS and POL. Both agents increased the activation of porimin at all concentrations. Both sclerosants induced endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis at sub-lytic concentrations through a caspase-dependant pathway. Both agents induced EC oncosis.

  12. [Management of mesenteric ischemia in the era of intestinal stroke centers: The gut and lifesaving strategy].

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, A; Corcos, O

    2017-09-01

    Mesenteric ischemia is a gut and life-threatening, medical and surgical, digestive and vascular emergency. Mesenteric ischemia is the result of an arterial or venous occlusion, a vasospasm secondary to low-flow states in intensive care patients, aortic clamping during vascular surgery or intestinal transplantation. Progression towards mesenteric infarction and its complications is unpredictable and correlates with high rates of mortality or a high risk of short bowel syndrome in case of survival. Thus, mesenteric ischemia should be diagnosed and treated at an early stage, when gut injury is still reversible. Diagnostic workup lacks sensitive and specific clinical and biological marker. Consequently, diagnosis and effective therapy can be achieved by a high clinical suspicion and a specific multimodal management: the gut and lifesaving strategy. Based on the model of ischemic stroke centers, the need for a multidisciplinary and expert 24/24 emergency care has led, in 2016, to the inauguration of the first Intestinal Stroke Center (Structure d'urgences vasculaires intestinales [SURVI]) in France. This review highlights the pathophysiological features of chronic and acute mesenteric ischemia, as well as the diagnosis workup and the therapeutic management developed in this Intestinal Stroke Center. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Arterial Embolization in the Management of Mesenteric Bleeding Secondary to Blunt Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Ghelfi, Julien; Frandon, Julien; Barbois, Sandrine; Vendrell, Anne; Rodiere, Mathieu; Sengel, Christian; Bricault, Ivan; Arvieux, Catherine; Ferretti, Gilbert; Thony, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Mesenteric bleeding is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of blunt abdominal trauma. It can induce active hemorrhage and a compressive hematoma leading to bowel ischemia. Emergency laparotomy remains the gold standard treatment. We aimed to study the effectiveness and complications of embolization in patients with post-traumatic mesenteric bleeding. The medical records of 7 consecutive patients with active mesenteric bleeding treated by embolization in a level-one trauma center from 2007 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients presented with active mesenteric bleeding on CT scans without major signs of intestinal ischemia. We focused on technical success, clinical success, and the complications of embolization. Six endovascular procedures were successful in controlling hemorrhage but 1 patient had surgery to stop associated arterial and venous bleeding. One patient suffered from bowel ischemia, a major complication of embolization, which was confirmed by surgery. No acute renal failure was noted after angiography. For 1 patient we performed combined management as the endovascular approach allowed an easier surgical exploration. In mesenteric trauma with active bleeding, embolization is a valuable alternative to surgery and should be considered, taking into account the risk of bowel ischemia.

  14. Systematic review: the impact of exercise on mesenteric blood flow and its implication for preoperative rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Knight, K A; Moug, S J; West, M A

    2017-03-01

    Exercise in the preoperative period, or prehabilitation, continues to evolve as an important tool in optimising patients awaiting major intra-abdominal surgery. It has been shown to reduce rates of post-operative morbidity and length of hospital stay. The mechanism by which this is achieved remains poorly understood. Adaptations in mesenteric flow in response to exercise may play a role in improving post-operative recovery by reducing rates of ileus and anastomotic leak. To systematically review the existing literature to clarify the impact of exercise on mesenteric arterial blood flow using Doppler ultrasound. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library were systematically searched to identify clinical trials using Doppler ultrasound to investigate the effect of exercise on flow through the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Data were extracted including participant characteristics, frequency, intensity, timing and type of exercise and the effect on SMA flow. The quality of each study was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Sixteen studies, comprising 305 participants in total, were included. Methodological quality was generally poor. Healthy volunteers were used in twelve studies. SMA flow was found to be reduced in response to exercise in twelve studies, increased in one and unchanged in two studies. Clinical heterogeneity precluded a meta-analysis. The weight of evidence suggests that superior mesenteric arterial flow is reduced immediately following exercise. Differences in frequency, intensity, timing and type of exercise make a consensus difficult. Further studies are warranted to provide a definitive understanding of the impact of exercise on mesenteric flow.

  15. Stent placement with the monorail technique for treatment of mesenteric artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Philipp J; Schaefer, Fritz K W; Hinrichsen, Holger; Jahnke, Thomas; Charalambous, Nikolas; Heller, Martin; Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan

    2006-04-01

    To analyze the immediate and midterm success of stenting of mesenteric arteries by a monorail technique in patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia. In this prospective case series, 19 patients (11 male, 8 female; mean age, 62.9 +/- 10.4 y; range, 36-82 y) with 23 symptomatic stenoses of mesenteric arteries were treated with stent placement by a monorail technique in a radiologic intervention center over a period of 4.5 years. Clinical examinations and duplex sonography were used to evaluate the stents' patency and clinical success. Kaplan-Meier graphs were calculated to analyze the patency and freedom-from-symptom rate. Initial technical success rate was 22/23 (96%). Mean follow-up was 17 months (range, 1-58 mo). Primary patency and primary clinical success rates were 82% and 78%, respectively. According to Kaplan-Meier tables, the patency rates were 96%, 87%, 76%, and 61% at 0, 1, 15, and 24 months, respectively, and the freedom-from-symptom rates were 95%, 90%, 72%, and 54% at 0, 1, 24, and 30 months, respectively. No peri-interventional complications occurred. Two patients died of cardiac failure in the hospital within 30 days after intervention; deaths were not related to the intervention. Stent placement by a monorail technique in mesenteric arteries is an effective and safe treatment for symptomatic stenoses in patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia after a mean follow-up of 17 months.

  16. Imaging of acute mesenteric ischemia using multidetector CT and CT angiography in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Rosow, David E; Sahani, Dushyant; Strobel, Oliver; Kalva, Sanjeeva; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Holalkere, Nagaraj S; Alsfasser, Guido; Saini, Sanjay; Lee, Susanna I; Mueller, Peter R; Fernández-del Castillo, Carlos; Warshaw, Andrew L; Thayer, Sarah P

    2005-12-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia, a frequently lethal disease, requires prompt diagnosis and intervention for favorable clinical outcomes. This goal remains elusive due, in part, to lack of a noninvasive and accurate imaging study. Traditional angiography is the diagnostic gold standard but is invasive and costly. Computed tomography (CT) is readily available and noninvasive but has shown variable success in diagnosing this disease. The faster scanning time of multidetector row CT (M.D.CT) greatly facilitates the use of CT angiography (CTA) in the clinical setting. We sought to determine whether M.D.CT-CTA could accurately demonstrate vascular anatomy and capture the earliest stages of mesenteric ischemia in a porcine model. Pigs underwent embolization of branches of the superior mesenteric artery, then imaging by M.D.CT-CTA with three-dimensional reconstruction protocols. After scanning, diseased bowel segments were surgically resected and pathologically examined. Multidetector row CT and CT angiography reliably defined normal and occluded mesenteric vessels in the pig. It detected early changes of ischemia including poor arterial enhancement and venous dilatation, which were seen in all ischemic animals. The radiographic findings--compared with pathologic diagnoses-- predicted ischemia, with a positive predictive value of 92%. These results indicate that M.D.CT-CTA holds great promise for the early detection necessary for successful treatment of acute mesenteric ischemia.

  17. Chronic atherosclerotic mesenteric ischemia that started to develop symptoms just after anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Goto, M; Matsuzaki, M; Fuchinoue, A; Urabe, N; Kawagoe, N; Takemoto, I; Tanaka, H; Watanabe, T; Miyazaki, T; Takeuchi, M; Honda, Y; Nakanishi, K; Urita, Y; Shimada, N; Nakajima, H; Sugimoto, M; Goto, T

    2012-05-01

    An 83-year-old woman was referred to our emergency department with acute urticaria and sudden shortness of breath approximately 30 min after taking rectal diclofenac potassium for lumbago. After treatment with adrenaline and corticosteroids, the patient became hemodynamically stable and left the hospital on the next day. She attended our hospital 1 week after the onset of anaphylaxis because of repeated postprandial epigastric pain. No abnormal lesions were found in endoscopy. Radiographic selective catheter angiography revealed chronic mesenteric ischemia caused by atherosclerosis and abundant collateral arteries between the celiac trunk, the superior mesenteric artery and the inferior mesenteric artery. Patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia usually present with a clinical syndrome characterized by painful abdominal cramps and colic occurring typically during the postprandial phase. Fear of eating resulted in malnutrition. She was prescribed proton pump inhibitor, digestants, anticholinergic agents, serine protease inhibitors, prokinetics, antiplatelet agents and transdermal nitroglycerin intermittently, but these had no beneficial effects. It was most probable that this patient with chronic atherosclerotic mesenteric ischemia was suffering from functional abdominal pain syndrome induced by anaphylaxis. Since psychiatric disorders were associated with alterations in the processing of visceral sensation, we facilitated the patient's understanding of functional abdominal pain syndrome with the psychologist. Postprandial abdominal pain gradually faded after administration of these drugs and the patient left the hospital. Developing a satisfactory patient-physician relationship was considered more effective for the management of persistent abdominal pain caused by complicated mechanisms.

  18. Arterial Embolization in the Management of Mesenteric Bleeding Secondary to Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Ghelfi, Julien, E-mail: JGhelfi@chu-grenoble.fr; Frandon, Julien, E-mail: JFrandon2@chu-grenoble.fr; Barbois, Sandrine, E-mail: SBarbois@chu-grenoble.fr

    IntroductionMesenteric bleeding is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of blunt abdominal trauma. It can induce active hemorrhage and a compressive hematoma leading to bowel ischemia. Emergency laparotomy remains the gold standard treatment. We aimed to study the effectiveness and complications of embolization in patients with post-traumatic mesenteric bleeding.Materials and MethodsThe medical records of 7 consecutive patients with active mesenteric bleeding treated by embolization in a level-one trauma center from 2007 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients presented with active mesenteric bleeding on CT scans without major signs of intestinal ischemia. We focused on technical success, clinical success, andmore » the complications of embolization.ResultsSix endovascular procedures were successful in controlling hemorrhage but 1 patient had surgery to stop associated arterial and venous bleeding. One patient suffered from bowel ischemia, a major complication of embolization, which was confirmed by surgery. No acute renal failure was noted after angiography. For 1 patient we performed combined management as the endovascular approach allowed an easier surgical exploration.ConclusionIn mesenteric trauma with active bleeding, embolization is a valuable alternative to surgery and should be considered, taking into account the risk of bowel ischemia.« less

  19. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: evolving concepts.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jay H; Moua, Teng; Daniels, Craig E; Hartman, Thomas E; Yi, Eunhee S; Utz, James P; Limper, Andrew H

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) occurs predominantly in middle-aged and older adults and accounts for 20% to 30% of interstitial lung diseases. It is usually progressive, resulting in respiratory failure and death. Diagnostic criteria for IPF have evolved over the years, and IPF is currently defined as a disease characterized by the histopathologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia occurring in the absence of an identifiable cause of lung injury. Understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF has shifted away from chronic inflammation and toward dysregulated fibroproliferative repair in response to alveolar epithelial injury. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is likely a heterogeneous disorder caused by various interactions between genetic components and environmental exposures. High-resolution computed tomography can be diagnostic in the presence of typical findings such as bilateral reticular opacities associated with traction bronchiectasis/bronchiolectasis in a predominantly basal and subpleural distribution, along with subpleural honeycombing. In other circumstances, a surgical lung biopsy may be needed. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute deteriorations (acute exacerbation). Although progress continues in unraveling the mechanisms of IPF, effective therapy has remained elusive. Thus, clinicians and patients need to reach informed decisions regarding management options including lung transplant. The findings in this review were based on a literature search of PubMed using the search terms idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and usual interstitial pneumonia, limited to human studies in the English language published from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2013, and supplemented by key references published before the year 2000. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome: Report of 24 cases].

    PubMed

    Khochtali, S; Zayani, M; Ksiaa, I; Ben Meriem, I; Zaouali, S; Jelliti, B; Khairallah, M

    2018-04-01

    Idiopathic orbital inflammatory syndrome (IOIS) is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology. The inflammation may affect all the structures within the orbit (anterior, diffuse, apical, myositic, dacryoadenitis) and corresponds to uniquely orbital inflammation without an identifiable local cause or systemic disease. The goal of this study is to describe the clinical and radiographic characteristics of IOIS and discuss the role of orbital biopsy in this condition. This is a retrospective review of the charts of 24 patients diagnosed with IOIS at Fattouma Bourguiba hospital, Monastir, Tunisia, from January 2007 to December 2015. This study included all patients with IOIS and a minimum follow-up of six months. All patients had a complete ophthalmological examination and orbital and head CT scan and/or MRI. A work-up was performed in all cases to rule out local causes and systemic disease. Only 11 patients underwent biopsy. The diagnosis of the clinical entity IOIS was made according to the Rootman criteria. Oral steroids were the first line therapy. A bolus of intravenous methylprednisolone was administered first in vision-threatening cases. Response to treatment was defined as disappearance of signs and symptoms of IOIS. Orbital pain was the most common symptom (62.5%), followed by proptosis and decreased vision (37.5% each). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was greater than 5/10 in 70.7% of patients. Lacrimal gland enlargement was observed in 3 patients. Oculomotor disorders were present in 70% of cases and 20.8% of patients had compressive optic neuropathy. Orbital imaging showed, in most cases, oculomotor muscle inflammation (87.5%) involving particularly the superior rectus muscle (54.2%) and inflammation of orbital fat (66.7%). Fifty percent had myositic inflammation. Biopsy was performed in 11 patients, showing nonspecific inflammation (n=10) and the sclerosing form (n=1). A total of 83.3% of patients received oral corticosteroids for a mean duration of

  1. A small intestine volvulus caused by strangulation of a mesenteric lipoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchi, Yoshihiko; Mashima, Hiroaki; Hori, Naoto; Takashima, Hirotoshi

    2017-03-13

    An emergency department encounters a variety of cases, including rare cases of the strangulation of a mesenteric lipoma by the greater omentum band. A 67-year-old Japanese man presented with nausea, vomiting, and upper abdominal pain. There were no abnormalities detected by routine blood tests other than a slight rise in his white cell count. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan of his abdomen revealed a dilated intestine, a small intestine volvulus, and a well-capsulated homogeneous mass. He was suspected of having a small intestine volvulus that was affected by a mesenteric lipoma; therefore, single-port laparoscopic surgery was performed. Laparoscopy revealed a small intestine volvulus secondary to the strangulation of a mesenteric lipoma. The band and tumor were removed. He had no postoperative complications and was discharged on postoperative day 6. Although this case was an emergency, it showed that single-port laparoscopic surgery can be a safe, useful, and efficacious procedure.

  2. Effects of exercise and excitement on mesenteric and renal dynamics in conscious, unrestrained baboons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatner, S. F.

    1978-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to measure arterial pressure and mesenteric and renal blood flows from nine unrestrained, conscious baboons during periods of rest, moderate exercise, and extreme excitement. A description of the experiments hardware is presented, including artificial depressants phenylcyclidine hydrochloride, 0.5-1.0 mg/kg, and pentobarbital sodium, 15 mg/kg, and an ultrasonic telemetry flow meter. Results showed rising heart rate and arterial pressure coupled with a reduction of mesenteric and renal flows as the level of exercise was increased. These findings are compared with mesenteric and renal flows somewhat above control level, but relatively stable heart rate and arterial pressure, postprandially. Attention is given to a quantitative analysis of the experimental results.

  3. Cranial Mesenteric Arterial Obstruction Due To Strongylus vulgaris Larvae in a Donkey (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Borji, Hassan; Moosavi, Zahra; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

    2014-09-01

    Arteritis due to Strongylus vulgaris is a well-known cause of colic in horses and donkeys. The current report describes a fatal incidence of arterial obstruction in cranial mesenteric artery caused by S. vulgaris infection in an adult donkey in which anthelmintic treatment was not regularly administered. Necropsy findings of the abdominal cavity revealed a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to larvae of S. vulgaris, causing severe colic. To the authors' knowledge, a complete cranial mesenteric arterial obstruction due to verminous arteritis has rarely been described in horses and donkeys. Based on recent reports of fatal arterial obstruction due to S. vulgaris infection in donkeys, it may be evident to consider acute colic caused by this pathogenic parasite a re-emerging disease in donkeys and horses.

  4. Laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication with duodenojejunostomy for the management of superior mesenteric artery syndrome with reflux symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chao; Hu, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Ji-Min; Zhang, Chao; Yan, Liang; Wang, Zhong-Gao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: The patient had symptoms of GERD and the reflux even caused the symptom of cough. Gaining weight is a risk factor for the treatment of reflux as it could exacerbated symptoms of reflux and the drug treatment is not effective. Surgical intervention becomes necessary when there is failure following conservative medical therapy or the patient. Patient concerns: The patient was not satisfied with the drug treatment. Diagnoses: Superior mesenteric artery syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease. Interventions: Laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication with duodenojejunostomy. Outcomes: The patient discharged from hospital 10 days after surgery without any postoperative complication. The patient achieved complete relief of symptoms and discontinuation of drug. Lessons subsections: Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome may manifest the symptoms of GERD such as heartburn, acid reflux and cough. It is necessary to complete examination to exclude superior mesenteric artery syndrome for these patients. Laparoscopic fundoplication with duodenojejunostomy provided an effective treatment for patients who failed drug treatment. PMID:28099334

  5. [Management of Acute Type A Dissection Complicated with Acute Mesenteric Ischemia].

    PubMed

    Abe, Tomonobu; Usui, Akihiko

    2017-07-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia as malperfusion syndrome associated with acute aortic dissection is a difficult situation. The incidence is approximately 3~4% in acute type A dissection. Traditionally, most of these patients underwent immediate simple central aortic repair expecting that mesenteric artery obstruction and intestinal ischemia would be resolved by simple central aortic repair. However, short term mortality has been reported very high in this strategy. With the aid of rapidly progressing imaging techniques and newer endovascular repair techniques, results seem to be improving in recent years. Newer management strategy include aggressive and patient specific revascularization to the mesenteric arteries, delayed central aortic repair, and meticulous intensive care. Diagnosis and management of this condition require high level of expertise. Cardiac surgeons, vascular surgeons, interventional radiologists, gastroenterologists, general surgeons, anesthesiologists, intensivists must corporate to save these patients' lives. Since this is a relatively rare condition, scientific evidence is insufficient to make robust recommendations. Further studies are warranted.

  6. Mesenteric vein thrombosis caused by secondary polycythaemia from AndroGel.

    PubMed

    Katz, Heather; Popov, Eugene; Bray, Natasha; Berman, Barry

    2014-10-21

    Mesenteric vein thrombosis is a rare but potentially lethal cause of abdominal pain. It is usually caused by prothrombotic states that can either be hereditary or acquired. Testosterone supplementation causes an acquired prothrombotic state by promoting erythropoeisis thus causing a secondary polycythaemia. We report a case of a 59-year-old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) stage III, who presented with abdominal pain. Evaluation revealed an elevated haemoglobin and haematocrit, a superior mesenteric vein thrombosis on CT and a negative Janus kinase 2 mutation. The patient is currently being treated with 6 months of anticoagulation with rivaroxiban. Although a well-known side effect of testosterone is thrombosis, the present case is used to document in the literature the first case of mesenteric vein thrombosis due to secondary polycythaemia from Androgel in the setting of COPD. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Mesenteric vein thrombosis caused by secondary polycythaemia from AndroGel

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Heather; Popov, Eugene; Bray, Natasha; Berman, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Mesenteric vein thrombosis is a rare but potentially lethal cause of abdominal pain. It is usually caused by prothrombotic states that can either be hereditary or acquired. Testosterone supplementation causes an acquired prothrombotic state by promoting erythropoeisis thus causing a secondary polycythaemia. We report a case of a 59-year-old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) stage III, who presented with abdominal pain. Evaluation revealed an elevated haemoglobin and haematocrit, a superior mesenteric vein thrombosis on CT and a negative Janus kinase 2 mutation. The patient is currently being treated with 6 months of anticoagulation with rivaroxiban. Although a well-known side effect of testosterone is thrombosis, the present case is used to document in the literature the first case of mesenteric vein thrombosis due to secondary polycythaemia from Androgel in the setting of COPD. PMID:25336553

  8. Relaxation of human isolated mesenteric arteries by vasopressin and desmopressin.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, M C; Vila, J M; Aldasoro, M; Medina, P; Flor, B; Lluch, S

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of vasopressin and deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP, desmopressin) were studied in artery rings (0.8-1 mm in external diameter) obtained from portions of human omentum during the course of abdominal operations (27 patients). 2. In arterial rings under resting tension, vasopressin produced concentration-dependent, endothelium-independent contractions with an EC50 of 0.59 +/- 0.12 nM. The V1 antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP (1 microM) and the mixed V1-V2 antagonist desGly-d(CH2)5D-Tyr(Et)ValAVP (0.01 microM) displaced the control curve to vasopressin to the right in a parallel manner without differences in the maximal responses. In the presence of indomethacin (1 microM) the contractile response to vasopressin was significantly increased (P < 0.01). 3. In precontracted arterial rings, previously treated with the V1 antagonist, d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP (1 microM), vasopressin produced endothelium-dependent relaxation. This relaxation was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) by indomethacin (1 microM) and unaffected by the V1-V2 receptor antagonist desGly-d(CH2)5D-Tyr(Et)ValAVP (1 microM) or by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 mM). 4. The selective V2 receptor agonist, DDAVP, caused endothelium-independent, concentration-dependent relaxations in precontracted arterial rings that were inhibited by the mixed V1-V2 receptor antagonist, but not by the V1 receptor antagonist or by pretreatment with indomethacin or L-NAME. 5. Results from this study suggest that vasopressin is primarily a constrictor of human mesenteric arteries by V1 receptor stimulation; vasopressin causes dilatation only during V1 receptor blockade. The relaxation appears to be mediated by the release of vasodilator prostaglandins from the endothelial cell layer and is independent of V2 receptor stimulation or release of nitric oxide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7834191

  9. Pharmacological interventions for primary sclerosing cholangitis: an attempted network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Saffioti, Francesca; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Hawkins, Neil; Toon, Clare D; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Davidson, Brian R; Thorburn, Douglas

    2017-03-28

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that is associated with both hepatobiliary and colorectal malignancies, which can result in liver cirrhosis and its complications. The optimal pharmacological treatment for patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis remains controversial. To assess the comparative benefits and harms of different pharmacological interventions in people with primary sclerosing cholangitis by performing a network meta-analysis, and to generate rankings of available pharmacological interventions according to their safety and efficacy. Given that it was not possible to assess whether potential effect modifiers were similar across comparisons, we did not perform the network meta-analysis but instead used standard Cochrane methods.When trials begin to provide an adequate description of potential effect modifiers, we will attempt to conduct network meta-analysis. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index - Expanded, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and randomised controlled trials registers until February 2017 to identify randomised clinical trials (RCT) on pharmacological interventions for primary sclerosing cholangitis. We included only RCTs, irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status, in which participants were given a diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis. We excluded trials that included previously liver-transplanted participants. We considered any of various pharmacological interventions compared with one other or with placebo. We excluded trials that compared different doses of various pharmacological interventions or that reported different treatment durations, except for ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). As UDCA is the drug most commonly investigated for primary sclerosing cholangitis, we performed a second analysis in which we stratified the dose of UDCA. We calculated the odds ratio and the rate ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using both

  10. A Case of Acute Ischemic Duodenal Ulcer Associated with Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection After Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Eun Sun; Jeong, Sook-Hyang, E-mail: jsh@snubh.org; Kim, Jin Wook

    We report a case of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)-related acute ischemic duodenal ulcer that developed in association with dissection of the superior mesenteric artery. We conclude that the acute duodenal ulcer was developed by ischemia related to superior mesenteric artery dissection during TACE. TACE should be conducted carefully with continuous observation of abdominal arteries.

  11. Vitamin D deficiency in chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Masoud; Tavakol, Marzieh; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Gharagozlou, Mohammad; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Tavakol, Zahra; Momenzadeh, Kaveh; Nabavi, Mohammad; Dabbaghzade, Abbas; Mosallanejad, Asieh; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-04-01

    Chronic urticaria is the most common skin diseases, characterized by chronic cutaneous lesions which severely debilitates patients in several aspects of their everyday life. Vitamin D is known to exert several actions in the immune system and to influence function and differentiation of mast cells, central role players in the pathogenesis of chronic idiopathic urticaria. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D levels and susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria. One hundred and fourteen patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria were recruited in this study along with one hundred and eighty seven sex-matched and age-matched healthy volunteers as the control group. For each patient, urticaria activity score was calculated and autologous serum skin test was done. Vitamin D metabolic statue was measured in serum as 25 hydroxyvitamin D using enzyme immunoassay method. Patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria significantly showed lower levels of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria. There was a significant positive correlation between vitamin D levels and urticaria activity score. This study showed that patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria had reduced levels of vitamin D, while vitamin D deficiency could increase susceptibility to chronic idiopathic urticaria.

  12. Ascending Aorta to Hepatic and Mesenteric Artery Bypassing, in Patients with Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia and Extensive Aortic Disease-A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Barr, James; Kokotsakis, John; Tsipas, Pantelis; Papapavlou, Prodromos; Velissarios, Konstantinos; Kratimenos, Theodoros; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2017-02-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is a rare disorder caused by severe stenosis of the mesenteric arterial supply that results in postprandial pain and weight loss. Treatment options are surgical or endovascular. Surgical bypass can be performed in an antegrade fashion from the supraceliac abdominal aorta (AA) or the distal descending thoracic aorta or in a retrograde fashion from the infrarenal aorta or the common iliac artery. However, in some patients with disease of the descending thoracic aorta or the AA, another site for the proximal anastomosis needs to be found. In this article, we report the case of a 69-year-old man with a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm and CMI in whom we performed bypass grafts to the hepatic and superior mesenteric arteries using the ascending aorta as the site for the proximal anastomoses via a median sternolaparotomy. In addition, we performed a literature review of all similar cases and provide an analysis of this technique and an assessment of the success rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy - Case report.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jianlin; Abbas, Jihad; Hoetzl, Katherine; Allison, David; Osman, Mahamed; Williams, Mallory; Zelenock, Gerald B

    2014-12-01

    62 year old Caucasian female with pancreatic head mass abutting the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) presented with fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. CT scan showed near complete obstruction of portal vein and large SMV collateral development. After 3 months of neoadjuvant therapy, her portal vein flow improved significantly, SMV collateral circulation was diminished. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and superior mesenteric portal vein (SMPV) confluence resection were performed; A saphenous vein interposition graft thrombosed immediately. The splenic vein remnant was distended and adjacent to the stump of the portal vein. Harvesting an internal jugular vein graft required extra time and using a synthetic graft posed a risk of graft thrombosis or infection. As a result, we chose to perform a direct anastomosis of the portal and splenic vein in a desperate situation. The anastomosis decompressed the mesenteric venous system, so we then ligated the SMV. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, except transient ascites. She redeveloped ascites more than one year later. At that time a PET scan showed bilateral lung and right femur metastatic disease. She expired 15 months after PD. The lessons we learned are (1) Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2) Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3) Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4) It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival.

  14. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy – Case report

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jianlin; Abbas, Jihad; Hoetzl, Katherine; Allison, David; Osman, Mahamed; Williams, Mallory; Zelenock, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    62 year old Caucasian female with pancreatic head mass abutting the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) presented with fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. CT scan showed near complete obstruction of portal vein and large SMV collateral development. After 3 months of neoadjuvant therapy, her portal vein flow improved significantly, SMV collateral circulation was diminished. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and superior mesenteric portal vein (SMPV) confluence resection were performed; A saphenous vein interposition graft thrombosed immediately. The splenic vein remnant was distended and adjacent to the stump of the portal vein. Harvesting an internal jugular vein graft required extra time and using a synthetic graft posed a risk of graft thrombosis or infection. As a result, we chose to perform a direct anastomosis of the portal and splenic vein in a desperate situation. The anastomosis decompressed the mesenteric venous system, so we then ligated the SMV. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, except transient ascites. She redeveloped ascites more than one year later. At that time a PET scan showed bilateral lung and right femur metastatic disease. She expired 15 months after PD. Conclusion The lessons we learned are (1) Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2) Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3) Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4) It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival. PMID:25568802

  15. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and the microbiota: current knowledge and perspectives on etiopathogenesis and emerging therapies.

    PubMed

    Tabibian, James H; O'Hara, Steven P; Lindor, Keith D

    2014-08-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, fibroinflammatory, cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiopathogenesis. PSC generally progresses to liver cirrhosis, is a major risk factor for hepatobiliary and colonic neoplasia, and confers a median survival to death or liver transplantation of only 12 years. Although it is well recognized that approximately 75% of patients with PSC also have inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the significance of this association remains elusive. Accumulating evidence now suggests a potentially important role for the intestinal microbiota, and enterohepatic circulation of molecules derived therefrom, as a putative mechanistic link between PSC and IBD and a central pathobiological driver of PSC. In this concise review, we provide a summary of and perspectives regarding the relevant basic, translational, and clinical data, which, taken together, encourage further investigation of the role of the microbiota and microbial metabolites in the etiopathogenesis of PSC and as a potential target for novel pharmacotherapies.

  16. Long-term outcome of patients treated for hydrocele with the sclerosant agent sodium tetradecyl sulphate.

    PubMed

    Stattin, P; Karlberg, L; Damber, J E

    1996-04-01

    The long-term outcome of 106 patients treated for hydrocele with the sclerosing agent sodium tetradecyl sulphate was examined. In a questionnaire distributed at a mean time of 40 months after therapy 83/86 (96%) of the eligible patients responded and 95% of them were satisfied with the treatment and its long term results. The treatment associated pain was evaluated on a visual analogue scale (0-10) the mean pain score was found to be 1.8 and the mean duration of the pain 2.4 days. When all hydroceles were considered the overall success rate was 88%. Side-effects were minor apart from two patients (1.9%) with diabetes mellitus who had an intense inflammatory reaction necessitating orchidectomy after sclerotherapy.

  17. Segmentectomy for giant pulmonary sclerosing haemangiomas with high serum KL-6 levels

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Hiroaki; Mun, Mingyon; Okumura, Sakae; Nakagawa, Ken

    2012-01-01

    We describe a 61-year old female patient with a giant pulmonary sclerosing haemangioma (PSH) and an extremely high preoperative serum KL-6 level. During an annual health screening, the patient showed a posterior mediastinal mass on chest radiography. Chest computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-circumscribed 60 mm diameter nodule with a marked contrast enhancement in the left lower lobe. The preoperative serum KL-6 level was elevated to 8204 U/ml. We performed a four-port thoracoscopic basal segmentectomy and lymph node sampling for diagnosis and therapy. The postoperative diagnosis showed PSH. The serum KL-6 level decreased dramatically with tumour resection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with PSH showing a high serum KL-6 level. PMID:22454483

  18. Laparoscopic Management of Sclerosing Stromal Tumors of the Ovary Combined with Ectopic Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua-Qian; Liu, Qiang; Sun, Xue-Bing; Chang, Wen-Min

    2015-01-01

    Like other stromal-derived gynecological tumors, a sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary (SSTO) is a rare benign tumor that is difficult to distinguish from a malignant ovarian tumor in clinical practice. An SSTO is routinely treated with laparotomy. Here, we present two extremely rare cases of SSTO with contralateral and ipsilateral tubal pregnancies, in which laparoscopic surgery was performed to remove the tumors. After surgery, one patient (case 1) became pregnant twice within 29 months, and the other patient (case 2) did not become pregnant within 6 months postoperatively. These two cases suggest that laparoscopic management is not only useful in treating SSTO and complicating diseases, but it may also help to reduce unnecessary surgical injury to the ovary. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of thyroid gland: Not so indolent a neoplasm?

    PubMed

    Raveendran Nair, Anila Kunjulekshmi Amma; George, Nebu A; Kumar, Rejnish; Sreekumar, A; Jayasree, K

    2018-01-01

    A 58-year-old female, a known diabetic and hypertensive, presented with left-sided swelling on the anterior aspect of the neck of 1-year duration, which was rapidly increasing in size for the past 6 months. She was on Eltroxin for hypothyroidism for the past 1 year. Computed tomography study of the neck showed a nodule in the left lobe of thyroid which on fine-needle aspiration was suspicious for malignancy. Total thyroidectomy with left posterolateral lymph node dissection was done. Histopathological examination showed sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE) of the thyroid gland with lymph node metastasis. SMECE of the thyroid was initially thought to be a low-grade malignancy with indolent clinical behavior. However, our case showed extra thyroidal spread with lymph node metastasis, necessitating adjuvant therapy for our patient. Such aggressive behavior has been noted in few earlier case reports also.

  20. [Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma of the paravertebral column. Case report and literature review].

    PubMed

    Puerta Roldán, Patricia; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Bagué Rossell, Silvia; de Juan Delago, Manel; Molet Teixidó, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma (SEF) is a rare variant of low-grade fibrosarcoma, with specific histological and immunohistochemical features and a poor prognosis. We report a case of SEF of the paravertebral column in a 49-year old male who presented a paraspinal mass with extension into the L4-L5 neural foramen and invasion of the L5 nerve root. Histology of the tumourectomy specimen and its immunohistochemical study led to the diagnosis of SEF. This case was particularly unusual due to its paravertebral column location and, despite its low grade, illustrates the malignant potential of SEF. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Update in the Care and Management of Patients with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Sedki, Mai; Levy, Cynthia

    2018-06-09

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive cholestatic liver disease for which specific medical therapy is not available. The goals of treatment are primarily early detection and management of complications. In this review, we discuss novel therapies under evaluation and provide the foundation for surveillance strategies. Drugs under investigation include norursodeoxycholic acid, nuclear receptor agonists, anti-fibrotics, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Endoscopic therapy is indicated for symptomatic dominant strictures and in the work-up of malignancies. Recently, the use of stents was associated with an increased rate of complications compared to balloon dilatation; and long-term stenting should be avoided. Malignancies currently account for most of the PSC-related mortality. Many drugs are emerging for the treatment of PSC but liver transplantation is the only treatment modality shown to prolong survival. PSC recurrence occurs in up to 35% of transplanted allografts within a median of 5 years. Surveillance for hepatobiliary and colorectal malignancies is indicated.

  2. Efficacy of oral vancomycin in recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis following liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hey, Penelope; Lokan, Julie; Johnson, Paul; Gow, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a liver disease that leads to progressive destruction and stricturing of the biliary tree. Unfortunately, apart from orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), there are no universally accepted therapies to treat this disease. Even following transplantation, recurrence of PSC is seen in approximately one quarter of patients and leads to high rates of graft failure. Oral vancomycin, through possible immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, has been shown in small-scale studies to be successful in improving liver function tests in patients with pretransplant PSC. We report the first case of an adult patient diagnosed with recurrent PSC 4 years after OLT who was treated with oral vancomycin leading to complete normalisation of his liver biochemistry. This case adds to the growing literature of a potential therapeutic role for this antibiotic in PSC and highlights interesting questions regarding mechanisms of disease. PMID:28951512

  3. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome as a presenting feature of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Garg, Divyani; Reddy, Varun; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Dash, Deepa; Bhatia, Rohit; Tripathi, Manjari

    2018-02-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slowly progressive degenerative disorder caused by measles virus. It is characterised by typical clinical and electrophysiological features in the form of slow myoclonic jerks, with progressive cognitive impairment, visual symptoms, and periodic complexes on EEG, with raised titres of anti-measles antibodies in CSF and serum. Atypical presentations of SSPE have been reported including brainstem involvement, ADEM-like presentation, acute encephalitis, and cerebellar ataxia. Presentation with predominant extrapyramidal features is uncommon. We describe a case of SSPE presenting with extensive rigidity with highly elevated CPK values, mimicking neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) which was most probably due to central dopaminergic blockade induced by the disease process. To our knowledge, this is the first case of SSPE presenting with a NMS-like syndrome.

  4. An initial MRI picture of limbic encephalitis in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Lebon, Sébastien; Maeder, Philippe; Maeder-Ingvar, Malin; Poloni, Claudia; Mayor-Dubois, Claire; Roulet-Perez, Eliane; Jeannet, Pierre-Yves

    2011-11-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare and severe long-term complication of measles. Hallmarks of this entity include progressive cognitive decline, myoclonia, a generalized periodic pattern on EEG and deep white matter abnormalities on MRI. However, imaging can be normal in early stages. We report herein the case of a previously healthy 13-years-old girl with an unusual radiological presentation. She presented with unilateral myoclonia, cognitive decline with memory impairment and a first brain MRI with swelling of both hippocampi mimicking limbic encephalitis. Measles antibodies were positive in CSF and the EEG showed slow periodic complexes. This unusual radiological presentation has never been described in SSPE. Relationship between virus and limbic system are discussed. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolution of certain typical and atypical features in a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Tushar Premraj; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Rai, Dheeraj

    2012-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slowly progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system caused by a persistent measles virus usually affecting the childhood and adolescent age group. Clinical features at onset are very subtle and non-specific. Certain atypical features can occur at onset or during the course of illness which can be misleading. Neuroimaging features often are non-specific. Features like myoclonic jerks, cognitive decline and typical EEG findings lead to a strong suspicion of SSPE. Here, we describe the stagewise progression of a case of SSPE in a 14-year-old girl who had myoclonic jerks and cognitive decline at onset. During the course of disease, the patient developed cortical vision loss, atypical extrapyramidal features like segmental and hemifacial dystonia ultimately leading to a bedbound vegetative state. EEG showed typical periodic discharges along with positive cerebrospinal fluid serology for measles. PMID:23266775

  6. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in an Infant: Diagnostic Role of Viral Genome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Xie, Zong-De; Yao, Dapeng; Gilles, Floyd H.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Nguyen, Hahn T.; Peters, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is related to “defective” measles virus or vaccination, though an association with parainfluenza viruses has been reported. SSPE is characterized by a slow, erratic course and elevated cerebrospinal fluid measles titers. An immunocompetent, vaccinated infant, with onset of symptoms in parainfiuenza virus season and a catastrophic course is described. Cerebrospinal fluid titers were negative, but postmortem brain had typical SSPE lesions. Patient brain-derived RNA, subjected to reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction yielded polymerase chain reaction products with measles virus but not parainfluenza virus genes. The sequenced fragment revealed multiple mutations, typical for SSPE. SSPE can thus present in infants, with short latency and no cerebrospinal fluid antibodies. Viral genomic analysis may be diagnostic, permitting early therapy. PMID:8024248

  7. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in Papua New Guinea: a high incidence in young children.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, K. M.; Sanders, R. C.; Rongap, A.; Rongap, T.; Pinai, S.; Alpers, M. P.

    1992-01-01

    Eighty-seven cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were diagnosed from September 1988 to April 1991 in Papua New Guinea (PNG), by demonstration of high-titre measles-specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). For 1990 the annual incidence of SSPE, for the study provinces, was calculated to be 56 cases per million under 20 years of age and it is expected that this figure will be higher in 1991. The mean age of presentation was 4.9 years, with a male to female ratio of 1.8:1. An elevation in the ratio of immunoglobulin G as a percentage of total protein in CSF and an increase in the CSF:serum immunoglobulin G ratio was shown in SSPE patients. The dramatic appearance and high frequency of the disease in PNG might relate to the early age of measles infection encountered in children in this country. PMID:1601084

  8. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and pseudotumour cerebri

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Akhila Kumar; Mehta, Vachan Jayant; Maheshwari, Siddharth; Kar, Sujit Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic progressive encephalitis of childhood and young adults due to persistent measles virus infection. The usual age of onset is between 5 and 15 years. There are wide varieties of presentations of SSPE described in the literatures. Variable clinical presentations may lead to diagnostic dilemma and unnecessary investigations especially in developing countries, where the measles is quite endemic and vaccination status is not up to the mark because of poor literacy and socioeconomic status. Good clinical correlations, neuroimaging findings, EEG and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) marker for SSPE yield the clue to diagnosis. This case illustrates a 13-year-old boy presented with short history of intellectual decline, headache, papilloedema, cranial nerve palsy, myoclonus with suggestive neuroimaging mimicking acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and pseudotumour cerebri. Subsequently he was diagnosed to be a case of SSPE on the basis of CSF and serum measles antibody titer. PMID:23964034

  9. Chorioretinitis: a potential clue to the early diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Jeevagan, Vijayabala; Dissanayake, Athula

    2017-08-01

    We describe a 36-year-old man with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) presenting with chorioretinitis two years before onset of other neurological features. He had neither myoclonus nor the typical EEG features of SSPE. The diagnosis was confirmed in the appropriate clinical setting by detecting elevated measles antibody titres in cerebrospinal fluid and serum. Clinicians should consider SSPE among the differential diagnoses in chorioretinitis. This is particularly so if there is macular or perimacular involvement with concurrent involvement of the optic nerve in young patients, even without other characteristic neurological symptoms. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Neuro-ophthalmology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: two cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Colpak, Ayse I; Erdener, Sefik E; Ozgen, Burce; Anlar, Banu; Kansu, Tulay

    2012-11-01

    To review the literature on early visual manifestations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) with regard to two patients who had visual problems preceding the onset of neurological symptoms. One patient had cortical visual disturbances and the other had visual loss due to retinal pigment epithelial changes. SSPE is a chronic encephalitis characterized by a history of measles infection and a progressive disease of the central nervous system that still occurs frequently in countries with insufficient measles immunization. Visual manifestations can occur as a result of involvement of the pathways that lead from the retina to the occipital cortex during the course of the disease, but are rare as a presenting sign. Fundus changes, especially macular retinitis and macular pigment disturbances, appear to be the most common ocular manifestations of SSPE. Ophthalmologists must be aware that SSPE can knock their door with ocular findings of SSPE, months or years before the onset of neurological symptoms.

  11. Epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in Germany from 2003 to 2009: a risk estimation.

    PubMed

    Schönberger, Katharina; Ludwig, Maria-Sabine; Wildner, Manfred; Weissbrich, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal long-term complication of measles infection. We performed an estimation of the total number of SSPE cases in Germany for the period 2003 to 2009 and calculated the risk of SSPE after an acute measles infection. SSPE cases were collected from the Surveillance Unit for Rare Paediatric Diseases in Germany and the Institute of Virology and Immunobiology at the University of Würzburg. The total number of SSPE cases was estimated by capture-recapture analysis. For the period 2003 to 2009, 31 children with SSPE who were treated at German hospitals were identified. The capture-recapture estimate was 39 cases (95% confidence interval: 29.2-48.0). The risk of developing SSPE for children contracting measles infection below 5 years of age was calculated as 1∶1700 to 1∶3300. This risk is in the same order of magnitude as the risk of a fatal acute measles infection.

  12. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and pseudotumour cerebri.

    PubMed

    Panda, Akhila Kumar; Mehta, Vachan Jayant; Maheshwari, Siddharth; Kar, Sujit Kumar

    2013-08-20

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic progressive encephalitis of childhood and young adults due to persistent measles virus infection. The usual age of onset is between 5 and 15 years. There are wide varieties of presentations of SSPE described in the literatures. Variable clinical presentations may lead to diagnostic dilemma and unnecessary investigations especially in developing countries, where the measles is quite endemic and vaccination status is not up to the mark because of poor literacy and socioeconomic status. Good clinical correlations, neuroimaging findings, EEG and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) marker for SSPE yield the clue to diagnosis. This case illustrates a 13-year-old boy presented with short history of intellectual decline, headache, papilloedema, cranial nerve palsy, myoclonus with suggestive neuroimaging mimicking acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and pseudotumour cerebri. Subsequently he was diagnosed to be a case of SSPE on the basis of CSF and serum measles antibody titer.

  13. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis resembling Rasmussen’s encephalitis on magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jakkani, Ravi Kanth; Sureka, Jyoti; Panwar, Sanuj

    2015-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, slowly progressing but invariably fatal disease that is related to a prior measles virus infection and most commonly affects paediatric patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the modality of choice for determining such changes in white matter. SSPE typically demonstrates bilateral but asymmetric periventricular and subcortical white matter involvement. We herein report a rare case of unilateral white matter involvement in a 13-year-old boy with SSPE that closely simulated Rasmussen’s encephalitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an atypical presentation on MR imaging in which SSPE was a rare cause of unilateral brain parenchymal involvement in a patient with intractable seizures. PMID:26451061

  14. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with parkinsonian features in a child: A case report.

    PubMed

    Bozlu, Gulcin; Cobanogullari Direk, Meltem; Okuyaz, Cetin

    2015-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) can present with atypical clinical signs which may result in delayed diagnosis and treatment. We present a child with SSPE whose initial manifestation was parkinsonism. This 12-year-old boy presented with the complaint of difficulty in standing up and walking for 2 months. Neurological examination revealed generalized rigidity, bradykinesia, impaired postural reflexes, and a mask-like facies. The initial diagnosis of Juvenile Parkinson Disease was made. He had no improvement with levodopa, trihexyphenidyl, tetrabenazine and clonazepam. The EEG showed irregular background activity with generalized slow waves which were not suppressed with diazepam injection. SSPE was considered and the diagnosis was confirmed with the identification of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. SSPE should be considered in children and adolescents with parkinsonian symptoms, particularly in the absence of a history of vaccination against measles. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Marked Atrophic Changes of the Brain in a Patient with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Faizan; Assad, Salman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Zahid, Mehr

    2017-08-21

    Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) is a debilitating disorder associated with the measles infection in childhood. It is a very rare manifestation in children. It usually presents with measles before the age of two. We report a similar case of SSPE in a 14-year-old girl who developed this life-threatening condition in spite of receiving the measles vaccination. Despite the vaccination, the patient had suffered from measles before the age of two. This highlights the dilemma of ineffective vaccinations in developing countries. We also describe the radiologic features of SSPE in this patient, with marked atrophy seen in the occipital region following hyperintensities noticed at a relatively earlier stage.

  16. A case of fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting with acute myoclonic-astatic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Magurano, Fabio; Marella, Gian Luca; Marchi, Antonella; Filia, Antonietta; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Potenza, Saverio; Massa, Roberto; Bucci, Paola; Baggieri, Melissa; Nicoletti, Loredana

    2017-01-01

    The neurologic sequelae post-measles are less common than other complications measles-related and can lead to severe disability or death: primary measles encephalitis (PME), acute post-infectious measles encephalomyelitis (APME), measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE), and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). SSPE syndrome can affect people years from the acute measles virus infection, as result of the persistence of defective viral particles in brain cells. Clinical onset typically manifests with progressive intellectual deterioration, behavioral changes, and myoclonic jerks. The course of SSPE in the majority of affected children is that of a progressive worsening with fatal outcome within two years. This report described an Italian case of fulminant SSPE syndrome that led to death within few months from the initial onset.

  17. Evolution of certain typical and atypical features in a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Raut, Tushar Premraj; Singh, Maneesh Kumar; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Rai, Dheeraj

    2012-12-23

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a slowly progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system caused by a persistent measles virus usually affecting the childhood and adolescent age group. Clinical features at onset are very subtle and non-specific. Certain atypical features can occur at onset or during the course of illness which can be misleading. Neuroimaging features often are non-specific. Features like myoclonic jerks, cognitive decline and typical EEG findings lead to a strong suspicion of SSPE. Here, we describe the stagewise progression of a case of SSPE in a 14-year-old girl who had myoclonic jerks and cognitive decline at onset. During the course of disease, the patient developed cortical vision loss, atypical extrapyramidal features like segmental and hemifacial dystonia ultimately leading to a bedbound vegetative state. EEG showed typical periodic discharges along with positive cerebrospinal fluid serology for measles.

  18. Interferon production by cells infected with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) virus or measles virus.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Shunji; Mori, Natsumi; Satomi, Mika; Jiang, Da-Peng; Hotta, Hak; Matsushige, Takeshi; Ichiyama, Takashi

    2011-12-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative encephalitis caused by some variants of measles virus (MV). The structure of SSPE virus in the brains of SSPE patients is different from that of MV. The difference in interferon (IFN) production between cells infected with SSPE virus and those infected with MV remains unclear. We measured the concentrations of IFN-α, β, γ, and λ1 (interleukin (IL)-29) from MV- or SSPE virus-infected B95a cells (a marmoset B-lymphoblastoid cell line). SSPE virus-infected B95a cells produced significantly higher levels of IFN-α and λ1 than did MV-infected or mock-infected cells. Our results suggest that SSPE virus and MV induce different IFN production profiles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation: Laparoscopic Splenectomy as Therapeutic and Diagnostic Approach at the Same Time.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, Calogero; Florena, Ada Maria; Ferrara, Gabriella; Di Gregorio, Riccardo; Unti, Elettra; Giannone, Antonino G; Lazzaro, Luigi A; Graceffa, Giuseppa; Pantuso, Gianni

    2018-01-01

    Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen is a rare benign vascular lesion with unknown etiopathogenesis and with definite features of imaging, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. It was first described by Martel et al. in 2004, and to date, only 151 cases have been reported. We report a case of SANT of the spleen detected in a 66-year-old Caucasian, without comorbidities, presented to our department with epigastric pain. We, also, presented a review of the literature. SANT is a benign incidentally vascular condition in the majority of cases. The wide age and gender distribution in our review is in accordance with that in previous studies in English literature. In our opinion, splenectomy is the choice treatment because it is at the same time diagnostic and therapeutic in a definitive way.

  20. Sclerosing Angiomatoid Nodular Transformation: Laparoscopic Splenectomy as Therapeutic and Diagnostic Approach at the Same Time

    PubMed Central

    Florena, Ada Maria; Ferrara, Gabriella; Di Gregorio, Riccardo; Unti, Elettra; Giannone, Antonino G.; Lazzaro, Luigi A.; Graceffa, Giuseppa; Pantuso, Gianni

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen is a rare benign vascular lesion with unknown etiopathogenesis and with definite features of imaging, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. It was first described by Martel et al. in 2004, and to date, only 151 cases have been reported. Case Description We report a case of SANT of the spleen detected in a 66-year-old Caucasian, without comorbidities, presented to our department with epigastric pain. We, also, presented a review of the literature. Conclusions SANT is a benign incidentally vascular condition in the majority of cases. The wide age and gender distribution in our review is in accordance with that in previous studies in English literature. In our opinion, splenectomy is the choice treatment because it is at the same time diagnostic and therapeutic in a definitive way. PMID:29854543

  1. A case report of immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholangitis with multiple relapse.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoqin; Huo, Na; Wu, Zhao; Wang, Guiqiang; Wang, He; Zhao, Hong

    2018-05-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) is classified as a biliary tract manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Glucocorticoid is the first-line therapy for most patients, but the optimal starting dose, adequate maintaining dose and withdrawal time remain disputable. An elderly male patient presented to our hospital with neoplasms of the bile duct and pancreas at first visit in December 2011. Further examination revealed bile duct stenosis and obstruction, and elevated serum IgG4 level. A diagnosis of IgG4-SC was established by examination results and effectiveness of steroid therapy, although IgG4-positive plasma cells were seldom seen in the liver sample. Prednisolone was started from 40 mg daily, tapered gradually, and totally withdrawn after 22 months of treatment. A new-onset cholangitis was detected 2 months later. Prednisolone 10 mg daily was administered again. Prednisolone was reduced to 5 mg every other day without consultation with his doctor 1 year ago in May 2017, then he presented to our hospital again with recurrent abdominal pain and jaundice. IgG4-SC is a protean condition and can be distinguished from primary sclerosing cholangitis, malignancy, and other inflammatory disorders based on 4 clinical criteria. Serum IgG4/IgG1 ratio is a practicable diagnostic algorithm to distinguish PSC from IgG4-SC. The dose and duration of glucocorticoid for treatment should be adjusted according to clinical situations, and proper maintaining dose is essential for a better prognosis.

  2. Pathogenesis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, Paul J.; Collard, Harold R.; Jones, Kirk D.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibrosing interstitial lung disease associated with aging that is characterized by the histopathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Although an understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF is incomplete, recent advances delineating specific clinical and pathologic features of IPF have led to better definition of the molecular pathways that are pathologically activated in the disease. In this review we highlight several of these advances, with a focus on genetic predisposition to IPF and how genetic changes, which occur primarily in epithelial cells, lead to activation of profibrotic pathways in epithelial cells. We then discuss the pathologic changes within IPF fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, and we conclude with a summary of how these profibrotic pathways may be interrelated. PMID:24050627

  3. [Physiotherapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Spamer, M; Georgi, M; Häfner, R; Händel, H; König, M; Haas, J-P

    2012-07-01

    Control of disease activity and recovery of function are major issues in the treatment of children and adolescents suffering from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Functional therapies including physiotherapy are important components in the multidisciplinary teamwork and each phase of the disease requires different strategies. While in the active phase of the disease pain alleviation is the main focus, the inactive phase requires strategies for improving motility and function. During remission the aim is to regain general fitness by sports activities. These phase adapted strategies must be individually designed and usually require a combination of different measures including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, massage as well as other physical procedures and sport therapy. There are only few controlled studies investigating the effectiveness of physical therapies in JIA and many strategies are derived from long-standing experience. New results from physiology and sport sciences have contributed to the development in recent years. This report summarizes the basics and main strategies of physical therapy in JIA.

  4. Telltale teeth: Idiopathic Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Lele, G S; Lakade, L S

    2014-01-01

    The detection of any atypical extraoral or intraoral features warrants a thorough investigation, even if the patient is asymptomatic or unaware of these. At times, dental findings help in the diagnosis of an underlying systemic problem. These findings may or may not be associated with any syndrome. Thus, thorough examination and exhaustive investigations should be carried out for every atypical finding to ensure optimal oral and general health for the patient. This is a case report of seventeen year old male who presented with peculiar/atypical dentition which 'told the tale' and led to the diagnosis of underlying endocrinological problem about which the parents were totally unaware. The patient was short with central obesity and microcephaly. Intraorally, there was presence of thirty six microdonts. Consultation with pediatrician and endocrinologist, and thorough investigations confirmed the condition to be of 'Idiopathic Hypergonadotropic Hypogonadism'. The patient underwent not only oral rehabilitation, but also timely consultation and treatment from a pediatrician and an endocrinologist.

  5. Epigenomics of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ivana V

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease of unknown etiology. Development of IPF is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Gene-expression profiling studies have taught us quite a bit about the biology of this fatal disease, but epigenetic marks may be the missing link that connects the environmental exposure in genetically predisposed individuals to transcriptome changes associated with the development of IPF. This review will begin with an introduction to the disease, followed by brief summaries of studies of gene expression in IPF and epigenetic marks associated with exposures relevant to IPF. The majority of the discussion will focus on epigenetic studies conducted so far in IPF, the limitations, challenges and future directions in this field. PMID:22449190

  6. Epigenomics of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ivana V

    2012-04-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease of unknown etiology. Development of IPF is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Gene-expression profiling studies have taught us quite a bit about the biology of this fatal disease, but epigenetic marks may be the missing link that connects the environmental exposure in genetically predisposed individuals to transcriptome changes associated with the development of IPF. This review will begin with an introduction to the disease, followed by brief summaries of studies of gene expression in IPF and epigenetic marks associated with exposures relevant to IPF. The majority of the discussion will focus on epigenetic studies conducted so far in IPF, the limitations, challenges nd future directions in this field.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... structures at the ends of chromosomes known as telomeres . It is not well understood how defects in ... Collard HR, Wolters PJ, Garcia CK. Effect of telomere length on survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary ...

  8. An unusual cause of paediatric abdominal pain: Mesenteric masses accompanied with volvulus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Shan; Zhang, Jun; Kong, Xiang Ru; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Li, Chang Chun

    2016-07-01

    Volvulus caused by mesenteric masses is rare and may result in serious consequences. This study aimed to better characterize volvulus caused by mesenteric masses in children. A retrospective study was conducted in 24 patients who underwent surgical treatment between January 1994 and January 2014 in one single institution. There were 10 boys and 14 girls. The most frequent findings were abdominal pain (100%), emesis (91.7%) and nausea (83.3%). Physical examination showed positive ileus signs in majority cases, and palpable mass was found in half of the patients. Ultrasound and CT scans revealed mesenteric masses in 21 and 24 patients, and 'whirlpool sign' was observed in 19 and 22 patients, respectively. Emergency laparotomy was performed in all patients. Histological examination revealed that 18 cystic masses were lymphangioma, 5 solid cases were lipoma and the remaining one was lipoblastoma. The postoperative course was uneventful in 22 patients, and postoperative obstruction and incision infection occurred in 2 patients. There was no evidence of recurrence at follow-up. Volvulus caused by mesenteric masses is a rare but potentially life-threatening cause of abdominal pain, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of paediatric acute abdominal pain.

  9. [Various cases of direct connections between the celiac artery and the superior mesenteric].

    PubMed

    Bertelli, E; Di Gregorio, F; Civeli, L

    1991-01-01

    The authors produce three cases in which an anastomotic arterial trunk between the coeliac artery and the superior mesenteric artery was present. Although this finding is rather rare (0.4% in vivo) it is important for the surgeons who operate upon the pancreas.

  10. Severe Postoperative Complications may be Related to Mesenteric Traction Syndrome during Open Esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, R; Svendsen, L B; Secher, N H; Goetze, J P; Rünitz, K; Achiam, M P

    2017-09-01

    During abdominal surgery, traction of the mesenterium provokes mesenteric traction syndrome, including hypotension, tachycardia, and flushing, along with an increase in plasma prostacyclin (PGI 2 ). We evaluated whether postoperative complications are related to mesenteric traction syndrome during esophagectomy. Flushing, hemodynamic variables, and plasma 6-keto-PGF 1α were recorded during the abdominal part of open ( n = 25) and robotically assisted ( n = 25) esophagectomy. Postoperative complications were also registered, according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Flushing appeared in 17 (open) and 5 (robotically assisted) surgical cases ( p = 0.001). Mean arterial pressure was stable during both types of surgeries, but infusion of vasopressors during the first hour of open surgery was related to development of widespread (Grade II) flushing ( p = 0.036). For patients who developed flushing, heart rate and plasma 6-keto-PGF 1α also increased ( p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, severe postoperative complications were related to Grade II flushing ( p = 0.037). Mesenteric traction syndrome manifests more frequently during open than robotically assisted esophagectomy, and postoperative complications appear to be associated with severe mesenteric traction syndrome.

  11. Mesenteric vein thrombosis associated with Klinefelters syndrome--a case report.

    PubMed

    Murray, F E

    1988-01-01

    A case of mesenteric vein thrombosis presenting as gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a patient with Klinefelter's syndrome is reported, an association not previously described. The diagnosis was made preoperatively and was confirmed by angiography. The patient underwent a small bowel resection and made an uneventful recovery. A possible association between Klinefelter's syndrome and a hypercoagulable state, previously suggested elsewhere, is emphasized.

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of mesenteric volvulus in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Rosenblatt, Alana J; Morrisey, James K; Flanders, James A; Thompson, Margret S; Knapp-Hoch, Heather M

    2014-04-01

    An 8-year-old male red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) was evaluated with a 2-week history of vomiting and anorexia. Four days prior, the patient became refractory to medical management. The kangaroo was admitted for diagnostic testing and treatment including whole body CT, blood work, and emergency laparotomy. CT findings of a severely enlarged stomach, splenic displacement, and a whirl sign were indicative of mesenteric volvulus with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Contrast enhancement of abdominal viscera suggested intact arterial blood supply; however, compression of the caudal vena cava and portal vein indicated venous obstruction. Results of preoperative blood work suggested biliary stasis without evidence of inflammation. Additionally, a tooth root abscess was diagnosed on the basis of results of CT. Exploratory laparotomy confirmed the diagnosis of mesenteric volvulus and GDV. The volvuli were corrected by clockwise derotation, and a gastropexy was performed. Tissue samples were obtained from the spleen and liver for evaluation. The kangaroo recovered from surgery, and the abscessed tooth was extracted 6 days later. Eight days after initial evaluation, the kangaroo was discharged. In the present report, the CT whirl sign was used to diagnose volvulus of the abdominal viscera, which suggests that this diagnostic indicator has utility in veterinary patients. Mesenteric volvulus with GDV was successfully treated in a nondomestic species. The tooth root abscess, a common condition in macropods, may explain the historic episodes of anorexia reported by the owner and may have contributed to the development of mesenteric volvulus and GDV in this kangaroo.

  13. Superior mesenteric vein thrombosis - unusual management of unusual complication of Whipple procedure.

    PubMed

    Huťan, Martin; Bartko, Christian; Slyško, Roman; Sekáč, Jaroslav; Prochotský, Augustín; Majeský, Ivan; Skultéty, Ján

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatoduodenectomy is an extensive procedure carrying risk of a number of postoperative complications. Of these the most common are surgical site infections (SSI), bleeding, delayed gastric emptying, and anastomotic leakage. However, the most serious complications are ones, that are rare, clinically hardly diagnosed, and if untreated, leading to the death of a patient. Among the latter complications is thrombosis of superior mesenteric vein. Its clinical signs are unspecific and diagnostics complicated. Treatment requires aggressive approach. If this is absent, intestinal necrosis with septic state, Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) and Multiple Organ Failure (MOF) lead to a death of a patient. Authors present a case of a patient after pancreatoduodenectomy, complicated by the thrombosis of superior mesenteric vein. Patient was managed by resection of the necrotic bowel, venous decompression by venous bypass from superior mesenteric vein to the right ovarian vein, and open abdomen with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Patient suffered severe abdominal sepsis with need for intensive organ support. Abdomen was definitely closed on fourth NPWT redress. Patient healed without any further complications, is well and was released to the ambulatory setting. Superior mesenteric vein (VMS) thrombosis is a rare complication. It diagnosis requires high level of vigilance and once diagnosed, aggressive therapy is essential. Two goals of surgical treatment exist: resection of the necrotic bowel and facilitation of the blood outflow. Mesenteroovarian anastomosis is one of the options in treatment of thrombosis of VMS if thrombectomy is not feasible. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Altered potassium ATP channel signaling in mesenteric arteries of old high salt-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Whidden, Melissa A.; Basgut, Bilgen; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Erdos, Benedek; Tümer, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Both aging and the consumption of a high salt diet are associated with clear changes in the vascular system that can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease; however the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined whether aging and the consumption of excess salt alters the function of potassium ATP-dependent channel signaling in mesenteric arteries [Methods] Young (7 months) and old (29 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were fed a control or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 12 days and mesenteric arteries were utilized for vascular reactivity measurements. [Results] Acetylcholine-induced endothelium relaxation was significantly reduced in old arteries (81 ± 4%) when compared with young arteries (92 ± 2%). Pretreatment with the potassium-ATP channel blocker glibenclamide reduced relaxation to acetylcholine in young arteries but did not alter dilation in old arteries. On a high salt diet, endothelium dilation to acetylcholine was significantly reduced in old salt arteries (60 ± 3%) when compared with old control arteries (81 ± 4%). Glibenclamide reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation in young salt arteries but had no effect on old salt arteries. Dilation to cromakalim, a potassium-ATP channel opener, was reduced in old salt arteries when compared with old control arteries. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that aging impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, a high salt diet alters the function of potassium-ATP-dependent channel signaling in old isolated mesenteric arteries and affects the mediation of relaxation stimuli. PMID:27508155

  15. Raf-1 kinase regulates smooth muscle contraction in the rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, Kunju; Yallampalli, Uma; Elkins, Rebekah; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the potential role of Raf-1 kinase in mesenteric arterial contraction. Inhibitors of Raf-1 kinase, GW5074, L779450 and ZM 336372 reversed phenylephrine (PE)-induced mesenteric vascular contraction. Studies in vivo in rats showed that GW5074 inhibited PE-induced increase in mean arterial pressure in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Isometric tension studies in mesenteric arteries of rats showed that GW5074 did not change the KCl-evoked contraction but significantly inhibited the contractions to PE, 5-HT, U46619, endothelin 1, angiotensin II and phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu). In mesenteric vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), PE stimulated increase in Raf-1 phosphorylation which was inhibited by GW5074. Measurement of [Ca(2+)](i) with Fura-2 showed that GW5074-mediated inhibition of PE-induced contraction was not associated with decreases in [Ca(2+)](i). VSMCs treated with PE exhibited higher levels of the contractile proteins, p-MYPT1 and p-MLC(20), which was inhibited by GW5074. Similarly, PDBu induced increases in phosphorylation of Raf-1, MLC(20) and MYPT1 and this was inhibited by GW5074. However, GW5074 did not have any significant effect on PE/PDBu-induced MEK/ERK activation. The results indicate that Raf-1 kinase plays an important role in the regulation of vascular contractility through regulation of calcium sensitization.

  16. Failure of mesenteric defect closure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Hope, William W; Sing, Ronald F; Chen, Albert Y; Lincourt, Amy E; Gersin, Keith S; Kuwada, Timothy S; Heniford, B Todd

    2010-01-01

    Bowel obstructions following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are a significant issue often caused by internal herniation. Controversy continues as to whether mesenteric defect closure is necessary to decrease the incidence of internal hernias after RYGB. Our purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of closing the mesenteric defect at the jejunojejunostomy in patients who underwent RYGB by examining this potential space at reoperation for any reason. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients undergoing surgery after RYGB from August 1999 to October 2008 to determine the status of the mesentery at the jejunojejunostomy. Eighteen patients underwent surgery 2 to 19 months after open (n=8) or laparoscopic (n=10) RYGB. All patients had documented suture closure of their jejunojejunostomy at the time of RYGB. Permanent (n=12) or absorbable (n=6) sutures were used for closures. Patients lost 23.6 kg to 62.1 kg before a reoperation was required for a ventral hernia (n=8), cholecystectomy (n=4), abdominal pain (n=4), or small bowel obstruction (n=2). Fifteen of the 18 patients had open mesenteric defects at the jejunojejunostomy despite previous closure; none were the cause for reoperation. Routine suture closure of mesenteric defects after RYGB may not be an effective permanent closure likely due to the extensive fat loss and weight loss within the mesentery.

  17. Lack of endogenous adenosine tonus on sympathetic neurotransmission in spontaneously hypertensive rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Joana Beatriz; Vieira-Rocha, Maria Sofia; Sá, Carlos; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Fresco, Paula; Diniz, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Increased sympathetic activity has been implicated in hypertension. Adenosine has been shown to play a role in blood flow regulation. In the present study, the endogenous adenosine neuromodulatory role, in mesenteric arteries from normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats, was investigated. The role of endogenous adenosine in sympathetic neurotransmission was studied using electrically-evoked [3H]-noradrenaline release experiments. Purine content was determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Localization of adenosine A1 or A2A receptors in adventitia of mesenteric arteries was investigated by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy. Results indicate a higher electrically-evoked noradrenaline release from hypertensive mesenteric arteries. The tonic inhibitory modulation of noradrenaline release is mediated by adenosine A1 receptors and is lacking in arteries from hypertensive animals, despite their purine levels being higher comparatively to those determined in normotensive ones. Tonic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptor-mediated effects were absent in arteries from both strains. Immunohistochemistry revealed an adenosine A1 receptors redistribution from sympathetic fibers to Schwann cells, in adventitia of hypertensive mesenteric arteries which can explain, at least in part, the absence of effects observed for these receptors. Data highlight the role of purines in hypertension revealing that an increase in sympathetic activity in hypertensive arteries is occurring due to a higher noradrenaline/ATP release from sympathetic nerves and the loss of endogenous adenosine inhibitory tonus. The observed nerve-to-glial redistribution of inhibitory adenosine A1 receptors in hypertensive arteries may explain the latter effect.

  18. Adaptation of Mesenteric Collecting Lymphatic Pump Function Following Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Smith, Flavia M.; Kurtz, Kristine M.; Molina, Patricia E.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Acute alcohol intoxication increases intestinal lymph flow by unknown mechanisms, potentially impacting mucosal immunity. We tested the hypothesis that enhanced intrinsic pump function of mesenteric lymphatics contributes to increased intestinal lymph flow during alcohol intoxication. Methods Acute alcohol intoxication was produced by intragastric administration of 30% alcohol to concious, unrestrained rats through surgically-implanted catheters. Time-matched controls received either no bolus, vehicle, or isocaloric dextrose. Thirty minutes after alcohol administration, rats were anesthetized and mesenteric collecting lymphatics were isolated and cannulated to study intrinsic pumping parameters. In separate experiments, mesenteric lymphatics were isolated to examine direct effects of alcohol on intrinsic pump activity. Results Lymphatics isolated from alcohol-intoxicated animals displayed slgnificantly decreased contraction frequency (CF) than the dextrose group, elevated stroke volume index (SVI) versus all other groups, and decreased myogenic responsiveness compared to sham. Elevating pressure from 2 to 4 cm H2O increased the volume flow index 2.4-fold in the alcohol group versus 1.4-fold for shams. Isolated lymphatics exposed to 20 mM alcohol had reduced myogenic tone, without changes in CF or SVI. Conclusions Alcohol intoxication enhances intrinsic pumping by mesenteric collecting lymphatics. Alcohol directly decreases lymphatic myogenic tone, but effects on phasic contractions occur by an unidentified mechanism. PMID:21040117

  19. Uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Heiligenhaus, Arnd; Minden, Kirsten; Föll, Dirk; Pleyer, Uwe

    2015-02-06

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common systemic disease causing uveitis in childhood, with a prevalence of 10 per 100 000 persons. JIA often takes a severe inflammatory course, and its complications often endanger vision. This review is based on pertinent articles retrieved by a selective literature search up to 18 August 2014 and on the current interdisciplinary S2k guideline on the diagnostic evaluation and anti-inflammatory treatment of juvenile idiopathic uveitis. Uveitis arises in roughly 1 in 10 patients with JIA. Regular eye check-ups should be performed starting as soon as JIA is diagnosed. 75-80% of patients are girls; antinuclear antibodies are found in 70-90%. The risk to vision is higher if JIA begins in the preschool years. As for treatment, only a single, small-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) and a small number of prospective trials have been published to date. Topical corticosteroids should be given as the initial treatment. Systemic immunosuppression is needed if irritation persists despite topical corticosteroids, if new complications arise, or if the topical steroids have to be given in excessively high doses or have unacceptable side effects. If the therapeutic effect remains inadequate, conventional and biological immune modulators can be given as add-on (escalation) therapy. Treatment lowers the risk of uveitis and its complications and thereby improves the prognosis for good visual function. Severely affected patients should be treated in competence centers to optimize their long-term outcome. Multidisciplinary, individualized treatment is needed because of the chronic course of active inflammation and the ensuing high risk of complications that can endanger vision. Future improvements in therapy will be aided by prospective, population-based registries and by basic research on biomarkers for the prediction of disease onset, prognosis, tissue damage, and therapeutic response.

  20. Sclerosing cholangitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gallstones in the bile duct) Infections in the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts Symptoms The first symptoms are usually: Fatigue Itching ... varices (enlarged veins) Biliary cirrhosis (inflammation of the bile ducts) Liver failure Persistent jaundice Some people develop infections of ...

  1. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies overlapping with systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lepreux, Sébastien; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Vital, Anne

    2018-01-01

    A muscle biopsy is currently requested to assess the diagnosis of an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy overlapping with a systemic disease. During the past few years, the classification of inflammatory myopathy subtypes has been revisited progressively on the basis of correlations between clinical phenotypes, autoantibodies and histological data. Several syndromic entities are now more clearly defined, and the aim of the present review is to clarify the contribution of muscle biopsy in a setting of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies overlapping with systemic diseases. PMID:29154752

  2. Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Study of 77 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kirstie N.; Pilsworth, Samantha; Sharples, Linda D.; Smith, Ian E.; Shneerson, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To review the clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of idiopathic hypersomnia as well as the long-term response to treatment. Setting: The Respiratory Support and Sleep Centre at Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, UK. Patients and Design: A large database of more than 6000 patients with sleep disorders was reviewed. A retrospective study of the clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of 77 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia was performed. Comparison with a similar group of patients with narcolepsy was performed. The response to drug treatment was assessed in 61 patients over a mean follow-up of 3.8 years. Measurements and Results: Idiopathic hypersomnia was 60% as prevalent as narcolepsy. Comparison with a similar group of patients with narcolepsy showed that those with idiopathic hypersomnia were more likely to have prolonged unrefreshing daytime naps, a positive family history, increased slow-wave sleep, and a longer sleep latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. The results of the Multiple Sleep Latency Test were not helpful in predicting disease severity or treatment response. The clinical features were heterogeneous and of variable severity. The majority of patients with idiopathic hypersomnia had symptoms that remained stable over many years, but 11% had spontaneous remission, which was never seen in narcolepsy. Two thirds of patients with idiopathic hypersomnolence had a sustained improvement in daytime somnolence with medication, although a third needed high doses or combinations of drugs. Conclusions: Idiopathic hypersomnolence has characteristic clinical and polysomnographic features but the prolonged latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test raises doubt about the validity of this test within the current diagnostic criteria. The disease often responds well to treatment and a substantial minority of patients appear to spontaneously improve. Citation: Anderson KN; Pilsworth S; Sharples LD; Smith IE; Shneerson JM. Idiopathic

  3. Acute Idiopathic Scrotal Edema: Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Santi, Maristella; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2018-06-01

     Existing information on acute idiopathic scrotal edema relies on small case series and textbooks.  We searched reports with no date limits on acute idiopathic scrotal edema.  Thirty-seven studies were included. Sixteen case series addressed the prevalence of acute idiopathic scrotal edema among males with acute scrotum: among 3,403 cases, the diagnosis of acute idiopathic scrotal edema was made in 413 cases (12%). Twenty-four reports addressed history, findings, management, and course of acute idiopathic scrotal edema in 311 patients. The patients mostly ranged in age from 5 to 8 years, presented with acute scrotal redness and swelling, associated or not with mild pain. Ninety percent or more of the cases developed in patients without atopic diathesis and were not preceded by inguinoscrotal surgery, acute febrile illnesses, or trauma. They were afebrile; in good general condition; and presented without pruritus, nausea or vomiting, or abdominal pain. The lesions were bilateral in two-thirds and unilateral in one-third of the cases. The condition resolved spontaneously within 2 to 3 days without sequelae. Approximately 10% of the cases experienced a recurrence.  Acute idiopathic scrotal edema is a self-limiting condition that accounts for ≥ 10% of cases of acute scrotum in children and adolescents. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Natural history of idiopathic diabetes insipidus.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gail E; Thomsett, Michael J; Boston, Bruce A; DiMeglio, Linda A; Shulman, Dorothy I; Draznin, Martin

    2011-10-01

    To determine what percentage of diabetes insipidus (DI) in childhood is idiopathic and to assess the natural history of idiopathic DI. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 105 patients with DI who were born or had DI diagnosed between 1980-1989 at 3 medical centers. A second cohort of 30 patients from 6 medical centers in whom idiopathic DI was diagnosed after 1990 was evaluated retrospectively for subsequent etiologic diagnoses and additional hypothalamic/pituitary deficiencies and prospectively for quality of life. In the first cohort, 11% of patients had idiopathic DI. In the second cohort, additional hypothalamic/pituitary hormone deficiencies developed in 33%, and 37% received an etiologic diagnosis for DI. Health-related quality of life for all the patients with idiopathic DI was comparable with the healthy reference population. Only a small percentage of patients with DI will remain idiopathic after first examination. Other hormone deficiencies will develop later in one-third of those patients, and slightly more than one-third of those patients will have an etiology for the DI diagnosed. Long-term surveillance is important because tumors have been diagnosed as long as 21 years after the onset of DI. Quality of life for these patients is as good as the reference population. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanisms involved in oleamide-induced vasorelaxation in rat mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Shaw, Sean; Imig, John D

    2009-04-01

    Fatty acid amides are a new class of signaling lipids that have been implicated in diverse physiological and pathological conditions. Oleamide is a fatty acid amide that induces vasorelaxation. Here, we investigated the mechanisms behind the vasorelaxation effect of oleamide in rat mesenteric resistance arteries. Oleamide-induced concentration dependent (0.01 microM-10 microM) vasorelaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries. This relaxation was unaffected by the presence of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors. The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, AM251 and the non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, O-1918, attenuated the oleamide vasodilatory response, however the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist, AM630, did not affect the vascular response. Moreover, inhibition of the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 1 receptor with capsazepine shifted the oleamide-induced vasorelaxation response to the right. In agreement with the vascular functional data, the cannabinoid CB1 and TRPV1 receptor proteins were expressed in mesenteric resistance arteries but cannabinoid CB2 receptors and the FAAH enzyme were not. In endothelium-denuded arteries, the oleamide-mediated vasorelaxation was attenuated and cannabinoid CB1 or non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor blockade did not further reduce the dilatory response whereas TRPV1 antagonism further decreased the response. These findings indicate that cannabinoid receptors on the endothelium and endothelium-independent TRPV1 receptors contribute to the oleamide vasodilatory response. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the oleamide-induced vasorelaxation is mediated, in part, by cannabinoid CB1 receptors, non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors, and TRPV1 receptors in rat mesenteric resistance arteries. These mechanisms are overlapping in respect to oleamide-induced mesenteric resistance artery dilation.

  6. Mechanisms involved in oleamide-induced vasorelaxation in rat mesenteric resistance arteries

    PubMed Central

    Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Shaw, Sean; Imig, John D.

    2009-01-01

    Fatty acid amides are a new class of signaling lipids that have been implicated in diverse physiological and pathological conditions. Oleamide is a fatty acid amide that induces vasorelaxation. Here, we investigated the mechanisms behind the vasorelaxation effect of oleamide in rat mesenteric resistance arteries. Oleamide-induced concentration dependent (0.01 μM–10μM) vasorelaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries. This relaxation was unaffected by the presence of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors. The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, AM251 and the non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, O-1918, attenuated the oleamide vasodilatory response, however the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist, AM630, did not affect the vascular response. Moreover, inhibition of the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) 1 receptor with capsazepine shifted the oleamide-induced vasorelaxation response to the right. In agreement with the vascular functional data, the cannabinoid CB1 and TRPV1 receptor proteins were expressed in mesenteric resistance arteries but cannabinoid CB2 receptors and the FAAH enzyme were not. In endothelium-denuded arteries, the oleamide-mediated vasorelaxation was attenuated and cannabinoid CB1 or non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor blockade did not further reduce the dilatory response whereas TRPV1 antagonism further decreased the response. These findings indicate that cannabinoid receptors on the endothelium and endothelium-independent TRPV1 receptors contribute to the oleamide vasodilatory response. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the oleamide-induced vasorelaxation is mediated, in part, by cannabinoid CB1 receptors, non-CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors, and TRPV1 receptors in rat mesenteric resistance arteries. These mechanisms are overlapping in respect to oleamide-induced mesenteric resistance artery dilation. PMID:19326479

  7. Copper induces vasorelaxation and antagonizes noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction in rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hu, Chao-Wei; Liu, Ming-Yu; Jiang, Hong-Chao; Huo, Rong; Dong, De-Li

    2013-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for normal cellular function and contributes to critical physiological or pathological processes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of copper on vascular tone of rat mesenteric artery and compare the effects of copper on noradrenaline (NA) and high K(+) induced vasoconstriction. The rat mesenteric arteries were isolated and the vessel tone was measured by using multi wire myograph system in vitro. Blood pressure of carotid artery in rabbits was measured by using physiological data acquisition and analysis system in vivo. Copper dose-dependently blunted NA-induced vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric artery. Copper-induced vasorelaxation was inhibited when the vessels were pretreated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Copper did not blunt high K(+)-induced vasoconstriction. Copper preincubation inhibited NA-evoked vasoconstriction and the inhibition was not affected by the presence of L-NAME. Copper preincubation showed no effect on high K(+)-evoked vasoconstriction. Copper chelator diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate (DTC) antagonized the vasoactivity induced by copper in rat mesenteric artery. In vivo experiments showed that copper injection (iv) significantly decreased blood pressure of rabbits and NA or DTC injection (iv) did not rescue the copper-induced hypotension and animal death. Copper blunted NA but not high K(+)-induced vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric artery. The acute effect of copper on NA-induced vasoconstriction was depended on nitric oxide (NO), but the effect of copper pretreatment on NA-induced vasoconstriction was independed on NO, suggesting that copper affected NA-induced vasoconstriction by two distinct mechanisms. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Diagnosis of non-occlusive acute mesenteric ischemia in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Bourcier, Simon; Oudjit, Ammar; Goudard, Geoffrey; Charpentier, Julien; Leblanc, Sarah; Coriat, Romain; Gouya, Hervé; Dousset, Bertrand; Mira, Jean-Paul; Pène, Frédéric

    2016-12-01

    Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) is a common complication and accounts for a major cause of death in critically ill patients. The diagnosis of NOMI with respect to the eventual indications for surgical treatment is challenging. We addressed the performance of the diagnostic strategy of NOMI in the intensive care unit, with emphasis on contrast-enhanced abdominal CT-scan. This was a retrospective monocenter study. Patients with clinically suspected acute mesenteric ischemia were included if a comprehensive diagnostic workup was carried out including surgical and/or endoscopic digestive explorations. Patients with evidence of occlusive mesenteric ischemia were excluded. A definite diagnosis of NOMI only relied on surgical or endoscopic findings. Abdominal CT-scans were reviewed by two radiologists blinded from the final diagnosis. A diagnosis of NOMI could be definitely confirmed or ruled out through surgical or endoscopic explorations of the digestive tract in 147 patients. With respect to their clinical characteristics, only a history of atrial fibrillation was an independent predictor of NOMI (odds ratio 8.3, 95% confidence interval 2.0-35.2, p = 0.004). Among them, 114 patients (75 with and 39 without NOMI) had previously been subjected to contrast-enhanced abdominal CT-scan. Portal venous gas, pneumatosis intestinalis and, to a lesser extent, abnormal contrast-induced bowel wall enhancement were poorly sensitive, but exhibited good specificities of 95, 85 and 71%, respectively. Nineteen out of 75 patients (25.3%) without any suggestive radiological signs finally exhibited mesenteric ischemia, including ten with intestinal necrosis. The performance of abdominal CT-scan for the diagnosis of NOMI is limited. Radiological signs of advanced-stage ischemia are good predictors of definite mesenteric ischemia, while their absence should not be considered sufficient to rule out the diagnosis.

  9. Blindness, dancing extremities, and corpus callosum and brain stem involvement: an unusual presentation of fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Sankhyan, Naveen; Gupta, Pankaj; Vyas, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl presented with acute visual loss followed 2 weeks later with loss of speech and audition, fulminant neuroregression, and choreo-athetoid movements of extremities. Fundus showed bilateral chorioretinitis. Electroencephalography showed periodic complexes. Measles antibody titers were elevated in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid, consistent with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Neuroimaging showed discontiguous involvement of splenium of the corpus callosum and ventral pons with sparing of cortical white matter. Our case highlights the atypical clinical and radiologic presentations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Pediatricians need to be aware that necrotizing chorioretinitis in a child and/or atypical brain stem changes could be the heralding feature of this condition in endemic countries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Idiopathic Ophthalmodynia and Idiopathic Rhinalgia: A Prospective Series of 16 New Cases.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Juan A; Montojo, Teresa; Guerrero, Ángel L; Álvarez, Mónica; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Cuadrado, María L

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia were described a few years ago. These conditions seem specific pain syndromes with a distinctive location in the eye or in the nose. We aimed to present a new prospective series in order to verify the consistency of these syndromes. We performed a descriptive study of all patients referred to our regional neurologic clinics from 2010 to 2014 because of facial pain exclusively felt in the eye or in the nose fulfilling the proposed diagnostic criteria for idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia. There were 9 patients with idiopathic ophthalmodynia and 7 patients with idiopathic rhinalgia, with a clear female preponderance, and a mean age at onset in the fifth decade. The pain was usually moderate and the temporal pattern was generally chronic. Only one patient reported accompaniments (hypersensitivity to the light and to the flow of air in the symptomatic eye). Preventive treatment with amitriptyline, pregabalin, or gabapentin was partially or totally effective. The clinical features of this new series parallels those of the original description, thus indicating that both idiopathic ophthalmodynia and idiopathic rhinalgia have clear-cut clinical pictures with excellent consistency both inter- and intra-individually. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  11. Mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy and risk of gastrointestinal complications in infants undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Iliopoulos, Ilias; Branco, Ricardo G; Brinkhuis, Nadine; Furck, Anke; LaRovere, Joan; Cooper, David S; Pathan, Nazima

    2016-04-01

    We hypothesised that lower mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy values would be associated with a greater incidence of gastrointestinal complications in children weighing <10 kg who were recovering from cardiac surgery. We evaluated mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy, central venous oxygen saturation, and arterial blood gases for 48 hours post-operatively. Enteral feeding intake, gastrointestinal complications, and markers of organ dysfunction were monitored for 7 days. A total of 50 children, with median age of 16.7 (3.2-31.6) weeks, were studied. On admission, the average mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy value was 71±18%, and the systemic oxygen saturation was 93±7.5%. Lower admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy correlated with longer time to establish enteral feeds (r=-0.58, p<0.01) and shorter duration of feeds at 7 days (r=0.48, p<0.01). Children with gastrointestinal complications had significantly lower admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy (58±18% versus 73±17%, p=0.01) and higher mesenteric arteriovenous difference of oxygen at admission [39 (23-47) % versus 19 (4-27) %, p=0.02]. Based on multiple logistic regression, admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy was independently associated with gastrointestinal complications (Odds ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.93-0.97; p=0.03). Admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76 to identify children who developed gastrointestinal complications, with a suggested cut-off value of 72% (78% sensitivity, 68% specificity). In this pilot study, we conclude that admission mesenteric near-infrared spectroscopy is associated with gastrointestinal complications and enteral feeding tolerance in children after cardiac surgery.

  12. Raine Syndrome (OMIM #259775), Caused By FAM20C Mutation, Is Congenital Sclerosing Osteomalacia With Cerebral Calcification (OMIM 259660).

    PubMed

    Whyte, Michael P; McAlister, William H; Fallon, Michael D; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Bijanki, Vinieth N; Duan, Shenghui; Otaify, Ghada A; Sly, William S; Mumm, Steven

    2017-04-01

    In 1985, we briefly reported infant sisters with a unique, lethal, autosomal recessive disorder designated congenital sclerosing osteomalacia with cerebral calcification. In 1986, this condition was entered into Mendelian Inheritance In Man (MIM) as osteomalacia, sclerosing, with cerebral calcification (MIM 259660). However, no attestations followed. Instead, in 1989 Raine and colleagues published an affected neonate considering unprecedented the striking clinical and radiographic features. In 1992, "Raine syndrome" entered MIM formally as osteosclerotic bone dysplasia, lethal (MIM #259775). In 2007, the etiology emerged as loss-of-function mutation of FAM20C that encodes family with sequence similarity 20, member C. FAM20C is highly expressed in embryonic calcified tissues and encodes a kinase (dentin matrix protein 4) for most of the secreted phosphoproteome including FGF23, osteopontin, and other regulators of skeletal mineralization. Herein, we detail the clinical, radiological, biochemical, histopathological, and FAM20C findings of our patients. Following premortem tetracycline labeling, the proposita's non-decalcified skeletal histopathology after autopsy indicated no rickets but documented severe osteomalacia. Archival DNA revealed the sisters were compound heterozygotes for a unique missense mutation and a novel deletion in FAM20C. Individuals heterozygous for the missense mutation seemed to prematurely fuse their metopic suture and develop a metopic ridge sometimes including trigonocephaly. Our findings clarify FAM20C's role in hard tissue formation and mineralization, and show that Raine syndrome is congenital sclerosing osteomalacia with cerebral calcification. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Perspective: Update on Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Beau B.; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Provide an update on various features of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Design Perspective. Methods Selected articles on the epidemiology, clinical and imaging features, natural history, pathophysiology, and treatment of idiopathic intracranial hypertension were reviewed and interpreted in the context of the authors’ clinical and research experience. Results Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is primarily a disease of obese women of childbearing age, but it can affect patients of any weight, sex, and age. Although a relatively rare disorder, idiopathic intracranial hypertension’s associated costs in the U.S. entail hundreds of millions of dollars. Even following treatment, headaches are frequently persistent and may require the continued involvement of a neurologist. Quality of life reductions and depression are common among idiopathic intracranial hypertension patients. However, visual dysfunction, especially visual field abnormalities, represents the major morbidity of this disorder, and serial automated perimetry remains the primary mode of patient monitoring. Patients who are men, black, very obese, or anemic are at higher risk of visual loss. Vitamin A metabolism, adipose tissue as an actively secreting endocrine tissue, and cerebral venous abnormalities are areas of active study regarding idiopathic intracranial hypertension’s pathophysiology. Treatment studies show that lumbar puncture is a valuable treatment (in addition to its crucial diagnostic role) and that weight management is critical. However, open questions remain regarding the efficacy of acetazolamide, CSF diversion procedures, and cerebral venous stenting. Conclusions Many questions remain unanswered about idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Ongoing studies, especially an ongoing NIH-funded clinical trial of acetazolamide, should provide more insight into this important, yet poorly understood syndrome of isolated intracranial hypertension. PMID:21696699

  14. Idiopathic hypersomnia: a study of 77 cases.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kirstie N; Pilsworth, Samantha; Sharples, Linda D; Smith, Ian E; Shneerson, John M

    2007-10-01

    To review the clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of idiopathic hypersomnia as well as the long-term response to treatment. The Respiratory Support and Sleep Centre at Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, UK. A large database of more than 6000 patients with sleep disorders was reviewed. A retrospective study of the clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of 77 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia was performed. Comparison with a similar group of patients with narcolepsy was performed. The response to drug treatment was assessed in 61 patients over a mean follow-up of 3.8 years. Idiopathic hypersomnia was 60% as prevalent as narcolepsy. Comparison with a similar group of patients with narcolepsy showed that those with idiopathic hypersomnia were more likely to have prolonged unrefreshing daytime naps, a positive family history, increased slow-wave sleep, and a longer sleep latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. The results of the Multiple Sleep Latency Test were not helpful in predicting disease severity or treatment response. The clinical features were heterogeneous and of variable severity. The majority of patients with idiopathic hypersomnia had symptoms that remained stable over many years, but 11% had spontaneous remission, which was never seen in narcolepsy. Two thirds of patients with idiopathic hypersomnolence had a sustained improvement in daytime somnolence with medication, although a third needed high doses or combinations of drugs. Idiopathic hypersomnolence has characteristic clinical and polysomnographic features but the prolonged latency on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test raises doubt about the validity of this test within the current diagnostic criteria. The disease often responds well to treatment and a substantial minority of patients appear to spontaneously improve.

  15. Transradial Approach for Transcatheter Selective Superior Mesenteric Artery Urokinase Infusion Therapy in Patients with Acute Extensive Portal and Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Maoqiang, E-mail: wangmq@vip.sina.com; Guo Liping; Lin Hanying

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of transradial approach for transcatheter superior mesenteric artery (SMA) urokinase infusion therapy in patients with acute extensive portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis. During a period of 7 years, 16 patients with acute extensive thrombosis of the portal (PV) and superior mesenteric veins (SMV) were treated by transcatheter selective SMA urokinase infusion therapy by way of the radial artery. The mean age of the patients was 39.5 years. Through the radial sheath, a 5F Cobra catheter was inserted into the SMA, and continuous infusion of urokinase was performedmore » for 5-11 days (7.1 {+-} 2.5 days). Adequate anticoagulation was given during treatment, throughout hospitalization, and after discharge. Technical success was achieved in all 16 patients. Substantial clinical improvement was seen in these 16 patients after the procedure. Minor complications at the radial puncture site were observed in 5 patients, but trans-SMA infusion therapy was not interrupted. Follow-up computed tomography scan before discharge demonstrated nearly complete disappearance of PV-SMV thrombosis in 9 patients and partial recanalization of PV-SMV thrombosis in 7 patients. The 16 patients were discharged 9-19 days (12 {+-} 6.0 days) after admission. Mean duration of follow-up after hospital discharge was 44 {+-} 18.5 months, and no recurrent episodes of PV-SMV thrombosis developed during that time period. Transradial approach for transcatheter selective SMA urokinase infusion therapy in addition to anticoagulation is a safe and effective therapy for the management of patients with acute extensive PV-SMV thrombosis.« less

  16. Biliary tract instillation of a SMAC mimetic induces TRAIL-dependent acute sclerosing cholangitis-like injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Krishnan, Anuradha; Bronk, Steven F; Hirsova, Petra; Griffith, Thomas S; Gores, Gregory J

    2017-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiopathogenesis characterized by fibrous cholangiopathy of large and small bile ducts. Systemic administration of a murine TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor agonist induces a sclerosing cholangitis injury in C57BL/6 mice, suggesting endogenous TRAIL may contribute to sclerosing cholangitis syndromes. Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAP-1 and cIAP-2) are negative regulators of inflammation and TRAIL receptor signaling. We hypothesized that if endogenous TRAIL promotes sclerosing cholangitis, then cIAP depletion should also induce this biliary tract injury. Herein, we show that cIAP protein levels are reduced in the interlobular bile ducts of human PSC livers. Downregulation of cIAPs in normal human cholangiocytes in vitro by use of a SMAC mimetic (SM) induces moderate, ripoptosome-mediated apoptosis and RIP1-independent upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Cytokine and chemokine expression was mediated by the non-canonical activation of NF-κB. To investigate whether downregulation of cIAPs is linked to generation of a PSC-like phenotype, an SM was directly instilled into the mouse biliary tree. Twelve hours after biliary instillation, TUNEL-positive cholangiocytes were identified; 5 days later, PSC-like changes were observed in the SM-treated mice, including a fibrous cholangiopathy of the interlobular bile ducts, portal inflammation, significant elevation of serum markers of cholestasis and cholangiographic evidence of intrahepatic biliary tract injury. In contrast, TRAIL and TRAIL-receptor deficient mice showed no sign of cholangiopathy following SM intrabiliary injection. We conclude that in vivo antagonism of cIAPs in mouse biliary epithelial cells is sufficient to trigger cholangiocytes apoptosis and a proinflammatory response resulting in a fibrous cholangiopathy resembling human sclerosing cholangitis. Therefore, downregulation

  17. Scrotal calcinosis: idiopathic or dystrophic?

    PubMed

    Dubey, Suparna; Sharma, Rajeev; Maheshwari, Veena

    2010-02-15

    Scrotal calcinosis is a rare benign local process characterized by multiple, painless, hard scrotal nodules in the absence of any systemic metabolic disorder. Histological examination reveals extensive deposition of calcium in the dermis, which may be surrounded by histiocytes and an inflammatory giant cell reaction. Numerous theories have been propounded to explain the pathogenesis of this condition, but the principal debate revolves around whether the calcium is deposited at the site of previous epithelial cysts or the calcified nodules are purely idiopathic. This is the largest study of scrotal calcinosis to date with 100 cases, on which clinical, biochemical, radiological, cytopathological, and histopathological examinations were conducted. The histological picture shows a continuous spectrum of changes ranging from intact epithelial cysts (41.0%) - both normal and inflamed; through inflamed cysts containing calcific material in the lumen but with intact cyst wall (53.0%); calcified inflamed cysts with partial epithelial lining (11.0%); to 'naked' calcium deposits lying in the dermis (100%), sometimes compressing surrounding collagen fibres to form a pseudocyst (56.0%). The presence of normal values of calcium and phosphorus along with this spectrum of changes in histology both support the theory that these form by dystrophic calcification of epithelial cysts in a progression that involves inflammation, rupture, calcification and obliteration of the cyst wall.

  18. Insulinoma presenting as idiopathic hypersomnia.

    PubMed

    Maestri, Michelangelo; Monzani, Fabio; Bonanni, Enrica; Di Coscio, Elisa; Cignoni, Fabio; Dardano, Angela; Iudice, Alfonso; Murri, Luigi

    2010-06-01

    We report the case of a 32-year-old woman with a history of increased sleep need and difficulty waking up; the diagnosis of idiopathic hypersomnia was hypothesized. During ambulatory polysomnography (PSG), the patient presented an episode characterized by loss of consciousness and jerking of the four limbs. A video-PSG monitoring was performed and the patient showed unresponsiveness and drowsiness at 7 a.m. During the episode, EEG showed theta-delta diffuse activity, and blood glucose level was 32 mg dl(-1). The diagnosis of insulinoma was then assumed; CT scan showed a hypodense mass into the pancreatic tail, and a partial pancreasectomy was performed. The described symptoms disappeared, and 5 years later the findings of a complete clinical and neurophysiological examination were negative. The clinical picture of insulinoma presenting with paroxysmal disorders has been previously described; however, whereas hypersomnia is uncommon, in the current case it represents the main symptom. Clinicians should keep in mind that neuroglycopenia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with hypersomnia, particularly if the clinical scenario does not conform to standard criteria.

  19. Risk factors and outcome in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis with persistent biliary candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Christian; Bode, Konrad Alexander; Chahoud, Fadi; Wannhoff, Andreas; Friedrich, Kilian; Weiss, Karl-Heinz; Sauer, Peter; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils

    2014-10-23

    Candidiasis is commonly observed in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), but the clinical risk factors associated with its presence have not been fully investigated. In this study, we aimed to analyse the incidence, risk factors, and transplantation-free survival in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients with persistent biliary candidiasis. We retrospectively analysed patients diagnosed with PSC who were admitted to our department during 2002 to 2012. One-hundred fifty patients whose bile cultures were tested for fungal species were selected, and their clinical and laboratory parameters were investigated. The results of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) and bile cultures were analysed using chart reviews. The cases of biliary candidiasis were sub-classified as transient or persistent. Thirty out of 150 (20.0%) patients had biliary candidiasis. Although all patients demonstrated comparable baseline characteristics, those with biliary candidiasis showed significantly reduced transplantation-free survival (p < 0.0001) along with a markedly elevated frequency of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) (p = 0.04). The patients were further sub-classified according to the transient (15/30) or persistent (15/30) nature of their biliary candidiasis. A subgroup analysis showed reduced survival with a greater necessity for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) only in patients with persistence of Candida (p = 0.007). The survival in the patients with transient biliary candidiasis was comparable to that in candidiasis-free patients. In a multivariate regression analysis that included Mayo risk score (MRS), sex, age, dominant stenosis, inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome, and number of times ERC was performed, biliary candidiasis was an independent risk factor for reduced survival (p = 0.008). Risk factors associated with acquisition of biliary candidiasis were age at PSC diagnosis and number of ERCs. The persistence of biliary

  20. Changes of loading tensile force-stretch relationships of rabbit mesenteric vein after 21 days of head-down rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yong-Jie; Sun, Hui-Pin; Yue, Yong; Sun, Xi-Qing; Wu, Xing-Yu

    Changes of venous compliance may contribute to postflight orthostatic intolerance; however, direct animal studies to address the changes of venous compliance to microgravity have been rare. The purpose of this study was to determine compliance changes of mesenteric veins of rabbits after 21 days of head-down rest (HDR). Twenty-four healthy male New Zealand Rabbits were randomly divided into 21 days of HDR group, horizontal immobilization group (HIG) and control group (Ctrl), with eight in each. Loading tensile force-stretch relationships of mesenteric vein segments were constructed after 21 d HDR. With the increase of loading tensile force, both longitudinal and circumferential stretches of vein samples increased significantly. Under the same loading tensile force, mesenteric vein of the HDR showed significant increase both in circumferential stretch and longitudinal stretches compared to those of Ctrl group and HIG group. These results indicate that, a 21-day simulated weightlessness leads to increase of mesenteric venous compliance.

  1. Emergency revascularisation in a patient with acute mesenteric ischaemia: the role of open revascularisation and compensatory blood flow.

    PubMed

    Morbi, Abigail H M; Nordon, Ian M

    2016-08-01

    This case highlights the importance of timely diagnosis and management of acute mesenteric ischaemia and illustrates the compensatory mechanisms of the mesenteric vasculature. A 53-year-old female presented with fever, abdominal pain, and vomiting. The patient had no risk factors for atherosclerosis and was a non-smoker in sinus rhythm with no history of coagulopathy. She was initially treated for viral gastroenteritis. Due to lack of clinical improvement and a rising C-Reactive Protein (416), a CT scan was performed. This demonstrated small bowel ischaemia, chronic occlusion of the coeliac axis, and a long acute-on-chronic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The length and morphology of the SMA occlusion precluded endovascular treatment. Emergency laparotomy demonstrated 1 m of necrotic small bowel and a pulseless mesentery. An aorto-SMA bypass, using good-quality long saphenous vein was performed, with segmental small bowel resection. Postoperative nutritional support was required with discharge on the 23rd post-operative day. Interval surveillance confirmed graft patency. One year post-discharge, she presented to routine clinic with paroxysmal right iliac fossa pain and decreased appetite. CT angiography showed a long tight 75% stenosis of the graft and she was admitted for mesenteric angioplasty. Angiography confirmed a significantly hypertrophied inferior mesenteric artery, which was now the dominant mesenteric supply. This case demonstrates the importance of emergency mesenteric revascularisation and how it acts as a bridge to anatomical compensation, allowing the collateral circulation to develop and the IMA to hypertrophy, becoming the dominant mesenteric supply.

  2. Mesenteric Th1 polarization and monocyte TNF-alpha production: first steps to systemic inflammation in rats with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Leticia; Albillos, Agustín; Nieto, Mónica; Reyes, Eduardo; Lledó, Lourdes; Monserrat, Jorge; Sanz, Eva; de la Hera, Antonio; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2005-08-01

    A systemic inflammatory state with increased circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) has been related to the bacterial infection susceptibility and hemodynamic derangement of patients with cirrhosis. We compared the activation status of immune cell subpopulations defined by 4-color cytometry in mesenteric and peripheral lymph nodes and blood of rats with CCl(4)-cirrhosis to define the immune response initiation site, the T-cell and monocyte contribution to pro-inflammatory cytokine production, as well as the pathogenic role of enteric bacteria in the cirrhosis immune response. Th1 cells and monocytes were expanded in the mesenteric nodes (P < .001) and blood (P < .001) of rats with cirrhosis, and activated to produce interferon gamma (P < .0001) and TNF-alpha (P < .0001), respectively. The greater numbers of recently activated CD134(+) Th cells in mesenteric nodes compared with blood, the correlation between their numbers in mesenteric nodes and blood (r = 0.66, P < .001), and the expansion of activated CD45RC(-) Th cells, which are unable to re-enter lymph nodes, in mesenteric nodes but not in blood or axillary nodes points to mesenteric nodes as the origin site of activated Th cells. Abrogation of bacterial translocation by bowel decontamination reduced the number of activated Th cells and monocytes, and normalized interferon gamma production by Th cells and TNF-alpha production by monocytes in mesenteric nodes and blood, respectively. In conclusion, in cirrhosis, enteric bacteria start off an orchestrated immune response cascade in mesenteric nodes involving Th1 polarization and monocyte activation to TNF-alpha production. Later, the recirculation of these activated effector immune cells into blood promotes systemic inflammation.

  3. [Mesenteric venous trombosis and pregnancy--a case report and a short review of the problem].

    PubMed

    Terzhumanov, R; Uchikova, E; Paskaleva, V; Milchev, N; Uchikov, A

    2005-01-01

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis is extremely rare surgical pathology during pregnancy and frequently is associated with hemoglobinopathies beta-thalassemia, congenital defects of the coagulation and antiphospholipide syndrome. It has nontypical clinical appearance, which hardens the timely diagnosis and the adequate surgical treatment. We present a case of a 22 year-old girl with hemozygote form of beta thalassemia, pregnant in ml II, with mesenteric venose thrombosis. The diagnosis was made on the 24th hour from the beginning of the disease. The patient was operated successfully by a resection of the necrotic changed part of the intestine. She noticed vaginal bleeding due to a missed abortion on the 22nd day after the operation.

  4. Rapid reversal of colonic pneumatosis with restoration of mesenteric arterial supply.

    PubMed

    Abidali, Hussein; Cole, Lauren; Seetharam, Anil Bellur

    2018-06-07

    Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) is characterized by gas-filled cystic lesions within the wall of the large intestine and presents along a spectrum of clinical severity ranging from benign to life threatening. Etiopathogenesis is multifactorial and postulated to result from either mechanical or bacterial causes. In this report, we present a patient with chronic abdominal pain evaluated with colonoscopy revealing segmental PCI isolated to the distal colon. Further investigation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) compromising the inferior mesenteric artery takeoff. Endovascular repair of the AAA resulted in clinical resolution of abdominal pain and endoscopic resolution of PCI. To our knowledge, this is the first report to document endoscopic resolution of PCI with restoration of mesenteric arterial supply, highlighting vascular insufficiency as a predisposing and reversible pathogenic mechanism.

  5. Systemic candidiasis and mesenteric mast cell tumor with multiple metastases in a dog.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Kazuya; Sakaguchi, Kanako; Kobayashi, Shintaro; Tominaga, Makiko; Hirayama, Kazuko; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2009-02-01

    A 5-year-old female miniature dachshund presenting with persistent vomiting and diarrhea had two concurrent rare pathological conditions: systemic candidiasis and mesenteric mast cell tumor with multiorgan metastases. Neoplastic mast cells formed mass in the mesentery of the cecal-colonic region and were also found in the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, adrenal grands, ovaries, bone marrow and other tissues. The cells had intracytoplasmic granules with metachromasia and were immunohistochemically positive for c-kit and histamine. Granulomatous lesions with fungal organisms were present in the heart, lungs, kidneys, pancreas, subserosal and surrounding adipose tissue of the duodenum, thyroid glands and mesenteric mass, and phagocytosed organisms were detected in the liver and bone marrow. Bacteriologically and immunohistochemically, the fungi were consistent with Candida albicans.

  6. Nonbacterial Thrombotic Endocarditis in a Patient with Bowel Infarction due to Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyue Mee; Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Lee, Hak Seung; Jung, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Chee Hae; Oh, Sooyeon; Kim, Jung Ho; Zo, Joo-Hee

    2014-05-01

    Ante mortem cases of venous thrombosis in patients with nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) have not yet been reported. We describe a rare case of NBTE in a patient with mesenteric vein thrombosis. A healthy 37-year-old man with abdominal pain and fever underwent emergency small bowel resection due to bowel ischemia resulting from mesenteric vein thrombosis. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed multiple mobile masses attached to the anterior leaflet of the mitral valves and their chordae tendineae. On suspicion of infective endocarditis, the cardiac masses were excised through open-heart surgery. However, pathologic reviews were compatible with NBTE. The patient was stable after the cardiac surgery and was treated with warfarin. Laboratory and imaging findings regarding his hypercoagulable condition were all negative.

  7. Nonsurgical Management of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Jaime A; Hresko, M Timothy; Glotzbecker, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    Pediatric patient visits for spinal deformity are common. Most of these visits are for nonsurgical management of scoliosis, with approximately 600,000 visits for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) annually. Appropriate management of scoliotic curves that do not meet surgical indication parameters is essential. Renewed enthusiasm for nonsurgical management of AIS (eg, bracing, physical therapy) exists in part because of the results of the Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial, which is the only randomized controlled trial available on the use of bracing for AIS. Bracing is appropriate for idiopathic curves between 20° and 40°, with successful control of these curves reported in >70% of patients. Patient adherence to the prescribed duration of wear is essential to maximize the effectiveness of the brace. The choice of brace type must be individualized according to the deformity and the patient's personality as well as the practice setting and brace availability.

  8. Inhibition of the active lymph pump by flow in rat mesenteric lymphatics and thoracic duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gashev, Anatoliy A.; Davis, Michael J.; Zawieja, David C.; Delp, M. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    There are only a few reports of the influence of imposed flow on an active lymph pump under conditions of controlled intraluminal pressure. Thus, the mechanisms are not clearly defined. Rat mesenteric lymphatics and thoracic ducts were isolated, cannulated and pressurized. Input and output pressures were adjusted to impose various flows. Lymphatic systolic and diastolic diameters were measured and used to determine contraction frequency and pump flow indices. Imposed flow inhibited the active lymph pump in both mesenteric lymphatics and in the thoracic duct. The active pump of the thoracic duct appeared more sensitive to flow than did the active pump of the mesenteric lymphatics. Imposed flow reduced the frequency and amplitude of the contractions and accordingly the active pump flow. Flow-induced inhibition of the active lymph pump followed two temporal patterns. The first pattern was a rapidly developing inhibition of contraction frequency. Upon imposition of flow, the contraction frequency immediately fell and then partially recovered over time during continued flow. This effect was dependent on the magnitude of imposed flow, but did not depend on the direction of flow. The effect also depended upon the rate of change in the direction of flow. The second pattern was a slowly developing reduction of the amplitude of the lymphatic contractions, which increased over time during continued flow. The inhibition of contraction amplitude was dependent on the direction of the imposed flow, but independent of the magnitude of flow. Nitric oxide was partly but not completely responsible for the influence of flow on the mesenteric lymph pump. Exposure to NO mimicked the effects of flow, and inhibition of the NO synthase by N (G)-monomethyl-L-arginine attenuated but did not completely abolish the effects of flow.

  9. Transcatheter arterial embolization for traumatic mesenteric bleeding: a 15-year, single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jong Soo; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Heung-Kyu; Kim, Jong Woo; Yoon, Hyun-Ki

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for mesenteric bleeding following trauma. METHODS From 2001 to 2015, 12 patients were referred to our interventional unit for mesenteric bleeding following trauma, based on clinical decisions and computed tomography (CT) images. After excluding one patient with no bleeding focus and one patient who underwent emergency surgery, a total of 10 patients (male:female ratio, 9:1; mean age, 52.1 years) who underwent super selective TAE of visceral arteries were included in this study. Technical and clinical success, complications, and 30-day mortality rate were analyzed. RESULTS In 10 patients who underwent TAE, the types of trauma were motor vehicle collision (n=6), fall (n=2), assault (n=1), and penetrating injury (n=1), and the bleeding arteries were in the pancreaticoduodenal arterial arcade (n=4), jejunal artery (n=3), colic artery (n=2), and sigmoid artery (n=1). N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) (n=2), microcoils (n=2), and combinations of NBCA, microcoils, or gelatin sponge particles (n=6) were used as embolic agents. Technical success was achieved in all 10 patients, with immediate cessation of bleeding. Clinical success rate was 90% (9/10), and all patients were discharged with no further treatment required for mesenteric bleeding. However, one patient showed rebleeding 10 days later and underwent repeated TAE with successful result. There were no TAE-related ischemic complications such as bowel infarction. The 30-day mortality rate was 0%. CONCLUSION Our clinical experience suggests that TAE used to control mesenteric bleeding following trauma is safe and effective as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery. PMID:27306658

  10. Mesenteric Primitive Myxoid Mesenchymal Tumor in a 7-Month-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Chacon, Daniella; Correa, Catalina; Luengas, Juan P

    2018-05-01

    Mesenteric tumors are rare, especially in the pediatric population. We present a case of a 7-month-old boy with an incidental abdominal mass identified as a Primitive Myxoid Mesenchymal Tumor of Infancy derived from the small bowel mesentery. This neoplasm is part of a spectrum of myofibroblastic lesions, with distinct clinical, morphologic, IHQ reactivity, and an aggressive clinical course. There is a paucity of evidence for the management of these tumors, and surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment.

  11. Prevalence and clinical importance of mesenteric venous thrombosis in the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort.

    PubMed

    Violi, N Vietti; Vietti Violi, Naïk; Schoepfer, Alain M; Fournier, Nicolas; Guiu, Boris; Bize, Pierre; Denys, Alban

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) in the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study and to correlate MVT with clinical outcome. Abdominal portal phase CT was used to examine patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Two experienced abdominal radiologists retrospectively analyzed the images, focusing on the superior and inferior mesenteric vein branches and looking for signs of acute or chronic thrombosis. The location of abnormalities was registered. The presence of MVT was correlated with IBD-related radiologic signs and complications. The cases of 160 patients with IBD (89 women, 71 men; Crohn disease [CD], 121 patients; ulcerative colitis [UC], 39 patients; median age at diagnosis, 27 years for patients with CD, 32 years for patients with UC) were analyzed. MVT was detected in 43 patients with IBD (26.8%). One of these patients had acute MVT; 38, chronic MVT; and four, both. The prevalence of MVT did not differ between CD (35/121 [28.9%]) and UC (8/39 [20.5%]) (p = 0.303). The location of thrombosis was different between CD and UC (CD, jejunal or ileal veins only [p = 0.005]; UC, rectocolic veins only [p = 0.001]). Almost all (41/43) cases of thrombosis were peripheral. MVT in CD patients was more frequently associated with bowel wall thickening (p = 0.013), mesenteric fat hypertrophy (p = 0.005), ascites (p = 0.002), and mesenteric lymph node enlargement (p = 0.036) and was associated with higher rate of bowel stenosis (p < 0.001) and more intestinal IBD-related surgery (p = 0.016) in the outcome. Statistical analyses for patients with UC were not relevant because of the limited population (n = 8). MVT is frequently found in patients with IBD. Among patients with CD, MVT is associated with bowel stenosis and CD-related intestinal surgery.

  12. A randomised controlled comparison of injection, thermal, and mechanical endoscopic methods of haemostasis on mesenteric vessels

    PubMed Central

    Hepworth, C; Kadirkamanathan, S; Gong, F; Swain, C

    1998-01-01

    Background and aims—A randomised controlled comparison of haemostatic efficacy of mechanical, injection, and thermal methods of haemostasis was undertaken using canine mesenteric vessels to test the hypothesis that mechanical methods of haemostasis are more effective in controlling haemorrhage than injection or thermal methods. The diameter of arteries in human bleeding ulcers measures up to 3.45 mm; mesenteric vessels up to 5 mm were therefore studied. 
Methods—Mesenteric vessels were randomised to treatment with injection sclerotherapy (adrenaline and ethanolamine), bipolar diathermy, or mechanical methods (band, clips, sewing machine, endoloops). The vessels were severed and haemostasis recorded. 
Results—Injection sclerotherapy and clips failed to stop bleeding from vessels of 1 mm (n=20) and 2 mm (n=20). Bipolar diathermy was effective on 8/10 vessels of 2 mm but failed on 3 mm vessels (n=5). Unstretched elastic bands succeeded on 13/15 vessels of 2 mm but on only 3/10 vessels of 3 mm. The sewing machine achieved haemostasis on 8/10 vessels of 4 mm but failed on 5 mm vessels (n=5); endoloops were effective on all 5 mm vessels (n=5). 
Conclusions—Only mechanical methods were effective on vessels greater than 2 mm in diameter. Some mechanical methods (banding and clips) were less effective than expected and need modification. Thermal and (effective) mechanical methods were significantly (p<0.01) more effective than injection sclerotherapy. The most effective mechanical methods were significantly more effective (p<0.01) than thermal or injection on vessels greater than 2mm. 

 Keywords: endoscopic haemostasis; mesenteric vessels PMID:9616305

  13. [Polycystic hydatidosis: casual finding of calcified hydatid cyst simulating mesenteric neoplasm].

    PubMed

    Moraes, Mário A P; Sobreira, Maria de Nazareth M; Medeiros Filho, Plínio; Tavares, Alexandre Cavalca; Gomes, Maria Iolanda

    2003-01-01

    A case of abdominal hydatidosis, without hepatic involvement, in a patient from the State of Acre is reported. The hydatid, already in degeneration and partially calcified, was discovered incidentally by a radiologic examination of the vertebral column, carried out for evaluating the state of an intervertebral disk prolapse. Although the images suggested a mesenteric tumor, attached to the intestinal wall, the finding of rostellar hooklets in the dense contents of the cyst, after surgical removal, revealed the parasitic nature of the lesion.

  14. Fatal extraintestinal toxoplasmosis in a young male cat with enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Tamara M; Blois, Shauna; Vince, Andrew R

    2016-05-01

    A 22-month-old indoor/outdoor neutered male domestic short-haired cat had a history of progressive lethargy, vomiting, and decreased appetite. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular hyperechoic mass in the mid-abdomen. He was unresponsive to symptomatic medical management and was euthanized after 3 days of hospitalization. A diagnosis of disseminated extraintestinal toxoplasmosis was made based on the finding of intracytoplasmic protozoan parasites on histopathological examination of mesenteric lymph nodes, hepatic and intestinal samples, and on immunohistochemistry.

  15. Mesenteric Lymphatic-Perilymphatic Adipose Crosstalk: Role in Alcohol-Induced Perilymphatic Adipose Tissue Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Souza-Smith, Flavia M; Siggins, Robert W; Molina, Patricia E

    2015-08-01

    The digestive tract lymphatics transport approximately two-thirds of all lymph produced in the body and have a key role in mucosal immunity through their contribution to antigen transport and immune cell trafficking. Mesenteric lymphatic pumping function integrity is critical for maintaining homeostasis and lipid transport. We previously demonstrated that acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) increases mesenteric lymphatic amplitude of contraction and ejection fraction, enhancing the ability of the lymphatic vessels to pump lymph. AAI has been shown to disrupt intestinal barrier integrity, which would be expected to increase the endotoxin content of mesenteric lymph. In this study, we tested the prediction that AAI increases lymphatic permeability directly affecting perilymphatic adipose tissue (PLAT) milieu. Male Sprague Dawley rats received an intragastric infusion of 2.5 g/kg of alcohol. Isovolumic administration of water (vehicle) served as control. PLAT was isolated for the determination of Evans Blue extravasation (permeability), cytokine content, and immunohistochemistry for inflammatory cell infiltration at 30 minutes and 24 hours after alcohol administration. PLAT isolated from AAI animals had greater Evans Blue concentrations and cytokine expression (24 hours post-AAI) and mast cell and neutrophil density than that isolated from controls. AAI resulted in significantly higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) levels, lower plasma adiponectin levels (at 30 minutes), and unchanged plasma visfatin levels. The data indicate that AAI induces mesenteric lymphatic hyperpermeability, promotes PLAT inflammatory milieu and disrupts the systemic adipokine profile. These findings suggest an association between alcohol-induced lymphatic hyperpermeability and early manifestations of metabolic dysfunction as a result of alcohol abuse. We propose that crosstalk between lymph and PLAT results in adipose inflammation and adipokine dysregulation during AAI. Copyright

  16. Shear wave elastography diagnosis of the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Xue, Nianyu; Xu, Youfeng; Huang, Pintong; Zhang, Shengmin; Wang, Hongwei; Yu, Fei

    2016-08-01

    The present study aimed to report the shear wave elastography (SWE) findings in a patient with the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSVPTC). Since patients with DSVPTC may present with typical clinicopathological features and initially appear to have Hashimoto's thyroiditis, a thorough clinical evaluation and an early diagnosis are important. A 20-year-old female patient presented with a 1-month history of a neck mass and sore throat. Conventional ultrasound and SWE were performed using an AIXPLORER system with 14-5 MHz linear transducer. The patient had undergone total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck lymph node dissection, and an intraoperative pathology consultation to confirm the malignancy of lymph node metastasis. Pathological diagnosis was DSVPTC in both lobes, with lymph node metastases in the bilateral neck. The clinical presentation and serological findings were all indicative of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid ultrasonography revealed diffuse enlargement of the both lobes, heterogenous echogenicity without mass formation, diffuse scattered microcalcifications and poor vascularization. SWE revealed stiff values of the thyroid: The mean stiffness was 99.7 kpa, the minimum stiffness was 59.1 kpa and the maximum stiffness was 180.1 kpa. The maximum stiffness of the DSVPTC (180.1 kpa) was higher compared with the diagnostic criteria of malignant thyroid nodules (65 kPa). SWE may be considered as a novel and valuable method to diagnose DSVPC.

  17. Shear wave elastography diagnosis of the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Nianyu; Xu, Youfeng; Huang, Pintong; Zhang, Shengmin; Wang, Hongwei; Yu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to report the shear wave elastography (SWE) findings in a patient with the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSVPTC). Since patients with DSVPTC may present with typical clinicopathological features and initially appear to have Hashimoto's thyroiditis, a thorough clinical evaluation and an early diagnosis are important. A 20-year-old female patient presented with a 1-month history of a neck mass and sore throat. Conventional ultrasound and SWE were performed using an AIXPLORER system with 14-5 MHz linear transducer. The patient had undergone total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck lymph node dissection, and an intraoperative pathology consultation to confirm the malignancy of lymph node metastasis. Pathological diagnosis was DSVPTC in both lobes, with lymph node metastases in the bilateral neck. The clinical presentation and serological findings were all indicative of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid ultrasonography revealed diffuse enlargement of the both lobes, heterogenous echogenicity without mass formation, diffuse scattered microcalcifications and poor vascularization. SWE revealed stiff values of the thyroid: The mean stiffness was 99.7 kpa, the minimum stiffness was 59.1 kpa and the maximum stiffness was 180.1 kpa. The maximum stiffness of the DSVPTC (180.1 kpa) was higher compared with the diagnostic criteria of malignant thyroid nodules (65 kPa). SWE may be considered as a novel and valuable method to diagnose DSVPC. PMID:27446574

  18. Impact of Microbes on the Pathogenesis of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)

    PubMed Central

    Mattner, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) represent the major clinical entities of chronic cholestatic liver diseases. Both disorders are characterized by portal inflammation and slowly progress to obliterative fibrosis and eventually liver cirrhosis. Although immune-pathogenic mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PBC and PSC, neither disorder is considered to be a classical autoimmune disease, as PSC and PBC patients do not respond to immune-suppressants. Furthermore, the decreased bile flow resulting from the immune-mediated tissue assault and the subsequent accumulation of toxic bile products in PBC and PSC not only perpetuates biliary epithelial damage, but also alters the composition of the intestinal and biliary microbiota and its mutual interactions with the host. Consistent with the close association of PSC and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the polyclonal hyper IgM response in PBC and (auto-)antibodies which cross-react to microbial antigens in both diseases, an expansion of individual microbes leads to shifts in the composition of the intestinal or biliary microbiota and a subsequent altered integrity of epithelial layers, promoting microbial translocation. These changes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of both devastating disorders. Thus, we will discuss here these recent findings in the context of novel and alternative therapeutic options. PMID:27834858

  19. Case of telangiectatic/inflammatory hepatocellular adenoma arising in a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Maylee, Hsu; Harada, Kenichi; Igarashi, Saya; Tohda, Gen; Yamamoto, Makoto; Ren, Xiang Shan; Osawa, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Norio; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2012-06-01

    Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) have been recently identified as a heterogeneous group, differing based on genotypic as well as morphological characteristics. HCA are most frequently found in women on oral contraception. A type of HCA, inflammatory HCA, is also known as telangiectatic HCA and was previously referred to as telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia. We present the first case of HCA arising from the liver with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). This case is a 30-year-old man with a past medical history of PSC, ulcerative colitis and diabetes mellitus. A routine ultrasonography for PSC detected the gradually enlarged intrahepatic mass. Liver biopsy could reveal the diagnosis of telangiectatic/ inflammatory HCA by morphological and immunohistochemical analyses. Partial hepatectomy was performed and the resected liver was pathologically diagnosed as the telangiectatic/inflammatory HCA arising in PSC. This is the first case report of such an association and here we review the current developments and published work of this rare tumor and the association with an activated inflammatory related tumorogenic pathway and PSC. © 2012 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  20. Immunosuppressive Agents for the Treatment of Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xia; Luo, Xin; Hou, Jing-Ying; Wu, Shu-Yun; Li, Liang-Zong; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Wang, Ling-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there are no effective therapeutic agents for patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficiency of immunosuppressive agents (IAs) for the treatment of PSC. The literatures were searched using the following keywords singly or in combination: PSC, treatments, IAs. The primary outcome was defined as the need for liver transplantation or mortality. Two hundred sixty six patients from 7 eligible studies were analyzed. IAs had no remarkable effects on the rate of mortality or liver transplantation (relative risk, RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.58-1.62, p = 0.92). Subgroup analyses showed no significant effect of IAs co-administration therapy (IAs co-administered with ursodeoxycholic acid, IA co-administered with IA; RR 1.41, 95% CI 0.40-4.95, p = 0.60). IAs caused adverse events (AEs) such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and pruritus (RR 1.81, 95% CI 1.07-3.07, p = 0.03). IAs therapy did not significantly improve markers of liver function except for aspartate transaminase (weighted mean difference -9.76, 95% CI -12.92 to -6.6, p < 0.001). IAs administrated as either monotherapy or combination therapy do not reduce the risk of mortality or liver transplantation. IAs monotherapy is associated with AEs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Likelihood of malignancy in gallbladder polyps and outcomes following cholecystectomy in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Eaton, John E; Thackeray, Erin W; Lindor, Keith D

    2012-03-01

    Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) have an increased risk for gallbladder cancer. We aimed to define the postoperative outcomes in PSC patients after cholecystectomy and determine if size of a gallbladder lesion on imaging predicts the presence of neoplasia. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with PSC who underwent cholecystectomy at Mayo Clinic between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2008. Patients with a prior history of a liver transplant or cholangiocarcinoma were excluded. A total of 57 patients were included in our primary analysis during the early postoperative period. The most common indication for undergoing a cholecystectomy was the presence of a gallbladder polyp or mass. The sensitivity and specificity of a gallbladder lesion of 0.80 cm and the presence of gallbladder neoplasia was 100% (95% confidence interval (CI) 77-100%) and 70% (95% CI 35-93%), respectively. Of the patients, 23 (40%) had an early postoperative complication. The Child-Pugh score was the only predictor of postoperative outcomes in the multivariate model (odds ratio 1.78, 95% CI 1.11-3.12, P=0.02). Cholecystectomy in patients with PSC is associated with a high morbidity. Gallbladder polyps <0.80 cm are unlikely to be malignant and observation of these small polyps should be considered. A higher Child-Pugh score was associated with early postoperative complications.

  2. Expression of defective measles virus genes in brain tissues of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    SciTech Connect

    Baczko, K.; Liebert, U.G.; Billeter, M.

    1986-08-01

    The persistence of measles virus in selected areas of the brains of four patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was characterized by immunohistological and biochemical techniques. The five measles virus structural proteins were never simultaneously detectable in any of the bran sections. Nucleocapsid proteins and phosphoproteins were found in every diseased brain area, whereas hemagglutinin protein was detected in two cases, fusion protein was detected in three cases, and matrix protein was detected in only one case. Also, it could be shown that the amounts of measles virus RNA in the brains differed from patient to patient and in themore » different regions investigated. In all patients, plus-strand RNAs specific for these five viral genes could be detected. However, the amounts of fusion and hemagglutinin mRNAs were low compared with the amounts in lytically infected cells. The presence of particular measles virus RNAs in SSPE-infected brains did not always correlate with mRNA activity. In in vitro translations, the matrix protein was produced in only one case, and the hemagglutinin protein was produced in none. These results indicate that measles virus persistence in SSPE is correlated with different defects of several genes which probably prevent assembly of viral particles in SSPE-infected brain tissue.« less

  3. De-novo cholangiocarcinoma in native common bile duct remnant following OLT for primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Landaverde, Carmen; Ng, Vivian; Sato, Alisa; Tabibian, James; Durazo, Francisco; Busuttil, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory and obstructive disease of the intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts of unknown etiology. Currently, orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the only definitive treatment for PSC-related end-stage liver disease. However, PSC has been known to recur in the grafted liver. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is more commonly performed than choledochocholedochostomy for PSC, although choledochocholedochostomy has been found to be safe and efficacious for PSC if the distal common bile duct is uninvolved at the time of OLT. Our case is unique in that it describes a patient who developed de-novo cholangiocarcinoma in the remnant portion of the native common bile duct six years after OLT with choledochocholedochostomy for PSC-associated end-stage liver disease without having PSC recurrence. In conclusion, our case report indicates that choledochocholedochostomy may not be desirable in PSC due to an increased risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma in the native common bile duct. This risk exists as well with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in the remaining intra-duodenal and intra-pancreatic biliary epithelium, although in theory to a lesser extent. Therefore, the risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma in the recipient common bile duct can only be completely eliminated by performing a Whipple procedure at the time of OLT.

  4. A possible case of Garre's sclerosing osteomyelitis from Medieval Tuscany (11th-12th centuries).

    PubMed

    Giuffra, Valentina; Vitiello, Angelica; Giusiani, Sara; Caramella, Davide; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-12-01

    Archaeological excavations carried out at the castle of Monte di Croce near Florence brought to light a small cemetery complex belonging to the castle church, dated back to the 11th-12th centuries. An elite stone tomb contained the skeletal remains of a male aged 35-45 years with obvious pathology of the right tibia. The proximal metaphysis and the upper half of the diaphysis appear massively enlarged as a result of severe chronic periostitis. A transverse section illustrates complete obliteration of the medullary cavity by new spongy bone, with some large cavitations. The primary, but completely remodeled tibial shaft is still recognizable. This finding and the strong sclerotic reaction with some central cavitations rule out any form of bone tumor and indicate a chronic inflammatory disease. The morphological and radiological picture and the tibial localization suggest a diagnosis of chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis of Garré, a rare form of chronic osteomyelitis characterized by an intense periosteal reaction with little or no suppuration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Efficacy of oral vancomycin in recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hey, Penelope; Lokan, Julie; Johnson, Paul; Gow, Paul

    2017-09-25

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a liver disease that leads to progressive destruction and stricturing of the biliary tree. Unfortunately, apart from orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), there are no universally accepted therapies to treat this disease. Even following transplantation, recurrence of PSC is seen in approximately one quarter of patients and leads to high rates of graft failure. Oral vancomycin, through possible immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, has been shown in small-scale studies to be successful in improving liver function tests in patients with pretransplant PSC. We report the first case of an adult patient diagnosed with recurrent PSC 4 years after OLT who was treated with oral vancomycin leading to complete normalisation of his liver biochemistry. This case adds to the growing literature of a potential therapeutic role for this antibiotic in PSC and highlights interesting questions regarding mechanisms of disease. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Adult onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: clinical profile of 39 patients from a tertiary care centre

    PubMed Central

    Prashanth, L K; Taly, A B; Ravi, V; Sinha, S; Arunodaya, G R

    2006-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory characteristics of 39 patients with adult onset subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) are described and compared to those of juvenile onset patients regarding preceding measles, age at onset, gender, interval between onset and diagnosis, clinical profile, and course during follow up. Diagnosis was based on clinical and electroencephalographic findings and raised anti‐measles antibody titres in cerebrospinal fluid. Mean age at SSPE symptom onset was 20.9±4.9 years and mean interval from onset to diagnosis was 6.3±9.6 months. Referral diagnosis was accurate in only 12 patients. Presenting symptoms included myoclonus, behavioural changes, seizures, and cognitive, visual, and extrapyramidal disturbance. All patients received symptomatic therapy; 19 also received disease modifying agents. Five of seven pregnant women had successful deliveries. The follow‐up period varied widely (maximum 60 months, median 9 months). The profile of adult onset SSPE did not differ from the rest of the cohort, except for a longer interval between measles infection and symptom onset (p<0.0001). SSPE in adults poses diagnostic challenges for clinicians. A high index of suspicion and appropriate investigations are necessary for early diagnosis and counselling. PMID:16464898

  7. Are SCN1A gene mutations responsible for genetic susceptibility to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis?

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Dravet syndrome, characterized predominantly by myoclonus, has a striking clinical resemblance to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). Patients with Dravet syndrome develop significant mental decline with advancing age of affected child like in SSPE. It is well established that SCN1A gene mutations are associated with Dravet syndrome. Even periodic EEG complexes have been described in Dravet syndrome. In addition to Dravet syndrome, several other types of acute and subacute encephalopathic syndromes having clinical and electroencephalographic resemblance to SSPE are associated with SCN1A gene mutations. SSPE is a devastating progressive inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. It is caused by persistent infection of the brain by an aberrant measles virus. Only a few of a vast number of measles infected pediatric population develop SSPE. There are several reports describing presence of SSPE is close relatives and it has been described previously in sibling and twin pairs. A genetic susceptibility for development of SSPE is likely. In fact, a variety of genetic abnormalities have already been described in patients with SSPE. It can also be argued that because of striking clinical resemblance between Dravet and various epileptic and encephalopathic syndromes associated with SCN1A gene mutations and SSPE, SCN1A gene abnormalities may also be responsible for susceptibility to SSPE in measles infected children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a tertiary care centre in post measles vaccination era.

    PubMed

    Sonia, Malik; Lalit, Dar; Shobha, Broor; Sheffali, Gulati; Amandeep, Salhotra; Veena, Kalra; Madhuri, Behari

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to observe the impact of measles vaccination on the epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in the post measles vaccination era. This is a retrospective study from a tertiary care hospital, covering a ten year period starting a decade after the introduction of the national measles immunization programme in India. We analyzed 458 serologically confirmed SSPE cases. These patients had a high cerebrospinal fluid: serum anti-measles antibody ratio. The male to female ratio in the present study was 4.4:1. The mean age at onset of SSPE was 13.3 years, showing an increase in mean age at onset of SSPE. Clinical and other demographic details, available from 72 in-patients, are discussed in this report. Of these, a history of measles could be elicited in 34 cases. Mean latent period between measles infection and onset of SSPE was 7.8 years. Six patients gave a history of measles vaccination. A sizable percentage (15.5 %) of the patients was > or = 18 years old and considered to have adult onset SSPE. The incidence of SSPE continues to be high and this report highlights the need for further strengthening routine measles immunization coverage.

  9. Epidemiological findings and clinical and magnetic resonance presentations in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Cece, H; Tokay, L; Yildiz, S; Karakas, O; Karakas, E; Iscan, A

    2011-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, progressive, inflammatory neurodegenerative disease. This study investigated the relationships of clinical stage with epidemiological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in SSPE by retrospective review of 76 cases (57 male) diagnosed by typical periodic electroencephalographic features, clinical symptoms and elevated measles antibody titre in cerebrospinal fluid. Clinical stage at diagnosis was I or II in 48 patients, III in 25 and IV in three. Prominent findings at presentation were atonic/myoclonic seizures (57.9%) and mental deterioration with behaviour alteration (30.3%). Frequent MRI findings (13 - 32 patients) were subcortical, periventricular and cortical involvement and brain atrophy; the corpus callosum, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brainstem were less frequently involved. Five patients had pseudotumour cerebri. Cranial MRI at initial diagnosis was normal in 21 patients (19 stage I/II, two stage III/IV). Abnormal MRI findings were significantly more frequent in the later stages, thus a normal initial cranial MRI does not exclude SSPE, which should, therefore, be kept in mind in childhood demyelinating diseases even when the presentation is unusual.

  10. A Multinational Survey on Actual Diagnostics and Treatment of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Häusler, Martin; Aksoy, Ayse; Alber, Michael; Altunbasak, Sakir; Angay, Aydan; Arsene, Oana Tarta; Craiu, Dana; Hartmann, Hans; Hiz-Kurul, Semra; Ichiyama, Takashi; Iliescu, Catrinel; Jocic-Jakubi, Bosanka; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Köse, Gülsen; Lukban, Marissa B; Ozkan, Mehpare; Patcheva, Iliyana; Teichler, Jens; Vintan, Mihaela; Yaramis, Ahmet; Yarar, Coskun; Yis, Uluc; Yuksel, Deniz; Anlar, Banu

    2015-12-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a chronic infection of the central nervous system caused by the measles virus (MV). Its prevalence remains high in resource poor countries and is likely to increase in the Northern Europe as vaccination rates decrease. Clinical knowledge of this devastating condition, however, is limited. We therefore conducted this multinational survey summarizing experience obtained from more than 500 patients treated by 24 physicians in seven countries. SSPE should be considered in all patients presenting with otherwise unexplained acquired neurological symptoms. In most patients, the diagnosis will be established by the combination of typical clinical symptoms (characteristic repetitive myoclonic jerks), a strong intrathecal synthesis of antibodies to MV and typical electroencephalogram findings (Radermecker complexes). Whereas the therapeutic use of different antiviral (amantadine, ribavirin) and immunomodulatory drugs (isoprinosine, interferons) and of immunoglobulins has been reported repeatedly, optimum application regimen of these drugs has not been established. This is partly due to the absence of common diagnostic and clinical standards focusing on neurological and psychosocial aspects. Carbamazepine, levetiracetam, and clobazam are the drugs most frequently used to control myoclonic jerks. We have established a consensus on essential laboratory and clinical parameters that should facilitate collaborative studies. Those are urgently needed to improve outcome. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in papua new guinean children: the cost of continuing inadequate measles vaccine coverage.

    PubMed

    Manning, Laurens; Laman, Moses; Edoni, Henry; Mueller, Ivo; Karunajeewa, Harin A; Smith, David; Hwaiwhanje, Ilomo; Siba, Peter M; Davis, Timothy M E

    2011-01-04

    subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a late, rare and usually fatal complication of measles infection. Although a very high incidence of SSPE in Papua New Guinea (PNG) was first recognized 20 years ago, estimated measles vaccine coverage has remained at ≤ 70% since and a large measles epidemic occurred in 2002. We report a series of 22 SSPE cases presenting between November 2007 and July 2009 in Madang Province, PNG, including localized clusters with the highest ever reported annual incidence. as part of a prospective observational study of severe childhood illness at Modilon Hospital, the provincial referral center, children presenting with evidence of meningo-encephalitis were assessed in detail including lumbar puncture in most cases. A diagnosis of SSPE was based on clinical features and presence of measles-specific IgG in cerebrospinal fluid and/or plasma. The estimated annual SSPE incidence in Madang province was 54/million population aged <20 years, but four sub-districts had an incidence >100/million/year. The distribution of year of birth of the 22 children with SSPE closely matched the reported annual measles incidence in PNG, including a peak in 2002. SSPE follows measles infections in very young PNG children. Because PNG children have known low seroconversion rates to the first measles vaccine given at 6 months of age, efforts such as supplementary measles immunisation programs should continue in order to reduce the pool of non-immune people surrounding the youngest and most vulnerable members of PNG communities.

  12. Predictors of clinical course of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: experience at the Children's Hospital, Lahore.

    PubMed

    Malik, Muhammad Akbar; Saeed, Muhammad; Qureshi, Ahmad Usaid; Ahmed, Naseer; Akram, Muhammad

    2010-10-01

    To determine the clinical course of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) and different factors affecting the clinical course. Descriptive study. The Children's Hospital, Lahore, from October 2005 to May 2008. All serologically confirmed patients of SSPE were registered and clinical staging of these patients were done from stage-I to stage-IV. Clinical course of these patients was classified by using neurological disability index as fulminant, acute, subacute, and chronic course. Clinical course was analyzed for any difference with age, gender, immunization for measles, measles infection, nutritional status and correlation with age of onset of SSPE, (Spearman's correlation), using statistic package for social science (SPSS) V. 14. A total of 57 cases (41 males, 16 females) with mean age of 7.45 years were studied. Forty (71.4%) of them were vaccinated with single dose at about 9 months of age, 41% (23/57) had measles infections ≤ 2 years of age. Using the Neurology Disability Index for these patients 10.5% had fulminant, 17.5% had acute, 49.2% subacute and 22.8% had chronic course. Age, gender, age at measles infection, SSPE onset age and nutritional status were poor predictors of clinical course of SSPE. Unvaccinated patients showed significantly more rapid course of disease (p = 0.04). Clinical course of SSPE cannot be predicted at the onset of this catastrophic disorder. Children not immunized against measles had a significant rapid course of disease.

  13. PD1 as a common candidate susceptibility gene of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Yoshito; Yukaya, Naoko; Kusuhara, Koichi; Kira, Ryutaro; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Ihara, Kenji; Sakai, Yasunari; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Pipo-Deveza, Judy R; Silao, Catherine Lynn T; Sanchez, Benilda C; Lukban, Marissa B; Salonga, Aida M; Hara, Toshiro

    2010-04-01

    Although the exact pathogenesis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) remains to be determined, our previous data suggested a genetic contribution to the host susceptibility to SSPE. During chronic viral infection, virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes display poor effector functions. Since co-inhibitory molecules are involved in the suppression of T lymphocytes, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes encoding co-inhibitory molecules contributed to a susceptibility to SSPE. Association studies on a total of 20 SNPs in 8 genes (CTLA4, CD80, CD86, PD1, PDL1, PDL2, BTLA and HVEM) and subsequent haplotype analysis of 4 SNPs in the PD1 genes were performed in Japanese and Filipino SSPE patients and controls. Then, we investigated a functional difference in promoter activity of two haplotypes and compared the expression levels of PD1 between SSPE and controls. The frequency of GCG(C) haplotype of PD1 containing -606G allele was significantly higher in SSPE patients than in controls both in Japanese and in Filipinos. The promoter activity was significantly higher in the construct with -606G allele than in that with -606A allele. The expression levels of PD1 were significantly higher in SSPE patients than in the controls. Our results suggested that the PD1 gene contributed to a genetic susceptibility to SSPE.

  14. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: Results of the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Craig; Levin, Simon; Humphreys, Peter; Walop, Wikke; Brannan, Renee

    2005-01-01

    Background Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) is so rare in developed countries with measles immunization programs that national active surveillance is now needed to capture sufficient number of cases for meaningful analysis of data. Through the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program (CPSP), the SSPE study was able to document a national incidence and determine the epidemiology of affected Canadian children. Methods Between 1997 and 2000, the CPSP surveyed monthly 1978 to 2294 Canadian pediatricians and sub-specialists for SSPE cases. The response rate varied from 82–86% over those years. Results Altogether, four SSPE cases were reported to the CPSP: one case before, two during and one after the study period. The incidence of SSPE in Canadian children was 0.06/million children/year. Of the four cases, diagnosed between ages four and 17 years, three children had measles infection in infancy. All children showed a progressive course of dementia, loss of motor skills and epilepsy. Two children were treated with isoprinosine and intraventricular interferon but died in less than three years from disease onset. One child did not have any treatment and died after seven years of illness. One child received intraventricular ribavirin and remains alive, but markedly impaired, nine years following diagnosis. Conclusion The CPSP has demonstrated that Canadian paediatricians and paediatric neurologists may encounter cases of SSPE. This report highlights the clinical course of affected Canadian children and provides a review of the disease and its management. PMID:16356180

  15. Tau proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Deniz; Yilmaz, Deniz; Uyar, Neval Y; Senbil, Nesrin; Gurer, Yavuz; Anlar, Banu

    2010-06-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases characterized by cytoskeletal deformation and neurofibrillary tangles are associated with altered levels of tau and related proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Neuronal or glial fibrillary tangles have been shown in 20% of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) patients. We therefore investigated CSF samples from 60 newly diagnosed SSPE and 31 neurological control patients for total tau (t-tau), phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and S100-B levels by ELISA. There was no difference between patient and control groups in t-tau and S100-B levels. p-Tau was lower in the SSPE group (p=0.009). Past history of measles infection, measles immunization status, latent period between measles and onset of SSPE, duration of symptoms, frequency of myoclonia, neurological deficit index, stage and progression rate of the disease, CSF glucose levels and cell counts, CSF and serum measles IgG titer, distribution of lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging were not related to t-tau, p-tau and S100-B levels. Mental status and age were negatively correlated with t-tau, and male gender and EEG abnormalities were associated with higher t-tau levels. The levels of tau proteins in our patients suggest there is no, or only scarce and immature, neurofibrillary tangle formation in SSPE. Autopsy studies showing neurofibrillary tangles might have examined older patients with longer disease and more parenchymal involvement. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Atypical presentations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in two neurologically handicapped cases.

    PubMed

    Demir, E; Ozcelik, A; Arhan, E; Serdaroglu, A; Gucuyener, K

    2009-08-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by persistent measles infection. Here, we report two neurologically handicapped cases presenting with atypical features of SSPE. Patient 1 who had mild mental retardation manifested acute encephalopathy with partial seizures and hemiplegia, mimicking encephalitis. He showed a fulminant course without myoclonia or a periodic electroencephalogram complex. Although SSPE is usually associated with an increased diffusion pattern, diffusion-weighted imaging of our patient showed decreased diffusion in the right hippocampus. Patient 2 with infantile hemiparesis presented with secondary generalized seizures, followed by asymettrical myoclonias involving the side contralateral to the hemiparesis. A periodic electroencephalogram complex was absent on the previously damaged brain regions. Our findings show that preexisting neurological disorders may modify the clinical or electrophysiological findings of SSPE, leading to atypical presentations. SSPE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute encephalopathy with lateralizing signs or unidentified seizures. Decreased diffusion resolution in diffusion-weighted-imaging may correlate with rapid clinical progression in SSPE. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  17. Epidemiology of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE) in Germany from 2003 to 2009: A Risk Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Schönberger, Katharina; Ludwig, Maria-Sabine; Wildner, Manfred; Weissbrich, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal long-term complication of measles infection. We performed an estimation of the total number of SSPE cases in Germany for the period 2003 to 2009 and calculated the risk of SSPE after an acute measles infection. SSPE cases were collected from the Surveillance Unit for Rare Paediatric Diseases in Germany and the Institute of Virology and Immunobiology at the University of Würzburg. The total number of SSPE cases was estimated by capture-recapture analysis. For the period 2003 to 2009, 31 children with SSPE who were treated at German hospitals were identified. The capture-recapture estimate was 39 cases (95% confidence interval: 29.2–48.0). The risk of developing SSPE for children contracting measles infection below 5 years of age was calculated as 1∶1700 to 1∶3300. This risk is in the same order of magnitude as the risk of a fatal acute measles infection. PMID:23874807

  18. Association between appendectomy and risk of primary sclerosing cholangitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wijarnpreecha, Karn; Panjawatanan, Panadeekarn; Mousa, Omar Y; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Pungpapong, Surakit; Ungprasert, Patompong

    2018-04-11

    Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested that appendectomy could be a risk factor for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) although the results were inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to summarize all available evidence. A comprehensive literature review was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE database through January 2018 to identify all studies that reported the risk of PSC among individuals who had appendectomy versus those with no history of appendectomy. Effect estimates from each study were extracted and combined together using the random-effect, generic inverse variance method of DerSimonian and Laird. A total of 6 case-control studies with 2432 participants met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of PSC in individuals who had appendectomy was significantly higher than those with no history of appendectomy with the pooled odds ratio of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.15-1.63). The statistical heterogeneity was insignificant with an I2 of 0%. A significantly increased risk of PSC among individuals who had a history of appendectomy was found in this study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Whole-exome sequencing identifies recurrent AKT1 mutations in sclerosing hemangioma of lung

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Sung-Hak; Park, Hyun-Chun; Choi, Hyun Joo; Maeng, Leeso; Min, Ki Ouk; Kim, Jeana; Park, Tae In; Shin, Ok Ran; Kim, Tae-Jung; Xu, Haidong; Lee, Kyo Young; Kim, Tae-Min; Song, Sang Yong; Lee, Charles; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary sclerosing hemangioma (PSH) is a benign tumor with two cell populations (epithelial and stromal cells), for which genomic profiles remain unknown. We conducted exome sequencing of 44 PSHs and identified recurrent somatic mutations of AKT1 (43.2%) and β-catenin (4.5%). We used a second subset of 24 PSHs to confirm the high frequency of AKT1 mutations (overall 31/68, 45.6%; p.E17K, 33.8%) and recurrent β-catenin mutations (overall 3 of 68, 4.4%). Of the PSHs without AKT1 mutations, two exhibited AKT1 copy gain. AKT1 mutations existed in both epithelial and stromal cells. In two separate PSHs from one patient, we observed two different AKT1 mutations, indicating they were not disseminated but independent arising tumors. Because the AKT1 mutations were not found to co-occur with β-catenin mutations (or any other known driver alterations) in any of the PSHs studied, we speculate that this may be the single-most common driver alteration to develop PSHs. Our study revealed genomic differences between PSHs and lung adenocarcinomas, including a high rate of AKT1 mutation in PSHs. These genomic features of PSH identified in the present study provide clues to understanding the biology of PSH and for differential genomic diagnosis of lung tumors. PMID:27601661

  20. Significance of pathological positive superior mesenteric/portal venous invasion in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Mallika

    2016-12-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy with superior mesenteric/portal venous resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is frequently performed with no added morbidity or mortality in case of tumor abutment to the superior mesenteric or portal vein so as to obtain a margin negative resection. True histopathological portal vein invasion is found only in a small subset of such patients. The aim of this review aimed to discuss the significance of histopathological venous invasion in PDAC. For this review available data was searched from PubMed and analyzed. No randomized trials have been published on this topic. Existing data on prognostic factors in histopathological venous invasion by PDAC are limited and recent studies indicate worse survival in this subgroup of patients. In addition, venous invasion in PDAC has been associated with large tumors, involved lymph nodes, perineural invasion and R1 resection. The survival of patients with portal venous resection but without histologic venous invasion is reportedly better than those with histopathological venous invasion; though conflicting studies do exist on the subject. Some studies also relate the depth of venous invasion to prognosis after surgical resection of PDAC. Frank/'histopathological' invasion of superior mesenteric/portal venous and R1 resection indicate a very poor survival. Such patients may be given the opportunity of benefit of neoadjuvant treatment.

  1. Endovascular treatment as a bridge to successful surgical revascularization for chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Biebl, Matthias; Oldenburg, W Andrew; Paz-Fumagalli, Ricardo; McKinney, J Mark; Hakaim, Albert G

    2004-11-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) can be treated with surgical revascularization or with angioplasty and stenting. As experience has been gained, endovascular treatment appears safe and effective in selected patients. Currently, surgical revascularization has better success and patency rates but also a higher short- and midterm mortality and morbidity, especially in patients at high surgical risk. A 72-year-old female with severe respiratory dysfunction presented with CMI resulting in profound malnutrition. Serial percutaneous interventions averted urgent surgery and reversed the mesenteric ischemia. Nine months later, after repeated angioplasty and stenting had failed, elective uncomplicated iliomesenteric bypass, in a medically optimized patient, resolved the ischemia. At an 18-month follow-up, the graft remained widely patent and the patient asymptomatic with a body weight corresponding to her ideal body weight. Compared to surgical revascularization, reocclusion or restenosis occurs more frequently after endovascular treatment of CMI, and reintervention may be necessary. Nevertheless, percutaneous intervention effectively provides relief from mesenteric ischemia and has lower perioperative complication rates compared to surgery in patients at high surgical risk. After initial relief of the CMI, the patient's condition may improve, allowing for more definitive secondary surgical revascularization, if needed.

  2. A randomised controlled comparison of injection, thermal, and mechanical endoscopic methods of haemostasis on mesenteric vessels.

    PubMed

    Hepworth, C C; Kadirkamanathan, S S; Gong, F; Swain, C P

    1998-04-01

    A randomised controlled comparison of haemostatic efficacy of mechanical, injection, and thermal methods of haemostasis was undertaken using canine mesenteric vessels to test the hypothesis that mechanical methods of haemostasis are more effective in controlling haemorrhage than injection or thermal methods. The diameter of arteries in human bleeding ulcers measures up to 3.45 mm; mesenteric vessels up to 5 mm were therefore studied. Mesenteric vessels were randomised to treatment with injection sclerotherapy (adrenaline and ethanolamine), bipolar diathermy, or mechanical methods (band, clips, sewing machine, endoloops). The vessels were severed and haemostasis recorded. Injection sclerotherapy and clips failed to stop bleeding from vessels of 1 mm (n = 20) and 2 mm (n = 20). Bipolar diathermy was effective on 8/10 vessels of 2 mm but failed on 3 mm vessels (n = 5). Unstretched elastic bands succeeded on 13/15 vessels of 2 mm but on only 3/10 vessels of 3 mm. The sewing machine achieved haemostasis on 8/10 vessels of 4 mm but failed on 5 mm vessels (n = 5); endoloops were effective on all 5 mm vessels (n = 5). Only mechanical methods were effective on vessels greater than 2 mm in diameter. Some mechanical methods (banding and clips) were less effective than expected and need modification. Thermal and (effective) mechanical methods were significantly (p < 0.01) more effective than injection sclerotherapy. The most effective mechanical methods were significantly more effective (p < 0.01) than thermal or injection on vessels greater than 2 mm.

  3. Impaired flow-induced dilation in mesenteric resistance arteries from mice lacking vimentin.

    PubMed Central

    Henrion, D; Terzi, F; Matrougui, K; Duriez, M; Boulanger, C M; Colucci-Guyon, E; Babinet, C; Briand, P; Friedlander, G; Poitevin, P; Lévy, B I

    1997-01-01

    The intermediate filament vimentin might play a key role in vascular resistance to mechanical stress. We investigated the responses to pressure (tensile stress) and flow (shear stress) of mesenteric resistance arteries perfused in vitro from vimentin knockout mice. Arteries were isolated from homozygous (Vim-/-, n = 14) or heterozygous vimentin-null mice (Vim+/-, n = 5) and from wild-type littermates (Vim+/+, n = 9). Passive arterial diameter (175+/-15 micron in Vim+/+ at 100 mmHg) and myogenic tone were not affected by the absence of vimentin. Flow-induced (0-150 microl/min) dilation (e. g., 19+/-3 micron dilation at 150 mmHg in Vim+/+) was significantly attenuated in Vim-/- mice (13+/-2 micron dilation, P < 0.01). Acute blockade of nitric oxide synthesis (NG-nitro- L-arginine, 10 microM) significantly decreased flow-induced dilation in both groups, whereas acute blockade of prostaglandin synthesis (indomethacin, 10 microM) had no significant effect. Mean blood pressure, in vivo mesenteric blood flow and diameter, and mesenteric artery media thickness or media to lumen ratio were not affected by the absence of vimentin. Thus, the absence of vimentin decreased selectively the response of resistance arteries to flow, suggesting a role for vimentin in the mechanotransduction of shear stress. PMID:9389758

  4. Mini-Laparotomy for Superior Mesenteric Artery Aneurysm Due to Takayasu's Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takatsugu; Ishizuka, Mitsuru; Iso, Yukihiro; Kita, Junji; Kubota, Keiichi

    2015-04-01

    Superior mesenteric artery aneurysm (SMAA) is reported to be the third-most common type of visceral aneurysm (VA), accounting for 5% of all VAs. The etiology of SMAA is commonly thought to be infection, and it usually exists in the proximal part of the superior mesenteric artery, which is suitable for endovascular treatment. We herein report an extremely rare case of the distal part of SMAA caused by Takayasu's arteritis (TA), which was successfully resected using a mini-laparotomy method without impairing the intestinal blood supply. A 51-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with sustained fever and lower back pain. Physical examination showed that she had a discrepancies in blood pressure between both arms. Contrast-enhanced whole-body computed tomography showed stenosis of the thoracic aorta and an aneurysm located in the distal part of the superior mesenteric artery. The diameter of the aneurysm was 4.5 cm. The aneurysm was resected via 4-cm mini-laparotomy, and the vascularity of the intestine was successfully preserved. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was diagnosed as having TA based on both clinical and pathologic findings. Additional corticosteroid therapy was started to treat the arteritis, and at 3-month follow-up she was without critical incidents. Mini-laparotomy is a safe and less-invasive approach to treat SMAA, especially when the lesion is located in the distal part of the artery.

  5. [Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Lo, Yi-Fang; Huang, Yu-Chu

    2017-04-01

    Scoliosis is a common medical problem, with an incidence of between 0.47% and 5.2% in the general population globally. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) accounts for nearly 80% of all scoliosis. Young people with AIS often experience negative social consequences in association with their condition. Without proper and timely treatment, the potential resulting disabilities range from trunk deformity, pain, and neurological complications to compromised cardiopulmonary function, all of which may cause lifelong suffering. Scoliosis may be treated either conservatively or surgically, based on the severity of the disease. Bracing is the most widely adopted method of conservative treatment. However, the main goal of bracing is to inhibit the progression of the spinal curvature rather than to cure scoliosis. The clinical effectiveness of bracing in Taiwan has often been underutilized as a result of financial or other factors such as the availability of the treatment. The purpose of the present review is to clarify the effectiveness of bracing for AIS by elucidating the pathophysiology of scoliosis and examining the recent clinical evidence. The importance of preventative care and the unique contribution of nursing care to treatment has to date been under-recognized. The positive support that nurses provide to the families of the patients during the early phases of treatment as well as to the patients themselves, including helping them exercise appropriately and wear the brace correctly, is an essential component of effective treatment. Learning how to work with and to adapt to the brace being part of the body is an important part of the treatment as well as a way to avoid pain. Nurses are in an ideal position to facilitate this learning process and, overall, to provide health education.

  6. Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis presenting with occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Auboire, Laurent; Boutemy, Jonathan; Constans, Jean Marc; Le Gallou, Thomas; Busson, Philippe; Bienvenu, Boris

    2015-03-01

    Although occipital neuralgia is usually caused by degenerative arthropathy, nearly 20 other aetiologies may lead to this condition. We present the first case report of hypertrophic pachymeningitis revealed by isolated occipital neuralgia. Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a plausible cause of occipital neuralgia and may present without cranial-nerve palsy. There is no consensus on the treatment for idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis, but the usual approach is to start corticotherapy and then to add immunosuppressants. When occipital neuralgia is not clinically isolated or when a first-line treatment fails, another disease diagnosis should be considered. However, the cost effectiveness of extended investigations needs to be considered.

  7. Idiopathic thoracic transdural intravertebral spinal cord herniation

    PubMed Central

    Turel, Mazda K; Wewel, Joshua T; Kerolus, Mena G; O'Toole, John E

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic spinal cord herniation is a rare and often missed cause of thoracic myelopathy. The clinical presentation and radiological appearance is inconsistent and commonly confused with a dorsal arachnoid cyst and often is a misdiagnosed entity. While ventral spinal cord herniation through a dural defect has been previously described, intravertebral herniation is a distinct entity and extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year old man with idiopathic thoracic transdural intravertebral spinal cord herniation and discuss the clinico-radiological presentation, pathophysiology and operative management along with a review the literature of this unusual entity. PMID:29021685

  8. Medical therapy and intervention do not improve uncomplicated isolated mesenteric artery dissection outcomes over observation alone.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Jacob W; Obara, Hideaki; Fujimura, Naoki; Bove, Paul; Newton, Daniel H; Zettervall, Sara L; van Petersen, Andre S; Geelkerken, Robert H; Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M; Shalhub, Sherene; Singh, Niten; Roussel, Arnaud; Glebova, Natalia O; Harlander-Locke, Michael P; Gasper, Warren J; Humphries, Misty D; Lawrence, Peter F

    2017-07-01

    Isolated dissection of the mesenteric vessels is rare but increasingly recognized. This study aimed to evaluate patient characteristics, primary treatment, and subsequent outcomes of mesenteric dissection using multi-institutional data. All patients at participant hospitals between January 2003 and December 2015 with dissection of the celiac artery (or its branches) or dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were included. Patients with an aortic dissection were excluded. Demographic, treatment, and follow-up data were collected. The primary outcomes included late vessel thrombosis (LVT) and aneurysmal degeneration (AD). Twelve institutions identified 227 patients (220 with complete treatment records) with a mean age of 55 ± 12.5 years. Median time to last follow up was 15 months (interquartile range, 3.8-32). Most patients were men (82% vs 18% women) and symptomatic at presentation (162 vs 65 asymptomatic). Isolated SMA dissection was more common than celiac artery dissection (n = 158 and 81, respectively). Concomitant dissection of both arteries was rare (n = 12). The mean dissection length was significantly longer in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic patients in both the celiac artery (27 vs 18 mm; P = .01) and the SMA (64 vs 40 mm; P < .001). Primary treatment was medical in 146 patients with oral anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy (n = 76 and 70, respectively), whereas 56 patients were observed. LVT occurred in six patients, and 16 patients developed AD (3% and 8%, respectively). For symptomatic patients without evidence of ischemia (n = 134), there was no difference in occurrence of LVT with medical therapy compared with observation alone (9% vs 0%; P = .35). No asymptomatic patient (n = 64) had an episode of LVT at 5 years. AD rates did not differ among symptomatic patients without ischemia treated with medical therapy or observed (9% vs 5%; P = .95). Surgical or endovascular intervention was performed in 18 patients

  9. Left spermatic vein retrograde sclerosis: comparison between sclerosant agent injection through a diagnostic catheter versus through an occluding balloon catheter.

    PubMed

    Basile, Antonio; Failla, Giovanni; La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Calogero, Aldo; Vicari, Enzo; Granata, Antonio; Mundo, Elena; Caltabiano, Giuseppe; Pizzarelli, Marco; Messina, Martina; Scavone, Giovanni; Lanzafame, Franz; Iezzi, Roberto; Tsetis, Dimitrios

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the technical success between left spermatic vein (LSV) scleroembolisation achieved with the injection of sclerosant through a diagnostic catheter and through an occluding balloon (OB), in the treatment of male varicocele. From January 2012 to September 2013, we prospectively enrolled 100 patients with left varicocele and an indication for LSV scleroembolisation related to symptoms or spermiogram anomalies; patients were randomised to two groups (we wrote a list of 100 lines assigned casually with A or B and each patient was consecutively allocated to group A or B on the basis of this list). Patients in group A underwent injection of the sclerosing agent through an angiographic diagnostic catheter (free catheter technique) and patients in group B through an OB catheter (OB technique). In cases of incomplete occlusion of the LSV, the procedure was completed with coils. Total occlusion of the LSV at post-treatment phlebography during a Valsalva manoeuvre before any coil embolisation was considered a technical success. The rate of complications was also evaluated. The Fischer's test was used for statistical analysis. We evaluated a total of 90 patients because five patients for each group were not included in the statistical analysis owing to technical problems or complications. In group A we had a technical success of 75.6 versus 93.4 % in group B, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.003); in particular, we had to complete the embolisation with insertion of coils in 11 cases (24.4 %) in group A, and in three cases in group B (6.6 %). In group A, LSV rupture occurred in four cases (8 %) so the procedure was completed by sclerosant injection through the OB located distally to the lesion. These patients were not considered for evaluation. In another case, a high flow shunt towards the inferior vena cava was detected, so the patient underwent OB injection to stop the flow to the shunt, and was not included

  10. Vocal cord paralysis: What matters between idiopathic and non-idiopathic cases?

    PubMed

    Özbal Koç, Ayça Eltaf; Türkoğlu, Seda Babakurban; Erol, Ozan; Erbek, Selim

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with idiopathic and non-idiopathic vocal cord paralysis (VCP). This retrospective cohort was performed on data extracted from medical files of 92 consecutive patients (43 males, 49 females; median age 52.1±23.1 years; min. 1 - max. 87) with VCP diagnosed in the otorhinolaryngology department between April 2012 and December 2015. Diagnoses associated with VCP, side of involvement (right, left or bilateral) and previous medical histories were noted and compared between patients with idiopathic and non-idiopathic VCP. Vocal cord paralysis occurred on the left side (n=56, 60.9%), right side (n=28, 30.4%) or bilaterally (n=8, 8.7%). A clinical entity related with VCP was identified in 63 patients (68.5%), while 29 (31.5%) patients had idiopathic VCP. Most common etiologies for VCP were thyroid surgery (n=32, 34.8%), cardiovascular surgery (n=9, 9.8%), lung cancer (n=6, 6.5%) and cardiac anomalies (n=4, 4.3%), respectively. Patients with idiopathic VCP were significantly older (p<0.001), while gender distribution (p=0.121) and side of involvement (p=0.340) did not differ between two groups. Vocal cord paralysis is a relatively common clinical entity with substantial rate of morbidity. Identification of the underlying etiology and awareness on the clinical characteristics are keystones for foreseeing complications and determining the appropriate therapeutic modality.

  11. Exercises for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Romano, Michele; Minozzi, Silvia; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Zaina, Fabio; Chockalingam, Nachiappan; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Maier-Hennes, Axel; Negrini, Stefano

    2012-08-15

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional deformity of the spine . While AIS can progress during growth and cause a surface deformity, it is usually not symptomatic. However, in adulthood, if the final spinal curvature surpasses a certain critical threshold, the risk of health problems and curve progression is increased. The use of scoliosis-specific exercises (SSE) to reduce progression of AIS and postpone or avoid other more invasive treatments is controversial. To evaluate the efficacy of SSE in adolescent patients with AIS. The following databases (up to 30 March 2011) were searched with no language limitations: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, issue 2), MEDLINE (from January 1966), EMBASE (from January 1980), CINHAL (from January 1982), SportDiscus (from January 1975), PsycInfo (from January 1887), PEDro (from January 1929). We screened reference lists of articles and also conducted an extensive handsearch of grey literature. Randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies with a control group comparing exercises with no treatment, other treatment, surgery, and different types of exercises. Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Two studies (154 participants) were included. There is low quality evidence from one randomised controlled study that exercises as an adjunctive to other conservative treatments increase the efficacy of these treatments (thoracic curve reduced: mean difference (MD) 9.00, (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.47 to 12.53); lumbar curve reduced:MD 8.00, (95% CI 5.08 to 10.92)). There is very low quality evidence from a prospective controlled cohort study that scoliosis-specific exercises structured within an exercise programme can reduce brace prescription (risk ratio (RR) 0.24, (95% CI 0.06 to1.04) as compared to usual physiotherapy (many different kinds of general exercises according to the preferences of the single therapists within different facilities

  12. Maternal asthma and idiopathic preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M S; Coates, A L; Michoud, M C; Dagenais, S; Moshonas, D; Davis, G M; Hamilton, E F; Nuwayhid, B; Joshi, A K; Papageorgiou, A

    1995-11-15

    Previous studies suggest that women with asthma are at increased risk of preterm birth. Moreover, drugs (especially beta-agonists) used to treat asthma are also used to treat preterm labor. The authors carried out a case-control study of 555 women from three hospital centers with idiopathic preterm labor (< 37 weeks), including two overlapping (i.e., non-mutually exclusive) subsamples: cases with early idiopathic preterm labor (< 34 weeks) and cases with idiopathic recurrent preterm labor (< 37 weeks plus a previous history of preterm delivery or second-trimester miscarriage). Controls were matched to cases according to race and smoking history prior to and during pregnancy. All subjects responded in person to questions about atopic, respiratory, obstetric, and sociodemographic histories. Subjects in the early and recurrent preterm labor subsamples were also asked to undergo spirometric testing with methacholine challenge 6-12 weeks after delivery. Cases were significantly more likely to report histories of asthma symptoms and physician-diagnosed asthma (matched odds ratios of 2-3) than controls, particularly those cases with recurrent preterm labor. No significant associations were observed, however, with methacholine responsiveness. These results could not be explained by residual confounding by smoking or other variables, nor by selective recall of asthma symptoms and histories by cases. Women with asthma are at increased risk of idiopathic preterm labor. The fact that no such association was seen with methacholine responsiveness suggests that nonatopic, noncholinergic mechanisms may link bronchial and uterine smooth muscle lability.

  13. Selective Arterial Embolization of Idiopathic Priapism

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Gary S.; Braunstein, Larry; Ball, David S.

    1996-11-15

    We report a case of idiopathic priapism that was only identified as high-flow or arterial priapism after drainage of the corpora cavernosa. Following failure of conservative and surgical treatment attempts, two consecutive embolizations of a unilateral penile artery were performed with gelgoam particles.

  14. Physical examination in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Diab, Mohammad

    2007-04-01

    The following distinguish the physical examination in scoliosis: it is extensive, it is revealing, and it influences treatment. Throughout this discussion, reference frequently is made to evaluation for underlying neural disease. Idiopathic scoliosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, and a neural etiology of spinal deformity must be ruled out in every case.

  15. Effects of obesity on severity of colitis and cytokine expression in mouse mesenteric fat. Potential role of adiponectin receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Sideri, Aristea; Stavrakis, Dimitris; Bowe, Collin; Shih, David Q.; Fleshner, Phillip; Arsenescu, Violeta; Arsenescu, Razvan; Turner, Jerrold R.; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2015-01-01

    In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity is associated with worsening of the course of disease. Here, we examined the role of obesity in the development of colitis and studied mesenteric fat-epithelial cell interactions in patients with IBD. We combined the diet-induce obesity with the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis mouse model to create groups with obesity, colitis, and their combination. Changes in the mesenteric fat and intestine were assessed by histology, myeloperoxidase assay, and cytokine mRNA expression by real-time PCR. Medium from human mesenteric fat and cultured preadipocytes was obtained from obese patients and those with IBD. Histological analysis showed inflammatory cell infiltrate and increased histological damage in the intestine and mesenteric fat of obese mice with colitis compared with all other groups. Obesity also increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine, while it decreased the TNBS-induced increases in IL-2 and IFN-γ in mesenteric adipose and intestinal tissues. Human mesenteric fat isolated from obese patients and those with and IBD demonstrated differential release of adipokines and growth factors compared with controls. Fat-conditioned media reduced adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) expression in human NCM460 colonic epithelial cells. AdipoR1 intracolonic silencing in mice exacerbated TNBS-induced colitis. In conclusion, obesity worsens the outcome of experimental colitis, and obesity- and IBD-associated changes in adipose tissue promote differential mediator release in mesenteric fat that modulates colonocyte responses and may affect the course of colitis. Our results also suggest an important role for AdipoR1 for the fat-intestinal axis in the regulation of inflammation during colitis. PMID:25591865

  16. [Primary sclerosing cholangitis associated with Sjögren's syndrome, retroperitoneal fibrosis and chronic pancreatitis. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Barreda, F; Contardo, C; León, A; Navarrete, J; Figueroa, R; Attanasio, F

    1989-01-01

    Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) is an unusual chronic, cholestatic disease of unknown etiology, more frequently seen in young adults in close relationship with Chronic Ulcerative Colitis. We report the case of a 30 year old woman, coming from the peruvian amazon with PSC associated with Sjögren Syndrome, Chronic Pancreatitis and Retroperitoneal Fibrosis, without colonic involvement. She was treated with external biliary drainage and controlled for 12 months. In this paper, clinical, biochemical, radiological, histological and therapeutic features are reviewed as well as its possible immunologie autoimmune origin.

  17. Immunomodulatory effect of vancomycin on Treg in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Abarbanel, David N.; Seki, Scott M.; Davies, Yinka; Marlen, Natalie; Benavides, Joseph A.; Cox, Kathleen; Nadeau, Kari C.; Cox, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin has been shown to affect tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) pathways as an immunomodulator; this is thought to be separate from its function as an antibiotic [1]. Previous studies have shown that oral vancomycin (OV) is an effective treatment for concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children [2, 3]. Since both diseases are associated with immune dysfunction, we hypothesized that vancomycin’s therapeutic effect in IBD and PSC occurs through immunomodulation. Therefore, we examined the in vivo immunological changes that occur during OV treatment of 14 children with PSC and IBD. Within 3 months of OV administration, peripheral gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations, white blood cell (WBC) counts, and neutrophil counts normalized from elevated levels before treatment. Patients also demonstrated improved biliary imaging studies, liver biopsies and IBD symptoms and biopsies. Additionally, plasma transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) levels were increased without concurrent shifts in Th1- or Th2-associated cytokine production. Peripheral levels of CD4+CD25hiCD127lo and CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells also increased in OV-treated PSC+IBD patients compared to pretreatment levels. A unique case study shows that the therapeutic effects of OV in the treatment of PSC+IBD do not always endure after OV discontinuation, with relapse of PSC associated with a decrease in blood Treg levels; subsequent OV retreatment was then associated with a rise in blood Treg levels and normalization of liver function tests (LFTs). Taken together, these studies support immune-related pathophysiology of PSC with IBD, which is responsive to OV. PMID:23054338

  18. Monitoring dominant strictures in primary sclerosing cholangitis with brush cytology and FDG-PET.

    PubMed

    Sangfelt, Per; Sundin, Anders; Wanders, Alkwin; Rasmussen, Ib; Karlson, Britt-Marie; Bergquist, Annika; Rorsman, Fredrik

    2014-12-01

    Despite a high risk of cholangiocellular adenocarcinoma (CCA) it is unclear how surveillance of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) should be performed. We evaluated a follow-up algorithm of brush cytology and positron emission tomography/computed tomography with [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG-PET/CT), measured as maximum standardized uptake values, normalized to the liver background (SUVmax/liver) at 180 min, in PSC patients with dominant bile duct strictures. Brush cytology with high grade dysplasia (HGD) was detected in 12/70 patients (17%), yielding a diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 56%, 89%, 75%, and 88%, respectively. Preemptive liver transplantations due to repeated HGD before manifest CCA were performed in six patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of [(18)F]FDG uptake showed that a SUVmax/liver quotient of 3.3 was able to discriminate between CCA and non-malignant disease with a sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for CCA of 89%, 92%, 62%, 98%, respectively. A SUVmax/liver >3.3 detected CCA in 8/9 patients whereas a quotient <2.4 excluded CCA. Combining brush cytology and quantitative [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT yielded a sensitivity for HGD and/or CCA of 100% and a specificity of 88%. Early detection of HGD before manifest CCA is feasible with repeated brush cytology and may allow for preemptive liver transplantation. [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT has a high sensitivity for manifest CCA and a negative scan indicates a non-malignant state of the disease. Brush cytology and [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT are complementary in monitoring and managing PSC patients with dominant strictures. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk factors and prognosis for recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis after liver transplantation: a Nordic Multicentre Study.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Lina; Jørgensen, Kristin K; Boberg, Kirsten M; Castedal, Maria; Rasmussen, Allan; Rostved, Andreas Arendtsen; Isoniemi, Helena; Bottai, Matteo; Bergquist, Annika

    2018-03-01

    The risk for recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis (rPSC) after liver transplantation is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We assessed the frequency of rPSC and studied risk factors for recurrent disease with special focus on IBD. We also evaluated the importance of rPSC for prognosis. All liver transplanted PSC patients in the Nordic countries between 1984 and 2007 (n = 440), identified by the Nordic Liver Transplant Registry, were studied. Data were retrieved from patients' chart reviews. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to calculate risk factors for rPSC and death. Of the 440 patients with a follow-up time after liver transplantation of 3743 patient years, rPSC was diagnosed in 19% (n = 85). Colectomy before liver transplantation was associated with a reduced risk of rPSC (HR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26-0.94, p = 0.033). Neither high IBD activity nor presence of IBD flares before or after liver transplantation was associated with rPSC. Treatment with tacrolimus was an independent risk factor associated with increased risk for rPSC (HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.15-2.86, p = 0.010). The risk of dying or needing a re-transplantation after rPSC was increased in all age groups, but highest in patients transplanted before 40 years of age (HR 7.3; 95% CI, 4.1-12.8, p = 0.0001). This study confirms that colectomy before liver transplantation is associated with a decreased risk of rPSC. Inflammatory activity of IBD was not associated with the risk of rPSC. Tacrolimus was an independent risk factor for PSC recurrence and its use as first line immunosuppression in PSC needs further study.

  20. Thyroid sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia distinct from the salivary type.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Takada, Nami; Abe, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Ayana; Higuchi, Miyoko; Miya, Akihiro; Hayashi, Toshitetsu; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Kawahara, Akihiko; Miyauchi, Akira

    2018-04-26

    We report three cases of thyroid sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE), which is an extremely rare variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). The aims of this report were to describe the clinicopathological findings, including results from immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of thyroid SMECE, as well as to discuss the distinction between thyroid SMECE and its salivary counterpart. The cases included a 63-year-old female, a 44-year-old male, and a 66-year-old female, with all patients presenting with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Nodal metastasis was not found in any of the three cases. Neither regional recurrences nor distant metastases were found in any patient during the follow-up, which was 20 years, 3 years, and 18 months, respectively. Histologically, tumors were composed of epidermoid carcinoma cells, intermediate type carcinoma cells, and goblet cell-type mucus-secreting carcinoma cells, with all tumors displaying a sclerotic stroma with eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration. The formation of eosinophilic abscess in the tumor nests that might be a novel characteristic finding of SMECE was observed. Immunohistochemically, the carcinoma cells were positive for cytokeratin 34βE12, TTF-1, and PAX8, but negative for thyroglobulin. In two cases, increased IgG4-positive plasma cells were observed. Mastermind-like transcriptional coactivator 2 (MAML2), according to fluorescence in situ hybridization, was intact in all cases. In conclusion, thyroid SMECE has favorable outcomes and seems to be genetically different from salivary MEC. This is the first report to describe the presence of increased IgG4-positive plasma cells in the stroma of SMECE.

  1. Combined MEG-EEG source localisation in patients with sub-acute sclerosing pan-encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, J; Sinha, Sanjib; Nagappa, Madhu; Mariyappa, N; Bindu, P S; Ravi, G S; Hazra, Nandita; Thennarasu, K; Ravi, V; Taly, A B; Satishchandra, P

    2016-08-01

    To study the genesis and propagation patterns of periodic complexes (PCs) associated with myoclonic jerks in sub-acute sclerosing pan-encephalitis (SSPE) using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). Simultaneous recording of MEG (306 channels) and EEG (64 channels) in five patients of SSPE (M:F = 3:2; age 10.8 ± 3.2 years; symptom-duration 6.2 ± 10 months) was carried out using Elekta Neuromag(®) TRIUX™ system. Qualitative analysis of 80-160 PCs per patient was performed. Ten isomorphic classical PCs with significant field topography per patient were analysed at the 'onset' and at 'earliest significant peak' of the burst using discrete and distributed source imaging methods. MEG background was asymmetrical in 2 and slow in 3 patients. Complexes were periodic (3) or quasi-periodic (2), occurring every 4-16 s and varied in morphology among patients. Mean source localization at onset of bursts using discrete and distributed source imaging in magnetic source imaging (MSI) was in thalami and or insula (50 and 50 %, respectively) and in electric source imaging (ESI) was also in thalami and or insula (38 and 46 %, respectively). Mean source localization at the earliest rising phase of peak in MSI was in peri-central gyrus (49 and 42 %) and in ESI it was in frontal cortex (52 and 56 %). Further analysis revealed that PCs were generated in thalami and or insula and thereafter propagated to anterolateral surface of the cortices (viz. sensori-motor cortex and frontal cortex) to same side as that of the onset. This novel MEG-EEG based case series of PCs provides newer insights for understanding the plausible generators of myoclonus in SSPE and patterns of their propagation.

  2. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: The Devastating Measles Complication That Might Be More Common Than Previously Estimated.

    PubMed

    Wendorf, Kristen A; Winter, Kathleen; Zipprich, Jennifer; Schechter, Rob; Hacker, Jill K; Preas, Chris; Cherry, James D; Glaser, Carol; Harriman, Kathleen

    2017-07-15

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal complication of measles. We reviewed California cases from 1998-2015 to understand risk factors for SPPE and estimate incidence. SSPE cases had clinically compatible symptoms and measles antibody detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or medical record documentation of SSPE. Cases were identified though a state death certificate search, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports, or investigations for undiagnosed neurologic disease. Measles detection in CSF was performed by serology at the California Department of Public Health or at clinical laboratories. Seventeen SSPE cases were identified. Males outnumbered females 2.4:1. Twelve (71%) cases had a history of measles-like illness; all 12 had illness prior to 15 months of age. Eight (67%) children were exposed to measles in California. SSPE was diagnosed at a median age of 12 years (3-35 years), with a latency period of 9.5 years (2.5-34 years). Among measles cases reported to CDPH during 1988-1991, the incidence of SSPE was 1:1367 for children <5 years, and 1:609 for children <12 months at time of measles disease. SSPE cases in California occurred at a high rate among unvaccinated children, particularly those infected during infancy. Protection of unvaccinated infants requires avoidance of travel to endemic areas, or early vaccination prior to travel at age 6-11 months. Clinicians should be aware of SSPE in patients with compatible symptoms, even in older patients with no specific history of measles infection. SSPE demonstrates the high human cost of "natural" measles immunity. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Genetic association analysis identifies variants associated with disease progression in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Rudi; de Vries, Elisabeth M G; Goode, Elizabeth C; Jiang, Xiaojun; Sampaziotis, Fotis; Rombouts, Krista; Böttcher, Katrin; Folseraas, Trine; Weismüller, Tobias J; Mason, Andrew L; Wang, Weiwei; Alexander, Graeme; Alvaro, Domenico; Bergquist, Annika; Björkström, Niklas K; Beuers, Ulrich; Björnsson, Einar; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Bowlus, Christopher L; Bragazzi, Maria C; Carbone, Marco; Chazouillères, Olivier; Cheung, Angela; Dalekos, Georgios; Eaton, John; Eksteen, Bertus; Ellinghaus, David; Färkkilä, Martti; Festen, Eleonora A M; Floreani, Annarosa; Franceschet, Irene; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Hoek, Bart van; Holm, Kristian; Hohenester, Simon; Hov, Johannes Roksund; Imhann, Floris; Invernizzi, Pietro; Juran, Brian D; Lenzen, Henrike; Lieb, Wolfgang; Liu, Jimmy Z; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Marzioni, Marco; Melum, Espen; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Müller, Tobias; Pares, Albert; Rupp, Christian; Rust, Christian; Sandford, Richard N; Schramm, Christoph; Schreiber, Stefan; Schrumpf, Erik; Silverberg, Mark S; Srivastava, Brijesh; Sterneck, Martina; Teufel, Andreas; Vallier, Ludovic; Verheij, Joanne; Vila, Arnau Vich; Vries, Boudewijn de; Zachou, Kalliopi; Chapman, Roger W; Manns, Michael P; Pinzani, Massimo; Rushbrook, Simon M; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Franke, Andre; Anderson, Carl A; Karlsen, Tom H; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y; Weersma, Rinse K

    2017-08-04

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a genetically complex, inflammatory bile duct disease of largely unknown aetiology often leading to liver transplantation or death. Little is known about the genetic contribution to the severity and progression of PSC. The aim of this study is to identify genetic variants associated with PSC disease progression and development of complications. We collected standardised PSC subphenotypes in a large cohort of 3402 patients with PSC. After quality control, we combined 130 422 single nucleotide polymorphisms of all patients-obtained using the Illumina immunochip-with their disease subphenotypes. Using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models, we identified genetic variants associated with binary and time-to-event PSC subphenotypes. We identified genetic variant rs853974 to be associated with liver transplant-free survival (p=6.07×10 -9 ). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a 50.9% (95% CI 41.5% to 59.5%) transplant-free survival for homozygous AA allele carriers of rs853974 compared with 72.8% (95% CI 69.6% to 75.7%) for GG carriers at 10 years after PSC diagnosis. For the candidate gene in the region, RSPO3 , we demonstrated expression in key liver-resident effector cells, such as human and murine cholangiocytes and human hepatic stellate cells. We present a large international PSC cohort, and report genetic loci associated with PSC disease progression. For liver transplant-free survival, we identified a genome-wide significant signal and demonstrated expression of the candidate gene RSPO3 in key liver-resident effector cells. This warrants further assessments of the role of this potential key PSC modifier gene. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Individuals with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Have Elevated Levels of Biomarkers for Apoptosis but Not Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Howard C; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Deppe, Ross; Bybee, Phelan; Comerford, Megan; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Ghabril, Marwan; Chalasani, Naga

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocyte apoptosis or necrosis from accumulation of bile salts may play an important role in the disease progression of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The aim of the current study was to measure serum markers of hepatocyte apoptosis (cytokeratin-18 fragments--K18) and necrosis (high-mobility group protein B1--HMGB1) in adults with PSC and examine the relationship with disease severity. We measured serum levels of K18 and HMGB1 in well-phenotyped PSC (N = 37) and 39 control subjects (N = 39). Severity of PSC was assessed biochemically, histologically, and PSC Mayo risk score. Quantification of hepatocyte apoptosis was performed using TUNEL assay. The mean age of the study cohort was 49.7 ± 13.3 years and comprised of 67% men and 93% Caucasian. Serum K18 levels were significantly higher in the PSC patients compared to control (217.4 ± 78.1 vs. 157.0 ± 58.2 U/L, p = 0.001). However, HMGB1 levels were not different between the two groups (5.38 ± 2.99 vs. 6.28 ± 2.85 ng/mL, p = 0.15). Within the PSC group, K18 levels significantly correlated with AST (r = 0.5, p = 0.002), alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.5, p = 0.001), total bilirubin (r = 0.61, p ≤ 0.001), and albumin (r = -0.4, p = 0.02). Serum K18 levels also correlated with the level of apoptosis present on the liver biopsy (r = 0.8, p ≤ 0.001) and Mayo risk score (r = 0.4, p = 0.015). Serum K18 but not HMGB1 levels were increased in PSC and associated with severity of underlying liver disease and the degree of hepatocyte apoptosis.

  5. Characterization of Intestinal Microbiota in Ulcerative Colitis Patients with and without Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Kevans, D; Tyler, A D; Holm, K; Jørgensen, K K; Vatn, M H; Karlsen, T H; Kaplan, G G; Eksteen, B; Gevers, D; Hov, J R; Silverberg, M S

    2016-03-01

    There is an unexplained association between ulcerative colitis [UC] and primary sclerosing cholangitis [PSC], with the intestinal microbiota implicated as an important factor. The study aim was to compare the structure of the intestinal microbiota of patients with UC with and without PSC. UC patients with PSC [PSC-UC] and without PSC [UC] were identified from biobanks at Oslo University Hospital, Foothills Hospital Calgary and Mount Sinai Hospital Toronto. Microbial DNA was extracted from colonic tissue and sequencing performed of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene on Illumina MiSeq. Sequences were assigned to operational taxonomic units [OTUs] using Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology [QIIME]. Microbial alpha diversity, beta diversity, and relative abundance were compared between PSC-UC and UC phenotypes. In all, 31 PSC-UC patients and 56 UC patients were included. Principal coordinate analysis [PCoA] demonstrated that city of sample collection was the strongest determinant of taxonomic profile. In the Oslo cohort, Chao 1 index was modestly decreased in PSC-UC compared with UC [p = 0.04] but did not differ significantly in the Calgary cohort. No clustering by PSC phenotype was observed using beta diversity measures. For multiple microbial genera there were nominally significant differences between UC and PSC-UC, but results were not robust to false-discovery rate correction. No strong PSC-specific microbial associations in UC patients consistent across different cohorts were identified. Recruitment centre had a strong effect on microbial composition. Future studies should include larger cohorts to increase power and the ability to control for confounding factors. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Reduced Coffee Consumption Among Individuals with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis but Not Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, Craig; Juran, Brian D.; Schlicht, Erik; Xie, Xiao; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; de Andrade, Mariza; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Coffee consumption has been associated with decreased risk of liver disease and related outcomes. However, coffee drinking has not been investigated among patients with cholestatic autoimmune liver diseases, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), or primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). We investigated the relationship between coffee consumption and risk of PBC and PSC in a large North American cohort. Methods Lifetime coffee drinking habits were determined from responses to questionnaires from 606 patients with PBC, 480 with PSC, and 564 healthy volunteers (controls). Patients (those with PBC or PSC) were compared to controls utilizing the Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables and c2 method for discrete variables. Logistic regression was used to analyze the estimate the effects of different coffee parameters (time, frequency, and type of coffee consumption) after adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and education level. Results Patients with PBC and controls did not differ in coffee parameters. However, 24% of patients with PSC had never drank coffee compared to 16% of controls (P<.05), and only 67% were current drinkers compared with 77% of controls (P<.05). Patients with PSC also consumed fewer lifetime cups per month (45 vs 47 for controls, P<.05) and spent a smaller percentage of their lifetime of coffee drinking coffee (46.6% vs 66.7% for controls, P<.05). These differences remained significant in a multivariate model. Among PSC patients with concurrent ulcerative colitis, coffee protected against proctocolectomy (hazard ratio=0.34, P<.001). Conclusions Coffee consumption is lower among patients with PSC, but not PBC, compared to controls. PMID:24440215

  7. Urethral caruncle: a lesion related to IgG4-associated sclerosing disease?

    PubMed

    Williamson, Sean R; Scarpelli, Marina; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Montironi, Rodolfo; Conces, Miriam R; Cheng, Liang

    2013-07-01

    Urethral caruncle is a benign, polypoid urethral mass that occurs almost exclusively in postmenopausal women. Despite that these lesions are routinely managed with topical medications or excision, their pathogenesis is not well understood. We investigated the possibilities of autoimmune, viral and inflammatory myofibroblastic proliferations as possible aetiologies. In 38 patients with urethral caruncle, we utilised immunohistochemistry for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG4 to assess for a potential autoimmune aetiology. Immunohistochemistry was performed in nine patients for Epstein-Barr virus, BK virus, human herpesvirus 8, human papillomavirus, adenovirus and anaplastic lymphoma kinase. Four patients (11%) showed infiltrates of ≥50 IgG4-positive plasma cells per high power field, of which all showed an IgG4 to IgG ratio greater than 40%. A statistically significant difference (p<0.01) was detected in the mean number of IgG4-positive cells (14.73 per high power field) compared with control benign urethral specimens (mean, 1.19). One patient with increased counts below this threshold had rheumatoid arthritis; none had documented autoimmune pancreatitis or other known manifestations of systemic IgG4-related sclerosing disease. All lesions showed negative reactions for the viral and inflammatory myofibroblastic markers. Urethral caruncle is a benign inflammatory and fibrous polypoid urethral mass of unclear aetiology. It appears unrelated to viral infection and lacks the abnormal expression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase protein, as seen in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours. Increased numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells in a subset of lesions raise the possibility that some cases may be related to the autoimmune phenomena of IgG4-associated disease.

  8. Elevated interleukin-8 in bile of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Zweers, Serge J; Shiryaev, Alexey; Komuta, Mina; Vesterhus, Mette; Hov, Johannes R; Perugorria, María J; de Waart, D Rudi; Chang, Jung-Chin; Tol, Shanna; Te Velde, Anje A; de Jonge, Wouter J; Banales, Jesus M; Roskams, Tania; Beuers, Ulrich; Karlsen, Tom H; Jansen, Peter L; Schaap, Frank G

    2016-09-01

    To better understand the pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis, anti- and pro-inflammatory factors were studied in bile. Ductal bile of PSC patients (n = 36) and controls (n = 20) was collected by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Gallbladder bile was collected at liver transplantation. Bile samples were analysed for cytokines, FGF19 and biliary lipids. Hepatobiliary tissues of PSC and non-PSC patients (n = 8-11 per patient group) were collected at transplantation and were analysed for IL8 and FGF19 mRNA expression and IL8 localization. The effect of IL8 on proliferation of primary human cholangiocytes and expression of pro-fibrotic genes was studied. In PSC patients, median IL8 in ductal bile was 6.6 ng/ml vs. 0.24 ng/ml in controls. Median IL8 in gallbladder bile was 7.6 ng/ml in PSC vs. 2.2 and 0.3 ng/ml in two control groups. IL8 mRNA in PSC gallbladder was increased and bile ducts stained positive for IL8. In vitro, IL8 induced proliferation of primary human cholangiocytes and increased the expression of pro-fibrotic genes. Elevation of IL8 in bile of PSC patients, collected at different stages of disease, indicates an ongoing inflammatory stimulus that drives IL8 production. This challenges the idea that advanced PSC is a burned-out disease, and calls for reconsideration of anti-inflammatory therapy in PSC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Donation after cardiac death liver transplantation in primary sclerosing cholangitis: proceed with caution.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Vinay; Choi, Gina; Jeon, Christie Y; Ayoub, Walid S; Nissen, Nicholas N; Klein, Andrew S; Tran, Tram T

    2015-05-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients suffer from comorbidities unaccounted for by the model for end-stage liver disease scoring system and may benefit from the increased donor organ pool provided by donation after cardiac death (DCD) liver transplantation. However, the impact of DCD transplantation on PSC graft outcomes is unknown. We studied 41,018 patients using the United Network for Organ Sharing database from 2002 through 2012. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression were used to evaluate graft survival and risk factors for graft failure, respectively. The PSC patients receiving DCD livers (n=75) showed greater overall graft failure (37.3% vs. 20.4%, P = 0.001), graft failure from biliary complications (47.4% vs. 13.9%, P = 0.002), and shorter graft survival time (P = 0.003), compared to PSC patients receiving donation after brain death organs (n=1592). Among DCD transplants (n=1943), PSC and non-PSC patients showed similar prevalence of graft failure and graft survival time, though a trend existed toward increased biliary-induced graft failure among PSC patients (47.4 vs. 26.4%, P = 0.063). Cox modeling demonstrated that PSC patients have a positive graft survival advantage compared to non-PSC patients (hazard ratio [HR]=0.72, P < 0.001), whereas DCD transplantation increased risk of graft failure (HR = 1.28, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the interaction between DCD transplant and PSC was significant (HR = 1.76, P = 0.015), indicating that use of DCD organs impacts graft survival more in PSC than non-PSC patients. Donation after cardiac death liver transplantation leads to significantly worse outcomes in PSC. We recommend cautious use of DCD transplantation in this population.

  10. Functional gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC).

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Heiko; Hinrichs, Jan B; Gutberlet, Marcel; Lenzen, Henrike; Raatschen, Hans-Juergen; Wacker, Frank; Ringe, Kristina I

    2016-04-01

    To assess the value of variable flip angle-based T1 liver mapping on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) for evaluation of global and segmental liver function, and determine a possible correlation with disease severity. Sixty-one patients (19 female, 42 male; mean age 41 years) with PSC were included in this prospective study. T1 mapping was performed using a 3D-spoiled GRE sequence (flip angles 5°, 15°, 20°, 30°) before, 16 (HP1) and 132 min (HP2) after contrast injection. T1 values were measured and compared (Wilcoxon-Test) by placing ROIs in each liver segment. The mean reduction of T1 relaxation time at HP1 and HP2 was calculated and correlated with liver function tests (LFTs), MELD, Mayo Risk and Amsterdam Scores (Spearman correlation). Significant changes of T1 relaxation times between non-enhanced and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI at HP1 and HP2 could be observed in all liver segments (p < 0.0001). A significant correlation of T1 reduction could be observed with LFTs, MELD and Mayo Risk Score (p < 0.05). T1 mapping of the liver using a variable flip angle-based sequence is a feasible technique to evaluate liver function on a global level, and may be extrapolated on a segmental level in patients with PSC. • T1 mapping enables evaluation of global liver function in PSC. • T1 relaxation time reduction correlates with the MELD and MayoRisk Score. • Extrapolated, T1 mapping may allow for segmental evaluation of liver function.

  11. Refinement of the MHC Risk Map in a Scandinavian Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Population

    PubMed Central

    Næss, Sigrid; Lie, Benedicte A.; Melum, Espen; Olsson, Marita; Hov, Johannes R.; Croucher, Peter J. P.; Hampe, Jochen; Thorsby, Erik; Bergquist, Annika; Traherne, James A.; Schrumpf, Erik; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Schreiber, Stefan; Franke, Andre; Karlsen, Tom H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic variants within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) represent the strongest genetic susceptibility factors for primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Identifying the causal variants within this genetic complex represents a major challenge due to strong linkage disequilibrium and an overall high physical density of candidate variants. We aimed to refine the MHC association in a geographically restricted PSC patient panel. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 365 PSC cases and 368 healthy controls of Scandinavian ancestry were included in the study. We incorporated data from HLA typing (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB3, -DRB1, -DQB1) and single nucleotide polymorphisms across the MHC (n = 18,644; genotyped and imputed) alongside previously suggested PSC risk determinants in the MHC, i.e. amino acid variation of DRβ, a MICA microsatellite polymorphism and HLA-C and HLA-B according to their ligand properties for killer immunoglobulin-like receptors. Breakdowns of the association signal by unconditional and conditional logistic regression analyses demarcated multiple PSC associated MHC haplotypes, and for eight of these classical HLA class I and II alleles represented the strongest association. A novel independent risk locus was detected near NOTCH4 in the HLA class III region, tagged by rs116212904 (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 2.32 [1.80, 3.00], P = 1.35×10−11). Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that classical HLA class I and II alleles, predominantly at HLA-B and HLA-DRB1, are the main risk factors for PSC in the MHC. In addition, the present assessments demonstrated for the first time an association near NOTCH4 in the HLA class III region. PMID:25521205

  12. Prospective clinical trial of rifaximin therapy for patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Tabibian, James H.; Gossard, Andrea; El-Youssef, Mounif; Eaton, John E.; Petz, Jan; Jorgensen, Roberta; Enders, Felicity B.; Lindor, Keith D.

    2014-01-01

    Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare, chronic, cholestatic liver disease in which emerging data suggest that oral antibiotics may offer therapeutic effects. We enrolled patients with PSC in a 12-week open-label pilot study to investigate the efficacy and safety of oral rifaximin 550 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was serum alkaline phosphatase (ALK) at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints included: i) serum bilirubin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and Mayo PSC risk score; ii) Fisk Fatigue Impact Scale (FFIS), Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ), and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores; and iii) adverse effects (AEs). Analyses were performed with nonparametric tests. Sixteen patients were enrolled, among whom the median age was 40 years, 13 (81%) were male, 13 had inflammatory bowel disease, and baseline ALK was 342 IU/mL (interquartile range 275-520). Following 12 weeks of treatment, there were no significant changes in ALK (median increase of 0.9% to 345 IU/mL, p=0.47) or any of the secondary biochemical endpoints (all p>0.05). Similarly, there were no significant changes in FFIS, CLDQ, or SF-36 scores (all p>0.05). Three patients withdrew from the study due to AEs; four others reported mild AEs but completed the study. In conclusion, while some antibiotics may have promise in treating PSC, oral rifaximin, based on the results herein, appears inefficacious for this indication. Future studies are needed to understand how the antimicrobial spectra and other properties of antibiotics might determine their utility in treating PSC. (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01695174) PMID:24914504

  13. [Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis cases diagnosed by increased CSF/serum measles antibody indices].

    PubMed

    Samlıoğlu, Pınar; Unalp, Aycan; Gökçay, Ahmet; Altuğlu, Imre; Oztürk, Aysel; Zeytinoğlu, Ayşın

    2012-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) caused by persistent defective measles virus strains, is a progressive neurological disorder of children and adolescents. The aim of this letter was to share the data from SSPE-suspected cases who were definitely diagnosed by the detection of increased antibody index in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. A total of 11 patients (mean age: 14.3 years) with suspected SSPE between February 2006 to August 2008, were included in the study. Simultaneously obtained serum and CSF samples from patients were analyzed in terms of albumin, total IgG and measles-specific IgG levels (Measles Virus IgG ELISA for CSF Diagnostics, Euroimmun, Germany). The value of CSQrel (relative CSF/serum quotient) ≥ 1.5 was accepted indicative for intrathecal measles antibody synthesis. Seven (63.6%) of the 11 patients' diagnosis were confirmed with the demonstration of elevated CSF/serum indices (CSQrel range: 2.3-36.9; mean: 12.9). Mean age of those seven cases was 12.3 years (age range: 7-21) and four of them were male. The history of patients with high antibody indices indicated that three of four patients who had measles infection had not been vaccinated against measles. These three unvaccinated patients had measles infection at 3rd, 8th and 30th months of age, respectively, and the period of SSPE development were 15, 6 and 4.5 years, respectively. With this letter we would like to emphasize once more that effective measles vaccination is the only way for the prevention of measles and SSPE and the demonstration of increased measles antibody index in simultaneously obtained serum and CSF samples is crucial for the diagnosis of SSPE.

  14. Association of interleukin 18, interleukin 2, and tumor necrosis factor polymorphisms with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Piskin, Ibrahim Etem; Karakas-Celik, Sevim; Calik, Mustafa; Abuhandan, Mahmut; Kolsal, Ebru; Genc, Gunes Cakmak; Iscan, Akin

    2013-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a progressive inflammatory and degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. The measles virus (MV) and host and environmental factors are involved in the development of SSPE, but the precise mechanism by which the MV causes SSPE is still unknown. Studies have indicated that in SSPE patients, specific polymorphisms of certain genes are most likely involved in impairing the host's ability to eradicate the MV. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the role of polymorphisms in the genes encoding interleukin (IL)-2, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the development of SSPE. Using the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers, the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the promoter regions of IL-2 (-330), TNF-α (-308), and IL-18 (-137 and -607) were studied in 54 patients with SSPE and 72 healthy controls. The frequency of SSPE patients with the AA genotype of IL-18 at position -607 was significantly higher than the frequency of those with the CC genotype (p<0.001, odds ratio [OR]: 5.76), and a significantly higher proportion of patients had the C allele at -137 compared with the controls (p=0.002, OR: 2.72). In a haplotype analysis of two SNPs in the IL-18 gene, the frequency of the CA haplotype was significantly higher in SSPE patients (p<0.001, OR: 3.99) than in the controls. The IL-2 (-330) and TNF-α (-308) polymorphisms revealed no significant differences. In conclusion, these data suggest that the IL-18 gene polymorphisms at position -607 and -137 might be genetic risk factors for the SSPE disease.

  15. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in Papua New Guinean Children: The Cost of Continuing Inadequate Measles Vaccine Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Laurens; Laman, Moses; Edoni, Henry; Mueller, Ivo; Karunajeewa, Harin A.; Smith, David; Hwaiwhanje, Ilomo; Siba, Peter M.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a late, rare and usually fatal complication of measles infection. Although a very high incidence of SSPE in Papua New Guinea (PNG) was first recognized 20 years ago, estimated measles vaccine coverage has remained at ≤70% since and a large measles epidemic occurred in 2002. We report a series of 22 SSPE cases presenting between November 2007 and July 2009 in Madang Province, PNG, including localized clusters with the highest ever reported annual incidence. Methodology/Principal Findings As part of a prospective observational study of severe childhood illness at Modilon Hospital, the provincial referral center, children presenting with evidence of meningo-encephalitis were assessed in detail including lumbar puncture in most cases. A diagnosis of SSPE was based on clinical features and presence of measles-specific IgG in cerebrospinal fluid and/or plasma. The estimated annual SSPE incidence in Madang province was 54/million population aged <20 years, but four sub-districts had an incidence >100/million/year. The distribution of year of birth of the 22 children with SSPE closely matched the reported annual measles incidence in PNG, including a peak in 2002. Conclusions/Significance SSPE follows measles infections in very young PNG children. Because PNG children have known low seroconversion rates to the first measles vaccine given at 6 months of age, efforts such as supplementary measles immunisation programs should continue in order to reduce the pool of non-immune people surrounding the youngest and most vulnerable members of PNG communities. PMID:21245918

  16. Acute Superior Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis: Transcatheter Thrombolysis and Aspiration Thrombectomy Therapy by Combined Route of Superior Mesenteric Vein and Artery in Eight Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuofei, E-mail: yangshuofei@gmail.com; Liu, Baochen, E-mail: 306446264@qq.com; Ding, Weiwei, E-mail: dingwei-nju@hotmail.com

    PurposeTo assess the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of catheter-directed thrombolysis and aspiration thrombectomy therapy by combined route of superior mesenteric vein and artery (SMV+SMA) for acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (ASMVT).MethodsThis retrospective study reviewed eight ASMVT patients with transcatheter direct thrombolysis and aspiration thrombectomy therapy via SMV and indirect thrombolysis via SMA during a period of 14 months. The demographics, etiology, risk factors, therapeutic effect, complications, mortality, and follow-up of the study population were assessed. Anatomic and imaging classification of location and extent of thrombus at diagnosis and degree of thrombus lysis were described.ResultsTechnical success was achieved with substantial improvement inmore » symptoms and thrombus resolution after thrombolytic therapy in all patients. The local urokinase infusion by SMA and SMV was performed for 5–7 (6.13 ± 0.83) and 7–15 (12 ± 2.51) days. Anticoagulation was performed catheter-directed and then orally throughout hospitalization and after discharge. Four patients required delayed localized bowel resection after thrombolytic therapy with no death. Thrombolytic therapy was not interrupted despite minor bleeding at the puncture site in two patients and sepsis in another two postoperatively. Nearly complete removal of thrombus was demonstrated by contrast-enhanced CT scan and portography before discharge. Patients were discharged in 10–27 (19.25 ± 4.89) days after admission. No recurrence developed during the follow-up of 10–13 (12.13 ± 0.99) months.ConclusionsCatheter-directed thrombolytic and aspiration therapy via SMV+SMA is beneficial for ASMVT in avoiding patient death, efficient resolving thrombus, rapid improving symptoms, reversing extensive intestinal ischemia, averting bowel resection, or localizing infarcted bowel segment and preventing short bowel syndrome.« less

  17. DIFFERENT PROTOCOLS OF POSTCONDITIONING DOES NOT ATTENUATE MESENTERIC ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY AFTER SHORT-TERM REPERFUSION

    PubMed Central

    BRITO, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; YASOJIMA, Edson Yuzur; MACHADO, Andressa Abnader; SILVEIRA, Matheus Paiva Pacheco Reis; TEIXEIRA, Renan Kleber Costa; YAMAKI, Vitor Nagai; COSTA, Felipe Lobato da Silva

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Mesenteric ischemia is a challenging diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis can lead to extent bowel necrosis and poor outcomes. Ischemia and reperfusion syndrome plays an important role in this scenario. Aim: To access effects of different post-conditioning cycles on mesenteric ischemia-reperfusion syndrome. Method: Twenty-five rats were assigned into five groups: Sham, used to establish normal parameters; control group, submitted to mesenteric ischemia for 30 min; in groups GP3, GP1 and GP30, ischemia was followed by post-conditioning protocol, which consisted of 1 cycle of 3 min (GP3), 3 cycles of 1 min (GP1) or 6 cycles of 30 s (GP30), respectively. Ileum samples were harvested after one hour of reperfusion. Intestinal mucosal injury was evaluated through histopathological analysis. Results: The average of mesenteric injury degree was 0 in the sham group, 3.6 in the control group, 3.4 in GP3, 3.2 in GP1, and 3.0 in GP30; villous length average was 161.59 in sham group, 136.27 in control group, 135.89 in GP3, 129.46 in GP1, and 135.18 in GP30. Was found significant difference between sham and other groups (p<0.05); however, there was no difference among post-conditioning groups. Conclusion: Post-conditioning adopted protocols were not able to protect intestinal mucosa integrity after mesenteric ischemia and short term reperfusion. PMID:28489164

  18. Cannabidiol causes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via CB1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Christopher P.; Hind, William H.; Tufarelli, Cristina; O'Sullivan, Saoirse E.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The protective effects of cannabidiol (CBD) have been widely shown in preclinical models and have translated into medicines for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and epilepsy. However, the direct vascular effects of CBD in humans are unknown. Methods and results Using wire myography, the vascular effects of CBD were assessed in human mesenteric arteries, and the mechanisms of action probed pharmacologically. CBD-induced intracellular signalling was characterized using human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). CBD caused acute, non-recoverable vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries with an Rmax of ∼40%. This was inhibited by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) receptor antagonists, desensitization of transient receptor potential channels using capsaicin, removal of the endothelium, and inhibition of potassium efflux. There was no role for cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) receptor, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ, the novel endothelial cannabinoid receptor (CBe), or cyclooxygenase. CBD-induced vasorelaxation was blunted in males, and in patients with type 2 diabetes or hypercholesterolemia. In HAECs, CBD significantly reduced phosphorylated JNK, NFκB, p70s6 K and STAT5, and significantly increased phosphorylated CREB, ERK1/2, and Akt levels. CBD also increased phosphorylated eNOS (ser1177), which was correlated with increased levels of ERK1/2 and Akt levels. CB1 receptor antagonism prevented the increase in eNOS phosphorylation. Conclusion This study shows, for the first time, that CBD causes vasorelaxation of human mesenteric arteries via activation of CB1 and TRP channels, and is endothelium- and nitric oxide-dependent. PMID:26092099

  19. Neuropeptide Y restores non-receptor-mediated vasoconstrictive action in superior mesenteric arteries in portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Johannes; Dietrich, Peter; Moleda, Lukas; Müller-Schilling, Martina; Wiest, Reiner

    2015-12-01

    Vascular hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictors contributes to splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and hemodynamic dysregulation in portal hypertension. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a sympathetic cotransmitter, has been shown to improve adrenergic vascular contractility in portal hypertensive rats and markedly attenuate hyperdynamic circulation. To further characterize the NPY-effects in portal hypertension, we investigated its role for non-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) of portal vein ligated (PVL) and sham-operated rats. Ex vivo SMA perfusion of PVL and sham rats was used to analyse the effects of NPY on pressure response to non-receptor-mediated vasoconstriction. Dose-response curves to KCl (30-300 mM) were used to bypass G protein-coupled receptor mechanisms. Potential involvement of the cyclooxygenase-pathway was tested by non-selective cyclooxygenase-inhibition using indomethacin. KCl-induced vascular contractility but not vascular sensitivity was significantly attenuated in PVL rats as compared with sham rats. Administration of NPY resulted in an augmentation of KCl-evoked vascular sensitivity being not different between study groups. However, KCl-induced vascular contractility was markedly more enhanced in PVL rats, thus, vascular response was no more significantly different between PVL and sham rats after addition of NPY. Administration of indomethacin abolished the NPY-induced enhancement of vasoconstriction. Receptor-independent vascular contractility is impaired in mesenteric arteries in portal hypertension. NPY improves non-receptor mediated mesenteric vasoconstriction more effective in portal hypertension than in healthy conditions correcting splanchnic vascular hyporesponsiveness. This beneficial vasoactive action of NPY adds to its well known more pronounced effects on adrenergic vasoconstriction in portal hypertension making it a promising therapeutic agent in portal hypertension. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A

  20. [Mesenteric flow in an experimental model of ischaemia-reperfusion in rats].

    PubMed

    Cáceres, F; Castañon, M; Lerena, J; Cusi, V; Badosa, J; Morales, L

    2014-03-01

    Maintained acute occlusion followed by reperfusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) in a few hours can trigger irreversible bowel damage. The aim of the study was to determine the changes in mesenteric flow measured by colour Doppler Ultrasound and correlating with histological lesions in an experimental model of ischaemia-reperfusion. Three groups of Sprague-Dawley 17 day-old rats were studied (control, ischemia and reperfusion). The model used was ischaemia-reperfusion over the SMA. Intra-abdominal ultrasound was then performed. The parameters recorded were: Maximum systolic velocity (MSV), pulsatility index (PI), resistance (RI) and systole-diastole (S/D). The histological variables were: intestinal lesion (Wallace/Keenan-Chiu scale), morphometrics (mean villus height [MVH]), and goblet cells. The Spearman (rs) correlation was used. The MSV in the reperfusion group was 74.3 cm/s, the PI 7.33 and S/D 25.75 in the SMA, which were higher than the controls (41.35 cm/s; 3.12 and 12.45, respectively). A direct association (P<.01) was found between MSV, PI and S/D regarding: Wallace/Kennan scoring system (rs = 0.655; rs = 0.593; rs = 0.63) and the Chiu (rs = 0.569; rs = 0.522; rs = 0.47). While the correlation was the reverse (P<.01) when associated with the MVH (rs = -0,495; rs = -0,452; rs = -0,459) and goblet cells of the colon (rs = -0,525; rs = -0,45; rs = -0,518). The reperfusion phase increased mesenteric flow expressed by the MSV and PI and could significantly predict the potential bowel damage at macroscopic and microscopic level. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Planned second-look laparoscopy in the management of acute mesenteric ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Yanar, Hakan; Taviloglu, Korhan; Ertekin, Cemalettin; Ozcinar, Beyza; Yanar, Fatih; Guloglu, Recep; Kurtoglu, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of second-look laparoscopy in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI). METHODS: Between January 2000 and November 2005, 71 patients were operated for the treatment of AMI. The indications for a second-look were low flow state, bowel resection and anastomosis or mesenteric thromboembolectomy performed during the first operation. Regardless of the clinical course of patients, the second-look laparoscopic examination was performed 72 h post-operatively at the bed side in the ICU or operating room. RESULTS: The average time of admission to the hospital after the initiation of symptoms was 3 d (range, 5 h-9 d). In 14 patients, laparotomy was performed. In 11 patients, small and/or large bowel necrosis was detected and initial resection and anastomosis were conducted. A low flow state was observed in two patients and superior mesenteric artery thromboembolectomy with small bowel resection was performed in one patient. In 13 patients, a second-look laparoscopic examination revealed normal bowel viability, but in one patient, intestinal necrosis was detected. In two of the patients, a third operation was necessary to correct anastomotic leakage. The overall complication rate was 42.8%, and in-hospital mortality rate was 57.1% (n = 6). CONCLUSION: Second-look laparoscopy is a minimally invasive, technically simple procedure that is performed for diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. The simplicity and ease of this method may encourage wider application to benefit more patients. However, the timing of a second-look procedure is unclear particularly in a patient with anastomosis. PMID:17659674

  2. Delayed Presentations of Blunt Mesenteric and Intestinal Trauma in the Wake of Injury.

    PubMed

    Yair, Edden; Miklosh, Bala; Orit, Pappo; Avraham, Rivkind; Gidon, Almogy

    2008-06-01

    To analyze the presentation and timing of blunt mesenteric and intestinal trauma requiring surgical intervention. The Hadassah-Hebrew University trauma registry was scanned for patients who required surgery following blunt mesenteric and/or bowel trauma. Demographic data, mechanism of injury, time to diagnosis and pathology reports were recorded. A literature search was also performed. The majority of patients were injured in motor vehicle accidents (26/30, 86.7%). Patients were divided into three groups. Seventeen patients diagnosed within 4 h of admission were defined as the immediate group. Indication for surgery was hemodynamic instability and/or peritonitis. The most commonly injured region was the terminal ileum (10/17 patients, 59%). The second group (n = 4) had surgery within 2 weeks of injury (early group). These patients presented initially with hemodynamic instability. The operative findings were consistent with a low-flow state of the terminal ileum and cecum. The third group (n = 9) consisted of patients who were operated later than 2 weeks from the date of injury (late group). These patients presented with prolonged abdominal symptoms, chiefly partial small bowel obstruction. Operative findings were bowel strictures, most commonly of the terminal ileum (7/9 patients, 77.8%). Acceleration-deceleration abdominal injury affects the terminal ileum more commonly. We propose that the ensuing clinical picture depends on the level of energy transmitted: high-energy trauma leads to extensive mesenteric and bowel tears and is diagnosed immediately. Low-energy trauma may lead to chronic ischemia, fibrosis and stricture-formation. The right colon appears to be more vulnerable to lowflow states following blunt trauma.

  3. Substance P promotes expansion of human mesenteric preadipocytes through proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Gross, Kara; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Thomou, Thomas; Koon, Hon Wai; Bowe, Collin; Kim, Ho; Giorgadze, Nino; Tchkonia, Tamara; Pirtskhalava, Tamara; Kirkland, James L; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2009-05-01

    White adipose tissue is intimately involved in the regulation of immunity and inflammation. We reported that human mesenteric preadipocytes express the substance P (SP)-mediated neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R), which signals proinflammatory responses. Here we tested the hypothesis that SP promotes proliferation and survival of human mesenteric preadipocytes and investigated responsible mechanism(s). Preadipocytes were isolated from mesenteric fat biopsies during gastric bypass surgery. Proliferative and antiapoptotic responses were delineated in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), caspase-3, and TUNEL assays, as well as Western immunoanalysis. SP (10(-7) M) increased MTS and proliferation (BrdU) and time dependently (15-30 min) induced Akt, EGF receptor, IGF receptor, integrin alphaVbeta3, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and PKC-theta phosphorylation. Furthermore, pharmacological antagonism of Akt and PKC-theta activation significantly attenuated SP-induced preadipocyte proliferation. Exposure of preadipocytes to the proapoptotic Fas ligand (FasL, 100 microM) resulted in nuclear DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay), as well as increased cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, cleaved caspase-7, and caspase-3 expression. Cotreatment with SP almost completely abolished these responses in a NK-1R-dependent fashion. SP (10(-7) M) also time dependently stimulated expression 4E binding protein 1 and phosphorylation of p70 S6 kinase, which increased protein translation efficiency. SP increases preadipocyte viability, reduces apoptosis, and stimulates proliferation, possibly via cell cycle upregulation and increased protein translation efficiency. SP-induced proliferative and antiapoptotic pathways in fat depots may contribute to development of the creeping fat and inflammation characteristic of Crohn's disease.

  4. Evaluation of the Role of Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate as a Sclerosant in the Treatment of Primary Hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Musa, Osman; Roy, Arijit; Ansari, Nisar Ahmad; Sharan, Jagadamba

    2015-12-01

    The present study was carried out with an aim to perform a prospective study to establish the role of sodium tetradecyl sulfate (3 %) (STDS) as a safe and effective sclerosant in the management of primary hydrocele. Sclerotherapy was performed with 3 % STDS on an outdoor basis. The amount of sclerosant injected depended on the amount of fluid drained. All patients were given prophylactic antibiotics. Patients were clinically reassessed at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months and earlier if complications occur. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0. The data have been represented as frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was used to compare the data. A total of 57 patients with primary vaginal hydrocele gave consent for being enrolled in the study. The age of patients ranged from 18 to 65 years with a mean age of 35.72 ± 13.18 years. The success rate at the end of the study was observed to be 84.2 %. As regards patient satisfaction, in present study, in a limited time period of follow up, all the patients who had a successful procedure were satisfied. Overall, sclerotherapy was observed to be a relatively cost-effective (including both direct and indirect costs) procedure with low complications, high satisfaction, and a high success rate within the limited period of follow-up.

  5. Microbubbles in macrocysts - Contrast-enhanced ultrasound assisted sclerosant therapy of a congenital macrocystic lymphangioma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Zapke, Maren; Fahlbusch, Fabian; von Goessel, Heiko; Rascher, Wolfgang; Jüngert, Jörg

    2017-07-06

    Congenital cystic lymphangiomas are benign malformations due to a developmental disorder of lymphatic vessels. Besides surgical excision, sclerosant therapy of these lesions by intracavitary injection of OK-432 (Picibanil®), a lyophilized mixture of group A Streptococcus pyogenes, is a common therapeutical option. For an appropriate application of OK-432, a detailed knowledge about the structure and composition of the congenital cystic lymphangioma is essential. SonoVue® is a commercially available contrast agent commonly used in sonography by intravenous and intracavitary application. Here we report the case of 2 month old male patient with a large thoracic congenital cystic lymphangioma. Preinterventional imaging of the malformation was performed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound after intracavitary application of SonoVue® immediately followed by a successful sclerotherapy with OK-432. Contrast agent-enhanced ultrasound imaging offers a valuable option to preinterventionally clarify the anatomic specifications of a congenital cystic lymphangioma in more detail than by single conventional sonography. By the exact knowledge about the composition and especially about the intercystic communications of the lymphangioma sclerosant therapy becomes safer and more efficient.

  6. Dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced MRI for the assessment of total and segmental liver function and volume in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Henrik; Blomqvist, Lennart; Douglas, Lena; Nordell, Anders; Jacobsson, Hans; Hagen, Karin; Bergquist, Annika; Jonas, Eduard

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate dynamic hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced MRI (DHCE-MRI) for the assessment of global and segmental liver volume and function in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and to explore the heterogeneous distribution of liver function in this patient group. Twelve patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and 20 healthy volunteers were examined using DHCE-MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA. Segmental and total liver volume were calculated, and functional parameters (hepatic extraction fraction [HEF], input relative blood-flow [irBF], and mean transit time [MTT]) were calculated in each liver voxel using deconvolutional analysis. In each study subject, and incongruence score (IS) was constructed to describe the mismatch between segmental function and volume. Among patients, the liver function parameters were correlated to bile duct obstruction and to established scoring models for liver disease. Liver function was significantly more heterogeneously distributed in the patient group (IS 1.0 versus 0.4). There were significant correlations between biliary obstruction and segmental functional parameters (HEF rho -0.24; irBF rho -0.45), and the Mayo risk score correlated significantly with the total liver extraction capacity of Gd-EOB-DTPA (rho -0.85). The study demonstrates a new method to quantify total and segmental liver function using DHCE-MRI in patients with PSC. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis: expanding the morphological spectrum of IgG4 related diseases.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Abhijit; Bal, Amanjit; Das, Ashim; Singh, Gurpreet

    2015-01-01

    IgG4 related disease (IgG4RD) is a recently recognised condition characterised by mass forming lesions associated with storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4 positive plasma cells and elevated serum IgG4 levels. Although rare, mammary involvement has been reported as IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis, the morphological counterpart of a growing family of IgG4 related diseases. A total of 17 cases belonging to mass forming benign inflammatory breast lesions such as plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis, non-specific mastitis and inflammatory pseudotumour were investigated as a possible member of IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis. Clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemistry findings were noted in all cases. Cases diagnosed as inflammatory pseudotumour showed all the histopathological features of IgG4RD along with increased number of IgG4 positive plasma cells and IgG4/IgG ratio >40%. However, only a few IgG4 positive cells were seen in plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis and non-specific mastitis cases. These cases also did not fulfill the morphological criteria for the diagnosis of IgG4 related diseases. IgG4RD should be excluded in plasma cell rich lesions diagnosed on core biopsies by IgG4 immunostaining. This can avoid unnecessary surgery as IgG4 related diseases respond to simple and effective steroid treatment.

  8. Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Chowanska, Joanna; Kinel, Edyta; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Tomaszewski, Marek; Janusz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the growing spine, affecting 2%–3% of adolescents. Although benign in the majority of patients, the natural course of the disease may result in significant disturbance of body morphology, reduced thoracic volume, impaired respiration, increased rates of back pain, and serious esthetic concerns. Risk of deterioration is highest during the pubertal growth spurt and increases the risk of pathologic spinal curvature, increasing angular value, trunk imbalance, and thoracic deformity. Early clinical detection of scoliosis relies on careful examination of trunk shape and is subject to screening programs in some regions. Treatment options are physiotherapy, corrective bracing, or surgery for mild, moderate, or severe scoliosis, respectively, with both the actual degree of deformity and prognosis being taken into account. Physiotherapy used in mild idiopathic scoliosis comprises general training of the trunk musculature and physical capacity, while specific physiotherapeutic techniques aim to address the spinal curvature itself, attempting to achieve self-correction with active trunk movements developed in a three-dimensional space by an instructed adolescent under visual and proprioceptive control. Moderate but progressive idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature adolescents can be successfully halted using a corrective brace which has to be worn full time for several months or until skeletal maturity, and is able to prevent more severe deformity and avoid the need for surgical treatment. Surgery is the treatment of choice for severe idiopathic scoliosis which is rapidly progressive, with early onset, late diagnosis, and neglected or failed conservative treatment. The psychologic impact of idiopathic scoliosis, a chronic disease occurring in the psychologically fragile period of adolescence, is important because of its body distorting character and the onerous treatment required, either conservative or surgical

  9. Small bowel volvulus in pregnancy with associated superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Esterson, Yonah B; Villani, Robert; Dela Cruz, Ronald A; Friedman, Barak; Grimaldi, Gregory M

    Here we report the case of a pregnant 28-year-old who presented with acute upper abdominal pain. CT demonstrated midgut volvulus with short segment occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Emergent detorsion of the small bowel was performed, at which time underlying intestinal malrotation was discovered. Following detorsion, the SMA had a bounding pulse and did not require thrombectomy or revascularization. Fewer than 25 cases of midgut volvulus during pregnancy have been reported over the past 20years. To our knowledge, this is the first report of maternal midgut volvulus in which imaging captures the resultant occlusion of the SMA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vasodilator responses to nitric oxide are enhanced in mesenteric arteries of portal hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, A; Stauber, R E

    1996-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is discussed as a mediator of the splanchnic hyperaemia in portal hypertension. We assessed the vasorelaxation by the NO-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine, the NO donor 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1) and forskolin, a stimulator of the adenylate cyclase pathway in potassium-preconstricted isolated perfused mesenteric arteries of portal vein-ligated and sham-operated rats. Dilator responses to acetylcholine and SIN-1 were significantly enhanced in vessels of portal vein-ligated rats as compared to sham-operated rats, whereas no difference was found in forskolin-induced vasodilatation. This suggests enhanced reactivity of the vasculature to NO in experimental portal hypertension.

  11. Stent-Graft Treatment for Bleeding Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm After Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Kojiro, E-mail: kojiro@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Mori, Yoshine; Komada, Tomohiro

    We report two cases of intraperitoneal bleeding from superior mesenteric artery (SMA) pseudoaneurysm after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic head carcinoma. In both cases, a stent-graft was deployed on the main SMA to exclude pseudoaneurysm and to preserve blood flow to the bowel. Bleeding stopped after the procedure. One patient was able to be discharged but died from carcinoma recurrence 4 months later. The other patient died of sepsis and stent-graft infection 5 months later. These patients remained free of intraperitoneal rebleeding during the follow-up period.

  12. Mesenteric Torsion as a Cause of Late Abdominal Pain after Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Sven G; Ekelund, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    Gastric bypass (GBP) has been the most common surgical way to treat obesity and its comorbidities. Late abdominal pain may occur by gastro-jejunal ulcers, gallstones, internal herniation or, rarely, intussusception. In an area with more than 1000 GBPs performed yearly, three patients with primary small bowel volvulus causing abdominal pain and requiring emergency or semi-urgent surgery were identified. Patients' histories, radiology, and surgery performed are presented. Weight loss followed by mesenteric narrowing of the root and thus relative elongation may make rotation of the small bowel mesentery possible. Such a torsion might be an overlooked differential diagnosis in obscure abdominal pain after GBP.

  13. A rare case of primary mesenteric gastrointestinal stromal tumor with metastasis to the cervix uteri

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nupur; Mittal, Suneeta; Lal, Neena; Misra, Renu; Kumar, Lalit; Bhalla, Sunita

    2007-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are CD117 (C Kit) positive mesenchymal neoplasms, that may arise anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Their current therapy is imatinib mesylate before or after surgery. Case presentation We describe a case of 17-year-old female with metastasis to the cervix uteri of a primary mesenteric gastrointestinal tumor. Conclusion Surgery remains the mainstay of known curative treatment. The manifestations of GIST are not restricted to the typical locations within the bowel; may have very unusual metastatic sites or infiltrations per continuitatem. PMID:18045506

  14. Fatal extraintestinal toxoplasmosis in a young male cat with enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Tamara M.; Blois, Shauna; Vince, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    A 22-month-old indoor/outdoor neutered male domestic short-haired cat had a history of progressive lethargy, vomiting, and decreased appetite. Abdominal ultrasound revealed an irregular hyperechoic mass in the mid-abdomen. He was unresponsive to symptomatic medical management and was euthanized after 3 days of hospitalization. A diagnosis of disseminated extraintestinal toxoplasmosis was made based on the finding of intracytoplasmic protozoan parasites on histopathological examination of mesenteric lymph nodes, hepatic and intestinal samples, and on immunohistochemistry. PMID:27152033

  15. Percutaneous Mesocaval Shunt Creation in a Patient with Chronic Portal and Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bercu, Zachary L., E-mail: zachary.bercu@mountsinai.org; Sheth, Sachin B., E-mail: sachinsheth@gmail.com; Noor, Amir, E-mail: amir.noor@gmail.com

    The creation of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a critical procedure for the treatment of recurrent variceal bleeding and refractory ascites in the setting of portal hypertension. Chronic portal vein thrombosis remains a relative contraindication to conventional TIPS and options are limited in this scenario. Presented is a novel technique for management of refractory ascites in a patient with hepatitis C cirrhosis and chronic portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis secondary to schistosomiasis and lupus anticoagulant utilizing fluoroscopically guided percutaneous mesocaval shunt creation.

  16. Endovascular Repair of a Splenic Artery Aneurysm With Anomalous Origin From the Superior Mesenteric Artery.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Lalithapriya; Caputo, Francis J; Lombardi, Joseph V

    2017-04-01

    A 22 year old female with a history of recurrent abdominal pain was transferred to our institution with a diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysm identified on imaging. CT angiography of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a partially thrombosed 3.0 cm splenic artery aneurysm without signs of rupture and with an anomalous origin from the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular exclusion of the aneurysm. Herein we review some of the nuances of endovascular repair of splenic artery aneurysm.

  17. Giant scrotal elephantiasis: an idiopathic case.

    PubMed

    Dianzani, C; Gaspardini, F; Persichetti, P; Brunetti, B; Pizzuti, A; Margiotti, K; Degener, A M

    2010-01-01

    Scrotal elephantiasis is very rare disease in industrialized countries, where it is mainly due to surgery, irradiation or malignancies. It can be defined as idiopathic only when the possible congenital, infectious and compressive causes are excluded. We report a case of massive scrotal lymphoedema in an adult Caucasian patient, in Italy. He presented an extremely voluminous scrotal mass measuring 50 x 47 x 13 cm (weight 18 kg), which extended below his knees, invalidating all his daily activities. The patient was hospitalized in order to undergo to surgical treatment. Although genetic causes were searched and the possible role of infectious agents and compressive factors was evaluated, no etiology was ascertained. Histopathologic examination showed non-specific chronic inflammation, confirming the diagnosis of idiopathic elephantiasis. One year after surgical treatment, the patient is healthy without recurrence signs.

  18. Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Riggio, Oliviero; Gioia, Stefania; Pentassuglio, Ilaria; Nicoletti, Valeria; Valente, Michele; d’Amati, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    The term idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) has been recently proposed to replace terms, such as hepatoportal sclerosis, idiopathic portal hypertension, incomplete septal cirrhosis, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia, used to describe patients with a hepatic presinusoidal cause of portal hypertension of unknown etiology, characterized by features of portal hypertension (esophageal varices, nonmalignant ascites, porto-venous collaterals), splenomegaly, patent portal, and hepatic veins and no clinical and histological signs of cirrhosis. Physicians should learn to look for this condition in a number of clinical settings, including cryptogenic cirrhosis, a disease known to be associated with INCPH, drug administration, and even chronic alterations in liver function tests. Once INCPH is clinically suspected, liver histology becomes mandatory for the correct diagnosis. However, pathologists should be familiar with the histological features of INCPH, especially in cases in which histology is not only requested to exclude liver cirrhosis. PMID:27555800

  19. Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Riggio, Oliviero; Gioia, Stefania; Pentassuglio, Ilaria; Nicoletti, Valeria; Valente, Michele; d'Amati, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    The term idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) has been recently proposed to replace terms, such as hepatoportal sclerosis, idiopathic portal hypertension, incomplete septal cirrhosis, and nodular regenerative hyperplasia, used to describe patients with a hepatic presinusoidal cause of portal hypertension of unknown etiology, characterized by features of portal hypertension (esophageal varices, nonmalignant ascites, porto-venous collaterals), splenomegaly, patent portal, and hepatic veins and no clinical and histological signs of cirrhosis. Physicians should learn to look for this condition in a number of clinical settings, including cryptogenic cirrhosis, a disease known to be associated with INCPH, drug administration, and even chronic alterations in liver function tests. Once INCPH is clinically suspected, liver histology becomes mandatory for the correct diagnosis. However, pathologists should be familiar with the histological features of INCPH, especially in cases in which histology is not only requested to exclude liver cirrhosis.

  20. "Idiopathic" mental retardation and new chromosomal abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mental retardation is a heterogeneous condition, affecting 1-3% of general population. In the last few years, several emerging clinical entities have been described, due to the advent of newest genetic techniques, such as array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. The detection of cryptic microdeletion/microduplication abnormalities has allowed genotype-phenotype correlations, delineating recognizable syndromic conditions that are herein reviewed. With the aim to provide to Paediatricians a combined clinical and genetic approach to the child with cognitive impairment, a practical diagnostic algorithm is also illustrated. The use of microarray platforms has further reduced the percentage of "idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, previously accounted for about half of total cases. We discussed the putative pathways at the basis of remaining "pure idiopathic" forms of mental retardation, highlighting possible environmental and epigenetic mechanisms as causes of altered cognition. PMID:20152051

  1. Gut barrier failure biomarkers are associated with poor disease outcome in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Tornai, Tamas; Palyu, Eszter; Vitalis, Zsuzsanna; Tornai, Istvan; Tornai, David; Antal-Szalmas, Peter; Norman, Gary L; Shums, Zakera; Veres, Gabor; Dezsofi, Antal; Par, Gabriella; Par, Alajos; Orosz, Peter; Szalay, Ferenc; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Papp, Maria

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the prevalence of a panel of serologic markers that reflect gut barrier dysfunction in a mixed cohort of pediatric and adult primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients. METHODS Sera of 67 PSC patients [median age (range): 32 (5-79) years, concomitant IBD: 67% and cirrhosis: 20%] were assayed for the presence of antibodies against to F-actin (AAA IgA/IgG) and gliadin (AGA IgA/IgG)] and for serum level of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) by ELISA. Markers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure [LPS binding protein (LBP)] and various anti-microbial antibodies [anti-OMP Plus IgA and endotoxin core IgA antibody (EndoCAb)] were also determined. Poor disease outcome was defined as orthotopic liver transplantation and/or liver-related death during the follow-up [median: 99 (14-106) mo]. One hundred and fifty-three healthy subjects (HCONT) and 172 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients were the controls. RESULTS A total of 28.4%, 28.0%, 9% and 20.9% of PSC patients were positive for AAA IgA, AAA IgG, AGA IgA and AGA IgG, respectively. Frequencies of AAA IgA and AAA IgG (P < 0.001, for both) and AGA IgG (P = 0.01, for both) but not AGA IgA were significantly higher compared to both of the HCONT and the UC groups. In survival analysis, AAA IgA-positivity was revealed as an independent predictor of poor disease outcome after adjusting either for the presence of cirrhosis [HR = 5.15 (1.27-20.86), P = 0.022 or for the Mayo risk score (HR = 4.24 (0.99-18.21), P = 0.052]. AAA IgA-positivity was significantly associated with higher frequency of anti-microbial antibodies (P < 0.001 for EndoCab IgA and P = 0.012 for anti-OMP Plus IgA) and higher level of the enterocyte damage marker (median I-FABPAAA IgA pos vs neg: 365 vs 166 pg/mL, P = 0.011), but not with serum LBP level. CONCLUSION Presence of IgA type AAA identified PSC patients with progressive disease. Moreover, it is associated with enhanced mucosal immune response to various microbial antigens and

  2. Individuals with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis have Elevated Levels of Biomarkers for Apoptosis but Not Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Masuoka, Howard C.; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Deppe, Ross; Bybee, Phelan; Comerford, Megan; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Ghabril, Marwan; Chalasani, Naga

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Hepatocyte apoptosis or necrosis from accumulation of bile salts may play an important role in the disease progression of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The aim of the current study was to measure serum markers of hepatocyte apoptosis (cytokeratin 18 fragments - K18) and necrosis (high-mobility group protein B1 - HMGB1) in adults with PSC and examine the relationship with disease severity. Methods We measured serum levels of K18 and HMGB1 in well phenotyped PSC (N=37) and 39 control subjects (N=39). Severity of PSC was assessed biochemically, histologically and PSC Mayo Risk Score. Quantification of hepatocyte apoptosis was performed using TUNEL assay. Results The mean age of the study cohort was 49.7 ± 13.3 years and comprised of 67% men and 93% Caucasian. Serum K18 levels were significantly higher in the PSC patients compared to control (217.4 ± 78.1 vs. 157.0 ± 58.2 U/L, p-val=0.001). However, HMGB1 levels were not different between the two groups (5.38 ± 2.99 vs. 6.28 ± 2.85 ng/mL, p-val=0.15). Within the PSC group, K18 levels significantly correlated with AST (r=0.5, p-val=0.002), alkaline phosphatase (r=0.5, p-val=0.001), total bilirubin (r=0.61, p-val= <0.001), and albumin (r=−0.4, p-val =0.02). Serum K18 levels also correlated with the level of apoptosis present on the liver biopsy (r=0.8, p-val = <0.001) and Mayo Risk score (r=0.4, p-val=0.015). Conclusion Serum K18 but not HMGB1 levels were increased in PSC and associated with severity of underlying liver disease and the degree of hepatocyte apoptosis. PMID:26195313

  3. An Imaging Biomarker for Assessing Hepatic Function in Patients with Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Jennifer; Lenzen, Henrike; Hinrichs, Jan B; Ringe, Burckhardt; Manns, Michael P; Wacker, Frank; Ringe, Kristina I

    2018-05-15

    We aimed to evaluate the potential of hepatobiliary phase magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as parameter for assessment of hepatocellular function in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). We collected data from 111 patients (83 male, 28 female; median, 44 years old), from March 2012 through March 2016, with a confirmed diagnosis of PSC who underwent MRI evaluation before and after injection (hepatobiliary phase) of a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent (gadoxetate disodium). Signal intensities were measured in each liver segment. Mean relative enhancement values were calculated and correlated with findings from liver functions tests, prognostic scoring systems (model for end-stage liver disease [MELD] score; Mayo risk score; Amsterdam-Oxford-PSC score), abnormalities detected by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (using the Amsterdam cholangiographic classification system), and clinical endpoints (liver transplantation, cholangiocarcinoma, liver-related death). Our primary aim was to associate relative enhancement values with liver function and patient outcomes. Most patients had moderate-stage disease and had intermediate levels of risk (median MELD score, 8 and median Mayo score, 0.27). Clinical endpoints were reached by 21 patients (6 developed cholangiocarcinoma, 8 underwent liver transplantation, and 7 patients died). The highest levels of correlations were observed for relative enhancement 20 min after contrast injection and level of alkaline phosphatase (r= -0.636), bilirubin (r= -0.646), albumin (r= 0.538); as well as international normalized ratio (r=0.456); MELD score (r= -0.587); Mayo risk score (r= -0.535), and Amsterdam-Oxford model score (r= -0.595) (P<.0001). Relative enhancement correlated with all clinical endpoints (all P<.05). A cutoff relative enhancement value of 0.65 identified patients with a clinical endpoint with 73.9% sensitivity 92.9% specificity (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0

  4. Electroencephalographic and imaging profile in a subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) cohort: a correlative study.

    PubMed

    Praveen-kumar, S; Sinha, S; Taly, A B; Jayasree, S; Ravi, V; Vijayan, J; Ravishankar, S

    2007-09-01

    There are only a few studies correlating diverse radiological and EEG features of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE). The objective of the study was to (a) describe EEG profile and (b) correlate it with the clinical and imaging data of patients with confirmed SSPE. This study was conducted at a University teaching hospital in south India and involved 58 patients (M:F=37:21, age: 12.3, SD 4.8 years) of SSPE. Diagnosis of SSPE was based on the characteristic clinical manifestations, and raised IgG (1:625) anti-measles antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by ELISA in all the patients. Scalp EEGs were recorded on 16 channel machines using standard parameters and procedures. The EEG, clinical and imaging data were reviewed. EEGs were frequently abnormal: typical (37) and atypical (21). Diffuse slowing of background activity (BGA) was noted in 46 records being asymmetrical in six. Periodic complexes were periodic (32), quasi-periodic (21) or a-periodic (4). Periodic complexes (PC) (amplitude: 370.7, SD 171.2 microV; duration - 1.7, SD 2.0 s; inter-complex interval: 8.4, SD 9.2s) were symmetrical in 39 and asymmetrical in 19. CT (32) and MRI (23) scans were normal in 16 patients while others had white matter (15), cerebral edema (8), cerebral atrophy (8), basal ganglia (2), and thalamic (2) changes. There was an independent association of frontally dominant slowing of BGA (p=0.04) and typical PCs (p=0.03) with the diffuse cerebral edema on imaging. White matter changes correlated with slowing of BGA (p=0.04), but not with typical PC (p=0.16). This study provides valuable insight into the structural and clinical correlates of EEG changes in SSPE. Irrespective of the incidence of occurrence of SSPE in a community, a clinician should be aware of the wide spectra of EEG findings. This study also discusses the possible underlying structural and clinical correlates.

  5. Prospective evaluation of ursodeoxycholic acid withdrawal in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Wunsch, Ewa; Trottier, Jocelyn; Milkiewicz, Malgorzata; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Barbier, Olivier; Milkiewicz, Piotr

    2014-09-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is no longer recommended for management of adult patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). We undertook a prospective evaluation of UDCA withdrawal in a group of consecutive patients with PSC. Twenty six patients, all treated with UDCA (dose range: 10-15 mg/kg/day) were included. Paired blood samples for liver biochemistry, bile acids, and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) were collected before UDCA withdrawal and 3 months later. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was used for quantification of 29 plasma bile acid metabolites. Pruritus and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed with a 10-point numeric rating scale, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), and PBC-40 questionnaires. UDCA withdrawal resulted in a significant deterioration in liver biochemistry (increase of alkaline phosphatase of 75.6%; P<0.0001; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase of 117.9%, P<0.0001; bilirubin of 50.0%, P<0.001; alanine aminotransferase of 63.9%, P<0.005; and aspartate aminotransferase of 45.0%, P<0.005) and increase of Mayo Risk Score for PSC (change from baseline of +0.5 point; P<0.003). Bile acid analysis revealed a significant decrease in lithocholic acid and its derivatives after UDCA withdrawal, but no effect on concentrations of primary bile acids aside from an increased accumulation of their taurine conjugates. After UDCA removal cholestatic parameters, taurine species of cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid correlated with serum FGF19 levels. No significant effect on HRQoL after UDCA withdrawal was observed; however, 42% of patients reported a deterioration in their pruritus. At 3 months, discontinuation of UDCA in patients with PSC causes significant deterioration in liver biochemistry and influences concentrations of bile acid metabolites. A proportion of patients report increased pruritus, but other short-term markers of quality of life are unaffected. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study

  6. Right hemicolectomy for mesenteric phlebosclerosis potentially caused by long-term use of herbal medicine: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Nobuaki; Hasegawa, Suguru; Hida, Koya; Kawada, Kenji; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Mesenteric phlebosclerosis is a rare ischemic disease affecting the colon. Systemic disease and herbal medicine have been pointed out as possible causes, and the disease is characterized by calcifications involved the mesocolic veins. Patients who do not respond to conservative therapy require surgical treatment. In surgical intervention, an adequate extent of colonic resection is important. We present a case of an 87-year-old woman with mesenteric phlebosclerosis who had consumed herbal medicine for 40 years. She suffered from ileus caused by mesenteric phlebosclerosis, and the symptoms did not improve with conservative therapy. Right hemicolectomy was performed since the disease was localized in the right colon. Long-term use of herbal medicine was considered the potential cause of mesenteric phlebosclerosis. The postoperative course was mostly uneventful. The patient stopped using herbal medicine and had no signs of recurrence 2 years after surgery. The greatest concern in surgery for mesenteric phleboscrerosis is to detect the affected area, which should be removed. Characteristic findings in computed tomography and intraoperative findings can help to determine the optimal extent of colonic resection. Mesenteric phlebosclerosis caused by herbal medicines occurs as localized disease in the right colon compared with mesenteric phlebosclerosis caused by other pathogenesis. Limited colonic resection is usually indicated for mesenteric phlebosclerosis caused by herbal medicine. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Neurodevelopment in preschool idiopathic toe-walkers.

    PubMed

    Martín-Casas, P; Ballestero-Pérez, R; Meneses-Monroy, A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V; Atín-Arratibel, M A; Portellano-Pérez, J A

    2017-09-01

    Idiopathic toe walking, a differential diagnosis for neurological and orthopaedic disorders, has been associated with neurodevelopmental alterations. Neurodevelopmental assessment at early ages using specific tests may improve management and follow-up of these patients. The aim of our study is to analyse the neurodevelopmental characteristics of preschool idiopathic toe-walkers (ITW) by comparing them to a control group. Our descriptive cross-sectional study compared possible risk factors, neurodevelopmental characteristics, and scores on the Child Neuropsychological Maturity Questionnaire (CUMANIN) between a group of 56 ITWs aged 3 to 6 and a control group including 40 children. The proportion of males was significantly higher in the ITW group (P=.008). The percentage of patients with a family history (P=.000) and biological risk factors during the perinatal period (P=.032) was also higher in this group. According to the parents' reports, motor coordination in ITWs was significantly poorer (59%; P=.009). ITWs scored significantly lower on CUMANIN subscales of psychomotricity (=0,001) and memory (P=.001), as well as in verbal development (P=.000), non-verbal development (P=.026), and overall development (P=.004). Foot preference was less marked in the ITW group (P=.047). The neurodevelopmental characteristics of our sample suggest that idiopathic toe walking is a marker of neurodevelopmental impairment. However, further studies are necessary to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Interventional Radiologic Treatment for Idiopathic Portal Hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Hirota, Shozo; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Shinichi

    1999-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of interventional radiological treatment for idiopathic portal hypertension. Methods: Between 1995 and 1998, we performed an interventional radiological treatment in five patients with idiopathic portal hypertension, four of whom had refused surgery and one of whom had undergone surgery. Three patients with gastroesophageal varices (GEV) were treated by partial splenic embolization (PSE), one patient with esophageal varices (EV) and massive ascites by transjugular intrahepatic portosytemic shunt (TIPS) and PSE, and one patient with GEV by percutaneous transhepatic obliteration (PTO). Midterm results were analyzed in terms of the effect on esophageal and/or gastric varices. Results: Inmore » one woman with severe GEV who underwent three sessions of PSE, there was endoscopic confirmation that the GEV had disappeared. In one man his EV shrunk markedly after two sessions of PSE. In two patients slight reduction of the EV was obtained with one application of PSE combined with endoscopic variceal ligation therapy. PTO for GV in one patient resulted in good control of the varices. All patients have survived for 16-42 months since the first interventional treatment, and varices are well controlled. Conclusion: Interventional radiological treatment is effective for patients with idiopathic portal hypertension, whether or not they have undergone surgery.« less

  9. CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF IDIOPATHIC FOVEOMACULAR RETINOSCHISIS.

    PubMed

    Maruko, Ichiro; Morizane, Yuki; Kimura, Shuhei; Shiode, Yusuke; Hosokawa, Mio; Sekiryu, Tetsuju; Iida, Tomohiro; Shiraga, Fumio

    2016-08-01

    To describe the clinical features of idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis not in association with myopia, glaucoma, optic disk pit, or juvenile retinoschisis. Retrospective observational case series. Five eyes of five patients with idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis were included. The patients were 2 men and 3 women (average age, 75.2 years; range, 71-78 years). The average spherical equivalent was +2.40 diopters (range, +0.88 to +5.75 diopters), and the average axial length was 22.0 mm (range, 21.1-23.1 mm). All patients had retinoschisis from the macula to the optic disk in the affected eye. No patients had retinoschisis in the fellow eye. The average best-corrected visual acuity was 20/44 (68 Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letter score). Idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis is not inherited or associated with myopia, vitreomacular traction syndrome, optic pit, or glaucoma but is associated with older age, unilaterality, hyperopia with short axial length, complete posterior vitreous detachment, and weak leakage from the optic disk on fluorescein angiography.

  10. Acute mesenteric ischemia and hepatic infarction after treatment of ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takayasu, Shinobu; Murasawa, Shingo; Yamagata, Satoshi; Kageyama, Kazunori; Nigawara, Takeshi; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kimura, Daisuke; Tsushima, Takao; Sakamoto, Yoshiyuki; Hakamada, Kenichi; Terui, Ken; Daimon, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Cushing's syndrome and excess exogenous glucocorticoids have an increased risk for venous thromboembolism, as well as arterial thrombi. The patients are at high risk of thromboembolic events, especially during active disease and even in cases of remission and after surgery in Cushing's syndrome and withdrawal state in glucocorticoid users. We present a case of Cushing's syndrome caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting lung carcinoid tumor. Our patient developed acute mesenteric ischemia after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery despite administration of sufficient glucocorticoid and thromboprophylaxis in the perioperative period. In addition, our patient developed hepatic infarction after surgical resection of the intestine. Then, the patient was supported by total parenteral nutrition. Our case report highlights the risk of microthrombi, which occurred in our patient after treatment of ectopic Cushing's syndrome. Guidelines on thromboprophylaxis and/or antiplatelet therapy for Cushing's syndrome are acutely needed. The present case showed acute mesenteric thromboembolism and hepatic infarction after treatment of ectopic Cushing's syndrome.Patients with Cushing's syndrome are at increased risk for thromboembolic events and increased morbidity and mortality.An increase in thromboembolic risk has been observed during active disease, even in cases of remission and postoperatively in Cushing's syndrome.Thromboprophylaxis and antiplatelet therapy should be considered in treatment of glucocorticoid excess or glucocorticoid withdrawal.

  11. Exercise ameliorates endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated vascular dysfunction in mesenteric arteries in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Junyoung; Kim, Kwangchan; Park, Eunkyung; Lee, Jonghae; Markofski, Melissa M; Marrelli, Sean P; Park, Yoonjung

    2018-05-21

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is closely associated with atherosclerosis, but the effects of exercise on ER stress-mediated endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis is not yet fully understood. We assessed endothelium-dependent vasodilation in isolated mesenteric arteries from wild type (WT), WT with exercise (WT-EX), ApoE knockout (ApoE KO), and ApoE KO mice with exercise (ApoE KO-EX). Vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh) was elicited in the presence of inhibitors of ER stress, eNOS, caspase-1, and UCP-2 (Tudca, L-NAME, AC-YVARD-cmk, and Genipin, respectively) and the ER stress inducer (Tunicamycin). Immunofluorescence was used to visualize the expression of CHOP, as an indicator of ER stress, in superior mesenteric arteries (SMA). Dilation to ACh was attenuated in ApoE KO but was improved in ApoE KO-EX. Incubation of Tudca and AC-YVARD-cmk improved ACh-induced vasodilation in ApoE KO. L-NAME, tunicamycin, and Genipin attenuated vasodilation in WT, WT-EX and ApoE KO-EX, but not in ApoE KO. Exercise training reversed the increase in CHOP expression in the endothelium of SMA of ApoE KO mice. We conclude that ER stress plays a significant role in endothelial dysfunction of resistance arteries in atherosclerosis and that exercise attenuates ER stress and regulates its critical downstream signaling pathways including eNOS, UCP-2 and caspase-1.

  12. The effects of hindlimb unweighting on the capacitance of rat small mesenteric veins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, S. L.; Berkowitz, D. E.; Brooks-Asplund, E. M.; Shoukas, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity is associated with an impaired cardiac output response to orthostatic stress. Mesenteric veins are critical in modulating cardiac filling through venoconstriction. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of simulated microgravity on the capacitance of rat mesenteric small veins. We constructed pressure-diameter relationships from vessels of 21-day hindlimb-unweighted (HLU) rats and control rats by changing the internal pressure and measuring the external diameter. Pressure-diameter relationships were obtained both before and after stimulation with norepinephrine (NE). The pressure-diameter curves of HLU vessels were shifted to larger diameters than control vessels. NE (10(-4) M) constricted veins from control animals such that the pressure-diameter relationship was significantly shifted downward (i.e., to smaller diameters at equal pressure). NE had no effect on vessels from HLU animals. These results indicate that, after HLU, unstressed vascular volume may be increased and can no longer decrease in response to sympathetic stimulation. This may partially underlie the mechanism leading to the exaggerated fall in cardiac output and stroke volume seen in astronauts during an orthostatic stress after exposure to microgravity.

  13. Leptin and adiponectin supplementation modifies mesenteric lymph node lymphocyte composition and functionality in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Grases-Pintó, Blanca; Abril-Gil, Mar; Rodríguez-Lagunas, Maria J; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Àngels

    2018-03-01

    At birth, when immune responses are insufficient, there begins the development of the defence capability against pathogens. Leptin and adiponectin, adipokines that are present in breast milk, have been shown to play a role in the regulation of immune responses. We report here, for the first time, the influence of in vivo adipokine supplementation on the intestinal immune system in early life. Suckling Wistar rats were daily supplemented with leptin (0·7 μg/kg per d, n 36) or adiponectin (35 μg/kg per d, n 36) during the suckling period. The lymphocyte composition, proliferation and cytokine secretion from mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes (on days 14 and 21), as well as intestinal IgA and IgM concentration (day 21), were evaluated. At day 14, leptin supplementation significantly increased the TCRαβ + cell proportion in mesenteric lymph nodes, in particular owing to an increase in the TCRαβ + CD8+ cell population. Moreover, the leptin or adiponectin supplementation promoted the early development CD8+ cells, with adiponectin being the only adipokine capable of enhancing the lymphoproliferative ability at the end of the suckling period. Although leptin decreased intestinal IgA concentration, it had a trophic effect on the intestine in early life. Supplementation of both adipokines modulated the cytokine profile during (day 14) and at the end (day 21) of the suckling period. These results suggest that leptin and adiponectin during suckling play a role in the development of mucosal immunity in early life.

  14. Vasorelaxation induced by common edible tropical plant extracts in isolated rat aorta and mesenteric vascular bed.

    PubMed

    Runnie, I; Salleh, M N; Mohamed, S; Head, R J; Abeywardena, M Y

    2004-06-01

    In this study, the vasodilatory actions of nine edible tropical plant extracts were investigated. Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato leaf), Piper betle (betel leaf), Anacardium occidentale (cashew leaf), Gynandropsis gynandra (maman leaf), Carica papaya (papaya leaf), and Mentha arvensis (mint leaf) extracts exhibited more than 50% relaxing effect on aortic ring preparations, while Piper betle and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass stalk) showed comparable vasorelaxation on isolated perfused mesenteric artery preparation. The vascular effect on the aortic ring preparations were mainly endothelium-dependent, and mediated by nitric oxide (NO) as supported by the inhibition of action in the presence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA), an nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, or by the removal of endothelium. In contrast, vasodilatory actions in resistance vessels (perfused mesenteric vascular beds) appear to involve several biochemical mediators, including NO, prostanoids, and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs). Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities varied among different extracts and found to be independent of vascular relaxation effects. This study demonstrates that many edible plants common in Asian diets to possess potential health benefits, affording protection at the vascular endothelium level.

  15. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome Improved by Enteral Nutritional Therapy according to the Controlling Nutritional Status Score.

    PubMed

    Takehara, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Rina; Kawai, Masaya; Kawano, Shingo; Munakata, Shinya; Sugimoto, Kiichi; Takahashi, Makoto; Kojima, Yutaka; Fukunaga, Tetsu; Kajiyama, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) is a relatively rare disease that involves bowel obstruction symptoms, such as vomiting and gastric distension, owing to the compression of the third portion of the duodenum from the front by the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and from the rear by the abdominal aorta and the spine. SMAS is diagnosed on the basis of an upper gastrointestinal examination series indicating the obstruction of the third portion of the duodenum or a computed tomography scan indicating the narrowing of the branch angle between the aorta and the SMA (i.e., the aorta-SMA angle). Here, we report the case of a 78-year-old woman diagnosed with SMAS after a laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for cecal cancer, whose condition was improved by enteral nutritional therapy. We used her controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score as a nutrition assessment and noted the changes in the aorta-SMA angle over the course of the disease. This patient appeared to develop SMAS, on the basis of a worsened CONUT score and a decreased aorta-SMA angle, owing to the inflammation resulting from the intraoperative dissection of the tissues around the SMA and prolonged postoperative fasting. After the initiation of enteral nutritional therapy, the patient exhibited body weight gain and an improved aorta-SMA angle and CONUT score. Hence, assessment of the aorta-SMA angle and CONUT score is an important preoperative consideration.

  16. Adaptation of mesenteric lymphatic vessels to prolonged changes in transmural pressure.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Nguyen, T L; Quick, C M; Hardy, J; Laine, G A; Wilson, E; Stewart, R H

    2013-07-15

    In vitro studies have revealed that acute increases in transmural pressure increase lymphatic vessel contractile function. However, adaptive responses to prolonged changes in transmural pressure in vivo have not been reported. Therefore, we developed a novel bovine mesenteric lymphatic partial constriction model to test the hypothesis that lymphatic vessels exposed to higher transmural pressures adapt functionally to become stronger pumps than vessels exposed to lower transmural pressures. Postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels were partially constricted for 3 days. On postoperative day 3, constricted vessels were isolated, and divided into upstream (UP) and downstream (DN) segment groups, and instrumented in an isolated bath. Although there were no differences between the passive diameters of the two groups, both diastolic diameter and systolic diameter were significantly larger in the UP group than in the DN group. The pump index of the UP group was also higher than that in the DN group. In conclusion, this is the first work to report how lymphatic vessels adapt to prolonged changes in transmural pressure in vivo. Our results suggest that vessel segments upstream of the constriction adapt to become both better fluid conduits and lymphatic pumps than downstream segments.

  17. Therapeutic effects of flurbiprofen axetil on mesenteric traction syndrome: randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidemasa; Shida, Dai; Tagawa, Kyoko; Iwamoto, Ryo; Arita, Makoto; Arai, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takeo

    2017-08-11

    This study aimed to reveal the appropriate timing for the intravenous administration of flurbiprofen axetil for preventing mesenteric traction syndrome (MTS), caused by prostacyclin release. In this prospective, randomized, clinical study, forty-five patients who were undergoing elective surgery for colorectal cancer via laparotomy were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into 3 groups: a preoperative group (n = 16) receiving flurbiprofen axetil directly before surgery; a post-MTS group (n = 14) receiving following MTS onset; and a control group (n = 15) who were not administered flurbiprofen axetil. 6-keto-PGF1α, a stable metabolite of prostacyclin, levels were measured and mean blood pressures were recorded. In the preoperative group, 6-keto-PGF1α levels did not increase, blood pressure levels did not decrease, and no facial flushing was observed. In both the post-MTS and control groups, 6-keto-PGF1α levels increased markedly after mesenteric traction and blood pressure decreased significantly. The post-MTS group exhibited a faster decreasing trend in 6-keto-PGF1α levels and quick restore of the mean blood pressure, and the use of vasopressors and phenylephrine were lower than that in the control group. Even therapeutic administration of flurbiprofen axetil after the onset of MTS has also effects on MTS by suppressing prostacyclin production. Clinical trial number: UMIN000009111 . (Registered 14 October 2012).

  18. Portal, superior mesenteric and splenic vein thrombosis secondary to hyperhomocysteinemia with pernicious anemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Prashanth; Shaikh, Nissar; Malmstrom, Mohammad F; Kumar, Vajjala R; Nour, Bakr

    2014-08-25

    Acute portomesenteric vein thrombosis is an uncommon but serious condition with potential sequelae, such as small-bowel gangrene and end-stage hepatic failure. It is known to be caused by various pro-thrombotic states, including hyperhomocysteinemia. We describe what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of concomitant thrombosis of portal, superior mesenteric and splenic veins due to hyperhomocysteinemia secondary to pernicious anemia and no other risk factors. A 60-year-old Indian man presented with epigastric pain, diarrhea and vomiting. An abdominal imaging scan showed that he had concomitant pernicious anemia and concomitant portal, superior mesenteric and splenic vein thrombosis. A work-up for the patient's hypercoagulable state revealed hyperhomocysteinemia, an undetectable vitamin B12 level and pernicious anemia with no other thrombophilic state. He developed infarction with perforation of the small bowel and subsequent septic shock with multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, and he ultimately died due to progressive hepatic failure. This report demonstrates that pernicious anemia, on its own, can lead to hyperhomocysteinemia significant enough to lead to lethal multiple splanchnic vein thrombosis. Our case also underscores the need to (1) consider portomesenteric thrombosis in the differential diagnosis of epigastric abdominal pain, (2) perform a complete thrombotic work-up to elucidate metabolic abnormalities that could be contributing to a pro-thrombotic state and (3) initiate aggressive measures, including early consideration of multi-visceral transplantation, in order to avoid decompensation and a significant adverse outcome.

  19. Does mesenteric venous imaging assessment accurately predict pathologic invasion in localized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma?

    PubMed

    Clanton, Jesse; Oh, Stephen; Kaplan, Stephen J; Johnson, Emily; Ross, Andrew; Kozarek, Richard; Alseidi, Adnan; Biehl, Thomas; Picozzi, Vincent J; Helton, William S; Coy, David; Dorer, Russell; Rocha, Flavio G

    2018-05-09

    Accurate prediction of mesenteric venous involvement in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is necessary for adequate staging and treatment. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in PDAC patients at a single institution. All patients with resected PDAC and staging CT and EUS between 2003 and 2014 were included and sub-divided into "upfront resected" and "neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC)" groups. Independent imaging re-review was correlated to venous resection and venous invasion. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were then calculated. A total of 109 patients underwent analysis, 60 received upfront resection, and 49 NAC. Venous resection (30%) and vein invasion (13%) was less common in patients resected upfront than those who received NAC (53% and 16%, respectively). Both CT and EUS had poor sensitivity (14-44%) but high specificity (75-95%) for detecting venous resection and vein invasion in patients resected upfront, whereas sensitivity was high (84-100%) and specificity was low (27-44%) after NAC. Preoperative CT and EUS in PDAC have similar efficacy but different predictive capacity in assessing mesenteric venous involvement depending on whether patients are resected upfront or received NAC. Both modalities appear to significantly overestimate true vascular involvement and should be interpreted in the appropriate clinical context. Copyright © 2018 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mesenteric Lymphadenitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... results from an intestinal infection. It mainly affects children and teens. This painful condition can mimic the warning signs ... see a doctor Abdominal pain is common in children and teens, and it can be hard to know when ...

  1. Glymphatic MRI in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Ringstad, Geir; Vatnehol, Svein Are Sirirud; Eide, Per Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The glymphatic system has in previous studies been shown as fundamental to clearance of waste metabolites from the brain interstitial space, and is proposed to be instrumental in normal ageing and brain pathology such as Alzheimer’s disease and brain trauma. Assessment of glymphatic function using magnetic resonance imaging with intrathecal contrast agent as a cerebrospinal fluid tracer has so far been limited to rodents. We aimed to image cerebrospinal fluid flow characteristics and glymphatic function in humans, and applied the methodology in a prospective study of 15 idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (mean age 71.3 ± 8.1 years, three female and 12 male) and eight reference subjects (mean age 41.1 + 13.0 years, six female and two male) with suspected cerebrospinal fluid leakage (seven) and intracranial cyst (one). The imaging protocol included T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with equal sequence parameters before and at multiple time points through 24 h after intrathecal injection of the contrast agent gadobutrol at the lumbar level. All study subjects were kept in the supine position between examinations during the first day. Gadobutrol enhancement was measured at all imaging time points from regions of interest placed at predefined locations in brain parenchyma, the subarachnoid and intraventricular space, and inside the sagittal sinus. Parameters demonstrating gadobutrol enhancement and clearance in different locations were compared between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and reference subjects. A characteristic flow pattern in idiopathic normal hydrocephalus was ventricular reflux of gadobutrol from the subarachnoid space followed by transependymal gadobutrol migration. At the brain surfaces, gadobutrol propagated antegradely along large leptomeningeal arteries in all study subjects, and preceded glymphatic enhancement in adjacent brain tissue, indicating a pivotal role of intracranial pulsations for glymphatic

  2. Glymphatic MRI in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Ringstad, Geir; Vatnehol, Svein Are Sirirud; Eide, Per Kristian

    2017-10-01

    The glymphatic system has in previous studies been shown as fundamental to clearance of waste metabolites from the brain interstitial space, and is proposed to be instrumental in normal ageing and brain pathology such as Alzheimer's disease and brain trauma. Assessment of glymphatic function using magnetic resonance imaging with intrathecal contrast agent as a cerebrospinal fluid tracer has so far been limited to rodents. We aimed to image cerebrospinal fluid flow characteristics and glymphatic function in humans, and applied the methodology in a prospective study of 15 idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (mean age 71.3 ± 8.1 years, three female and 12 male) and eight reference subjects (mean age 41.1 + 13.0 years, six female and two male) with suspected cerebrospinal fluid leakage (seven) and intracranial cyst (one). The imaging protocol included T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with equal sequence parameters before and at multiple time points through 24 h after intrathecal injection of the contrast agent gadobutrol at the lumbar level. All study subjects were kept in the supine position between examinations during the first day. Gadobutrol enhancement was measured at all imaging time points from regions of interest placed at predefined locations in brain parenchyma, the subarachnoid and intraventricular space, and inside the sagittal sinus. Parameters demonstrating gadobutrol enhancement and clearance in different locations were compared between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and reference subjects. A characteristic flow pattern in idiopathic normal hydrocephalus was ventricular reflux of gadobutrol from the subarachnoid space followed by transependymal gadobutrol migration. At the brain surfaces, gadobutrol propagated antegradely along large leptomeningeal arteries in all study subjects, and preceded glymphatic enhancement in adjacent brain tissue, indicating a pivotal role of intracranial pulsations for glymphatic function. In

  3. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: an institutional experience

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Seetharam; Jaiprakash, Padmapriya; Dave, Aniket; Pai, Deepti

    2017-01-01

    Objective To study idiopathic granulomatous mastitis with respect to its various clinical features, etiologic factors, treatment modalities and complications. Material and methods Retrospective study of all patients who were diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis from 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2014 at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal, India (a tertiary care referral centre). The research was performed according to the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki. Informed consent was taken from the patient before invasive procedures including surgery. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16.0 wherever appropriate. Results 73 patients diagnosed with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis during the time period were included. One patient was a male (1.37%), rest were all females (98.63%). The mean age of presentation was 32.67 years (range 23 to 66 years). 70 patients (95.89%) were parous females. Average duration since last childbirth was 4.6 years (range: 3 months to 33 years). 8 patients (10.95%) were lactating. History of oral contraceptive pill use was present in 40 patients (54.79%). The right breast was affected in 44 patients (60.27%), and the left breast in 29 patients (39.73%). None of the patients had bilateral disease. The most common symptom was a painless lump (61.64%). Rest of the patients (38.36%) presented with features of a breast abscess. 19 out of 39 FNACs done (48.72%) were positive for granulomatous mastitis. 59 were primarily managed surgically (lumpectomy/wide excision-33, incision & drainage-26). One patient was treated primarily with prednisolone. 13 patients did not receive specific treatment, and were only kept on regular follow-up. Patients managed with lumpectomy/wide excision had the least rate of complications & recurrence (18.18%). Conclusion Patients with idiopathic granulomatous mastitis can present with a wide variety of symptoms which mimic other more common conditions. Surgical

  4. Comparison of monocyte gene expression among patients with neurocysticercosis-associated epilepsy, Idiopathic Epilepsy and idiopathic headaches in India.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Vasudevan; Drevets, Douglas A; Ramajayam, Govindan; Manoj, Josephine J; Anderson, Michael P; Hanas, Jay S; Rajshekhar, Vedantam; Oommen, Anna; Carabin, Hélène

    2017-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), a neglected tropical disease, inflicts substantial health and economic costs on people living in endemic areas such as India. Nevertheless, accurate diagnosis using brain imaging remains poorly accessible and too costly in endemic countries. The goal of this study was to test if blood monocyte gene expression could distinguish patients with NCC-associated epilepsy, from NCC-negative imaging lesion-free patients presenting with idiopathic epilepsy or idiopathic headaches. Patients aged 18 to 51 were recruited from the Department of Neurological Sciences, Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India, between January 2013 and October 2014. mRNA from CD14+ blood monocytes was isolated from 76 patients with NCC, 10 Recovered NCC (RNCC), 29 idiopathic epilepsy and 17 idiopathic headaches patients. A preliminary microarray analysis was performed on six NCC, six idiopathic epilepsy and four idiopathic headaches patients to identify genes differentially expressed in NCC-associated epilepsy compared with other groups. This analysis identified 1411 upregulated and 733 downregulated genes in patients with NCC compared to Idiopathic Epilepsy. Fifteen genes up-regulated in NCC patients compared with other groups were selected based on possible relevance to NCC, and analyzed by qPCR in all patients' samples. Differential gene expression among patients was assessed using linear regression models. qPCR analysis of 15 selected genes showed generally higher gene expression among NCC patients, followed by RNCC, idiopathic headaches and Idiopathic Epilepsy. Gene expression was also generally higher among NCC patients with single cyst granulomas, followed by mixed lesions and single calcifications. Expression of certain genes in blood monocytes can distinguish patients with NCC-related epilepsy from patients with active Idiopathic Epilepsy and idiopathic headaches. These findings are significant because they may lead to the development of new tools to

  5. Multiple idiopathic external apical root resorption: report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Cholia, S S; Wilson, P H R; Makdissi, J

    2005-07-01

    Multiple idiopathic external root resorption is an unusual condition that may present in a cervical or an apical form. In this article, we review the published literature relating to multiple idiopathic external apical root resorption and present four clinical cases. We consider the aetiology of this condition and discuss the various treatment options.

  6. Anatomic relationship between superior mesenteric artery and aorta before and after surgical correction of thoracolumbar kyphosis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Bang-Ping; Ji, Ming-Liang; Jiang, Jun; Zhu, Ze-Zhang; Wan, Bin; Qiu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    A computed tomographic study. To investigate the changed anatomic relationship between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta in surgically treated ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome in kyphosis patients after surgery has been reported. To date, the changed aortomesenteric angle and distance in AS patients undergoing surgical correction of kyphosis have not yet been addressed. Thirty-three AS patients with thoracolumbar kyphosis subjected to pedicle subtraction osteotomy were prospectively recruited. Radiographic measurements included global kyphosis (GK), thoracic kyphosis (TK), local kyphosis (LK), and lumbar lordosis. The aortomesenteric angle and distance were measured on both preoperative and postoperative computed tomography images. The height and weight of these patients were also recorded. The average height significantly increased from 159.7±5.1 cm before surgery to 167.2±5.3 cm after surgery (P<0.001), whereas the average weight changed from 59.3±6.8 kg to 59.5±6.9 kg (P>0.05). GK, TK, LK, and lumbar lordosis were corrected from 77.7, 40.2, 19.4, and 2.8 degrees before surgery to 37.1, 38.4, -21.9, and -32 degrees after surgery, respectively. All the changes of these parameters were found to be significantly different (P<0.001) except that of TK (P>0.05). With the correction of kyphosis, the aortomesenteric angle significantly decreased from 29.3 to 23.4 degrees (P<0.001), whereas the aortomesenteric distance significantly decreased from 25.7 to 20.4 mm (P<0.001). It is to be noted that the changes of GK, LK, and height were significantly correlated with the decrements of aortomesenteric angle and distance (P<0.05). The correlations of the surgical correction of kyphosis and the decreased aortomesenteric angle and distance in AS patients were quantitatively confirmed by our study. Spine surgeons should be aware of the potential risk for the development of superior mesenteric

  7. Characteristics of mesenteric lymphadenitis in comparison with those of acute appendicitis in children.

    PubMed

    Gross, Itai; Siedner-Weintraub, Yael; Stibbe, Shir; Rekhtman, David; Weiss, Daniel; Simanovsky, Natalia; Arbell, Dan; Hashavya, Saar

    2017-02-01

    Mesenteric lymphadenitis (ML) is considered as one of the most common alternative diagnosis in a child with suspected acute appendicitis (AA). In this retrospective study, patients diagnosed with ML (n = 99) were compared in terms of demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings to patients diagnosed with AA (n = 102). This comparison was applied for both lymph nodes smaller and larger than 10 mm. When compared to patients with AA, patients with ML had significantly longer duration of symptoms prior to emergency department (ED) presentation (2.4 ± 2.6 vs 1.4 ± 1.4 days, P = 0.002) and multiple ED presentations (1.3 ± 0.7 vs 1.05 ± 0.3, P < 0.001) and had longer duration of stay in the ED (9.2 ± 5.9 vs 5.2 ± 4 h, P < 0.001), respectively. They also had significantly lower WBC (10.16 ± 4.7 × 10 3 /dl vs 15.8 ± 4.4 × 10 3 /dl, P < 0.001) with lymphocyte predominance (24.6 ± 14 vs 13 ± 8.7%, P < 0.001) and lower CRP levels (0.48 vs 1.6 mg/dl). Migration of pain (28 vs 7%), vomiting (62 vs 34%), and classic abdominal findings of AA (72 vs 20%) were all significantly more common for children with AA. When comparing lymph node size, no significant difference was found between those presenting with small and large nodes. This study highlights multiple clinical and laboratory findings that differentiate ML and AA. Moreover, the absence of any difference with regard to the lymph nodes size might suggest that lymph nodes enlargement is a non-specific finding. What is Known : • Mesenteric lymphadenitis is a very common diagnosis in children with suspected acute appendicitis. • Despite its prevalence, only few studies addressed the clinical characteristics of this clinical entity and their comparison with acute appendicitis. What is New: • Mesenteric lymphadenitis and acute appendicitis could be differentiated by multiple clinical and laboratory parameters. • No significant difference was found between those

  8. Impaired Purinergic Neurotransmission to Mesenteric Arteries in DOCA-salt Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Demel, Stacie L.; Galligan, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Sympathetic nerves release norepinephrine (NE) and ATP onto mesenteric arteries. In DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, there is increased arterial sympathetic neurotransmission due in part to impaired α2-AR function and impaired prejunctional regulation of NE release. Prejunctional regulation of the purinergic component of sympathetic neuroeffector transmission in hypertension is less well understood. We hypothesized that α2-AR dysfunction alters purinergic neurotransmission to arteries in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Mesenteric artery preparations were maintained in vitro and intracellular electrophysiological methods were used to record excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) from smooth muscle cells (SMCs). EJP amplitude was reduced in SMCs from DOCA-salt (4 ± 1 mV) compared to control arteries (9 ± 1 mV; P<0.05). When using short trains of electrical stimulation (0.5 Hz, 5 pulses), the α2-AR antagonist, yohimbine (1 μM), potentiated EJPs in control more than in DOCA-salt arteries (180 ± 35 % vs. 86 ± 7 %; P<0.05). NE (0.1 − 3 μM), the α2-AR agonist UK 14,304 (0.001−0.1 μM), the A1 adenosine receptor agonist CPA (0.3 − 100 μM) and the N-type calcium channel blocker ω–conotoxin (0.0003 − 0.1 μM) decreased EJP amplitude equally well in control and DOCA-salt arteries. Trains of stimuli (10 Hz) depleted ATP stores more completely and the latency to EJP recovery was longer in DOCA-salt compared to control arteries. These data indicate that there is reduced purinergic input to mesenteric arteries of DOCA-salt rats. This is not due to increased inhibition of ATP release via prejunctional α2-ARs or adenosine receptors, but rather a decrease in ATP bioavailability in sympathetic nerves. These data highlight the potential importance of altered neural regulation of resistance arteries as a therapeutic target for drug treatment of hypertension. PMID:18606906

  9. Laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy with superior mesenteric artery-first approach and pancreatogastrostomy assisted by mini-laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Manzoni, Alberto; Addeo, Pietro; Garatti, Marco; Zaniboni, Alberto; Bachellier, Philippe; Rosso, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    Laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy (LPD) is a complex procedure. Critical steps are achieving a negative retroperitoneal margin and re-establishing pancreatoenteric continuity minimizing postoperative pancreatic leak risk. Aiming at increasing the rate of R0 resection during pancreatoduodenectomy, many experienced teams have recommended the superior mesenteric artery (SMA)-first approach, consisting in early identification of the SMA at its origin, with further resection guided by SMA anatomic course. We describe our technique of LPD with SMA-first approach and pancreatogastrostomy assisted by mini-laparotomy. The video concerns a 77-year-old man undergoing our variant of LPD for a 2.5-cm pancreatic head mass. After kocherization, the SMA is identified above the left renocaval confluence and dissected-free from the surrounding tissue. Dissection of the posterior pancreatic aspect exposes the confluence between splenic vein, superior mesenteric vein (SMV), and portal vein. Following duodenal section, the common hepatic artery is dissected and the gastroduodenal artery sectioned at the origin. The first jejunal loop is divided, skeletonized, and passed behind the superior mesenteric vessel. Following pancreatic transection, the uncinate process is dissected from the SMV and the SMA is cleared from retroportal tissue rejoining the previously dissected plain. Laparoscopic choledocojejunostomy is followed by a mini-laparotomy-assisted pancreatogastrostomy, performed as previously described, and a terminolateral gastrojejeunostomy. Twelve patients underwent our variant of LPD (July 2013-May 2015). Female/male ratio was 3:1, median age 65 years (range 57-79), median operation duration 590 min (580-690), intraoperative blood loss 150 cl (100-250). R0 resection rate was 100 %, and the median number of resected lymph nodes was 24 (22-28). Postoperative complications were grade II in two patients and IIIa in one. Median postoperative length of stay was 16 days (14-21). LPD

  10. Interaction of isoflavones and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract on vasoactivity of bovine mesenteric vasculature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It was hypothesized that isoflavones may attenuate ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and possibly alleviate diminished contractility of vasculature after exposure to ergot alkaloids. The objective of this study was to determine if prior incubation of bovine mesenteric vasculature with the isof...

  11. Clinicopathological and Molecular Factors, Risk Factors, Treatment Outcomes and Risk of Recurrence in Mesenteric and Retroperitoneal Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Konstantinos G; Schizas, Dimitrios; Vavouraki, Eleni; Michalinos, Adamantios; Tsilimigras, Diamantis I; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Damaskos, Christos; Papalampros, Alexandros; Liakakos, Theodore

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the clinicopathological factors and treatment outcomes of patients suffering from mesenteric or retroperitoneal extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs). A detailed search in PubMed, using the key words "extragastrointestinal stromal tumors" and "EGIST", found eight studies fulfilling the criteria of this study. Thirty-six patients with a mesenteric and 24 patients with a retroperitoneal EGIST were analyzed, with a follow-up period ranging from 2 to 192 months. Retroperitoneal tumors presented as larger tumors than mesenteric ones, with 95% and 93% immunohistochemical positivity for CD117 antigen, respectively. Surgical resection was performed in 91% of cases, with 57% of patients with mesenteric and 70% of patients with retroperitoneal EGISTs being alive at the last follow-up. EGISTs most commonly are of considerable size and usually with a high mitotic count, rendering them high-risk tumors. Tumor necrosis, nuclear atypia, tumor histology, and mutations in the tyrosine kinase KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) gene, seem to influence tumor behavior. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia of thyroid gland in a male patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chi-Yun; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Lin, Jen-Der; Hsueh, Chuen

    2015-01-01

    Sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia (SMECE) was first described by Chan et al in 1991. It is characterized by nest or strands of epidermoid tumor cells with squamous differentiation, rare mucous cells, prominent sclerotic stroma, eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, and a background of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in the non-neoplastic thyroid gland. It is important to recognize SMECE of thyroid and differentiate it from squamous cell carcinoma or other neoplasms with squamous differentiation/metaplasia. In published cases, the SMECE of thyroid gland predominantly occurs in women. We report a case of SMECE of thyroid in a 45-year-old male patient. All cases in male patients were Caucasian described in English literature, and our case is the first one in Asian.

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Ichiyama, Takashi; Matsushige, Takeshi; Siba, Peter; Suarkia, Dagwin; Takasu, Toshiaki; Miki, Kenji; Furukawa, Susumu

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the brain inflammation and damage in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were determined in SSPE patients. CSF MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels were measured in 23 patients with SSPE in Papua New Guinea by ELISA. CSF MMP-9 levels and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios of SSPE patients were significantly higher than controls (p<0.001 and p=0.005, respectively). There were no significant differences in CSF TIMP-1 levels between SSPE patients and controls. Previous studies suggested that CSF MMP-9 levels reflect inflammatory damage to the brain. Our findings suggest that the MMP-9 level in CSF is an indicator of inflammatory damage to the brain in SSPE.

  14. Angiopoietin-2 polymorphism in women with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Pietrowski, Detlef; Tempfer, Clemens; Bettendorf, Hertha; Bürkle, Bernd; Nagele, Fritz; Unfried, Gertrud; Keck, Christoph

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between idiopathic recurrent miscarriage and a polymorphism of the gene encoding for angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2), an autochthonous modulator of angiogenesis during pregnancy. Prospective case control study. Academic research institution. One hundred thirty-one women with a history of three or more consecutive pregnancy losses before 20 weeks' gestation, and 125 healthy, postmenopausal controls with at least two live births and no history of pregnancy loss. Peripheral venous puncture. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis were performed to identify the different ANGPT2 alleles. No association between mutant (mt) allele and the occurrence of idiopathic recurrent miscarriage was found. Between women with primary and secondary idiopathic recurrent miscarriage, no statistically significant differences with respect to allele frequencies were observed. This is the first report on the ANGPT2 gene polymorphism in women with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage, demonstrating that the investigated polymorphism is not associated with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage in a white population.

  15. The gut microbiota, bile acids and their correlation in primary sclerosing cholangitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Torres, J; Palmela, C; Brito, H; Bao, X; Ruiqi, H; Moura-Santos, P; Pereira da Silva, J; Oliveira, A; Vieira, C; Perez, K; Itzkowitz, S H; Colombel, J F; Humbert, L; Rainteau, D; Cravo, M; Rodrigues, C M; Hu, J

    2018-02-01

    Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis associated with inflammatory bowel disease (PSC-IBD) have a very high risk of developing colorectal neoplasia. Alterations in the gut microbiota and/or gut bile acids could account for the increase in this risk. However, no studies have yet investigated the net result of cholestasis and a potentially altered bile acid pool interacting with a dysbiotic gut flora in the inflamed colon of PSC-IBD. The aim of this study was to compare the gut microbiota and stool bile acid profiles, as well as and their correlation in patients with PSC-IBD and inflammatory bowel disease alone. Thirty patients with extensive colitis (15 with concomitant primary sclerosing cholangitis) were prospectively recruited and fresh stool samples were collected. The microbiota composition in stool was profiled using bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing. Stool bile acids were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The total stool bile acid pool was significantly reduced in PSC-IBD. Although no major differences were observed in the individual bile acid species in stool, their overall combination allowed a good separation between PSC-IBD and inflammatory bowel disease. Compared with inflammatory bowel disease alone, PSC-IBD patients demonstrated a different gut microbiota composition with enrichment in Ruminococcus and Fusobacterium genus compared with inflammatory bowel disease. At the operational taxonomic unit level major shifts were observed within the Firmicutes (73%) and Bacteroidetes phyla (17%). Specific microbiota-bile acid correlations were observed in PSC-IBD, where 12% of the operational taxonomic units strongly correlated with stool bile acids, compared with only 0.4% in non-PSC-IBD. Patients with PSC-IBD had distinct microbiota and microbiota-stool bile acid correlations as compared with inflammatory bowel disease. Whether these changes are associated with, or may predispose to, an increased risk of colorectal

  16. Biliary reconstruction in liver transplant patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis, duct-to-duct or Roux-en-Y?

    PubMed

    Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Shafiee, Mohammad; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Kazemi, Kourosh; Mansorian, Mohsenreza; Motazedian, Nasrin; Afshinnia, Farsad; Geramizadeh, Bita; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali

    2017-06-01

    Roux-en-Y choledochojejunostomy and duct-to-duct (D-D) anastomosis are biliary reconstruction methods for liver transplantation. However, there is a controversy over which method produces better results. We have compared the outcome of D-D anastomosis vs. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis who had undergone liver transplant in Shiraz Organ Transplant Center. The medical records of 405 patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) who had undergone liver transplant from 1996 to 2015 were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: Roux-en-Y group and D-D group. Morbidity, disease recurrence, and graft and patient survival rates were compared between the two groups. Total of 143 patients underwent a D-D biliary reconstruction, and 260 patients had a Roux-en-Y loop. Biliary complication involved 4.2% of patients from the D-D group, and 3.9% from the Roux-en-Y group (P=. 863). Actuarial 1-, 3-, and 5-year patient survival for D-D and Roux-en-Y group was 92%, 85%, and 74%; and 87%, 83%, and 79%, respectively (P=.384). The corresponding 1-, 3-, and 5-year probability of biliary complication was 97%, 95%, and 92%; and 98%, 97%, and 94%, respectively (P=.61). Duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction in liver transplantation for selected patients with PSC is a good alternative instead of Roux-en-Y biliary reconstruction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. MR elastography in primary sclerosing cholangitis: correlating liver stiffness with bile duct strictures and parenchymal changes.

    PubMed

    Bookwalter, Candice A; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K; Eaton, John E; Smyrk, Thomas D; Ehman, Richard L

    2018-04-07

    To determine correlation of liver stiffness measured by MR Elastography (MRE) with biliary abnormalities on MR Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and MRI parenchymal features in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Fifty-five patients with PSC who underwent MRI of the liver with MRCP and MRE were retrospectively evaluated. Two board-certified abdominal radiologists in agreement reviewed the MRI, MRCP, and MRE images. The biliary tree was evaluated for stricture, dilatation, wall enhancement, and thickening at segmental duct, right main duct, left main duct, and common bile duct levels. Liver parenchyma features including signal intensity on T2W and DWI, and hyperenhancement in arterial, portal venous, and delayed phase were evaluated in nine Couinaud liver segments. Atrophy or hypertrophy of segments, cirrhotic morphology, varices, and splenomegaly were scored as present or absent. Regions of interest were placed in each of the nine segments on stiffness maps wherever available and liver stiffness (LS) was recorded. Mean segmental LS, right lobar (V-VIII), left lobar (I-III, and IVA, IVB), and global LS (average of all segments) were calculated. Spearman rank correlation analysis was performed for significant correlation. Features with significant correlation were then analyzed for significant differences in mean LS. Multiple regression analysis of MRI and MRCP features was performed for significant correlation with elevated LS. A total of 439/495 segments were evaluated and 56 segments not included in MRE slices were excluded for correlation analysis. Mean segmental LS correlated with the presence of strictures (r = 0.18, p < 0.001), T2W hyperintensity (r = 0.38, p < 0.001), DWI hyperintensity (r = 0.30, p < 0.001), and hyperenhancement of segment in all three phases. Mean LS of atrophic and hypertrophic segments were significantly higher than normal segments (7.07 ± 3.6 and 6.67 ± 3.26 vs. 5.1 ± 3.6 kPa, p

  18. Inflamed phenotype of the mesenteric microcirculation of melanocortin type 3 receptor-null mice after ischemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Giovanna; Patel, Hetal B.; Sampaio, André L. F.; Gavins, Felicity N. E.; Murray, Joanne F.; Grieco, Paolo; Getting, Stephen J.; Perretti, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    The existence of anti-inflammatory circuits centered on melanocortin receptors (MCRs) has been supported by the inhibitory properties displayed by melanocortin peptides in models of inflammation and tissue injury. Here we addressed the pathophysiological effect that one MCR, MCR type 3 (MC3R), might have on vascular inflammation. After occlusion (35 min) and reopening of the superior mesenteric artery, MC3R-null mice displayed a higher degree of plasma extravasation (45 min postreperfusion) and cell adhesion and emigration (90 min postreperfusion). These cellular alterations were complemented by higher expression of mesenteric tissue CCL2 and CXCL1 (mRNA and protein) and myeloperoxydase, as compared with wild-type animals. MC1R and MC3R mRNA and protein were both expressed in the inflamed mesenteric tissue; however, no changes in vascular responses were observed in a mouse colony bearing an inactive MC1R. Pharmacological treatment of animals with a selective MC3R agonist ([d-Trp8]-γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone; 10 μg i.v.) produced marked attenuation of cell adhesion, emigration, and chemokine generation; such effects were absent in MC3R-null mice. These new data reveal the existence of a tonic inhibitory signal provided by MC3R in the mesenteric microcirculation of the mouse, acting to down-regulate cell trafficking and local mediator generation.—Leoni, G., Patel, H. B., Sampaio, A. L. F., Gavins, F. N. E., Murray, J. F., Grieco, P., Getting, S. J., Perretti, M. Inflamed phenotype of the mesenteric microcirculation of melanocortin type 3 receptor-null mice after ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:18757499

  19. Aerobic exercise reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular changes of small mesenteric and coronary arteries in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Roque, Fernanda R; Briones, Ana M; García-Redondo, Ana B; Galán, María; Martínez-Revelles, Sonia; Avendaño, Maria S; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Fernandes, Tiago; Vassallo, Dalton V; Oliveira, Edilamar M; Salaices, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Regular physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological therapy for prevention and control of hypertension. We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise training in vascular remodelling and in the mechanical and functional alterations of coronary and small mesenteric arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Experimental Approach Normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY), SHR and SHR trained on a treadmill for 12 weeks were used to evaluate vascular structural, mechanical and functional properties. Key Results Exercise did not affect lumen diameter, wall thickness and wall/lumen ratio but reduced vascular stiffness of coronary and mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise also reduced collagen deposition and normalized altered internal elastic lamina organization and expression of MMP-9 in mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise did not affect contractile responses of coronary arteries but improved the endothelium-dependent relaxation in SHR. In mesenteric arteries, training normalized the increased contractile responses induced by U46619 and by high concentrations of acetylcholine. In vessels from SHR, exercise normalized the effects of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and the NOS inhibitor l-NAME in vasodilator or vasoconstrictor responses, normalized the increased O2− production and the reduced Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase expression and increased NO production. Conclusions and Implications Exercise training of SHR improves endothelial function and vascular stiffness in coronary and small mesenteric arteries. This might be related to the concomitant decrease of oxidative stress and increase of NO bioavailability. Such effects demonstrate the beneficial effects of exercise on the vascular system and could contribute to a reduction in blood pressure. PMID:22994554

  20. Aging-associated shifts in functional status of mast cells located by adult and aged mesenteric lymphatic vessels

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Victor

    2012-01-01

    We had previously proposed the presence of permanent stimulatory influences in the tissue microenvironment surrounding the aged mesenteric lymphatic vessels (MLV), which influence aged lymphatic function. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical labeling of proteins known to be present in mast cells (mast cell tryptase, c-kit, prostaglandin D2 synthase, histidine decarboxylase, histamine, transmembrane protein 16A, and TNF-α) with double verification of mast cells in the same segment of rat mesentery containing MLV by labeling with Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated avidin followed by toluidine blue staining. Additionally, we evaluated the aging-associated changes in the number of mast cells located by MLV and in their functional status by inducing mast cell activation by various activators (substance P; anti-rat DNP Immunoglobulin E; peptidoglycan from Staphyloccus aureus and compound 48/80) in the presence of ruthenium red followed by subsequent staining by toluidine blue. We found that there was a 27% aging-associated increase in the total number of mast cells, with an ∼400% increase in the number of activated mast cells in aged mesenteric tissue in resting conditions with diminished ability of mast cells to be newly activated in the presence of inflammatory or chemical stimuli. We conclude that higher degree of preactivation of mast cells in aged mesenteric tissue is important for development of aging-associated impairment of function of mesenteric lymphatic vessels. The limited number of intact aged mast cells located close to the mesenteric lymphatic compartments to react to the presence of acute stimuli may be considered contributory to the aging-associated deteriorations in immune response. PMID:22796537

  1. Aerobic exercise reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular changes of small mesenteric and coronary arteries in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Roque, Fernanda R; Briones, Ana M; García-Redondo, Ana B; Galán, María; Martínez-Revelles, Sonia; Avendaño, Maria S; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Fernandes, Tiago; Vassallo, Dalton V; Oliveira, Edilamar M; Salaices, Mercedes

    2013-02-01

    Regular physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological therapy for prevention and control of hypertension. We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise training in vascular remodelling and in the mechanical and functional alterations of coronary and small mesenteric arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY), SHR and SHR trained on a treadmill for 12 weeks were used to evaluate vascular structural, mechanical and functional properties. Exercise did not affect lumen diameter, wall thickness and wall/lumen ratio but reduced vascular stiffness of coronary and mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise also reduced collagen deposition and normalized altered internal elastic lamina organization and expression of MMP-9 in mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise did not affect contractile responses of coronary arteries but improved the endothelium-dependent relaxation in SHR. In mesenteric arteries, training normalized the increased contractile responses induced by U46619 and by high concentrations of acetylcholine. In vessels from SHR, exercise normalized the effects of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and the NOS inhibitor l-NAME in vasodilator or vasoconstrictor responses, normalized the increased O(2) (-) production and the reduced Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase expression and increased NO production. Exercise training of SHR improves endothelial function and vascular stiffness in coronary and small mesenteric arteries. This might be related to the concomitant decrease of oxidative stress and increase of NO bioavailability. Such effects demonstrate the beneficial effects of exercise on the vascular system and could contribute to a reduction in blood pressure. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. An adult patient with Henoch-Schönlein purpura and non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Onset of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) in middle age is uncommon, and adults with renal or gastrointestinal involvement present with more severe disease than do similar pediatric patients. Case presentation We present the case of a 69-year-old male with HSP who, after treatment with steroids, cyclophosphamide, and continuous intravenous prostaglandin E1 (PGE1), died as a result of severe gastrointestinal involvement with non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI). Vascular narrowing associated with the NOMI improved after catheter injection of PGE1 and prednisolone, but the patient died of bleeding from an exposed small vessel. At autopsy there was no active vasculitis in the jejunal submucosa. Conclusion Treatment with PGE1 and prednisolone might improve small-vessel vasculitis associated with NOMI. PMID:23343144

  3. Single Nisoldipine-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells Isolated from Rabbit Mesenteric Artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Jennings F.; Deitmer, Joachim W.; Nelson, Mark T.

    1986-08-01

    Single smooth muscle cells were enzymatically isolated from the rabbit mesenteric artery. At physiological levels of external Ca, these cells were relaxed and contracted on exposure to norepinephrine, caffeine, or high levels of potassium. The patch-clamp technique was used to measure unitary currents through single channels in the isolated cells. Single channels were selective for divalent cations and exhibited two conductance levels, 8 pS and 15 pS. Both types of channels were voltage-dependent, and channel activity occurred at potentials positive to -40 mV. The activity of both channel types was almost completely inhibited by 50 nM nisoldipine. These channels appear to be the pathways for voltage-dependent Ca influx in vascular smooth muscle and may be the targets of the clinically used dihydropyridines.

  4. Successful Use of Orbital Atherectomy as an Adjunct in Treating Extensively Calcified Mesenteric Artery Lesions.

    PubMed

    Richard, Michele; Krol, Emilia; Dietzek, Alan

    2016-10-01

    To describe the use of orbital technique of atherectomy as an adjunct to successful angioplasty and stent placement of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The technique is demonstrated in a 68-year-old man with critical SMA stenosis. The SMA was cannulated with 0.014-in wire, but the lesion was highly stenotic and densely calcified and prevented the passage of even the smallest 1.5-mm balloon. Orbital atherectomy was thus performed with a 1.25-mm CSI crown. Balloon angioplasty was then possible with a 4 mm × 2 cm balloon followed by placement of a 7 mm × 22 mm balloon-mounted stent. The use of atherectomy as an adjunct to angioplasty and stenting in extensive, calcified SMA lesions supports the value of this technique to avoid a much larger and morbid open procedure. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Clinical presentation and outcome of mesenteric vein thrombosis: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Al-Thani, Hassan; El-Mabrok, Jamela; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Sulaiti, Marym; Tabeb, Abdel Hakem; Hajaji, Khairi; Elgohary, Hesham; Asim, Mohammad; Latifi, Rifat

    2015-03-01

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is an uncommon event. We retrospectively analyzed data for patients who were admitted with MVT between June 2005 and May 2012 in Qatar. The study included 35 patients with a mean age of 45 ± 11 years. The risk of MVT was significantly high among males who smoked and females of Arab ethnicity. The main manifestations of MVT were abdominal distension and vomiting. The major etiological factors included deficiency in protein C and S, homocysteinemia, and prior abdominal surgery. Computed tomography (CT) findings were helpful in 80% of the patients. Bowel resection with primary anastomosis was performed in 25 (71%) patients. The overall mortality rate was 17%. High index of suspicion, detection of risk factors, CT imaging, and timely intervention are essential for better prognosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Endovascular Treatment of a Giant Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm Using a Nitinol Stent-Graft

    SciTech Connect

    Gandini, Roberto; Pipitone, Vincenzo; Konda, Daniel, E-mail: danielkonda@yahoo.com

    2005-01-15

    A 68-year-old woman presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding (hematocrit 19.3%) and in a critical clinical condition (American Society of Anesthesiologists grade 4) from a giant superior mesenteric artery pseudoaneurysm (196.0 x 131.4 mm) underwent emergency endovascular treatment. The arterial tear supplying the pseudoaneurysm was excluded using a 5.0 mm diameter and 31 mm long monorail expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)-covered self-expanding nitinol stent. Within 6 days of the procedure, a gradual increase in hemoglobin levels and a prompt improvement in the clinical condition were observed. Multislice CT angiograms performed immediately, 5 days, 30 days and 3 months after the procedure confirmed the completemore » exclusion of the pseudoaneurysm.« less

  7. [Idiopathic scrotal elephantiasis. A case report].

    PubMed

    López-Caballero, Ignacio; Sánchez-Ruvalcaba, Itzel; Sánchez-Martinez, Luis Carlos; Hernández-Ordoñez, Octavio; Gómez-Lara, Miguel; Flores-Carrillo, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Penoscrotal lymphedema (scrotal elephantiasis) is a condition that has been described in areas in which filariasis is endemic. This paper presents a case of a 45-year-old man with idiopathic lymphedema isolated to the scrotum. After acquired causes of lymphedema were ruled out, the patient was treated with scrotectomy and penoscrotal reconstruction. Currently, the patient is receiving follow-up care without evidence of recurrence. Penoscrotal lymphedema may cause symptoms of weakness, immobility and emotional disturbance. Surgery procedure provides a satisfactory cosmetical and functional outcome.

  8. Surgical repair of idiopathic scrotal elephantiasis.

    PubMed

    Zacharakis, Evangelos; Dudderidge, Tim; Zacharakis, Emmanouil; Ioannidis, Evangelos

    2008-02-01

    Scrotal lymphedema (scrotal elephantiasis) is uncommon outside of filariasis endemic regions. We present a case of a 65-year-old with idiopathic lymphedema of the scrotum and functional impairment of the penis. The patient underwent surgical excision of the edematous subcutaneous tissues and plastic reconstruction of his penis and scrotum. Three years later, the patient showed no signs of local recurrence, had complete restoration of urinary and sexual function and was extremely satisfied with the result. Surgical management was an effective strategy in the management of scrotal lymphedema in this case.

  9. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Diagnosis and Clinical Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yutaro; Suda, Takafumi

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a parenchymal lung disease characterized by progressive interstitial fibrosis. The clinical course of IPF can be unpredictable and may be punctuated by acute exacerbations. Although much progress is being made in unraveling the mechanisms underlying IPF, effective therapy for improving survival remains elusive. Longitudinal disease profiling, especially in terms of clinical manifestations in a large cohort of patients, should lead to proper management of the patients and development of new treatments for IPF. Appropriate multidisciplinary assessment in ongoing registries is required to achieve this. This review summarizes the current status of the diagnosis and clinical manifestations of IPF. PMID:27625576

  10. The Natural History of Idiopathic Scoliosis During Growth: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Di Felice, Francesca; Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Negrini, Stefano

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the study was to provide a meta-analysis of current literature concerning the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis during growth. A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, And Scopus databases was conducted up to November 2016. Eligible works were prospective or retrospective studies that enrolled patients with infantile idiopathic scoliosis, juvenile idiopathic scoliosis, or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, followed up without any treatment from the time of detection. A meta-analysis for proportion was performed. The following studies were grouped per diagnosis: infantile idiopathic scoliosis, juvenile idiopathic scoliosis, and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Of the 1797 citations screened, we assessed 61 full-text articles and included 13 of these (2301 participants). Three studies included infantile idiopathic scoliosis patients (347 participants), five studies included a mixed population of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (1330 participants), and five studies included adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients only (624 participants). The random pooled estimated progression rate was 49% (95% confidence interval = 1%-97%) for infantile idiopathic scoliosis, 49% in a mixed group of patients affected by juvenile idiopathic scoliosis or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (95% confidence interval = 19%-79%), and 42% in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (95% confidence interval = 11%-73%). During growth, idiopathic scoliosis tends to progress in a high percentage of cases. The progression rate varies according to the age at diagnosis, with infantile scoliosis being the most unpredictable. There are many confounders, such as age, Risser sign and baseline Cobb angles that were not consistent among studies, making the data very heterogeneous.

  11. Role of the heme oxygenases in abnormalities of the mesenteric circulation in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Sacerdoti, David; Abraham, Nader G; Oyekan, Adebayo O; Yang, Liming; Gatta, Angelo; McGiff, John C

    2004-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a product of heme metabolism by heme-oxygenase (HO), has biological actions similar to those of nitric oxide (NO). The role of CO in decreasing vascular responses to constrictor agents produced by experimental cirrhosis induced by carbon tetrachloride was evaluated before and after inhibition of HO with tin-mesoporphyrin (SnMP) in the perfused superior mesenteric vasculature (SMV) of cirrhotic and normal rats and in normal rats transfected with the human HO-1 (HHO-1) gene. Perfusion pressure and vasoconstrictor responses of the SMV to KCl, phenylephrine (PE), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were decreased in cirrhotic rats. SnMP increased SMV perfusion pressure and restored the constrictor responses of the SMV to KCl, PE, and ET-1 in cirrhotic rats. The relative roles of NO and CO in producing hyporeactivity of the SMV to PE in cirrhotic rats were examined. Vasoconstrictor responses to PE were successively augmented by stepwise inhibition of CO and NO production, suggesting a complementary role for these gases in the regulation of reactivity of the SMV. Expression of constitutive but not of inducible HO (HO-1) was increased in the SMV of cirrhotic rats as was HO activity. Administration of adenovirus containing HHO-1 gene produced detection of HHO-1 RNA and increased HO activity in the SMV within 7 days. Rats transfected with HO-1 demonstrated reduction in both perfusion pressure and vasoconstrictor responses to PE in the SMV. We propose that HO is an essential component in mechanisms that modulate reactivity of the mesenteric circulation in experimental hepatic cirrhosis in rats.

  12. N-acetylcysteine enhances endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in the isolated rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Lopez, B L; Snyder, J W; Birenbaum, D S; Ma, X I

    1998-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) may confer additional protection in acetaminophen (APAP) overdose by improving hepatic microcirculation. We hypothesize that NAC enhances release of nitric oxide (NO) from the vasculature. Sprague-Dawley rat superior mesenteric artery rings were suspended in oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit tissue baths and contracted with U-46619 (a thromboxane A2-mimetic). In part 1, the effect of NAC on endothelial cell (EC) release of NO was assessed by measurement of vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine (ACh, an EC-dependent vasorelaxor) in the presence and absence of NAC. In part 2, the effect of glutathione (a major component of NAC hepatoprotection) was examined by measuring ACh-induced vasorelaxation in rings from rats treated with L-buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO, a glutathione synthesis inhibitor). Data were analyzed by repeated-measures ANOVA. Addition of 15 to 30 mmol/L NAC after ring contraction had no direct vasodilatory effect. By contrast, pretreatment of rings with NAC (15 mmol/L) enhanced vasorelaxation induced by ACh (95.0% +/- 7.9% versus 62.3% +/- 7.6% for control; ACh dose, 1 mumol/L; P < .001) or by A23187, a receptor-independent, NO-mediated vasodilator (91.6% +/- 9.6% versus 68.3% +/- 12.1% for control; A23187 dose, 1 mumol/L; P < .001). In rings from BSO-treated rats, NAC also enhanced vasorelaxation (76.5% +/- 7.1%; P < .001 versus control), but to a lesser degree than in nontreated rats. NAC enhances endothelium-dependent vasodilation in an isolated rat mesenteric artery ring preparation. In addition to its antioxidant effects, NAC may decrease APAP hepatotoxicity by stimulating NO production and improving microvascular circulation.

  13. Pulmonary Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles Exposure Differentially Impairs Coronary and Mesenteric Arteriolar Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Minarchick, Valerie C; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Porter, Dale W; Wolfarth, Michael G; Çiftyürek, Engin; Barger, Mark; Sabolsky, Edward M.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Cerium dioxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) are an engineered nanomaterial that possesses unique catalytic, oxidative and reductive properties. Currently, CeO2 NPs are being used as a fuel catalyst but these properties are also utilized in the development of potential drug treatments for radiation and stroke protection. These uses of CeO2 NPs present a risk for human exposure; however, to date no studies have investigated the effects of CeO2 NPs on the microcirculation following pulmonary exposure. Previous studies in our laboratory with other nanomaterials have shown impairments in normal microvascular function after pulmonary exposures. Therefore, we predicted that CeO2 NP exposure would cause microvascular dysfunction that is dependent on the tissue bed and dose. Twenty-four hour post exposure to CeO2 NPs (0–400 μg), mesenteric and coronary arterioles were isolated and microvascular function was assessed. Our results provided evidence that pulmonary CeO2 NP exposure impairs endothelium-dependent and -independent arteriolar dilation in a dose-dependent manner. The CeO2 NP exposure dose which causes a 50% impairment in arteriolar function (EC50) was calculated and ranged from 15 – 100 μg depending on the chemical agonist and microvascular bed. Microvascular assessments with acetylcholine revealed a 33–75% reduction in function following exposure. Additionally, there was a greater sensitivity to CeO2 NP exposure in the mesenteric microvasculature due to the 40% decrease in the calculated EC50 compared to the coronary microvasculature EC50. CeO2 NP exposure increased mean arterial pressure in some groups. Taken together these observed microvascular changes may likely have detrimental effects on local blood flow regulation and contribute to cardiovascular dysfunction associated with particle exposure. PMID:23645470

  14. Vascularized Jejunal Mesenteric Lymph Node Transfer: A Novel Surgical Treatment for Extremity Lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Coriddi, Michelle; Wee, Corrine; Meyerson, Joseph; Eiferman, Daniel; Skoracki, Roman

    2017-11-01

    Vascularized lymph node transfer (VLNT) is a surgical treatment for lymphedema. Multiple donor sites have been described and each has significant disadvantages. We propose the jejunal mesentery as a novel donor site for VLNT. We performed a cadaveric anatomic study analyzing jejunal lymph nodes (LNs) and describe outcomes from the first patients who received jejunal mesenteric VLNT for treatment of lymphedema. In 5 cadavers, the average numbers of total LNs and peripheral LNs were identified in the proximal, middle, and distal segments of jejunum. Totals counted were 19.2/13.8/9.6, (SD 7.0/4.4/1.1), respectively; of those, 10.4/6.8/3.4 (SD 3.6/2.3/2.6), respectively, were in the periphery. There were significantly more total and peripheral lymph nodes in the proximal segment compared with the middle and distal segments (p = 0.027 and p = 0.008, respectively). The jejunal VLNT was used in 15 patients for treatment of upper (n = 8) or lower (n = 7) extremity lymphedema. Average follow-up was 9.1 (±6.4) months (range 1 to 19 months). Of 14 patients with viable flaps (93.3%), 12 had subjective improvement (87.5%). Ten patients had preoperative measurements, and of those, 7 had objective improvement in lymphedema (70%). The jejunal mesenteric VLNT is an excellent option for lymphedema treatment because there is no risk of donor site lymphedema or nerve damage, and the scar is easily concealed. Harvest from the periphery of the proximal jejunum is optimal. Improvement from lymphedema can be expected in a majority of patients. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Human Lymphatic Mesenteric Vessels: Morphology and Possible Function of Aminergic and NPY-ergic Nerve Fibers.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Vito; Panarese, Alessandra; Taurone, Samanta; Coppola, Luigi; Cavallotti, Carlo; Artico, Marco

    2015-09-01

    The lymphatic vessels have been studied in different organs from a morphological to a clinical point of view. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the catecholaminergic control of the lymphatic circulation is still incomplete. The aim of this work is to study the presence and distribution of the catecholaminergic and NPY-ergic nerve fibers in the whole wall of the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels in order to obtain knowledge about their morphology and functional significance. The following experimental procedures were performed: 1) drawing of tissue containing lymphatic vessels; 2) cutting of tissue; 3) staining of tissue; 4) staining of nerve fibers; 5) histofluorescence microscopy for the staining of catecholaminergic nerve fibers; 6) staining of neuropeptide Y like-immune reactivity; 7) biochemical assay of proteins; 8) measurement of noradrenaline; 9) quantitative analysis of images; 10) statistical analysis of data. Numerous nerve fibers run in the wall of lymphatic vessels. Many of them are catecholaminergic in nature. Some nerve fibers are NPY-positive. The biochemical results on noradrenaline amounts are in agreement with morphological results on catecholaminergic nerve fibers. Moreover, the morphometric results, obtained by the quantitative analysis of images and the subsequent statistical analysis of data, confirm all our morphological and biochemical data. The knowledge of the physiological or pathological mechanism regulating the functions of the lymphatic system is incomplete. Nevertheless the catecholaminergic nerve fibers of the human mesenteric lymphatic vessels come from the adrenergic periarterial plexuses of the mesenterial arterial bed. NPY-ergic nerve fibers may modulate the microcirculatory mesenterial bed in different pathological conditions.

  16. Junctional and nonjunctional effects of heptanol and glycyrrhetinic acid derivates in rat mesenteric small arteries

    PubMed Central

    Matchkov, Vladimir V; Rahman, Awahan; Peng, Hongli; Nilsson, Holger; Aalkjær, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Heptanol, 18α-glycyrrhetinic acid (18αGA) and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (18βGA) are known blockers of gap junctions, and are often used in vascular studies. However, actions unrelated to gap junction block have been repeatedly suggested in the literature for these compounds. We report here the findings from a comprehensive study of these compounds in the arterial wall. Rat isolated mesenteric small arteries were studied with respect to isometric tension (myography), [Ca2+]i (Ca2+-sensitive dyes), membrane potential and – as a measure of intercellular coupling – input resistance (sharp intracellular glass electrodes). Also, membrane currents (patch-clamp) were measured in isolated smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Confocal imaging was used for visualisation of [Ca2+]i events in single SMCs in the arterial wall. Heptanol (150 μM) activated potassium currents, hyperpolarised the membrane, inhibited the Ca2+ current, and reduced [Ca2+]i and tension, but had little effect on input resistance. Only at concentrations above 200 μM did heptanol elevate input resistance, desynchronise SMCs and abolish vasomotion. 18βGA (30 μM) not only increased input resistance and desynchronised SMCs but also had nonjunctional effects on membrane currents. 18αGA (100 μM) had no significant effects on tension, [Ca2+]i, total membrane current and synchronisation in vascular smooth muscle. We conclude that in mesenteric small arteries, heptanol and 18βGA have important nonjunctional effects at concentrations where they have little or no effect on intercellular communication. Thus, the effects of heptanol and 18βGA on vascular function cannot be interpreted as being caused only by effects on gap junctions. 18αGA apparently does not block communication between SMCs in these arteries, although an effect on myoendothelial gap junctions cannot be excluded. PMID:15210581

  17. Computed tomography has an important role in hollow viscus and mesenteric injuries after blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ker-Kan; Liu, Jody Zhiyang; Go, Tsung-Shyen; Vijayan, Appasamy; Chiu, Ming-Terk

    2010-05-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) scans have become invaluable in the management of patients with blunt abdominal trauma. No clear consensus exists on its role in hollow viscus injuries (HVI) and mesenteric injuries (MI). The aim of this study was to correlate operative findings of HVI and MI to findings on pre-operative CT. All patients treated for blunt abdominal trauma at Tan Tock Seng Hospital from January 2003 to January 2008 were reviewed. CT scans were only performed if the patients were haemodynamically stable and indicated. All scans were pe