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Sample records for idiopathic scoliosis patients

  1. Idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Onur; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Scoliosis refers to curves exceeding 10 degrees observed through posterioanterior direct radiography. In fact, the diagnosis for idiopathic scoliosis is accepted to exclude already available causes. The aim of this paper was to review the etiopathogenesis, classification systems and the treatment management of idiopathic scoliosis. A search in the National Library of Medicine (Pubmed) database using the key words 'idiopathic' and 'scoliosis' was performed. For the literature review, papers concerning the etiopathogenesis, classification and treatment were selected among these articles. A search in the National Library of Medicine (Pubmed) database using the key words 'idiopathic' and 'scoliosis' yielded 4518 articles published between 1947 and 2013. The main hypothesis put forward included genetic factors, hormonal factors, bone and connective tissue anomalies. King, Lenke, Coonrad and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) classifications were the main classification systems for idiopathic scoliosis. Exercise, bracing and anterior, posterior or combined surgery when indicated are the choices for the treatment. Every idiopathic scoliosis case has to be managed to its own characteristics. It is the post-operative appearance that the surgeons are perhaps the least interested but the adolescent patients the most interested in. The aim of scoliosis surgery is to restore the spine without neurological deficit. PMID:25269032

  2. Idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Onur; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Scoliosis refers to curves exceeding 10 degrees observed through posterioanterior direct radiography. In fact, the diagnosis for idiopathic scoliosis is accepted to exclude already available causes. The aim of this paper was to review the etiopathogenesis, classification systems and the treatment management of idiopathic scoliosis. A search in the National Library of Medicine (Pubmed) database using the key words 'idiopathic' and 'scoliosis' was performed. For the literature review, papers concerning the etiopathogenesis, classification and treatment were selected among these articles. A search in the National Library of Medicine (Pubmed) database using the key words 'idiopathic' and 'scoliosis' yielded 4518 articles published between 1947 and 2013. The main hypothesis put forward included genetic factors, hormonal factors, bone and connective tissue anomalies. King, Lenke, Coonrad and Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) classifications were the main classification systems for idiopathic scoliosis. Exercise, bracing and anterior, posterior or combined surgery when indicated are the choices for the treatment. Every idiopathic scoliosis case has to be managed to its own characteristics. It is the post-operative appearance that the surgeons are perhaps the least interested but the adolescent patients the most interested in. The aim of scoliosis surgery is to restore the spine without neurological deficit.

  3. Patients' experience of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery: a phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, Cheryl; Davison, Jean

    2016-09-12

    Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional curvature of the spine of unknown cause that occurs in often otherwise fit young people. A complex surgical procedure is required for the most severe curves. Quantitative literature suggests scoliosis surgery improves patients' lives, while qualitative literature focuses on patients' concerns rather than their experience. Aims To explore how adolescents interpret their perioperative experience. Method Six participants, aged 15-18, were interviewed and transcripts were analysed. Findings Four themes were identified: shock, fears and worries; parental interaction; coping; and motivation and positivity. Conclusion Participants were reluctant to share concerns, however those they shared related more to fear of the unknown and lack of control than specific issues such as pain. Participants depended on their parents, especially their mothers, during the perioperative period, and they recognised their parents' stress. Participants coped well, were motivated and had a positive outlook. PMID:27615585

  4. Patients' experience of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery: a phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, Cheryl; Davison, Jean

    2016-09-12

    Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional curvature of the spine of unknown cause that occurs in often otherwise fit young people. A complex surgical procedure is required for the most severe curves. Quantitative literature suggests scoliosis surgery improves patients' lives, while qualitative literature focuses on patients' concerns rather than their experience. Aims To explore how adolescents interpret their perioperative experience. Method Six participants, aged 15-18, were interviewed and transcripts were analysed. Findings Four themes were identified: shock, fears and worries; parental interaction; coping; and motivation and positivity. Conclusion Participants were reluctant to share concerns, however those they shared related more to fear of the unknown and lack of control than specific issues such as pain. Participants depended on their parents, especially their mothers, during the perioperative period, and they recognised their parents' stress. Participants coped well, were motivated and had a positive outlook.

  5. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Muhammad Naghman; Ahmad, Zafar; Verma, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Scoliosis refers to deviation of spine greater than 10 degrees in the coronal plane. Idiopathic Scoliosis is the most common spinal deformity that develops in otherwise healthy children. The sub types of scoliosis are based on the age of the child at presentation. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) by definition occurs in children over the age of 10 years until skeletal maturity. Objective: The objective of this review is to outline the features of AIS to allow the physician to recognise this condition and commence early treatment, thereby optimizing patient outcome. Method: A thorough literature search was performed using available databases, including Pubmed and Embase, to cover important research published covering AIS. Conclusion: AIS results in higher incidence of back pain and discontent with body image. Curves greater than 50 degrees in thoracic region and greater than 30 degrees in lumbar region progress at a rate of 0.5 to 1 degree per year into adulthood. Curves greater than 60 degrees can lead to pulmonary functional deficit. Therefore once the disease is recognized, effective treatment should be instituted to address the deformity and prevention of its long-term sequelae. PMID:27347243

  6. Psychological Evaluations of Patients Operated for Idiopathic Scoliosis by the Harrington Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orvomaa, E.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 204 patients operated on for idiopathic scoliosis by the Harrington method between 1970 and 1975 found that patients were content with their lives, tended to form families later in life, and had fewer sexual relationships. The patients felt their illness had mostly influenced their participation in work and in physical activities.…

  7. Genetics Home Reference: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions adolescent idiopathic scoliosis adolescent idiopathic scoliosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the ...

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Burton, Monique S

    2013-11-01

    Scoliosis is defined as a lateral curvature of the spine greater than 10 degrees on radiography that is typically associated with trunk rotation. The three major types of scoliosis are congenital, idiopathic, and neuromuscular. Idiopathic scoliosis is divided into three subcategories based on the age of onset. Infantile idiopathic scoliosis affects patients younger than 3 years, juvenile idiopathic scoliosis appears in children between 3 and 10 years, and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) occurs in skeletally immature patients older than 10 years. AIS is the most common form of idiopathic scoliosis. Approximately 2% to 4% of children aged 10 to 16 years have some degree of spinal curvature. Although some researchers view routine screening for AIS as controversial, well-child examinations and sports physicals are an optimal time to evaluate for AIS in the clinical setting. In 2008, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, the Scoliosis Research Society, the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America, and the American Academy of Pediatrics convened a task force to review the issues related to scoliosis screening and issued an information statement concluding that although screening has limitations, the potential benefits that patients with idiopathic scoliosis receive from early treatment can be substantial. Recommendations are now that females are screened twice, at age 10 and 12 years, and males once at age 13 or 14 years. Screening during routine well-child examinations and/or school-based evaluations will help identify patients who need ongoing monitoring. The evaluation of curvatures in conjunction with the level of skeletal maturity will help to guide the management of the curvature.

  9. Eigenspine: computing the correlation between measures describing vertebral pose for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Daniel; Lundström, Claes; Knutsson, Hans

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the concept of eigenspine, a concept applicable for determining the correlation between pair-wise combinations of measures useful for describing the three-dimensional spinal deformities associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The proposed data analysis scheme is based upon the use of principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA). PCA is employed to reduce the dimensionality of the data space, thereby providing a regularization of the measurements, and CCA is employed to determine the linear dependence between pair-wise combinations of different measures. The usefulness of the eigenspine concept is demonstrated by analyzing the position and the rotation of all lumbar and thoracic vertebrae as obtained from 46 patients suffering from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The analysis showed that the strongest linear relationship is found between the lateral displacement and the coronal rotation of the vertebrae, and that a somewhat weaker but still strong correlation is found between the coronal rotation and the axial rotation of the vertebrae. These results are well in-line with the general understanding of idiopathic scoliosis. Noteworthy though is that the correlation between the anterior-posterior displacement and the sagittal rotation was not as strong as expected and that the obtained results further indicate the need for including the axial vertebral rotation as a measure when characterizing different types of idiopathic scoliosis. Apart from analyzing pair-wise correlations between different measures, the method is believed to be suitable for finding a maximally descriptive low-dimensional combination of measures describing spinal deformities in idiopathic scoliosis.

  10. Association between Estrogen Receptor Alpha Gene Polymorphisms and Susceptibility to Idiopathic Scoliosis in Bulgarian Patients: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Svetla; Yablanski, Vasil; Vlaev, Evgeni; Stokov, Luben; Savov, Alexey; Kremensky, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current consensus on idiopathic scoliosis maintains that it has a multifactorial etiology with genetic predisposing factors. AIM: Estrogen receptor alpha gene has been considered as candidate gene of idiopathic scoliosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of Bulgarian population samples (eighty patients with idiopathic scoliosis and one hundred-sixty healthy unrelated gender-matched controls) trying to investigate the association between common genetic polymorphisms of estrogen receptor alpha and the susceptibility to idiopathic scoliosis. Molecular detection of the restriction polymorphisms XbaI and PvuII was performed by polymerase chain reaction following by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The statistical analysis was performed by Pearson’s chi-squared test. RESULTS: Our case-control study showed statistically significant association between the PvuII polymorphism and susceptibility to idiopathic scoliosis and curve progression. No genotype or allele of XbaI polymorphism was found to be correlated with the onset or severity of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of molecular markers with diagnostic and prognostic value could be useful for early detection of children at risk for the development of scoliosis and for prognosis of the risk for a rapid deformity progression. That would facilitate the therapy decisions and early stage treatment of the patient with the least invasive procedures. PMID:27275235

  11. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jack C; Castelein, René M; Chu, Winnie C; Danielsson, Aina J; Dobbs, Matthew B; Grivas, Theodoros B; Gurnett, Christina A; Luk, Keith D; Moreau, Alain; Newton, Peter O; Stokes, Ian A; Weinstein, Stuart L; Burwell, R Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of structural spinal deformities that have a radiological lateral Cobb angle - a measure of spinal curvature - of ≥10(°). AIS affects between 1% and 4% of adolescents in the early stages of puberty and is more common in young women than in young men. The condition occurs in otherwise healthy individuals and currently has no recognizable cause. In the past few decades, considerable progress has been made towards understanding the clinical patterns and the three-dimensional pathoanatomy of AIS. Advances in biomechanics and technology and their clinical application, supported by limited evidence-based research, have led to improvements in the safety and outcomes of surgical and non-surgical treatments. However, the definite aetiology and aetiopathogenetic mechanisms that underlie AIS are still unclear. Thus, at present, both the prevention of AIS and the treatment of its direct underlying cause are not possible. PMID:27188385

  12. Nonsurgical Management of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Jaime A; Hresko, M Timothy; Glotzbecker, Michael P

    2016-08-01

    Pediatric patient visits for spinal deformity are common. Most of these visits are for nonsurgical management of scoliosis, with approximately 600,000 visits for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) annually. Appropriate management of scoliotic curves that do not meet surgical indication parameters is essential. Renewed enthusiasm for nonsurgical management of AIS (eg, bracing, physical therapy) exists in part because of the results of the Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial, which is the only randomized controlled trial available on the use of bracing for AIS. Bracing is appropriate for idiopathic curves between 20° and 40°, with successful control of these curves reported in >70% of patients. Patient adherence to the prescribed duration of wear is essential to maximize the effectiveness of the brace. The choice of brace type must be individualized according to the deformity and the patient's personality as well as the practice setting and brace availability. PMID:27388720

  13. Predictors of curve flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a retrospective study of 100 patients.

    PubMed

    Ameri, Ebrahim; Behtash, Hamid; Mobini, Bahram; Daraie, Ariasb

    2015-01-01

    Curve flexibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was one of the major concerns of spinal surgeons since the evolution of surgical correction techniques. In this respect, many tried to identify which criteria denote more rigid curve. In the present study, we aimed toward determining important factors influencing AIS curve flexibility on supine bending films. We assessed radiographs of 100 patients with AIS for direction of curves, number of involved vertebrae, apical vertebral translation and rotation, magnitude of main thoracic curve and T5-T12 kyphosis. Statistical analysis performed via stepwise linear regression model with these variables plus age and sex against flexibility index. According to regression analysis, there was a clear relationship between flexibility indexes (FI) and magnitude of main thoracic curve at all (P<0.001). When we consider flexible curves (FI>50%) against rigid curves, apical vertebral rotation was a major determinant of curve flexibility also (P<0.001). Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves with larger Cobb's angle and apical vertebral rotation show less flexibility on supine bending films. PMID:25796026

  14. Posterior spinal instrumented fusion for idiopathic scoliosis in patients with multisystemic neurodegenerative disorder: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Loh, K W; Chan, C Yw; Chiu, C K; Bin Hasan, M S; Kwan, M K

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke (MELAS) syndrome is a progressive multisystemic neurodegenerative disorder. MELAS syndrome impairs oxidative phosphorylation and predisposes patients to lactic acidosis, particularly under metabolic stress. We report 2 siblings with MELAS-associated idiopathic scoliosis who underwent posterior spinal instrumented fusion with measures taken to minimise anaesthetic and surgical stress, blood loss, and operating time. PMID:27574278

  15. Quality of life in patients submitted to surgical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, João Bernardo Sancio Rocha; Saleme, Nathália Ambrozim Santos; Batista, José Lucas; Cardoso, Igor Machado; Jacob, Charbel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate quality of life, using the SF-36, in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who un-derwent surgery for deformity correction, comparing the results in the pre-and post-operative period. METHODS : We evaluated 29 patients, 24 female, mean age 14.5 years, all patients had measurement of Cobb angle greater than 50º, and responded to the SF-36 questionnaire preope-ratively and on average two years after surgery. RESULTS : There was improvement in all eight domains studied by the SF-36 after surgical treatment, with statistically significant improvement of the domains functional capacity physical aspects, pain and general state. Vitality and mental heal-th were those with the lowest percentage of improvement postoperatively. CONCLUSION : Surgical treatment of defor-mity in all AIS improved the functional aspects assessed by the SF-36, representing, in practice, better quality of life for these patients. Evidence Level II, Prospective Study. PMID:27057138

  16. Effectiveness of Chêneau brace treatment for idiopathic scoliosis: prospective study in 79 patients followed to skeletal maturity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Progressive idiopathic scoliosis can negatively influence the development and functioning of 2-3% of adolescents, with health consequences and economic costs, placing the disease in the centre of interest of the developmental medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Chêneau brace in the management of idiopathic scoliosis. Methods A prospective observational study according to SOSORT and SRS recommendations comprised 79 patients (58 girls and 21 boys) with progressive idiopathic scoliosis, treated with Chêneau brace and physiotherapy, with initial Cobb angle between 20 and 45 degrees, no previous brace treatment, Risser 4 or more at the final evaluation and minimum one year follow-up after weaning the brace. Achieving 50° of Cobb angle was considered surgical recommendation. Results At follow-up 20 patients (25.3%) improved, 18 patients (22.8%) were stable, 31 patients (39.2%) progressed below 50 degrees and 10 patients (12.7%) progressed beyond 50 degrees (2 of these 10 patients progressed beyond 60 degrees). Progression concerned the younger and less skeletally mature patients. Conclusion Conservative treatment with Chêneau orthosis and physiotherapy was effective in halting scoliosis progression in 48.1% of patients. The results of this study suggest that bracing is effective in reducing the incidence of surgery in comparison with natural history. PMID:21266084

  17. Forces exerted during exercises by patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis wearing fiberglass braces

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Michele; Carabalona, Roberta; Petrilli, Silvia; Sibilla, Paolo; Negrini, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    Objective To quantify and compare the forces exerted by scoliosis patients in fiberglass braces during exercises usually prescribed in departments where casts are made. The exercises are intended to increase corrective forces, activate muscles, stimulate ventilation and help the patient psychologically. Setting Outpatient care. Patients 17 consecutive adolescent patients wearing fiberglass brace for idiopathic scoliosis. Interventions Exercises (kyphotization, rotation, "escape from the pad") in different positions (sitting, supine, on all fours). Main outcome measure Pressure detected by the F-Socket System between the rib hump and the pad of the brace. Results In static and dynamic conditions, the position adopted did not alter the total pressure exerted by the brace, although the part of the sensor stimulated did vary. Kyphotization and rotation exercises produced a significant increase of pressure (+ 58.9% and +29.8%, respectively); however, the "escape from the pad" exercise, despite its name, did not produce any significant variation of pressure. Conclusion Exercises in the brace allow adjunctive forces to be applied on soft tissues and through them, presumably on the spine. Different exercises can be chosen to obtain different actions. Physical exercises and sporting activities are useful in mechanical terms, although other important actions should not be overlooked. PMID:16859544

  18. Optimal management of idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Chowanska, Joanna; Kinel, Edyta; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Tomaszewski, Marek; Janusz, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of the growing spine, affecting 2%–3% of adolescents. Although benign in the majority of patients, the natural course of the disease may result in significant disturbance of body morphology, reduced thoracic volume, impaired respiration, increased rates of back pain, and serious esthetic concerns. Risk of deterioration is highest during the pubertal growth spurt and increases the risk of pathologic spinal curvature, increasing angular value, trunk imbalance, and thoracic deformity. Early clinical detection of scoliosis relies on careful examination of trunk shape and is subject to screening programs in some regions. Treatment options are physiotherapy, corrective bracing, or surgery for mild, moderate, or severe scoliosis, respectively, with both the actual degree of deformity and prognosis being taken into account. Physiotherapy used in mild idiopathic scoliosis comprises general training of the trunk musculature and physical capacity, while specific physiotherapeutic techniques aim to address the spinal curvature itself, attempting to achieve self-correction with active trunk movements developed in a three-dimensional space by an instructed adolescent under visual and proprioceptive control. Moderate but progressive idiopathic scoliosis in skeletally immature adolescents can be successfully halted using a corrective brace which has to be worn full time for several months or until skeletal maturity, and is able to prevent more severe deformity and avoid the need for surgical treatment. Surgery is the treatment of choice for severe idiopathic scoliosis which is rapidly progressive, with early onset, late diagnosis, and neglected or failed conservative treatment. The psychologic impact of idiopathic scoliosis, a chronic disease occurring in the psychologically fragile period of adolescence, is important because of its body distorting character and the onerous treatment required, either conservative or surgical

  19. Histochemical Analysis of Paraspinal Rotator Muscles From Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Wajchenberg, Marcelo; Martins, Delio Eulalio; Luciano, Rafael de Paiva; Puertas, Eduardo Barros; Del Curto, David; Schmidt, Beny; Oliveira, Acary Bulle de Souza; Faloppa, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Morphological, biochemical, and histopathological alterations in the paraspinal skeletal muscle of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) have been extensively reported. We evaluated rotator muscle fibers from the apex vertebra of AIS patients through histological and immunohistochemical analysis. A population of 21 female AIS patients who underwent corrective surgery between 2010 and 2013 had biopsies taken from the paraspinal muscle in the convex and concave sides of the thoracic curve apical vertebra. Serial sections were stained following routine protocols for hematoxylin and eosin (HE), Sudan red, Gomori trichrome, NADH, ATPase, and cytochrome oxidase. We assessed muscular atrophy and hypertrophy, fatty proliferation, endomysial and perimysial fibrosis, the presence of hyaline fibers, mitochondrial proliferation, muscular necrosis, nuclear centralization, and inflammation. Two independent professionals evaluated the slices. The thoracic curves had an average Cobb angle of 68 degree. Comparative analysis of the concave and convex sides was performed with McNemar test at a significance level of 5%. Results showed significant differences in both endomysial and perimysial fibrosis and fatty involution between the two sides of the apex vertebra. Paraspinal muscles in the concave side of the scoliosis apex had significantly more fibrosis and fatty involution. However, both sides showed signs of myopathy, muscular atrophy due to necrosis, presence of hyaline fibers, and mitochondrial proliferation. PMID:25715269

  20. Learning effect on the dynamical strategies in sitting position on seesaw motion for idiopathic scoliosis patients.

    PubMed

    Bruyneel, Anne-Violette; Mesure, Serge

    2013-02-01

    Our study meant to determine, for idiopathic scoliosis patients, the biomechanical processes involved in postural regulation when self-imposed disturbances occur in seated position in both directions during successive trials. 12 female adolescents with right thoracic scoliosis (SG) and 15 control adolescents (CG) were included in this study. Ground reaction forces were studied using a force platform while the subjects were maintaining their balance in sitting position on a seesaw. Every test is recorded with eyes opened, arms on shoulders and legs free. The force platform data (AP and ML forces data) obtained were processed to determine the following normalized force parameters: delta value (difference between maxima and minima), maximal and minimal force values (peak and occurrence), and the variability of AP and ML forces. We used a variance analysis (ANOVA test) to analyze and compare 3 trials and groups. Our results show that, whatever the directions of destabilization (AP versus ML), SG was always in a learning situation. Indeed, the first test is always less stable than the second and third trials. However, for CG, adaptability between the tests is only highlighted during ML imbalance. Significant differences of strategies between the groups are only visible for the AP force component. For all conditions imposed, scoliotic patients perform specific trunk balance strategies. Clinical tests and rehabilitation methods should include the learning effect within the spatio-temporal adaptation to ground reaction forces.

  1. Improving perioperative care for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients: the impact of a multidisciplinary care approach

    PubMed Central

    Borden, Timothy C; Bellaire, Laura L; Fletcher, Nicholas D

    2016-01-01

    The complex nature of the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) requires a wide variety of health care providers. A well-coordinated, multidisciplinary team approach to the care of these patients is essential for providing high-quality care. This review offers an up-to-date overview of the numerous interventions and safety measures for improving outcomes after AIS surgery throughout the perioperative phases of care. Reducing the risk of potentially devastating and costly complications after AIS surgery is the responsibility of every single member of the health care team. Specifically, this review will focus on the perioperative measures for preventing surgical site infections, reducing the risk of neurologic injury, minimizing surgical blood loss, and preventing postoperative complications. Also, the review will highlight the postoperative protocols that emphasize early mobilization and accelerated discharge.

  2. Improving perioperative care for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients: the impact of a multidisciplinary care approach

    PubMed Central

    Borden, Timothy C; Bellaire, Laura L; Fletcher, Nicholas D

    2016-01-01

    The complex nature of the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) requires a wide variety of health care providers. A well-coordinated, multidisciplinary team approach to the care of these patients is essential for providing high-quality care. This review offers an up-to-date overview of the numerous interventions and safety measures for improving outcomes after AIS surgery throughout the perioperative phases of care. Reducing the risk of potentially devastating and costly complications after AIS surgery is the responsibility of every single member of the health care team. Specifically, this review will focus on the perioperative measures for preventing surgical site infections, reducing the risk of neurologic injury, minimizing surgical blood loss, and preventing postoperative complications. Also, the review will highlight the postoperative protocols that emphasize early mobilization and accelerated discharge. PMID:27695340

  3. Curve progression in Risser stage 0 or 1 patients after posterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Roberto, R F; Lonstein, J E; Winter, R B; Denis, F

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective review was performed to determine "crankshaft" prevalence in 86 immature patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis. Tanner stage, chronologic age, bone age, and epiphyseal status were used as maturity indicators. Overall, 62 (72%) patients progressed < or = 10 degrees, 18 (21%) patients progressed 11-15 degrees, and six (7%) patients progressed > or = 16 degrees in the coronal plane. Tanner I patients with open triradiate cartilage had the highest rate of crankshaft occurrence; nine (75%) of 12 patients progressed >10 degrees (p < 0.05). Fifty-two percent of Tanner I, 26% of Tanner II, 11% of Tanner III, and no Tanner IV patients progressed >10 degrees (p < 0.05). Cobb angle increases of >10 degrees degrees occurred in 54% of patients with open triradiate cartilage (p < 0.05) and in 48% of patients with open capital femoral epiphyses (p < 0.05). Anterior and posterior spinal fusion should be considered in prepubertal (Tanner I) patients with open triradiate cartilage. PMID:9591972

  4. Minimal important differences of the SRS-22 Patient Questionnaire following surgical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bagó, Juan; Pérez-Grueso, Francisco J S; Les, Esther; Hernández, Pablo; Pellisé, Ferran

    2009-12-01

    The responsiveness of an instrument measuring health-related quality of life is an important indication of its construct validity. The SRS-22 Patient Questionnaire has become the most widely used patient-reported outcome instrument in the clinical evaluation of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. The responsiveness of the SRS-22 following surgical treatment in patients with idiopathic scoliosis has not been fully assessed. The aim of this study is to evaluate this factor by calculating the minimal important differences (MIDs) of the SRS-22 Questionnaire. The study included 91 patients with idiopathic scoliosis (77 females and 14 males), who underwent surgical treatment; mean age at the time of surgery was 18.1 years. Patients completed the SRS-22 questionnaire before surgery and at a follow-up visit (mean follow-up, 45.6 months). At follow-up, patients rated their overall situation as related to before surgery with a four-point Likert scale: 1-Worse, 2-Same, 3-Better, 4-Much Better. This evaluation represented the global perceived effect (GPE) and served as the anchor criterion for calculating the MID. MIDs were calculated using two approaches. The anchor-based MID (MID-A) was defined as the mean preoperative/follow-up difference in SRS-22 scores in the group of patients who stated they were much better than before surgery (GPE = 4). Using the same anchor criterion, the optimal cut-off value able to identify patients that had clearly improved was determined on a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In addition, the distribution-based MID (MID-D) was calculated by the standard error of measurement method. The MID-As found for the different subscales and the sum score were: pain 0.6, function 0.3, image 1.3, mental health 0.3, average sum score 0.6, and raw sum score 13.1. The cut-off values on the ROC curve were: pain 0.2, function 0.0, image 1.6, mental health 0.4, average sum score 0.4, and raw sum score 10. The MID-Ds were: pain 0.6, function 0.8, image

  5. Effects of Exercise on Spinal Deformities and Quality of Life in Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad; Abu Shaphe, Md.; Anwar, Dilshad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of exercise on spinal deformities and quality of life in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Data Sources. Electronic databases, including PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, PEDro, and Web of Science, were searched for research articles published from the earliest available dates up to May 31, 2015, using the key words “exercise,” “postural correction,” “posture,” “postural curve,” “Cobb's angle,” “quality of life,” and “spinal deformities,” combined with the Medical Subject Heading “scoliosis.” Study Selection. This systematic review was restricted to randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials on AIS published in English language. The quality of selected studies was assessed by the PEDro scale, the Cochrane Collaboration's tool, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation System (GRADE). Data Extraction. Descriptive data were collected from each study. The outcome measures of interest were Cobb angle, trunk rotation, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar kyphosis, vertebral rotation, and quality of life. Data Synthesis. A total of 30 studies were assessed for eligibility. Six of the 9 selected studies reached high methodological quality on the PEDro scale. Meta-analysis revealed moderate-quality evidence that exercise interventions reduce the Cobb angle, angle of trunk rotation, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis and low-quality evidence that exercise interventions reduce average lateral deviation. Meta-analysis revealed moderate-quality evidence that exercise interventions improve the quality of life. Conclusions. A supervised exercise program was superior to controls in reducing spinal deformities and improving the quality of life in patients with AIS. PMID:26583083

  6. An advanced compliance monitor for patients undergoing brace treatment for idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Eric; Lou, Edmond; Hill, Doug; Zhao, H Vicky

    2015-02-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a spinal deformity affecting 2-3% of adolescents. Brace treatment, the most common non-surgical treatment, uses a hard plastic orthotic shell to prevent progression of the deformity. Previous studies have found association between treatment outcome and patients' compliance with the prescribed brace-wear regimen. However, the exact relationship between compliance and treatment outcome has yet to be elucidated. Current compliance monitoring techniques may not be providing enough information about patients' brace-wear habits. Building on previous work, we present a new compliance monitor which records both temperature and force applied to the patient's body. The combination of temperature and force readings shows both how often and how tightly the brace is worn. The new monitor is designed for minimal size and power consumption, measuring 5.2 cm × 2.5 cm × 0.8 cm, with a battery life of approximately one year. Seven patients wore the monitor in this pilot study. The temperature-based compliance estimate differed significantly from the force-based estimate in four out of seven cases. This suggests that some patients may wear their braces very loosely, and that existing temperature-only or force-only compliance monitors may not be giving a complete picture of brace-wear habits. PMID:25619614

  7. Natural History of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in Skeletally Mature Patients: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Agabegi, Steven S; Kazemi, Namdar; Sturm, Peter F; Mehlman, Charles T

    2015-12-01

    The surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is dependent on several factors, including curve type and magnitude, degree of curve progression, skeletal maturity, and other considerations, such as pain and cosmesis. The most common indication for surgery is curve progression. Most authors agree that surgical treatment should be considered in skeletally mature patients with curves > 50° because of the risk of progression into adulthood. Furthermore, most authors would agree that curves measuring < 40° to 45° in skeletally mature patients should be observed. When a skeletally mature patient with a curve measuring between 45° to 55° is presenting to an orthopaedic surgeon, it is not uncommon that the patient has no pain, no progression, and no imbalance. The generally accepted belief has been that curves that reach 50° are likely to progress into adulthood, progressing at a rate of 1° per year, based largely on the Iowa studies. However, the level of evidence for this is relatively weak, and the existing literature is equivocal in supporting the practice of performing surgery on these patients.

  8. Electromyographic responses of erector spinae and lower limb's muscles to dynamic postural perturbations in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Farahpour, Nader; Ghasemi, Safoura; Allard, Paul; Saba, Mohammad Sadegh

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate electromyographic (EMG) responses of erector spinae (ES) and lower limbs' muscles to dynamic forward postural perturbation (FPP) and backward postural perturbation (BPP) in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and in a healthy control group. Ten right thoracic AIS patients (Cobb=21.6±4.4°) and 10 control adolescents were studied. Using bipolar surface electrodes, EMG activities of ES muscle at T10 (EST10) and L3 (ESL3) levels, biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (G) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles in the right and the left sides during FPP and BPP were evaluated. Muscle responses were measured over a 1s time window after the onset of perturbation. In FPP test, the EMG responses of right EST10, ESL3 and BF muscles in the scoliosis group were respectively about 1.40 (p=0.035), 1.43 (p=0.07) and 1.45 (p=0.01) times greater than those in control group. Also, in BPP test, at right ESL3 muscle of the scoliosis group the EMG activity was 1.64 times higher than that in the control group (p=0.01). The scoliosis group during FPP displayed asymmetrical muscle responses in EST10 and BF muscles. This asymmetrical muscle activity in response to FPP is hypothesized to be a possible compensatory strategy rather than an inherent characteristic of scoliosis.

  9. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and back pain.

    PubMed

    Balagué, Federico; Pellisé, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    This broad narrative review addresses the relationship between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and back pain. AIS can be responsible for low back pain, particularly major cases. However, a linear relationship between back pain and the magnitude of the deformity cannot be expected for any individual patient. A large number of juvenile patients can remain pain-free. The long-term prognosis is rather benign for many cases and thus a tailored approach to the individual patient seems mandatory. The level of evidence available does not allow stringent recommendations for any of the disorders included in this review. PMID:27648474

  10. Dobosiewicz method physiotherapy for idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Dobosiewicz, Krystyna; Durmala, Jacek; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    The method developed since 1979, comprises active 3-dimensional auto-correction, concerning the primary curve mobilization towards the correction of the curvature, with special emphasis on the kyphotization of the thoracic spine, carried on in closed kinematic chains, and developed on a symmetrically positioned pelvis and shoulder girdle, followed by active stabilization of the corrected position, and endured as postural habit. The positions for exercising and the movements involved are described in details. Small, moderate and important curves can be managed with DoboMed, however the effectiveness of the therapy depends on the curve flexibility and patient's compliance. DoboMed has been used as a single therapy or together with bracing, as well as preparation for scoliosis surgery. The published results demonstrated that the DoboMed has a positive influence on inhibition of the curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis, the improvement of respiratory functions, assessed by the spirometric values, and the general exercise efficiency evaluated using ergospirometry. PMID:18401093

  11. Infantile Idiopathic Scoliosis

    MedlinePlus

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  12. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    MedlinePlus

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  13. Breast asymmetry pattern in women with idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Norma I; Korchin, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Breast asymmetry is frequent in women with idiopathic scoliosis. To understand the pattern of breast asymmetry in these women a clinical study was performed in which 54 female patients with idiopathic scoliosis were evaluated. The information recorded for each patient included: age, weight, height, scoliosis type, Cobb angle, breast measurements, and presence of rib cage asymmetry. Breast volume was calculated using anatomic measurements (anthropomorphic method). The mean age of the group was 25 +/- 7 years. A right convex thoracic curve occurred in 85%, with a mean Cobb angle of 32 +/- 15 degrees. Our study indicated that women with idiopathic scoliosis consistently presented breast asymmetry that followed a predictable pattern. The breast on the side of the convex thoracic scoliosis curve is always smaller in volume (mean difference 59 +/- 39 mi). The affected side also presents a smaller areola, a higher position of the nipple (mean difference 2.2 +/- 1.3 cm) and a higher position of the inframammary fold (mean difference 2.1 +/- 1.4 cm) when compared to the opposite breast. Though the asymmetry is predictable, the degree to which the patient presents these changes does not correlate with the severity of the scoliosis (Cobb angle). We believe that the severity of the asymmetry is a result of the difference between the hypoplastic breast and the normal breasts. In women with very large opposite breasts the asymmetry appears to be worse.

  14. Genetic Risk for Aortic Aneurysm in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Gabe; Alvarado, David M.; Willing, Marcia C.; Braverman, Alan C.; Bridwell, Keith H.; Kelly, Michael; Lenke, Lawrence G.; Luhmann, Scott J.; Gurnett, Christina A.; Dobbs, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scoliosis is a feature of several genetic disorders that are also associated with aortic aneurysm, including Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, and type-IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Life-threatening complications of aortic aneurysm can be decreased through early diagnosis. Genetic screening for mutations in populations at risk, such as patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, may improve recognition of these disorders. Methods: The coding regions of five clinically actionable genes associated with scoliosis (COL3A1, FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and SMAD3) and aortic aneurysm were sequenced in 343 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases. Gene variants that had minor allele frequencies of <0.0001 or were present in human disease mutation databases were identified. Variants were classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or variants of unknown significance. Results: Pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations were identified in 0.9% (three) of 343 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases. Two patients had pathogenic SMAD3 nonsense mutations consistent with type-III Loeys-Dietz syndrome and one patient had a pathogenic FBN1 mutation with subsequent confirmation of Marfan syndrome. Variants of unknown significance in COL3A1 and FBN1 were identified in 5.0% (seventeen) of 343 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis cases. Six FBN1 variants were previously reported in patients with Marfan syndrome, yet were considered variants of unknown significance based on the level of evidence. Variants of unknown significance occurred most frequently in FBN1 and were associated with greater curve severity, systemic features of Marfan syndrome, and joint hypermobility. Conclusions: Clinically actionable pathogenic mutations in genes associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and aortic aneurysm are rare in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who are not suspected of having these disorders, although variants of unknown significance are relatively common. Clinical

  15. The current status of bracing for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Stokes, O M; Luk, K D K

    2013-10-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis affects about 3% of children. Non-operative measures are aimed at altering the natural history to maintain the size of the curve below 40° at skeletal maturity. The application of braces to treat spinal deformity pre-dates the era of evidence-based medicine, and there is a paucity of irrefutable prospective evidence in the literature to support their use and their effectiveness has been questioned. This review considers this evidence. The weight of the evidence is in favour of bracing over observation. The most recent literature has moved away from addressing this question, and instead focuses on developments in the design of braces and ways to improve compliance.

  16. Exome sequencing identifies a rare HSPG2 variant associated with familial idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Baschal, Erin E; Wethey, Cambria I; Swindle, Kandice; Baschal, Robin M; Gowan, Katherine; Tang, Nelson L S; Alvarado, David M; Haller, Gabe E; Dobbs, Matthew B; Taylor, Matthew R G; Gurnett, Christina A; Jones, Kenneth L; Miller, Nancy H

    2014-12-12

    Idiopathic scoliosis occurs in 3% of individuals and has an unknown etiology. The objective of this study was to identify rare variants that contribute to the etiology of idiopathic scoliosis by using exome sequencing in a multigenerational family with idiopathic scoliosis. Exome sequencing was completed for three members of this multigenerational family with idiopathic scoliosis, resulting in the identification of a variant in the HSPG2 gene as a potential contributor to the phenotype. The HSPG2 gene was sequenced in a separate cohort of 100 unrelated individuals affected with idiopathic scoliosis and also was examined in an independent idiopathic scoliosis population. The exome sequencing and subsequent bioinformatics filtering resulted in 16 potentially damaging and rare coding variants. One of these variants, p.Asn786Ser, is located in the HSPG2 gene. The variant p.Asn786Ser also is overrepresented in a larger cohort of idiopathic scoliosis cases compared with a control population (P = 0.024). Furthermore, we identified additional rare HSPG2 variants that are predicted to be damaging in two independent cohorts of individuals with idiopathic scoliosis. The HSPG2 gene encodes for a ubiquitous multifunctional protein within the extracellular matrix in which loss of function mutation are known to result in a musculoskeletal phenotype in both mouse and humans. Based on these results, we conclude that rare variants in the HSPG2 gene potentially contribute to the idiopathic scoliosis phenotype in a subset of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. Further studies must be completed to confirm the effect of the HSPG2 gene on the idiopathic scoliosis phenotype.

  17. Functional variants of POC5 identified in patients with idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Shunmoogum A.; Margaritte-Jeannin, Patricia; Bernard, Jean-Claude; Alix, Eudeline; Labalme, Audrey; Besson, Alicia; Girard, Simon L.; Fendri, Khaled; Fraisse, Nicolas; Biot, Bernard; Poizat, Coline; Campan-Fournier, Amandine; Abelin-Genevois, Kariman; Cunin, Vincent; Zaouter, Charlotte; Liao, Meijiang; Lamy, Raphaelle; Lesca, Gaetan; Menassa, Rita; Marcaillou, Charles; Letexier, Melanie; Sanlaville, Damien; Berard, Jerome; Rouleau, Guy A.; Clerget-Darpoux, Françoise; Drapeau, Pierre; Moldovan, Florina; Edery, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a spine deformity that affects approximately 3% of the population. The underlying causes of IS are not well understood, although there is clear evidence that there is a genetic component to the disease. Genetic mapping studies suggest high genetic heterogeneity, but no IS disease-causing gene has yet been identified. Here, genetic linkage analyses combined with exome sequencing identified a rare missense variant (p.A446T) in the centriolar protein gene POC5 that cosegregated with the disease in a large family with multiple members affected with IS. Subsequently, the p.A446T variant was found in an additional set of families with IS and in an additional 3 cases of IS. Moreover, POC5 variant p.A455P was present and linked to IS in one family and another rare POC5 variant (p.A429V) was identified in an additional 5 cases of IS. In a zebrafish model, expression of any of the 3 human IS-associated POC5 variant mRNAs resulted in spine deformity, without affecting other skeletal structures. Together, these findings indicate that mutations in the POC5 gene contribute to the occurrence of IS. PMID:25642776

  18. Genetic Aspects of Congenital and Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Giampietro, Philip F.

    2012-01-01

    Congenital and idiopathic scoliosis represent disabling conditions of the spine. While congenital scoliosis (CS) is caused by morphogenic abnormalities in vertebral development, the cause(s) for idiopathic scoliosis is (are) likely to be varied, representing alterations in skeletal growth, neuromuscular imbalances, disturbances involving communication between the brain and spine, and others. Both conditions are characterized by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneities, which contribute to the difficulties in understanding their genetic basis that investigators face. Despite the differences between these two conditions there is observational and experimental evidence supporting common genetic mechanisms. This paper focuses on the clinical features of both CS and IS and highlights genetic and environmental factors which contribute to their occurrence. It is anticipated that emerging genetic technologies and improvements in phenotypic stratification of both conditions will facilitate improved understanding of the genetic basis for these conditions and enable targeted prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:24278672

  19. Relationship between pulmonary function and degree of spinal deformity, location of apical vertebrae and age among adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Johari, Joehaimey; Sharifudin, Mohd Ariff; Rahman, Azriani Ab; Omar, Ahmad Sabri; Abdullah, Ahmad Tajudin; Nor, Sobri; Lam, Weii Cheak; Yusof, Mohd Imran

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This retrospective review aimed to examine the relationship between preoperative pulmonary function and the Cobb angle, location of apical vertebrae and age in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). To our knowledge, there have been no detailed analyses of preoperative pulmonary function in relation to these three factors in AIS. METHODS A total of 38 patients with thoracic or thoracolumbar scoliosis were included. Curvature of spinal deformity was measured using the Cobb method. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were used to evaluate preoperative pulmonary function. Statistical methods were used to analyse the relationship between preoperative pulmonary function and the factors that may contribute to poor pulmonary function. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 16.68 ± 6.04 years. An inverse relationship was found between the degree of the Cobb angle and FVC as well as FEV1; however, the relationships were not statistically significant (p = 0.057 and p = 0.072, respectively). There was also a trend towards a significant negative correlation between the thoracic curve and FVC (p = 0.014). Patients with larger thoracic curves had lower pulmonary function. A one-year increase in age significantly decreased FVC by 1.092 units (p = 0.044). No significant relationship between age and preoperative FEV1 was found. The median FVC was significantly higher in patients with affected apical vertebrae located at levels L1–L3 than at T6–T8 or T9–T12 (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION Lung function impairment was seen in more severe spinal deformities, proximally-located curvature and older patients. PMID:26831315

  20. Sagittal Balance in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xi-Ming; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Xiao-Yi; Liu, Zi-Xuan; Wei, Xian-Zhao; Bai, Yu-Shu; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between spinal sagittal alignment and pelvic parameters is well known in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. However, few studies have reported the sagittal spinopelvic relationship after selective posterior fusion of thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curves. We evaluated the relationship between spinal sagittal alignment and the pelvis, and analyzed how the pelvic sagittal state is adjusted in Lenke type 5C patients. We conducted a retrospective study of 36 patients with Lenke type 5C curves who received selective posterior TL/L curve fusion. Coronal and spinopelvic sagittal parameters were pre and postoperatively compared. Pearson coefficients were used to analyze the correlation between all spinopelvic sagittal parameters before and after surgery. We also evaluated 3 pelvic morphologies (anteverted, normal, and retroverted) before and after surgery. Preoperatively, the mean pelvic incidence was 46.0°, with a pelvic tilt and sacral slope (SS) of 8.2° and 37.8°, respectively, and 25% (9/36) of patients had an anteverted pelvis, whereas the other 75% had a normal pelvis. Postoperatively, 42% (15/36) of patients had a retroverted pelvis, 53% (19/36) had a normal pelvis, and 2 patients had an anteverted pelvis. Logistic regression analyses yielded 2 factors that were significantly associated with the risk for a postoperative unrecovered anteverted pelvis, including increased lumbar lordosis (LL) (odds ratio [OR] 4.8, P = 0.029) and increased SS (OR 5.6, P = 0.018). Four factors were significantly associated with the risk of a postoperative newly anteverted pelvis, including LL at the final follow-up (OR 6.9, P = 0.009), increased LL (OR 8.9, P = 0.003), LL below fusion (OR 9.4, P = 0.002), and increased SS (OR 11.5, P = 0.001). The pelvic state may be adjusted after selective posterior TL/L curve fusion in Lenke 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. It is difficult to improve an anteverted pelvis in patients who have

  1. Gait in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: kinematics and electromyographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahaudens, P; Banse, X; Mousny, M; Detrembleur, C

    2009-04-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a progressive growth disease that affects spinal anatomy, mobility, and left-right trunk symmetry. Consequently, AIS can modify human locomotion. Very few studies have investigated a simple activity like walking in a cohort of well-defined untreated patients with scoliosis. The first goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of scoliosis and scoliosis severity on kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) gait variables compared to an able-bodied population. The second goal is to look for any asymmetry in these parameters during walking. Thirteen healthy girls and 41 females with untreated AIS, with left thoracolumbar or lumbar primary structural curves were assessed. AIS patients were divided into three clinical subgroups (group 1 < 20 degrees, group 2 between 20 and 40 degrees, and group 3 > 40 degrees). Gait analysis included synchronous bilateral kinematic and EMG measurements. The subjects walked on a treadmill at 4 km/h (comfortable speed). The tridimensional (3D) shoulder, pelvis, and lower limb motions were measured using 22 reflective markers tracked by four infrared cameras. The EMG timing activity was measured using bipolar surface electrodes on quadratus lumborum, erector spinae, gluteus medius, rectus femoris, semitendinosus, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles. Statistical comparisons (ANOVA) were performed across groups and sides for kinematic and EMG parameters. The step length was reduced in AIS compared to normal subjects (7% less). Frontal shoulder, pelvis, and hip motion and transversal hip motion were reduced in scoliosis patients (respectively, 21, 27, 28, and 22% less). The EMG recording during walking showed that the quadratus lumborum, erector spinae, gluteus medius, and semitendinosus muscles contracted during a longer part of the stride in scoliotic patients (46% of the stride) compared with normal subjects (35% of the stride). There was no significant difference between scoliosis groups 1

  2. Comparison of Functional Outcome and Quality of Life in Patients With Idiopathic Scoliosis Treated by Spinal Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hengwei; Wang, Qifei; Huang, Zifang; Sui, Wenyuan; Yang, Jingfan; Deng, Yaolong; Yang, Junlin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Longer spinal fusions have been shown to result in improved deformity correction; however, loss of normal flexibility in the fusion area should not be ignored. Current consensus was to achieve a shorter fusion in primary surgery, with the goal of preserving as much of the distal motion segment as possible. However, the correlation between the length of fusion and functional outcome remains controversial. To the best of our knowledge, a previous study has demonstrated the function outcomes and the differences in HRQoL with specific fusion levels. In this cross-sectional study, 172 patients (mean age, 17.8 y) with idiopathic scoliosis treated by spinal fusion (mean time since surgery, 29.7 mo) were included to measure lumbar spine mobility and quality of life using validated outcome instruments in the study population. Patients were assigned to 5 groups according to the lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) level: group A (fusion above L2) 26 patients; group B (fusion to L2) 21 patients; group C (fusion to L3) 46 patients; group D (fusion to L4) 53 patients; and group E (fusion to L5) 26 patients. At each follow-up, patients were asked to complete the Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS-22) Questionnaire. Lumbar mobility was assessed using a dual digital inclinometer. Average spinal range of motion (ROM) was 41.4 degrees (SD, 20.7), forward flexion was 29.2 degrees (SD, 15.0), and backward extension was 12.2 degrees (SD, 9.5). The total spinal range of motion and forward flexion dropped noticeably as the LIV got more distal. Statistically significant between-group differences (1-way ANOVA) were found for ROM (P < 0.001), forward flexion (P < 0.001), or backward extension (P < 0.001). The motion segments preserved significantly correlated with ROM (r = 0.76, P < 0.001), ROMF (r = 0.76, P < 0.001), and ROME (r = 0.39, P < 0.001). However, no significant between-group differences was found for each domain of SRS-22 questionnaire

  3. Comparison of Functional Outcome and Quality of Life in Patients With Idiopathic Scoliosis Treated by Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hengwei; Wang, Qifei; Huang, Zifang; Sui, Wenyuan; Yang, Jingfan; Deng, Yaolong; Yang, Junlin

    2016-05-01

    Longer spinal fusions have been shown to result in improved deformity correction; however, loss of normal flexibility in the fusion area should not be ignored. Current consensus was to achieve a shorter fusion in primary surgery, with the goal of preserving as much of the distal motion segment as possible. However, the correlation between the length of fusion and functional outcome remains controversial. To the best of our knowledge, a previous study has demonstrated the function outcomes and the differences in HRQoL with specific fusion levels.In this cross-sectional study, 172 patients (mean age, 17.8 y) with idiopathic scoliosis treated by spinal fusion (mean time since surgery, 29.7 mo) were included to measure lumbar spine mobility and quality of life using validated outcome instruments in the study population. Patients were assigned to 5 groups according to the lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) level: group A (fusion above L2) 26 patients; group B (fusion to L2) 21 patients; group C (fusion to L3) 46 patients; group D (fusion to L4) 53 patients; and group E (fusion to L5) 26 patients. At each follow-up, patients were asked to complete the Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS-22) Questionnaire. Lumbar mobility was assessed using a dual digital inclinometer.Average spinal range of motion (ROM) was 41.4 degrees (SD, 20.7), forward flexion was 29.2 degrees (SD, 15.0), and backward extension was 12.2 degrees (SD, 9.5). The total spinal range of motion and forward flexion dropped noticeably as the LIV got more distal. Statistically significant between-group differences (1-way ANOVA) were found for ROM (P < 0.001), forward flexion (P < 0.001), or backward extension (P < 0.001). The motion segments preserved significantly correlated with ROM (r = 0.76, P < 0.001), ROMF (r = 0.76, P < 0.001), and ROME (r = 0.39, P < 0.001). However, no significant between-group differences was found for each domain of SRS-22 questionnaire.The motion

  4. Chinese Adaptation of the Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire for Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Under Brace Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ximing; Wang, Fei; Yang, Mingyuan; Huang, Qikai; Chang, Yifan; Wei, Xianzhao; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ)-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace are the most widely used instruments for evaluating stress levels in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients under brace treatment, and good reliability and validity have been demonstrated across different cultures. Great stress has been found among many adolescents, becoming a major concern for professionals. However, no previous research has addressed the cultural adaptations and psychometric testing of BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace in China or the stress levels in AIS patients. The purposes of our study were to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace and to investigate stress levels in Chinese (AIS) patients under brace treatment. The original (German) versions of BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace were cross-culturally translated according to international guidelines. Psychometric properties such as reliability and construct validity were tested. Eighty-six AIS patients were included in our study, and 50 patients paid a second visit 3 to 7 days later to test reproducibility. Cronbach α and the intraclass coefficient were determined to assess internal consistency and reproducibility. Scoliosis Research Society patient questionnaire-22 (SRS-22) was applied to evaluate construct validity. The mean BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace scores were 15.3 and 13.4 points, respectively. Severe stress was observed in 12% of patients due to brace treatment. Item analysis demonstrated that each item was scored under a normal distribution with no redundancy. Psychometric analysis revealed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.85 and 0.80, respectively) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85 and 0.90, respectively) for BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace. The correlation coefficients of BSSQ-Deformity, BSSQ-Brace and SRS-22 were 0.48 and 0.63, respectively. In conclusion, BSSQ-Deformity and BSSQ-Brace have been

  5. Current concepts and controversies on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Sud, Alok; Tsirikos, Athanasios I

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common spinal deformity encountered by General Orthopaedic Surgeons. Etiology remains unclear and current research focuses on genetic factors that may influence scoliosis development and risk of progression. Delayed diagnosis can result in severe deformities which affect the coronal and sagittal planes, as well as the rib cage, waistline symmetry, and shoulder balance. Patient's dissatisfaction in terms of physical appearance and mechanical back pain, as well as the risk for curve deterioration are usually the reasons for treatment. Conservative management involves mainly bracing with the aim to stop or slow down scoliosis progression during growth and if possible prevent the need for surgical treatment. This is mainly indicated in young compliant patients with a large amount of remaining growth and progressive curvatures. Scoliosis correction is indicated for severe or progressive curves which produce significant cosmetic deformity, muscular pain, and patient discontent. Posterior spinal arthrodesis with Harrington instrumentation and bone grafting was the first attempt to correct the coronal deformity and replace in situ fusion. This was associated with high pseudarthrosis rates, need for postoperative immobilization, and flattening of sagittal spinal contour. Segmental correction techniques were introduced along with the Luque rods, Harri-Luque, and Wisconsin systems. Correction in both coronal and sagittal planes was not satisfactory and high rates of nonunion persisted until Cotrel and Dubousset introduced the concept of global spinal derotation. Development of pedicle screws provided a powerful tool to correct three-dimensional vertebral deformity and opened a new era in the treatment of scoliosis. PMID:23682172

  6. Reliability Analysis of the Distal Radius and Ulna Classification for Assessing Skeletal Maturity for Patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Samartzis, Dino; Cheung, Prudence Wing Hang; Cheung, Kenneth M. C.; Luk, Keith D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective radiographic study. Objective To test the reliability of the Distal Radius and Ulna Classification (DRU). Methods This single-center study included prospectively recruited subjects with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis managed with bracing. The left-hand radiographs were measured using the DRU classification by two examiners. Intra- and interobserver reliability analysis were performed using intraclass correlation (ICC) analysis. Results From these clinics, 161 patients (124 females and 37 males) with left-hand radiographs were included in the study. The mean age was 13.3 years (standard deviation: 1.5). There was excellent intra- (ICC: 0.93 to 0.95) and interobserver (ICC: 0.97) reliability. Conclusions The DRU classification scheme has been shown to be accurate in determining the peak growth phase and growth cessation. It has now been confirmed to be a reliable tool. Future prospective studies should be performed to investigate its application in deciding when to apply bracing or operative treatment. PMID:26933618

  7. Infection after anterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis using the Cotrel-Dubousset-Hopf system: A clinical case series of three patients

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Paul C.; Punt, Ilona M.; van Rhijn, Lodewijk W.; van Ooij, André

    2016-01-01

    Background Three patients with late-onset infection after multilevel instrumented anterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis, using the Cotrel-Dubousset-Hopf (CDH) system, are presented. The CDH-system is an anterior instrumentation with high biomechanical stability and rigidity, ensuring a stable primary fixation. Unlike after posterior spinal fusion, infection after anterior spinal fusion (ASF) for idiopathic scoliosis has rarely been reported. Methods The files of three patients who developed an infection after ASF for scoliosis using the CDH-system, were reviewed. The clinical presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. Results All three patients had a late-onset infection of the CDH-system, which was difficult to diagnose because of nonspecific symptoms. Radiographs and technetium bone scan appeared to be of low value. When an abscess was present, this could accurately be diagnosed with MRI or CT imaging. Operative treatment with implant removal and antibiotic therapy was successful in all cases. Conclusion Late onset infections after ASF using the CDH-system presented with few and nonspecific symptoms. The clinical presentation was mainly characterized by vague abdominal- or back-pain after an interval of normal postoperative recovery, moderately raised infection parameters and inconclusive findings with imaging modalities. As treatment, implant removal, debridement and parenteral antibiotics are recommended. It should be noted though that implant removal poses serious risks for vascular and visceral structures. PMID:26913222

  8. [Exercise therapy in the treatment of idiopathic adolescent scoliosis: Is it useful?].

    PubMed

    Porte, M; Patte, K; Dupeyron, A; Cottalorda, J

    2016-06-01

    Many practitioners, pediatricians, and general practitioners prescribe physical therapy when tracking scoliosis. However, has physical therapy alone proved its efficacy in the care of the scoliosis to slow down progression? Our purpose is to report the results of a literature review on the effectiveness of rehabilitation in idiopathic scoliosis. No current study presents sufficient scientific proof to validate the efficacy of isolated exercise therapy in scoliosis. Learned societies recognize, however, the efficacy of combining conservative therapy (brace+physiotherapy) in idiopathic scoliosis. Should we then still prescribe rehabilitation without brace treatment? Although physical therapy alone does not seem effective in treating scoliosis, it can limit potential painful phenomena and be beneficial for respiratory function. The physical therapist can also teach the teenager the classic principles of hygiene of the back. It may therefore be appropriate to prescribe physical therapy, but the principles and objectives must be explained to the patient and family in light of current evidence-based medicine. PMID:27117993

  9. Body image in idiopathic scoliosis: a comparison study of psychometric properties between four patient-reported outcome instruments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Four patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are commonly used to assess body image in idiopathic scoliosis (IS): the Quality of Life Profile for Spinal Deformities (QLPSD), SRS-22 Self-Image scale, Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ), and Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS). The aim of this study is to compare the psychometric properties of these instruments in patients with IS and report the translational/cultural adaptation of the SAQ to Spanish. Methods The four instruments in a Spanish version were administered to 80 patients with IS aged 10 to 40 years old. The sample was stratified according to scoliosis magnitude (less and more than 45º). Analysis was also conducted for age groups. The psychometric properties studied included convergent and divergent construct validity, as well as internal consistency. Convergent validity was evaluated by correlation analysis between the self-image instruments and Cobb angle. Divergent validity was assessed with correlation analysis between PRO scores and SRS-22 dimensions scores such as Function, Pain and Mental Health. Results In the overall sample, each of the PRO instruments demonstrated high internal consistency (QLPSD Body Image, α = 0.80; SRS-22 Self Image, α = 0.78; SAQ, α = 0.89; TAPS, α = 0.87), also both for younger and adult patients subgroups. Correlation with curve magnitude was significant for each of the four scales. However, the correlation was higher for the pictorial scales (SAQ Appearance r = 0.61, TAPS r = - 0.62) than for the textual scales (QLPSD-bi r = 0.36, SRS-22 Self-Image scale r = - 0.41). In the younger group, correlation between Cobb angle and textual scales (QLPSD-bi and SRS-22 Self-Image Scale) was not significant. Body Image scales showed significant correlations with SRS-22 Pain, Function and Mental Health dimensions. Conclusions All four instruments tested have good psychometric properties. Pictorial scales (SAQ Appearance and

  10. Spot14/Spot14R expression may be involved in MSC adipogenic differentiation in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QIFEI; YANG, JUNLIN; LIN, XIANG; HUANG, ZIFANG; XIE, CHAOFAN; FAN, HENGWEI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the different expression levels of thyroid hormone responsive (THRSP; Spot14)/S14 related, Mig12 (S14R) during bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) adipogenesis in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. MSCs were retrospectively isolated from AIS patients and controls, and adipogenic differentiation was induced. Total RNA was extracted for Affymetrix 3′-IVT expression profiling microarrays and compared with the results from healthy controls. The results were confirmed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation and the protein expression levels of Spot14 and its paralogous gene S14R by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. A total of 300 significantly altered mRNAs were detected (111 upregulated and 189 downregulated) and confirmed by RT-qPCR. The mRNA expression levels of seven genes, including Spot14, were altered by >2-fold in AIS patients. Spot14/S14R was selected for further investigation. The results of the western blotting demonstrated that mRNA and protein expression levels of Spot14/S14R were significantly higher in AIS patients than the controls (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated Spot14 was expressed in 85% (17/20 cases) in adipose tissue samples from AIS patients and 23.1% (3/13 cases) of adipose tissue samples from controls. The positive ratio of Spot14 in adipose tissue samples from AIS was significantly higher than the controls (P<0.001). The results of the present study indicated that Spot14/S14R were differently expressed in MSC adipogenesis in AIS patients, and they may be important in the abnormal adipogenic differentiation in AIS. PMID:27082501

  11. Effects of the Schroth exercise on the Cobb’s angle and vital capacity of patients with idiopathic scoliosis that is an operative indication

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Don; Hwangbo, Pil-Neo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Schroth exercise on the Cobb’s angle and vital capacity of patients with growing idiopathic scoliosis, an operative indication. [Subjects] Five idiopathic scoliosis patients with a Cobb’s angle of the thoracic vertebra of 40 degrees or higher and Risser sign stage 3 or higher. [Methods] The Schroth exercise was applied 3 times a week for 12 weeks. We measured the thoracic trunk inclination, Cobb’s angle, and vital capacity before and after the exercise program. [Results] The thoracic trunk rotation angle decreased from 11.86 ± 3.32° to 4.90 ± 1.91° on average, the thoracic Cobb’s angle decreased from 42.40 ± 7.86° to 26.0 ± 3.65° on average, and the vital capacity also increased from 2.83 ± 1.23° to 4.04° ± 1.67° on average. All these effects were significant. [Conclusion] The 12-week Schroth exercise caused significant effects in the thoracic trunk inclination, Cobb’s angle, and vital capacity. The conservative treatment method was found to be effective even at a 40 degree or higher Cobb’s angle. In the future, universal exercise approach methods and preventive training for the treatment of scoliosis should be developed further. PMID:27134385

  12. Effects of the Schroth exercise on the Cobb's angle and vital capacity of patients with idiopathic scoliosis that is an operative indication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Don; Hwangbo, Pil-Neo

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Schroth exercise on the Cobb's angle and vital capacity of patients with growing idiopathic scoliosis, an operative indication. [Subjects] Five idiopathic scoliosis patients with a Cobb's angle of the thoracic vertebra of 40 degrees or higher and Risser sign stage 3 or higher. [Methods] The Schroth exercise was applied 3 times a week for 12 weeks. We measured the thoracic trunk inclination, Cobb's angle, and vital capacity before and after the exercise program. [Results] The thoracic trunk rotation angle decreased from 11.86 ± 3.32° to 4.90 ± 1.91° on average, the thoracic Cobb's angle decreased from 42.40 ± 7.86° to 26.0 ± 3.65° on average, and the vital capacity also increased from 2.83 ± 1.23° to 4.04° ± 1.67° on average. All these effects were significant. [Conclusion] The 12-week Schroth exercise caused significant effects in the thoracic trunk inclination, Cobb's angle, and vital capacity. The conservative treatment method was found to be effective even at a 40 degree or higher Cobb's angle. In the future, universal exercise approach methods and preventive training for the treatment of scoliosis should be developed further.

  13. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Indications and efficacy of nonoperative treatment

    PubMed Central

    Canavese, Federico; Kaelin, André

    2011-01-01

    The strategy for the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis depends essentially upon the magnitude and pattern of the deformity, and its potential for progression. Treatment options include observation, bracing and/or surgery. During the past decade, several studies have demonstrated that the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be positively affected by nonoperative treatment, especially bracing. Other forms of conservative treatment, such as chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, acupuncture, exercise or other manual treatments, or diet and nutrition, have not yet been proven to be effective in controlling spinal deformity progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Observation is appropriate treatment for small curves, curves that are at low risk of progression, and those with a natural history that is favorable at the completion of growth. Indications for brace treatment are a growing child presenting with a curve of 25°–40° or a curve less than 25° with documented progression. Curves of 20°–25° in patients with pronounced skeletal immaturity should also be treated. The purpose of this review is to provide information about conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Indications for conservative treatment, hours daily wear and complications of brace treatment as well as brace types are discussed. PMID:21221217

  14. Abnormal osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells from patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in response to melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chong; Xu, Caixia; Zhou, Taifeng; Gao, Bo; Zhou, Hang; Chen, Changhua; Zhang, Changli; Huang, Dongsheng; Su, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities of membranous and endochondral ossification in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) remain incompletely understood. To investigate abnormalities in the melatonin signaling pathway and cellular response to melatonin in AIS, a case-control study of osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation was performed using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). AIS was diagnosed by physical and radiographic examination. hMSCs were isolated from the bone marrow of patients with AIS and control subjects (n=12 each), and purified by density gradient centrifugation. The expression levels of melatonin receptors (MTs) 1 and 2 were detected by western blotting. Osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation was induced by culturing hMSCs in osteogenic and chondrogenic media containing vehicle or 50 nM melatonin. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assays, quantitative glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis, and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed. Compared with controls, MT2 demonstrated low expression in the AIS group. Melatonin increased ALP activity, GAG synthesis and upregulated the expression of genes involved in osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation including, ALP, osteopontin, osteocalcin, runt-related transcription factor 2, collagen type II, collagen type X, aggrecan and sex-determining region Y-box 9 in the normal control hMSCs, but did not affect the AIS groups. Thus, AIS hMSCs exhibit abnormal cellular responses to melatonin during osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, which may be associated with abnormal membranous and endochondral ossification, and skeletal growth. These results indicate a potential modulating role of melatonin via the MT2 receptor on abnormal osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiaation in patients with AIS. PMID:27314307

  15. Observation and Early Intervention in Mild Idiopathic Scoliosis via Corrective Exercises in Growing Children.

    PubMed

    Sy, Ng

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis afflicts 2-3% of the population. For mild curvatures, observation is the treatment of choice. Though this passive "wait and see" approach has been used for many years, the practice is inconsistent among different countries. In Anglo-Saxon countries where scoliosis specific exercises are not practised, observation is indicated for curvatures below 25° in growing children and adolescents. In countries, such as France, Germany, Italy and Poland where scoliosis specific corrective exercises are employed, only patients with no signs of maturity and with curvatures below 15° are treated by observation. Patients with curvatures between 15 - 25° are treated by scoliosis specific exercises. In view of the unpredictability of the progression of scoliosis curvatures in immature patients and the lack of knowledge of long term biomechanical repercussions of mild idiopathic scoliosis on lumbar spine and lower extremities, it is proposed that active intervention through scoliosis specific exercises rather than passive observation be employed in the treatment of mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  16. Scoliosis associated with idiopathic lumbosacral epidural lipomatosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There are very few reports of spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) in association with scoliosis. A 49-year-old man presented with persistent back pain and right hip lump. The lumbar spine X-rays showed scoliosis (Lenke classification 5BN). Lumbar MRI demonstrated circumferential epidural fat deposit from L1 to lower S2 level. There was no obvious etiology of SEL except mild increased body mass index (BMI). The patient was managed with conservative treatment. After 6 months medication (limaprost and ginkgo), his symptoms were relieved.

  17. Scoliosis associated with idiopathic lumbosacral epidural lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Seong Rok

    2016-03-01

    There are very few reports of spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) in association with scoliosis. A 49-year-old man presented with persistent back pain and right hip lump. The lumbar spine X-rays showed scoliosis (Lenke classification 5BN). Lumbar MRI demonstrated circumferential epidural fat deposit from L1 to lower S2 level. There was no obvious etiology of SEL except mild increased body mass index (BMI). The patient was managed with conservative treatment. After 6 months medication (limaprost and ginkgo), his symptoms were relieved. PMID:27683700

  18. Torsional deformity of apical vertebra in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Napiontek, Marek

    2002-01-01

    CT scans of structural thoracic idiopathic scoliosis were reviewed in nine patients admitted to our department for scoliosis surgery. The apical vertebra scans were chosen and the following parameters were evaluated: 1) alpha angle formed by the axis of vertebra and the axis of spinous process 2) beta concave and beta convex angle between the spinous process and the left and right transverse process, respectively, 3) gamma concave and gamma convex angle between the axis of vertebra and the left and right transverse process, respectively, 4) the rotation angle to the sagittal plane. The constant deviation of the spinous process towards the convex side of the curve was observed. The vertebral body itself was distorted towards the concavity of the curve. The angle between the spinous process and the transverse process was smaller on the convex side of the curve. The torsional, intravertebral deformity of the apical vertebra was a factor acting in the direction opposite to the rotation, in the sense to reduce the deformity of the spine in idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:15456062

  19. The relation between idiopathic scoliosis and the frontal and lateral facial form

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Yae-Jin; Cho, Il-Sik; Lim, Yong-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between idiopathic scoliosis and facial deformity in the horizontal, vertical, and anteroposterior planes. Methods A total of 123 female patients aged 14 years or older, who visited the Spine Clinic at the Department of Orthopedics, Korea University Guro Hospital for treatment of idiopathic scoliosis, were enrolled. Whole-spine anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were taken with the patient in a naturally erect position, and frontal and lateral cephalograms were taken in an erect position with the Frankfort horizontal line parallel to the floor. Scoliosis was classified according to the Cobb angle and Lenke classification of six curve types. Cephalometric tracing in all cases was carried out with V-Ceph 5.5 by the same orthodontist. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to determine whether any relation existed between each group of the idiopathic scoliosis classification and the cephalometric measurements of frontal and lateral cephalograms. Results The measurements did not reveal any significant association between the Cobb angle and cephalometric measurements and between the curve type based on the Lenke classification and cephalometric measurements. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, no apparent relation was observed between the severity of scoliosis and facial form variations in idiopathic scoliosis patients. PMID:25309865

  20. Postural Rehabilitation for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis during Growth

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Moramarco, Marc Michael; Borysov, Maksym; Lee, Sang Gil; Nan, Xiaofeng; Moramarco, Kathryn Ann

    2016-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of untreated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) indicates that, with the exception of some extremely severe cases, AIS does not have a significant impact on quality of life and does not result in dire consequences. In view of the relatively benign nature of AIS and the long-term complications of surgery, the indications for treatment should be reviewed. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that scoliosis-specific exercises focusing on postural rehabilitation can positively influence the spinal curvatures in growing adolescents. Experiential postural re-education is a conservative, non-invasive approach, and its role in the management of AIS warrants further study. This article reviews current evidence for the inclusion of various forms of postural reeducation in the management of AIS. Recent comprehensive reviews have been researched including a manual and PubMed search for evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical/postural re-education/physiotherapy programs in growing AIS patients. This search revealed that there were few studies on the application of postural re-education in the management of AIS. These studies revealed that postural re-education in the form of exercise rehabilitation programs may have a positive influence on scoliosis; however, the various programs were difficult to compare. More research is necessary. There is at present Level 1 evidence for the effectiveness of Schroth scoliosis exercises in the management of AIS. Whether this evidence can be extrapolated to include other forms of scoliosis- pattern-specific exercises requires further investigation. Because corrective postures theoretically reduce the asymmetric loading of the spinal deformities and reverse the vicious cycle of spinal curvature progression, their integration into AIS programs may be beneficial and should be further examined. PMID:27340540

  1. Postural Rehabilitation for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis during Growth.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Moramarco, Marc Michael; Borysov, Maksym; Ng, Shu Yan; Lee, Sang Gil; Nan, Xiaofeng; Moramarco, Kathryn Ann

    2016-06-01

    Long-term follow-up of untreated patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) indicates that, with the exception of some extremely severe cases, AIS does not have a significant impact on quality of life and does not result in dire consequences. In view of the relatively benign nature of AIS and the long-term complications of surgery, the indications for treatment should be reviewed. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that scoliosis-specific exercises focusing on postural rehabilitation can positively influence the spinal curvatures in growing adolescents. Experiential postural re-education is a conservative, non-invasive approach, and its role in the management of AIS warrants further study. This article reviews current evidence for the inclusion of various forms of postural reeducation in the management of AIS. Recent comprehensive reviews have been researched including a manual and PubMed search for evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical/postural re-education/physiotherapy programs in growing AIS patients. This search revealed that there were few studies on the application of postural re-education in the management of AIS. These studies revealed that postural re-education in the form of exercise rehabilitation programs may have a positive influence on scoliosis; however, the various programs were difficult to compare. More research is necessary. There is at present Level 1 evidence for the effectiveness of Schroth scoliosis exercises in the management of AIS. Whether this evidence can be extrapolated to include other forms of scoliosis- pattern-specific exercises requires further investigation. Because corrective postures theoretically reduce the asymmetric loading of the spinal deformities and reverse the vicious cycle of spinal curvature progression, their integration into AIS programs may be beneficial and should be further examined. PMID:27340540

  2. Adult idiopathic scoliosis: the tethered spine.

    PubMed

    Whyte Ferguson, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an observational and treatment study using three case histories to describe common patterns of muscle and fascial asymmetry in adults with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) who have significant scoliotic curvatures that were not surgically corrected and who have chronic pain. Rather than being located in the paraspinal muscles, the myofascial trigger points (TrPs) apparently responsible for the pain were located at some distance from the spine, yet referred pain to locations throughout the thoracolumbar spine. Asymmetries in these muscles appear to tether the spine in such a way that they contribute to scoliotic curvatures. Evaluation also showed that each of these individuals had major ligamentous laxity and this may also have contributed to development of scoliotic curvatures. Treatment focused on release of TrPs found to refer pain into the spine, release of related fascia, and correction of related joint dysfunction. Treatment resulted in substantial relief of longstanding chronic pain. Treatment thus validated the diagnostic hypothesis that myofascial and fascial asymmetries were to some extent responsible for pain in adults with significant scoliotic curvatures. Treatment of these patterns of TrPs and muscle and fascial asymmetries and related joint dysfunction was also effective in relieving pain in each of these individuals after they were injured in auto accidents. Treatment of myofascial TrPs and asymmetrical fascial tension along with treatment of accompanying joint dysfunction is proposed as an effective approach to treating both chronic and acute pain in adults with scoliosis that has not been surgically corrected.

  3. Influence of pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents on postural balance during sitting.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Yong; Cha, Eun-Jong; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Won, Yonggwan; Bok, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Bong-Ok; Kim, Jung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The effects of pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis on postural balance during sitting were studied by measuring inclination angles, pressure distribution, and electromyography. Participants were classified into a control group, pelvic asymmetry group, scoliosis group, and scoliosis with pelvic asymmetry and then performed anterior, posterior, left, and right pelvic tilting while sitting on the unstable board for 5 seconds to assess their postural balance. Inclination and obliquity angles between the groups were measured by an accelerometer located on the unstable board. Pressure distribution (maximum force and peak pressure) was analyzed using a capacitive seat sensor. In addition, surface electrodes were attached to the abdominal and erector spinae muscles of each participant. Inclination and obliquity angles increased more asymmetrically in participants with both pelvic asymmetry and scoliosis than with pelvic asymmetry or scoliosis alone. Maximum forces and peak pressures of each group showed an asymmetrical pressure distribution caused by the difference in height between the left and right pelvis and curve type of the patients' spines when performing anterior, posterior, left, and right pelvic tilting while sitting. Muscle contraction patterns of external oblique, thoracic erector spinae, lumbar erector spinae, and lumbar multifidus muscles may be influenced by spine curve type and region of idiopathic scoliosis. Asymmetrical muscle activities were observed on the convex side of scoliotic patients and these muscle activity patterns were changed by the pelvic asymmetry. From these results, it was confirmed that pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis cause postural asymmetry, unequal weight distribution, and muscular imbalance during sitting. PMID:26406054

  4. Influence of pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis in adolescents on postural balance during sitting.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Yong; Cha, Eun-Jong; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Won, Yonggwan; Bok, Soo-Kyung; Kim, Bong-Ok; Kim, Jung-Ja

    2015-01-01

    The effects of pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis on postural balance during sitting were studied by measuring inclination angles, pressure distribution, and electromyography. Participants were classified into a control group, pelvic asymmetry group, scoliosis group, and scoliosis with pelvic asymmetry and then performed anterior, posterior, left, and right pelvic tilting while sitting on the unstable board for 5 seconds to assess their postural balance. Inclination and obliquity angles between the groups were measured by an accelerometer located on the unstable board. Pressure distribution (maximum force and peak pressure) was analyzed using a capacitive seat sensor. In addition, surface electrodes were attached to the abdominal and erector spinae muscles of each participant. Inclination and obliquity angles increased more asymmetrically in participants with both pelvic asymmetry and scoliosis than with pelvic asymmetry or scoliosis alone. Maximum forces and peak pressures of each group showed an asymmetrical pressure distribution caused by the difference in height between the left and right pelvis and curve type of the patients' spines when performing anterior, posterior, left, and right pelvic tilting while sitting. Muscle contraction patterns of external oblique, thoracic erector spinae, lumbar erector spinae, and lumbar multifidus muscles may be influenced by spine curve type and region of idiopathic scoliosis. Asymmetrical muscle activities were observed on the convex side of scoliotic patients and these muscle activity patterns were changed by the pelvic asymmetry. From these results, it was confirmed that pelvic asymmetry and idiopathic scoliosis cause postural asymmetry, unequal weight distribution, and muscular imbalance during sitting.

  5. The Vestibular-Evoked Postural Response of Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis Is Altered

    PubMed Central

    Pialasse, Jean-Philippe; Descarreaux, Martin; Mercier, Pierre; Blouin, Jean; Simoneau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a multifactorial disorder including neurological factors. A dysfunction of the sensorimotor networks processing vestibular information could be related to spine deformation. This study investigates whether feed-forward vestibulomotor control or sensory reweighting mechanisms are impaired in adolescent scoliosis patients. Vestibular evoked postural responses were obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation while participants stood with their eyes closed and head facing forward. Lateral forces under each foot and lateral displacement of the upper body of adolescents with mild (n = 20) or severe (n = 16) spine deformation were compared to those of healthy control adolescents (n = 16). Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients demonstrated greater lateral displacement and net lateral forces than controls both during and immediately after vestibular stimulation. Altered sensory reweighting of vestibular and proprioceptive information changed balance control of AIS patients during and after vestibular stimulation. Therefore, scoliosis onset could be related to abnormal sensory reweighting, leading to altered sensorimotor processes. PMID:26580068

  6. Idiopathic scoliosis: the tethered spine II: post-surgical pain.

    PubMed

    Whyte Ferguson, Lucy

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of severe chronic pain in young people following surgery for the correction of curvatures of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is presented through two case histories. Effective treatment involved release of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) known to refer pain into the spine, and treatment of related fascia and joint dysfunction. The TrPs found to be contributing to spinal area pain were located in muscles at some distance from the spine rather than in the paraspinal muscles. Referred pain from these TrPs apparently accounted for pain throughout the base of the neck and thoracolumbar spine. Exploratory surgery was considered for one patient to address pain following rod placement but the second surgery became unnecessary when the pain was controlled with treatment of the myofascial pain and joint dysfunction. The other individual had both scoliosis and hyperkyphosis, had undergone primary scoliosis surgery, and subsequently underwent a second surgery to remove hardware in an attempt to address her persistent pain following the initial surgery (and because of dislodged screws). The second surgery did not, however, reduce her pain. In both cases these individuals, with severe chronic pain following scoliosis corrective surgery, experienced a marked decrease of pain after myofascial treatment. As will be discussed below, despite the fact that a significant minority of individuals who have scoliosis corrective surgery are thought to require a second surgery, and despite the fact that pain is the most common reason leading to such revision surgery, myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) had apparently not previously been considered as a possible factor in their pain.

  7. Idiopathic scoliosis: the tethered spine II: post-surgical pain.

    PubMed

    Whyte Ferguson, Lucy

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of severe chronic pain in young people following surgery for the correction of curvatures of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is presented through two case histories. Effective treatment involved release of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) known to refer pain into the spine, and treatment of related fascia and joint dysfunction. The TrPs found to be contributing to spinal area pain were located in muscles at some distance from the spine rather than in the paraspinal muscles. Referred pain from these TrPs apparently accounted for pain throughout the base of the neck and thoracolumbar spine. Exploratory surgery was considered for one patient to address pain following rod placement but the second surgery became unnecessary when the pain was controlled with treatment of the myofascial pain and joint dysfunction. The other individual had both scoliosis and hyperkyphosis, had undergone primary scoliosis surgery, and subsequently underwent a second surgery to remove hardware in an attempt to address her persistent pain following the initial surgery (and because of dislodged screws). The second surgery did not, however, reduce her pain. In both cases these individuals, with severe chronic pain following scoliosis corrective surgery, experienced a marked decrease of pain after myofascial treatment. As will be discussed below, despite the fact that a significant minority of individuals who have scoliosis corrective surgery are thought to require a second surgery, and despite the fact that pain is the most common reason leading to such revision surgery, myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) had apparently not previously been considered as a possible factor in their pain. PMID:25440198

  8. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system for construction of spinal orthosis for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wong, M S

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spinal orthoses are commonly prescribed to patients with moderate adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) for prevention of further curve deterioration. In conventional manufacturing method, plaster bandages are used to obtain the patient's body contour and then the plaster cast is rectified manually. With computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) system, a series of automated processes from body scanning to digital rectification and milling of the positive model can be performed in a fast and accurate fashion. The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce the application of CAD/CAM system to the construction of spinal orthosis for patients with AIS. Based on evidence within the literature, CAD/CAM method can achieve similar clinical outcomes but with higher efficiency than the conventional fabrication method. Therefore, CAD/CAM method should be considered a substitute to the conventional method in fabrication of spinal orthoses for patients with AIS.

  9. Application of 3D rapid prototyping technology in posterior corrective surgery for Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingyuan; Li, Chao; Li, Yanming; Zhao, Yingchuan; Wei, Xianzhao; Zhang, Guoyou; Fan, Jianping; Ni, Haijian; Chen, Ziqiang; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming

    2015-02-01

    A retrospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of 3-dimensional rapid prototyping (3DRP) technology in corrective surgery for Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. 3DRP technology has been widely used in medical field; however, no study has been performed on the effectiveness of 3DRP technology in corrective surgery for Lenke 1 AIS patients. Lenke 1 AIS patients who were preparing to undergo posterior corrective surgery from a single center between January 2010 and January 2012 were included in this analysis. Patients were divided into 2 groups. In group A, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology was used to create subject-specific spine models in the preoperative planning process. Group B underwent posterior corrective surgery as usual (by free hand without image guidance). Perioperative and postoperative clinical outcomes were compared between 2 groups, including operation time, perioperative blood loss, transfusion volume, postoperative hemoglobin (Hb), postoperative complications, and length of hospital stay. Radiological outcomes were also compared, including the assessment of screw placement, postoperative Cobb angle, coronal balance, sagittal vertical axis, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis. Subgroup was also performed according to the preoperative Cobb angle: mean Cobb angle <50° and mean Cobb angle >50°. Besides, economic evaluation was also compared between 2 groups. A total of 126 patients were included in this study (group A, 50 and group B, 76). Group A had significantly shorter operation time, significantly less blood loss and transfusion volume, and higher postoperative Hb (all, P < 0.001). However, no significant differences were observed in complication rate, length of hospital stay, and postoperative radiological outcomes between 2 groups (all, P>0.05). There was also no significant difference in misplacement of screws in total populations (16.90% vs 18.82%, P = 0.305), whereas a low misplacement rate of

  10. Application of 3D Rapid Prototyping Technology in Posterior Corrective Surgery for Lenke 1 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingyuan; Li, Chao; Li, Yanming; Zhao, Yingchuan; Wei, Xianzhao; Zhang, Guoyou; Fan, Jianping; Ni, Haijian; Chen, Ziqiang; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A retrospective study to evaluate the effectiveness of 3-dimensional rapid prototyping (3DRP) technology in corrective surgery for Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. 3DRP technology has been widely used in medical field; however, no study has been performed on the effectiveness of 3DRP technology in corrective surgery for Lenke 1 AIS patients. Lenke 1 AIS patients who were preparing to undergo posterior corrective surgery from a single center between January 2010 and January 2012 were included in this analysis. Patients were divided into 2 groups. In group A, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology was used to create subject-specific spine models in the preoperative planning process. Group B underwent posterior corrective surgery as usual (by free hand without image guidance). Perioperative and postoperative clinical outcomes were compared between 2 groups, including operation time, perioperative blood loss, transfusion volume, postoperative hemoglobin (Hb), postoperative complications, and length of hospital stay. Radiological outcomes were also compared, including the assessment of screw placement, postoperative Cobb angle, coronal balance, sagittal vertical axis, thoracic kyphosis, and lumbar lordosis. Subgroup was also performed according to the preoperative Cobb angle: mean Cobb angle <50° and mean Cobb angle >50°. Besides, economic evaluation was also compared between 2 groups. A total of 126 patients were included in this study (group A, 50 and group B, 76). Group A had significantly shorter operation time, significantly less blood loss and transfusion volume, and higher postoperative Hb (all, P < 0.001). However, no significant differences were observed in complication rate, length of hospital stay, and postoperative radiological outcomes between 2 groups (all, P>0.05). There was also no significant difference in misplacement of screws in total populations (16.90% vs 18.82%, P = 0.305), whereas a low misplacement rate

  11. AKAP2 identified as a novel gene mutated in a Chinese family with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Li, YaWei; Zhang, Lusi; Guo, Hui; Tian, Di; Li, Ying; Peng, Yu; Zheng, Yu; Dai, Yuliang; Xia, Kun; Lan, Xinqiang; Wang, Bing; Hu, Zhengmao

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis exhibits high heritability and is one of the most common spinal deformities found in adolescent populations. However, little is known about the disease-causing genes in families with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis exhibiting Mendelian inheritance. Objective The aim of this study was to identify the causative gene in a family with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Methods Whole-exome sequencing was performed on this family to identify the candidate gene. Sanger sequencing was conducted to validate the candidate mutations and familial segregation. Real-time QPCR was used to measure the expression level of the possible causative gene. Results We identified the mutation c.2645A>C (p.E882A) within the AKAP2 gene, which cosegregated with the adolescent idiopathic scoliosis phenotypes. AKAP2 is located in a previously reported linkage locus (IS4) on chromosome 9q31.2–q34.2 and has been implicated in skeletal development. The mutation was absent in dbSNP144, ESP6500 and 503 ethnicity-matched controls. Real-time QPCR revealed that the mRNA expression level in the patients was increased significantly compared with the family controls (p<0.0001). Conclusions AKAP2 was therefore implicated as a novel gene mutated in a Chinese family with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Further studies should be conducted to validate the results from the perspective of both the genetics and pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:26989089

  12. Adult idiopathic scoliosis: the tethered spine.

    PubMed

    Whyte Ferguson, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an observational and treatment study using three case histories to describe common patterns of muscle and fascial asymmetry in adults with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) who have significant scoliotic curvatures that were not surgically corrected and who have chronic pain. Rather than being located in the paraspinal muscles, the myofascial trigger points (TrPs) apparently responsible for the pain were located at some distance from the spine, yet referred pain to locations throughout the thoracolumbar spine. Asymmetries in these muscles appear to tether the spine in such a way that they contribute to scoliotic curvatures. Evaluation also showed that each of these individuals had major ligamentous laxity and this may also have contributed to development of scoliotic curvatures. Treatment focused on release of TrPs found to refer pain into the spine, release of related fascia, and correction of related joint dysfunction. Treatment resulted in substantial relief of longstanding chronic pain. Treatment thus validated the diagnostic hypothesis that myofascial and fascial asymmetries were to some extent responsible for pain in adults with significant scoliotic curvatures. Treatment of these patterns of TrPs and muscle and fascial asymmetries and related joint dysfunction was also effective in relieving pain in each of these individuals after they were injured in auto accidents. Treatment of myofascial TrPs and asymmetrical fascial tension along with treatment of accompanying joint dysfunction is proposed as an effective approach to treating both chronic and acute pain in adults with scoliosis that has not been surgically corrected. PMID:24411157

  13. Changes of concave and convex rib-vertebral angle, angle difference and angle ratio in patients with right thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Canavese, Federico; Turcot, Katia; Holveck, Jerôme; Farhoumand, Agnés Dahl; Kaelin, André

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the radiological changes in rib-vertebral angles (RVAs), rib-vertebral angle differences (RVADs), and rib-vertebral angle ratios (RVARas) in patients with untreated right thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and to compare with the normal subjects. The concave and convex RVA from T1 to T12, the RVADs and the RVARas were measured on AP digital radiographs of 44 female patients with right convex idiopathic scoliosis and 14 normal females. Patients were divided into three groups: normal subjects (group 1), scoliotic patients with Cobb's angle equal or <30° (group 2) and scoliotic patients with Cobb's angle over 30° (group 3). Overall values (mean ± SD) of the RVAs on the concave side were 90.5° ± 17° in group 1, 90.3° ± 15.8° in group 2 and 88.8° ± 15.4° in group 3. On the convex side, values were 90.0° ± 17.3° in group 1, 86.3° ± 13.7° in group 2 and 80.7° ± 14.4° in group 3. Overall values (mean ± SD) of the RVADs at all levels were 0.5° ± 0.7° in group 1, 4.0° ± 4.8° in group 2 and 8.0° ± 4.0° in group 3. The RVARa values (mean ± SD) at all levels was 1.008° ± 0.012° in group 1, 1.041° ± 0.061° in group 2 and 1.102° ± 0.151° in group 3. RVAD and RVARa values in the scoliotic segment were greater in patients with untreated scoliosis over 30° than in patients with an untreated deformity of <30° or normal subjects. A significant effect between groups was observed for the RVA, RVAD and RVARa variables. Measurement of RVA, RVAD and RVARa should not only be performed at and around the apex of a thoracic spinal deformity, but also extended to the whole thoracic spine. PMID:20811755

  14. Prevalence of asymptomatic cardiac valve anomalies in idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Colomina, M J; Puig, L; Godet, C; Villanueva, C; Bago, J

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of asymptomatic cardiac valve anomalies was determined in 82 patients (69 females and 13 males) diagnosed as having idiopathic scoliosis and scheduled for corrective surgery (mean age at surgery 16.3 years). The preoperative study in each patient included echocardiography and ultrasound Doppler. Twenty-three valvular anomalies were found in 20 patients (24.4%). The most frequent was mitral valve prolapse. The occurrence of valvular anomalies did not correlate with sex, curve magnitude, or age at diagnosis. Eighteen patients presented a total of 20 comorbid conditions: positive family history of scoliosis (five cases), isthmic spondylolisthesis (five cases), nervous anorexia (two cases), hereditary exostosis, cystic fibrosis, ureteral stenosis, mammary hypoplasia, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, psoriasis, celiac disease, and lactose intolerance. A significant relationship was found between valvular anomalies and comorbidity. Valvular anomalies were detected in 11 out of 64 patients (17.2%) with no comorbidity and in nine out of 18 patients (50%) with a comorbid condition (Chi-square 8.2, p = 0.004). In this latter group of patients, routine echocardiographic study seems advisable in the preoperative evaluation. PMID:12170360

  15. Current concepts and controversies on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Sud, Alok; Tsirikos, Athanasios I

    2013-01-01

    A new era in the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) opened with the introduction of pedicle screw instrumentation, which provides 3-column vertebral fixation and allows major deformity correction on the coronal, sagittal, and axial planes. A steep learning curve can be expected for spinal surgeons to become familiar with pedicle screw placement and correction techniques. Potential complications including injury to adjacent neural, vascular, and visceral structures can occur due to screw misplacement or pull-out during correction maneuvers. These major complications are better recognized as pedicle screw techniques become more popular and may result in serious morbidity and mortality. Extensive laboratory and clinical training is mandatory before pedicle screw techniques in scoliosis surgery are put to practice. Wider application, especially in developing countries, is limited by the high cost of implants. Refined correction techniques are currently developed and these utilize a lesser number of pedicle anchors which are strategically positioned to allow optimum deformity correction while reducing the neurological risk, surgical time, and blood loss, as well as instrumentation cost. Such techniques can be particularly attractive at a time when cost has major implications on provision of health care as they can make scoliosis treatment available to a wider population of patients. Pedicle screw techniques are currently considered the gold standard for scoliosis correction due to their documented superior biomechanical properties and ability to produce improved clinical outcomes as reflected by health-related quality-of-life questionnaires. Ongoing research promises further advances with the future of AIS treatment incorporating genetic counseling and possibly fusionless techniques. PMID:23798750

  16. Posterior Spine Fusion with Moss-Miami Instrumentation for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: Radiographic, Clinical and Patient-Centered Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maio, Fernando De; Dolan, Lori A; Luna, Vincenzo De; Weinstein, Stuart L

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the efficacy the Moss-Miami System instrumentation for surgical treatment of spinal deformity. Eight-five patients with AIS underwent a posterior spinal fusion with using this system between 1994 and 1998. Radiographs of the spine were taken preoperatively, at discharge, one year after surgery, and at the latest follow-up (average of 2.5 year, range 2 to 6 years). All radiographs were assessed for curve magnitude, coronal balance, kyphosis, lordosis, junctional kyphosis, and sagittal balance. The scoliosis research society instrument was administered at the final follow-up. the average curve correction ranged from 53 to 65 percent. All patients showed solid fusion by final follow-up. three patients required a second operation for complications related to their scoliosis; two patients showed a rod fracture without evidence of pseudoarthrosis or curve progression. Two transient neurological complications related to the surgery were observed. SRS results were favorable with regard to function and cosmetic appearance. PMID:17907427

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain stem in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Geissele, A E; Kransdorf, M J; Geyer, C A; Jelinek, J S; Van Dam, B E

    1991-07-01

    The cause of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis remains an enigma. Several studies have demonstrated abnormalities of posture, proprioception, and equilibrium control in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. These functions are integrated by structures in and around the brain stem. Twenty-seven patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were studied with magnetic resonance imaging to delineate the anatomy of the brain stem in such patients. Imaging was conducted from the hypothalamus to the spinal cord at C3 in 26 patients; the remaining patient underwent an incomplete study because of a claustrophobic reaction. The study group consisted of 25 females and 2 males with an average age of 16 + 5 years. There were 19 right thoracic curves, 5 thoracolumbar curves, and 3 left lumbar curves. The mean primary curve size was 27 degrees at the most recent clinical evaluation. Seven patients were treated with observation, 14 with bracing, and 6 with surgery. The magnetic resonance imaging studies were read independently by three attending radiologists in a randomized, blinded fashion along with the magnetic resonance imaging studies of 11 controls. Asymmetry in the ventral pons or medulla in the area of the corticospinal tracts was noted in seven study patients and one control; one study patient had an enlarged cisterna magna and one an inconclusive (incomplete) study. These findings may support previous studies that have suggested a central nervous system abnormality as a cause of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:1925751

  18. Study on Treatment with Respect to Idiopathic Scoliosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Kenzen; Azegami, Hideyuki; Murachi, Shunji; Kitoh, Junzoh; Ishida, Yoshito; Kawakami, Noriaki; Makino, Mitsunori

    A hypothesis that the thoracic idiopathic scoliosis is buckling phenomenon of the fourth mode induced by the growth of thoracic vertebral bodies was presented in the previous work by the authors using numerical simulations with finite element model of the spine. If the hypothesis is acceptable, sensitivity function with respect to the critical growth of thoracic vertebrae on the maximization problem of buckling load with the fourth buckling mode gives us useful information to improve and develop treatments for the idiopathic scoliosis. The numerical results analyzed by the finite element method demonstrated that the sensitivity function is high at the articular capsules of the intervertebral joints, the intervertebral disks, the costotransverse joints and the constovertebral joints around the apex of the curvature in the case of the thoracic idiopathic scoliosis.

  19. ptk7 mutant zebrafish models of congenital and idiopathic scoliosis implicate dysregulated Wnt signalling in disease

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Madeline; Gao, Xiaochong; Yu, Lisa X; Paria, Nandina; Henkelman, R. Mark; Wise, Carol A.; Ciruna, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Scoliosis is a complex genetic disorder of the musculoskeletal system, characterized by three-dimensional rotation of the spine. Curvatures caused by malformed vertebrae (congenital scoliosis (CS)) are apparent at birth. Spinal curvatures with no underlying vertebral abnormality (idiopathic scoliosis (IS)) most commonly manifest during adolescence. The genetic and biological mechanisms responsible for IS remain poorly understood due largely to limited experimental models. Here we describe zygotic ptk7 (Zptk7) mutant zebrafish, deficient in a critical regulator of Wnt signalling, as the first genetically defined developmental model of IS. We identify a novel sequence variant within a single IS patient that disrupts PTK7 function, consistent with a role for dysregulated Wnt activity in disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that embryonic loss-of-gene function in maternal-zygotic ptk7 mutants (MZptk7) leads to vertebral anomalies associated with CS. Our data suggest novel molecular origins of, and genetic links between, congenital and idiopathic forms of disease. PMID:25182715

  20. Ultrasound evaluation of the symmetry of abdominal muscles in mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Linek, Paweł; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Gogola, Anna

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of the study was to evaluate the symmetry of the thickness of the abdominal muscles at rest and while standing in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] An ultrasound assessment was performed of the side-to-side differences of the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominalis (TrA) muscles in the supine and standing positions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and control groups. [Results] In the AIS group, 64.3% of the patients had left scoliosis with a mean Cobb angle of 10.7°, and 35.7% of the patients had right scoliosis with a mean Cobb angle of 10°. In the supine position, the thickness asymmetry of the TrA was greater in the AIS compared with the control group by an average of 14% (95% CI 3.9–24.2). [Conclusion] Among the abdominal muscles examined, patients with AIS exhibited more asymmetry only for the TrA. In the standing position, the TrA was as symmetric in the patients as in the control group. Mild scoliosis has no impact on the symmetry of the thickness of the OE and OI in the supine and standing positions. The direction of curvature had no effect on the symmetry of the abdominal muscles studied. PMID:25729192

  1. Comparative Analysis of Interval, Skipped, and Key-vertebral Pedicle Screw Strategies for Correction in Patients With Lenke Type 1 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Xi-Ming; Lu, Yanghu; Wei, Xian-Zhao; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pedicle screw constructs have become the mainstay for surgical correction in patients with spinal deformities. To reduce or avoid the risk of pedicle screw-based complications and to decrease the costs associated with pedicle screw instrumentation, some authors have introduced interval, skipped, and key-vertebral pedicle screw strategies for correction. However, there have been no comparisons of outcomes among these 3 pedicle screw-placement strategies. The aim of this study was to compare the correlative clinical outcomes of posterior correction and fusion with pedicle screw fixation using these 3 surgical strategies. Fifty-six consecutive patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included in this study. Twenty patients were treated with the interval pedicle screw strategy (IPSS), 20 with the skipped pedicle screw strategy (SPSS), and 16 with the key-vertebral pedicle screw strategy (KVPSS). Coronal and sagittal radiographs were analyzed before surgery, at 1 week after surgery, and at the last follow-up after surgery. There were no significant differences among the 3 groups regarding preoperative radiographic parameters. No significant difference was found between the IPSS and SPSS groups in correction of the main thoracic curve (70.8% vs 70.0%; P = 0.524). However, there were statistically significant differences between the IPSS and KVPSS groups (70.8% vs 64.9%) and between the SPSS and KVPSS groups (70.0% vs 64.9%) in correction of the main thoracic curve (P < 0.001 for both). Additionally, there were no significant differences among the 3 strategies for sagittal parameters at the immediate postoperative and last postoperative follow-up periods, though there were significant differences in the Cobb angle between the preoperative and immediate postoperative periods among the 3 groups, but not between the immediate postoperative and last follow-up periods. The amount of hospital charges in the SPSS group was significantly

  2. Comparative Analysis of Interval, Skipped, and Key-vertebral Pedicle Screw Strategies for Correction in Patients With Lenke Type 1 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Xi-Ming; Lu, Yanghu; Wei, Xian-Zhao; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Ming

    2016-03-01

    Pedicle screw constructs have become the mainstay for surgical correction in patients with spinal deformities. To reduce or avoid the risk of pedicle screw-based complications and to decrease the costs associated with pedicle screw instrumentation, some authors have introduced interval, skipped, and key-vertebral pedicle screw strategies for correction. However, there have been no comparisons of outcomes among these 3 pedicle screw-placement strategies.The aim of this study was to compare the correlative clinical outcomes of posterior correction and fusion with pedicle screw fixation using these 3 surgical strategies.Fifty-six consecutive patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included in this study. Twenty patients were treated with the interval pedicle screw strategy (IPSS), 20 with the skipped pedicle screw strategy (SPSS), and 16 with the key-vertebral pedicle screw strategy (KVPSS). Coronal and sagittal radiographs were analyzed before surgery, at 1 week after surgery, and at the last follow-up after surgery.There were no significant differences among the 3 groups regarding preoperative radiographic parameters. No significant difference was found between the IPSS and SPSS groups in correction of the main thoracic curve (70.8% vs 70.0%; P = 0.524). However, there were statistically significant differences between the IPSS and KVPSS groups (70.8% vs 64.9%) and between the SPSS and KVPSS groups (70.0% vs 64.9%) in correction of the main thoracic curve (P < 0.001 for both). Additionally, there were no significant differences among the 3 strategies for sagittal parameters at the immediate postoperative and last postoperative follow-up periods, though there were significant differences in the Cobb angle between the preoperative and immediate postoperative periods among the 3 groups, but not between the immediate postoperative and last follow-up periods. The amount of hospital charges in the SPSS group was significantly higher than

  3. Comparative Analysis of Interval, Skipped, and Key-vertebral Pedicle Screw Strategies for Correction in Patients With Lenke Type 1 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Xi-Ming; Lu, Yanghu; Wei, Xian-Zhao; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Ming

    2016-03-01

    Pedicle screw constructs have become the mainstay for surgical correction in patients with spinal deformities. To reduce or avoid the risk of pedicle screw-based complications and to decrease the costs associated with pedicle screw instrumentation, some authors have introduced interval, skipped, and key-vertebral pedicle screw strategies for correction. However, there have been no comparisons of outcomes among these 3 pedicle screw-placement strategies.The aim of this study was to compare the correlative clinical outcomes of posterior correction and fusion with pedicle screw fixation using these 3 surgical strategies.Fifty-six consecutive patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included in this study. Twenty patients were treated with the interval pedicle screw strategy (IPSS), 20 with the skipped pedicle screw strategy (SPSS), and 16 with the key-vertebral pedicle screw strategy (KVPSS). Coronal and sagittal radiographs were analyzed before surgery, at 1 week after surgery, and at the last follow-up after surgery.There were no significant differences among the 3 groups regarding preoperative radiographic parameters. No significant difference was found between the IPSS and SPSS groups in correction of the main thoracic curve (70.8% vs 70.0%; P = 0.524). However, there were statistically significant differences between the IPSS and KVPSS groups (70.8% vs 64.9%) and between the SPSS and KVPSS groups (70.0% vs 64.9%) in correction of the main thoracic curve (P < 0.001 for both). Additionally, there were no significant differences among the 3 strategies for sagittal parameters at the immediate postoperative and last postoperative follow-up periods, though there were significant differences in the Cobb angle between the preoperative and immediate postoperative periods among the 3 groups, but not between the immediate postoperative and last follow-up periods. The amount of hospital charges in the SPSS group was significantly higher than

  4. Comparative analysis of pedicle screw versus hybrid instrumentation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rafi, Sohail; Munshi, Naseem; Abbas, Asad; Shaikh, Rabia Hassan; Hashmi, Imtiaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis. A Cobb angle of 50° will progress beyond the age of spinal maturity. Surgery over bracing is advised at a Cobb angle above or equal to 50°. The aim of surgery is to bring the Cobb angle down below 50° to prevent reprogression as well as improve the quality of life. The objective of the study is to analyze the efficacy and significance in lifestyle improvement of pedicle screw-only fixation system versus the more common hybrid instrumentation system used for the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted involving two groups of patients were included in the study. One group was operated with pedicle screw-only method while the other with hybrid instrumentation system. The pre- and post-operative Cobb's angles were taken across a follow-up of 4 years. An SRS-30 questionnaire was given in a yearly follow-up to assess the lifestyle improvement of the patient. Results: Pedicle screw-only method was significantly more effective in reducing Cobb's angle (P = 0.0487). It was showed less loss of correction (P = 0.009) pedicle screw-only surgery was also better at reducing thoracic curves (P = 0.001). There seemed a better recovery time with pedicle screw surgery (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Pedicle screws are more effective and durable than hybrid systems at when treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  5. Comparative analysis of pedicle screw versus hybrid instrumentation in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rafi, Sohail; Munshi, Naseem; Abbas, Asad; Shaikh, Rabia Hassan; Hashmi, Imtiaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of scoliosis. A Cobb angle of 50° will progress beyond the age of spinal maturity. Surgery over bracing is advised at a Cobb angle above or equal to 50°. The aim of surgery is to bring the Cobb angle down below 50° to prevent reprogression as well as improve the quality of life. The objective of the study is to analyze the efficacy and significance in lifestyle improvement of pedicle screw-only fixation system versus the more common hybrid instrumentation system used for the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted involving two groups of patients were included in the study. One group was operated with pedicle screw-only method while the other with hybrid instrumentation system. The pre- and post-operative Cobb's angles were taken across a follow-up of 4 years. An SRS-30 questionnaire was given in a yearly follow-up to assess the lifestyle improvement of the patient. Results: Pedicle screw-only method was significantly more effective in reducing Cobb's angle (P = 0.0487). It was showed less loss of correction (P = 0.009) pedicle screw-only surgery was also better at reducing thoracic curves (P = 0.001). There seemed a better recovery time with pedicle screw surgery (P = 0.003). Conclusion: Pedicle screws are more effective and durable than hybrid systems at when treating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:27695235

  6. Scoliosis elasticity assessed by manual traction: 49 juvenile and adolescent idiopathic cases.

    PubMed

    Soucacos, P K; Soucacos, P N; Beris, A E

    1996-04-01

    We assessed preoperative curve elasticity in 49 consecutive patients with juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who were operated on with Harrington distraction rods. Preoperatively, the curve was determined from posteroanterior radiographs taken in the standing position and in the supine position, with traction. In the latter, the radiographs were taken at the moment of maximal traction when one technician applied traction to the ankles and another to the wrists. The scoliotic curve in the 10 patients with juvenile scoliosis averaged 59 degrees and 32 degrees in the standing and supine positions with traction, respectively. Immediately postoperatively, the curve averaged 19 degrees. 39 patients with adolescent scoliosis had a scoliotic curve which averaged 58 degrees in the standing position and 32 degrees in the supine position with traction. The mean postoperative measurement was 21 degrees. These findings suggest that manual traction is a simple and reliable means of predicting the minimal correction of the scoliotic curve to be expected, using Harrington distraction rods.

  7. [A Case of Liver Contusion during Spinal Operation for Idiopathic Scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Saito, Takayuki; Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko; Yoshinaga, Tohko; Yamamoto, Takuya; Kanmura, Yuichi

    2015-04-01

    A 20-year-old man diagnosed as idiopathic scoliosis with Cobb angle 146 degrees was scheduled for two-stage operations. Anterior dissection of the thoracic vertebra in the left lateral decubitus position, and the placement of pedicle screws in the prone position were performed as the first-stage operation. During surgery, the patient developed liver contusion with ascites, probably due to hepatic compression placed between vertebrae and operating table in the prone position. In the second operation for posterior spinal fusion, the occurrence of liver contusion was prevented by performing abdominal ultrasonography before and after surgery, and monitoring AST/ALT during anesthesia as the indicators of liver contusion. Intraoperative management for organ protection is required during anesthesia in patients with idiopathic scoliosis associated with thoracic deformity. PMID:26419113

  8. Predictive factors for perioperative blood transfusion in surgeries for correction of idiopathic, neuromuscular or congenital scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Borges, Paulo Alvim; Barbosa, Angelo Roberto; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Marcon, Raphael Martus; de Barros-Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of clinical and demographic variables in patients requiring blood transfusion during elective surgery to treat scoliosis with the aim of identifying markers predictive of the need for blood transfusion. METHODS: Based on the review of medical charts at a public university hospital, this retrospective study evaluated whether the following variables were associated with the need for red blood cell transfusion (measured by the number of packs used) during scoliosis surgery: scoliotic angle, extent of arthrodesis (number of fused levels), sex of the patient, surgery duration and type of scoliosis (neuromuscular, congenital or idiopathic). RESULTS: Of the 94 patients evaluated in a 55-month period, none required a massive blood transfusion (most patients needed less than two red blood cell packs). The number of packs was not significantly associated with sex or type of scoliosis. The extent of arthrodesis (r = 0.103), surgery duration (r = 0.144) and scoliotic angle (r = 0.004) were weakly correlated with the need for blood transfusion. Linear regression analysis showed an association between the number of spine levels submitted to arthrodesis and the volume of blood used in transfusions (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study did not reveal any evidence of a significant association between the need for red blood cell transfusion and scoliotic angle, sex or surgery duration in scoliosis correction surgery. Submission of more spinal levels to arthrodesis was associated with the use of a greater number of blood packs. PMID:25518018

  9. Three-Dimensional Spinal Morphology can Differentiate Between Progressive and Non-Progressive Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis at the Initial Presentation.

    PubMed

    Nault, M-L; Mac-Thiong, J-M; Roy-Beaudry, M; Turgeon, I; de Guise, J; Labelle, H; Parent, S

    2014-02-27

    Study Design. This is a prospective case-control study.Objective. The objective of this study was to compare 3D morphologic parameters of the spine at the first visit between a non progressive (NP) and a progressive (P) group of immature adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).Summary of Background Data. Prediction of curve progression remains challenging in AIS at the first visit. Prediction of progression is based on curve type, curve magnitude and skeletal or chronological age.Methods. A prospective cohort of 134 AIS was followed from skeletal immaturity to maturity (mean 37 months). The first group was made up of AIS patients with a minimum 6° progression of the major curve between the first and last follow up (P) (n=53) and the second group was composed of NP patients that reached maturity with less than 6° progression (n=81). Computerized measurements were undertaken on reconstructed 3D spine radiographs of the first visit. There were 6 categories of measurements: angle of plane of maximum curvature, Cobb angles (kyphosis, lordosis), 3D wedging (apical vertebra, apical disks), rotation (upper and lower junctional vertebra, apical vertebra, thoracolumbar junction), torsion and slenderness (height/width ratio). t tests were also undertaken.Results. There was no statistical difference between the two groups for age and initial Cobb angle. NP presented significant hypokyphosis, and parameters related to rotation presented significant statistical differences between NP and P (plane of maximal curvature, torsion, apical axial rotation). Depth slenderness also presented statistical differences.Conclusion. This study confirms that even at the initial visit, 3D morphologic differences exist between P and NP AIS. It supports the use of 3D reconstructions of the spine in the initial evaluation of AIS to help predict outcome.

  10. BENDING RADIOGRAPHS AS A PREDICTIVE FACTOR IN SURGICAL CORRECTION OF ADOLESCENT IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Gotfryd, Alberto Ofenhejm; Franzin, Fernando José; Poletto, Patrícia Rios; de Laura, Alexandre Spertini; da Silva, Luis Carlos Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of x-rays in dorsal decubitus, as a predictive factor for surgical correction of the main thoracic curve using pedicle screws, on patients with idiopathic adolescent scoliosis. Method: Twenty patients with idiopathic adolescent scoliosis of Lenke types 1A and 1B who were operated using a technique only involving pedicle screws by means of the posterior route were evaluated clinically and radiographically. The curve flexibility was calculated by means of active supine lateral oblique radiographs. The postoperative values for the main thoracic curve were included in a mathematical equation proposed by Cheung et al., with the aim of predicting the expected angular result from the surgical correction. The difference between the expected and actual postoperative results was then investigated regarding its statistical significance. Results: There was statistical significance for all the cases studied, between the values predicted before the operation and the radiographic findings immediately after the operation (p < 0.005). Conclusions: It is possible to predict the percentage surgical correction of the main thoracic curve that will be achieved using pedicle screws in patients with idiopathic adolescent scoliosis of Lenke types 1A and 1B, by means of preoperative supine oblique radiographs. PMID:27027056

  11. [Fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis : Anterior, posterior or combined? One-stage or two-stage?].

    PubMed

    Quack, V; Rath, B; Schenker, H; Schulze, A; El Mansy, Y; Tingart, M; Betsch, M

    2015-11-01

    Scoliosis is a complex, three-dimensional spinal deformity with various causes. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form. Surgical treatment is indicated for curves greater than 45-50° meaured using the Cobb method. We can distinguish among posterior, anterior or combined surgical procedures. Today, the posterior, transpedicular approach has revolutionized scoliosis surgery. This review gives an overview of current surgical options in scoliosis treatment.

  12. Knowledge about idiopathic scoliosis among students of physiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ciazynski, D; Czernicki, K; Durmala, J

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of basic knowledge about idiopathic scoliosis (IS) among students of physiotherapy. The study included 37 students of Medical University of Silesia (17F and 20M aged 22-25, mean 22.6), attending the 3(rd) year of a 1(st) degree of physiotherapy. All students had credits in kinesiotherapy, including methods of conservative treatment of IS. Students were examined using a questionnaire, comprising general knowledge of IS, questions related to sagittal plane correction, influence of various physical activities on IS and known methods of conservative treatment. 81 students considered IS as 3-D deformity. 62.2% of those questioned would diagnose IS when the Cobb angle reaches 10 degrees . All students agreed that the aetiology of IS remains unknown. 54.1% considered forcible extensory exercises of back as favourable in IS. Questioned students mostly preferred swimming (94.6%), yoga (73.0%) and martial arts (32.4%) as beneficial to IS. The methods of conservative treatment which were known best were: Lehnert-Schroth-Weiss (94.6%), Klapp (91.9%), Majoch (89.2%) and Dobosiewicz (78.4%). The conclusions indicate that the average level of knowledge of idiopathic scoliosis among students of physiotherapy is unsatisfactory, despite the education programme including the SOSORT guidelines. Education in the field of scoliosis should be comprehensive and meet contemporary guidelines and standards. PMID:18810037

  13. Physical activities of Patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS): preliminary longitudinal case-control study historical evaluation of possible risk factors.

    PubMed

    McMaster, Marianne E; Lee, Amanda Jane; Burwell, R Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge there are no publications that have evaluated physical activities in relation to the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) other than sports scolioses. In a preliminary longitudinal case-control study, mother and child were questioned and the children examined by one observer. The aim of the study was to examine possible risk factors for AIS. Two study groups were assessed for physical activities: 79 children diagnosed as having progressive AIS at one spinal deformity centre (66 girls, 13 boys) and a Control Group of 77 school children (66 girls, 11 boys), the selection involving six criteria. A structured history of physical activities was obtained, every child allocated to a socioeconomic group and examined for toe touching. Unlike the Patients, the Controls were not X-rayed and were examined for surface vertical spinous process asymmetry (VSPA). Statistical analyses showed progressive AIS to be positively associated with social deprivation, early introduction to indoor heated swimming pools and ability to toe touch. AIS is negatively associated with participation in dance, skating, gymnastics or karate and football or hockey classes, which might suggest preventive possibilities. There is a significantly increased independent odds of AIS in children who went to an indoor heated swimming pool within the first year of life (odds ratio 3.88, 95% CI 1.77-8.48; p = 0·001). Furthermore fourteen (61%) Controls with VSPA compared with 9 (17%) Controls without VSPA had been introduced to the swimming pool within their first year of life (P < 0.001). Early exposure to indoor heated swimming pools for both AIS and VSPA, suggests that the AIS findings do not result from sample selection. PMID:25866554

  14. Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Criteria and Society of Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) 2008 Guidelines in Non-Operative Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Korbel, Krzysztof; Kozinoga, Mateusz; Stoliński, Łukasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    According to the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a curvature of more than 10° Cobb angle, affecting 2-3% of pediatric population. Idiopathic scoliosis accounts for 80% of all scoliosis cases. Non-operative principles in the therapy of idiopathic scoliosis, including Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria and guidelines proposed by the experts of the Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORTS) were presented. The possibility to carry out quality of life assessments in a conservative procedure was also demonstrated. Based on the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis, SRS criteria, SOSORT 2008 experts' opinion and the knowledge of the possibilities of psychological assessment of conservative IS treatment, rules were proposed regarding nonsurgical IS therapy procedures, with special consideration being paid to the proper treatment start time (age, Risser test, biological maturity, Cobb angle), possibility of curvature progression, the importance of physiotherapy and psychological assessment. The knowledge of SRS criteria and SOSORT guidelines regarding the conservative treatment of IS are essential for proper treatment (the right time to start treatment), and supports establishment of interdisciplinary treatment teams, consisting of a physician, a physiotherapist, an orthopedic technician and a psychologist. PMID:25066033

  15. Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Criteria and Society of Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT) 2008 Guidelines in Non-Operative Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Korbel, Krzysztof; Kozinoga, Mateusz; Stoliński, Łukasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2014-07-28

    According to the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a curvature of more than 10° Cobb angle, affecting 2-3% of pediatric population. Idiopathic scoliosis accounts for 80% of all scoliosis cases. Non-operative principles in the therapy of idiopathic scoliosis, including Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria and guidelines proposed by the experts of the Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORTS) were presented. The possibility to carry out quality of life assessments in a conservative procedure was also demonstrated. Based on the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis, SRS criteria, SOSORT 2008 experts' opinion and the knowledge of the possibilities of psychological assessment of conservative IS treatment, rules were proposed regarding nonsurgical IS therapy procedures, with special consideration being paid to the proper treatment start time (age, Risser test, biological maturity, Cobb angle), possibility of curvature progression, the importance of physiotherapy and psychological assessment. The knowledge of SRS criteria and SOSORT guidelines regarding the conservative treatment of IS are essential for proper treatment (the right time to start treatment), and supports establishment of interdisciplinary treatment teams, consisting of a physician, a physiotherapist, an orthopedic technician and a psychologist.

  16. Recommendations for research studies on treatment of idiopathic scoliosis: Consensus 2014 between SOSORT and SRS non-operative management committee.

    PubMed

    Negrini, Stefano; Hresko, Timothy M; O'Brien, Joseph P; Price, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The two main societies clinically dealing with idiopathic scoliosis are the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS), founded in 1966, and the international Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT), started in 2004. Inside the SRS, the Non-Operative Management Committee (SRS-NOC) has the same clinical interest of SOSORT, that is the Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation (or Non-Operative, or conservative) Management of idiopathic scoliosis patients. The aim of this paper is to present the results of a Consensus among the best experts of non-operative treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis, as represented by SOSORT and SRS, on the recommendation for research studies on treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis. The goal of the consensus statement is to establish a framework for research with clearly delineated inclusion criteria, methodologies, and outcome measures so that future meta- analysis or comparative studies could occur. A Delphi method was used to generate a consensus to develop a set of recommendations for clinical studies on treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis. It included the development of a reference scheme, which was judged during two Delphi Rounds; after this first phase, it was decided to develop the recommendations and 4 other Delphi Rounds followed. The process finished with a Consensus Meeting, that was held during the SOSORT Meeting in Wiesbaden, 8-10 May 2014, moderated by the Presidents of SOSORT (JP O'Brien) and SRS (SD Glassman) and by the Chairs of the involved Committees (SOSORT Consensus Committee: S Negrini; SRS Non-Operative Committee: MT Hresko). The Boards of the SRS and SOSORT formally accepted the final recommendations. The 18 Recommendations focused: Research needs (3), Clinically significant outcomes (4), Radiographic outcomes (3), Other key outcomes (Quality of Life, adherence to treatment) (2), Standardization of methods of non-operative research (6). PMID:25780381

  17. Pre-Operative Autologous Blood Donation Does Not Affect Pre-Incision Hematocrit in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients. A Retrospective Cohort of a Prospective Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Kushagra; Peters, Austin; Lonner, Baron S.; Errico, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Pre-donation of autologous blood prior to spine fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has been used in deformity surgery. The effect of pre-donation on pre-operative hematocrit (Hct) remains debated. Multiple factors may influence pre-operative Hct including intravascular volume status, patient factors, and timing of pre-operative blood donation. The purpose of this study was to determine if pre-donation significantly lowers pre-incision Hct in AIS patients. Methods A retrospective cohort study of a Level-1 prospective randomized trial was conducted. 125 patients from the homogeneous population were included. AIS patients undergoing a posterior only spinal fusion for AIS were separated into two groups based on their pre-operative blood donation history. Demographic variables, pre-incision Hct, and transfusion rates were compared between the two groups using the Student's T-test. Results Pre-donation and non pre-donation groups had 28 and 97 patients, respectively. Pre-donation group was 75% female (21F, 7M) and non pre-donation group was 78% female (76F, 21M). There was no difference between pre-donation and non pre-donation groups in mean age (15.6 ± 2.2 vs 14.8 ± 2.2, p = 0.081), BMI (23.1 ± 4.2 vs 21.7 ± 5.3, p = 0.219), and pre-incision Hct (32.8 ± 3.4 vs 33.8 ± 3.1, p = 0.628). The overall transfusion rates were equivalent (32.1± 48.0% vs 25.8 ± 44.0%, p = 0.509), however, the rate of allogenic transfusion for the pre-donation group was significantly lower (3.6 ± 18.9% vs 25.8 ± 44.0%, p = 0.011). Conclusions This study supports the use of pre-donation for AIS, without a significant drop in pre-incision Hct. Patients that donate are also much less likely to be exposed to allogenic blood. There may be a surgeon bias to recommend pre-donation in patients with a larger BMI and older age. Future studies are needed from a larger population of patients including those with non-AIS pathology. Level of evidence: Level III. PMID:27652198

  18. Pre-Operative Autologous Blood Donation Does Not Affect Pre-Incision Hematocrit in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients. A Retrospective Cohort of a Prospective Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Kushagra; Peters, Austin; Lonner, Baron S.; Errico, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Pre-donation of autologous blood prior to spine fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has been used in deformity surgery. The effect of pre-donation on pre-operative hematocrit (Hct) remains debated. Multiple factors may influence pre-operative Hct including intravascular volume status, patient factors, and timing of pre-operative blood donation. The purpose of this study was to determine if pre-donation significantly lowers pre-incision Hct in AIS patients. Methods A retrospective cohort study of a Level-1 prospective randomized trial was conducted. 125 patients from the homogeneous population were included. AIS patients undergoing a posterior only spinal fusion for AIS were separated into two groups based on their pre-operative blood donation history. Demographic variables, pre-incision Hct, and transfusion rates were compared between the two groups using the Student's T-test. Results Pre-donation and non pre-donation groups had 28 and 97 patients, respectively. Pre-donation group was 75% female (21F, 7M) and non pre-donation group was 78% female (76F, 21M). There was no difference between pre-donation and non pre-donation groups in mean age (15.6 ± 2.2 vs 14.8 ± 2.2, p = 0.081), BMI (23.1 ± 4.2 vs 21.7 ± 5.3, p = 0.219), and pre-incision Hct (32.8 ± 3.4 vs 33.8 ± 3.1, p = 0.628). The overall transfusion rates were equivalent (32.1± 48.0% vs 25.8 ± 44.0%, p = 0.509), however, the rate of allogenic transfusion for the pre-donation group was significantly lower (3.6 ± 18.9% vs 25.8 ± 44.0%, p = 0.011). Conclusions This study supports the use of pre-donation for AIS, without a significant drop in pre-incision Hct. Patients that donate are also much less likely to be exposed to allogenic blood. There may be a surgeon bias to recommend pre-donation in patients with a larger BMI and older age. Future studies are needed from a larger population of patients including those with non-AIS pathology. Level of evidence: Level III.

  19. Idiopathic scoliosis: managing pain before and after spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Bray, Lucy; Craske, Jennie

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis surgery is performed to correct a curvature of the spine. This is a painful surgical procedure which is carried out on otherwise healthy young people. This article reports on a small evaluation project which focused on young people's opinions and experiences of their pain information needs, pain management and pain assessment. Nine young people completed written activity sheets before and after scoliosis surgery. Most of the information provided on the activity sheets involved positive comments about the surgical experience although some indicated that the management of pain continued to be a challenge after spinal surgery. The project has highlighted that there is more work to be done to ensure that young people are prepared for surgery and they are helped to convey their experiences of pain to health professionals during their treatment and recovery.

  20. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in athletes: is there a connection?

    PubMed

    Kenanidis, Eustathios I; Potoupnis, Michael E; Papavasiliou, Kyriakos A; Sayegh, Fares E; Kapetanos, George A

    2010-06-01

    The potential relationship between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and sports is rather vague. Sports have often been considered to be a causative factor of, or a treatment option for the former, particularly among adolescent athletes who are engaged in certain athletic activities. The highly repetitive nature of sports, amenorrhea, exercise-related exerted stress on the immature spine of professional adolescent athletes, and the joint laxity that may coexist during adolescence, have also been associated with an increased incidence of AIS. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential connection between sports and AIS by reviewing the existing literature. PMID:20631476

  1. [Genome-wide association study for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yoji; Kou, Ikuyo; Scoliosis, Japan; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis(AIS)is a polygenic disease. Genome-wide association studies(GWASs)have been performed for a lot of polygenic diseases. For AIS, we conducted GWAS and identified the first AIS locus near LBX1. After the discovery, we have extended our study by increasing the numbers of subjects and SNPs. In total, our Japanese GWAS has identified four susceptibility genes. GWASs for AIS have also been performed in the USA and China, which identified one and three susceptibility genes, respectively. Here we review GWASs in Japan and abroad and functional analysis to clarify the pathomechanism of AIS. PMID:27013625

  2. Current progress in genetic research of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Leilei; Qiu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Previous genetic linkage analysis and candidate gene association analysis have unveiled dozens of variants associated with the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), which however can seldom be replicated in different ethnics. Recently, two genome-wide association studies of AIS performed in Japan revealed that ladybird homeobox 1 (LBX1) gene and G protein–coupled receptor 126 (GPR126) gene could play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Since the association between these two genes and AIS were successfully validated in the Caucasian and the Chinese population, LBX1 gene and GPR126 gene were the most reliable genetic variants underling the development of AIS. PMID:26046064

  3. [Genome-wide association study for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yoji; Kou, Ikuyo; Scoliosis, Japan; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis(AIS)is a polygenic disease. Genome-wide association studies(GWASs)have been performed for a lot of polygenic diseases. For AIS, we conducted GWAS and identified the first AIS locus near LBX1. After the discovery, we have extended our study by increasing the numbers of subjects and SNPs. In total, our Japanese GWAS has identified four susceptibility genes. GWASs for AIS have also been performed in the USA and China, which identified one and three susceptibility genes, respectively. Here we review GWASs in Japan and abroad and functional analysis to clarify the pathomechanism of AIS.

  4. [Criteria for treatment of idiopathic scoliosis between 40 degrees and 50 degrees. Surgical vs. conservative therapy].

    PubMed

    Hopf, C

    2000-06-01

    The treatment of idiopathic scoliosis over 40 degrees (Cobb) during the growth period is under discussion concerning the indication for conservative or surgical treatment. Curve progression depends on the degree of the frontal and sagittal deformity, vertebral rotation, rigidity of the curve, the skeletal age, the age and sex of the patient, the familial frequency of scoliosis and the location of the curve. In scoliosis over 40 degrees progression is fast and the possibilities for successful conservative brace treatment are reduced during the growth period. Progression occurs more frequently in thoracic and double major scolioses, especially in young patients (Risser sign 0 and 1). Predictive factors of a successful brace treatment are the correction of scoliosis and rotation; deterioration of both during the brace treatment leads to poor results. Evaluating the flexibility of the sagittal profile is important, as is primary correction of 30-50% in the brace during the 3 months. Operative correction of small primary curves reduces the fusion length, operation time, and blood loss and is followed by a reduction in loading on the adjacent vertebral segments in comparison to the long fusions necessary in more structural and double major scolioses. So far it is not possible to make an equivalent judgment of the frequency of the "crankshaft" phenomenon and the treatment necessary in young patients (Rissersign 0 and 1) treated by dorsal instrumentation alone, but temporary brace treatment may be considered in those cases. PMID:10929330

  5. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Treatment Using Pettibon Corrective Procedures: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Morningstar, Mark W; Strauchman, Megan N; Gilmour, Greg

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the possible benefits of using Pettibon corrective procedures to reduce the curvature associated with idiopathic scoliosis. These procedures were tested to determine potential effectiveness in a single patient. Clinical Features A patient with a 35° left convex thoracolumbar scoliosis was treated using Pettibon corrective procedures. Initial and follow-up outcome measures included a Borg pain scale, a Functional Rating Index, a balance test, and radiographic analysis. Intervention and Outcome The patient was treated using a combination of manipulative and rehabilitative procedures designed to restore normal sagittal curves and reduce the severity of the coronal curvatures. After six weeks of treatment, the post treatment radiograph revealed a 20° left convex thoracolumbar scoliosis, as well as decreases in the Borg pain scale from six to two, and Functional Rating Index score from 18/40 to 7/40 after the trial period. Her balance time increased from 18 seconds to 56 seconds. Conclusion Pettibon corrective procedures seemed to be effective at reducing the thoracolumbar scoliosis 15° (43%) after six weeks. The subjective and objective results of this case study warrant further such investigations. PMID:19674630

  6. Evidence for Conservative Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis - Update 2015 (Mini-Review).

    PubMed

    Sy, Ng; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Moramarco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis predominantly afflicts adolescents. Adolescents with mild curvatures do not generally have any symptoms. However spinal fusion is indicated when the deformity exceeds 45°. Treatment is thus necessary to prevent and/or reduce the progression of curvatures to that below which surgery is indicated. Conservative treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis includes observation, scoliosis-specific exercises (SSE) and bracing. There is increasing evidence suggesting that SSE and brace treatment can significantly limit the progression of spinal curvatures. In growing adolescents with curvatures more than 20°, bracing is indicated and should be used in conjunction with SSE. The effectiveness of bracing varies according to the type of brace applied to the patient. In general rigid braces are preferable to soft flexible braces, as the latter falls short of halting curvatures progression. Also, preliminary evidence suggests that asymmetric braces which enable over-correction provide more correction when compared with symmetrical braces. Recently it has also been reported that high quality bracing can also reduce curvatures exceeding 45° in over 70% of growing adolescents. This new knowledge might possibly increase the threshold of surgical indications to beyond 50° or above in the near future.

  7. A preliminary study on electromyographic analysis of the paraspinal musculature in idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, John; Halbertsma, Jan P K; Veldhuizen, Albert G; Sluiter, Wim J; Maurits, Natasha M; Cool, Jan C; van Horn, Jim R

    2005-03-01

    The paraspinal muscles have been implicated as a major causative factor in the progression of idiopathic scoliosis. Therefore, the objectives of this preliminary study were to measure the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the paraspinal muscles to determine its relationship to progression of the scoliotic curve. Idiopathic scoliotic patients were selected and identified afterwards on curve progression. The EMG activity on both sides of the spine was measured in a set of standardized postures using bipolar surface electrodes at the apex and two end vertebrae of the scoliotic curve. An EMG ratio involving measurements of the EMG activity on the convex and concave sides of the scoliotic curve was used to evaluate the paraspinal muscles. Enhanced EMG ratios at the apex of the scoliotic curve were found in both groups during sitting and standing. The most interesting finding was that children with progression of the curve also showed enhanced EMG ratios at the lower end vertebra of the curve. The EMG ratios between the groups were significantly different from each other at the apex and end vertebrae for several test conditions. Overlap in the EMG-ratio ranges made differentiation difficult for prediction of the progression of the individual scoliosis patient. However, the EMG ratio at the lower end vertebra of the scoliotic curve is significantly higher than 1 in all test conditions in the group of children with subsequent progression of the curve, whereas it is always normal in the non-progressive group. Therefore, EMG of the paraspinal muscles might be of value for prediction of progression in idiopathic scoliosis.

  8. Minimally Invasive Scoliosis Surgery: A Novel Technique in Patients with Neuromuscular Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Sarwahi, Vishal; Amaral, Terry; Wendolowski, Stephen; Gecelter, Rachel; Gambassi, Melanie; Plakas, Christos; Liao, Benita; Kalantre, Sarika; Katyal, Chhavi

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has been described in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and adult scoliosis. The advantages of this approach include less blood loss, shorter hospital stay, earlier mobilization, less tissue disruption, and relatively less pain. However, despite these significant benefits, MIS approach has not been reported in neuromuscular scoliosis patients. This is possibly due to concerns with longer surgery time, which is further increased due to more levels fused and instrumented, challenges of pelvic fixation, size and number of incisions, and prolonged anesthesia. We modified the MIS approach utilized in our AIS patients to be implemented in our neuromuscular patients. Our technique allows easy passage of contoured rods, placement of pedicle screws without image guidance, partial/complete facet resection, and all standard reduction maneuvers. Operative time needed to complete this surgery is comparable to the standard procedure and the majority of our patients have been extubated at the end of procedure, spending 1 day in the PICU and 5-6 days in the hospital. We feel that MIS is not only a feasible but also a superior option in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis. Long-term results are unavailable; however, short-term results have shown multiple benefits of this approach and fewer limitations. PMID:26649305

  9. FUNCTIONAL AND RADIOGRAPHIC COMPARISON OF ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR INSTRUMENTATION FOR THE CORRECTION OF ADOLESCENT IDIOPATHIC SCOLIOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Juliano Silveira; da Silva Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Porto, Maximiliano Aguiar; Arlet, Vincent; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This was a retrospective study to compare the anterior instrumentation (AI) and posterior instrumentation (PI) results among patients diagnosed with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (Lenke type I) who were treated surgically. Methods: The results from 24 patients aged 11 to 18 years with Lenke type I idiopathic scoliosis who underwent surgery with AI (12 patients) or PI (12 patients) were compared. All the patients were operated by the same surgeon and were followed up for a minimum period of five years. The variables for comparison included: coronal and sagittal correction, distance from apical vertebra to midline, apical vertebral rotation, number of instrumented vertebrae and functional variables (by means of the SRS-22 questionnaire). The data obtained were analyzed using the SAS software, version 9. The two groups were compared using Student's t-test with a significance level of 5% (0.05). Results: The correction of the curve in the frontal plane was higher in the group of patients with the anterior approach, in the immediate (p=0.031) and late (p=0.043) postoperative periods, as was the apical vertebral rotation during the immediate (p=0.002) and late (p=0.019) evaluations. The number of instrumented vertebrae was 7.69 ± 1.38 in the AI group and 11.38 ± 2.92 in the PI group (p = 0.021). Functional assessment (SRS-22) did not show any significant difference (p > 0.05) between the groups. Conclusion: The patients who underwent scoliosis correction with AI presented greater correction in the frontal plane, greater derotation of apical vertebrae and a smaller number of fused vertebrae. PMID:27026964

  10. Association of GPR126 gene polymorphism with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in Chinese populations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji-Feng; Yang, Guang-hai; Pan, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Shui-Jun; Zhao, Chen; Qiu, Bin-Song; Gu, Hai-Feng; Hong, Jian-Fei; Cao, Li; Chen, Yu; Xia, Bing; Bi, Qin; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common pediatric spinal deformity affecting 1% to 3% of the population, and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) accounts for approximately 80% of these cases; however, the etiology and pathogenesis of AIS are still uncertain. The current study aims to identify the relationship between G protein-coupled receptor 126 (GPR126) gene and AIS predisposition, to identify the relationship between the genotypes of the GPR126 SNPs and the clinical phenotypes of AIS. We conducted a case-control study and genotyped twenty SNPs of GPR126 gene including ten exonic SNPs and ten intronic polymorphisms in 352 Chinese sporadic AIS patients and 149 healthy controls. We provided evidence for strong association of three intronic SNPs of the GPR126 gene with AIS susceptibility: rs6570507 A > G (p =0 .0035, OR = 1.729), rs7774095 A > C (p = 0.0078, OR = 1.687), and rs7755109 A > G (p = 0.0078, OR = 1.687). However, we did not identify any significant association between ten exonic SNPs of GPR126 and AIS. Linkage disequilibrium analysis indicated that rs7774095 A > C and rs7755109 A > G could be parsed into one block. The association between the intronic haplotype and AIS was further confirmed in an independent population with 110 AIS individuals and 130 healthy controls (p = 0.046, OR = 1.680). Furthermore, molecular mechanisms underlying intronic SNP regulation of GPR126 gene were studied. Although intronic SNPs associated with AIS didn't influence GPR126 mRNA alternative splicing, there was a strong association of rs7755109 A > G with decreased GPR126 mRNA level and protein levels. Our findings indicate that genetic variants of GPR126 gene are associated with AIS susceptibility in Chinese populations. The genetic association of GPR126 gene and AIS might provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

  11. Pulmonary function after less invasive anterior instrumentation and fusion for idiopathic thoracic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Standard thoracotomy for anterior instrumentation and fusion of the thoracic spine in idiopathic scoliosis may have detrimental effects on pulmonary function. In this study we describe a less invasive anterior surgical technique and show the pre- and postoperative pulmonary function with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Methods Twenty patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent thoracic idiopathic scoliosis were treated with anterior spinal fusion and instrumentation. The mean preoperative Cobb angle of the thoracic curve was 53° ± 5.8. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) and radiographic evaluation was performed. Results The mean postoperative correction in Cobb angle of the thoracic curve was 27° ± 8.2 (49%). The mean preoperative FEV1 was 2.81 ± 0.43 L, which increased to 3.14 ± 0.50 L at 2 years postoperatively (P = 0.000). The mean FEV1% did not change (89.60 ± 7.49% preoperatively, versus 90.53 ± 5.95% at 2 years follow-up, P = 0.467). The TLC increased from 4.62 ± 0.62 L preoperatively to 5.17 ± 0.63 L at 2 years follow-up (P = 0.000). The FEV1% at two years of follow-up improved to 104% of the FEV1% predicted value. The FEV1 improved to 97% of the FEV1 predicted value. Conclusion Anterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis by means of a minimal open thoracotomy proved to be a safe surgical technique that resulted in an improvement of pulmonary function. Our results are similar to those of thoracoscopic procedures reported in literature. PMID:23965278

  12. Trunk rotation and hip joint range of rotation in adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis: does the "dinner plate" turn asymmetrically ?

    PubMed Central

    Kotwicki, Tomasz; Walczak, Agata; Szulc, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Background In patients with structural idiopathic scoliosis the body asymmetries involve the pelvis and the lower limbs; they are included in many theories debating the pathogenesis of idiopathic scoliosis. Methods Hip joint range of motion was studied in 158 adolescent girls, aged 10–18 years (mean 14.2 ± 2.0) with structural idiopathic scoliosis of 20–83° of Cobb angle (mean 43.0° ± 14.5°) and compared to 57 controls, sex and age matched. Hip range of rotation was examined in prone position, the pelvis level controlled with an inclinometer; hip adduction was tested in five different positions. Results In girls with structural scoliosis the symmetry of hip rotation was less frequent (p = 0.0047), the difference between left and right hip range of internal rotation was significantly higher (p = 0.0013), and the static rotational offset of the pelvis, calculated from the mid-points of rotation, revealed significantly greater (p = 0.0092) than in healthy controls. The detected asymmetries comprised no limitation of hip range of motion, but a transposition of the sector of motion, mainly towards internal rotation in one hip and external rotation in the opposite hip. The data failed to demonstrate the curve type, the Cobb angle, the angle of trunk rotation or the curve progression factor to be related to the hip joint asymmetrical range of motion. Conclusion Numerous asymmetries around the hip were detected, most of them were expressed equally in scoliotics and in controls. Pathogenic implications concern producing a "torsional offset" of muscles patterns of activation around the spine in adolescent girls with structural idiopathic scoliosis during gait. PMID:18205943

  13. Reversal of childhood idiopathic scoliosis in an adult, without surgery: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Some patients with mild or moderate thoracic scoliosis (Cobb angle <50-60 degrees) suffer disproportionate impairment of pulmonary function associated with deformities in the sagittal plane and reduced flexibility of the spine and chest cage. Long-term improvement in the clinical signs and symptoms of childhood onset scoliosis in an adult, without surgical intervention, has not been documented previously. Case presentation A diagnosis of thoracic scoliosis (Cobb angle 45 degrees) with pectus excavatum and thoracic hypokyphosis in a female patient (DOB 9/17/52) was made in June 1964. Immediate spinal fusion was strongly recommended, but the patient elected a daily home exercise program taught during a 6-week period of training by a physical therapist. This regime was carried out through 1992, with daily aerobic exercise added in 1974. The Cobb angle of the primary thoracic curvature remained unchanged. Ongoing clinical symptoms included dyspnea at rest and recurrent respiratory infections. A period of multimodal treatment with clinical monitoring and treatment by an osteopathic physician was initiated when the patient was 40 years old. This included deep tissue massage (1992-1996); outpatient psychological therapy (1992-1993); a daily home exercise program focused on mobilization of the chest wall (1992-2005); and manipulative medicine (1994-1995, 1999-2000). Progressive improvement in chest wall excursion, increased thoracic kyphosis, and resolution of long-standing respiratory symptoms occurred concomitant with a >10 degree decrease in Cobb angle magnitude of the primary thoracic curvature. Conclusion This report documents improved chest wall function and resolution of respiratory symptoms in response to nonsurgical approaches in an adult female, diagnosed at age eleven years with idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:20003501

  14. An alternative to a randomised control design for assessing the efficacy and effectiveness of bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Fong, D Y T; Cheung, K M C; Wong, Y W; Cheung, W Y; Fu, I C Y; Kuong, E E; Mak, K C; To, M; Samartzis, D; Luk, K D K

    2015-07-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the efficacy of bracing for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis have suffered from small sample sizes, low compliance and lack of willingness to participate. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of a comprehensive cohort study for evaluating both the efficacy and the effectiveness of bracing in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Patients with curves at greater risk of progression were invited to join a randomised controlled trial. Those who declined were given the option to remain in the study and to choose whether they wished to be braced or observed. Of 87 eligible patients (5 boys and 63 girls) identified over one year, 68 (78%) with mean age of 12.5 years (10 to 15) consented to participate, with a mean follow-up of 168 weeks (0 to 290). Of these, 19 (28%) accepted randomisation. Of those who declined randomisation, 18 (37%) chose a brace. Patients who were more satisfied with their image were more likely to choose bracing (Odds Ratio 4.1; 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 15.0; p = 0.035). This comprehensive cohort study design facilitates the assessment of both efficacy and effectiveness of bracing in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, which is not feasible in a conventional randomised controlled trial.

  15. Fully automatic measurements of axial vertebral rotation for assessment of spinal deformity in idiopathic scoliosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, Daniel; Lundström, Claes; Andersson, Mats; Vavruch, Ludvig; Tropp, Hans; Knutsson, Hans

    2013-03-01

    Reliable measurements of spinal deformities in idiopathic scoliosis are vital, since they are used for assessing the degree of scoliosis, deciding upon treatment and monitoring the progression of the disease. However, commonly used two dimensional methods (e.g. the Cobb angle) do not fully capture the three dimensional deformity at hand in scoliosis, of which axial vertebral rotation (AVR) is considered to be of great importance. There are manual methods for measuring the AVR, but they are often time-consuming and related with a high intra- and inter-observer variability. In this paper, we present a fully automatic method for estimating the AVR in images from computed tomography. The proposed method is evaluated on four scoliotic patients with 17 vertebrae each and compared with manual measurements performed by three observers using the standard method by Aaro-Dahlborn. The comparison shows that the difference in measured AVR between automatic and manual measurements are on the same level as the inter-observer difference. This is further supported by a high intraclass correlation coefficient (0.971-0.979), obtained when comparing the automatic measurements with the manual measurements of each observer. Hence, the provided results and the computational performance, only requiring approximately 10 to 15 s for processing an entire volume, demonstrate the potential clinical value of the proposed method.

  16. Intraoperative Computed Tomography versus Perdriolle and Scoliometer Evaluation of Spine Rotation in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Pankowski, Rafal; Wałejko, Szymon; Rocławski, Marek; Ceynowa, Marcin; Mazurek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Numerous indirect methods for apical vertebral rotation (AVR) measurement have been reported and none of them seems to be as accurate as computed tomography evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare spinal rotation changes during innovative technique of intraoperative computed tomography (ICT) evaluation with indirect methods such as Perdriolle and clinical evaluation with scoliometer. We examined 42 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated with posterior scoliosis surgery (PSS). The mean age at the time of surgery was 16 years. ICT evaluation was performed before and after scoliosis correction in prone position. Clinical rib hump measure with scoliometer and radiographic Perdriolle were performed before and after surgery. There was 71,5% of average rib hump correction with scoliometer but only 31% of correction with ICT (P=0,026) and there was no significant correlation between them (R=0,297, p=0,26). Mean postcorrectional Perdriolle AVR had a decrease of 16,5°. The average ICT AVR had a decrease of only 1,2° (P=0,003). There was no significant statistic correlation between ICT and Perdriolle AVR evaluation (R=0,297, p=0,2). There is a significant discrepancy in AVR and rib hump assessment between scoliometer and Perdriolle methods and ICT evaluation, which seems to be the most accurate tool for spinal derotation measurement. PMID:25861628

  17. The Association Study of Calmodulin 1 Gene Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Gu, Zuchao; Qiu, Guixing

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common pediatric spinal deformity affecting 1% to 3% of the population, and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) accounts for approximately 80% of these cases; however, the etiology and pathogenesis of AIS are still uncertain. The current study aims to identify the relationship between calmodulin 1 (CALM1) gene and AIS predisposition, to identify the relationship between the genotypes of the SNPs and the clinical phenotypes of AIS. Methods. 146 AIS patients and 146 healthy controls were enrolled into this case-control study. 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) candidates in CALM1 gene were selected to determine the relationship between CALM1 gene and AIS predisposition. Case-only study was performed to determine the effects of these variants on the severity of the condition. Results. Three SNPs from 12 candidates were found to be associated with AIS predisposition. The ORs were observed as 0.549 (95% CI 0.3519–0.8579, P = 0.0079), 0.549 (95% CI 0.3519–0.8579, P = 0.0079), and 1.6139 (95% CI 1.0576–2.4634, P = 0.0257) for rs2300496, rs2300500, and rs3231718, respectively. There was no statistical difference between main curve, severity, and genotype distributions of all of 12 SNPs. Conclusion. Genetic variants of CALM1 gene are associated with AIS susceptibility. PMID:24551838

  18. Geographic latitude and prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Grivas, Theodoros B; Vasiliadis, Elias; Savvidou, Olga; Mouzakis, Vasilios; Koufopoulos, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) prevalence has been reported to be different in various geographic latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to record the prevalence of AIS among the general population of boys and girls, aged 10-16 years old, in different geographic latitudes, in order to test the hypothesis that the prevalence of AIS among boys and girls is different in various geographic latitudes and to examine if there is a possible association between them. Seventeen peer-reviewed published papers reporting AIS prevalence in the general population of boys and girls from most geographic areas of the northern hemisphere were retrieved from the literature. The geographic latitude of each centre where a particular study was originated was documented. The statistical analysis included a linear regression forward modeling procedure of the AIS prevalence by latitude, weighted by sample size. According to the modelling of the data, a significant positive association between prevalence of AIS and latitude was found for girls (p<0.001), following a rather curvilinear trend, but not a significant positive association was found for boys (p<0.111). A positive association between prevalence of AIS and geographic latitude is reported only for girls in the present study. Prevalence of AIS in boys is not associated significantly with geographic latitude. This differing significant association implicates the possible role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis of AIS that may act in a different way between boys and girls.

  19. Accuracy of robot-assisted pedicle screw placement for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Macke, Jeremy J; Woo, Raymund; Varich, Laura

    2016-06-01

    This is a retrospective review of pedicle screw placement in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients under 18 years of age who underwent robot-assisted corrective surgery. Our primary objective was to characterize the accuracy of pedicle screw placement with evaluation by computed tomography (CT) after robot-assisted surgery in AIS patients. Screw malposition is the most frequent complication of pedicle screw placement and is more frequent in AIS. Given the potential for serious complications, the need for improved accuracy of screw placement has spurred multiple innovations including robot-assisted guidance devices. No studies to date have evaluated this robot-assisted technique using CT exclusively within the AIS population. Fifty patients were included in the study. All operative procedures were performed at a single institution by a single pediatric orthopedic surgeon. We evaluated the grade of screw breach, the direction of screw breach, and the positioning of the patient for preoperative scan (supine versus prone). Of 662 screws evaluated, 48 screws (7.2 %) demonstrated a breach of greater than 2 mm. With preoperative prone position CT scanning, only 2.4 % of screws were found to have this degree of breach. Medial malposition was found in 3 % of screws, a rate which decreased to 0 % with preoperative prone position scanning. Based on our results, we conclude that the proper use of image-guided robot-assisted surgery can improve the accuracy and safety of thoracic pedicle screw placement in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This is the first study to evaluate the accuracy of pedicle screw placement using CT assessment in robot-assisted surgical correction of patients with AIS. In our study, the robot-assisted screw misplacement rate was lower than similarly constructed studies evaluating conventional (non-robot-assisted) procedures. If patients are preoperatively scanned in the prone position, the misplacement rate is further

  20. 2011 SOSORT guidelines: Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation treatment of idiopathic scoliosis during growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The International Scientific Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT), that produced its first Guidelines in 2005, felt the need to revise them and increase their scientific quality. The aim is to offer to all professionals and their patients an evidence-based updated review of the actual evidence on conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis (CTIS). Methods All types of professionals (specialty physicians, and allied health professionals) engaged in CTIS have been involved together with a methodologist and a patient representative. A review of all the relevant literature and of the existing Guidelines have been performed. Documents, recommendations, and practical approach flow charts have been developed according to a Delphi procedure. A methodological and practical review has been made, and a final Consensus Session was held during the 2011 Barcelona SOSORT Meeting. Results The contents of the document are: methodology; generalities on idiopathic scoliosis; approach to CTIS in different patients, with practical flow-charts; literature review and recommendations on assessment, bracing, physiotherapy, Physiotherapeutic Specific Exercises (PSE) and other CTIS. Sixty-five recommendations have been given, divided in the following topics: Bracing (20 recommendations), PSE to prevent scoliosis progression during growth (8), PSE during brace treatment and surgical therapy (5), Other conservative treatments (3), Respiratory function and exercises (3), Sports activities (6), Assessment (20). No recommendations reached a Strength of Evidence level I; 2 were level II; 7 level III; and 20 level IV; through the Consensus procedure 26 reached level V and 10 level VI. The Strength of Recommendations was Grade A for 13, B for 49 and C for 3; none had grade D. Conclusion These Guidelines have been a big effort of SOSORT to paint the actual situation of CTIS, starting from the evidence, and filling all the gray areas using a scientific

  1. Impact of Increasing Age on Outcomes of Spinal Fusion in Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Verla, Terence; Adogwa, Owoicho; Toche, Ulysses; Farber, S. Harrison; Petraglia, Frank; Murphy, Kelly R.; Thomas, Steven; Fatemi, Parastou; Gottfried, Oren; Bagley, Carlos A.; Lad, Shivanand P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of advancing age on postoperative complications and revision surgery after fusion for scoliosis. Methods A retrospective, cohort study was performed using the Thomson Reuters MarketScan database, examining patients with adult scoliosis who underwent spinal fusion from 2000 to 2009. Primary outcomes included infection, hemorrhage and pulmonary embolism (PE) within 90 days of surgery, and refusion. The effect of increasing age was estimated using the odds ratio (OR) of complications in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, and a Cox proportional hazard model estimated the hazard ratio of refusion. Results A total of 8432 patients were included in this study. Overall, the average age was 53.3 years, with 26.90% males and 39% with a Charlson Comorbidity Score of ≥1. Most patients had commercial insurance (66.81%), with 26.03% and 7.16% covered by Medicare and Medicaid, respectively. Increasing age (per 5-year increment) was a significant predictor of hemorrhagic complication (OR, 1.06; confidence interval [CI], 1.01–1.11; P = 0.0196), PE (OR, 1.09; CI, 1.03–1.16; P = 0.0031), infection (OR, 1.04; CI, 1.01–1.07; P = 0.0053), and refusion (hazard ratio, 1.07; CI, 1.02–1.13; P = 0.0103). Conclusions In this study, age was associated with increased risk of hemorrhage, PE, infection, and refusion. With the aging population, the role of patient age on postoperative healing and outcomes deserves deeper investigation after repair of adult idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:26546999

  2. Mild angle early onset idiopathic scoliosis children avoid progression under FITS method (Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis).

    PubMed

    Białek, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    Physiotherapy for stabilization of idiopathic scoliosis angle in growing children remains controversial. Notably, little data on effectiveness of physiotherapy in children with Early Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis (EOIS) has been published.The aim of this study was to check results of FITS physiotherapy in a group of children with EOIS.The charts of the patients archived in a prospectively collected database were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were:diagnosis of EOIS based on spine radiography, age below 10 years, both girls and boys, Cobb angle between 118 and 308, Risser zero, FITS therapy, no other treatment (bracing), and a follow-up at least 2 years from the initiation of the treatment. The criterion for curve progression were as follows: the Cobb angle increase of 68 or more, for curve stabilization; the Cobb angle was 58 comparing to the initial radiograph,for curve correction; and the Cobb angle decrease of 68 or more at the final follow-up radiograph.There were 41 children with EOIS, 36 girls and 5 boys, mean age 7.71.3 years (range 4 to 9 years) who started FITS therapy. The curve pattern was single thoracic (5 children), single thoracolumbar (22 children) or double thoracic/thoracolumbar (14 children), totally 55 structural curvatures. The minimum follow-up was 2 years after initiation of the FITS treatment, maximum was 16 years, mean 4.8 years). At follow-up the mean age was 12.53.4 years. Out of 41 children, 10 passed pubertal growth spurt at the final follow-up and 31 were still immature and continued FITS therapy. Out of 41 children, 27 improved, 13 were stable, and one progressed. Out of 55 structural curves, 32 improved, 22 were stable and one progressed. For the 55 structural curves, the Cobb angle significantly decreased from 18.085.48 at first assessment to 12.586.38 at last evaluation,p<0.0001, paired t-test. The angle of trunk rotation decreased significantly from 4.782.98 to 3.282.58 at last evaluation, p<0.0001,paired t

  3. ScolioMedIS: web-oriented information system for idiopathic scoliosis visualization and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Devedžić, Goran; Cuković, Saša; Luković, Vanja; Milošević, Danijela; Subburaj, K; Luković, Tanja

    2012-11-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of abnormal curvature observed in spine and it progresses rapidly during the puberty period. The most followed clinical way of assessing the spinal deformity is subjective by measuring the characteristic angles of spinal curve from a set of radiographic images. This paper presents a web-based information system (called ScolioMedIS) based on parameterized 3D anatomical models of the spine to quantitatively assess the deformity and to minimize the amount of radiation exposure by reducing the number of radiographs required. The main components of the system are 3D parametric solid model of spine, back surfaces, relevant clinical information and scoliosis ontology. The patient-specific spine model is regenerated from the parametric model and surface data using anatomical information extracted from radiographic images. The system is designed to take inherent advantage of Web for facilitating multi-center data collection and collaborative clinical decisions. The preliminary analysis of patient data showed promising results, which involve improved documentation standard, clinical decision knowledge base record, facilitated exchange and retrieval of medical data between institutions in multi-center clinical studies, 3D visualization of spinal deformity, and permanent monitoring of treatments.

  4. Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-β) Signaling in Paravertebral Muscles in Juvenile and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Kwiecien, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Most researchers agree that idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a multifactorial disease influenced by complex genetic and environmental factors. The onset of the spinal deformity that determines the natural course of the disease, usually occurs in the juvenile or adolescent period. Transforming growth factors β (TGF-βs) and their receptors, TGFBRs, may be considered as candidate genes related to IS susceptibility and natural history. This study explores the transcriptional profile of TGF-βs, TGFBRs, and TGF-β responsive genes in the paravertebral muscles of patients with juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (JIS and AIS, resp.). Muscle specimens were harvested intraoperatively and grouped according to the side of the curve and the age of scoliosis onset. The results of microarray and qRT-PCR analysis confirmed significantly higher transcript abundances of TGF-β2, TGF-β3, and TGFBR2 in samples from the curve concavity of AIS patients, suggesting a difference in TGF-β signaling in the pathogenesis of juvenile and adolescent curves. Analysis of TGF-β responsive genes in the transcriptomes of patients with AIS suggested overrepresentation of the genes localized in the extracellular region of curve concavity: LTBP3, LTBP4, ITGB4, and ITGB5. This finding suggests the extracellular region of paravertebral muscles as an interesting target for future molecular research into AIS pathogenesis. PMID:25313366

  5. Zebrafish models of idiopathic scoliosis link cerebrospinal fluid flow defects to spine curvature.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D T; Boswell, C W; Morante, N F C; Henkelman, R M; Burdine, R D; Ciruna, B

    2016-06-10

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) affects 3% of children worldwide, yet the mechanisms underlying this spinal deformity remain unknown. Here we show that ptk7 mutant zebrafish, a faithful developmental model of IS, exhibit defects in ependymal cell cilia development and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow. Transgenic reintroduction of Ptk7 in motile ciliated lineages prevents scoliosis in ptk7 mutants, and mutation of multiple independent cilia motility genes yields IS phenotypes. We define a finite developmental window for motile cilia in zebrafish spine morphogenesis. Notably, restoration of cilia motility after the onset of scoliosis blocks spinal curve progression. Together, our results indicate a critical role for cilia-driven CSF flow in spine development, implicate irregularities in CSF flow as an underlying biological cause of IS, and suggest that noninvasive therapeutic intervention may prevent severe scoliosis.

  6. Zebrafish models of idiopathic scoliosis link cerebrospinal fluid flow defects to spine curvature.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D T; Boswell, C W; Morante, N F C; Henkelman, R M; Burdine, R D; Ciruna, B

    2016-06-10

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) affects 3% of children worldwide, yet the mechanisms underlying this spinal deformity remain unknown. Here we show that ptk7 mutant zebrafish, a faithful developmental model of IS, exhibit defects in ependymal cell cilia development and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow. Transgenic reintroduction of Ptk7 in motile ciliated lineages prevents scoliosis in ptk7 mutants, and mutation of multiple independent cilia motility genes yields IS phenotypes. We define a finite developmental window for motile cilia in zebrafish spine morphogenesis. Notably, restoration of cilia motility after the onset of scoliosis blocks spinal curve progression. Together, our results indicate a critical role for cilia-driven CSF flow in spine development, implicate irregularities in CSF flow as an underlying biological cause of IS, and suggest that noninvasive therapeutic intervention may prevent severe scoliosis. PMID:27284198

  7. Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis according to FITS concept: presentation of the method and preliminary, short term radiological and clinical results based on SOSORT and SRS criteria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conservative scoliosis therapy according to the FITS Concept is applied as a unique treatment or in combination with corrective bracing. The aim of the study was to present author's method of diagnosis and therapy for idiopathic scoliosis FITS-Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis and to analyze the early results of FITS therapy in a series of consecutive patients. Methods The analysis comprised separately: (1) single structural thoracic, thoracolumbar or lumbar curves and (2) double structural scoliosis-thoracic and thoracolumbar or lumbar curves. The Cobb angle and Risser sign were analyzed at the initial stage and at the 2.8-year follow-up. The percentage of patients improved (defined as decrease of Cobb angle of more than 5 degrees), stable (+/- 5 degrees), and progressed (increase of Cobb angle of more than 5 degrees) was calculated. The clinical assessment comprised: the Angle of Trunk Rotation (ATR) initial and follow-up value, the plumb line imbalance, the scapulae level and the distance from the apical spinous process of the primary curve to the plumb line. Results In the Group A: (1) in single structural scoliosis 50,0% of patients improved, 46,2% were stable and 3,8% progressed, while (2) in double scoliosis 50,0% of patients improved, 30,8% were stable and 19,2% progressed. In the Group B: (1) in single scoliosis 20,0% of patients improved, 80,0% were stable, no patient progressed, while (2) in double scoliosis 28,1% of patients improved, 46,9% were stable and 25,0% progressed. Conclusion Best results were obtained in 10-25 degrees scoliosis which is a good indication to start therapy before more structural changes within the spine establish. PMID:22122964

  8. The effect of an exercise program on change in curve in adolescents with minimal idiopathic scoliosis. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Stone, B; Beekman, C; Hall, V; Guess, V; Brooks, H L

    1979-06-01

    Forty-two adolescents with minimal idiopathic scoliosis, who had been on an exercise program for 9 to 15 months, were evaluated to determine the influence of exercise on change in their curvatures. A difference of 4 degrees or greater between initial and final curve measurements was considered to be a change. Five percent of the curves increased, 74% remained the same, and 21% decreased. Change in curvature for these patients was also compared with that of a matched retrospective group of adolescents with scoliosis who had not had the exercise program. No significant difference in change in curve between the two groups was found. For patients who had been on the exercise program, there was no significant relationship between change in curve and extent of physical activity or between change in curve and exercise recall, correct performance, or frequency. Limitations in the study design and possible explanations for the results are discussed.

  9. A review of pinealectomy-induced melatonin-deficient animal models for the study of etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Man, Gene Chi Wai; Wai, Man Gene Chi; Wang, William Wei Jun; Jun, Wang William Wei; Yim, Annie Po Yee; Yee, Yim Annie Po; Wong, Jack Ho; Ho, Wong Jack; Ng, Tzi Bun; Bun, Ng Tzi; Lam, Tsz Ping; Ping, Lam Tsz; Lee, Simon Kwong Man; Man, Lee Simon Kwong; Ng, Bobby Kin Wah; Wah, Ng Bobby Kin; Wang, Chi Chiu; Chiu, Wang Chi; Qiu, Yong; Yong, Qiu; Cheng, Chun Yiu; Yiu, Cheng Jack Chun

    2014-09-18

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a common orthopedic disorder of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Melatonin and melatonin pathway dysfunction has been widely suspected to play an important role in the pathogenesis. Many different types of animal models have been developed to induce experimental scoliosis mimicking the pathoanatomical features of idiopathic scoliosis in human. The scoliosis deformity was believed to be induced by pinealectomy and mediated through the resulting melatonin-deficiency. However, the lack of upright mechanical spinal loading and inherent rotational instability of the curvature render the similarity of these models to the human counterparts questionable. Different concerns have been raised challenging the scientific validity and limitations of each model. The objectives of this review follow the logical need to re-examine and compare the relevance and appropriateness of each of the animal models that have been used for studying the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in human in the past 15 to 20 years.

  10. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  11. Non-Surgical Interventions for Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis: An Overview of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Płaszewski, Maciej; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis remain highly controversial. Despite the publication of numerous reviews no explicit methodological evaluation of papers labeled as, or having a layout of, a systematic review, addressing this subject matter, is available. Objectives Analysis and comparison of the content, methodology, and evidence-base from systematic reviews regarding non-surgical interventions for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. Design Systematic overview of systematic reviews. Methods Articles meeting the minimal criteria for a systematic review, regarding any non-surgical intervention for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, with any outcomes measured, were included. Multiple general and systematic review specific databases, guideline registries, reference lists and websites of institutions were searched. The AMSTAR tool was used to critically appraise the methodology, and the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine and the Joanna Briggs Institute’s hierarchies were applied to analyze the levels of evidence from included reviews. Results From 469 citations, twenty one papers were included for analysis. Five reviews assessed the effectiveness of scoliosis-specific exercise treatments, four assessed manual therapies, five evaluated bracing, four assessed different combinations of interventions, and one evaluated usual physical activity. Two reviews addressed the adverse effects of bracing. Two papers were high quality Cochrane reviews, Three were of moderate, and the remaining sixteen were of low or very low methodological quality. The level of evidence of these reviews ranged from 1 or 1+ to 4, and in some reviews, due to their low methodological quality and/or poor reporting, this could not be established. Conclusions Higher quality reviews indicate that generally there is insufficient evidence to make a judgment on whether non-surgical interventions in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are effective. Papers

  12. Scoliosis in a Patient With Gilbert Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Liang, Jinqian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Gilbert syndrome (GS) is mainly characterized by intermittent unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the absence of hepatocellular disease or hemolysis. Little data are available on operative outcomes in GS patients with spinal deformity surgery. This study has presented a case of GS occurring in the patient with scoliosis. The patient was a 30-year-old female with scoliosis and GS. She was taken a correction form Thoracic 2 to Lumbar 1) levels by using the USS-II spinal system. At 2 years follow-up, the patient was well balanced and pain free. Plain radiographs demonstrated spine solid fusion without correction loss. Although complex scoliosis surgery can be performed safely in these patients with GS, careful perioperative managements including liver function and coagulation function are required. PMID:26632744

  13. Natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a tool for guidance in decision of surgery of curves above 50°.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Aina J

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this lecture was to give an overview of the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), in order to serve as guidance in the decision of performing surgery or not for the specific patient with AIS. A literature review was performed. Studies concerning long-term outcome in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis that had received no treatment were used. Outcome in terms of curve size, pulmonary function, back function and quality or life/social life was compared. The literature review showed that single thoracic curves of 50°-75° progress 0.73°/year over a 40-year period. AIS do not result in increased mortality, but pulmonary symptoms may be associated with larger curves. Back pain is more frequent among patients with AIS. No study using modern quality of life questionnaires exists, but for social function, childbearing, and marriage no apparent disadvantageous effects were reported compared to the healthy population. The conclusion is that most individuals with AIS and moderate curve size around maturity function well and lead an acceptable life in terms of work and family. Some patients with larger curves have pulmonary problems, but not to the extent that this affects the life span. This needs to be taken into account when discussing surgery with the individual patient. PMID:24432057

  14. Natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a tool for guidance in decision of surgery of curves above 50°.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Aina J

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this lecture was to give an overview of the natural history of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), in order to serve as guidance in the decision of performing surgery or not for the specific patient with AIS. A literature review was performed. Studies concerning long-term outcome in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis that had received no treatment were used. Outcome in terms of curve size, pulmonary function, back function and quality or life/social life was compared. The literature review showed that single thoracic curves of 50°-75° progress 0.73°/year over a 40-year period. AIS do not result in increased mortality, but pulmonary symptoms may be associated with larger curves. Back pain is more frequent among patients with AIS. No study using modern quality of life questionnaires exists, but for social function, childbearing, and marriage no apparent disadvantageous effects were reported compared to the healthy population. The conclusion is that most individuals with AIS and moderate curve size around maturity function well and lead an acceptable life in terms of work and family. Some patients with larger curves have pulmonary problems, but not to the extent that this affects the life span. This needs to be taken into account when discussing surgery with the individual patient.

  15. Usefulness of Simple Rod Rotation to Correct Curve of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yong; Song, Kyungchul; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Rim, Dae Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Objective To correct apical vertebral rotation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), direct vertebral derotation (DVD) or simple rod rotation (SRR) might be considered. The aim of the present study is to introduce the surgical experiences of AIS by a Korean neurosurgeon and to evaluate the effectiveness of SRR for apical vertebral rotation. Methods A total of 9 patients (1 male and 8 females) underwent scoliosis surgery by a neurosurgeon of our hospital. The Lenke classifications of the patients were 1 of 1B, 2 of 1C, 1 of 2A, 1 of 2C, 3 of 5C and 1 of 6C. Surgery was done by manner of simple rod rotation on the concave side and in situ coronal bending. Coronal Cobb's angles, vertebral rotation angles and SRS-22 were measured on a plain standing X-ray and CT before and after surgery. Results The mean follow up period was 25.7 months (range : 5–52). The mean number of screw positioning level was nine (6–12). The mean age was 16.4 years (range : 13–25) at surgery. The mean Risser grade was 3.7±0.9. The apical vertebral rotation measured from the CT scans was 25.8±8.5° vs. 9.3±6.7° (p<0.001) and the Coronal Cobb's angle was 53.7±10.4° vs. 15.4±6.5° (p<0.001) preoperatively and postoperative, respectively. The SRS-22 improved from 71.9 preoperatively to 90.3 postoperatively. There were no complications related with the operations. Conclusion SRR with pedicle screw instrumentation could be corrected successfully by axial rotation without complications. SRR might serve as a good option to correct AIS deformed curves of AIS. PMID:26819688

  16. Predicting success or failure of brace treatment for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Eric; Westover, Lindsey; Jacob, Johith; Donauer, Andreas; Zhao, Vicky H; Parent, Eric C; Moreau, Marc J; Mahood, James K; Hedden, Douglas M; Lou, Edmond H M

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional spinal deformity. Brace treatment is a common non-surgical treatment, intended to prevent progression (worsening) of the condition during adolescence. Estimating a braced patient's risk of progression is an essential part of planning treatment, so method for predicting this risk would be a useful decision support tool for practitioners. This work attempts to discover whether failure of brace treatment (progression) can be predicted at the start of treatment. Records were obtained for 62 AIS patients who had completed brace treatment. Subjects were labeled as "progressive" if their condition had progressed despite brace treatment and "non-progressive" otherwise. Wrapper-based feature selection selected two useful predictor variables from a list of 14 clinical measurements taken from the records. A logistic regression model was trained to classify patients as "progressive" or "non-progressive" using these two variables. The logistic regression model's simplicity and interpretability should facilitate its clinical acceptance. The model was tested on data from an additional 28 patients and found to be 75 % accurate. This accuracy is sufficient to make the predictions clinically useful. It can be used online: http://www.ece.ualberta.ca/~dchalmer/SimpleBracePredictor.html . PMID:26002592

  17. Predicting success or failure of brace treatment for adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Eric; Westover, Lindsey; Jacob, Johith; Donauer, Andreas; Zhao, Vicky H; Parent, Eric C; Moreau, Marc J; Mahood, James K; Hedden, Douglas M; Lou, Edmond H M

    2015-10-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional spinal deformity. Brace treatment is a common non-surgical treatment, intended to prevent progression (worsening) of the condition during adolescence. Estimating a braced patient's risk of progression is an essential part of planning treatment, so method for predicting this risk would be a useful decision support tool for practitioners. This work attempts to discover whether failure of brace treatment (progression) can be predicted at the start of treatment. Records were obtained for 62 AIS patients who had completed brace treatment. Subjects were labeled as "progressive" if their condition had progressed despite brace treatment and "non-progressive" otherwise. Wrapper-based feature selection selected two useful predictor variables from a list of 14 clinical measurements taken from the records. A logistic regression model was trained to classify patients as "progressive" or "non-progressive" using these two variables. The logistic regression model's simplicity and interpretability should facilitate its clinical acceptance. The model was tested on data from an additional 28 patients and found to be 75 % accurate. This accuracy is sufficient to make the predictions clinically useful. It can be used online: http://www.ece.ualberta.ca/~dchalmer/SimpleBracePredictor.html .

  18. [Preliminary study on the action of hypopressive gymnastics in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Caufriez, Marcel; Fernández-Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Brynhildsvoll, Nils

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to describe the results of a hypopressive gymnastics (HG) program applied to 3 children with idiopathic scoliosis. Three children (ages ranging from 8 to 15 years) suffering from idiopathic scoliosis were recruited for this study. Thoracic or thoracolumbar curves showed between 15° and 40° Cobb degrees. The evolutionary character of the curves had been confirmed. A study of different clinical and radiological parameters was carried out to compare the measurements before and after (3 months later) the application of a 5 HG daily exercises programme: A radiological study of the spine was carried out to compare the measurements of the vertebral rotation. A radiological study, a plumb line and a measuring tape were used to assess the vertebral tilt in this study. A Scoliometer was used to measure the deformation of the rib cage (gibbosity). The most significant results were: a trend to reach stabilisation in the vertebral tilt and rotation, and stabilisation of gibbosity, which probably might improve the respiratory function of these subjects. Finally, the performance of an ordinary HG exercise program shows a trend to control and stabilise dorsal idiopathic scoliosis progression. PMID:22019528

  19. Validity Study of Vertebral Rotation Measurement Using 3-D Ultrasound in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Li, Meng; Lou, Edmond H M; Chu, Winnie C W; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Cheng, Jack C Y; Wong, Man-Sang

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the validity of 3-D ultrasound measurements on the vertebral rotation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) under clinical settings. Thirty curves (mean Cobb angle: 21.7° ± 15.9°) from 16 patients with AIS were recruited. 3-D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed at the supine position. Each of the two raters measured the apical vertebral rotation using the center of laminae (COL) method in the 3-D ultrasound images and the Aaro-Dahlborn method in the magnetic resonance images. The intra- and inter-reliability of the COL method was demonstrated by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) (both [2, K] >0.9, p < 0.05). The COL method showed no significant difference (p < 0.05) compared with the Aaro-Dahlborn method. Furthermore, the agreement between these two methods was demonstrated by the Bland-Altman method, and high correlation was found (r > 0.9, p < 0.05). These results validated the proposed 3-D ultrasound method in the measurements of vertebral rotation in the patients with AIS. PMID:27083978

  20. Association Study between Promoter Polymorphism of TPH1 and Progression of Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Yablanski, Vasil; Nikolova, Svetla; Vlaev, Evgeni; Savov, Alexey; Kremensky, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The concept of disease-modifier genes as an element of genetic heterogeneity has been widely accepted and reported. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association between the promoter polymorphism TPH1 (rs10488682) and progression of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) in Eastern European population sample. A total of 105 patients and 210 healthy gender-matched controls were enrolled in this study. The TPH1 promoter polymorphism was genotyped by amplification followed by restriction. The statistical analysis was performed by Fisher's Exact Test. The results indicated that the genotypes and alleles of TPH1 (rs10488682) are not correlated with curve severity, curve pattern, or bracing. Therefore, the examined polymorphic variant could not be considered as a genetic factor with modifying effect of IS. In conclusion, this case-control study revealed no statistically significant association between TPH1 (rs10488682) and progression of IS in Eastern European population sample. These preliminary results should be replicated in extended population studies including larger sample sizes. The identification of molecular markers for IS could be useful for a more accurate prognosis of the risk for a rapid progression of the curve. That would permit early stage treatment of the patient with the least invasive procedures. PMID:27293961

  1. Scoliosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... there are symptoms, they may include: Backache or low-back pain Tired feeling in the spine after sitting or ... scoliosis can include: Breathing problems (in severe scoliosis) Low back pain Lower self-esteem Persistent pain if there is ...

  2. A novel evaluation index for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis progression measurement and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X; Tang, Y J; Ong, S K; Nee, A Y C

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a trunk deformity of the spine with lateral deviation and rotation in the transverse plane. The most traditional measurement index and parameter for scoliosis diagnosis is the Cobb's angle, which evaluates the curves of the scoliotic spine on the radiographic projection of the trunk. Although this method is widely accepted as the benchmark in scoliosis assessment, it has some limitations and restrictions in practical applications because it is measured on a PA (posterior-anterior or back to front) X-ray image, such as potential harmfulness from radiation exposure and high cost.In this paper, a novel evaluation index for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis measurement and diagnosis is introduced to complement the existing assessment index, such as the Cobb's angle, the differences of shoulder height, etc. The new evaluation index is based on the phenomenon of the tilt and deviation of the vertebras in a scoliotic spine, which forms the tilt angles between each pair of adjacent vertebras.A data sample of 30 X-ray images of scoliotic spines was used in this research to evaluate and examine the usability and validity of the new index. The Cobb's angle and the new index were calculated and compared using the same data sample. The correlation between the Cobb's angle and the index was also determined, and a high correlation is found which demonstrated the usefulness of this proposed index. In this paper, it has been shown that the newly-proposed index has the potential to be used as a tool to support the traditional scoliosis measurement methods.This method can also be generalized on the sagittal plane to define other evaluation indices for assessing the severity of kyphosis and lordosis. The idea of using angular separation to evaluate spinal deformity in multiple planes or in three-dimensional spaces will be discussed in future research.

  3. Scoliosis

    MedlinePlus

    Scoliosis causes a sideways curve of your backbone, or spine. These curves are often S- or C-shaped. Scoliosis is most common in late childhood and the ... but not always. Children may get screening for scoliosis at school or during a checkup. If it ...

  4. Expression of Estrogen Receptor Coactivator Proline-, Glutamic Acid- and Leucine-Rich Protein 1 within Paraspinal Muscles in Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Skibinska, Izabela; Tomaszewski, Marek; Andrusiewicz, Miroslaw; Urbaniak, Paulina; Czarnecka-Klos, Roza; Shadi, Milud; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Kotwicka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to detect and assess the estrogen receptor (ESR) coactivator PELP1 expression within human paraspinal skeletal muscles in patients suffering from idiopathic scoliosis. Methods During surgical correction of scoliosis the muscle biopsies harvested in 29 females. Presence of PELP1, ESR1 and ESR2 genes transcripts was studied using RT-qPCR technique while immunohistochemistry and western blot methods were used to detect the PEPL1 protein presence. Results PELP1 expression in deep paraspinal muscles revealed higher than in superficial back muscles (p = 0.005). Positive immunohistochemical staining for PELP1 was observed in the nuclei of the paraspinal muscle cells. Western blot revealed PELP1 protein in all samples. No significant difference in PELP1 expression between the convex and the concave scoliosis side (p>0.05) was found. In deep paraspinal back muscles, a significant correlation between the PELP1 expression level on the concave side and the Cobb angle (r = 0.4; p<0.05) was noted as well as between the PELP1 and ESR1 expression level (r = 0.7; p<0.05) while no correlation between PELP1 and ESR2 expression level was found. Conclusion To our knowledge, three techniques for the first time demonstrated the presence of the PELP1 in paraspinal muscles of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. The PELP1 potential regulatory impact on back muscle function is to be further investigated. PMID:27045366

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies new susceptibility loci for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in Chinese girls

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zezhang; Tang, Nelson Leung-Sang; Xu, Leilei; Qin, Xiaodong; Mao, Saihu; Song, Yueming; Liu, Limin; Li, Fangcai; Liu, Peng; Yi, Long; Chang, Jiang; Jiang, Long; Ng, Bobby Kin-Wah; Shi, Benlong; Zhang, Wen; Qiao, Jun; Sun, Xu; Qiu, Xusheng; Wang, Zhou; Wang, Fei; Xie, Dingding; Chen, Ling; Chen, Zhonghui; Jin, Mengran; Han, Xiao; Hu, Zongshan; Zhang, Zhen; Liu, Zhen; Zhu, Feng; Qian, Bang-ping; Yu, Yang; Wang, Bing; Lee, K. M.; Lee, Wayne Y.W.; Lam, T. P.; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack Chun-Yiu

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a structural deformity of the spine affecting millions of children. As a complex disease, the genetic aetiology of AIS remains obscure. Here we report the results of a four-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted in a sample of 4,317 AIS patients and 6,016 controls. Overall, we identify three new susceptibility loci at 1p36.32 near AJAP1 (rs241215, Pcombined=2.95 × 10−9), 2q36.1 between PAX3 and EPHA4 (rs13398147, Pcombined=7.59 × 10−13) and 18q21.33 near BCL-2 (rs4940576, Pcombined=2.22 × 10−12). In addition, we refine a previously reported region associated with AIS at 10q24.32 (rs678741, Pcombined=9.68 × 10−37), which suggests LBX1AS1, encoding an antisense transcript of LBX1, might be a functional variant of AIS. This is the first GWAS investigating genetic variants associated with AIS in Chinese population, and the findings provide new insight into the multiple aetiological mechanisms of AIS. PMID:26394188

  6. Posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic thoracolumbar/lumbar scoliosis: clinical outcomes and predictive radiological factors for extension of fusion distal to caudal end vertebra.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S B; Tsirikos, A I; Subramanian, A S

    2014-08-01

    Clinical, radiological, and Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire data were reviewed pre-operatively and two years post-operatively for patients with thoracolumbar/lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated by posterior spinal fusion using a unilateral convex segmental pedicle screw technique. A total of 72 patients were included (67 female, 5 male; mean age at surgery 16.7 years (13 to 23)) and divided into groups: group 1 included 53 patients who underwent fusion between the vertebrae at the limit of the curve (proximal and distal end vertebrae); group 2 included 19 patients who underwent extension of the fusion distally beyond the caudal end vertebra. A mean scoliosis correction of 80% (45% to 100%) was achieved. The mean post-operative lowest instrumented vertebra angle, apical vertebra translation and trunk shift were less than in previous studies. A total of five pre-operative radiological parameters differed significantly between the groups and correlated with the extension of the fusion distally: the size of the thoracolumbar/lumbar curve, the lowest instrumented vertebra angle, apical vertebra translation, the Cobb angle on lumbar convex bending and the size of the compensatory thoracic curve. Regression analysis allowed an equation incorporating these parameters to be developed which had a positive predictive value of 81% in determining whether the lowest instrumented vertebra should be at the caudal end vertebra or one or two levels more distal. There were no differences in the Scoliosis Research Society-22 outcome scores between the two groups (p = 0.17). In conclusion, thoracolumbar/lumbar curves in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis may be effectively treated by posterior spinal fusion using a unilateral segmental pedicle screw technique. Five radiological parameters correlate with the need for distal extension of the fusion, and an equation incorporating these parameters reliably informs selection of the lowest instrumented

  7. Impact of Rotation Correction after Brace Treatment on Prognosis in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Masato; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Arataki, Shinya; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Level 4 retrospective review. Purpose Brace treatment is the standard nonoperative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Rotation correction is also important, because AIS involves a rotation deformity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of rotation correction after Osaka Medical College (OMC) brace treatment on clinical outcomes in AIS. Overview of Literature Brace treatment has a significant effect on the progression of AIS. However, few reports have examined rotation correction after brace treatment. Methods A total of 46 patients who wore the OMC brace were retrospectively reviewed. The curve magnitude was determined according to the Cobb method, and the rotation angle of the apical vertebrae was measured by the modified Nash-Moe method. Based on the difference in the rotation angle before and after the initial brace treatment, patients were divided into two groups. Group A (n=33) was defined as no change or improvement of the rotation angle; group B (n=13) was defined as deterioration of the rotation angle. If the patients had curve or rotation progression of 5° or more at skeletal maturity, or had undergone surgery, the treatment was considered a failure. Results Differences of rotation angle between before and after the initial brace treatment were 2°±2° in group A and –3°±2° in group B (p<0.001). The rates of treatment failure were 42% in group A and 77% in group B (p<0.05). This study included 25 patients with Lenke type 1 (54%). Group A (24%) with Lenke type 1 also had a significantly better success rate of brace treatment than group B (75%) (p<0.05). Conclusions Insufficient rotation correction increased brace treatment failure. Better rotation correction resulted in a higher success rate of brace treatment in patients with Lenke type 1. PMID:27790317

  8. Leptin Receptor Metabolism Disorder in Primary Chondrocytes from Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Girls

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun-Jia; Yu, Hong-Gui; Zhou, Zhen-Hai; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Long-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Qi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the underlying mechanisms of low metabolic activity of primary chondrocytes obtained from girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS); AIS is a spine-deforming disease that often occurs in girls. AIS is associated with a lower bone mass than that of healthy individuals and osteopenia. Leptin was shown to play an important role in bone growth. It can also regulate the function of chondrocytes. Changes in leptin and Ob-R levels in AIS patients have been reported in several studies. The underlying mechanisms between the dysfunction of peripheral leptin signaling and abnormal chondrocytes remain unclear; The following parameters were evaluated in AIS patients and the control groups: total serum leptin levels; Ob-R expression in the plasma membrane of primary chondrocytes; JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylation status. Then, we inhibited the lysosome and proteasome and knocked down clathrin heavy chain (CHC) expression in primary chondrocytes isolated from girls with AIS and evaluated Ob-R expression. We investigated the effects of leptin combined with a lysosome inhibitor or CHC knockdown in primary chondrocytes obtained from AIS patients; Compared with the controls, AIS patients showed similar total serum leptin levels, reduced JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylation, and decreased cartilage matrix synthesis in the facet joint. Lower metabolic activity and lower membrane expression of Ob-R were observed in primary chondrocytes from the AIS group than in the controls. Lysosome inhibition increased the total Ob-R content but had no effect on the membrane expression of Ob-R or leptin’s effects on AIS primary chondrocytes. CHC knockdown upregulated the membrane Ob-R levels and enhanced leptin’s effects on AIS primary chondrocytes; The underlying mechanism of chondrocytes that are hyposensitive to leptin in some girls with AIS is low plasma membrane Ob-R expression that results from an imbalance between the rate of receptor endocytosis and the insertion of newly

  9. Leptin Receptor Metabolism Disorder in Primary Chondrocytes from Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Girls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Jia; Yu, Hong-Gui; Zhou, Zhen-Hai; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Long-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Qi

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the underlying mechanisms of low metabolic activity of primary chondrocytes obtained from girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS); AIS is a spine-deforming disease that often occurs in girls. AIS is associated with a lower bone mass than that of healthy individuals and osteopenia. Leptin was shown to play an important role in bone growth. It can also regulate the function of chondrocytes. Changes in leptin and Ob-R levels in AIS patients have been reported in several studies. The underlying mechanisms between the dysfunction of peripheral leptin signaling and abnormal chondrocytes remain unclear; The following parameters were evaluated in AIS patients and the control groups: total serum leptin levels; Ob-R expression in the plasma membrane of primary chondrocytes; JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylation status. Then, we inhibited the lysosome and proteasome and knocked down clathrin heavy chain (CHC) expression in primary chondrocytes isolated from girls with AIS and evaluated Ob-R expression. We investigated the effects of leptin combined with a lysosome inhibitor or CHC knockdown in primary chondrocytes obtained from AIS patients; Compared with the controls, AIS patients showed similar total serum leptin levels, reduced JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylation, and decreased cartilage matrix synthesis in the facet joint. Lower metabolic activity and lower membrane expression of Ob-R were observed in primary chondrocytes from the AIS group than in the controls. Lysosome inhibition increased the total Ob-R content but had no effect on the membrane expression of Ob-R or leptin's effects on AIS primary chondrocytes. CHC knockdown upregulated the membrane Ob-R levels and enhanced leptin's effects on AIS primary chondrocytes; The underlying mechanism of chondrocytes that are hyposensitive to leptin in some girls with AIS is low plasma membrane Ob-R expression that results from an imbalance between the rate of receptor endocytosis and the insertion of newly

  10. Reliability and Validity Study of Clinical Ultrasound Imaging on Lateral Curvature of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Li, M.; Lou, Edmond H. M.; Wong, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-ionizing radiation imaging assessment has been advocated for the patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). As one of the radiation-free methods, ultrasound imaging has gained growing attention in scoliosis assessment over the past decade. The center of laminae (COL) method has been proposed to measure the spinal curvature in the coronal plane of ultrasound image. However, the reliability and validity of this ultrasound method have not been validated in the clinical setting. Objectives To evaluate the reliability and validity of clinical ultrasound imaging on lateral curvature measurements of AIS with their corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. Methods Thirty curves (ranged 10.2°–68.2°) from sixteen patients with AIS were eligible for this study. The ultrasound scan was performed using a 3-D ultrasound unit within the same morning of MRI examination. Two researchers were involved in data collection of these two examinations. The COL method was used to measure the coronal curvature in ultrasound image, compared with the Cobb method in MRI. The intra- and inter-rater reliability of the COL method was evaluated by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The validity of this method was analyzed by paired Student’s t-test, Bland–Altman statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient. The level of significance was set as 0.05. Results The COL method showed high intra- and inter-rater reliabilities (both with ICC (2, K) >0.9, p<0.05) to measure the coronal curvature. Compared with Cobb method, COL method showed no significant difference (p<0.05) when measuring coronal curvature. Furthermore, Bland-Altman method demonstrated an agreement between these two methods, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) was high (r>0.9, p<0.05). Conclusion The ultrasound imaging could provide a reliable and valid measurement of spinal curvature in the coronal plane using the COL method. Further research is needed to validate the

  11. Three-Dimensional Vertebral Wedging in Mild and Moderate Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Sophie-Anne; Begon, Mickaël; Leardini, Alberto; Coillard, Christine; Rivard, Charles-Hilaire; Allard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Vertebral wedging is associated with spinal deformity progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Reporting frontal and sagittal wedging separately could be misleading since these are projected values of a single three-dimensional deformation of the vertebral body. The objectives of this study were to determine if three-dimensional vertebral body wedging is present in mild scoliosis and if there are a preferential vertebral level, position and plane of deformation with increasing scoliotic severity. Methodology Twenty-seven adolescent idiopathic scoliotic girls with mild to moderate Cobb angles (10° to 50°) participated in this study. All subjects had at least one set of bi-planar radiographs taken with the EOS® X-ray imaging system prior to any treatment. Subjects were divided into two groups, separating the mild (under 20°) from the moderate (20° and over) spinal scoliotic deformities. Wedging was calculated in three different geometric planes with respect to the smallest edge of the vertebral body. Results Factorial analyses of variance revealed a main effect for the scoliosis severity but no main effect of vertebral Levels (apex and each of the three vertebrae above and below it) (F = 1.78, p = 0.101). Main effects of vertebral Positions (apex and above or below it) (F = 4.20, p = 0.015) and wedging Planes (F = 34.36, p<0.001) were also noted. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated a greater wedging in the inferior group of vertebrae (3.6°) than the superior group (2.9°, p = 0.019) and a significantly greater wedging (p≤0.03) along the sagittal plane (4.3°). Conclusions Vertebral wedging was present in mild scoliosis and increased as the scoliosis progressed. The greater wedging of the inferior group of vertebrae could be important in estimating the most distal vertebral segment to be restrained by bracing or to be fused in surgery. Largest vertebral body wedging values obtained in the sagittal plane support the claim

  12. Lateral Semicircular Canal Asymmetry in Idiopathic Scoliosis: An Early Link between Biomechanical, Hormonal and Neurosensory Theories?

    PubMed Central

    Hitier, Martin; Hamon, Michèle; Denise, Pierre; Lacoudre, Julien; Thenint, Marie-Aude; Mallet, Jean-François; Moreau, Sylvain; Quarck, Gaëlle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite its high incidence and severe morbidity, the physiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is still unknown. Here, we looked for early anomalies in AIS which are likely to be the cause of spinal deformity and could also be targeted by early treatments. We focused on the vestibular system, which is suspected of acting in AIS pathogenesis and which exhibits an end organ with size and shape fixed before birth. We hypothesize that, in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, vestibular morphological anomalies were already present at birth and could possibly have caused other abnormalities. Materials and Methods The vestibular organ of 18 adolescents with AIS and 9 controls were evaluated with MRI in a prospective case controlled study. We studied lateral semicircular canal orientation and the three semicircular canal positions relative to the midline. Lateral semicircular canal function was also evaluated by vestibulonystagmography after bithermal caloric stimulation. Results The left lateral semicircular canal was more vertical and further from the midline in AIS (p = 0.01) and these two parameters were highly correlated (r = -0.6; p = 0.02). These morphological anomalies were associated with functional anomalies in AIS (lower excitability, higher canal paresis), but were not significantly different from controls (p>0.05). Conclusion Adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis exhibit morphological vestibular asymmetry, probably determined well before birth. Since the vestibular system influences the vestibulospinal pathway, the hypothalamus, and the cerebellum, this indicates that the vestibular system is a possible cause of later morphological, hormonal and neurosensory anomalies observed in AIS. Moreover, the simple lateral SCC MRI measurement demonstrated here could be used for early detection of AIS, selection of children for close follow-up, and initiation of preventive treatment before spinal deformity occurs. PMID:26186348

  13. Abnormal activation of the motor cortical network in idiopathic scoliosis demonstrated by functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Domenech, Julio; García-Martí, G; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Barrios, C; Tormos, J M; Pascual-Leone, A

    2011-07-01

    The aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) remains unknown, but there is growing support for the possibility of an underlying neurological disorder. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can characterize the abnormal activation of the sensorimotor brain network in movement disorders and could provide further insights into the neuropathogenesis of IS. Twenty subjects were included in the study; 10 adolescents with IS (mean age of 15.2, 8 girls and 2 boys) and 10 age-matched healthy controls. The average Cobb angle of the primary curve in the IS patients was 35° (range 27°-55°). All participants underwent a block-design fMRI experiment in a 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner to explore cortical activation following a simple motor task. Rest periods alternated with activation periods during which participants were required to open and close their hand at an internally paced rate of approximately 1 Hz. Data were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM5) including age, sex and laterality as nuisance variables to minimise the presence of bias in the results. Compared to controls, IS patients showed significant increases in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activity in contralateral supplementary motor area when performing the motor task with either hand. No significant differences were observed when testing between groups in the functional activation in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex and somatosensory cortex. Additionally, the IS group showed a greater interhemispheric asymmetry index than the control group (0.30 vs. 0.13, p < 0.001). This study demonstrates an abnormal pattern of brain activation in secondary motor areas during movement execution in patients with IS. These findings support the hypothesis that a sensorimotor integration disorder underlies the pathogenesis of IS.

  14. Experience with an online prospective database on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: development and implementation.

    PubMed

    Arlet, Vincent; Shilt, Jeffrey; Bersusky, Ernesto; Abel, Mark; Ouellet, Jean Albert; Evans, Davis; Menon, K V; Kandziora, Frank; Shen, Frank; Lamartina, Claudio; Adams, Marc; Reddi, Vasantha

    2008-11-01

    Considerable variability exists in the surgical treatment and outcomes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). This is due to the lack of evidence-based treatment guidelines and outcome measures. Although clinical trials have been extolled as the highest form of evidence for evaluating treatment efficacy, the disadvantage of cost, time, lack of feasibility, and ethical considerations indicate a need for a new paradigm for evidence based research in this spinal deformity. High quality clinical databases offer an alternative approach for evidence-based research in medicine. So, we developed and established Scolisoft, an international, multidimensional and relational database designed to be a repository of surgical cases for AIS, and an active vehicle for standardized surgical information in a format that would permit qualitative and quantitative research and analysis. Here, we describe and discuss the utility of Scolisoft as a new paradigm for evidence-based research on AIS. Scolisoft was developed using dot.net platform and SQL server from Microsoft. All data is deidentified to protect patient privacy. Scolisoft can be accessed at (www.scolisoft.org). Collection of high quality data on surgical cases of AIS is a priority and processes continue to improve the database quality. The database currently has 67 registered users from 21 countries. To date, Scolisoft has 200 detailed surgical cases with pre, post, and follow up data. Scolisoft provides a structured process and practical information for surgeons to benchmark their treatment methods against other like treatments. Scolisoft is multifaceted and its use extends to education of health care providers in training, patients, ability to mine important data to stimulate research and quality improvement initiatives of healthcare organizations. PMID:18830720

  15. Understanding the role of the immune system in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Immunometabolic CONnections to Scoliosis (ICONS) study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, M Constantine; Missiuna, Paul; Peterson, Devin; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) affects up to 3% of children around the world. There is limited knowledge of AIS aetiopathogenesis, and this evidence is needed to develop new management strategies. Paraspinal muscle in AIS demonstrates evidence of differential fibrosis based on curve sidedness. Fibrosis is the hallmark of macrophage-driven inflammation and tissue remodelling, yet the mechanisms of fibrosis in paraspinal muscle in AIS are poorly understood. Objectives The primary objective of this study is to determine the influence of curve sidedness on paraspinal muscle inflammation. Secondary objectives include defining the mechanisms of macrophage homing to muscle, and determining muscle–macrophage crosstalk in muscle fibrosis in AIS. Methods and analysis This is a cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary paediatric centre in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. We will recruit boys and girls, 10–17 years of age, who are having surgery to correct AIS. We will exclude children who have an active infection or are on immunosuppressive therapies within 2 weeks of surgery, smokers and pregnant girls. Paraspinal muscle biopsies will be obtained at the start of surgery. Also, blood and urine samples will be collected from participants, who will fill questionnaires about their lifestyle. Anthropometric measures will also be collected including height, weight, waist and hip circumferences. Ethics and dissemination This study has received ethics authorisation by the institutional review board. This work will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be presented in oral and poster formats at scientific meetings. Discussion This study will explore the mechanisms of paraspinal muscle inflammation, remodelling and fibrosis in AIS. This will help identify pathways and molecules as potential therapeutic targets to treat and prevent AIS. It may also yield markers that predict scoliosis progression and response to treatment in these children. PMID

  16. Body Image and Quality-of-Life in Untreated Versus Brace-Treated Females With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Schwieger, Traci; Campo, Shelly; Weinstein, Stuart L.; Dolan, Lori A.; Ashida, Sato; Steuber, Keli R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design. The Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial (BrAIST) included skeletally immature high-risk patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with moderate curve sizes (20°– 40°). BrAIST was a multicenter, controlled trial using both randomized and preference treatment arms into either an observation group or a brace treatment group. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare body image and quality-of-life (QOL) in female AIS patients who were observed or treated with a brace. Summary of Background Data. Brace treatment is an effective means for controlling progressive scoliosis and preventing the need for surgery, but there is no consensus regarding the effect of brace treatment on body image or on QOL in adolescents with AIS. Methods. Data from female BrAIST patients in the randomized (n = 132) or preference (n = 187) arms and were observed (n = 120) or brace treated (n = 199) were analyzed. Patients completed the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQOL) 4.0 Generic Scales at baseline and 6 month follow-up visits up to 2 years. Items on the SAQ measured three body image constructs (self, ideal, and overall). The PedsQOL measured health, activities, feelings, social factors, and school. Results. . In general, there were no significant differences within or between study arms or treatments regarding body image or QOL through 2 years of follow-up. Poorer body image was significantly correlated with poorer QOL during the first 2 years of follow-up regardless of study arm or treatment. Patients who crossed-over to a different treatment and patients with largest Cobb angles ≥ 40 degrees had significantly poorer body image, in particular self-body image, compared with those that did not. Conclusion. This study does not support findings from previous research indicating that wearing a brace has a negative impact on or is negatively impacted by body image or

  17. Model-based registration for assessment of spinal deformities in idiopathic scoliosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, Daniel; Lundström, Claes; Andersson, Mats; Knutsson, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Detailed analysis of spinal deformity is important within orthopaedic healthcare, in particular for assessment of idiopathic scoliosis. This paper addresses this challenge by proposing an image analysis method, capable of providing a full three-dimensional spine characterization. The proposed method is based on the registration of a highly detailed spine model to image data from computed tomography. The registration process provides an accurate segmentation of each individual vertebra and the ability to derive various measures describing the spinal deformity. The derived measures are estimated from landmarks attached to the spine model and transferred to the patient data according to the registration result. Evaluation of the method provides an average point-to-surface error of 0.9 mm ± 0.9 (comparing segmentations), and an average target registration error of 2.3 mm ± 1.7 (comparing landmarks). Comparing automatic and manual measurements of axial vertebral rotation provides a mean absolute difference of 2.5° ± 1.8, which is on a par with other computerized methods for assessing axial vertebral rotation. A significant advantage of our method, compared to other computerized methods for rotational measurements, is that it does not rely on vertebral symmetry for computing the rotational measures. The proposed method is fully automatic and computationally efficient, only requiring three to four minutes to process an entire image volume covering vertebrae L5 to T1. Given the use of landmarks, the method can be readily adapted to estimate other measures describing a spinal deformity by changing the set of employed landmarks. In addition, the method has the potential to be utilized for accurate segmentations of the vertebrae in routine computed tomography examinations, given the relatively low point-to-surface error.

  18. A neglected point in surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Variations in the number of vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zongshan; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Zhihui; Zhu, Zezhang; Liu, Zhen; Qiu, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Inaccurate identification of vertebral levels is the main cause of wrong-site spine surgery which is performed by nearly half of the spine surgeons. Unusual anatomy and failure to verify the surgical level on radiographs have been commonly reported. We aimed at investigating the variations in vertebral number in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and thus to raise awareness of the possibility for wrong-level spinal surgery and to make a comparison with normal adolescents. A cohort of 657 AIS patients and 248 normal adolescents, presented to our center from June 2008 to February 2013, who met the inclusion criteria, were recruited. Radiographs were reviewed to identify the number of thoracic or lumbar vertebrae and the presence of a lumbosacral transitional vertebra. In the AIS group, 70 (10.6%) patients had variations in the number of thoracic and/or lumbar vertebrae. Remarkably, the prevalence of variations in male subjects was significantly higher than that in female subjects (P < 0.05). Thirty-seven patients (5.6%) had an atypical number of thoracic vertebrae, with 33 having 11 thoracic vertebrae and 4 patients having 13. Forty-eight patients (7.3%) had an atypical number of lumbar vertebrae, with 14 having 4 lumbar vertebrae and 34 patients having 6. Multilevel vertebral anomalies were present in 2.3% of the patients (15 of 657). A variation in the number of vertebrae had been identified in 1.7% (11) of the reports by the radiologist. In the normal group, 27 (10.9%) subjects showed variations in the vertebral number. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of atypical numbers of vertebral number between the AIS and normal groups (P > 0.05). Therefore, we concluded that variations in the number of thoracic-lumbar vertebrae were found in up to10.6% of AIS patients. Identification of variations in the number of vertebrae is crucial to serve to decrease the risk of wrong-level surgery. PMID:27559975

  19. The effect of chiropractic techniques on the Cobb angle in idiopathic scoliosis arising in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Sunghak; Han, Dongwook

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether chiropractic techniques would reduce the curvature of idiopathic scoliosis, which commonly occurs in elementary school children. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 5 healthy elementary students who listened to an explanation of the study methods and purpose of the study and agreed to participate in the experiment. [Methods] The Cobb angle was measured by taking an X-ray (FCT-1, Dongmun, Goyangsi, Republic of Korea) taken from the rear, using X-ray film. The method of intervention this study used was application of chiropractic techniques. Spinal correction was carried out for 30 minutes per session, which included soft tissue massage, 3 times a week for 8 weeks. [Results] It was established that the Cobb angle was noticeably decreased after 4 weeks of the intervention. Post Hoc analysis revealed that the Cobb angle noticeably decreased after 4 weeks compared with the Cobb angle before the chiropractic techniques were applied. However, no significant difference in Cobb angle was evident after the fourth week. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that chiropractic techniques can effectively reduce the Cobb angle within as little as 4 weeks. So, we can confirm that the chiropractic techniques were effective for reducing the curvature of idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:27190435

  20. [Advance on genetic mechanism of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and genetic relationship map].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ma, Jun; Li, Shu-yuan; Wu, Xian; Hu, Bin; Wang, Xiao-feng; Zhou, Xu-hui

    2015-09-01

    Identification of genetic risk factors is the hotspot of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Through candidate gene approach and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), some genes were preliminary identified. To review AIS related genes,and construct the gene network map of AIS gene. We searched on NCBI PubMed and Web of Science database using search terms "adolescent idiopathic scoliosis" and "gene", to classify induction genes. We then constructed gene diagram using string-db. We found 35 AIS genes relating to connective tissue, nervous system active substances, melatonin synthesis and metabolism, puberty and growth, and genes whose function is unknown. Gene diagram shows that a network relationship between gene and other genes,in which IL6, ESR1, ESR2, VDR, TGFB1, IGF1 gene may as the key gene about AIS' genetic mechanism. Two sites of 3 GWAS results outside the network, it is suggesting new pathway that need to be explored. The study about AIS susceptibility gene is still preliminary, requiring in-depth research to identify the new networks.

  1. Anterior Overgrowth in Primary Curves, Compensatory Curves and Junctional Segments in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    van Stralen, Marijn; Chu, Winnie C. W.; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Ng, Bobby K. W.; Vincken, Koen L.; Cheng, Jack C. Y.; Castelein, René M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although much attention has been given to the global three-dimensional aspect of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the accurate three-dimensional morphology of the primary and compensatory curves, as well as the intervening junctional segments, in the scoliotic spine has not been described before. Methods A unique series of 77 AIS patients with high-resolution CT scans of the spine, acquired for surgical planning purposes, were included and compared to 22 healthy controls. Non-idiopathic curves were excluded. Endplate segmentation and local longitudinal axis in endplate plane enabled semi-automatic geometric analysis of the complete three-dimensional morphology of the spine, taking inter-vertebral rotation, intra-vertebral torsion and coronal and sagittal tilt into account. Intraclass correlation coefficients for interobserver reliability were 0.98–1.00. Coronal deviation, axial rotation and the exact length discrepancies in the reconstructed sagittal plane, as defined per vertebra and disc, were analyzed for each primary and compensatory curve as well as for the junctional segments in-between. Results The anterior-posterior difference of spinal length, based on “true” anterior and posterior points on endplates, was +3.8% for thoracic and +9.4% for (thoraco)lumbar curves, while the junctional segments were almost straight. This differed significantly from control group thoracic kyphosis (-4.1%; P<0.001) and lumbar lordosis (+7.8%; P<0.001). For all primary as well as compensatory curves, we observed linear correlations between the coronal Cobb angle, axial rotation and the anterior-posterior length difference (r≥0.729 for thoracic curves; r≥0.485 for (thoraco)lumbar curves). Conclusions Excess anterior length of the spine in AIS has been described as a generalized growth disturbance, causing relative anterior spinal overgrowth. This study is the first to demonstrate that this anterior overgrowth is not a generalized phenomenon. It is

  2. Optimization Correction Strength Using Contra Bending Technique without Anterior Release Procedure to Achieve Maximum Correction on Severe Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Rahyussalim, Ahmad Jabir; Saleh, Ifran; Purnaning, Dyah; Kurniawati, Tri

    2016-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is defined as a spinal deformity in a skeletally mature patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10 degrees in the coronal plain. Posterior-only approach with rod and screw corrective manipulation to add strength of contra bending manipulation has correction achievement similar to that obtained by conventional combined anterior release and posterior approach. It also avoids the complications related to the thoracic approach. We reported a case of 25-year-old male adult idiopathic scoliosis with double curve. It consists of main thoracic curve of 150 degrees and lumbar curve of 89 degrees. His curve underwent direct contra bending posterior approach using rod and screw corrective manipulation technique to achieve optimal correction. After surgery the main thoracic Cobb angle becomes 83 degrees and lumbar Cobb angle becomes 40 degrees, with 5 days length of stay and less than 800 mL blood loss during surgery. There is no complaint at two months after surgery; he has already come back to normal activity with good functional activity. PMID:27064801

  3. Do Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) Neglect Proprioceptive Information in Sensory Integration of Postural Control?

    PubMed Central

    Assaiante, Christine; Mallau, Sophie; Jouve, Jean-Luc; Bollini, Gérard; Vaugoyeau, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Introduction It has been reported that AIS rely much more on ankle proprioception to control the amplitude of the balance control commands as compared to age-matched healthy adolescents. Our hypothesis was that AIS do not neglect proprioceptive information to control posture probably because of their vestibular deficits. We investigated the proprioceptive contribution to postural control in AIS which expresses spinal deformity during a crucial transitional period of ontogenesis. Methods 10 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with moderate spinal deformity (10° < Cobb Angle >35°) and 10 control adolescents (CA) had to maintain vertical stance while very slow oscillations in the frontal plane (below the detection threshold of the semicircular canal system) were applied to the support with the eyes open and closed. Postural orientation and segmental stabilisation were analysed at head, shoulder, trunk and pelvis levels. Results Scoliosis did not affect vertical orientation control and segmental stabilization strategies. Vision improves postural control in both CA and AIS, which seem more dependent on visual cues than adults. Conclusions AIS as CA were unable to control efficiently their postural orientation on the basis of the proprioceptive cues, the only sensory information available in the EC situation, whereas in the same condition healthy young adults present no difficulty to achieve the postural control. This suggests that AIS as CA transitory neglect proprioceptive information to control their posture. These results and previous studies suggest the existence of different afferent pathways for proprioceptive information subserving different parts in sensory integration of postural control. We conclude that the static proprioceptive system is not affected by the idiopathic scoliosis, while the dynamic proprioceptive system would be mainly affected. PMID:22815779

  4. Association of Body Composition with Curve Severity in Children and Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis (IS)

    PubMed Central

    Matusik, Edyta; Durmala, Jacek; Matusik, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The link between scoliotic deformity and body composition assessed with bioimpedance (BIA) has not been well researched. The objective of this study was to correlate the extent of scoliotic-curve severity with the anthropometrical status of patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) based on standard anthropometric measurements and BIA. The study encompassed 279 IS patients (224 girls/55 boys), aged 14.21 ± 2.75 years. Scoliotic curve severity assessed by Cobb’s angle was categorized as moderate (10°–39°) or severe (≥40°). Corrected height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI), corrected height z-score, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (WHtR) and waist/hip ratio (WHR) were calculated for the entire group. Body composition parameters: fat mass (FAT), fat-free mass (FFM) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. The mean Cobb angle was 19.96° ± 7.92° in the moderate group and 52.36° ± 12.54° in the severe group. The corrected body heights, body weights and BMIs were significantly higher in the severe IS group than in the moderate group (p < 0.05). Significantly higher FAT and lower FFM and PMM were observed in the severe IS group (p < 0.05). The corrected heights and weights were significantly higher in patients with severe IS and normal weight (p < 0.01). Normal and overweight patients with a severe IS had significantly higher adiposity levels assessed by FAT, FFM and PMM for normal and BMI, BMI z-score, WHtR, FAT and PMM for overweight, respectively. Overweight IS patients were significantly younger and taller than underweight and normal weight patients. The scoliotic curve severity is significantly related to the degree of adiposity in IS patients. BMI z-score, WHtR and BIA seem to be useful tools for determining baseline anthropometric characteristics of IS children. PMID:26828519

  5. Association of Body Composition with Curve Severity in Children and Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis (IS).

    PubMed

    Matusik, Edyta; Durmala, Jacek; Matusik, Pawel

    2016-02-01

    The link between scoliotic deformity and body composition assessed with bioimpedance (BIA) has not been well researched. The objective of this study was to correlate the extent of scoliotic-curve severity with the anthropometrical status of patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) based on standard anthropometric measurements and BIA. The study encompassed 279 IS patients (224 girls/55 boys), aged 14.21 ± 2.75 years. Scoliotic curve severity assessed by Cobb's angle was categorized as moderate (10°-39°) or severe (≥40°). Corrected height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI), corrected height z-score, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (WHtR) and waist/hip ratio (WHR) were calculated for the entire group. Body composition parameters: fat mass (FAT), fat-free mass (FFM) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. The mean Cobb angle was 19.96° ± 7.92° in the moderate group and 52.36° ± 12.54° in the severe group. The corrected body heights, body weights and BMIs were significantly higher in the severe IS group than in the moderate group (p < 0.05). Significantly higher FAT and lower FFM and PMM were observed in the severe IS group (p < 0.05). The corrected heights and weights were significantly higher in patients with severe IS and normal weight (p < 0.01). Normal and overweight patients with a severe IS had significantly higher adiposity levels assessed by FAT, FFM and PMM for normal and BMI, BMI z-score, WHtR, FAT and PMM for overweight, respectively. Overweight IS patients were significantly younger and taller than underweight and normal weight patients. The scoliotic curve severity is significantly related to the degree of adiposity in IS patients. BMI z-score, WHtR and BIA seem to be useful tools for determining baseline anthropometric characteristics of IS children. PMID:26828519

  6. Sensory reweighting is altered in adolescent patients with scoliosis: Evidence from a neuromechanical model.

    PubMed

    Pialasse, Jean-Philippe; Descarreaux, Martin; Mercier, Pierre; Simoneau, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis is the most frequent spinal deformity in adolescence. While its aetiology remains unclear, impairments in balance control suggest a dysfunction of the sensorimotor control mechanisms. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the ability of patients with idiopathic scoliosis to reweigh sensory information. Using a neuromechanical model, the relative sensory weighting of vestibular and proprioceptive information was assessed. Sixteen healthy adolescents and respectively 20 and 16 adolescents with mild or severe scoliosis were recruited. Binaural bipolar galvanic vestibular stimulation was delivered to elicit postural movement along the coronal plane. The kinematics of the upper body, using normalized horizontal displacement of the 7th cervical vertebra, was recorded 1s before, 2s during, and 1s following vestibular stimulation. The neuromechanical model included active feedback mechanisms that generated corrective torque from the vestibular and proprioceptive error signals. The model successfully predicted the normalized horizontal displacement of the 7th cervical vertebra. All groups showed similar balance control before vestibular stimulation; however, the amplitude (i.e., peak horizontal displacement) of the body sway during and immediately following vestibular stimulation was approximately 3 times larger in patients compared to control adolescents. The outcome of the model revealed that patients assigned a larger weight to vestibular information compared to controls; vestibular weight was 6.03% for controls, whereas it was 13.09% and 13.26% for the mild and severe scoliosis groups, respectively. These results suggest that despite the amplitude of spine deformation, the sensory reweighting mechanism is altered similarly in adolescent patients with scoliosis.

  7. Spinal Fusion for Scoliosis in Rett Syndrome With an Emphasis on Respiratory Failure and Opioid Usage.

    PubMed

    Rumbak, Dania M; Mowrey, Wenzhu; W Schwartz, Skai; Sarwahi, Vishal; Djukic, Aleksandra; Killinger, James S; Katyal, Chhavi

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to characterize our experience with 8 patients with Rett syndrome undergoing scoliosis surgery in regard to rates of respiratory failure and rates of ventilator-acquired pneumonia in comparison to patients with neurologic scoliosis and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This study was a retrospective chart review of patients undergoing scoliosis surgery at a tertiary children's hospital. Patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, (2) neurologic scoliosis, and (3) Rett syndrome. There were 133 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, 48 patients with neurologic scoliosis, and 8 patients with Rett syndrome. We found that patients with Rett syndrome undergoing scoliosis surgery have higher rates of respiratory failure and longer ventilation times in the postoperative period when compared with both adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and neurologic scoliosis patients. There is insufficient evidence to suggest a difference in the incidence of ventilator-acquired pneumonia between the Rett syndrome and the neurologic scoliosis group. We believe our findings are the first in the literature to show a statistically significant difference between these 3 groups in regard to incidence of respiratory failure. PMID:25991642

  8. Spinal Fusion for Scoliosis in Rett Syndrome With an Emphasis on Respiratory Failure and Opioid Usage.

    PubMed

    Rumbak, Dania M; Mowrey, Wenzhu; W Schwartz, Skai; Sarwahi, Vishal; Djukic, Aleksandra; Killinger, James S; Katyal, Chhavi

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to characterize our experience with 8 patients with Rett syndrome undergoing scoliosis surgery in regard to rates of respiratory failure and rates of ventilator-acquired pneumonia in comparison to patients with neurologic scoliosis and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This study was a retrospective chart review of patients undergoing scoliosis surgery at a tertiary children's hospital. Patients were divided into 3 groups: (1) adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, (2) neurologic scoliosis, and (3) Rett syndrome. There were 133 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, 48 patients with neurologic scoliosis, and 8 patients with Rett syndrome. We found that patients with Rett syndrome undergoing scoliosis surgery have higher rates of respiratory failure and longer ventilation times in the postoperative period when compared with both adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and neurologic scoliosis patients. There is insufficient evidence to suggest a difference in the incidence of ventilator-acquired pneumonia between the Rett syndrome and the neurologic scoliosis group. We believe our findings are the first in the literature to show a statistically significant difference between these 3 groups in regard to incidence of respiratory failure.

  9. The Level of Self-Esteem and Sexual Functioning in Women with Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Durmała, Jacek; Blicharska, Irmina; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2015-01-01

    A person’s image, which is determined through physical appearance, considerably affects self-esteem developed from early childhood. Scoliosis causes multiple trunk deformations that can affect a person’s perception of the body. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of scoliosis dimension and the degree of trunk deformation on the level of self-esteem and sexual functioning in women with idiopathic scoliosis. Thirty-six women diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis were recruited to a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The subjects were divided into two groups depending on the value of the Cobb angle. The level of self-esteem was determined by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), whereas the sexual functioning was assessed via the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The trunk deformations were specified with the Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index (POTSI). A statistically significant correlation was proved between the amount of points received in the Rosenberg scale evaluation and the POTSI index in Group A (R = −0.56, p = 0.04). Subjects with smaller deformations within the coronal plane had a higher level of self-confidence. The trunk asymmetries in the coronal plane may have a negative effect on women with scoliosis and their self-appraisal. PMID:26274967

  10. The Level of Self-Esteem and Sexual Functioning in Women with Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Durmała, Jacek; Blicharska, Irmina; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2015-08-12

    A person's image, which is determined through physical appearance, considerably affects self-esteem developed from early childhood. Scoliosis causes multiple trunk deformations that can affect a person's perception of the body. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of scoliosis dimension and the degree of trunk deformation on the level of self-esteem and sexual functioning in women with idiopathic scoliosis. Thirty-six women diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis were recruited to a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The subjects were divided into two groups depending on the value of the Cobb angle. The level of self-esteem was determined by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), whereas the sexual functioning was assessed via the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The trunk deformations were specified with the Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index (POTSI). A statistically significant correlation was proved between the amount of points received in the Rosenberg scale evaluation and the POTSI index in Group A (R = -0.56, p = 0.04). Subjects with smaller deformations within the coronal plane had a higher level of self-confidence. The trunk asymmetries in the coronal plane may have a negative effect on women with scoliosis and their self-appraisal.

  11. The Level of Self-Esteem and Sexual Functioning in Women with Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Durmała, Jacek; Blicharska, Irmina; Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2015-08-01

    A person's image, which is determined through physical appearance, considerably affects self-esteem developed from early childhood. Scoliosis causes multiple trunk deformations that can affect a person's perception of the body. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of scoliosis dimension and the degree of trunk deformation on the level of self-esteem and sexual functioning in women with idiopathic scoliosis. Thirty-six women diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis were recruited to a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The subjects were divided into two groups depending on the value of the Cobb angle. The level of self-esteem was determined by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), whereas the sexual functioning was assessed via the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The trunk deformations were specified with the Posterior Trunk Symmetry Index (POTSI). A statistically significant correlation was proved between the amount of points received in the Rosenberg scale evaluation and the POTSI index in Group A (R = -0.56, p = 0.04). Subjects with smaller deformations within the coronal plane had a higher level of self-confidence. The trunk asymmetries in the coronal plane may have a negative effect on women with scoliosis and their self-appraisal. PMID:26274967

  12. Scoliosis in patients with Prader Willi Syndrome – comparisons of conservative and surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Goodall, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    demonstrate that scoliosis in this entity plays only a minor role and surgery is unnecessary when high quality conservative management exists. There is lack of the long follow-up studies in post-surgical cases in patients with PWS and scoliosis. The rate of complications of spinal fusion in patients with PWS and scoliosis is very high and the death rates have been found to be higher than in patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS). The long-term side-effects of the intervention are detrimental, so that the risk-benefit ratio favours the conservative approaches over spinal fusion surgery. PMID:19419581

  13. Gpr126/Adgrg6 deletion in cartilage models idiopathic scoliosis and pectus excavatum in mice

    PubMed Central

    Karner, Courtney M.; Long, Fanxin; Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna; Monk, Kelly R.; Gray, Ryan S.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and pectus excavatum (PE) are common pediatric musculoskeletal disorders. Little is known about the tissue of origin for either condition, or about their genetic bases. Common variants near GPR126/ADGRG6 (encoding the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor 126/adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G6, hereafter referred to as GPR126) were recently shown to be associated with AIS in humans. Here, we provide genetic evidence that loss of Gpr126 in osteochondroprogenitor cells alters cartilage biology and spinal column development. Microtomographic and x-ray studies revealed several hallmarks of AIS, including postnatal onset of scoliosis without malformations of vertebral units. The mutants also displayed a dorsal-ward deflection of the sternum akin to human PE. At the cellular level, these defects were accompanied by failure of midline fusion within the developing annulus fibrosis of the intervertebral discs and increased apoptosis of chondrocytes in the ribs and vertebrae. Molecularly, we found that loss of Gpr126 upregulated the expression of Gal3st4, a gene implicated in human PE, encoding Galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 4. Together, these data uncover Gpr126 as a genetic cause for the pathogenesis of AIS and PE in a mouse model. PMID:25954032

  14. Surgical approaches for the management of idiopathic thoracic scoliosis and the indications for combined anterior-posterior technique.

    PubMed

    Rauzzino, M J; Shaffrey, C I; Wagner, J; Nockels, R; Abel, M

    1999-05-15

    The indications for surgical intervention in patients with idiopathic scoliosis have been well defined. The goals of surgery are to achieve fusion and arrest progressive curvature while restoring normal coronal and sagittal balance. As first introduced by Harrington, posterior fusion, the gold standard of treatment, has a proven record of success. More recently, anterior techniques for performing fusion procedures via either a thoracotomy or a retroperitoneal approach have been popularized in attempts to achieve better correction of curvature, preserve motion segments, and avoid some of the complications of posterior fusion such as the development of the flat-back syndrome. Anterior instrumentation alone, although effective, can be kyphogenic and has been shown to be associated with complications such as pseudarthrosis and instrumentation failure. Performing a combined approach in patients with scoliosis and other deformities has become an increasingly popular procedure to achieve superior correction of deformity and to minimize later complications. Indications for a combined approach (usually consisting of anterior release, arthrodesis with or without use of instrumentation, and posterior segmental fusion) include: prevention of crankshaft phenomenon in juvenile or skeletally immature adolescents; correction of large curves (75 degrees ) or excessively rigid curves in skeletally mature or immature patients; correction of curves with large sagittal-plane deformities such as thoracic kyphosis (> 90 degrees ) or thoracic lordosis (> 20 degrees ); and correction of thoracolumbar curves that need to be fused to the sacrum. Surgery may be performed either in a staged proceedure or, more commonly, in a single sitting. The authors discuss techniques for combined surgery and complication avoidance. PMID:17031912

  15. Early detection of idiopathic scoliosis – analysis of three screening models

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Ireneusz M.; Lewandowski, Roman; Pierożyński, Bogusław; Raistenskis, Juozas; J. Krzych, Łukasz; Kiebzak, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of lateral curvatures of the spine ranges from 0.3% to 15.3% in the general population. The aim of the study was to develop and compare three different screening tests for idiopathic scoliosis (IS) with respect to their effectiveness and costs. Material and methods The Delphi method was used to assess the efficacy of each screening algorithm in detecting IS in the population. An economic analysis was also performed. Results Diagnostic Algorithm 1 for IS comprised a screening examination performed by nurses and a general practitioner (GP) with verification by specialists. The unit cost of carrying out diagnostic work-up for IS in Algorithm 1 was €94 per child. The second algorithm involved the use of the moiré computer method, followed by verification by a specialist. The lower unit cost of €86 per child of diagnostic work-up according to Algorithm 2 was due to fewer stages compared to Algorithm 1. The highest effectiveness with the highest costs were found for the third algorithm, with only one stage, a specialist's consultation (cost €153 per child). Conclusions The number of stages in an algorithm does not correlate positively with its efficacy or cost. The recommended scheme is Algorithm 3, where children are examined by rehabilitation specialists or a physiotherapist using a scoliometer and an inclinometer. The use of the apparently most expensive scheme (Algorithm 3) should result in lowering the costs of treatment of established idiopathic scoliosis and, in the long term, prove to be the most cost-effective solution for the health care system. PMID:26528351

  16. Scoliosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or an uneven waist with a tendency to lean to one side. Because scoliosis can develop very ... orthopedist, he or she will examine you and study X-rays of your spine. You ... deep under the spine muscles. In most cases they can't be felt and do not ...

  17. Predictors of spine deformity progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: A systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Noshchenko, Andriy; Hoffecker, Lilian; Lindley, Emily M; Burger, Evalina L; Cain, Christopher MJ; Patel, Vikas V; Bradford, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate published data on the predictors of progressive adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in order to evaluate their efficacy and level of evidence. METHODS: Selection criteria: (1) study design: randomized controlled clinical trials, prospective cohort studies and case series, retrospective comparative and none comparative studies; (2) participants: adolescents with AIS aged from 10 to 20 years; and (3) treatment: observation, bracing, and other. Search method: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, PubMed and patent data bases. All years through August 2014 were included. Data were collected that showed an association between the studied characteristics and the progression of AIS or the severity of the spine deformity. Odds ratio (OR), sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were also collected. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the pooled OR and predictive values, if more than 1 study presented a result. The GRADE approach was applied to evaluate the level of evidence. RESULTS: The review included 25 studies. All studies showed statistically significant or borderline association between severity or progression of AIS with the following characteristics: (1) An increase of the Cobb angle or axial rotation during brace treatment; (2) decrease of the rib-vertebral angle at the apical level of the convex side during brace treatment; (3) initial Cobb angle severity (> 25o); (4) osteopenia; (5) patient age < 13 years at diagnosis; (6) premenarche status; (7) skeletal immaturity; (8) thoracic deformity; (9) brain stem vestibular dysfunction; and (10) multiple indices combining radiographic, demographic, and physiologic characteristics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the following genes: (1) calmodulin 1; (2) estrogen receptor 1; (3) tryptophan hydroxylase 1; (3) insulin-like growth factor 1; (5) neurotrophin 3; (6) interleukin-17 receptor C; (7) melatonin receptor 1B, and (8) ScoliScore test. Other predictors

  18. [Orthopedic and surgical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Vialle, Raphaël

    2006-01-31

    Any evolutive scoliosis must be treated actively. The orthopaedic treatment by brace makes it possible to slow down the spinal deformity evolution. In many cases, physiotherapy could be of great help during the conservative treatment phase. Thus, it is possible to contain the scoliosis progression during the rapid growth phase of the spine, in adolescence. In some patients, spinal deformity can remain moderate, making it possible to keep a satisfying function and balance of the spine in adulthood. Sometimes, the orthopaedic treatment alone is not sufficient and surgery is necessary to provide a well-balanced spine with an acceptable residual spinal deformity. The aims of surgical treatment are to correct spinal deformity by means of vertebral osteosynthesis and to stabilize the final correction by means of bone grafting. These surgical procedures made according to strict rules, give excellent functional results and make it possible to carry out a strictly normal adult life.

  19. Characteristics of lateral electrical surface stimulation (LESS) and its effect on the degree of spinal deformity in idiopathic scoliosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Ireneusz M.; Palko, Tadeusz; Pasniczek, Roman; Szarek, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    Clinical studies were carried out in the period of 2003-2006 at the Provincial Children's Rehabilitation Hospital in Ameryka near Olsztyn (Poland). The study involved a group of children and youth exhibiting spinal deformity progression in idiopathic scoliosis (IS) of more than 5° per year according to the Cobb scale. Four hundred and fifty patients between 4 and 15 years of age were divided into three groups (n = 150). Group I and group II received 2-hour and 9-hour lateral electrical surface stimulation (LESS), respectively, whereas group III (control) was treated only with corrective exercises for 30 minutes twice a day. LESS was performed with the use of a battery-operated SCOL-2 stimulator manufactured by Elmech, Warsaw, Poland. The effectiveness of this method was confirmed in the treatment of spinal IS in children and youth, especially when the initial spinal deformity did not exceed 20° according to the Cobb scale. A short-duration electrostimulation (2 hours daily) was found to produce results similar to those obtained after overnight (9 h) electrostimulation. Moreover, the analysis of the Harrington prognostic index F confirms the positive effect of LESS in both groups of patients (2 h and 9 h of LESS).

  20. Motor cortical hyperexcitability in idiopathic scoliosis: could focal dystonia be a subclinical etiological factor?

    PubMed Central

    Tormos, José María; Barrios, Carlos; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    The aetiology of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) remains unknown; however, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that the spine deformity could be the expression of a subclinical nervous system disorder. A defective sensory input or an anomalous sensorimotor integration may lead to an abnormal postural tone and therefore the development of a spine deformity. Inhibition of the motor cortico-cortical excitability is abnormal in dystonia. Therefore, the study of cortico-cortical inhibition may shed some insight into the dystonia hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of IS. Paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to study cortico-cortical inhibition and facilitation in nine adolescents with IS, five teenagers with congenital scoliosis (CS) and eight healthy age-matched controls. The effect of a previous conditioning stimulus (80% intensity of resting motor threshold) on the amplitude of the motor-evoked potential induced by the test stimulus (120% of resting motor threshold) was examined at various interstimulus intervals (ISIs) in both abductor pollicis brevis muscles. The results of healthy adolescents and those with CS showed a marked inhibitory effect of the conditioning stimulus on the response to the test stimulus at interstimulus intervals shorter than 6 ms. These findings do not differ from those reported for normal adults. However, children with IS revealed an abnormally reduced cortico-cortical inhibition at the short ISIs. Cortico-cortical inhibition was practically normal on the side of the scoliotic convexity while it was significantly reduced on the side of the scoliotic concavity. In conclusion, these findings support the hypothesis that a dystonic dysfunction underlies in IS. Asymmetrical cortical hyperexcitability may play an important role in the pathogenesis of IS and represents an objective neurophysiological finding that could be used clinically. PMID:20033462

  1. A Comparison of Cobb Angle: Standing Versus Supine Images of Late-Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Vavruch, Ludvig; Tropp, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Scoliosis is traditionally evaluated by measuring the Cobb angle in radiograph images taken while the patient is standing. However, low-dose computed tomography (CT) images, which are taken while the patient is in a supine position, provide new opportunities to evaluate scoliosis. Few studies have investigated how the patient’s position, standing or supine, affects measurements. The purpose of this study was to compare the Cobb angle in images from patients while standing versus supine. Material/Methods A total of 128 consecutive patients (97 females and 21 males; mean age 15.5 [11–26] years) with late-onset scoliosis requiring corrective surgery were enrolled. One observer evaluated the type of curve (Lenke classification) and measured the Cobb angle in whole-spine radiography (standing) and scout images from low-dose CT (supine) were taken on the same day. Results For all primary curves, the mean Cobb angle was 59° (SD 12°) while standing and 48° (SD 12°) while in the supine position, with a mean difference of 11° (SD 5°). The correlation between primary standing and supine images had an r value of 0.899 (95% CI 0.860–0.928) and an intra-class correlation coefficient value of 0.969. The correlation between the difference in standing and supine images from primary and secondary curves had an r value of 0.340 (95% CI 0.177–0.484). Conclusions We found a strong correlation between the Cobb angle in images obtained while the patient was standing versus supine for primary and secondary curves. This study is only applicable for patients with severe curves requiring surgical treatment. It enables additional studies based on low-dose CT. PMID:27354881

  2. Update on evaluation and treatment of scoliosis.

    PubMed

    El-Hawary, Ron; Chukwunyerenwa, Chukwudi

    2014-12-01

    Scoliosis is a spinal deformity that can be seen in children of all ages. It is most commonly seen as an adolescent idiopathic condition. Progressive scoliosis between 25° and 45° before skeletal and physiologic maturity can be treated with a brace, whereas progressive scoliosis greater than 50° should be treated surgically. For children younger than 10 years, it is important to not only prevent scoliosis from worsening but to also maintain the growth of the spine and chest wall through the use of growth-friendly surgical techniques. Spinal fusion and instrumentation surgery is generally reserved for adolescent patients.

  3. Spontaneous regression of curve in immature idiopathic scoliosis - does spinal column play a role to balance? An observation with literature review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Child with mild scoliosis is always a subject of interest for most orthopaedic surgeons regarding progression. Literature described Hueter-Volkmann theory regarding disc and vertebral wedging, and muscular imbalance for the progression of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. However, many authors reported spontaneous resolution of curves also without any reason for that and the rate of resolution reported is almost 25%. Purpose of this study was to question the role of paraspinal muscle tuning/balancing mechanism, especially in patients with idiopathic scoliosis with early mild curve, for spontaneous regression or progression as well as changing pattern of curves. Methods An observational study of serial radiograms in 169 idiopathic scoliosis children (with minimum follow-up one year) was carried. All children with Cobb angle < 25° and who were diagnosed for the first time were selected. As a sign of immaturity at the time of diagnosis, all children had Risser sign 0. No treatment was given to entire study group. Children were divided in three groups at final follow-up: Group A, B and C as children with regression, no change and progression of their curves, respectively. Additionally changes in the pattern of curve were also noted. Results Average age was 9.2 years at first visit and 10.11 years at final follow-up with an average follow-up of 21 months. 32.5% (55/169), 41.4% (70/169) and 26% (44/169) children exhibited regression, no change and progression in their curves, respectively. 46.1% of children (78/169) showed changing pattern of their curves during the follow-up visits before it settled down to final curve. Comparing final fate of curve with side of curve and number of curves it did not show any relationship (p > 0.05) in our study population. Conclusion Possible reason for changing patterns could be better explained by the tuning/balancing mechanism of spinal column that makes an effort to balance the spine and result into spontaneous regression

  4. Health-related quality-of-life scores, spine-related symptoms, and reoperations in young adults 7 to 17 years after surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Spanyer, Jonathan M; Crawford, Charles H; Canan, Chelsea E; Burke, Lauren O; Heintzman, Sara E; Carreon, Leah Y

    2015-01-01

    The goal of surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is to prevent disability associated with curve progression. Few investigators have considered whether the function of patients with AIS becomes adversely affected by major spine fusion surgery. Tertiary referral center patients (age, 10-17 years) who underwent spinal deformity correction a minimum of 5 years earlier were identified. Scoliosis Research Society-22R (SRS-22R) and Short Form-12 (SF-12) were administered. Data were available for 118 patients. Mean age was 14.1 years at surgery and 26.8 years at follow-up. Mean outcome scores were 50.9 (SF-12 physical composite summary), 49.4 (SF-12 mental composite summary), and 4.0 (SRS-22R total). One hundred patients (85%) were working. Common symptoms included occasional back pain (90, 76%), limited range of motion (52, 44%), activity limitations (54, 46%), waistline imbalance (41, 35%), rib prominence (28, 24%), wound/scar problems (18, 15%), and shortness of breath (18, 15%). Prominent implants were reported by 11 patients (9%). Seven of 14 reoperations were for instrumentation removal. There was a high incidence of occasional back pain and activity complaints after surgery for AIS in our cohort. However, normal SF-12 scores suggested that these symptoms did not lower the patients' general health.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging investigations of position of conus medullaris in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis as a peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hesarikia, Hamid; Azma, Kamran; Kousari, Aliasghar; Nikouei, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a structural 3-dimensional deformity the spine, which is occurring between 10 years of age and skeletal maturity and it mostly affects prepuberbal girls. The etiology of AIS remains unknown and seems should be multifactorial. According to the theories, there could be a shorter spinal cord or a higher location of the conus medullaris and disproportionate growth in neuro-osseous system. This study wants to investigate the position of the conus medullaris in AIS patients with a large curve magnitude in comparison with healthy adolescents. 94 AIS patients consisting of 25 males and 69 females between 11 and 25 years old, based on physical examination and standing posteroanterior roentgenography of the total spine with a Cobb angle more than 40 degrees was chosen. The main curve magnitude of every AIS patient was measured by the Cobb method. Apex of deformity was determined based on SRS definition. Patients' deformity were calcified based on Lenke classification. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the total spine were performed in the AIS group, by means of a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging system. The position of conus medullaris was defined according to the method by saffiudin et al and was assessed based on the age, sex, type of deformity, severity of deformity, kyphosis, lordosis, flexibility, apical vertebra, stable vertebra. The mean age of patients were 16.34 with 6.77 of conus medullaris position in mean, which was lower one-third of L1. Our study showed no significant correlation between the position of conus medullaris with age, weight, preoperative curve, flexibility, types of deformity based on Lenke classification and degree of kyphosis and lordisis. In conclusion, there is the same mean and the distribution of the conus medullaris locations for AIS patients and normal populations.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging investigations of position of conus medullaris in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis as a peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hesarikia, Hamid; Azma, Kamran; Kousari, Aliasghar; Nikouei, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a structural 3-dimensional deformity the spine, which is occurring between 10 years of age and skeletal maturity and it mostly affects prepuberbal girls. The etiology of AIS remains unknown and seems should be multifactorial. According to the theories, there could be a shorter spinal cord or a higher location of the conus medullaris and disproportionate growth in neuro-osseous system. This study wants to investigate the position of the conus medullaris in AIS patients with a large curve magnitude in comparison with healthy adolescents. 94 AIS patients consisting of 25 males and 69 females between 11 and 25 years old, based on physical examination and standing posteroanterior roentgenography of the total spine with a Cobb angle more than 40 degrees was chosen. The main curve magnitude of every AIS patient was measured by the Cobb method. Apex of deformity was determined based on SRS definition. Patients' deformity were calcified based on Lenke classification. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the total spine were performed in the AIS group, by means of a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging system. The position of conus medullaris was defined according to the method by saffiudin et al and was assessed based on the age, sex, type of deformity, severity of deformity, kyphosis, lordosis, flexibility, apical vertebra, stable vertebra. The mean age of patients were 16.34 with 6.77 of conus medullaris position in mean, which was lower one-third of L1. Our study showed no significant correlation between the position of conus medullaris with age, weight, preoperative curve, flexibility, types of deformity based on Lenke classification and degree of kyphosis and lordisis. In conclusion, there is the same mean and the distribution of the conus medullaris locations for AIS patients and normal populations. PMID:26131185

  7. A PAX1 enhancer locus is associated with susceptibility to idiopathic scoliosis in females

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Swarkar; Londono, Douglas; Eckalbar, Walter L.; Gao, Xiaochong; Zhang, Dongping; Mauldin, Kristen; Kou, Ikuyo; Takahashi, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Morio; Kamiya, Nobuhiro; Murphy, Karl K.; Cornelia, Reuel; Karol, L.; Rathjen, K.; Sucato, D.; Birch, J.; Johnston, C.; Richards, B. S.; Milbrandt, T.; Talwakar, V.; Iwinski, H.; Muchow, R.; Tassone, J. C.; Liu, X. -C.; Shindell, R.; Schrader, W.; Eberson, C.; Lapinsky, A.; Loder, R.; Davey, J.; Hosogane, Naobumi; Ogura, Yoji; Takahashi, Yohei; Miyake, Atushi; Watanabe, Kota; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Kono, Katsuki; Kawakami, Noriaki; Tsuji, Taichi; Uno, Koki; Suzuki, Teppei; Ito, Manabu; Sudo, Hideki; Minami, Shohei; Kotani, Toshiaki; Yanagida, Haruhisa; Taneichi, Hiroshi; Yonezawa, Ikuho; Kaneko, Kazuo; Herring, John A.; Burns, Dennis; Ahituv, Nadav; Ikegawa, Shiro; Gordon, Derek; Wise, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a common paediatric musculoskeletal disease that displays a strong female bias. By performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 3,102 individuals, we identify significant associations with 20p11.22 SNPs for females (P=6.89 × 10−9) but not males (P=0.71). This association with IS is also found in independent female cohorts from the United States of America and Japan (overall P=2.15 × 10−10, OR=1.30 (rs6137473)). Unexpectedly, the 20p11.22 IS risk alleles were previously associated with protection from early-onset alopecia, another sexually dimorphic condition. The 174-kb associated locus is distal to PAX1, which encodes paired box 1, a transcription factor involved in spine development. We identify a sequence in the associated locus with enhancer activity in zebrafish somitic muscle and spinal cord, an activity that is abolished by IS-associated SNPs. We thus identify a sexually dimorphic IS susceptibility locus, and propose the first functionally defined candidate mutations in an enhancer that may regulate expression in specific spinal cells. PMID:25784220

  8. Heated indoor swimming pools, infants, and the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a neurogenic hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a case-control study a statistically significant association was recorded between the introduction of infants to heated indoor swimming pools and the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). In this paper, a neurogenic hypothesis is formulated to explain how toxins produced by chlorine in such pools may act deleteriously on the infant's immature central nervous system, comprising brain and spinal cord, to produce the deformity of AIS. Presentation of the hypothesis Through vulnerability of the developing central nervous system to circulating toxins, and because of delayed epigenetic effects, the trunk deformity of AIS does not become evident until adolescence. In mature healthy swimmers using such pools, the circulating neurotoxins detected are chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform. Cyanogen chloride and dichloroacetonitrile have also been detected. Testing the hypothesis In infants, the putative portals of entry to the blood could be dermal, oral, or respiratory; and entry of such circulating small molecules to the brain are via the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and circumventricular organs. Barrier mechanisms of the developing brain differ from those of adult brain and have been linked to brain development. During the first 6 months of life cerebrospinal fluid contains higher concentrations of specific proteins relative to plasma, attributed to mechanisms continued from fetal brain development rather than immaturity. Implications of the hypothesis The hypothesis can be tested. If confirmed, there is potential to prevent some children from developing AIS. PMID:21975145

  9. The correlation between calcaneal valgus angle and asymmetrical thoracic-lumbar rotation angles in patients with adolescent scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaeyong; Lee, Sang Gil; Bae, Jongjin; Lee, Jung Chul

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to provide a predictable evaluation method for the progression of scoliosis in adolescents based on quick and reliable measurements using the naked eye, such as the calcaneal valgus angle of the foot, which can be performed at public facilities such as schools. [Subjects and Methods] Idiopathic scoliosis patients with a Cobb's angle of 10° or more (96 females, 22 males) were included in this study. To identify relationships between factors, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was computed. The degree of scoliosis was set as a dependent variable to predict thoracic and lumbar scoliosis using ankle angle and physique factors. Height, weight, and left and right calcaneal valgus angles were set as independent variables; thereafter, multiple regression analysis was performed. This study extracted variables at a significance level (α) of 0.05 by applying a stepwise method, and calculated a regression equation. [Results] Negative correlation (R=-0.266) was shown between lumbar lordosis and asymmetrical lumbar rotation angles. A correlation (R=0.281) was also demonstrated between left calcaneal valgus angles and asymmetrical thoracic rotation angles. [Conclusion] Prediction of scoliosis progress was revealed to be possible through ocular inspection of the calcaneus and Adams forward bending test and the use of a scoliometer.

  10. The correlation between calcaneal valgus angle and asymmetrical thoracic-lumbar rotation angles in patients with adolescent scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaeyong; Lee, Sang Gil; Bae, Jongjin; Lee, Jung Chul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to provide a predictable evaluation method for the progression of scoliosis in adolescents based on quick and reliable measurements using the naked eye, such as the calcaneal valgus angle of the foot, which can be performed at public facilities such as schools. [Subjects and Methods] Idiopathic scoliosis patients with a Cobb’s angle of 10° or more (96 females, 22 males) were included in this study. To identify relationships between factors, Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient was computed. The degree of scoliosis was set as a dependent variable to predict thoracic and lumbar scoliosis using ankle angle and physique factors. Height, weight, and left and right calcaneal valgus angles were set as independent variables; thereafter, multiple regression analysis was performed. This study extracted variables at a significance level (α) of 0.05 by applying a stepwise method, and calculated a regression equation. [Results] Negative correlation (R=−0.266) was shown between lumbar lordosis and asymmetrical lumbar rotation angles. A correlation (R=0.281) was also demonstrated between left calcaneal valgus angles and asymmetrical thoracic rotation angles. [Conclusion] Prediction of scoliosis progress was revealed to be possible through ocular inspection of the calcaneus and Adams forward bending test and the use of a scoliometer. PMID:26834376

  11. The correlation between calcaneal valgus angle and asymmetrical thoracic-lumbar rotation angles in patients with adolescent scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaeyong; Lee, Sang Gil; Bae, Jongjin; Lee, Jung Chul

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to provide a predictable evaluation method for the progression of scoliosis in adolescents based on quick and reliable measurements using the naked eye, such as the calcaneal valgus angle of the foot, which can be performed at public facilities such as schools. [Subjects and Methods] Idiopathic scoliosis patients with a Cobb's angle of 10° or more (96 females, 22 males) were included in this study. To identify relationships between factors, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was computed. The degree of scoliosis was set as a dependent variable to predict thoracic and lumbar scoliosis using ankle angle and physique factors. Height, weight, and left and right calcaneal valgus angles were set as independent variables; thereafter, multiple regression analysis was performed. This study extracted variables at a significance level (α) of 0.05 by applying a stepwise method, and calculated a regression equation. [Results] Negative correlation (R=-0.266) was shown between lumbar lordosis and asymmetrical lumbar rotation angles. A correlation (R=0.281) was also demonstrated between left calcaneal valgus angles and asymmetrical thoracic rotation angles. [Conclusion] Prediction of scoliosis progress was revealed to be possible through ocular inspection of the calcaneus and Adams forward bending test and the use of a scoliometer. PMID:26834376

  12. "Bone-οn-Bone" surgical reconstruction of moderate severity, flexible single curve adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: continuing improvements of the technique and results in three scoliosis centers after almost twenty years of use.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Robert W; Min, Kan; Zarzycki, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The "bone-on-bone" reconstruction for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is reviewed in this article. Extensive use over the past 18 years has identified it's functional benefits outstanding clinical results, and very limited complications. This is an extensive update of it's application, since it's introduction, 18 years ago. PMID:26000031

  13. Gait stability improvement after fusion surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is influenced by corrective measures in coronal and sagittal planes.

    PubMed

    Paul, Justin C; Patel, Ashish; Bianco, Kristina; Godwin, Ellen; Naziri, Qais; Maier, Stephen; Lafage, Virginie; Paulino, Carl; Errico, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    To achieve optimal results after fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), radiographic parameters must be aligned with motion and performance. The effects of fusion on balance are poorly understood. Center of mass (COM) excursion and instantaneous interaction with center of pressure (COP) provides information about patients' balancing ability during gait. This study investigates the interaction between COM and COP (COM-COP) in AIS patients before and one year after spine fusion and determines what radiographic goals predict restoration of harmonious COM-COP. This was a prospective study that investigated sixteen adolescents with AIS curvature >30˚ requiring surgical correction. Clinical outcomes measures, X-rays, and 3D motion-capture gait analysis were collected. Sagittal and coronal COM and COP offsets and inclination angles were calculated from positional data. COM excursion was calculated as peak COM displacement based on mediolateral and vertical deviation from a line fitted to the patient's path. Radiographic parameters were measured to determine variables predictive of change in COM excursion. Post-operatively, average COM peak displacement decreased (42.6 to 13.1 mm, p=0.001) and COM peak vertical displacement remained unchanged (17.0 to 16.3 mm, p=0.472). COM-COP inclination angles reduced in the coronal, but not sagittal plane. Coronal lower extremity peak inclination angles reduced (8.8˚ to 7.5˚, p=0.025), correlating with C7 plumb-line offset (R=0.581, p=0.018). Thoracic Cobb, thoracic kyphosis, and C7 plumb-line were predictors of change in COM excursion. Mediolateral COM excursion post-surgery may reflect an attempt to reduce kinetic demands with improved spinal alignment. Although AIS correction has historically focused on the coronal plane, sagittal parameters may be more important for motion than previously theorized.

  14. Factors favoring regain of the lost vertical spinal height through posterior spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Benlong; Mao, Saihu; Xu, Leilei; Sun, Xu; Liu, Zhen; Zhu, Zezhang; Lam, Tsz Ping; Cheng, Jack CY; Ng, Bobby; Qiu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Height gain is a common beneficial consequence following correction surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), yet little is known concerning factors favoring regain of the lost vertical spinal height (SH) through posterior spinal fusion. A consecutive series of AIS patients from February 2013 to August 2015 were reviewed. Surgical changes in SH (ΔSH), as well as the multiple coronal and sagittal deformity parameters were measured and correlated. Factors associated with ΔSH were identified through Pearson correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis. A total of 172 single curve and 104 double curve patients were reviewed. The ΔSH averaged 2.5 ± 0.9 cm in single curve group and 2.9 ± 1.0 cm in double curve group. The multivariate regression analysis revealed the following pre-operative variables contributed significantly to ΔSH: pre-op Cobb angle, pre-op TK (single curve group only), pre-op GK (double curve group only) and pre-op LL (double curve group only) (p < 0.05). Thus change in height (in cm) = 0.044 × (pre-op Cobb angle) + 0.012 × (pre-op TK) (Single curve, adjusted R2 = 0.549) or 0.923 + 0.021 × (pre-op Cobb angle1) + 0.028 × (pre-op Cobb angle2) + 0.015 × (pre-op GK)-0.012 × (pre-op LL) (Double curve, adjusted R2 = 0.563). Severer pre-operative coronal Cobb angle and greater sagittal curves were beneficial factors favoring more contribution to the surgical lengthening effect in vertical spinal height in AIS. PMID:27373798

  15. Effects of Multilevel Facetectomy and Screw Density on Postoperative Changes in Spinal Rod Contour in Thoracic Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kokabu, Terufumi; Sudo, Hideki; Abe, Yuichiro; Ito, Manabu; Ito, Yoichi M.; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2016-01-01

    Flattening of the preimplantation rod contour in the sagittal plane influences thoracic kyphosis (TK) restoration in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. The effects of multilevel facetectomy and screw density on postoperative changes in spinal rod contour have not been documented. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of multilevel facetectomy and screw density on changes in spinal rod contour from before implantation to after surgical correction of thoracic curves in patients with AIS prospectively. The concave and convex rod shapes from patients with thoracic AIS (n = 49) were traced prior to insertion. Postoperative sagittal rod shape was determined by computed tomography. The angle of intersection of the tangents to the rod end points was measured. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was used to identify variables independently predictive of change in rod contour (Δθ). Average Δθ at the concave and convex side were 13.6° ± 7.5° and 4.3° ± 4.8°, respectively. The Δθ at the concave side was significantly greater than that of the convex side (P < 0.0001) and significantly correlated with Risser sign (P = 0.032), the preoperative main thoracic Cobb angle (P = 0.031), the preoperative TK angle (P = 0.012), and the number of facetectomy levels (P = 0.007). Furthermore, a Δθ at the concave side ≥14° significantly correlated with the postoperative TK angle (P = 0.003), the number of facetectomy levels (P = 0.021), and screw density at the concave side (P = 0.008). Rod deformation at the concave side suggests that corrective forces acting on that side are greater than on the convex side. Multilevel facetectomy and/or screw density at the concave side have positive effects on reducing the rod deformation that can lead to a loss of TK angle postoperatively. PMID:27564683

  16. Effects of Multilevel Facetectomy and Screw Density on Postoperative Changes in Spinal Rod Contour in Thoracic Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kokabu, Terufumi; Sudo, Hideki; Abe, Yuichiro; Ito, Manabu; Ito, Yoichi M; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2016-01-01

    Flattening of the preimplantation rod contour in the sagittal plane influences thoracic kyphosis (TK) restoration in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. The effects of multilevel facetectomy and screw density on postoperative changes in spinal rod contour have not been documented. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of multilevel facetectomy and screw density on changes in spinal rod contour from before implantation to after surgical correction of thoracic curves in patients with AIS prospectively. The concave and convex rod shapes from patients with thoracic AIS (n = 49) were traced prior to insertion. Postoperative sagittal rod shape was determined by computed tomography. The angle of intersection of the tangents to the rod end points was measured. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was used to identify variables independently predictive of change in rod contour (Δθ). Average Δθ at the concave and convex side were 13.6° ± 7.5° and 4.3° ± 4.8°, respectively. The Δθ at the concave side was significantly greater than that of the convex side (P < 0.0001) and significantly correlated with Risser sign (P = 0.032), the preoperative main thoracic Cobb angle (P = 0.031), the preoperative TK angle (P = 0.012), and the number of facetectomy levels (P = 0.007). Furthermore, a Δθ at the concave side ≥14° significantly correlated with the postoperative TK angle (P = 0.003), the number of facetectomy levels (P = 0.021), and screw density at the concave side (P = 0.008). Rod deformation at the concave side suggests that corrective forces acting on that side are greater than on the convex side. Multilevel facetectomy and/or screw density at the concave side have positive effects on reducing the rod deformation that can lead to a loss of TK angle postoperatively.

  17. Factors favoring regain of the lost vertical spinal height through posterior spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Benlong; Mao, Saihu; Xu, Leilei; Sun, Xu; Liu, Zhen; Zhu, Zezhang; Lam, Tsz Ping; Cheng, Jack Cy; Ng, Bobby; Qiu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Height gain is a common beneficial consequence following correction surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), yet little is known concerning factors favoring regain of the lost vertical spinal height (SH) through posterior spinal fusion. A consecutive series of AIS patients from February 2013 to August 2015 were reviewed. Surgical changes in SH (ΔSH), as well as the multiple coronal and sagittal deformity parameters were measured and correlated. Factors associated with ΔSH were identified through Pearson correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis. A total of 172 single curve and 104 double curve patients were reviewed. The ΔSH averaged 2.5 ± 0.9 cm in single curve group and 2.9 ± 1.0 cm in double curve group. The multivariate regression analysis revealed the following pre-operative variables contributed significantly to ΔSH: pre-op Cobb angle, pre-op TK (single curve group only), pre-op GK (double curve group only) and pre-op LL (double curve group only) (p < 0.05). Thus change in height (in cm) = 0.044 × (pre-op Cobb angle) + 0.012 × (pre-op TK) (Single curve, adjusted R(2) = 0.549) or 0.923 + 0.021 × (pre-op Cobb angle1) + 0.028 × (pre-op Cobb angle2) + 0.015 × (pre-op GK)-0.012 × (pre-op LL) (Double curve, adjusted R(2) = 0.563). Severer pre-operative coronal Cobb angle and greater sagittal curves were beneficial factors favoring more contribution to the surgical lengthening effect in vertical spinal height in AIS. PMID:27373798

  18. Association between Common Variants near LBX1 and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Replicated in the Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Guoyan; Liang, Anjing; Ye, Wei; Zhang, Liangming; Sharma, Swarkar; Su, Peiqiang; Huang, Dongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is one of the most common spinal deformities found in adolescent populations. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Japanese population indicated that three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs11190870, rs625039 and rs11598564, all located near the LBX1 gene, may be associated with AIS susceptibility [1]. This study suggests a novel AIS predisposition candidate gene and supports the hypothesis that somatosensory functional disorders could contribute to the pathogenesis of AIS. These findings warrant replication in other populations. Methodology/Principal Findings First, we conducted a case-control study consisting of 953 Chinese Han individuals from southern China (513 patients and 440 healthy controls), and the three SNPs were all found to be associated with AIS predisposition. The ORs were observed as 1.49 (95% CI 1.23–1.80, P = 5.09E-5), 1.70 (95% CI 1.42–2.04, P = 1.17E-8) and 1.52 (95% CI 1.27–1.83, P = 5.54E-6) for rs625039, rs11190870 and rs11598564, respectively. Second, a case-only study including a subgroup of AIS patients (N = 234) was performed to determine the effects of these variants on the severity of the condition. However, we did not find any association between these variants and the severity of curvature. Conclusion This study shows that the genetic variants near the LBX1 gene are associated with AIS susceptibility in Chinese Han population. It successfully replicates the results of the GWAS, which was performed in a Japanese population. PMID:23308168

  19. Effects of Multilevel Facetectomy and Screw Density on Postoperative Changes in Spinal Rod Contour in Thoracic Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kokabu, Terufumi; Sudo, Hideki; Abe, Yuichiro; Ito, Manabu; Ito, Yoichi M; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2016-01-01

    Flattening of the preimplantation rod contour in the sagittal plane influences thoracic kyphosis (TK) restoration in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. The effects of multilevel facetectomy and screw density on postoperative changes in spinal rod contour have not been documented. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of multilevel facetectomy and screw density on changes in spinal rod contour from before implantation to after surgical correction of thoracic curves in patients with AIS prospectively. The concave and convex rod shapes from patients with thoracic AIS (n = 49) were traced prior to insertion. Postoperative sagittal rod shape was determined by computed tomography. The angle of intersection of the tangents to the rod end points was measured. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was used to identify variables independently predictive of change in rod contour (Δθ). Average Δθ at the concave and convex side were 13.6° ± 7.5° and 4.3° ± 4.8°, respectively. The Δθ at the concave side was significantly greater than that of the convex side (P < 0.0001) and significantly correlated with Risser sign (P = 0.032), the preoperative main thoracic Cobb angle (P = 0.031), the preoperative TK angle (P = 0.012), and the number of facetectomy levels (P = 0.007). Furthermore, a Δθ at the concave side ≥14° significantly correlated with the postoperative TK angle (P = 0.003), the number of facetectomy levels (P = 0.021), and screw density at the concave side (P = 0.008). Rod deformation at the concave side suggests that corrective forces acting on that side are greater than on the convex side. Multilevel facetectomy and/or screw density at the concave side have positive effects on reducing the rod deformation that can lead to a loss of TK angle postoperatively. PMID:27564683

  20. The effects of load carriage and bracing on the balance of schoolgirls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Dawn S. S.; Holmes, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    The balance function of children is known to be affected by carriage of a school backpack. Children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) tend to show poorer balance performance, and are typically treated by bracing, which further affects balance. The objective of this study is to examine the combined effects of school backpack carriage and bracing on girls with AIS. A force platform was used to record center of pressure (COP) motion in 20 schoolgirls undergoing thoraco-lumbar-sacral orthosis (TLSO brace) treatment for AIS. COP data were recorded with and without brace while carrying a backpack loaded at 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15% of the participant’s bodyweight (BW). Ten participants stood on a solid base and ten stood on a foam base, while all participants kept their eyes closed throughout. Sway parameters were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. No effect of bracing was found for the participants standing on the solid base, but wearing the brace significantly increased the sway area, displacement and medio-lateral amplitude in the participants standing on the foam base. The medio-lateral sway amplitude of participants standing on the solid base significantly increased with backpack load, whereas significant increases in antero-posterior sway amplitude, sway path length, sway area per second and short term diffusion coefficient were found in participants standing on the foam base. The poorer balance performance exhibited by participants with AIS when visual and somatosensory input is challenged appears to be exacerbated by wearing a TLSO brace, but no interactive effect between bracing and backpack loading was found. PMID:17340156

  1. A polygenic burden of rare variants across extracellular matrix genes among individuals with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Haller, Gabe; Alvarado, David; Mccall, Kevin; Yang, Ping; Cruchaga, Carlos; Harms, Matthew; Goate, Alison; Willing, Marcia; Morcuende, Jose A; Baschal, Erin; Miller, Nancy H; Wise, Carol; Dobbs, Matthew B; Gurnett, Christina A

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a complex inherited spinal deformity whose etiology has been elusive. While common genetic variants are associated with AIS, they explain only a small portion of disease risk. To explore the role of rare variants in AIS susceptibility, exome sequence data of 391 severe AIS cases and 843 controls of European ancestry were analyzed using a pathway burden analysis in which variants are first collapsed at the gene level then by Gene Ontology terms. Novel non-synonymous/splice-site variants in extracellular matrix genes were significantly enriched in AIS cases compared with controls (P = 6 × 10(-9), OR = 1.7, CI = 1.4-2.0). Specifically, novel variants in musculoskeletal collagen genes were present in 32% (126/391) of AIS cases compared with 17% (146/843) of in-house controls and 18% (780/4300) of EVS controls (P = 1 × 10(-9), OR = 1.9, CI = 1.6-2.4). Targeted resequencing of six collagen genes replicated this association in combined 919 AIS cases (P = 3 × 10(-12), OR = 2.2, CI = 1.8-2.7) and revealed a highly significant single-gene association with COL11A2 (P = 6 × 10(-9), OR = 3.8, CI = 2.6-7.2). Importantly, AIS cases harbor mainly non-glycine missense mutations and lack the clinical features of monogenic musculoskeletal collagenopathies. Overall, our study reveals a complex genetic architecture of AIS in which a polygenic burden of rare variants across extracellular matrix genes contributes strongly to risk. PMID:26566670

  2. Surgical treatment of Lenke 5 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Comparison of anterior vs posterior approach

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Mark F; Singla, Anuj; Feger, Mark A; Sauer, Lindsay D; Novicoff, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the posterior vs anterior approaches for fusion of Lenke 5 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves, matched for curve magnitude and for the distal level of fixation (dLOF) standardized to the third lumbar vertebrae (L3). METHODS A prospectively collected multicenter database was used for this retrospective comparative study. Our dependent variables included sagittal and coronal radiographic measurements, number of fused vertebrae, estimated blood loss, length of hospitalization and SRS total and individual domain scores at the two-year follow-up. Subject demographics were similar for all group comparisons. Independent t-test was used to compare groups for all analyses at P < 0.01. RESULTS For all matched cases of Lenke 5 curves, a selective approach was used only 50% of the time in cases undergoing a posterior fusion. When comparing a posterior selective approach to an anterior selective approach, surgeons utilizing a posterior approach fused significantly more levels than surgeons using an anterior approach with no other significant differences in radiographic or SRS outcomes (Ant = 4.8 ± 1.0 levels vs post = 6.1 ± 1.0 levels, P < 0.0001). When the dLOF was standardized to L3, the anterior approached provided significantly greater lumbar Cobb percent correction than the posterior approach (Ant = 69.1% ± 12.6% vs post = 54.6% ± 16.4%, P = 0.004), with no other significant radiographic or SRS score differences between approaches. CONCLUSION Surgeons treating Lenke 5c curves with a posterior instrumentation and fusion vs an anterior approach include more motion segments, even with a selective fusion. When controlled for the distal level of fixation, the anterior approach provides greater correction of the thoracolumbar curve.

  3. Surgical treatment of Lenke 5 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: Comparison of anterior vs posterior approach

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Mark F; Singla, Anuj; Feger, Mark A; Sauer, Lindsay D; Novicoff, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the posterior vs anterior approaches for fusion of Lenke 5 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis curves, matched for curve magnitude and for the distal level of fixation (dLOF) standardized to the third lumbar vertebrae (L3). METHODS A prospectively collected multicenter database was used for this retrospective comparative study. Our dependent variables included sagittal and coronal radiographic measurements, number of fused vertebrae, estimated blood loss, length of hospitalization and SRS total and individual domain scores at the two-year follow-up. Subject demographics were similar for all group comparisons. Independent t-test was used to compare groups for all analyses at P < 0.01. RESULTS For all matched cases of Lenke 5 curves, a selective approach was used only 50% of the time in cases undergoing a posterior fusion. When comparing a posterior selective approach to an anterior selective approach, surgeons utilizing a posterior approach fused significantly more levels than surgeons using an anterior approach with no other significant differences in radiographic or SRS outcomes (Ant = 4.8 ± 1.0 levels vs post = 6.1 ± 1.0 levels, P < 0.0001). When the dLOF was standardized to L3, the anterior approached provided significantly greater lumbar Cobb percent correction than the posterior approach (Ant = 69.1% ± 12.6% vs post = 54.6% ± 16.4%, P = 0.004), with no other significant radiographic or SRS score differences between approaches. CONCLUSION Surgeons treating Lenke 5c curves with a posterior instrumentation and fusion vs an anterior approach include more motion segments, even with a selective fusion. When controlled for the distal level of fixation, the anterior approach provides greater correction of the thoracolumbar curve. PMID:27672568

  4. Scoliosis in patients with aortic coarctation and patent ductus arteriosus: does standard posterolateral thoracotomy play a role in the development of the lateral curve of the spine?

    PubMed

    Roclawski, Marek; Sabiniewicz, Robert; Potaz, Piotr; Smoczynski, Andrzej; Pankowski, Rafal; Mazurek, Tomasz; Daibo, Bawo

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of lateral thoracotomy on the development of scoliosis in subjects undergoing repair of coarctation of the aorta (CoA) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). A group of 133 patients with CoA and PDA was evaluated. Forty-five patients with CoA and 38 with PDA underwent surgery using standard posterolateral thoracotomy (operative group), whereas 12 patients with CoA and 31 with PDA were treated using balloon dilatation and stent or coil implantation (nonoperative group). A spinal examination, together with the evaluation of chest and spinal roentgenograms, was conducted. Among the operated patients, 62% of those with CoA and 55% of those with PDA had clinical scoliosis. In the nonoperated patients, scoliosis was present in only 25% of those with CoA and 16% of those with PDA. Scoliosis ranged between 10 degrees and 42 degrees . In 89% of the operated patients with CoA and 76% of those with PDA the curve was thoracic; in 46% of the CoA group and 57% of the PDA group the curve was left-sided. All curves were right-sided in nonoperated subjects. Scoliosis in the operated group was higher in male than in female subjects (63% vs. 60% in CoA and 86% vs. 37% in PDA). The prevalence of scoliosis after standard posterolateral thoracotomy was significantly higher than after nonsurgical treatment methods in the CoA and PDA groups as well as in the general population. The rate of single thoracic and the rate of left-sided thoracic curves in patients after thoracotomy is higher than in nonoperated patients or in those with idiopathic scoliosis. The rate of scoliosis after thoracotomy is higher in male than female patients, especially after thoracotomy for PDA. PMID:19597861

  5. Lack of association between the CHL1 gene and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis susceptibility in Han Chinese: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) suggested a strong association between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10510181 in the proximity of the gene encoding a cell adhesion molecule with homology to L1CAM (CHL1) and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in Caucasians. To clarify the role of CHL1 in the etiopathogenesis of AIS, we performed a case-control replication study in a Han Chinese population. Methods Five hundred female AIS patients between 10 and 18 years of age, as well as 500 age- and sex-matched controls were included. This study was conducted as a 2-stage case-control analysis: initial screening for the association between AIS and SNPs in and around the CHL1 gene (186 cases and 169 controls) followed by a confirmation test (314 cases and 331 controls). rs10510181 and 4 SNPs (rs2055314, rs331894, rs2272522, and rs2272524) in the CHL1 gene were selected for genotyping. Results Putative associations were shown between AIS and rs10510181, rs2055314, and rs2272522 in stage I. However, the associations were not confirmed in stage II. For rs10510181, the genotype frequencies were GG 28.8%, GA 46.2%, and AA 25.0% in AIS patients and GG 29.8%, GA 48.8%, and AA 21.4% in controls. No significant difference was found in genotype distribution between cases and controls (P = 0.39). Similarly, the genotype and allele distribution were comparable between case and control for rs2055314 and rs2272522. Conclusions There was no statistical association between polymorphisms of the CHL1 gene and idiopathic scoliosis in a Chinese population. PMID:24512353

  6. Whither the etiopathogenesis (and scoliogeny) of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? Incorporating presentations on scoliogeny at the 2012 IRSSD and SRS meetings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to integrate into current understanding of AIS causation, etiopathogenetic information presented at two Meetings during 2012 namely, the International Research Society of Spinal Deformities (IRSSD) and the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS). The ultimate hope is to prevent the occurrence or progression of the spinal deformity of AIS with non-invasive treatment, possibly medical. This might be attained by personalised polymechanistic preventive therapy targeting the appropriate etiology and/or etiopathogenetic pathways, to avoid fusion and maintain spinal mobility. Although considerable progress had been made in the past two decades in understanding the etiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), it still lacks an agreed theory of etiopathogenesis. One problem may be that AIS results not from one cause, but several that interact with various genetic predisposing factors. There is a view there are two other pathogenic processes for idiopathic scoliosis namely, initiating (or inducing), and those that cause curve progression. Twin studies and observations of family aggregation have revealed significant genetic contributions to idiopathic scoliosis, that place AIS among other common disease or complex traits with a high heritability interpreted by the genetic variant hypothesis of disease. We summarize etiopathogenetic knowledge of AIS as theories of pathogenesis including recent multiple concepts, and blood tests for AIS based on predictive biomarkers and genetic variants that signify disease risk. There is increasing evidence for the possibility of an underlying neurological disorder for AIS, research which holds promise. Like brain research, most AIS workers focus on their own corner and there is a need for greater integration of research effort. Epigenetics, a relatively recent field, evaluates factors concerned with gene expression in relation to environment, disease, normal development and aging, with a complex regulation across the

  7. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis screening for school, community, and clinical health promotion practice utilizing the PRECEDE-PROCEED model

    PubMed Central

    Mirtz, Timothy A; Thompson, Mark A; Greene, Leon; Wyatt, Lawrence A; Akagi, Cynthia G

    2005-01-01

    Background Screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a commonly performed procedure for school children during the high risk years. The PRECEDE-PROCEDE (PP) model is a health promotion planning model that has not been utilized for the clinical diagnosis of AIS. The purpose of this research is to study AIS in the school age population using the PP model and its relevance for community, school, and clinical health promotion. Methods MEDLINE was utilized to locate AIS data. Studies were screened for relevance and applicability under the auspices of the PP model. Where data was unavailable, expert opinion was utilized based on consensus. Results The social assessment of quality of life is limited with few studies approaching the long-term effects of AIS. Epidemiologically, AIS is the most common form of scoliosis and leading orthopedic problem in children. Behavioral/environmental studies focus on discovering etiologic relationships yet this data is confounded because AIS is not a behavioral. Illness and parenting health behaviors can be appreciated. The educational diagnosis is confounded because AIS is an orthopedic disorder and not behavioral. The administration/policy diagnosis is hindered in that scoliosis screening programs are not considered cost-effective. Policies are determined in some schools because 26 states mandate school scoliosis screening. There exists potential error with the Adam's test. The most widely used measure in the PP model, the Health Belief Model, has not been utilized in any AIS research. Conclusion The PP model is a useful tool for a comprehensive study of a particular health concern. This research showed where gaps in AIS research exist suggesting that there may be problems to the implementation of school screening. Until research disparities are filled, implementation of AIS screening by school, community, and clinical health promotion will be compromised. Lack of data and perceived importance by school/community health

  8. A Retrospective Study of Congenital Cardiac Abnormality Associated with Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Ucpunar, Hanifi; Sevencan, Ahmet; Balioglu, Mehmet Bulent; Albayrak, Akif; Polat, Veli

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To identify the incidence of congenital cardiac abnormalities in patients who had scoliosis and underwent surgical treatment for scoliosis. Overview of Literature Congenital and idiopathic scoliosis (IS) are associated with cardiac abnormalities. We sought to establish and compare the incidence of congenital cardiac abnormalities in patients with idiopathic and congenital scoliosis (CS) who underwent surgical treatment for scoliosis. Methods Ninety consecutive scoliosis patients, who underwent surgical correction of scoliosis, were classified as CS (55 patients, 28 female [51%]) and IS (35 patients, 21 female [60%]). The complete data of the patients, including medical records, plain radiograph and transthoracic echocardiography were retrospectively assessed. Results We found that mitral valve prolapse was the most common cardiac abnormality in both patients with IS (nine patients, 26%) and CS (13 patients, 24%). Other congenital cardiac abnormalities were atrial septal aneurysm (23% of IS patients, 18% of CS patients), pulmonary insufficiency (20% of IS patients, 4% of CS patients), aortic insufficiency (17% of IS patients), atrial septal defect (11% of IS patients, 13% of CS patients), patent foramen ovale (15% of CS patients), dextrocardia (4% of CS patients), bicuspid aortic valve (3% of IS patients), aortic stenosis (2% of CS patients), ventricular septal defect (2% of CS patients), and cardiomyopathy (2% of CS patients). Conclusions We determined the increased incidence of congenital cardiac abnormalities among patients with congenital and IS. Mitral valve prolapse appeared to be the most prevalent congenital cardiac abnormality in both groups. PMID:27114761

  9. The pendulum swings back to scoliosis screening: screening policies for early detection and treatment of idiopathic scoliosis - current concepts and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This editorial article initiates the school scoliosis screening thematic series of the Scoliosis journal. The various issues on screening policies are discussed; clinical and practical recommendations of setting up school screening programs are also described. PMID:24165694

  10. Long-term three-dimensional changes of the spine after posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Papin, P; Labelle, H; Delorme, S; Aubin, C E; de Guise, J A; Dansereau, J

    1999-01-01

    This is a prospective study comparing the short- and long-term three-dimensional (3D) changes in shape, length and balance of the spine after spinal instrumentation and fusion in a group of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the stability over time of the postoperative changes of the spine after instrumentation with multi rod, hook and screw instrumentation systems. Thirty adolescents (average age: 14.5+/-1.6 years) undergoing surgery by a posterior approach had computerized 3D reconstructions of the spine done at an average of 3 days preoperatively (stage I), and 2 months (stage II) and 2,5 years (stage III) after surgery, using a digital multi-planar radiographic technique. Stages I, II and III were compared using various geometrical parameters of spinal length, curve severity, and orientation. Significant improvement of curve magnitude between stages I and II was documented in the frontal plane for thoracic and lumbar curves, as well as in the orientation of the plane of maximum deformity, which was significantly shifted towards the sagittal plane in thoracic curves. However, there was a significant loss of this correction between stages II and III. Slight changes were noted in apical vertebral rotation, in thoracic kyphosis and in lumbar lordosis. Spinal length and height were significantly increased at stage II, but at long-term follow-up spinal length continued to increase while spinal height remained similar. These results indicate that although a significant 3D correction can be obtained after posterior instrumentation and fusion, a significant loss of correction and an increase in spinal length occur in the years following surgery, suggesting that a crankshaft phenomenon may be an important factor altering the long-term 3D correction after posterior instrumentation of the spine for idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:10190849

  11. Effects of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and weight distribution of patients with scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gichul; HwangBo, Pil-neo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and body weight distribution of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. [Subjects] Twenty-four scoliosis patients with a Cobb angle of ≥20° were divided into the Schroth exercise group (SEG, n = 12) and the Pilates exercise group (PEG, n = 12). [Methods] The SEG and PEG performed Schroth and Pilates exercises, respectively, three times a week for 12 weeks. The Cobb angle was measured in the standing position with a radiography apparatus, and weight load was measured with Gait View Pro 1.0. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant changes in the Cobb angle. For weight distribution, the SEG showed significant differences in the total weight between the concave and convex sides, but the PEG did not show significant differences. Furthermore, in the intragroup comparison, the SEG showed significant differences in the changes in the Cobb angle and weight distribution compared with the PEG. [Conclusion] Both Schroth and Pilates exercises were effective in changing the Cobb angle and weight distribution of scoliosis patients; however, the intergroup comparison showed that the Schroth exercise was more effective than the Pilates exercise. PMID:27134403

  12. Effects of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and weight distribution of patients with scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gichul; HwangBo, Pil-Neo

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and body weight distribution of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. [Subjects] Twenty-four scoliosis patients with a Cobb angle of ≥20° were divided into the Schroth exercise group (SEG, n = 12) and the Pilates exercise group (PEG, n = 12). [Methods] The SEG and PEG performed Schroth and Pilates exercises, respectively, three times a week for 12 weeks. The Cobb angle was measured in the standing position with a radiography apparatus, and weight load was measured with Gait View Pro 1.0. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant changes in the Cobb angle. For weight distribution, the SEG showed significant differences in the total weight between the concave and convex sides, but the PEG did not show significant differences. Furthermore, in the intragroup comparison, the SEG showed significant differences in the changes in the Cobb angle and weight distribution compared with the PEG. [Conclusion] Both Schroth and Pilates exercises were effective in changing the Cobb angle and weight distribution of scoliosis patients; however, the intergroup comparison showed that the Schroth exercise was more effective than the Pilates exercise. PMID:27134403

  13. Radiation exposure to patients receiving routine scoliosis radiography measured at depth in an anthropomorphic phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Dutkowsky, J.P.; Shearer, D.; Schepps, B.; Orton, C.; Scola, F. )

    1990-07-01

    Concern about the amount of radiation received during scoliosis evaluation and treatment led us to measure radiation exposure in an anthropomorphic phantom to determine the increased risk of breast cancer in young women with scoliosis. Assuming that 22 radiographic examinations were performed over the course of scoliosis treatment, the increased relative risk of breast cancer was determined to be 0.22% in these patients.

  14. Identification of candidate diagnostic biomarkers for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using UPLC/QTOF-MS analysis: a first report of lipid metabolism profiles

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhi-jian; Jia, Hong-mei; Qiu, Gui-xing; Zhou, Chao; Guo, Shigong; Zhang, Jian-guo; Shen, Jian-xiong; Zhao, Yu; Zou, Zhong-mei

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a complex spine deformity, affecting approximately 1–3% adolescents. Earlier diagnosis could increase the likelihood of successful conservative treatment and hence reduce the need for surgical intervention. We conducted a serum metabonomic study to explore the potential biomarkers of AIS for early diagnosis. Serum metabolic profiles were firstly explored between 30 AIS patients and 31 healthy controls by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Then, the candidate metabolites were validated in an independent cohort including 31 AIS patients and 44 controls. The results showed that metabolic profiles of AIS patients generally deviated from healthy controls in both the discovery set and replication set. Seven differential metabolites were identified as candidate diagnostic biomarkers, including PC(20:4), 2-hexenoylcarnitine, beta-D-glucopyranuronicacid, DG(38:9), MG(20:3), LysoPC(18:2) and LysoPC(16:0). These candidate metabolites indicated disrupted lipid metabolism in AIS, including glycerophospholipid, glycerolipid and fatty acid metabolism. Elevated expressions of adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone sensitive lipase in adipose tissue further corroborated our findings of increased lipid metabolism in AIS. Our findings suggest that differential metabolites discovered in AIS could be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers and that lipid metabolism plays a role in the pathogenesis of AIS. PMID:26928931

  15. XbaI and PvuII Polymorphisms of Estrogen Receptor 1 Gene in Females with Idiopathic Scoliosis: No Association with Occurrence or Clinical Form

    PubMed Central

    Janusz, Piotr; Kotwicki, Tomasz; Andrusiewicz, Miroslaw; Kotwicka, Malgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Introduction XbaI single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A/G rs934099) in estrogen receptor 1 gene (ESR1) was described to be associated with curve severity in Japanese idiopathic scoliosis (IS) patients and in Chinese patients with both curve severity and predisposition to IS. PvuII SNP (C/T rs2234693) of ESR1 was described to be associated with the occurrence of IS in the Chinese population; however, two replication studies did not confirm the findings. The ESR1 SNPs have never been studied in Caucasian IS patients. Methods Case-control study. 287 females with IS underwent clinical, radiological and genetic examinations. The patients were divided into three groups according to curve progression velocity: non-progressive IS, slowly progressive IS (progression <1° per month), and rapidly progressive IS (progression ≥1° per month). The radiological maximum Cobb angle was measured and surgery rate established. A control group consisted of 182 healthy females. Results All results followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In the case-control study, genotype frequency in the patients did not differ for the XbaI (AA = 33.5%, AG = 49.1%, GG = 17.4%), nor for the PvuII (TT = 26.8%, TC = 50.2%, CC = 23.0%) comparing to controls (AA = 33.5%, AG = 50.5%, GG = 15.9%) and (TT = 23.1%, TC = 51.1%, CC = 25.8%), respectively, p = 0.3685, p = 0.6046. The haplotype frequency for the patients (AT = 47.1%, GC = 39.2%, AC = 8.9%, GT = 2.8%) did not differ from the controls (AT = 44.8%, GC = 37.4%, AC = 14.0%, GT = 3.8%), p = 0.0645. No difference was found either in XbaI (p = 0.8671) or PvuII (p = 0.3601) allele distribution between the patients and the controls. In the case study, there was no significant difference in genotype frequency for the non-progressive, slowly progressive, and rapidly progressive scoliosis. No difference was found in genotype or haplotype distribution for the

  16. The effect of compliance to a Rigo System Cheneau brace and a specific exercise programme on idiopathic scoliosis curvature: a comparative study: SOSORT 2014 award winner

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is controversy as to whether conservative management that includes wearing a brace and exercises is effective in stabilising idiopathic scoliosis curves. A brace only prevents progression of the curve and has been shown to have favourable outcomes when patients are compliant. So the aim of this study was to: determine the effect of compliance to the Rigo System Cheneau (RSC) brace and a specific exercise programme on Idiopathic Scoliosis curvature; and to compare the Quality of Life (QoL) and psychological traits of compliant and non compliant subjects. Methods A pre/post test study design was used with a post study comparison between subjects who complied with the management and those who did not. Fifty one subjects, girls aged 12-16 years, Cobb angles 20-50 degrees participated in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups, according to their compliance, at the end of the study. The compliant group wore the brace 20 or more hours a day and exercised three or more times per week. The non-compliant group wore the brace less than 20 hours a day and exercised less than three times per week. Cobb angles, vertebral rotation, scoliometer readings, peak flow, quality of life and personality traits were compared between groups, using the student’s two sample t-test and an analysis of covariance. Results The compliant group, wore the brace 21.5 hours per day and exercised four times a week, and significantly improved in all measures compared to non compliant subjects, who wore the brace 12 hours per day, exercised 1.7 times a week and significantly deteriorated (p < 0.0001). The major Cobb angles in the compliant group improved 10.19°(±5.5) and deteriorated 5.52°(±4.3) in the non compliant group (p < 0.0001). Compliant subjects had a significantly better QoL than the non compliant subjects (p = 0.001). The compliant group were significantly more emotionally mature, stable and realistic than the non compliant group (p = 0

  17. Evaluation of IRX Genes and Conserved Noncoding Elements in a Region on 5p13.3 Linked to Families with Familial Idiopathic Scoliosis and Kyphosis

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Cristina M.; Bishop, Kevin; Carrington, Blake; Mullikin, Jim C.; Swindle, Kandice; Marosy, Beth; Sood, Raman; Miller, Nancy H.; Wilson, Alexander F.

    2016-01-01

    Because of genetic heterogeneity present in idiopathic scoliosis, we previously defined clinical subsets (a priori) from a sample of families with idiopathic scoliosis to find genes involved with spinal curvature. Previous genome-wide linkage analysis of seven families with at least two individuals with kyphoscoliosis found linkage (P-value = 0.002) in a 3.5-Mb region on 5p13.3 containing only three known genes, IRX1, IRX2, and IRX4. In this study, the exons of IRX1, IRX2, and IRX4, the conserved noncoding elements in the region, and the exons of a nonprotein coding RNA, LOC285577, were sequenced. No functional sequence variants were identified. An intrafamilial test of association found several associated noncoding single nucleotide variants. The strongest association was with rs12517904 (P = 0.00004), located 6.5 kb downstream from IRX1. In one family, the genotypes of nine variants differed from the reference allele in all individuals with kyphoscoliosis, and two of three individuals with scoliosis, but did not differ from the reference allele in all other genotyped individuals. One of these variants, rs117273909, was located in a conserved noncoding region that functions as an enhancer in mice. To test whether the variant allele at rs117273909 had an effect on enhancer activity, zebrafish transgenesis was performed with overlapping fragments of 198 and 687 bp containing either the wild type or the variant allele. Our data suggests that this region acts as a regulatory element; however, its size and target gene(s) need to be identified to determine its role in idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:27172222

  18. Timing of menarche in Chinese girls with and without adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: current results and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mao, Sai-Hu; Jiang, Jun; Sun, Xu; Zhao, Qinghua; Qian, Bang-Ping; Liu, Zhen; Shu, Hao; Qiu, Yong

    2011-02-01

    Age at menarche is closely related to scoliosis progression during adolescence. Current data concerning the timing of menarche between scoliotic and non-scoliotic girls in the literature are conflicting, with inconclusive results. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution difference of age at menarche for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) girls and normal control population and to subsequently elucidate the menarche age difference through literature reviewing. Moreover, menarche age of AIS girls with Cobb angle <40°, 40-60°, >60° were compared to estimate its association with curve severity. Menstrual status data were available for 6,376 healthy female adolescents and 2,196 AIS girls. We notice that less than 10% of healthy Chinese girls experienced onset of menses before 11.38 years, and approximately 90% of healthy Chinese girls were menstruating by 13.88 years, with a median age of 12.63 years. As for AIS girls, less than 10% started to menstruate before 11.27 years, and approximately 90% were menstruating by 14.38 years, with a median age of 12.83 years. Average menarche age in AIS (12.83 ± 1.22 years) was significantly later than that of normal control girls (12.63 ± 0.98 years) (p < 0.001). Age at menarche for AIS affected girls was significantly greater than that of normal control girls at 75%, 90% of whom had attained menarche (p = 0.001, p < 0.001). Proportion of girls starting to menstruate after 14 years was significantly higher in AIS population compared with normal controls (16.3 vs. 8.1%, p < 0.001). In addition, AIS girls with Cobb angle >60° experienced onset of menses at an average age of 13.25 years, which was significantly later than AIS girls with Cobb angle <40° (12.81 years, p < 0.05) and marginally significantly later than AIS girls with Cobb angle between 40 and 60° (12.86 years, p = 0.053). In conclusion, a tendency of delayed onset of menarche was observed in Chinese idiopathic scoliotic girls in this large

  19. Raster-stereographic evaluation of the effects of biomechanical foot orthoses in patients with scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Min; Ahn, Sang-Ho; Lee, A-Young; Park, In-Sik; Cho, Yun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Little is known about the effects of biomechanical foot orthoses in scoliosis, as determined by raster stereography. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of individually manufactured biomechanical foot orthoses on scoliosis angle, trunk imbalance, and pelvic obliquity by comparing them with general insoles by using DIERS formetric 4 dimensional in patients with scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six patients with scoliosis were recruited at Yeungnam University Hospital and allocated equally to one of two groups, the biomechanical foot orthoses group or the control group. Parameters, such as, trunk rotation, imbalance, and scoliosis angle, were obtained using a DIERS formetric 4D. [Results] Scoliosis angle, pelvic obliquity, and trunk imbalance were significantly different between the two groups and improved in the biomechanical foot orthoses group with time, but no significant improvement in any parameter was observed in the control group. [Conclusion] Biomechanical foot orthoses could be effective in patients with scoliosis, and DIERS formetric 4D provides a useful method for evaluating scoliosis parameters. PMID:27512245

  20. Raster-stereographic evaluation of the effects of biomechanical foot orthoses in patients with scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Park, So Min; Ahn, Sang-Ho; Lee, A-Young; Park, In-Sik; Cho, Yun-Woo

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] Little is known about the effects of biomechanical foot orthoses in scoliosis, as determined by raster stereography. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of individually manufactured biomechanical foot orthoses on scoliosis angle, trunk imbalance, and pelvic obliquity by comparing them with general insoles by using DIERS formetric 4 dimensional in patients with scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-six patients with scoliosis were recruited at Yeungnam University Hospital and allocated equally to one of two groups, the biomechanical foot orthoses group or the control group. Parameters, such as, trunk rotation, imbalance, and scoliosis angle, were obtained using a DIERS formetric 4D. [Results] Scoliosis angle, pelvic obliquity, and trunk imbalance were significantly different between the two groups and improved in the biomechanical foot orthoses group with time, but no significant improvement in any parameter was observed in the control group. [Conclusion] Biomechanical foot orthoses could be effective in patients with scoliosis, and DIERS formetric 4D provides a useful method for evaluating scoliosis parameters. PMID:27512245

  1. Etiologic theories of idiopathic scoliosis: enantiomorph disorder concept of bilateral symmetry, physeally-created growth conflicts and possible prevention.

    PubMed

    Burwell, R G; Freeman, B J C; Dangerfield, P H; Aujla, R K; Cole, A A; Kirby, A S; Pratt, R K; Webb, J K; Moulton, A

    2006-01-01

    The detection of anomalous extra-spinal left-right skeletal length asymmetries in the upper limbs, periapical ribs, ilia and lower limbs of subjects with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) raises questions about skeletal bilateral symmetry of vertebrates in health and disorder, its origin and control. The vertebrate body plan externally has mirror-image bilateral symmetries that are highly conserved culminating in the adult form. The normal human body can be viewed as containing paired skeletal structures in the axial and appendicular skeleton as 1) separate left and right paired forms (eg long limb bones, ribs, ilia), and 2) united in paired forms (eg vertebrae, sternum, skull, mandible). Each of these separate and united pairs are mirror-image forms--enantiomorphs. Left-right asymmetries of growth plates (physes) may cause (1) in long bones length asymmetries, (2) within one or more vertebral physes putative growth conflict with distortion as deformity, and (3) between ribs and vertebrae putative growth conflict that triggers thoracic AIS suggesting preventive surgery on spine and ribs. There is evidence of a possible role for environmental factors in AIS development. Genes and the environment (nature/nurture) may interact pre- and/or post-natally to explain both the deformity of AIS and its association with widespread anomalous skeletal length asymmetries. If substantiated there may ultimately be a place for the prevention of AIS in some subjects.

  2. Conventional metrizamide myelography (MM) and computed tomographic metrizamide myelography (CTMM) in scoliosis: a comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, H.; Harwood-Nash, D.C.; Fitz, C.R.; Chuang, H.S.; Armstrong, E.

    1982-01-01

    A retrospective examination was performed to assess the accuracy of metrizamide myelography (MM) and computed tomographic metrizamide myelography (CTMM) in scoliosis. Of 81 consecutive scoliotic children studied by myelography, 30 had only MM while the remaining 51 had CTMM immediately afterward. CTMM added esential diagnostic information in 13 cases of dysraphism and 4 cases, both methods gave the same imformation. The outhors conclude that in patients with severe scoliosis, dysraphism, and scoliosis with localized neurological disturbances, CTMM should always be added to MM or be the only examination; while in idiopathic scoliosis with vague neurological disturbances a survey of the entire spine is essential, preferably with MM.

  3. Comparative multifactorial analysis of the effects of idiopathic adolescent scoliosis and Scheuermann kyphosis on the self-perceived health status of adolescents treated with brace.

    PubMed

    Korovessis, Panagiotis; Zacharatos, Spyridon; Koureas, Georgios; Megas, Panagiotis

    2007-04-01

    Bracing is the most effective non-operative treatment for mild progressive spinal deformities in adolescence but it has shown a considerable impact on several aspects of adolescents' functioning. This cross-sectional study investigated the self-perceived health status of adolescents with the two most common deformities, treated with body orthosis. Seventy-nine adolescents with spinal deformities (idiopathic adolescent scoliosis, thoracic Scheuermann kyphosis) and 62 adolescents without spinal deformities were asked to complete the Quality of Life profile for Spine Deformities Instrument. This study showed that adolescents with deformities are significantly less likely to have back pain in training than controls, but more likely to have difficulty in forward bending, and in the most common daily activities while in brace. These individuals claim they wake up because of back pain and feel quite nervous with the external appearance of their body. These patients face often problems with their relations with friends, while they reported difficulties in getting up from bed and sleep at night more often than their counterparts without deformities. As they grow older, patients feel increasing ashamed of their body, as they are more concerned about the future effect of the deformity on their body. As the bracing time increases, patients have much more probability than controls to get low back pain. Girls with deformity have a higher probability than boys to get low back pain while working in the house and while training. Individuals with larger spinal curvatures have more difficulties in bending and increased incidence of back pain than their counterparts with smaller curvatures. Psychological reasons associated mainly with relations at school and back pain are the main causes for low compliance in adolescents with spinal deformities treated with body orthosis. Careful instructions for all individuals who will undergo brace therapy, psychological support for all patients

  4. Mode of delivery and other pregnancy outcomes of patients with documented scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Lebel, David E; Sergienko, Ruslan; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Velan, Gad J; Sheiner, Eyal

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether scoliosis is a risk factor for adverse obstetric outcomes and specifically for cesarean delivery (CD) and labor dystocia. Association between scoliosis and pregnancy outcome was studied before. Confounding conclusions prevent proper counseling of patients. Appropriate statistical analysis of a suitable cohort is helpful in resolving this issue. A retrospective population-based study comparing all singleton pregnancies of women with and without documented scoliosis was conducted. Deliveries occurred between the years 1988 and 2009. Multiple logistic regression models were used to control for confounders. Out of 229,116 patients which were included in our cohort, 0.043% (n = 98) had a documented scoliosis. These patients had higher rates of fertility treatments (7.1% vs. 1.6%; p < 0.001). Scoliosis was found to be significantly associated with labor induction (36.7% vs. 26.3 %; p = 0.02) and cesarean deliveries (21.4% vs. 13.1%; p = 0.014). Using multiple logistic regression models, with CD as the outcome variable, controlling for confounders such as nulliparity, labor induction and maternal age, scoliosis was not found to be an independent risk factor for CD (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.9-2.7; p = 0.121). Scoliosis is not a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome, and specifically for labor dystocia. PMID:22070615

  5. Abnormal Bone Mechanical and Structural Properties in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Study with Finite Element Analysis and Structural Model Index.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, K Y; Zhu, T Y; Yu, F W P; Hung, V W Y; Lee, K M; Qin, L; Cheng, J C Y; Lam, T P

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies found adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and abnormal bone quality, whilst the association between AIS and their bone strength is unknown. From high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography-generated images, bone mechanical properties can be evaluated with finite element analysis (FEA), and trabecular rod-plate configuration related to trabecular bone strength can be quantified by structure model index (SMI). This study aimed to compare trabecular configuration and bone mechanical properties between AIS and the controls. 95 AIS girls aged 12-14 years and 97 age- and gender-matched normal controls were recruited. Bilateral femoral necks and non-dominant distal radius were scanned by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for areal BMD and HR-pQCT for SMI and FEA, respectively. Subjects were further classified into osteopenic and non-osteopenic group based on their areal BMD. Bone mechanical properties (stiffness, failure load and apparent modulus) were calculated using FEA. Linear regression model was used for controlling age, physical activity and calcium intake. AIS was associated with lower failure load and apparent modulus after adjusting for age, whereas AIS was associated with lower apparent modulus after adjusting for all confounders. Osteopenic AIS was associated with more rod-like trabeculae when compared with non-osteopenic AIS, whereas no difference was detected between osteopenic and non-osteopenic controls. This might be the result of abnormal regulation and modulation of bone metabolism and bone modelling and remodelling in AIS which will warrant future studies with a longitudinal design to determine the significance of micro-architectural abnormalities in AIS.

  6. Association of IL-6 and MMP-3 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Yang, Mingyuan; Li, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Recently, several institutions have investigated the associations of MMP-3-1171 5A/6A and IL-6-174-G/C gene polymorphisms with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), while reports from different institutions are not consistent. Therefore, we, comprehensively and systematically performed this meta-analysis to detect whether the two gene polymorphisms are correlated with AIS. From January 1994 to October 2015, all case-control studies focussed on the relationship between the two aforementioned gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility to AIS were retrieved from bibliographic databases. A total of 16 articles were found, of which five consisted of 944 cases and 1177 controls, were finally included after being assessed by two reviewers. We calculated the pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) to assess the associations. The pooled data analyses were based on allele contrast, homozygote, heterozygote, dominant and recessive models. Overall, there was no significant association of IL-6-174-G/C gene polymorphism with AIS risk. Significant association was observed in homozygote model of MMP-3-1171-5A/6A gene polymorphism (5A5A versus 6A6A: OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.11-2.58, P = 0.02). When stratified into Caucasian and Asian populations, positive association was found in Caucasian population (5A versus 6A: OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.11-1.84, P = 0.006; 5A5A versus 6A6A: OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.13-3.19, P = 0.015); however, there was no significant association in Asian population. The present study concluded that 5A5A genotype of MMP-3-1171 5A/6A gene polymorphism was associated with AIS, especially in Caucasian population. However, no significant association was detected between IL-6-174-G/C gene polymorphism and AIS. PMID:27659327

  7. Are adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and ankylosing spondylitis counter-opposing conditions? A hypothesis on biomechanical contributions predisposing to these spinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Masi, A T; Dorsch, J L; Cholewicki, J

    2003-01-01

    Human spinal biomechanics are profoundly complex and not well understood, especially in terms of the dynamic spine function. Translation of biomechanics to disease is difficult, particularly since cause must be separated from effect. Primary dynamics predisposing to the onset of chronic spinal disorders, e.g., adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) or ankylosing spondylitis (AS), must clearly be differentiated from secondary alterations. This commentary addresses primary biomechanics that may predispose to these idiopathic diseases. A novel hypothesis is proposed, based upon inferences regarding their contrasting muscular dynamics. The hypothesis postulates opposing inherent muscle tonicity in AIS versus AS. Converse degrees of spinal stability may predispose to the respective curvature deformities of AIS and the enthesopathy lesions of AS. One condition is suspected to counter-oppose the other, within a polymorphic spectrum of spinal stability.

  8. Preoperative evaluation of activity and function in patients with paralytic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Larsson, E L; Aaro, S; Ahlinder, P; Oberg, B

    1998-01-01

    Preoperative evaluation of patients with paralytic scoliosis should take into account the consequences of surgery on the every day life of the patient. However, the parameters that are customarily used in these operations relate only to very narrow measures such as the angle of scoliosis or kyphosis. The aim of this study was to introduce a set of instruments appropriate for measuring both function and activities in paralytic scoliosis patients. The study took as its starting point the WHO International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH), in which an activity is described at the level of the individual and function at the level of the organ. A consecutive series of 100 paralytic scoliosis patients with 18 different diagnoses were evaluated preoperatively with a set of instruments that had been specially developed at Linköping hospital, in which the variables are classified according to the system used in the ICIDH. The set of instruments included general information and evaluation of activities and function--sitting, balance, weight distribution to sitting surface, angle of scoliosis, reaching, pain estimation, activities of daily living (ADL) Barthel and ADL Klein and Bell, care given, time spent resting, and seating supports). The results showed that patients with paralytic scoliosis constitute a heterogeneous group in activities and function. Even when the patients were grouped into four subgroups according to the Scoliosis Research Society Classification, they remained very heterogeneous. However, reaching, Klein and Bell Activities of Daily Living and pain could only evaluate patients who could understand verbal instructions. In those who could not, assessment relied more heavily on measures of function and level of dependence. It was concluded that the choice of assessment must be guided by the patient's ability to understand verbal instructions irrespective of his/her disorder. It is important to use the three levels

  9. Synthetic porous ceramic compared with autograft in scoliosis surgery. A prospective, randomized study of 341 patients.

    PubMed

    Ransford, A O; Morley, T; Edgar, M A; Webb, P; Passuti, N; Chopin, D; Morin, C; Michel, F; Garin, C; Pries, D

    1998-01-01

    We have evaluated the use of a synthetic porous ceramic (Triosite) as a substitute for bone graft in posterior spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis. In a prospective, randomised study 341 patients at five hospitals in the UK and France were randomly allocated either to autograft from the iliac crest or rib segments (171) or to receive Triosite blocks (170). All patients were assessed after operation and at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. The two groups were similar with regard to all demographic and baseline variables, but the 184 treated in France (54%) had Cotrel-Dubouset instrumentation and the 157 treated in the UK usually had Harrington-Luque implants. In the Triosite group the average Cobb angle of the upper curve was 56 degrees, corrected to 24 degrees (57%). At 18 months, the average was 26 degrees (3% loss). In the autograft group the average preoperative upper curve of 53 degrees was corrected to 21 degrees (60%). At 18 months the mean curve was 25 degrees (8% loss). Pain levels after operation were similar in the two groups, being mild in most cases. In the Triosite group only three patients had problems of wound healing, but in the autograft group, 14 patients had delayed healing, infection or haematoma in the spinal wound. In addition, 15 autograft patients had pain at the donor site at three months. Seven had infections, two had haematoma and four had delayed healing. The haematological and serum biochemistry results showed no abnormal trends and no significant differences between the groups. There were no adverse events related to the graft material and no evidence of allergenicity. Our results suggest that Triosite synthetic porous ceramic is a safe and effective substitute for autograft in these patients. Histological findings on biopsy indicate that Triosite provides a favourable scaffolding for the formation of new bone and is gradually incorporated into the fusion mass.

  10. Improving the measurement of health-related quality of life in adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis: the SRS-7, a Rasch-developed short form of the SRS-22 questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Caronni, Antonio; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire was developed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Rasch analysis (RA) is a statistical procedure which turns questionnaire ordinal scores into interval measures. Measures from Rasch-compatible questionnaires can be used, similar to body temperature or blood pressure, to quantify disease severity progression and treatment efficacy. Purpose of the current work is to present Rasch analysis (RA) of the SRS-22 questionnaire and to develop an SRS-22 Rasch-approved short form. 300 SRS-22 were randomly collected from 2447 consecutive IS adolescents at their first evaluation (229 females; 13.9 ± 1.9 years; 26.9 ± 14.7 Cobb°) in a scoliosis outpatient clinic. RA showed both disordered thresholds and overall misfit of the SRS-22. Sixteen items were re-scored and two misfitting items (6 and 14) removed to obtain a Rasch-compatible questionnaire. Participants HRQL measured too high with the rearranged questionnaire, indicating a severe SRS-22 ceiling effect. RA also highlighted SRS-22 multidimensionality, with pain/function not merging with self-image/mental health items. Item 3 showed differential item functioning (DIF) for both curve and hump amplitude. A 7-item questionnaire (SRS-7) was prepared by selecting single items from the original SRS-22. SRS-7 showed fit to the model, unidimensionality and no DIF. Compared with the SRS-22, the short form scale shows better targeting of the participants' population. RA shows that SRS-22 has poor clinimetric properties; moreover, when used with AIS at first evaluation, SRS-22 is affected by a severe ceiling effect. SRS-7, an SRS-22 7-item short form questionnaire, provides an HRQL interval measure better tailored to these participants.

  11. Simple methods to reduce patient exposure during scoliosis radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.F.; Thomas, A.W.; Thompson, W.E.; Wollerton, M.A.; Rachlin, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation exposure to the breasts of adolescent females can be reduced significantly through the use of one or all of the following methods: fast, rare-earth screen-film combinations; specially designed compensating filters; and breast shielding. The importance of exposure reduction during scoliosis radiography as well as further details on the above described methods are discussed. In addition, the early results of a Center for Devices and Radiological Health study, which recorded exposure and technique data for scoliosis radiography, is presented.

  12. Prevalence of scoliosis in Williams-Beuren syndrome patients treated at a regional reference center

    PubMed Central

    Damasceno, Marcelo Loquette; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Marcon, Raphael Martus; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the prevalence of scoliosis and the patterns of scoliotic curves in patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome. Williams-Beuren syndrome is caused by a chromosome 7q11.23 deletion in a region containing 28 genes, with the gene encoding elastin situated approximately at the midpoint of the deletion. Mutation of the elastin gene leads to phenotypic changes in patients, including neurodevelopmental impairment of varying degrees, characteristic facies, cardiovascular abnormalities, hypercalcemia, urological dysfunctions, and bone and joint dysfunctions. METHODS: A total of 41 patients diagnosed with Williams-Beuren syndrome, who were followed up at the genetics ambulatory center of a large referral hospital, were included in the study. There were 25 male subjects. The patients were examined and submitted to radiographic investigation for Cobb angle calculation. RESULTS: It was observed that 14 patients had scoliosis; of these 14 patients, 10 were male. The pattern of deformity in younger patients was that of flexible and simple curves, although adults presented with double and triple curves. Statistical analysis showed no relationships between scoliosis and age or sex. CONCLUSION: This study revealed a prevalence of scoliosis in patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome of 34.1%; however, age and sex were not significantly associated with scoliosis or with the severity of the curves. PMID:25029575

  13. [Optimization of radiological scoliosis assessment].

    PubMed

    Enríquez, Goya; Piqueras, Joaquim; Catalá, Ana; Oliva, Glòria; Ruiz, Agustí; Ribas, Montserrat; Duran, Carmina; Rodrigo, Carlos; Rodríguez, Eugenia; Garriga, Victoria; Maristany, Teresa; García-Fontecha, César; Baños, Joan; Muchart, Jordi; Alava, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    Most scoliosis are idiopathic (80%) and occur more frequently in adolescent girls. Plain radiography is the imaging method of choice, both for the initial study and follow-up studies but has the disadvantage of using ionizing radiation. The breasts are exposed to x-ray along these repeated examinations. The authors present a range of recommendations in order to optimize radiographic exam technique for both conventional and digital x-ray settings to prevent unnecessary patients' radiation exposure and to reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients with scoliosis. With analogue systems, leaded breast protectors should always be used, and with any radiographic equipment, analog or digital radiography, the examination should be performed in postero-anterior projection and optimized low-dose techniques. The ALARA (as low as reasonable achievable) rule should always be followed to achieve diagnostic quality images with the lowest feasible dose. PMID:25128362

  14. [Optimization of radiological scoliosis assessment].

    PubMed

    Enríquez, Goya; Piqueras, Joaquim; Catalá, Ana; Oliva, Glòria; Ruiz, Agustí; Ribas, Montserrat; Duran, Carmina; Rodrigo, Carlos; Rodríguez, Eugenia; Garriga, Victoria; Maristany, Teresa; García-Fontecha, César; Baños, Joan; Muchart, Jordi; Alava, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    Most scoliosis are idiopathic (80%) and occur more frequently in adolescent girls. Plain radiography is the imaging method of choice, both for the initial study and follow-up studies but has the disadvantage of using ionizing radiation. The breasts are exposed to x-ray along these repeated examinations. The authors present a range of recommendations in order to optimize radiographic exam technique for both conventional and digital x-ray settings to prevent unnecessary patients' radiation exposure and to reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients with scoliosis. With analogue systems, leaded breast protectors should always be used, and with any radiographic equipment, analog or digital radiography, the examination should be performed in postero-anterior projection and optimized low-dose techniques. The ALARA (as low as reasonable achievable) rule should always be followed to achieve diagnostic quality images with the lowest feasible dose.

  15. Scoliosis in a Patient With Gilbert Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Liang, Jinqian

    2015-11-01

    Gilbert syndrome (GS) is mainly characterized by intermittent unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the absence of hepatocellular disease or hemolysis. Little data are available on operative outcomes in GS patients with spinal deformity surgery.This study has presented a case of GS occurring in the patient with scoliosis.The patient was a 30-year-old female with scoliosis and GS. She was taken a correction form Thoracic 2 to Lumbar 1) levels by using the USS-II spinal system. At 2 years follow-up, the patient was well balanced and pain free. Plain radiographs demonstrated spine solid fusion without correction loss.Although complex scoliosis surgery can be performed safely in these patients with GS, careful perioperative managements including liver function and coagulation function are required.

  16. Scoliosis in a Patient With Gilbert Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Liang, Jinqian

    2015-11-01

    Gilbert syndrome (GS) is mainly characterized by intermittent unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in the absence of hepatocellular disease or hemolysis. Little data are available on operative outcomes in GS patients with spinal deformity surgery.This study has presented a case of GS occurring in the patient with scoliosis.The patient was a 30-year-old female with scoliosis and GS. She was taken a correction form Thoracic 2 to Lumbar 1) levels by using the USS-II spinal system. At 2 years follow-up, the patient was well balanced and pain free. Plain radiographs demonstrated spine solid fusion without correction loss.Although complex scoliosis surgery can be performed safely in these patients with GS, careful perioperative managements including liver function and coagulation function are required. PMID:26632744

  17. Osteoporosis in unstable adult scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Velis, K.P.; Healey, J.H.; Schneider, R.

    1988-12-01

    New noninvasive techniques as well as conventional methods were used to evaluate skeletal mass in the following three populations of adult white women as follows: (1) 79 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis designated as unstable (US) because of the associated presence in the lumbar spine of lateral spondylolisthesis with segmental instability; (2) 67 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis without lateral spondylolisthesis designated as stable (SS); and (3) 248 age-matched nonscoliotic controls. Ages in all three groups were categorized into premenopausal (25-44 years), perimenopausal (45-54 years), and postmenopausal (55-84 years). The results showed higher scoliosis morbidity in the US compared to the SS populations. The prevalence and severity of osteoporosis were markedly increased in US versus SS populations. Femoral neck density determined by dual-photon absorptiometry techniques averaged 26% to 48% lower in all age categories of US patients compared to controls. These changes were found in the youngest age groups, indicating reductions in bone mineral content earlier in the adult life of white women with a specific type of high-morbidity US characterized by the marker of lateral spondylolisthesis.

  18. Axial mitochondrial myopathy in a patient with rapidly progressive adult-onset scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Hiniker, Annie; Wong, Lee-Jun; Berven, Sigurd; Truong, Cavatina K; Adesina, Adekunle M; Margeta, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Axial myopathy can be the underlying cause of rapidly progressive adult-onset scoliosis; however, the pathogenesis of this disorder remains poorly understood. Here we present a case of a 69-year old woman with a family history of scoliosis affecting both her mother and her son, who over 4 years developed rapidly progressive scoliosis. The patient had a history of stable scoliosis since adolescence that worsened significantly at age 65, leading to low back pain and radiculopathy. Paraspinal muscle biopsy showed morphologic evidence of a mitochondrial myopathy. Diagnostic deficiencies of electron transport chain enzymes were not detected using standard bioassays, but mitochondrial immunofluorescence demonstrated many muscle fibers totally or partially deficient for complexes I, III, IV-I, and IV-IV. Massively parallel sequencing of paraspinal muscle mtDNA detected multiple deletions as well as a 40.9% heteroplasmic novel m.12293G > A (MT-TL2) variant, which changes a G:C pairing to an A:C mispairing in the anticodon stem of tRNA Leu(CUN). Interestingly, these mitochondrial abnormalities were not detected in the blood of either the patient or her son, suggesting that the patient's rapidly progressive late onset scoliosis was due to the acquired paraspinal mitochondrial myopathy; the cause of non-progressive scoliosis in the other two family members currently remains unexplained. Notably, this case illustrates that isolated mitochondrial myopathy can underlie rapidly-progressive adult-onset scoliosis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the primary axial myopathy.

  19. Bone mineral density evaluation among patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to cerebral palsy☆

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Rodrigo; Cardoso, Igor Machado; Leonel, Rayana Bomfim; Perim, Larissa Grobério Lopes; Oliveira, Tarcísio Guimarães Silva; Jacob Júnior, Charbel; Júnior, José Lucas Batista; Lourenço, Rafael Burgomeister

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate bone mineral density among patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Methods This was a descriptive prospective study in which both bone densitometric and anthropometric data were evaluated. The inclusion criteria used were that the patients should present quadriplegic cerebral palsy, be confined to a wheelchair, be between 10 and 20 years of age and present neuromuscular scoliosis. Results We evaluated 31 patients (20 females) with a mean age of 14.2 years. Their mean biceps circumference, calf circumference and body mass index were 19.4 cm, 18.6 cm and 16.9 kg/m2, respectively. The mean standard deviation from bone densitometry was −3.2 (z-score), which characterizes osteoporosis. Conclusion There is high incidence of osteoporosis in patients with neuromuscular scoliosis secondary to quadriplegic cerebral palsy. PMID:26229882

  20. The Superiority of Intraoperative O-arm Navigation-assisted Surgery in Instrumenting Extremely Small Thoracic Pedicles of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Jin, Mengran; Qiu, Yong; Yan, Huang; Han, Xiao; Zhu, Zezhang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the accuracy of O-arm navigation-assisted screw insertion in extremely small thoracic pedicles and to compare it with free-hand pedicle screw insertion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). A total of 344 pedicle screws were inserted in apical region (defined as 2 vertebrae above and below the apex each) of 46 AIS patients (age range 13–18 years) with O-arm navigation and 712 screws were inserted in 92 AIS patients (age range 11–17 years) with free-hand technique. According to the narrowest diameter orthogonal to the long axis of the pedicle on a trajectory entering the vertebral body on preoperative computed tomography, the pedicles were classified into large (>3 mm) and small (≤3 mm) subgroups. Furthermore, a subset of extremely small pedicles (≤2 mm in the narrowest diameter) was specifically discussed. Screw accuracy was categorized as grade 0: no perforation, grade 1: perforation by less than 2 mm, grade 2: perforation by 2 to 4 mm, grade 3: perforation over 4 mm. In the O-arm group, the mean thoracic pedicle diameters were 2.23 mm (range 0.7–2.9 mm) and 3.48 mm (3.1–7.1 mm) for small and large pedicles, respectively. In the free-hand group, the small and large thoracic pedicle diameters were 2.42 mm (range 0.6–2.9 mm) and 3.75 mm (3.1–6.9 mm), respectively. The overall accuracies of screw insertion in large and small thoracic pedicles (grade 0, 1) were significantly higher in O-arm group (large: 93.8%, 210/224, small: 91.7%, 110/120) than those of free-hand group (large: 84.9%, 353/416, small: 78.4%, 232/296) (P < 0.05). Importantly, the overall accuracy of screw placement in extremely small pedicles was significantly higher in the O-arm group (84.3%, 48/57) compared with 62.7% (79/126) in free-hand group (P < 0.05), and the incidence of medial perforation was significantly lower in O-arm group (11.1%, 1/9) compared with 17.0% (8/47) in free-hand group (P < 0.05). The O

  1. Congenital scoliosis: an up-to-date.

    PubMed

    Burnei, G; Gavriliu, S; Vlad, C; Georgescu, I; Ghita, R A; Dughilă, C; Japie, E M; Onilă, A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital scoliosis represents a spinal malformation due to defects of formation, segmentation or mixed ones. It is characterized by a longitudinal and rotational imbalance. 54 patients were analyzed and 39 out of them were operated by various approaches with anterior and posterior instrumentations during 2000 and 2012. The impossibility to appoint some patients encountered in the daily practice into the known classifications, allowed us to purpose two categories of congenital scoliosis related to the predominance of spinal deviances in the coronal and transversal views. No certain etiology of congenital scoliosis has been identified until today. The susceptibility of some polygenic defects is obvious due to the presence of a sum of defects associated to most of the congenital scoliosis cases and the rarity of the presence of a unique defect. The diagnosis requires a thorough clinical and imaging examination in order to establish an individualized therapeutic strategy. The treatment of congenital scoliosis is different from the adolescent idiopathic one. Therapeutic criteria are significantly different. It is essential to assess the difference in growth of the concavity related to the convexity when choosing a particular procedure. The magnitude of the curve and the progressive rate are fundamental issues to the surgeon.

  2. The top view for analysis of scoliosis progression

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.; Tarlton, M.A.; Cook, L.T.; Berridge, A.S.; Asher, M.A.

    1983-05-01

    Using computerized spinal analysis, a new top view was developed that displays the spine as if the observer were above and looking down on the patient. Serial top views were obtained of 12 patients with idiopathic scoliosis. In five patients with clinically stable curves, the top views showed no change. One patient with an enlaring rib hump was seen on the top view to have progressive kyphosis but stable scoliosis. Six patients with progressive scoliosis all demonstrated collapse of the thoracic curve in the anteroposterior direction. Five of these six patients had associated lumbar curves. Three lumbar curves demonstrated collapse in the anteroposterior direction similar to the collapse of the thoracic curves, and the other two curves appeared elongated in the anteroposterior direction.

  3. [Conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis with effective braces: early response to trunk asymmetry may avoid curvature progress].

    PubMed

    Matussek, J; Dingeldey, E; Wagner, F; Rezai, G; Nahr, K

    2014-07-01

    Vertical posture of the growing child requires minute central nervous control mechanisms in order to maintain symmetry of the torso in its various activities. Scoliosis describes a constant deviation in the frontal, transverse and sagittal planes from the dynamic symmetry of the trunk. Early intervention with effective bracing, physiotherapy and sports can reverse curve progression during growth spurts, once these are identified in screening. Modern braces have a derotating and reducing effect (mirror effect) on asymmetric body volumes, thus influencing the growing torso and restoring lasting symmetry. Recent data support the use of braces to reverse progressing scoliosis. PMID:25028282

  4. Vertebral and Intraspinal Anomalies in Indian Population with Congenital Scoliosis: A Study of 119 Consecutive Patients

    PubMed Central

    S, Rajasekaran; G, Balamurali; Shetty, Ajoy

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case study by clinical and radiological data analysis. Purpose To analyze different types of vertebral anomalies and the incidence of associated intraspinal anomalies in the Indian population. Overview of Literature This is the largest study of congenital scoliosis and associated intraspinal anomalies in Indian population. Incidence of intraspinal anomaly in this series is 47% which is higher than previous literature. Hemivertebra was the most common anomaly as seen in previous studies. Methods A total of 119 patients with congenital scoliosis who underwent surgery between December 2006 and December 2012 were studied. Data was reviewed with medical records, plain radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Results Thoracolumbar curve was most common, seen in 43.6% of patients. In addition to scoliotic deformity, kyphosis was seen in 26% of patients. Failure of formation, the most common vertebral anomaly, was seen in 51.2% of patients, failure of segmentation was seen in 19.3% of patients, and there were 29.4% patients having both formation and segmentation anomalies. Hemivertebra was the most common vertebral anomaly seen in 66.3% of patients and for whom 63.2% were in thoracic spine. Intraspinal anomalies were associated with 47% of patients with congenital scoliosis. Tethered cord was the most common intraspinal abnormality and was found in 48.2% patients with intraspinal anomalies. The patients with failure of segmentation and mixed deformities were found to have a significantly higher incidence of intraspinal anomalies (65% and 57%, respectively) than those with failure of formation (34%). Out of 31 patients with kyphotic deformity 29% had intraspinal anomalies, and amongst them tethered cord was the most common anomaly seen in 66% patients. Out of 12 patients with neurocutaneous markers, 83% patients had intraspinal anomaly. Conclusions Intraspinal anomalies were seen in 47% of patients with congenital scoliosis in the

  5. Scoliosis bracing and exercise for pain management in adults—a case report

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Moramarco, Kathryn; Moramarco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] For adult patients with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis, cosmetic concerns and pain are the main reasons for seeking treatment at a physician’s office. The purpose of this paper was to describe the mid-term effect of physical rehabilitation and part-time bracing on an adult scoliosis patient who had been suffering from chronic low back pain for fourteen years. [Subject and Methods] Case description: A 37-year-old female patient with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis presented in the office of the first author in January 2014. She reported having chronic pain (low back pain) since the age of 23 and reported daily pain at a level of 5–7 on average on a Visual Analogue Scale of 0 to 10. She received a short scoliosis-specific Schroth exercise program and was also fitted with a Gensingen brace for part-time wear. [Results] At a 16 month follow-up, the patient no longer suffered from daily low back pain (with heavy lifting only) and was fully active. Additionally, her lumbar Cobb angle and angle of trunk rotation improved. [Conclusion] Patients with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis and pain may benefit from a pattern-specific conservative treatment approach. In this population, surgical intervention should be regarded as the last resort, since there are many long-term unknowns with surgery. PMID:27630444

  6. Scoliosis bracing and exercise for pain management in adults—a case report

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Moramarco, Kathryn; Moramarco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] For adult patients with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis, cosmetic concerns and pain are the main reasons for seeking treatment at a physician’s office. The purpose of this paper was to describe the mid-term effect of physical rehabilitation and part-time bracing on an adult scoliosis patient who had been suffering from chronic low back pain for fourteen years. [Subject and Methods] Case description: A 37-year-old female patient with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis presented in the office of the first author in January 2014. She reported having chronic pain (low back pain) since the age of 23 and reported daily pain at a level of 5–7 on average on a Visual Analogue Scale of 0 to 10. She received a short scoliosis-specific Schroth exercise program and was also fitted with a Gensingen brace for part-time wear. [Results] At a 16 month follow-up, the patient no longer suffered from daily low back pain (with heavy lifting only) and was fully active. Additionally, her lumbar Cobb angle and angle of trunk rotation improved. [Conclusion] Patients with late-onset idiopathic scoliosis and pain may benefit from a pattern-specific conservative treatment approach. In this population, surgical intervention should be regarded as the last resort, since there are many long-term unknowns with surgery.

  7. [Optic neuritis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patient].

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Daniela M R; Buscatti, Izabel M; Lourenço, Benito; Monti, Fernanda C; Paz, José Albino; Silva, Clovis A

    2014-01-01

    Optic neuritis (ON) was rarely reported in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients, particularly in those under anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha blockage. However, to our knowledge, the prevalence of ON in JIA population has not been studied. Therefore, 5,793 patients were followed up at our University Hospital and 630 (11%) had JIA. One patient (0.15%) had ON and was reported herein. A 6-year-old male was diagnosed with extended oligoarticular JIA, and received naproxen and methotrexate subsequently replaced by leflunomide. At 11 years old, he was diagnosed with aseptic meningitis, followed by a partial motor seizure with secondary generalization. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalogram showed diffuse disorganization of the brain electric activity and leflunomide was suspended. Seven days later, the patient presented acute ocular pain, loss of acuity for color, blurred vision, photophobia, redness and short progressive visual loss in the right eye. A fundoscopic exam detected unilateral papilledema without retinal exudates. Orbital MRI suggested right ON. The anti-aquaporin 4 (anti-AQP4) antibody was negative. Pulse therapy with methylprednisolone was administered for five days, and subsequently with prednisone, he had clinical and laboratory improvement. In conclusion, a low prevalence of ON was observed in our JIA population. The absence of anti-AQP4 antibody and the normal brain MRI do not exclude the possibility of demyelinating disease associated with chronic arthritis. Therefore, rigorous follow up is required.

  8. Early-onset scoliosis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Cunin, V

    2015-02-01

    Early-onset scoliosis, which appears before the age of 10, can be due to congenital vertebral anomalies, neuromuscular diseases, scoliosis-associated syndromes, or idiopathic causes. It can have serious consequences for lung development and significantly reduce the life expectancy compared to adolescent scoliosis. Extended posterior fusion must be avoided to prevent the crankshaft phenomenon, uneven growth of the trunk and especially restrictive lung disease. Conservative (non-surgical) treatment is used first. If this fails, fusionless surgery can be performed to delay the final fusion procedure until the patient is older. The gold standard delaying surgical treatment is the implantation of growing rods as described by Moe and colleagues in the mid-1980s. These rods, which are lengthened during short surgical procedures at regular intervals, curb the scoliosis progression until the patient reaches an age where fusion can be performed. Knowledge of this technique and its complications has led to several mechanical improvements being made, namely use of rods that can be distracted magnetically on an outpatient basis, without the need for anesthesia. Devices based on the same principle have been designed that preferentially attach to the ribs to specifically address chest wall and spine dysplasia. The second category of surgical devices consists of rods used to guide spinal growth that do not require repeated surgical procedures. The third type of fusionless surgical treatment involves slowing the growth of the scoliosis convexity to help reduce the Cobb angle. The indications are constantly changing. Improvements in surgical techniques and greater surgeon experience may help to reduce the number of complications and make this lengthy treatment acceptable to patients and their family. Long-term effects of surgery on the Cobb angle have not been compared to those involving conservative "delaying" treatments. Because the latter has fewer complications associated with

  9. Early-onset scoliosis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Cunin, V

    2015-02-01

    Early-onset scoliosis, which appears before the age of 10, can be due to congenital vertebral anomalies, neuromuscular diseases, scoliosis-associated syndromes, or idiopathic causes. It can have serious consequences for lung development and significantly reduce the life expectancy compared to adolescent scoliosis. Extended posterior fusion must be avoided to prevent the crankshaft phenomenon, uneven growth of the trunk and especially restrictive lung disease. Conservative (non-surgical) treatment is used first. If this fails, fusionless surgery can be performed to delay the final fusion procedure until the patient is older. The gold standard delaying surgical treatment is the implantation of growing rods as described by Moe and colleagues in the mid-1980s. These rods, which are lengthened during short surgical procedures at regular intervals, curb the scoliosis progression until the patient reaches an age where fusion can be performed. Knowledge of this technique and its complications has led to several mechanical improvements being made, namely use of rods that can be distracted magnetically on an outpatient basis, without the need for anesthesia. Devices based on the same principle have been designed that preferentially attach to the ribs to specifically address chest wall and spine dysplasia. The second category of surgical devices consists of rods used to guide spinal growth that do not require repeated surgical procedures. The third type of fusionless surgical treatment involves slowing the growth of the scoliosis convexity to help reduce the Cobb angle. The indications are constantly changing. Improvements in surgical techniques and greater surgeon experience may help to reduce the number of complications and make this lengthy treatment acceptable to patients and their family. Long-term effects of surgery on the Cobb angle have not been compared to those involving conservative "delaying" treatments. Because the latter has fewer complications associated with

  10. Scoliosis and dental occlusion: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Idiopathic scoliosis is a deformity without clear etiology. It is unclear wether there is an association between malocclusion and scoliosis. Several types of occlusion were described in subjects with scoliosis, mostly case-reports. Objectives The aim of this review was to evaluate the type of occluslins more prevalent in subjects with scoliosis Search strategy All randomised and controlled clinical trials identified from the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, a MEDLINE search using the Mesh term scoliosis, malocclusion, and relevant free text words, and the bibliographies of papers and review articles which reported the outcome of orthodontic treatment in subjects with scoliosis that were published as abstracts or papers between 1970 and 2010. Selection criteria All randomised and controlled clinical trials published as full papers or abstracts which reported quantitative data on the outcomes malocclusion in subjects with scoliosis. Data collection and analysis Data were extracted without blinding to the authors, age of patients or type of occlusion. Main results Using the search strategy eleven observational longitudinal studies were identified. No randomized clinical trials were recorded. Twenty-three cross-sectional studies were recorderd, and the others studies were reviews, editorials, case-reports, or opinions. The clinical trials were often not controlled and were about the cephalometric evaluation after treatment with the modified Milwuakee brace, followed by the orthodontic treatment of the class II relationship with a functional appliance. Clinical trials also included the study of the associations between scoliosis and unilateral crossbite, in children with asymmetry of the upper cervical spine. This association was also investigated in rats, pigs and rabbits in clinical trials. The other associations between scoliosis and occlusion seems to be based only on cross-sectional studies, case-reports, opinions. Authors' conclusions Based

  11. [Anaesthesia for correction of scoliosis in pediatric patient with Friedreich's ataxia].

    PubMed

    Agámez Medina, G L; Pantin, E J; Lorthé, J; Therrien, P J

    2015-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FA) is an inherited autosomal recessive disease characterized by a neurological degenerative process of the cerebellum, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. FA is associated with ataxia, dysarthria, motor and sensory impairment, scoliosis, cardiomyopathy, and diabetes. There is a significant risk of perioperative major complications during the anesthetic management of these patients. We present the case of a fourteen-year-old patient with FA, who had a posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation underwent to total intravenous anesthesia.

  12. The impact of patient self assessment of deformity on HRQL in adults with scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Tones, Megan J; Moss, Nathan D

    2007-01-01

    Background Body image and HRQL are significant issues for patients with scoliosis due to cosmetic deformity, physical and psychological symptoms, and treatment factors. A selective review of scoliosis literature revealed that self report measures of body image and HRQL share unreliable correlations with radiographic measures and clinician recommendations for surgery. However, current body image and HRQL measures do not indicate which aspects of scoliosis deformity are the most distressing for patients. The WRVAS is an instrument designed to evaluate patient self assessment of deformity, and may show some promise in identifying aspects of deformity most troubling to patients. Previous research on adolescents with scoliosis supports the use of the WRVAS as a clinical tool, as the instrument shares strong correlations with radiographic measures and quality of life instruments. There has been limited use of this instrument on adult populations. Methods The WRVAS and the SF-36v2, a HRQL measure, were administered to 71 adults with scoliosis, along with a form to report age and gender. Preliminary validation analyses were performed on the WRVAS (floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency and collinearity, correlations with the SF-36v2, and multiple regression with the WRVAS total score as the predictor, and SF-36v2 scores as outcomes). Results The psychometric properties of the WRVAS were acceptable. Older participants perceived their deformities as more severe than younger participants. More severe deformities were associated with lower scores on the Physical Component Summary Score of the SF-36v2. Total WRVAS score also predicted Physical Component Summary scores. Conclusion The results of the current study indicate that the WRVAS is a reliable tool to use with adult patients, and that patient self assessment of deformity shared a relationship with physical rather than psychological aspects of HRQL. The current and previous studies concur that revision of the

  13. A Correlational Study of Scoliosis and Trunk Balance in Adult Patients with Mandibular Deviation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Na; Wang, Wenyong; Ding, Yin; Sun, Shiyao

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an “S” type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p<0.01). The trunk balance of patients with mandibular deviation was disturbed (imbalance angle >1°), while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°). There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01). The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the

  14. Disproportionate growth between the spine and pelvis in patients with thoracic adolescent scoliosis: a new look into the pattern's growth.

    PubMed

    Bao, H; Liu, Z; Yan, P; Qiu, Y; Zhu, F

    2015-12-01

    A self-control ratio, the spine-pelvis index (SPI), was proposed for the assessment of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) in this study. The aim was to evaluate the disproportionate growth between the spine and pelvis in these patients using SPI. A total of 64 female patients with thoracic AIS were randomly enrolled between December 2010 and October 2012 (mean age 13 years, standard deviation (sd) 2.17; 9 to 18) and a further 73 healthy female patients with a mean age of 12.4 years (mean age 12.4 years, sd 2.24; 9 to 18), were randomly selected from a normal control database at our centre. The radiographic parameters measured included length of spine (LOS), height of spine (HOS), length of thoracic vertebrae (LOT), height of thoracic vertebrae (HOT), width of pelvis (WOP), height of pelvis (HOP) and width of thorax (WOT). SPI was defined as the ratio LOS/HOP. The SPI and LOT/HOP in patients with AIS showed a significant increase when compared with normal girls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 respectively), implying an abnormal pattern of growth of the spine relative to the pelvis in patients with AIS. No significant difference in SPI was found in different age groups in the control group, making the SPI an age-independent parameter with a mean value of 2.219 (2.164 to 2.239). We also found that the SPI was not related to maturity in the control group. This study, for the first time, used a self-control ratio to confirm the disproportionate patterns of growth of the spine and pelvis in patients with thoracic AIS, highlighting that the SPI is not affected by age or maturity.

  15. Nonsurgical Management of Early-onset Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Thorsness, Robert J; Faust, John R; Behrend, Caleb J; Sanders, James O

    2015-09-01

    Early-onset scoliosis is potentially fatal if left untreated. Although surgical management with growing instrumentation may be necessary, this is not a panacea and is associated with high complication rates. Recent evidence has demonstrated that nonsurgical treatment can be an effective early management strategy in delaying or even precluding the need for surgery, especially surgery with growing instrumentation. The goal of both nonsurgical and surgical management is to control or correct the spinal curve to allow appropriate pulmonary development while delaying definitive fusion until an appropriate skeletal age. Although more commonly used to delay surgery, serial cast correction using the Cotrel and Morel elongation-derotation-flexion technique may result in complete correction in patients with infantile idiopathic scoliosis and smaller curve magnitudes.

  16. Drug Fever Induced by Piperacillin/Tazobactam in a Scoliosis Patient: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Li, Qiyi; Chan, Matthew Tak Vai; Wu, William Ka Kei

    2015-11-01

    Drug fever is frequently underrecognized by clinicians despite its common occurrence. Fever induced by piperacillin/tazobactam has not been reported in scoliosis correction surgery.Drug fever caused by piperacillin/tazobactam in a scoliosis patient was described.A 36-year-old woman with adult scoliosis undergoing correction surgery was reported. She developed a fever after an intake of piperacillin/tazobactam for 3 days. Eosinophil count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive proteins were increased in her blood examination. Thorough history, chest radiography, blood cultures, physical examination, and urinalysis revealed no evidences of fever. A drug fever is therefore considered. The fever lasted for 2 weeks and her body temperature come back to normal 4 days after piperacillin/tazobactam cessation.Fever could be caused by piperacillin/tazobactam. The drug fever's diagnosis is easily confounded by a co-occurring infection. Therefore, it is crucial for clinicians to doubt drugs as a reason when no other origin of fever could be identified in a patient. PMID:26579799

  17. Drug Fever Induced by Piperacillin/Tazobactam in a Scoliosis Patient: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Li, Qiyi; Chan, Matthew Tak Vai; Wu, William Ka Kei

    2015-11-01

    Drug fever is frequently underrecognized by clinicians despite its common occurrence. Fever induced by piperacillin/tazobactam has not been reported in scoliosis correction surgery.Drug fever caused by piperacillin/tazobactam in a scoliosis patient was described.A 36-year-old woman with adult scoliosis undergoing correction surgery was reported. She developed a fever after an intake of piperacillin/tazobactam for 3 days. Eosinophil count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive proteins were increased in her blood examination. Thorough history, chest radiography, blood cultures, physical examination, and urinalysis revealed no evidences of fever. A drug fever is therefore considered. The fever lasted for 2 weeks and her body temperature come back to normal 4 days after piperacillin/tazobactam cessation.Fever could be caused by piperacillin/tazobactam. The drug fever's diagnosis is easily confounded by a co-occurring infection. Therefore, it is crucial for clinicians to doubt drugs as a reason when no other origin of fever could be identified in a patient.

  18. Drug Fever Induced by Piperacillin/Tazobactam in a Scoliosis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Li, Qiyi; Chan, Matthew Tak Vai; Wu, William Ka Kei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Drug fever is frequently underrecognized by clinicians despite its common occurrence. Fever induced by piperacillin/tazobactam has not been reported in scoliosis correction surgery. Drug fever caused by piperacillin/tazobactam in a scoliosis patient was described. A 36-year-old woman with adult scoliosis undergoing correction surgery was reported. She developed a fever after an intake of piperacillin/tazobactam for 3 days. Eosinophil count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive proteins were increased in her blood examination. Thorough history, chest radiography, blood cultures, physical examination, and urinalysis revealed no evidences of fever. A drug fever is therefore considered. The fever lasted for 2 weeks and her body temperature come back to normal 4 days after piperacillin/tazobactam cessation. Fever could be caused by piperacillin/tazobactam. The drug fever's diagnosis is easily confounded by a co-occurring infection. Therefore, it is crucial for clinicians to doubt drugs as a reason when no other origin of fever could be identified in a patient. PMID:26579799

  19. Physiotherapy scoliosis-specific exercises - a comprehensive review of seven major schools.

    PubMed

    Berdishevsky, Hagit; Lebel, Victoria Ashley; Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Rigo, Manuel; Lebel, Andrea; Hennes, Axel; Romano, Michele; Białek, Marianna; M'hango, Andrzej; Betts, Tony; de Mauroy, Jean Claude; Durmala, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, there has been a call for change among all stakeholders involved in scoliosis management. Parents of children with scoliosis have complained about the so-called "wait and see" approach that far too many doctors use when evaluating children's scoliosis curves between 10° and 25°. Observation, Physiotherapy Scoliosis Specific Exercises (PSSE) and bracing for idiopathic scoliosis during growth are all therapeutic interventions accepted by the 2011 International Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT). The standard features of these interventions are: 1) 3-dimension self-correction; 2) Training activities of daily living (ADL); and 3) Stabilization of the corrected posture. PSSE is part of a scoliosis care model that includes scoliosis specific education, scoliosis specific physical therapy exercises, observation or surveillance, psychological support and intervention, bracing and surgery. The model is oriented to the patient. Diagnosis and patient evaluation is essential in this model looking at a patient-oriented decision according to clinical experience, scientific evidence and patient's preference. Thus, specific exercises are not considered as an alternative to bracing or surgery but as a therapeutic intervention, which can be used alone or in combination with bracing or surgery according to individual indication. In the PSSE model it is recommended that the physical therapist work as part of a multidisciplinary team including the orthopeadic doctor, the orthotist, and the mental health care provider - all are according to the SOSORT guidelines and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) philosophy. From clinical experiences, PSSE can temporarily stabilize progressive scoliosis curves during the secondary period of progression, more than a year after passing the peak of growth. In non-progressive scoliosis, the regular practice of PSSE could produce a temporary and significant reduction of the Cobb angle. PSSE can also

  20. Successful surgery for scoliosis supported by pulmonary rehabilitation in a duchenne muscular dystrophy patient with forced vital capacity below 10%.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang Woo; Won, Yu Hui; Choi, Won Ah; Lee, Soon Kyu; Kang, Seong Woong

    2013-12-01

    Low vital capacity is a risk factor for scoliosis correction operation in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients, but pulmonary rehabilitation, including noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilator application, air stacking exercise, and assisted coughing technique, reduces the pulmonary complications and perioperative mortality risk. In this case, the patient's preoperative forced vital capacity (FVC) was 8.6% of normal predicted value in sitting position and 9.4% in supine position. He started pulmonary rehabilitation before the operation and continued right after the operation. Scoliosis correction operation was successful without any pulmonary complications, and his discomfort in sitting position was improved. If pulmonary rehabilitative support is provided properly, FVC below 10% of normal predicted value is not a contraindication of scoliosis correction operation in DMD patients.

  1. Loss of sensory function in patients with idiopathic hand dystonia.

    PubMed

    Suttrup, Inga; Oberdiek, Denise; Suttrup, Judith; Osada, Nani; Evers, Stefan; Marziniak, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Former studies suggest an additional involvement of the sensory nervous system, beside the involuntary contractions of antagonist muscles, in idiopathic hand dystonia. We studied contact heat-evoked potentials and quantitative sensory testing (QST) in 10 patients suffering from idiopathic hand dystonia and 10 age-matched healthy controls. Cortical potentials recorded from the vertex (Pz) after contact heat stimulation of the volar forearm and the dorsum of the hand at a temperature of 51°C showed significantly reduced A-δ-amplitudes. Numerical pain ratings on the affected side in comparison to the unaffected side and to healthy controls were significantly reduced. QST results showed an impairment of the thermal detection thresholds, the mechanical pain sensitivity and the mechanical pain threshold at the affected body side of the patients. Our results suggest a loss of distinct sensory functions of the affected hand in comparison with the contralateral hand and to matched healthy subjects in patients suffering from idiopathic hand dystonia. For the first time, an extended loss of sensory function could be shown in patients suffering from idiopathic hand dystonia.

  2. Scoliosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Abnormal curvature in the spine is known as scoliosis, and generally begins just at the onset of ... growth. Most junior high schools routinely screen for scoliosis because, if caught early, progressive spine curvature can ...

  3. Scoliosis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - scoliosis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scoliosis : American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00626 National Institute of Arthritis and ...

  4. Ultrasonography-Guided Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for the Treatment of Urolithiasis in Patients with Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Hai; Xing, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Gang; Kong, Xiangbo

    2012-01-01

    We examined the surgical outcomes of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) in scoliotic patients with complicating urolithiasis. Two patients with scoliosis were hospitalized for MPNCL due to upper tract urolithiasis. Calyx puncture was performed in the prone position under ultrasonographic guidance. The renal access route was established using a set of 8F to 16F dilators, and a transpyelic ballistic lithotriptor was used to fragment the calculi. The stone burdens in the 2 patients were 410 mm2 and 500 mm2. The entire operative time was 40 to 70 minutes, and the mean time of establishing percutaneous access was 20 minutes. The calculi were completely removed by single-session pneumatic lithotripsy. The 2 patients recovered from MPCNL uneventfully, and the follow-up radiologic examinations identified no stone residual or recurrence. MPCNL is a minimally invasive modality that is effective and safe for the treatment of urolithiasis in patients with scoliosis. PMID:23102086

  5. Perceptions, experiences and needs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Duck, Annette; Spencer, Lisa G; Bailey, Simon; Leonard, Colm; Ormes, Jennifer; Caress, Ann-Louise

    2015-01-01

    Aims To understand the perceptions, needs and experiences of patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive interstitial lung disease, with a mean life expectancy similar to some forms of cancer of 2–4 years from diagnosis. Unlike the cancer literature, which is rich with studies exploring the needs of their disease group, few publications exist on patient needs with this severe fibrotic lung disease. Design A Qualitative study which took place between 2007–2012. Methods Seventeen patients with a multidisciplinary team confirmed diagnosis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, with moderate to advanced disease severity and six of their informal carers were interviewed. An interview topic guide was developed by the researchers and service user group. The interviews were audio-recorded, semi-structured and took place at a regional respiratory and lung transplant centre in North West England. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data analysed using Framework Analysis. Findings Three main themes were identified: ‘Struggling to get a diagnosis’; ‘Loss of the life I previously had’; and ‘Living with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis’. Patients reported struggling to get a diagnosis and coping with a life-limiting, rapidly progressive illness with no good treatment and few support structures. Conclusions There is an urgent need for a better understanding of the difficulties faced by people with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and their carers. This can be used to develop better supportive care in the United Kingdom and ultimately improve the quality of life of these patients. PMID:25533573

  6. Scoliosis curve type classification using kernel machine from 3D trunk image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adankon, Mathias M.; Dansereau, Jean; Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert; Cheriet, Farida

    2012-03-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a deformity of the spine manifested by asymmetry and deformities of the external surface of the trunk. Classification of scoliosis deformities according to curve type is used to plan management of scoliosis patients. Currently, scoliosis curve type is determined based on X-ray exam. However, cumulative exposure to X-rays radiation significantly increases the risk for certain cancer. In this paper, we propose a robust system that can classify the scoliosis curve type from non invasive acquisition of 3D trunk surface of the patients. The 3D image of the trunk is divided into patches and local geometric descriptors characterizing the surface of the back are computed from each patch and forming the features. We perform the reduction of the dimensionality by using Principal Component Analysis and 53 components were retained. In this work a multi-class classifier is built with Least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) which is a kernel classifier. For this study, a new kernel was designed in order to achieve a robust classifier in comparison with polynomial and Gaussian kernel. The proposed system was validated using data of 103 patients with different scoliosis curve types diagnosed and classified by an orthopedic surgeon from the X-ray images. The average rate of successful classification was 93.3% with a better rate of prediction for the major thoracic and lumbar/thoracolumbar types.

  7. Scoliosis surgery and its effect on back shape.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, R J; Weisz, I; Turner-Smith, A R; Harris, J D; Houghton, G R

    1988-03-01

    Thirty-four patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were assessed by radiography and the integrated shape imaging system (ISIS) both before and after spinal surgery. Twenty-seven patients underwent Harrington instrumentation, after which lateral indices of curvature were significantly improved, but changes in the transverse plane were less pronounced. Sublaminar wiring was carried out in two patients whose thoracic lordosis was corrected by the surgery. Five patients whose severe deformity had persisted after previous spinal surgery underwent costoplasty, which resulted in a significant improvement in back shape measurements. We conclude that the cosmetic deformity of the back in scoliosis is only partially corrected by operations on the spine itself, whilst costoplasty addresses the problem directly, and improves the surface shape. PMID:3346300

  8. Scoliosis may be the first symptom of the tethered spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Barutçuoğlu, Mustafa; Selçuki, Mehmet; Umur, Ahmet Sukru; Mete, Mesut; Gurgen, Seren Gulsen; Selcuki, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) is a progressive clinical entity that arises from abnormal spinal cord tension. Scoliosis may be a unique symptom in TCS. The aim of this study is to investigate prognosis after releasing the filum terminale in scoliosis due to TCS with/without findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to draw attention to the importance of somatosensorial evoked potentials (SSEP) on the differential diagnosis of idiopathic scoliosis versus scoliosis due to TCS with normal appearance of filum terminale and conus medullaris. Materials and Methods: Eleven female and seven male patients with progressive scoliosis were included in the study. They were evaluated radiologically, SSEP and urodynamical studies. Preoperative and postoperative anteroposterior full spine X-rays were obtained for measuring the Cobb's angle. MRI was performed in all cases for probable additional spinal abnormalities. All patients underwent filum terminale sectioning through a L5 hemilaminectomy. The resected filum terminale were subjected to histopathological examination. Results: The mean Cobb angle was 31.6° (range 18°–45°). Eight patients (44.45%) had a normal appearance of filum terminale and normal level conus medullaris in MRI, but conduction delay and/or block was seen on SSEP. In the histopathological examination of filum terminale dense collagen fibers, hyaline degeneration and loss of elastic fibers were observed. Postoperatively none of the patients showed worsening of the Cobb angle. Three patients showed improvement of scoliosis. Conclusion: In TCS presented with scoliosis, untethering must be performed prior to the corrective spinal surgery. Absence of MRI findings does not definitely exclude TCS. SSEP is an important additional guidance in the diagnosis of TCS. After untethering, a followup period of 6 months is essential to show it untethering helps in stopping the progress of the scoliotic curve. In spite of non progression (curve stopped

  9. The effect of Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise on balancing ability of scoliosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gui Bin; Kim, Jwa Jun; Park, Eun Cho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to closely examine the efficiency of Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise in improving the on the static balancing ability by applying them to patients with scoliosis and to compare the effects of the interventions. [Subjects] Forty scoliosis patients were divided into a Swiss ball exercise group (SEG, N = 20) and a Resistance exercise group (REG, N = 20) randomly. [Methods] SEG conducted chest stretching, trunk exercise using the Swiss ball. REG conducted chest stretching, trunk exercise with therapist’s resistance. Both groups received training 30 min per day, five times per week, for eight weeks. [Results] Both SEG and REG showed significant differences between pre- and post-mediation in terms of weight distribution, sway area, sway length, sway speed, and limit of stability. Sway speed and limit of stability had increased more significantly in REG than in SEG. [Conclusion] According to the result of this study, both Swiss ball exercise and chest Resistance exercise were effective for improving on the static balancing ability. But we suggest resistance exercise is more efficient to increase of sway speed, limit of stability. PMID:26834372

  10. The effect of Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise on balancing ability of scoliosis patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Gui Bin; Kim, Jwa Jun; Park, Eun Cho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to closely examine the efficiency of Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise in improving the on the static balancing ability by applying them to patients with scoliosis and to compare the effects of the interventions. [Subjects] Forty scoliosis patients were divided into a Swiss ball exercise group (SEG, N = 20) and a Resistance exercise group (REG, N = 20) randomly. [Methods] SEG conducted chest stretching, trunk exercise using the Swiss ball. REG conducted chest stretching, trunk exercise with therapist's resistance. Both groups received training 30 min per day, five times per week, for eight weeks. [Results] Both SEG and REG showed significant differences between pre- and post-mediation in terms of weight distribution, sway area, sway length, sway speed, and limit of stability. Sway speed and limit of stability had increased more significantly in REG than in SEG. [Conclusion] According to the result of this study, both Swiss ball exercise and chest Resistance exercise were effective for improving on the static balancing ability. But we suggest resistance exercise is more efficient to increase of sway speed, limit of stability. PMID:26834372

  11. Trends of Posterior Long Segment Fusion with and without Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 in Patients with Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Ruofeng, Yin; Cohen, Jeremiah R.; Buser, Zorica; Yoon, S. Tim; Meisel, Hans-Joerg; Youssef, Jim A.; Park, Jong-Beom; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Brodke, Darrel S.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design  Retrospective study. Objective  Symptomatic scoliosis can be a source of severe pain and disability. When nonoperative treatments fail, spine fusion is considered as an effective procedure in scoliosis management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the trends of patients with scoliosis undergoing posterior long segment fusion (PLSF) with and without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2). Methods  Patients within the orthopedic subset of Medicare database undergoing PLSF from 2005 to 2011 were identified using the PearlDiver Patient Records Database. Both diagnosis and procedural International Classification of Diseases, ninth edition and Current Procedural Terminology codes were used. The year of procedure, age, sex, region, and rhBMP-2 use were recorded. Results  In total, 1,265,591 patients with scoliosis were identified with 29,787 PLSF surgeries between 2005 and 2011. The incidence of PLSF procedures increased gradually from 2005 to 2009, decreased in 2010 (p < 0 0.01), and grew again in 2011. Patients over age 84 years had the highest incidence of PLSF. The lowest incidence of the procedures was in the Northeast, 5.96 per 100,000 patients. Sex differences were observed with a male-to-female ratio of 0.40 (p < 0.01). The use of rhBMP-2 for PLSF increased steadily from 2005 to 2009; the numbers dropped dramatically in 2010 and returned by 2011. Conclusions  According to our study, patients with scoliosis demonstrated a 0.6575 average incidence increase of PLSF treatments annually. There were significant differences in incidence of PLSF procedure and patient demographics. Additionally, rhBMP-2 consumption significantly changed when we stratified it by sex, age, and region respectively. PMID:27433425

  12. Functional Investigation of a Non-coding Variant Associated with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in Zebrafish: Elevated Expression of the Ladybird Homeobox Gene Causes Body Axis Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Long; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kou, Ikuyo; Takimoto, Aki; Meguro-Horike, Makiko; Horike, Shin-ichi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Miura, Shigenori; Adachi, Taiji; Yamamoto, Takashi; Ikegawa, Shiro; Hiraki, Yuji; Shukunami, Chisa

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we identified an adolescent idiopathic scoliosis susceptibility locus near human ladybird homeobox 1 (LBX1) and FLJ41350 by a genome-wide association study. Here, we characterized the associated non-coding variant and investigated the function of these genes. A chromosome conformation capture assay revealed that the genome region with the most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphism (rs11190870) physically interacted with the promoter region of LBX1-FLJ41350. The promoter in the direction of LBX1, combined with a 590-bp region including rs11190870, had higher transcriptional activity with the risk allele than that with the non-risk allele in HEK 293T cells. The ubiquitous overexpression of human LBX1 or either of the zebrafish lbx genes (lbx1a, lbx1b, and lbx2), but not FLJ41350, in zebrafish embryos caused body curvature followed by death prior to vertebral column formation. Such body axis deformation was not observed in transcription activator-like effector nucleases mediated knockout zebrafish of lbx1b or lbx2. Mosaic expression of lbx1b driven by the GATA2 minimal promoter and the lbx1b enhancer in zebrafish significantly alleviated the embryonic lethal phenotype to allow observation of the later onset of the spinal curvature with or without vertebral malformation. Deformation of the embryonic body axis by lbx1b overexpression was associated with defects in convergent extension, which is a component of the main axis-elongation machinery in gastrulating embryos. In embryos overexpressing lbx1b, wnt5b, a ligand of the non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, was significantly downregulated. Injection of mRNA for wnt5b or RhoA, a key downstream effector of Wnt/PCP signaling, rescued the defective convergent extension phenotype and attenuated the lbx1b-induced curvature of the body axis. Thus, our study presents a novel pathological feature of LBX1 and its zebrafish homologs in body axis deformation at various stages of

  13. Are Volumetric Bone Mineral Density and Bone Micro-Architecture Associated with Leptin and Soluble Leptin Receptor Levels in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis? – A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Elisa M. S.; Yu, Fiona W. P.; Hung, Vivian W. Y.; Liu, Zhen; Liu, King Lok; Ng, Bobby K. W.; Lee, Simon K. M.; Qiu, Yong; Cheng, Jack C. Y.; Lam, Tsz-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD). The underlying etiology and how it may relate to the development of osteopenia remains unknown. Leptin has been postulated as one of the etiologic factors of AIS because of its profound effects on bone metabolism and pubertal growth. Its modulator, soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), may affect leptin bioavailability and signaling. This study aimed to investigate whether serum leptin and sOB-R levels may be associated with bone quality, and whether these relationships may differ between young adolescent girls with and without AIS. Methods This was a case-control study involving 94 newly diagnosed AIS girls (Cobb angle 12–48°) aged 12 to 14 years old and 87 age and gender-matched normal controls. Subjects with BMI>23.0 Kg/m2 were excluded. Anthropometric measurements including body weight, height, arm span and sitting height were taken. Serum total leptin and sOB-R were assayed with ELISA. Non-dominant distal radius was scanned with High Resolution pQCT for assessing bone quality in terms of bone morphometry, volumetric BMD (vBMD) and trabecular bone micro-architecture. Results Compared with normal controls, AIS girls had numerically higher sOB-R (p = 0.006), lower average vBMD (p = 0.048), lower cortical vBMD (p = 0.029), higher cortical bone perimeter (p = 0.014) and higher trabecular area (p = 0.027), but none remained statistically significant after the Hochberg-Benjamini procedure. Correlation analysis on serum leptin level indicated that distinctive correlations with trabecular bone parameters occurred only in AIS. Conclusion This study showed that bone quality in AIS girls was deranged as compared with controls. In addition, the distinct differences in correlation pattern between leptin and trabecular bone parameters indicated possible abnormalities in bone metabolism and dysfunction of the leptin signaling pathway in AIS. PMID:24516571

  14. A geriatric patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

    PubMed Central

    Karadag, Berrin; Cat, Huseyin; Aksoy, Selma; Ozulu, Banu; Ozturk, Ali Osman; Oguz, Sukru; Altuntas, Yuksel

    2010-01-01

    The most frequent health problems seen in senility are chronic and degenerative diseases. A 75-year-old male patient with the complaints of weight loss and difficulty in swallowing was admitted to our hospital from a nursing home. Upper system fiber-optic gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed and a mass at the junction of the hypopharynx and esophagus just below recessus piriformis obstructing almost the whole of the lumen and blocking the distal passage was detected. Computed tomography revealed marked narrowing secondary to osseous hypertrophy in the air column of the hypopharynx and proximal esophagus. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis or Forestier’s disease is an idiopathic disease characterized by the ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament of vertebra and some of the extraspinal ligaments. In the present case we aim to discuss an elderly patient who suffered from dysphagia and weight loss and the diagnostic stages. PMID:20355249

  15. Outcomes in adult scoliosis patients who undergo spinal fusion stopping at L5 compared with extension to the sacrum.

    PubMed

    Sardar, Zeeshan M; Ouellet, Jean A; Fischer, Dena J; Skelly, Andrea C

    2013-10-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Study Rationale Adult scoliosis is a common disorder that is associated with significantly higher pain, functional impairment, and effect on quality of life than those without scoliosis. Surgical spinal fusion has led to quantifiable improvement in patient's quality of life. However, for patients undergoing long lumbar fusion, the decision to stop the fusion at L5 or to extend to S1, particularly if the L5-S1 disc is healthy, remains controversial. Objective The aim of the study is to evaluate if fusion stopping at L5 increases the comparative rates of revision, correction loss, and/or poor functional outcomes compared with extension to the sacrum in adult scoliosis patients who require spinal fusion surgery. Materials and Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse Database and bibliographies of key articles that evaluated adult scoliosis patients who required spinal fusion surgery and compared outcomes for fusions to the sacrum versus stopping at L5. Articles were included on the basis of predetermined criteria and were appraised using a predefined quality-rating scheme. Results From 111 citations, 26 articles underwent full-text review, and 3 retrospective cohort studies met all inclusion and exclusion criteria. Revision rates in subjects who underwent spinal fusion to L5 (20.8-23.5%) were lower in two studies compared with those with fusion extending to the sacrum (19.0-58.3%). Studies that assessed deformity correction used different measures, making comparison across studies difficult. No significant differences were found in patient-reported functional outcomes across two studies that used different measures. Conclusion The limited data available suggest that differences in revision rates did not consistently reach statistical significance across studies that compared spinal fusion to L5 versus extension to sacrum in adult scoliosis patients.

  16. Contemporary Outcome in Patients With Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Broch, Kaspar; Murbræch, Klaus; Andreassen, Arne Kristian; Hopp, Einar; Aakhus, Svend; Gullestad, Lars

    2015-09-15

    Outcome is better in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) than in ischemic heart failure (HF), but morbidity and mortality are nevertheless presumed to be substantial. Most data on the prognosis in IDC stem from research performed before the widespread use of current evidence-based treatment, including implantable devices. We report outcome data from a cohort of patients with IDC treated according to current HF guidelines and compare our results with previous figures: 102 consecutive patients referred to our tertiary care hospital with idiopathic IDC and a left ventricular ejection fraction <40% were included in a prospective cohort study. After extensive baseline work-up, follow-up was performed after 6 and 13 months. Vital status and heart transplantation were recorded. Over the first year of follow-up, the patients were on optimal pharmacological treatment, and 24 patients received implantable devices. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 26 ± 10% to 41 ± 11%, peak oxygen consumption increased from 19.5 ± 7.1 to 23.4 ± 7.8 ml/kg/min, and functional class improved substantially (all p values <0.001). After a median follow-up of 3.6 years, 4 patients were dead, and heart transplantation had been performed in 9 patients. According to our literature search, survival in patients with IDC has improved substantially over the last decades. In conclusion, patients with IDC have a better outcome than previously reported when treated according to current guidelines.

  17. Patient-controlled intracranial pressure for managing idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Werndle, Melissa C; Newling-Ward, Elizabeth; Papadopoulos, Marios C

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a difficult condition to manage. We present a novel treatment that substantially improved the headaches and reduced admissions and shunt revision surgery in a patient. We inserted a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, performed subtemporal craniectomies, and instructed our patient to apply different sized headbands to allow her to anticipate and control her own intracranial pressure: a tight headband for low-pressure headaches; no band for high-pressure headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging and intracranial pressure monitoring revealed this was not a placebo effect.

  18. Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Chronic Fibrosing Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Hoeper, Marius M.; Behr, Juergen; Held, Matthias; Grunig, Ekkehard; Vizza, C. Dario; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Lange, Tobias J.; Claussen, Martin; Grohé, Christian; Klose, Hans; Olsson, Karen M.; Zelniker, Thomas; Neurohr, Claus; Distler, Oliver; Wirtz, Hubert; Opitz, Christian; Huscher, Doerte; Pittrow, David; Gibbs, J. Simon R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common finding in patients with chronic fibrosing idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP). Little is known about the response to pulmonary vasodilator therapy in this patient population. COMPERA is an international registry that prospectively captures data from patients with various forms of PH receiving pulmonary vasodilator therapies. Methods We retrieved data from COMPERA to compare patient characteristics, treatment patterns, response to therapy and survival in newly diagnosed patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and PH associated with IIP (PH-IIP). Results Compared to patients with IPAH (n = 798), patients with PH-IIP (n = 151) were older and predominantly males. Patients with PH-IIP were treated predominantly with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (88% at entry, 87% after 1 year). From baseline to the first follow-up visit, the median improvement in 6MWD was 30 m in patients with IPAH and 24.5 m in patients with PH-IIP (p = 0.457 for the difference between both groups). Improvements in NYHA functional class were observed in 22.4% and 29.5% of these patients, respectively (p = 0.179 for the difference between both groups). Survival rates were significantly worse in PH-IIP than in IPAH (3-year survival 34.0 versus 68.6%; p<0.001). Total lung capacity, NYHA class IV, and mixed-venous oxygen saturation were independent predictors of survival in patients with PH-IIP. Conclusions Patients with PH-IIP have a dismal prognosis. Our results suggest that pulmonary vasodilator therapy may be associated with short-term functional improvement in some of these patients but it is unclear whether this treatment affects survival. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01347216 PMID:26630396

  19. [Scoliosis secondary to tuberculous spondylitis: A case report and discussion of diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Bouillot, L; Kayayan, H; Goiset, E

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form of spinal deformity in adolescence. However, secondary causes of scoliosis should always be considered so as to provide appropriate treatment and avoid complications. Additional explorations, such as MRI, are required in the presence of atypical signs. We report a case of spinal tuberculosis, or Pott's disease, misdiagnosed as idiopathic scoliosis, and then present a discussion to help identify the warning signs during the evaluation of scoliosis that might indicate secondary scoliosis and suggest when to perform further radiologic exploration.

  20. [The development of spinal movements and sagittal curves in postural defects, idiopathic scoliosis and Scheuermann disease (results of longitudinal studies on 5, 10 and 14 year old subjects)].

    PubMed

    Viola, S; Andrássy, I

    1993-10-17

    A given population was followed by authors for 10 years. Children suffering from postural defects, structural scoliosis, spinal osteochondrosis were separated from a normal group. Spinal mobility and posture were compared with the mobility of normal, healthy boys and girls aged 5-14 years. In postural defects physiologically curves could be seen. The range of motion hasn't been physiologic in structural scoliosis. The rotation and flexion of the spine were increased while the lumbar flexion was decreased. Physiologic trend was found in Scheuermann disease, however high values of spinal rotation wasn't found. Extremely increased thoracic kyphosis was found only in children aged 14 years. Perhaps the change of motion is an etiologic factor in structural scoliosis.

  1. Antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with idiopathic autoimmune haemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, J; Cabral, A R; Cabiedes, J; Pita-Ramirez, L; Alarcón-Segovia, D

    1994-01-01

    Isolated cases of anti-phospholipid antibody (aPL)-associated idiopathic autoimmune haemolytic anemia (IAHA) have been recently described. To assess the significances of this association, we studied by ELISA the presence of aPL in sera from 18 patients with IAHA and 14 patients with non-autoimmune haemolysis (NON-AH). Four IAHA cases and none of the NON-AH controls showed IgM anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) that crossreacted extensively with zwitterionic as well as with other anionic phospholipids. IgG aCL were detected in 6 patients with IAHA and in 1 patient with NON-AH; there was little cross-reactivity with other phospholipids. Our results suggest that antiphospholipid antibodies are present in a substantial number of patients with IAHA. This humoral response does not seem to be secondary to the haemolysis proper. The potential pathogenic significance of this finding is discussed.

  2. SU-E-I-15: Comparison of Radiation Dose for Radiography and EOS in Adolescent Scoliosis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schueler, B; Walz-Flannigan, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To estimate patient radiation dose for whole spine imaging using EOS, a new biplanar slot-scanning radiographic system and compare with standard scoliosis radiography. Methods: The EOS imaging system (EOS Imaging, Paris, France) consists of two orthogonal x-ray fan beams which simultaneously acquire frontal and lateral projection images of a standing patient. The patient entrance skin air kerma was measured for each projection image using manufacturer-recommended exposure parameters for spine imaging. Organ and effective doses were estimated using a commercially-available Monte Carlo simulation program (PCXMC, STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki, Finland) for a 15 year old mathematical phantom model. These results were compared to organ and effective dose estimated for scoliosis radiography using computed radiography (CR) with standard exposure parameters obtained from a survey of pediatric radiographic projections. Results: The entrance skin air kerma for EOS was found to be 0.18 mGy and 0.33 mGy for posterior-anterior (PA) and lateral projections, respectively. This compares to 0.76 mGy and 1.4 mGy for CR, PA and lateral projections. Effective dose for EOS (PA and lateral projections combined) is 0.19 mSv compared to 0.51 mSv for CR. Conclusion: The EOS slot-scanning radiographic system allows for reduced patient radiation dose in scoliosis patients as compared to standard CR radiography.

  3. [Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and the older patient].

    PubMed

    Valckx, Wilhelmina Josephina Anna Remy Maria; Duarte Conde, Mariana P; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; van Lindert, Erik J; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2015-06-01

    Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (iNPH) is characterized by the clinical triad of cognitive disorders, gait impairment and urinary incontinence. The treatment is the implantation of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. At present there are still no high quality determinants to predict the long term outcome after shunt implantation, because studies are likely to be biased, use many different study methods and are difficult to interpret by potential concomitant neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer and vascular dementia. Because this comorbidity also determines whether the expected positive outcome of a shunt outweighs the risk of complications, a critical multidisciplinary analysis of comorbidity, frailty and patient preferences is a precondition to realize added value. PMID:25904439

  4. Effects of Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise on respiratory function and trunk control ability in patients with scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jwa Jun; Song, Gui Bin; Park, Eun Cho

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise on the respiratory function and trunk control ability of patients with scoliosis. [Subjects] Forty scoliosis patients were randomly divided into the Swiss ball exercise group (n= 20) and resistance exercise group (n = 20). [Methods] The Swiss ball and resistance exercise groups performed chest expansion and breathing exercises with a Swiss ball and a therapist's resistance, respectively. Both groups received training 30 min per day, 5 times per week for 8 weeks. [Results] Both groups exhibited significant changes in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, and trunk impairment scale after the intervention. However, there was no significant change in the forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio after the intervention in either group. Meanwhile, forced expiratory volume in one second and trunk impairment scale were significantly greater in the resistance exercise group after the intervention. [Conclusion] Both Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise are effective for improving the respiratory function and trunk control ability of patients with scoliosis. However, resistance exercise is more effective for increasing the forced expiratory volume in one second and trunk control ability. PMID:26180318

  5. Temperament and character profiles of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Canan, Fatih; Karakaş, Ayşe Akman; Geçici, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Psychosocial factors have been implicated as being important in the onset and/or exacerbation of urticaria. Aim To examine both personality factors of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) and the correlations between illness duration, severity of itching, urticaria activity score (UAS) and temperament-character dimensions. Material and methods A total number of 70 CIU patients and 60 healthy individuals were included in the study. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was administered individually. The relationship between UAS, illness duration and severity of pruritus and TCI subscales were evaluated. Results The CIU group had significantly higher scores of novelty seeking and lower scores of cooperativeness, reward dependence and self-directedness than the control group. Conclusions The current study shows that CIU patients have distinctive temperament and character dimensions when compared with the control group. We suggest that evaluation and treatment of CIU should also include psychosomatic approaches in clinical practice. PMID:26161056

  6. Eosinophil alveolitis in two patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Brix, Ninna; Rasmussen, Finn; Poletti, Venerino; Bendstrup, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is typically characterized by a neutrophil inflammatory pattern and to a lesser extent (<25%) a mild eosinophil alveolitis. We here present two patients with a definite usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern on high-resolution computed tomography of the thorax (HRCT) which demonstrated unusually high eosinophil counts in the BALF (40% and 51%). Based on HRCT, lack of response to steroids and the disease course they were both diagnosed as IPF after a multidisciplinary team discussion. This report discusses the diagnostic and etiological considerations of a coexisting UIP pattern and an eosinophil alveolitis. We conclude that these cases illustrate that high level BALF eosinophilia (40-50%) may occur among patients with IPF. PMID:27625983

  7. Portosystemic Shunt Surgery in Patients with Idiopathic Noncirrhotic Portal Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Karagul, Servet; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Tardu, Ali; Ertugrul, Ismail; Kirmizi, Serdar; Sumer, Fatih; Isik, Burak; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension (INCPH) is a rare disease characterized by increased portal venous pressure in the absence of cirrhosis and other causes of liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to present our results in using portosystemic shunt surgery in patients with INCPH. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients who had been referred to our Liver Transplantation Institute for liver transplantation and who had undergone surgery from January 2010 to December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with INCPH who had undergone portosystemic shunt procedure were included in the study. Age, sex, symptoms and findings, type of portosystemic shunt, and postoperative complications were assessed. RESULTS A total of 1307 patients underwent liver transplantation from January 2010 to December 2015. Eleven patients with INCPH who did not require liver transplantation were successfully operated on with a portosystemic shunt procedure. The mean follow-up was 30.1±19 months (range 7-69 months). There was no mortality in the perioperative period or during the follow-up. Two patients underwent surgery again due to intra-abdominal hemorrhage; one had bleeding from the surgical site except the portacaval anastomosis and the other had bleeding from the h-graft anastomosis. No patient developed encephalopathy and no patient presented with esophageal variceal bleeding after portosystemic shunt surgery. Shunt thrombosis occurred in 1 patient (9.9%). Only 1 patient developed ascites, which was controlled medically. CONCLUSIONS Portosystemic shunt surgery is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of patients with INCPH. PMID:27194018

  8. Neuromuscular Scoliosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... degree of neuromuscular involvement. Diagnosis Incidence of Scoliosis Cerebral palsy (2 limbs involved) 25% Myelodysplasia (lower lumbar) 60% Spinal muscle atrophy 67% Friedreich ataxia 80% Cerebral palsy (4 limbs involved) 80% Duchenne muscular dystrophy 90% ...

  9. [Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome following Scoliosis Surgery during Intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia (IV-PCA) with Fentanyl: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Doi, Hiroyoshi; Izumi, Kaoru; Kawasaki, Sho; Jimi, Nobuo; Sumiyoshi, Rieko; Mizuno, Keiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Compression and obstruction of the duodenum can occur after surgical correction of spinal scoliosis. We report a case of 15-year-old girl who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) following scoliosis surgery. On the 4th postoperative day, the patient complained of nausea and vomiting, which was considered as side effects of opioids as she was treated with intravenous fentanyl infusion with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device. Nasogastric tube was placed and background infusion rate of the PCA was tapered. On the 5th postoperative day, fentanyl infusion was stopped, but she complained of persistent nausea and vomiting. Barium upper gastrointestinal series and abdominal echography revealed compression in the third portion of the duodenum between the superior mesenteric artery and aorta on the 7th postoperative day. She responded to conservative treatment (nutritional and fluid supplementation), which lasted about two weeks. She was discharged home on the 51st postoperative day. SMAS is rare but sometimes carries serious complications. Vomiting following scoliosis surgery should be examined thoroughly including the possibility of SMAS, especially during postoperative pain management with opioids (i. e., IV-PCA with fentanyl). Early diagnosis and institution of appropriate conservative therapy is essential to reduce the likelihood of future complications and avoid the need for surgery.

  10. Effect of medical x-ray exposure on subsequent reproductive outcomes in scoliosis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Visscher, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was done which was designed to assess the effects of medical x-ray exposure on cancer incidence among scoliosis patients. Although the primary purpose of the study was to assess cancer incidence, a secondary goal was to investigate whether diagnostic x-ray exposure is related to adverse reproductive events in the female subjects. A series of case-control analyses were done which were designed to assess these effects. Radiation exposure was measured both by total films received and by an estimate of the number of films received and by an estimate of the number of films which involved ovarian irradiation. Radiation appeared to increase a woman's risk of any adverse event in the overall analysis and her risk of a premature or low birth weight infant in the separate analyses. Radiation did not appear to be related to spontaneous abortion, complications of pregnancy or delivery or birth defects, although the results of the pregnancy complications analysis was suggestive.

  11. Functioning of patients with chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP).

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Peter G; Teunissen, Laurien L; van Genderen, Frank R; Notermans, Nicolette C; Lindeman, Eline; Helders, Paul J M; van Meeteren, Nico L U

    2007-09-01

    Although patients with Chronic Idiopathic Axonal Polyneuropathy (CIAP) report a slow deterioration of sensory and motor functions, the impact of this deterioration on daily functioning has not yet been investigated in detail. The first aim of this cross-sectional study involving 56 patients with CIAP was, therefore, to assess patients' functioning with use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The second aim was to find determinants of walking ability, dexterity, and autonomy. Fatigue and limited walking ability were present in most patients and differed considerably. In regression models, age, muscle strength, and fatigue together explained 63% of the variance in walking ability, which by itself explained almost 50% of the variance in patients' autonomy indoors and outdoors (42% and 49%, respectively). Muscle strength and sensory function scores together explained 30% of the variance in dexterity scores, which in turn explained only 13% of the variance in autonomy indoors. The diminished autonomy of patients with CIAP might be improved by reducing fatigue, by means of training, and by improving walking ability. PMID:17385078

  12. Incidence of herpes zoster infections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Nimmrich, S; Horneff, G

    2015-03-01

    The risk of herpes zoster among patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) exposed to biologics has not been evaluated. We determined incidence rates of herpes zoster among children with JIA in correlation with medication at time of occurrence and total drug exposure. The German biologics register database was used to identify patients with herpes zoster. Crude infection rates and incidence ratios (IRR) were compared to published rates. Demographics and overall exposure and particular exposure time to corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and biologics were analyzed. The JIA cohort included 3,042 patients with 5,557.9 person-years of follow-up; 1,628 have used corticosteroids, 2,930 methotrexate and 1,685 etanercept. In total, 17 herpes zoster events have been documented [6/1,000 patients (3.5-9.0); 3.1/1,000 patient-years (1.9-4.9)]. Thus, the incidence rate in JIA patients was higher than expected [IRR 2.9 (1.8-4.5), p < 0.001]. In all patients, the event resolved completely. There were two complications, one patient developed intercostal neuralgia, and one had a recurrent herpes zoster. Compared to the healthy population, a significant higher IRR is observed in JIA patients who received a monotherapy with etanercept or in combination with steroids and methotrexate, but not in JIA patients exposed to methotrexate without biologics. In comparison with our control group of patients treated with methotrexate, the IRR was higher for exposure to etanercept monotherapy and combination of etanercept and corticosteroids irrespective of methotrexate use. A generally higher incidence rate in JIA patients treated with etanercept was observed. No serious or refractory manifestations occurred.

  13. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), environment, exposome and epigenetics: a molecular perspective of postnatal normal spinal growth and the etiopathogenesis of AIS with consideration of a network approach and possible implications for medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the etiology of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Discordant findings for monozygotic (MZ) twins with AIS show that environmental factors including different intrauterine environments are important in etiology, but what these environmental factors may be is unknown. Recent evidence for common chronic non-communicable diseases suggests epigenetic differences may underlie MZ twin discordance, and be the link between environmental factors and phenotypic differences. DNA methylation is one important epigenetic mechanism operating at the interface between genome and environment to regulate phenotypic plasticity with a complex regulation across the genome during the first decade of life. The word exposome refers to the totality of environmental exposures from conception onwards, comprising factors in external and internal environments. The word exposome is used here also in relation to physiologic and etiopathogenetic factors that affect normal spinal growth and may induce the deformity of AIS. In normal postnatal spinal growth we propose a new term and concept, physiologic growth-plate exposome for the normal processes particularly of the internal environments that may have epigenetic effects on growth plates of vertebrae. In AIS, we propose a new term and concept pathophysiologic scoliogenic exposome for the abnormal processes in molecular pathways particularly of the internal environment currently expressed as etiopathogenetic hypotheses; these are suggested to have deforming effects on the growth plates of vertebrae at cell, tissue, structure and/or organ levels that are considered to be epigenetic. New research is required for chromatin modifications including DNA methylation in AIS subjects and vertebral growth plates excised at surgery. In addition, consideration is needed for a possible network approach to etiopathogenesis by constructing AIS diseasomes. These approaches may lead through screening

  14. Idiopathic subarachnoid hemorrhage: a multicentre series of 220 patients.

    PubMed

    Sarabia, R; Lagares, A; Fernández-Alén, J A; Arikan, F; Vilalta, J; Ibáñez, J; Maillo, A; Gabarros, A; Domínguez, J; Horcajadas, A; Ballenilla, F; Rodríguez-Boto, G; Llacer, J L; Arrese, I; de la Lama, A; Santamarta, D; Delgado, P; Muñoz, M F

    2010-12-01

    BACKGROUND. The Spanish neurosurgical society created a multicentre data base on spontaneous SAH to analyze the real problematic of this disease in our country. This paper focuses on the group of patients with idiopathic SAH (ISAH). METHODS. 16 participant hospitals collect their spontaneous SAH cases in a common data base shared in the internet through a secured web page, considering clinical, radiological, evolution and outcome variables. The 220 ISAH cases collected from November 2004 to November 2007 were statistically analyzed as a whole and divided into 3 subgroups depending on the CT blood pattern (aneurysmal, perimesencephalic, or normal). RESULTS. The 220 ISAH patients constitute 19% of all 1149 spontaneous SAH collected in the study period. In 46,8% of ISAH the blood CT pattern was aneurysmal, which was related to older age, worse clinical condition, higher Fisher grade, more hydrocephalus and worse outcome, compared to perimesencephalic (42.7%) or normal CT (10.4%) pattern. Once surpassed the acute phase, outcome of ISAH patients is similarly good in all 3 ISAH subgroups, significantly better as a whole compared to aneurysmal SAH patients. The only variable related to outcome in ISAH after a logistic regression analysis was the admission clinical grade. CONCLUSIONS. ISAH percentage of spontaneous SAH is diminishing in Spain. Classification of ISAH cases depending on the blood CT pattern is important to differentiate higher risk groups although complications are not negligible in any of the ISAH subgroups. Neurological status on admission is the single most valuable prognostic factor for outcome in ISAH patients.

  15. Quantifying torso deformity in scoliosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajemba, Peter O.; Kumar, Anish; Durdle, Nelson G.; Raso, V. James

    2006-03-01

    Scoliosis affects the alignment of the spine and the shape of the torso. Most scoliosis patients and their families are more concerned about the effect of scoliosis on the torso than its effect on the spine. There is a need to develop robust techniques for quantifying torso deformity based on full torso scans. In this paper, deformation indices obtained from orthogonal maps of full torso scans are used to quantify torso deformity in scoliosis. 'Orthogonal maps' are obtained by applying orthogonal transforms to 3D surface maps. (An 'orthogonal transform' maps a cylindrical coordinate system to a Cartesian coordinate system.) The technique was tested on 361 deformed computer models of the human torso and on 22 scans of volunteers (8 normal and 14 scoliosis). Deformation indices from the orthogonal maps correctly classified up to 95% of the volunteers with a specificity of 1.00 and a sensitivity of 0.91. In addition to classifying scoliosis, the system gives a visual representation of the entire torso in one view and is viable for use in a clinical environment for managing scoliosis.

  16. Radiographic Parameters in Adult Degenerative Scoliosis and Different Parameters Between Sagittal Balanced and Imbalanced ADS Patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changwei; Yang, Mingyuan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Wei, Xianzhao; Ni, Haijian; Chen, Ziqiang; Li, Jingfeng; Bai, Yushu; Zhu, Xiaodong; Li, Ming

    2015-07-01

    A retrospective study. To summarize and describe the radiographic parameters of adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) and explore the radiological parameters which are significantly different in sagittal balanced and imbalanced ADS patients. ADS is the most common type of adult spinal deformity. However, no comprehensive description of radiographic parameters in ADS patients has been made, and few studies have been performed to explore which radiological parameters are significantly different between sagittal balanced and imbalanced ADS patients. Medical records of ADS patients in our outpatient clinic from January 2012 to January 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data including age and sex, and radiographic data including the coronal Cobb angle, location of apical vertebra/disc, convexity of the curve, degree of apical vertebra rotation, curve segments, thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracolumbar kyphosis (TL), sacral slope (SS), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence (PI), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and PI minus LL (PI-LL) were reviewed to make comprehensive description of radiographic parameters of ADS. Furthermore, patients were divided into 2 groups according to whether the patients' sagittal plane was balanced: Group A (imbalanced, SVA > 5 cm) and Group B (balanced, SVA  ≤ 5 cm). Demographic and radiological parameters were compared between these 2 groups. A total of 99 patients were included in this study (Group A = 33 and Group B = 66; female = 83 and male = 16; sex ratio = 5:1). The median of age were 67 years (range: 41-92 years). The median of coronal Cobb angle and length of curve was 23 (range: 10-75°) and 5 segments (range: 3-7), respectively. The most common location of apical vertebra was at L2 to L3 (81%) and the median of degree of apical vertebra rotation was 2° (range: 1-3). Our study also showed significant correlations between coronal Cobb angle and curve segments (r = 0.23, P < 0.005) and degree of apical vertebra rotation (r

  17. Idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut: report of 12 patients.

    PubMed

    Wakamoto, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Hideo; Fukuda, Mitsumasa; Watanabe, Shohei; Motoki, Takahiro; Ohmori, Hiromitsu; Ishii, Eiichi

    2011-03-01

    This study sought to present clinical and outcome data of patients with idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut, to validate previously reported characteristics of this epilepsy. The study group was comprised of 12 affected children (three boys and nine girls), with a median age of onset at 10.3 years. Common ictal manifestations included elementary visual hallucinations (75.0%), blindness or blurring of vision (50.0%), headache (50.0%), and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures (58.3%). Interictal electroencephalography revealed occipital spike-wave paroxysms reactive to eye closure and opening in all patients, accompanied by spike-wave activity in the extra-occipital areas in four (33.3%), and by generalized spike-wave discharges in two (16.7%). One patient exhibited the onset of occipital lobe seizures 1 year after manifesting absence epilepsy. Seizure remission occurred in 81.8% of cases, in half of which medication was discontinued by late adolescence. This study confirmed the previously delineated electroclinical features of epilepsy syndrome, with additional aspects including the frequent association of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and atypical evolution from childhood absence epilepsy.

  18. Idiopathic pancreatitis in a patient with a STAT3 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Peppers, Brian; Frith, John; Tcheurekdjian, Haig; Hostoffer, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent skin infections with abscesses, recurrent pneumonias with pneumatoceles, and immunoglobulin E levels of >10 times the upper limit of normal. Case: The patient described herein had a classic case of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) deficiency associated with HIES diagnosed several years before this particular presentation. He demonstrated extraimmune manifestations of the disease as well, including characteristic facies and a history of skeletal fractures. In addition, the patient had several distinct episodes of idiopathic pancreatitis for which a full gastrointestinal workup had been performed. STAT3 mutation was confirmed by genotyping at the time of diagnosis of HIES. Conclusions: STAT3, a mammalian protein that regulates cell growth, survival, and differentiation, has been linked to human pancreatic carcinogenesis as well as the above-mentioned immune deficiency. Mouse studies demonstrated that genetic ablation of STAT3 exacerbates the course of acute pancreatitis, whereas normal pancreatic STAT3 seems to have a protective effect against necrotizing pancreatitis. An association between STAT3 mutations and pancreatitis has not yet been revealed in humans. Here we describe a case of acute pancreatitis that presented in a patient with STAT3 mutation. PMID:27103560

  19. The long-term outcome of patients treated operatively and non-operatively for scoliosis deformity secondary to spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Khoshbin, A; Vivas, L; Law, P W; Stephens, D; Davis, A M; Howard, A; Jarvis, J G; Wright, J G

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of adults with spina bifida cystica (SBC) who had been treated either operatively or non-operatively for scoliosis during childhood. We reviewed 45 patients with a SBC scoliosis (Cobb angle ≥ 50º) who had been treated at one of two children's hospitals between 1991 and 2007. Of these, 34 (75.6%) had been treated operatively and 11 (24.4%) non-operatively. After a mean follow-up of 14.1 years (standard deviation (sd) 4.3) clinical, radiological and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes were evaluated using the Spina Bifida Spine Questionnaire (SBSQ) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Although patients in the two groups were demographically similar, those who had undergone surgery had a larger mean Cobb angle (88.0º (sd 20.5; 50.0 to 122.0) ; : versus 65.7º (sd 22.0; 51.0 to 115.0); p < 0.01) and a larger mean clavicle-rib intersection difference (12.3 mm; (sd 8.5; 1 to 37); versus 4.1 mm, (sd 5.9; 0 to 16); p = 0.01) than those treated non-operatively. Both groups were statistically similar at follow-up with respect to walking capacity, neurological motor level, sitting balance and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes. Spinal fusion in SBC scoliosis corrects coronal deformity and stops progression of the curve but has no clear effect on HRQOL.

  20. [Successful pregnancy in a patient with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Case report].

    PubMed

    Szenczi, Orsolya; Karlócai, Kristóf; Bucsek, László; Rigó, János

    2016-04-10

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by progressive increase in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance which lead to right ventricular failure and death. Pregnancy in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is contraindicated because of the high maternal and fetal mortality. The authors present a case of successful pregnancy and delivery of a patient with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension in Hungary for the first time. The aim of the report was to demonstrate that management and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension in a pregnant woman is a complex and multidisciplinary task that should involve obstetrician, cardiologist and anesthesiologist. Those patients who become pregnant and do not wish to terminate the pregnancy must be referred to obstetric centers where a multidiciplinary approach is taken.

  1. [Anesthetic Management of a Patient with Central Core Disease for Scoliosis Surgery].

    PubMed

    Jimi, Nobuo; Izumi, Kaoru; Sumiyoshi, Rieko; Mizuno, Keiichiro

    2016-06-01

    Central core disease (CCD) is a dominantly inherited congenital myopathy. CCD is also associated with muscular and skeletal abnormalities such as abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis), hip dislocation, and joint deformities. CCD and malignant hyperthermia (MH) are both associated with mutations in the ryanodine receptor on chromosome 19q13.1. An 11-year-old boy with CCD complicated with severe scoliosis was scheduled for spinal fusion surgery under general anesthesia. Furthermore, he had trismus caused by temporomandibular contracture. He was considered as MH susceptible. Anesthesia was managed with remifentanil and propofol without using muscle relaxtants and volatile anesthetics. We could intubate the trachea with Airtraq laryngoscope without any complications. The perioperative course was uneventful. PMID:27483668

  2. Congenital Scoliosis (Mini-review).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Moramarco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Congenital scoliosis is a lateral deformity of the spine with a disturbance of the sagittal profile caused by malformations of vertebra and ribs. Typically, early surgical intervention is the suggested treatment (before three-years-old) for young patients with congenital scoliosis. While a previous study was conducted in 2011 to investigate long-term studies supporting the necessity for this recommendation and no evidence was found, this current review, is an updated search for evidence published from 2011 through March 2015. This also failed to find any prospective or randomized controlled studies to support the hypothesis that spinal fusion surgery in patients with congenital scoliosis should be considered as evidence-based treatment. Contradictory results exist on the safety of hemivertebra resection and segmental fusion using pedicle screw fixation. When using the VEPTR (vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib) device, studies show a high rate of complications exist. It is difficult to predict the final outcome for patients with congenital scoliosis. However, it is possible that many patients with congenital scoliosis may be able to avoid spinal surgery with the application of advanced bracing technology. Therefore, it is only prudent to advocate for conservative management first before spinal surgery is considered. PMID:26769614

  3. Congenital Scoliosis (Mini-review).

    PubMed

    Weiss, Hans-Rudolf; Moramarco, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Congenital scoliosis is a lateral deformity of the spine with a disturbance of the sagittal profile caused by malformations of vertebra and ribs. Typically, early surgical intervention is the suggested treatment (before three-years-old) for young patients with congenital scoliosis. While a previous study was conducted in 2011 to investigate long-term studies supporting the necessity for this recommendation and no evidence was found, this current review, is an updated search for evidence published from 2011 through March 2015. This also failed to find any prospective or randomized controlled studies to support the hypothesis that spinal fusion surgery in patients with congenital scoliosis should be considered as evidence-based treatment. Contradictory results exist on the safety of hemivertebra resection and segmental fusion using pedicle screw fixation. When using the VEPTR (vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib) device, studies show a high rate of complications exist. It is difficult to predict the final outcome for patients with congenital scoliosis. However, it is possible that many patients with congenital scoliosis may be able to avoid spinal surgery with the application of advanced bracing technology. Therefore, it is only prudent to advocate for conservative management first before spinal surgery is considered.

  4. Idiopathic Gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Parkman, Henry P.

    2015-01-01

    Gastroparesis is a chronic symptomatic disorder of the stomach characterized by delayed emptying without evidence of mechanical obstruction. The three main causes of gastroparesis are diabetic, postsurgical, and idiopathic. Idiopathic gastroparesis refers to gastroparesis of unknown cause, that is, not from diabetes, not from prior gastric surgery, and not related to other endocrine, neurologic, rheumatologic causes of gastroparesis. The gastroparesis should not be related to medications that can delay gastric emptying, such as narcotic analgesic or anticholinergic medications. There is overlap in the symptoms of idiopathic gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. A substantial minority of patients with functional dyspepsia can have delayed gastric emptying, blurring the distinction between idiopathic gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia. Patients with idiopathic gastroparesis often have a constellation of symptoms including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, postprandial fullness, and upper abdominal pain. Although the presentation of idiopathic gastroparesis is relatively similar to diabetic gastroparesis, abdominal pain occurs more often in idiopathic gastroparesis, whereas nausea and vomiting are more severe in diabetic gastroparesis. Treatment may employ agents used for diabetic gastroparesis and functional dyspepsia, including dietary management, prokinetics agents, antiemetic agents, and symptom modulators. Current treatment options do not adequately address clinical need for idiopathic gastroparesis. PMID:25667023

  5. Concepts on the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Bone growth and mass, vertebral column, spinal cord, brain, skull, extra-spinal left-right skeletal length asymmetries, disproportions and molecular pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Burwell, R Geoffrey; Dangerfield, Peter H; Freeman, Brian J C

    2008-01-01

    There is no generally accepted scientific theory for the causes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Encouraging advances thought to be related to AIS pathogenesis have recently been made in several fields including anthropometry of bone growth, bone mass, spinal growth modulation, extra-spinal left-right skeletal length asymmetries and disproportions, magnetic resonance imaging of vertebral column, spinal cord, brain, skull, and molecular pathogenesis. These advances are leading to the evaluation of new treatments including attempts at minimally invasive surgery on the spine and peri-apical ribs. Several concepts of AIS are outlined indicating their clinical applications but not their research potential. The concepts, by derivation morphological, molecular and mathematical, are addressed in 15 sections: 1) initiating and progressive factors; 2) relative anterior spinal overgrowth; 3) dorsal shear forces that create axial rotational instability; 4) rotational preconstraint; 5) uncoupled, or asynchronous, spinal neuro-osseous growth; 6) brain, nervous system and skull; 7) a novel neuro-osseous escalator concept based on a putative abnormality of two normal polarized processes namely, a) increasing skeletal dimensions, and b) the CNS body schema - both contained within a neuro-osseous timing of maturation (NOTOM) concept; 8) transverse plane pelvic rotation, skeletal asymmetries and developmental theory; 9) thoraco-spinal concept; 10) origin in contracture at the hips; 11) osteopenia; 12) melatonin deficiency; 13) systemic melatonin-signaling pathway dysfunction; 14) platelet calmodulin dysfunction; and 15) biomechanical spinal growth modulation. From these concepts, a collective model for AIS pathogenesis is formulated. The central concept of this model includes the body schema of the neural systems, widely-studied in adults, that control normal posture and coordinated movements with frames of reference in the posterior parietal cortex. The escalator concept

  6. Determinants of 6-minute walk distance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing lung transplant evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Lebron, Belinda N.; Kreider, Maryl; Lee, James; Kawut, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the physiologic determinants of 6-minute walk distance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated the demographic, pulmonary function, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic determinants of 6-minute walk distance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis evaluated for lung transplantation. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 130 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who completed a lung transplantation evaluation at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 2005 and 2010. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to generate an explanatory model for 6-minute walk distance. After adjustment for age, sex, race, height, and weight, the presence of right ventricular dilation was associated with a decrease of 50.9 m (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.4–93.3) in 6-minute walk distance (P=0.02). For each 200-mL reduction in forced vital capacity, the walk distance decreased by 15.0 m (95% CI, 9.0–21.1; P<0.001). For every increase of 1 Wood unit in pulmonary vascular resistance, the walk distance decreased by 17.3 m (95% CI, 5.1–29.5; P=0.006). Six-minute walk distance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis depends in part on circulatory impairment and the degree of restrictive lung disease. Future trials that target right ventricular morphology, pulmonary vascular resistance, and forced vital capacity may potentially improve exercise capacity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27076905

  7. Determinants of 6-minute walk distance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing lung transplant evaluation.

    PubMed

    Porteous, Mary K; Rivera-Lebron, Belinda N; Kreider, Maryl; Lee, James; Kawut, Steven M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the physiologic determinants of 6-minute walk distance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We investigated the demographic, pulmonary function, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic determinants of 6-minute walk distance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis evaluated for lung transplantation. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 130 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis who completed a lung transplantation evaluation at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 2005 and 2010. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to generate an explanatory model for 6-minute walk distance. After adjustment for age, sex, race, height, and weight, the presence of right ventricular dilation was associated with a decrease of 50.9 m (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.4-93.3) in 6-minute walk distance ([Formula: see text]). For each 200-mL reduction in forced vital capacity, the walk distance decreased by 15.0 m (95% CI, 9.0-21.1; [Formula: see text]). For every increase of 1 Wood unit in pulmonary vascular resistance, the walk distance decreased by 17.3 m (95% CI, 5.1-29.5; [Formula: see text]). Six-minute walk distance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis depends in part on circulatory impairment and the degree of restrictive lung disease. Future trials that target right ventricular morphology, pulmonary vascular resistance, and forced vital capacity may potentially improve exercise capacity in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  8. Risk of Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy in 29 000 Patients With Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Emilsson, Louise; Andersson, Bert; Elfström, Peter; Green, Peter H.R.; Ludvigsson, Jonas F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a rare disease of largely unknown origin. Previous studies have suggested an increased prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in patients with DCM. These studies, however, were based on a maximum of 5 patients with both CD and DCM. In the present large Swedish population-based cohort study, we examined the risk of idiopathic DCM in patients with CD determined by small-intestinal histopathology. Methods and Results From 2006 to 2008, we collected duodenal/jejunal biopsy data on CD (equal to villous atrophy, Marsh stage 3, n=29 071 unique individuals) from (all) 28 pathology departments in Sweden. These individuals were compared with 144 429 reference individuals matched for age, sex, calendar year, and county. Data on DCM were obtained through the National Patient Register and confirmed by patient charts and echocardiography data. During follow-up, 17 patients with CD and 52 reference individuals developed idiopathic DCM. Thus, patients with CD were at an increased risk of idiopathic DCM (hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 3.00), although the risk estimate failed to attain statistical significance (P=0.052). Conclusion This nationwide study found a moderately but not statistically significantly increased risk of idiopathic DCM in patients with biopsy-verified CD. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e001594 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.001594.) PMID:23130142

  9. Incidence and risk factors for post-operative complications after scoliosis surgery in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy : a comparison with other neuromuscular conditions.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, A D; Mitchell, M J; Tsirikos, A I

    2014-07-01

    We report the incidence of and risk factors for complications after scoliosis surgery in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and compare them with those of other neuromuscular conditions. We identified 110 (64 males, 46 females) consecutive patients with a neuromuscular disorder who underwent correction of the scoliosis at a mean age of 14 years (7 to 19) and had a minimum two-year follow-up. We recorded demographic and peri-operative data, including complications and re-operations. There were 60 patients with cerebral palsy (54.5%) and 26 with DMD (23.6%). The overall complication rate was 22% (24 patients), the most common of which were deep wound infection (9, 8.1%), gastrointestinal complications (5, 4.5%) and hepatotoxicity (4, 3.6%). The complication rate was higher in patients with DMD (10/26, 38.5%) than in those with other neuromuscular conditions (14/84, 16.7% (p = 0.019). All hepatotoxicity occurred in patients with DMD (p = 0.003), who also had an increased rate of deep wound infection (19% vs 5%) (p = 0.033). In the DMD group, no peri-operative factors were significantly associated with the rate of overall complications or deep wound infection. Increased intra-operative blood loss was associated with hepatotoxicity (p = 0.036). In our series, correction of a neuromuscular scoliosis had an acceptable rate of complications: patients with DMD had an increased overall rate compared with those with other neuromuscular conditions. These included deep wound infection and hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was unique to DMD patients, and we recommend peri-operative vigilance after correction of a scoliosis in this group.

  10. Using Patient-Reported Outcome Measures to Capture the Patient's Voice in Research and Care of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hersh, Aimee O; Salimian, Parissa K; Weitzman, Elissa R

    2016-05-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures provide a valuable window into how patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and their parents perceive their functioning, quality of life, and medication side effects in the context of their disease and treatment. Momentum behind adoption of PRO measures is increasing as these patient-relevant tools capture information pertinent to taking a patient-centered approach to health care and research. This article reviews the clinical and research utility of obtaining PROs across domains applicable to the experience of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and summarizes available self-report and parent-proxy PRO measures. Current challenges and limitations of PRO usage are discussed. PMID:27133493

  11. Idiopathic spasmodic torticollis: a survey of the clinical syndromes and patients' experiences.

    PubMed

    van Herwaarden, G M; Anten, H W; Hoogduin, C A; Niewold, J U; Roos, R A; Speelman, J D; van Weerden, T W; Horstink, M W

    1994-08-01

    We evaluated the medical and psychosocial experiences of 59 patients with idiopathic spasmodic torticollis (ST) by means of a structured questionnaire. The results generally corresponded with those of other studies in the literature. Diagnosis is delayed in many patients, and ST negatively influences the patients' social lives. Because drug treatment and physiotherapy are only of sufficient value in a minority, most patients seek benefit from numerous other therapies, none of which has been shown to improve ST.

  12. Significance of Myositis Autoantibody in Patients with Idiopathic Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ju Sun; Hwang, Jiwon; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Some patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) related to connective tissue disease (CTD) have a delayed diagnosis of the underlying CTD when the ILD is categorized as idiopathic. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of myositis autoantibodies in patients diagnosed with idiopathic ILD and investigated the clinical significance stemming from the presence of the antibodies. Materials and Methods A total 32 patients diagnosed with idiopathic ILD were enrolled in this study. We analyzed a panel of 11 myositis autoantibody specificities in the patients using a line blot immunoassay. Then, we divided them into myositis autoantibody-positive and -negative groups and compared the clinical features and laboratory data between the two groups. Results Of the 32 idiopathic ILD patients, 12 patients had myositis autoantibodies encompassing 9 specificities, except for anti-Mi-2 and anti-PM-Scl 100 (12/32, 38%). Anti-synthetase autoantibodies including Jo-1, EJ, OJ, PL-7, and PL-12 were present in 7 patients (7/32, 22%). The group with myositis autoantibodies presented more frequently with the symptom of mechanic's hand and showed abnormal pulmonary function test results with low forced vital capacity, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, total lung capacity, and high lactate dehydrogenase values in blood when compared with the group without myositis antibodies. Conclusion We strongly suggest that patients undergo an evaluation of myositis autoantibodies, if they are diagnosed with idiopathic ILD in the presence of clinical characteristics including mechanic's hand, arthralgia, and autoantibodies which are insufficient to make a diagnosis of a specific CTD category. PMID:25837172

  13. Duchenne muscular dystrophy: the management of scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Adrian C.; Roper, Helen P.; Chikermane, Ashish A.; Tatman, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    This study summaries the current management of scoliosis in patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. A literature review of Medline was performed and the collected articles critically appraised. This literature is discussed to give an overview of the current management of scoliosis within Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Importantly, improvements in respiratory care, the use of steroids and improving surgical techniques have allowed patients to maintain quality of life and improved life expectancy in this patient group. PMID:27757431

  14. Scoliosis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... avoiding surgery. If an operation is necessary, the orthopedic surgeon performs a procedure that will correct the ... Surgery Bones, Muscles, and Joints Kyphosis Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions X-Ray Exam: Scoliosis Word! Scoliosis Back ...

  15. Cerebellar degeneration and hearing loss in a patient with idiopathic myenteric ganglionitis.

    PubMed

    Basilisco, Guido; Gebbia, Carlotta; Peracchi, Maddalena; Velio, Pietro; Conte, Dario; Bresolin, Nereo; Nobile-Orazio, Eduardo

    2005-04-01

    A 35-year-old male with an 11-year history of intestinal pseudo-obstruction associated with an idiopathic inflammatory insult of the myenteric plexus and the presence of circulating anti-Hu antibodies developed a neurological syndrome characterized by bilateral hearing loss, deteriorating balance, an unsteady gait and difficulty in estimating distances. A similar neurological syndrome has previously been described in older patients among the paraneoplasic syndromes associated with small-cell lung carcinoma and the presence of circulating anti-Hu antibodies, but never in the rare cancer-free patients with anti-Hu-associated chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction. The patient underwent a steroid treatment. No further episodes of functional intestinal obstruction were observed and, after an initial improvement, the neurological symptoms stabilized, leaving a permanent reduction in hearing function and an unsteady gait. The case shows that an idiopathic inflammatory insult of the myenteric plexus may precede (and perhaps lead to) central nervous system impairment in patients with anti-Hu-associated chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

  16. Significantly higher frequency of Helicobacter suis in patients with idiopathic parkinsonism than in control patients

    PubMed Central

    Blaecher, C; Smet, A; Flahou, B; Pasmans, F; Ducatelle, R; Taylor, D; Weller, C; Bjarnason, I; Charlett, A; Lawson, A J; Dobbs, R J; Dobbs, S M; Haesebrouck, F

    2013-01-01

    Background There is increased proportional mortality from Parkinson's disease amongst livestock farmers. The hypokinesia of Parkinson's disease has been linked to Helicobacter pylori. H. suis is the most common zoonotic helicobacter in man. Aim To compare the frequency of H. suis, relative to H. pylori, in gastric biopsies of patients with idiopathic parkinsonism (IP) and controls from gastroenterology services. Methods DNA extracts, archived at a Helicobacter Reference Laboratory, from IP patient and gastroenterology service biopsies were examined anonymously for H. suis, using species-specific RT-PCR. Results Relative risk of having H. suis in 60 IP patients compared with 256 controls was 10 times greater than that of having H. pylori. In patients with IP and controls, respectively, frequencies of H. suis were 27 (exact binomial 95% C.I. 15, 38) and 2 (0, 3)%, and of H. pylori, 28 (17, 40) and 16 (12, 21)%. Excess of H. suis in IP held when only the antral or corporal biopsy was considered. Of 16 IP patients with H. suis, 11 were from 19 with proven H. pylori eradication, 3 from 17 pre-H. pylori eradication, 2 from 24 H. pylori culture/PCR-negative. Frequency was different between groups (P = 0.001), greatest where H. pylori had been eradicated. Even without known exposure to anti-H. pylori therapy, H. suis was more frequent in IP patients (5/41) than in controls (1/155) (P = 0.002). Partial multilocus sequence typing confirmed that strains from IP patients (6) and control (1) differed from RT-PCR standard strain. Conclusions Greater frequency of H. suis in idiopathic parkinsonism appears exaggerated following H. pylori eradication. Multilocus sequence testing comparison with porcine strains may clarify whether transmission is from pigs/porcine products or of human-adapted, H. suis-like, bacteria. PMID:24117797

  17. Natural evolution from idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy to idiopathic generalized epilepsy in an untreated young patient.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Francesca; Egeo, Gabriella; Fattouch, Jinan; Fanella, Martina; Morano, Alessandra; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-04-01

    Idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy (IPOE) is an idiopathic localization-related epilepsy characterized by age-related onset, specific mode of precipitation, occipital photic-induced seizures--frequently consisting of visual symptoms--and good prognosis. This uncommon epilepsy, which usually starts in childhood or adolescence, has rarely been observed in families in which idiopathic generalized epilepsy also affects other members. We describe a nuclear family in which the proband showed electro-clinical features of idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy in childhood, which subsequently evolved into absences and a single generalized tonico-clonic seizure in early adolescence. His mother had features suggestive of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. This case illustrates a continuum between focal and generalized entities in the spectrum of the so-called idiopathic (genetically determined) epileptic syndromes. PMID:23815968

  18. Natural evolution from idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy to idiopathic generalized epilepsy in an untreated young patient.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Francesca; Egeo, Gabriella; Fattouch, Jinan; Fanella, Martina; Morano, Alessandra; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; di Bonaventura, Carlo

    2014-04-01

    Idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy (IPOE) is an idiopathic localization-related epilepsy characterized by age-related onset, specific mode of precipitation, occipital photic-induced seizures--frequently consisting of visual symptoms--and good prognosis. This uncommon epilepsy, which usually starts in childhood or adolescence, has rarely been observed in families in which idiopathic generalized epilepsy also affects other members. We describe a nuclear family in which the proband showed electro-clinical features of idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy in childhood, which subsequently evolved into absences and a single generalized tonico-clonic seizure in early adolescence. His mother had features suggestive of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. This case illustrates a continuum between focal and generalized entities in the spectrum of the so-called idiopathic (genetically determined) epileptic syndromes.

  19. Pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in girls - a double neuro-osseous theory involving disharmony between two nervous systems, somatic and autonomic expressed in the spine and trunk: possible dependency on sympathetic nervous system and hormones with implications for medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometric data from three groups of adolescent girls - preoperative adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), screened for scoliosis and normals were analysed by comparing skeletal data between higher and lower body mass index subsets. Unexpected findings for each of skeletal maturation, asymmetries and overgrowth are not explained by prevailing theories of AIS pathogenesis. A speculative pathogenetic theory for girls is formulated after surveying evidence including: (1) the thoracospinal concept for right thoracic AIS in girls; (2) the new neuroskeletal biology relating the sympathetic nervous system to bone formation/resorption and bone growth; (3) white adipose tissue storing triglycerides and the adiposity hormone leptin which functions as satiety hormone and sentinel of energy balance to the hypothalamus for long-term adiposity; and (4) central leptin resistance in obesity and possibly in healthy females. The new theory states that AIS in girls results from developmental disharmony expressed in spine and trunk between autonomic and somatic nervous systems. The autonomic component of this double neuro-osseous theory for AIS pathogenesis in girls involves selectively increased sensitivity of the hypothalamus to circulating leptin (genetically-determined up-regulation possibly involving inhibitory or sensitizing intracellular molecules, such as SOC3, PTP-1B and SH2B1 respectively), with asymmetry as an adverse response (hormesis); this asymmetry is routed bilaterally via the sympathetic nervous system to the growing axial skeleton where it may initiate the scoliosis deformity (leptin-hypothalamic-sympathetic nervous system concept = LHS concept). In some younger preoperative AIS girls, the hypothalamic up-regulation to circulating leptin also involves the somatotropic (growth hormone/IGF) axis which exaggerates the sympathetically-induced asymmetric skeletal effects and contributes to curve progression, a concept with therapeutic implications. In the somatic

  20. Effects of standing on cerebrovascular resistance in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, G.; Atkinson, D.; Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Furlan, R.; Black, B. K.; Robertson, D.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance often have debilitating symptoms on standing that are suggestive of cerebral hypoperfusion despite the absence of orthostatic hypotension. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the effects of graded head-up tilt on cerebral blood flow as determined by transcranial Doppler measurements in 10 patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance (nine women, one man, 22 to 47 years) and nine age- and sex-matched control subjects. RESULTS: In patients, mean (+/- SD) arterial pressure at 0 degrees head-up tilt was 90 +/- 11 mm Hg and was well maintained at all tilt angles (90 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees). In controls, mean arterial pressure was 85 +/- 7 mm Hg at 0 degrees and 82 +/- 11 mm Hg at 75 degrees head-up tilt. There was a substantial decrease in peak velocity with increasing tilt angle in patients (28% +/- 10%) but not in controls (10% +/- 10% at 75 degrees, P <0.001). Similarly, mean velocity decreased 26% +/- 13% in patients and 12% +/- 11% in controls (P = 0.01). With increasing head-up tilt, patients had a significantly greater increase in regional cerebrovascular resistance than controls. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, peak and mean middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity decreased in response to head-up tilt despite well sustained arterial blood pressure. These observations indicate that in this group of patients, regulation of cerebrovascular tone may be impaired and might therefore be a target for therapeutic interventions.

  1. Significant Scoliosis Regression following Syringomyelia Decompression

    PubMed Central

    Mollano, Anthony V; Weinstein, Stuart L; Menezes, Arnold H

    2005-01-01

    We present the case of a 5-year-old boy presenting with a 54-degree scoliosis secondary to a Chiari I malformation with a holocord syringomyelia extending from C1 to T10. Neurosurgical treatment involved posterior fossa craniectomy with decompression, and partial C1 laminectomy. At follow-up 7 years later, at age 12, radiographs revealed only a 4-degree scoliosis, and follow-up MRI revealed a deflated syrinx. We report this case to reveal the most significant scoliosis regression seen in our experience that may occur in younger patients after neurosurgical syringomyelia decompression for Chiari I hindbrain herniation. PMID:16089074

  2. Accuracy and safety of pedicle screw placement in neuromuscular scoliosis with free-hand technique

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Hitesh N.; Fernandez, Harry; Yang, Jae Hyuk; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2008-01-01

    It is a retrospective analytic study of 1,009 transpedicular screws (689 thoracic and 320 lumbosacral), inserted with free-hand technique in neuromuscular scoliosis using postoperative CT scan. The aim of paper was to determine the accuracy and safety of transpedicular screw placement with free-hand technique in neuromuscular scoliosis and to compare the accuracy at different levels in such population. All studies regarding accuracy and safety of pedicle screw in scoliosis represent idiopathic scoliosis using various techniques such as free-hand, navigation, image intensifier, etc., for screw insertion. Anatomies of vertebrae and pedicle are distorted in scoliosis, hence accurate and safe placement of pedicle screw is prerequisite for surgery. Between 2004 and 2006, 37 consecutive patients, average age 20 years (9–44 years), of neuromuscular scoliosis were operated with posterior pedicle screw fixation using free-hand technique. Accuracy of pedicle screws was studied on postoperative CT scan. Placement up to 2 mm medial side and 4 mm lateral side was considered within-safe zone. Of the 1,009 screws, 273 screws were displaced medially, laterally or on the anterior side showing that 73% screws (68% in thoracic and 82.5% in lumbar spine) were accurately placed within pedicle. Considering the safe zone, 93.3% (942/1009, 92.4% in thoracic and 95.3% in lumbar spine) of the screws were within the safe zone. Comparing accuracy according to severity of curve, accuracy was 75% in group 1 (curve <90°) and 69% in group 2 (curve >90°) with a safety of 94.8 and 91.2%, respectively (P = 0.35). Comparing the accuracy at different thoracic levels, it showed 67, 64 and 72% accuracy in upper, middle and lower thoracic levels with safety of 96.6, 89.2 and 93.1%, respectively, exhibiting no statistical significant difference (P = 0.17). Pedicle screw placement in neuromuscular scoliosis with free-hand technique is accurate and safe as other conditions. PMID:18830636

  3. Perioperative concerns in pediatric patients u10/1/2013ndergoing different types of scoliosis correction surgery: A retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Anjolie; Arora, Mahesh Kumar; Baidya, Dalim Kumar; Talawar, Praveen; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Jayswal, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advances in scoliosis surgery have now made it possible for younger patients to be taken up for scoliosis correction. Objectives: To ascertain the patient profile, perioperative complications and need for intensive care management in children undergoing posterior fusion and instrumentation (PF), anterior release (AR), and growth rod (GR) insertion surgery. Patients and Methods: After taking parental consent, data were collected retrospectively for 33 patients who underwent 37 procedures (four patients had both anterior and posterior procedures) on 2 days of the week mainly from August 2008 to February 2010 at a tertiary care institution. Results: Children undergoing GR surgery were younger (8.1 ± 2.1 years) than patients undergoing AR (12.9 ± 1.7 years) or posterior fusion (14.2 ± 2.2 years). AR children had a significantly higher Cobb's angle and more rigid curves. (P = 0.057) Associated congenital abnormalities especially neurological were commoner in the GR children. Surgical duration and blood loss was significantly more for PF (2207.5 ± 1224.13 ml) than GR (456 ± 337.5 ml), or AR (642.85 ± 304.72 ml), (P = 0.0002). PF patients needed Intensive care unit (ICU) care mainly due to the blood loss and prolonged surgery (35%). AR performed via thoracotomy was associated with the need for mechanical ventilation in 28.6%. The GR patients had major intraoperative hemodynamic events and 20% needed ICU care. Conclusions: Post-operative ventilation may be required in 20-35% patients undergoing procedures for scoliosis correction. Despite GR insertion involving lesser blood loss; younger age, congenital abnormalities, positioning, and surgical manipulation resulted in life threatening events in these patients. PMID:24106355

  4. Scoliosis and the impact in neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Oscar Henry

    2015-01-01

    Scoliosis can alter respiratory mechanics by changing the orientation of the muscles and joints of the respiratory system and in severe forms can put a patient at risk of severe respiratory morbidity or respiratory failure. However, perhaps the most important factor in determining the pulmonary morbidity in scoliosis is the balance between the "load" or altered respiratory mechanics and the "pump" or the respiratory muscle strength. Therefore, scoliosis in patients with neuromuscular disease will both lead to increased "load" and a weakened "pump", an exceptionally unfortunate combination. While progressive neuromuscular disease by its nature does not respond favorably to attempts to improve respiratory muscle strength, the natural approach of early proactive management of the "load" and in the case of scoliosis a variety of different strategies have been tried with variable short term and long term results. Figuring this out requires both an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of a particular neuromuscular condition and the available options for and timing of surgical intervention.

  5. Linaclotide in Chronic Idiopathic Constipation Patients with Moderate to Severe Abdominal Bloating: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Brian E.; Schey, Ron; Shiff, Steven J.; Lavins, Bernard J.; Fox, Susan M.; Jia, Xinwei D.; Blakesley, Rick E.; Hao, Xinming; Cronin, Jacquelyn A.; Currie, Mark G.; Kurtz, Caroline B.; Johnston, Jeffrey M.; Lembo, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Abdominal bloating is a common and bothersome symptom of chronic idiopathic constipation. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of linaclotide in patients with chronic idiopathic constipation and concomitant moderate-to-severe abdominal bloating. Methods This Phase 3b, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial randomized patients to oral linaclotide (145 or 290 μg) or placebo once daily for 12 weeks. Eligible patients met Rome II criteria for chronic constipation upon entry with an average abdominal bloating score ≥5 (self-assessment: 0 10-point numerical rating scale) during the 14-day baseline period. Patients reported abdominal symptoms (including bloating) and bowel symptoms daily; adverse events were monitored. The primary responder endpoint required patients to have ≥3 complete spontaneous bowel movements/week with an increase of ≥1 from baseline, for ≥9 of 12 weeks. The primary endpoint compared linaclotide 145 μg vs. placebo. Results The intent-to-treat population included 483 patients (mean age=47.3 years, female=91.5%, white=67.7%). The primary endpoint was met by 15.7% of linaclotide 145 μg patients vs. 7.6% of placebo patients (P<0.05). Both linaclotide doses significantly improved abdominal bloating vs. placebo (P<0.05 for all secondary endpoints, controlling for multiplicity). Approximately one-third of linaclotide patients (each group) had ≥50% mean decrease from baseline in abdominal bloating vs. 18% of placebo patients (P<0.01). Diarrhea was reported in 6% and 17% of linaclotide 145 and 290 μg patients, respectively, and 2% of placebo patients. AEs resulted in premature discontinuation of 5% and 9% of linaclotide 145 μg and 290 μg patients, respectively, and 6% of placebo patients. Conclusions Once-daily linaclotide (145 and 290 μg) significantly improved bowel and abdominal symptoms in chronic idiopathic constipation patients with moderate-to-severe baseline abdominal

  6. Radiation hazards in scoliosis management

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, D.; Ranallo, F.; Lonstein, J.; Brooks, H.L.; Cameron, J.

    1983-10-01

    Safe radiography in scoliosis management is based on a sound knowledge of 1) the radiographic imaging process, 2) the degree of risk to the patient from radiation exposure, and 3) the radiographic requirements to both evaluate and follow patients with spine deformity. This paper is a current review of the subject and work done at the authors' centers. It includes recommendations for reducing the radiation risk while maintaining necessary diagnostic information.

  7. Synthetic ACTH in High Risk Patients with Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy: A Prospective, Open Label Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    van de Logt, Anne-Els; Beerenhout, Charles H.; Brink, Hans S.; van de Kerkhof, Jos J.; Wetzels, Jack F.; Hofstra, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    New therapeutic agents are warranted in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Synthetic ACTH may be advantageous with reported remission rates up to 85% and few side effects. We conducted a prospective open label cohort study from 2008 till 2010 (NCT00694863). We prospectively selected patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy and high risk for progression (defined as βeta-2-microglobulin (β2m) excretion of >500 ng/min). For comparison, we selected matched historical controls treated with cyclophosphamide. The prospectively selected patients received intramuscular injections of synthetic ACTH during 9 months (maximal dose 1 mg twice a week). The primary endpoints concerned the feasibility and incidence of remissions as a primary event. Secondary endpoints included side effects of treatment and the incidence of remissions and relapses at long-term follow-up. Twenty patients (15 men) were included (age 54±14 years, serum creatinine 104 μmol/l [IQR 90–113], urine protein:creatinine ratio 8.7 g/10 mmol creatinine [IQR 4.3–11.1]). Seventeen patients (85%) completed treatment. 97% of injections were administered correctly. Cumulative remission rate was 55% (complete remission in 4 patients, partial remission 7 patients). In a group of historical controls treated with cyclophosphamide and steroids, 19 of 20 patients (95%) developed a remission (complete remission in 13 patients, partial remission in 6 patients) (p<0.01). The main limitation of our study is its small size and the use of a historical control group. We show that treatment with intramuscular injections of synthetic ACTH is feasible. Our data suggest that synthetic ACTH is less effective than cyclophosphamide in inducing a remission in high risk patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy. The use of synthetic ACTH was also associated with many adverse events. Therefore, we advise against synthetic ACTH as standard treatment in membranous nephropathy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  8. An intra-articular ganglion cyst in a patient with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Donna Y; Yee, Keolamau; Burkhalter, William; Okimoto, Kelley Chinen; Kon, Kevin; Kurahara, David K

    2014-01-01

    We report an intra-articular ganglion cyst (IAGC) presenting as knee pain and a mass in a patient with longstanding Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). We could not find a similar case of an IAGC occurring in the knee of JIA patients in the literature. IAGC may need to be included as a possibility in patients with inflammatory arthritis with new-onset knee pain, especially in those with a palpable mass. MRI was useful in distinguishing IAGC from more worrisome causes of a knee mass. Orthopedic input was helpful in diagnosis and treatment. In addition, methotrexate therapy was effective in bringing about a long-lasting remission.

  9. Bracing for scoliosis in 2014: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Zaina, F; De Mauroy, J C; Grivas, T; Hresko, M T; Kotwizki, T; Maruyama, T; Price, N; Rigo, M; Stikeleather, L; Wynne, J; Negrini, S

    2014-02-01

    Bracing is currently the primary method for treating moderate idiopathic scoliosis (IS) during the developmental phase of growth. Following a lengthy debate, during which researchers and authors questioned the role of bracing in the treatment of IS due to inconsistent evidence, the Bracing in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Trial study have provided a high level of evidence to the value of bracing and may have convinced most of those who were skeptic. However, although some guidelines have been published, there remains no standard for constructing scoliosis orthoses and no standard treatment protocol. The Scoliosis Research Society criteria were established to provide a framework by which to research bracing and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, and the Society on Scoliosis Orthopedic and Rehabilitation Treatment criteria were published to guarantee a minimum level of expertise for MDs and CPOs involved in the brace treatment. However, very few contemporary papers follow both sets of criteria, and the extensive variety of braces makes it difficult to determine if one is superior to another. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of state-of-the-art brace treatment, highlighting commonly used braces and their history, biomechanical concept, and results, as reported in published literature. Specific focus is placed on European (i.e., Chêneau and derivatives, Dynamic Derotating, Lyon, PASB, Sforzesco, TLI, TriaC) and North American (i.e. Boston, Charleston, Milwaukee, Providence, Rosenberger, SpineCor, Wilmington) designs. Details about different building techniques are also reported, along with recently developed tools that are designed to monitor compliance.

  10. Secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone in patients with idiopathic pituitary dwarfism and acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, R; Saito, H; Kameyama, K; Hosoi, E; Saito, S

    1988-03-01

    The plasma levels of immunoreactive-GHRH in patients with idiopathic pituitary dwarfism and acromegaly were studied in the basal state and during various tests by a sensitive and specific RIA. The fasting plasma GHRH level in 22 patients with idiopathic pituitary dwarfism was 6.3 +/- 2.3 ng/l (mean +/- SD), which was significantly lower than that in normal children (9.8 +/- 2.8 ng/l, N = 21), and eight of them had undetectable concentrations (less than 4.0 ng/l). Little or no response of plasma GHRH to oral administration of L-dopa was observed in 7 of 10 pituitary dwarfs, and 3 of the 7 patients showed a response of plasma GH to iv administration of GHRH (1 microgram/kg). These findings suggest that one of the causes of idiopathic pituitary dwarfism is insufficient GHRH release from the hypothalamus. The fasting plasma GHRH level in 14 patients with acromegaly and one patient with gigantism was 8.0 +/- 3.9 ng/l, which was slightly lower than that in normal adults (10.4 +/- 4.1 ng/l, N = 72). One acromegalic patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I had a high level of plasma GHRH (270 ng/l) with no change in response to L-dopa and TRH test. In 3 untreated patients with acromegaly L-dopa did not induce any response of plasma GHRH in spite of inconsistent GH release, and in 4 patients with acromegaly, TRH evoked no response of plasma GHRH in spite of a marked GH release, suggesting that the GH responses are not mediated by hypothalamic GHRH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2898191

  11. Clinical features and prognosis of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and anti-Jo-1 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mielnik, Pawel; Wiesik-Szewczyk, Ewa; Olesinska, Marzena; Chwalinska-Sadowska, Hanna; Zabek, Jakub

    2006-05-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases that can involve various systems. Antibodies directed against aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, such as anti-Jo-1 antibodies, are strongly associated with a syndrome which consists of myositis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), arthritis and Raynaud's phenomenon. Forty-one patients with various forms of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies were assessed: 14 patients with anti-Jo-1 antibodies and 27 patients without anti-Jo-1 antibodies as a control group. We retrospectively analysed clinical symptoms, treatment and outcome in both groups. Patients with anti-Jo-1 antibodies more often had ILD (64.2 vs. 11.1%), arthritis (64.2 vs. 18.1%) and Raynaud's phenomenon (38 vs. 0%). Patients without the anti-Jo-1 antibody presented worse muscle strength and more frequently myalgia (37 vs. 21%), cutaneous rash (18.5 vs. 7%), heliotrope rash (29% vs. 7%) and periungueal changes (22 vs. 0%) than the anti-Jo-1-positive patients. Outcome was good in both groups. Improvement was achieved in the 14 (100%) Jo-1 positive patients, and in 25 (92.5%) controls. Two (7.5%) patients from control group achieved remission.

  12. Risk factors for poor visual outcome in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Falardeau, Julie; Fletcher, William A.; Granadier, Robert J.; Lam, Byron L.; Longmuir, Reid A.; Patel, Anil D.; Bruce, Beau B.; He, Hua; McDermott, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Determine potential risk factors for progressive visual field loss in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial, a randomized placebo-controlled trial of acetazolamide in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension and mild visual loss concurrently receiving a low sodium, weight reduction diet. Methods: Logistic regression and classification tree analyses were used to evaluate potential risk factors for protocol-defined treatment failure (>2 dB perimetric mean deviation [PMD] change in patients with baseline PMD −2 to −3.5 dB or >3 dB PMD change with baseline PMD −3.5 to −7 dB). Results: Seven participants (6 on diet plus placebo) met criteria for treatment failure. The odds ratio for patients with grades III to V papilledema vs those with grades I and II was 8.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.65–∞, p = 0.025). A 1-unit decrease in the number of letters correct on the ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) chart at baseline was associated with an increase in the odds of treatment failure by a factor of 1.16 (95% CI 1.04–1.30, p = 0.005). Compared with female participants, the odds ratio for male participants was 26.21 (95% CI 1.61–433.00, p = 0.02). The odds of treatment failure were 10.59 times higher (95% CI 1.63–116.83, p = 0.010) for patients with >30 transient visual obscurations per month vs those with ≤30 per month. Conclusions: Male patients, those with high-grade papilledema, and those with decreased visual acuity at baseline were more likely to experience treatment failure. All but one of these patients were treated with diet alone. These patients should be monitored closely and be considered for aggressive treatment of their idiopathic intracranial hypertension. PMID:26245929

  13. Colorectal variceal bleeding in patients with extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis and idiopathic portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Orozco, H; Takahashi, T; Mercado, M A; Prado-Orozco, E; Ferral, H; Hernandez-Ortiz, J; Esquivel, E

    1992-03-01

    We report three patients with colonic variceal bleeding secondary to portal hypertension, 0.5% of all cases with hemorrhagic portal hypertension studied by us in the last 16 years. One patient had idiopathic portal hypertension, and the others had extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis. Colonic varices were documented in all three cases by angiogram; large arteriovenous fistulas in the territory of the superior mesenteric artery and between the inferior mesenteric artery and hemorrhoidal veins were demonstrated in one patient. Two patients underwent colonoscopy; colonic varices were seen in only one. Two patients also had bled from esophagogastric varices. One patient underwent descending colon and sigmoid resection after failure to control bleeding with ligation of arterial supply; one patient underwent the Sugiura procedure, plus transanal ligation of hemorrhoids and rectal varices. At 3 months, 2 years, and 4 years of follow-up, the patients were in good general condition without any evidence of rebleeding.

  14. Transient Monoplegia as a Result of Unilateral Femoral Artery Ischemia Detected by Multimodal Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Posterior Scoliosis Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pankowski, Rafal; Roclawski, Marek; Dziegiel, Krzysztof; Ceynowa, Marcin; Mikulicz, Marcin; Mazurek, Tomasz; Kloc, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is to report a case of 16-year-old girl with transient right lower limb monoplegia as a result of femoral artery ischemia detected by multimodal intraoperative spinal cord neuromonitoring (MISNM) during posterior correction surgery of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A patient with a marfanoid body habitus and LENKE IA type scoliosis with the right thoracic curve of 48° of Cobb angle was admitted for posterior spinal fusion from Th6 to L2. After selective pedicle screws instrumentation and corrective maneuvers motor evoked potentials (MEP) began to decrease with no concomitant changes in somato-sensory evoked potentials recordings. The instrumentation was released first partially than completely with rod removal but the patient demonstrated constantly increasing serious neurological motor deficit of the whole right lower limb. Every technical cause of the MEP changes was eliminated and during the wake-up test the right foot was found to be pale and cold with no popliteal and dorsalis pedis pulses palpable. The patient was repositioned and the pelvic pad was placed more cranially. Instantly, the pulse and color returned to the patient's foot. Following MEP recordings showed gradual return of motor function up to the baseline at the end of the surgery, whereas somato-sensory evoked potentials were within normal range through the whole procedure. This case emphasizes the importance of the proper pelvic pad positioning during the complex spine surgeries performed in prone position of the patient. A few cases of neurological complications have been described which were the result of vascular occlusion after prolonged pressure in the inguinal area during posterior scoliosis surgery when the patient was in prone position. If incorrectly interpreted, they would have a significant impact on the course of scoliosis surgery. PMID:26871822

  15. Radiation enteritis and radiation scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.; Eng, K.; Engler, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Any patient with radiation scoliosis should be suspected of having a visceral lesion as well. Chronic radiation enteritis may be manifested by intestinal obstruction, fistulas, perforation, and hemorrhage. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication, and must be differentiated from postoperative cast or from spinal-traction syndrome. Obstruction that does not respond promptly to conservative measures must be treated surgically. Irradiated bowel is ischemic, and necrosis with spontaneous perforation can only be avoided with early diagnosis and surgical intervention.

  16. Rare causes of scoliosis and spine deformity: experience and particular features

    PubMed Central

    Soultanis, Konstantinos C; Payatakes, Alexandros H; Chouliaras, Vasilios T; Mandellos, Georgios C; Pyrovolou, Nikolaos E; Pliarchopoulou, Fani M; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2007-01-01

    Background Spine deformity can be idiopathic (more than 80% of cases), neuromuscular, congenital or neurofibromatosis-related. However, there are many disorders that may also be involved. We present our experience treating patients with scoliosis or other spine deformities related to rare clinical entities. Methods A retrospective study of the records of a school-screening study in North-West Greece was performed, covering a 10-year period (1992–2002). The records were searched for patients with deformities related to rare disorders. These patients were reviewed as regards to characteristics of underlying disorder and spine deformity, treatment and results, complications, intraoperative and anaesthesiologic difficulties particular to each case. Results In 13 cases, the spine deformity presented in relation to rare disorders. The underlying disorder was rare neurological disease in 2 cases (Rett syndrome, progressive hemidystonia), muscular disorders (facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, arthrogryposis) in 2 patients, osteogenesis imperfecta in 2 cases, Marfan syndrome, osteopetrosis tarda, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, cleidocranial dysplasia and Noonan syndrome in 1 case each. In 2 cases scoliosis was related to other congenital anomalies (phocomelia, blindness). Nine of these patients were surgically treated. Surgery was avoided in 3 patients. Conclusion This study illustrates the fact that different disorders are related with curves with different characteristics, different accompanying problems and possible complications. Investigation and understanding of the underlying pathology is an essential part of the clinical evaluation and preoperative work-up, as clinical experience at any specific center is limited. PMID:17956633

  17. [Degenerative adult scoliosis].

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, C L; Obil-Chavarría, C A; Zárate-Kalfópulos, B; Rosales-Olivares, L M; Alpizar-Aguirre, A; Reyes-Sánchez, A A

    2015-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional rotational deformity of the spine, resulting from the progressive degeneration of the vertebral elements in middle age, in a previously straight spine; a Cobb angle greater than 10° in the coronal plane, which also alters the sagittal and axial planes. It originates an asymmetrical degenerative disc and facet joint, creating asymmetrical loads and subsequently deformity. The main symptom is axial, radicular pain and neurological deficit. Conservative treatment includes drugs and physical therapy. The epidural injections and facet for selectively blocking nerve roots improves short-term pain. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients with intractable pain, radiculopathy and/ or neurological deficits. There is no consensus for surgical indications, however, it must have a clear understanding of the symptoms and clinical signs. The goal of surgery is to decompress neural elements with restoration, modification of the three-dimensional shape deformity and stabilize the coronal and sagittal balance. PMID:27012088

  18. [Degenerative adult scoliosis].

    PubMed

    García-Ramos, C L; Obil-Chavarría, C A; Zárate-Kalfópulos, B; Rosales-Olivares, L M; Alpizar-Aguirre, A; Reyes-Sánchez, A A

    2015-01-01

    Adult scoliosis is a complex three-dimensional rotational deformity of the spine, resulting from the progressive degeneration of the vertebral elements in middle age, in a previously straight spine; a Cobb angle greater than 10° in the coronal plane, which also alters the sagittal and axial planes. It originates an asymmetrical degenerative disc and facet joint, creating asymmetrical loads and subsequently deformity. The main symptom is axial, radicular pain and neurological deficit. Conservative treatment includes drugs and physical therapy. The epidural injections and facet for selectively blocking nerve roots improves short-term pain. Surgical treatment is reserved for patients with intractable pain, radiculopathy and/ or neurological deficits. There is no consensus for surgical indications, however, it must have a clear understanding of the symptoms and clinical signs. The goal of surgery is to decompress neural elements with restoration, modification of the three-dimensional shape deformity and stabilize the coronal and sagittal balance.

  19. Pulmonary artery aneurysm in an adult patient with idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary artery

    PubMed Central

    Betkier-Lipińska, Katarzyna; Czarkowski, Sebastian; Hendzel, Piotr; Cwetsch, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary artery (IDPA) is a rare congenital heart disease. It has been described for almost one hundred years, and numerous definitions have been proposed. The IDPA diagnostic criteria have not been updated for years. Secondary to primary disease, pulmonary artery aneurism was recognised as a lethal defect; however, long-term follow-up of patients with IDPA has not been well researched. Thus, indications to medical or surgical treatment are not evidence based. Here, we present a rare case of a 54-year-old patient with IDPA, who remained under observation for 36 years without surgical intervention. PMID:26855651

  20. Surgical management of the juvenile idiopathic arthritis patient with multiple joint involvement.

    PubMed

    Abdel, Matthew P; Figgie, Mark P

    2014-10-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is recognized as a heterogenous group of disorders in which the common factor is persistent arthritis in at least 1 joint occurring before the age of 16 years. Although conservative management with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs can be effective, approximately 10% of JIA patients have end-stage degenerative changes requiring total hip arthroplasties (THAs) and total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). This article discusses the overall epidemiology, coordination of care, and medical and surgical management of JIA patients undergoing THA and TKA.

  1. Macrophage activation syndrome in a patient with systemic onset of the juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Hari K.; Rao, Avinash; Mittal, Anshul; Jain, Promil

    2016-01-01

    Systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is defined as arthritis affecting one or more joint usually in the juvenile age group (< 16 years of age) with or preceded by fever of at least 2 weeks duration that is documented to be daily (“quotidian”) for at least 3 days which may be associated with evanescent (non-fixed) erythematous rash or generalized lymph node enlargement or hepatomegaly/splenomegaly/both or serositis. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening complication of sJIA marked by sudden onset of non-remitting high fever, profound depression in all three blood cell lines (i.e. leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia), hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and elevated serum liver enzyme levels. In children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, the clinical picture may mimic sepsis or an exacerbation of the underlying disease. We report a case of a 16-year-old female patient presenting with high grade fever with joint pains and generalized weakness which proved to be systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis with macrophage activation syndrome after ruling out all other differential diagnoses and responded well to intravenous steroids. PMID:27407277

  2. Macrophage activation syndrome in a patient with systemic onset of the juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepak; Aggarwal, Hari K; Rao, Avinash; Mittal, Anshul; Jain, Promil

    2016-01-01

    Systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is defined as arthritis affecting one or more joint usually in the juvenile age group (< 16 years of age) with or preceded by fever of at least 2 weeks duration that is documented to be daily ("quotidian") for at least 3 days which may be associated with evanescent (non-fixed) erythematous rash or generalized lymph node enlargement or hepatomegaly/splenomegaly/both or serositis. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening complication of sJIA marked by sudden onset of non-remitting high fever, profound depression in all three blood cell lines (i.e. leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia), hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and elevated serum liver enzyme levels. In children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, the clinical picture may mimic sepsis or an exacerbation of the underlying disease. We report a case of a 16-year-old female patient presenting with high grade fever with joint pains and generalized weakness which proved to be systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis with macrophage activation syndrome after ruling out all other differential diagnoses and responded well to intravenous steroids.

  3. [Treatment standards of the oral anticoagulant in patients with idiopathic pulmonary embolism].

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Zbigniew; Kowalski, Piotr; Grzegorek, Damian

    2016-08-01

    The optimal and the most effective treatment of pulmonary embolism is still a matter of concern and each day sees a new set of challenges for the world of medicine. The progress, has been made in recent years, improved quality of life and caused much better treatment results. This is difficult issue in patients, receiving anticoagulant therapy, because they require an individual approach and adjustability to the therapeutic possibilities. The benefits of long-term anticoagulant therapy, which decreases relapses of idiopathic venous thromboembolism and diminishes risk of thromboembolic complications, should be taking under consideration. It is still a matter of dispute the time of carrying out of treatment, especially after the first life idiopathic episode of pulmonary embolism. The purpose of this paper is an overview and a summary of the foregoing achievements concerned the standards of idiopathic pulmonary embolism treatment, expecting benefits flowing with using new oral anticoagulants, as an alternative to known for decades Vitamin K antagonist drugs. A lot of information about new oral anticoagulants speaks in favor of their use, but unknown safety of the drugs caused searching the best strategy of pulmonary embolism treatment all the time. PMID:27591448

  4. [Treatment standards of the oral anticoagulant in patients with idiopathic pulmonary embolism].

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Zbigniew; Kowalski, Piotr; Grzegorek, Damian

    2016-07-01

    The optimal and the most effective treatment of pulmonary embolism is still a matter of concern and each day sees a new set of challenges for the world of medicine. The progress, has been made in recent years, improved quality of life and caused much better treatment results. This is difficult issue in patients, receiving anticoagulant therapy, because they require an individual approach and adjustability to the therapeutic possibilities. The benefits of long-term anticoagulant therapy, which decreases relapses of idiopathic venous thromboembolism and diminishes risk of thromboembolic complications, should be taking under consideration. It is still a matter of dispute the time of carrying out of treatment, especially after the first life idiopathic episode of pulmonary embolism. The purpose of this paper is an overview and a summary of the foregoing achievements concerned the standards of idiopathic pulmonary embolism treatment, expecting benefits flowing with using new oral anticoagulants, as an alternative to known for decades Vitamin K antagonist drugs. A lot of information about new oral anticoagulants speaks in favor of their use, but unknown safety of the drugs caused searching the best strategy of pulmonary embolism treatment all the time. PMID:27590653

  5. Associations between neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognition in Chinese idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Song, Wei; Chen, Ke; Chen, XuePing; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Cao, Bei; Huang, Rui; Zhao, Bi; Wu, Ying; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2015-03-01

    The associations between neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognition, frontal lobe function and frontal behavioral changes in the Chinese idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) population are largely unknown. This study included 348 idiopathic PD patients from southwest China. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were investigated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI), and cognition was assessed using Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R). The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) was used to evaluate frontal function and the Frontal Behavior Inventory (FBI) was used to assess frontal behavioral changes. The mean (± standard deviation) age of the PD patients was 60.24 ± 12.07 years, and the mean disease duration was 3.88 ± 3.34 years. The mean NPI score was 3.49 ± 4.00. The mean score of ACE-R was 76.82 ± 16.73. The mean score of FAB was 15.27 ± 2.90, and the mean score of FBI was 3.18 ± 5.17. Weak negative correlations between the NPI and ACE-R scores as well as FAB score were found in the total sample, the male patient subgroup, the early onset PD subgroup and the late onset PD subgroup. Strong positive correlations were found between the NPI and FBI scores in the total sample (r=0.661, p<0.001), the male patient subgroup (r=0.789, p<0.001) and the late onset PD subgroup (r=0.749, p<0.001). Moderate positive correlations were found between the NPI and FBI scores in the female patient subgroup (r=0.536, p<0.001) and the early onset PD subgroup (r=0.462, p<0.001). Neuropsychiatric symptoms were closely associated with frontal behavioral changes but were not closely related with worse cognition and frontal lobe function in the Chinese idiopathic PD population.

  6. Associations between neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognition in Chinese idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Song, Wei; Chen, Ke; Chen, XuePing; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Cao, Bei; Huang, Rui; Zhao, Bi; Wu, Ying; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2015-03-01

    The associations between neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognition, frontal lobe function and frontal behavioral changes in the Chinese idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) population are largely unknown. This study included 348 idiopathic PD patients from southwest China. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were investigated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI), and cognition was assessed using Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R). The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) was used to evaluate frontal function and the Frontal Behavior Inventory (FBI) was used to assess frontal behavioral changes. The mean (± standard deviation) age of the PD patients was 60.24 ± 12.07 years, and the mean disease duration was 3.88 ± 3.34 years. The mean NPI score was 3.49 ± 4.00. The mean score of ACE-R was 76.82 ± 16.73. The mean score of FAB was 15.27 ± 2.90, and the mean score of FBI was 3.18 ± 5.17. Weak negative correlations between the NPI and ACE-R scores as well as FAB score were found in the total sample, the male patient subgroup, the early onset PD subgroup and the late onset PD subgroup. Strong positive correlations were found between the NPI and FBI scores in the total sample (r=0.661, p<0.001), the male patient subgroup (r=0.789, p<0.001) and the late onset PD subgroup (r=0.749, p<0.001). Moderate positive correlations were found between the NPI and FBI scores in the female patient subgroup (r=0.536, p<0.001) and the early onset PD subgroup (r=0.462, p<0.001). Neuropsychiatric symptoms were closely associated with frontal behavioral changes but were not closely related with worse cognition and frontal lobe function in the Chinese idiopathic PD population. PMID:25582976

  7. Personality Traits in Patients with Subjective Idiopathic Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Adami Dehkordi, Mahboobeh; Javanbakht, Maryam; Sarfarazi Moghadam, Shima; Meshkat, Mojtaba; Abolbashari, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Tinnitus is a common complaint in patients referred to otorhinolaryngology clinics and is a condition where one hears a sound without any distinguishable external acoustic source or electrical stimulus. About 3-30% of adults experience different degrees of tinnitus during their life. This study aims to ascertain and compare personality traits between patients with tinnitus and a control group. Materials and Methods: In a case control study, 66 participants were assessed. The case group consisted of 33 patients who suffered from tinnitus for at least two months, in addition to 33 healthy volunteers who were selected among their family (preferably of the same age and sex). A standard demographic questionnaire and an Eyzenck personality questionnaire were filled for both groups. A tinnitus severity index (TSI) questionnaire was only filled for the case group. Data from each group was compared by Mann-Whitney U and Chi-Square tests. SPSS V.18 was the selected software. Results: Statistical analysis showed a meaningful difference in neuroticism (P=0.001) and extraversion (P=0.001) between the patients and the controls; however, there was no statistical difference between these groups regarding psychotism. Conclusion: Tinnitus can be associated with personality characteristics. This study showed that in patients with tinnitus, neuroticism increases and extraversion decreases. Considering the personality and psychotic traits observed in the patients with tinnitus, psychiatric consultation is recommended. PMID:26568941

  8. Animal models of scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bobyn, Justin D; Little, David G; Gray, Randolph; Schindeler, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into quadrupedal and bipedal experiments. Quadrupedal models, in the absence of axial gravitation force, depend upon development of a mechanical asymmetry along the spine to initiate a scoliotic deformity. Bipedal models more accurately mimic human posture and consequently are subject to similar forces due to gravity, which have been long appreciated to be a contributing factor to the development of scoliosis. Many effective models of scoliosis in smaller animals have not been successfully translated to primates and humans. Though these models may not clarify the aetiology of human scoliosis, by providing a reliable and reproducible deformity in the spine they are a useful means with which to test interventions designed to correct and prevent deformity.

  9. Clinical Response of Levodopa Carbidopa Combination in Patients with Idiopathic Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Pradeep Sadasivan; Iype, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parkinson’s disease is the most common form of a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders. The use of levodopa as dopamine – replacement therapy is highly effective in ameliorating the symptoms of the disease and remains the standard drug with which other therapies are compared. Aim To study the change in Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating scale (UPDRS) scores in patients receiving levodopa and carbidopa treatment (levodopa- carbidopa combination). Materials and Methods Study was conducted in Department of Neurology, Government Medical College, Trivandrum, India on 75 patients. All patients diagnosed with Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) satisfying inclusion criteria were enrolled into the study. Informed written consent was taken from all patients. Baseline UPDRS scores were recorded followed by reassessment at the end of six month. Data was analysed using paired t-test with help of SPSS-16 statistical software. Results Baseline UPDRS was collected and after 6 months of treatment, it was reassessed. Baseline total score was 49.8; the follow-up score was 39.5. A decrease in score was seen in various components of UPDRS. Conclusion Upon statistical analysis this difference was found to be significant, which implies that, there is improvement in patient’s condition. Improvement was noted in Mentation, behaviour, mood, activities of daily living and motor functions. Hence there is positive treatment response for levodopa carbidopa therapy in patients with idiopathic PD. PMID:27437241

  10. Idiopathic histaminergic angioedema without wheals: a case series of 31 patients.

    PubMed

    Faisant, C; Boccon-Gibod, I; Mansard, C; Dumestre Perard, C; Pralong, P; Chatain, C; Deroux, A; Bouillet, L

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic histaminergic acquired angioedema (IH-AAE) is a common cause of recurrent angioedema without wheals. It is a mast cell-mediated disease thought to belong to the same clinical entity as chronic urticaria (CU). The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of IH-AAE patients. From 2014 to 2015, 534 patients were seen at our national reference centre for angioedema and/or urticaria. Among them, we identified 31 patients with idiopathic histaminergic acquired angioedema without wheals (IH-AAE). Thirty-one patients (15 men and 16 women) with a mean age of 50 years met the criteria for IH-AAE. The average delay in diagnosis was 6·3 years. A history of allergy was found in 12 patients (38·7%), nine suffering from allergic rhinitis. The mean duration of attacks was 28·1 h. The AE attack was located in the upper respiratory tract in 54·8% of cases (17 patients). A lingual location was found in 29% of patients. Men were more likely than women to have an upper airway involvement. No intubations or admissions to intensive care units were reported. The dosage of anti-histamines to control the symptoms was onefold the recommended dose in 51·6% of patients (16 patients), twofold in 32% (10 patients) and three-fourfold in 16·1% (five patients). IH-AAE is characterized by an important delay in diagnosis, a frequent involvement of the upper airway and a benign course during attacks. As in CU, a trial of up to fourfold dose of H1-anti-histamines may be necessary to control symptoms.

  11. Psychological evaluation of patients with severe idiopathic constipation: which instrument to use.

    PubMed

    Wald, A; Burgio, K; Holeva, K; Locher, J

    1992-08-01

    We prospectively evaluated 38 patients with chronic severe idiopathic constipation who failed to respond to conventional therapy. Colonic transit studies, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R), and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) were completed. Colonic transit studies identified 23 patients with slow transit and 15 with normal transit. Patients with normal transit constipation scored higher than those with slow transit on every scale of both the SCL-90-R and MMPI, but the SCL-90-R appeared to detect greater differences between the two groups. We conclude that the SCL-90-R is the preferred psychological instrument to evaluate patients with chronic severe constipation who fail to respond to conventional therapy. It provides information similar to the MMPI with which to measure behavioral profiles of patients in an office setting, and it can be completed and scored more rapidly. PMID:1642221

  12. Two episodes of ventriculoperitoneal shunt migration in a patient with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, V; Jeanmonod, R

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Ventriculoperitoneal shunts are often placed as treatment for refractory idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Dislodgement and migration of the distal portion of the shunt are more common in obese patients and can be difficult to detect. We report the case of a woman with two separate episodes of shunt migration into her abdominal wall. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 37-year-old female with history of obesity eventually diagnosed with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) as the cause. She failed outpatient therapy and, through neurosurgery, had a VP shunt placed for symptom control. She had subsequent development of worsened symptoms that were found to be due to shunt migration. This happened not once but twice to the same patient. Conclusion. Shunt dislodgement, migration, and subsequent failure are common in obese patients who have shunts placed for IIH. The medical provider should maintain a high index of suspicion for shunt malfunction in these patients, particularly because clinical evaluation may be challenging due to habitus.

  13. The Possible Link between GABAergic Dysfunction and Cognitive Decline in a Patient with Idiopathic Hypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Terada, Tatsuhiro; Kakimoto, Akihiro; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Kono, Satoshi; Bunai, Tomoyasu; Hosoi, Yasushi; Sakao-Suzuki, Makiko; Konishi, Takashi; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Ouchi, Yasuomi

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IHP) is accompanied by cognitive impairment. We report the case of a 70-year-old IHP patient with cognitive disturbance. Brain computed tomography showed bilateral calcification in basal ganglia, thalamus, and cerebellum. Neuropsychological assessment revealed low scores for intelligence, memory, and perseverative errors. Brain positron emission tomography showed a significant reduction in [(18)F]-Fludeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in bilateral frontal, left temporal and parietal cortices, along with a marked reduction in [(11)C]-flumazenil binding in left frontal, temporal, parietal, and bilateral cerebellum. These findings suggest cognitive impairment in IHP may be ascribed to GABAergic dysfunction, thus leading to, or coexisting with, cerebral hypometabolism.

  14. Unexpected platelets elevation in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenia treated with oseltamivir for influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Bigot, Pierre; Auffret, Marine; Gautier, Sophie; Weinborn, Marie; Ettahar, Nicolas-Kader; Coupé, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Oseltamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor approved for the prevention and treatment of influenza. Few haematological side effects have been reported with oseltamivir. We report herein the case of an unexpected platelet increase in a 46-year-old woman with idiopathic thrombocytopenia (ITP) treated with oseltamivir for influenza. The mechanism may involve the neuraminidase inhibition which decrease platelet surface sialic acid content and reduce their removal by the reticuloendothelial system. Oseltamivir may be responsible for platelet increase especially in patients with ITP. PMID:27343486

  15. "FITS" concept Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bialek, Marianna; M'hango, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis--FITS concept may be used as a separate system of scoliosis correction, a supportive therapy to bracing, children preparation to surgery and also shoulder and pelvic girdle correction after surgical interventions. Taking into account the dysfunctions accompanying scoliosis, the authors of the concept propose an individually adjusted programme of exercises depending on a curvature angle and a result of clinical examination of a patient. On this basis both general and specific goals are set. FITS concept consists of two stages: --Elimination of myofascial restrictions which limit a three-plane corrective movement, by using different techniques of muscle energization; --building new corrective posture patterns in functional positions. By sensory motor balance training and exercising the lower trunk stabilization we can start teaching corrective breathing (with the scoliosis convexities) and adjust corrective movement patterns (in open and close chains). A selection of corrective movement patterns will depend on a type of scoliosis, a direction of spine rotation and a place of building functional compensation. Every corrective pattern includes three components: flexion/extension (the saggital plane correction), elevation/depression (the frontal plane correction) and external/internal rotation (the transverse plane correction). In the processs of therapy the corrective movement patterns are being changed depending on curvature angle behaving and clinical picture of a patient.

  16. Effect of body composition on bone mineral density in Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    El Badri, Dalal; Rostom, Samira; Bouaddi, Ilham; Hassani, Asmae; Chkirate, Bouchra; Amine, Bouchra; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The link between bone mass and body composition is widely recognized, but only few works were selectively performed on subjects with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of body composition on bone mineral density (BMD) in Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Methods Thirty three children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) were included in a cross-sectional study. The diagnosis of JIA was made according to the criteria of the International League of Association of Rheumatology (ILAR). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from the ratio of weight/height2(kg/m2). Pubertal status was determined according to the Tanner criteria. Bone status, body composition and bone mineral content (BMC) were analyzed by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD was assessed at the lumbar spine (L1-L4) and at total body in (g/cm2). Total body fat tissue mass (FTM) and lean tissue mass (LTM) were also analyzed by DXA and expressed in kilograms. In children, low BMD was defined as a Z-score less than -2 and osteoporosis was defined as a Z-score less than -2 with a fracture history. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 Moroccan patients with JIA aged between 4 and 16 years, Fat mass was not related to bone density; in contrast, BMD was positively associated to LTM in total body(r = =0.41, p= 0.04) but not in lumbar spine (r = 0.29, p= 0.17). There exist significant correlation between BMC and BMD in total body (r = 0.51, p = 0.01). Conclusion This study suggests that the LTM is a determining factor of the BMD during adolescence. Other studies with a broader sample would be useful to confirm this relation. PMID:25120859

  17. Study of Autophagy and Microangiopathy in Sural Nerves of Patients with Chronic Idiopathic Axonal Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Kristin; Osman, Ayman A. M.; Angeria, Maria; Risling, Mårten; Mohseni, Simin; Press, Rayomand

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-five percent of polyneuropathies are idiopathic. Microangiopathy has been suggested to be a possible pathogenic cause of chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP). Dysfunction of the autophagy pathway has been implicated as a marker of neurodegeneration in the central nervous system, but the autophagy process is not explored in the peripheral nervous system. In the current study, we examined the presence of microangiopathy and autophagy-related structures in sural nerve biopsies of 10 patients with CIAP, 11 controls with inflammatory neuropathy and 10 controls without sensory polyneuropathy. We did not find any significant difference in endoneurial microangiopathic markers in patients with CIAP compared to normal controls, though we did find a correlation between basal lamina area thickness and age. Unexpectedly, we found a significantly larger basal lamina area thickness in patients with vasculitic neuropathy. Furthermore, we found a significantly higher density of endoneurial autophagy-related structures, particularly in patients with CIAP but also in patients with inflammatory neuropathy, compared to normal controls. It is unclear if the alteration in the autophagy pathway is a consequence or a cause of the neuropathy. Our results do not support the hypothesis that CIAP is primarily caused by a microangiopathic process in endoneurial blood vessels in peripheral nerves. The significantly higher density of autophagy structures in sural nerves obtained from patients with CIAP and inflammatory neuropathy vs. controls indicates the involvement of this pathway in neuropathy, particularly in CIAP, since the increase in density of autophagy-related structures was more pronounced in patients with CIAP than those with inflammatory neuropathy. To our knowledge this is the first report investigating signs of autophagy process in peripheral nerves in patients with CIAP and inflammatory neuropathy. PMID:27662650

  18. [Early postoperative complications after scoliosis surgery].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Caballero Macarrón, C; Burgos Flores, J; Martos Sánchez, I; Pérez Palomino, A; Vázquez Martínez, J L; Alvarez Rojas, E; Fernández Pineda, L; Vellibre Vargas, D

    2006-03-01

    Several medical complications can occur after scoliosis surgery in children and adolescents. New surgical techniques have allowed greater degrees of scoliosis correction but have also increased the possibility of postsurgical deficit due to their greater aggressivity. We analyzed the early postsurgical complications of scoliosis surgery in a pediatric intensive care unit over a 10-year period. Seventy-six surgical procedures were performed. Of these, no complications occurred in 55 (73%). Chest X-ray revealed pulmonary atelectasia in 8 patients (10%) and pleural effusion in 7 patients (9%). Symptoms and signs of infection related to surgery were observed in only 6 children (8%). The absence of severe medical complications may be related to new surgical techniques and an experienced team. PMID:16527092

  19. Vital capacity evolution in patients treated with the CMCR brace: statistical analysis of 90 scoliotic patients treated with the CMCR brace

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objective To study the evolution of pulmonary capacity during orthopaedic treatment of scoliosis with the CMCR brace. Background Investigating the impact of moderate scoliosis on respiratory capacity and its evolution during CMCR brace treatment with mobile pads. Context Several studies demonstrate the impact of scoliosis on respiratory capacity but few of them focus on the impact of bracing treatment. We studied the evolution of the pulmonary capacity of a cohort of 90 scoliotic patients. Methods This retrospective study included 90 scoliotic patients treated since 1999 with a brace with mobile pads called CMCR (n = 90; mean age: 13 years; 10-16). These patients were diagnosed with an idiopathic scoliosis (mean angulation 20.6°). All patients underwent a radiographic and respiratory evaluation at the beginning, the middle and the end of treatment. Results Mean age at treatment start was 13. Before treatment, our patients did not have a normal pulmonary capacity: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) was only 75% of the theoretical value. All curvature types (thoracic, thoraco-lumbar and combined scoliosis) involved this reduced pulmonary capacity, with moderate-angulated scoliosis having a negative impact. At the beginning of brace treatment, the loss of real vital capacity with brace (0.3 litres) was 10% lower than without brace. At CMCR removal, the FVC had increased by 0.4 litre (21% +/- 4.2% compared to the initial value). The theoretical value had increased by 3%. This positive evolution was most important in girls at a low Risser stage (0,1,2), and before 11 years of age. Conclusion These results supported our approach of orthesis conception for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis which uses braces with mobile pads to preserve thorax and spine mobility. PMID:21880121

  20. Dental Management of a Patient with Multiple Idiopathic Cervical Root Resorption.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rahat; Fayle, Stephen; Langley, David; Altaie, Asmaa; Nattress, Brian

    2015-09-01

    Multiple Idiopathic Cervical Root Resorption (MICRR) is a rare condition. It initiates at the cemento-enamel junction of multiple teeth. The lesions continue to grow until they unite, thereby undermining the entire coronal structure of affected teeth. Its distribution can vary from a single region to the entire dentition and the number of teeth affected by resorption tends to increase as the condition is followed over time. The teeth themselves appear clinically normal. The aetiology of MICRR is unknown and it is considered to be a diagnosis of exclusion. The condition tends to be progressive. Consequently, root treatments/surgical curettage and restoration of the lesions have been unsuccessful at arresting the condition. Affected teeth are often extracted in anticipation of catastrophic fracture and have been replaced with partial or complete dentures. In this case report, we describe how a young female patient was dentally managed over 10 years and ultimately rehabilitated with dental implants. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Patients suspected of having multiple idiopathic cervical root resorption may require specialist, multidisciplinary care and require referral to an appropriate secondary care unit for treatment planning and potential oral rehabilitation. PMID:26630864

  1. The importance of an ophthalmologic examination in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis occurs within the first year of arthritis onset in 73% of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) considered at risk. The intraocular inflammation is characterized by an insidious onset and a silent and chronic clinical course capable of producing significant visual loss due to complications such as: cataract formation, secondary glaucoma, maculopathy and optic neuropathy. The absence of initial signs and symptoms, along with a deficient ophthalmic monitoring produce a delay in diagnosis with serious consequences. It has been estimated that 47% of JIA patients at risk for developing uveitis are legally blind (20/200 or worse) at least in one eye at the time of their first visit to the ophthalmologist. To reduce ocular complications and improve their visual outcome, it is necessary that rheumatologists refer all patients recently diagnosed (within the first month) with JIA for an ophthalmic evaluation, and maintain periodical follow-up visits based on classification and risk category of the disease.

  2. Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for a patient with idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryo; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Shioi, Ikuma; Ikeda, Yoshiyuki; Hatakeyama, Satoru; Maruta, Tomoaki; Tsukahara, Akihiro; Tanaka, Norio; Shimoda, Satoshi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2016-08-01

    A 62-year-old man with abdominal pain and lumbago was admitted to our hospital. Blood examination revealed renal insufficiency, and CT revealed retroperitoneal fibrosis causing bilateral hydrocele and ureteral compression. A colonoscopy was performed to rule out secondary retroperitoneal fibrosis due to malignancies, and this imaging revealed an ascending colon cancer. Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with lymphadenectomy and retroperitoneal biopsy were performed. The retroperitoneum was filled with hard, white fibrous tissue, which made it difficult to mobilize the right mesocolon from the retroperitoneum. Devascularization performed before mobilization allowed for a safe and oncologically feasible procedure. Histologically, there were no malignant cells in the retroperitoneal tissue. The patient has been without colon cancer reoccurrence for 4 years. When the surgical challenges that distinguish these patients from ordinary cases are recognized preoperatively, laparoscopic colectomy may be a feasible option for patients with colorectal cancer with idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis.

  3. Peliosis hepatis presenting with massive hepatomegaly in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Bean; Kim, Do Kyung; Byun, Sun Jeong; Park, Ji Hye; Choi, Jin Young; Park, Young Nyun; Kim, Do Young

    2015-12-01

    Peliosis hepatis is a rare condition that can cause hepatic hemorrhage, rupture, and ultimately liver failure. Several authors have reported that peliosis hepatis develops in association with chronic wasting disease or prolonged use of anabolic steroids or oral contraceptives. In this report we describe a case in which discontinuation of steroid therapy improved the condition of a patient with peliosis hepatis. Our patient was a 64-year-old woman with a history of long-term steroid treatment for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura . Her symptoms included abdominal pain and weight loss; the only finding of a physical examination was hepatomegaly. We performed computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver and a liver biopsy. Based on these findings plus clinical observations, she was diagnosed with peliosis hepatis and her steroid treatment was terminated. The patient recovered completely 3 months after steroid discontinuation, and remained stable over the following 6 months. PMID:26770928

  4. Syndromic Scoliosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 中文 فارسی français deutsche Ελληνικά Italiano 日本語 한국어 português español Türkçe Member Login Become a Member Find ... Patients and Families Professionals About SRS Türkçe español português 한국어 日本語 Ελληνικά deutsche Italiano français فارسی 中文 ...

  5. Adult Scoliosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 中文 فارسی français deutsche Ελληνικά Italiano 日本語 한국어 português español Türkçe Member Login Become a Member Find ... Patients and Families Professionals About SRS Türkçe español português 한국어 日本語 Ελληνικά deutsche Italiano français فارسی 中文 ...

  6. Congenital Scoliosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 中文 فارسی français deutsche Ελληνικά Italiano 日本語 한국어 português español Türkçe Member Login Become a Member Find ... Patients and Families Professionals About SRS Türkçe español português 한국어 日本語 Ελληνικά deutsche Italiano français فارسی 中文 ...

  7. Long-term follow-up of young patients with chronic hereditary or idiopathic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Konzen, K M; Perrault, J; Moir, C; Zinsmeister, A R

    1993-05-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of patients younger than 20 years of age who had a diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis and underwent assessment at the Mayo Clinic between 1960 and 1990. Those with a known etiologic factor for the pancreatitis (such as a virus, trauma, alcohol, or hyperlipidemia) were excluded from the study. We compared the clinical course of the 42 patients who had hereditary pancreatitis (HP)--defined as at least two family members affected by the condition--with that of the 28 patients who had idiopathic pancreatitis (IP). The mean age at initial assessment was 7 years for those with HP and 12 years for those with IP. All patients in both groups had abdominal pain. Vomiting was more frequent in patients with HP than in those with IP; otherwise the initial symptoms were similar in both groups. Patients with HP, however, had more complications, including pseudocysts (seven patients), steatorrhea (four), ascites (three), portal hypertension (two), and diabetes (one), than did patients with IP (one each had diabetes, steatorrhea, and a pseudocyst). Complications or pain necessitated surgical intervention in 23 of 42 patients with HP versus 4 of 28 patients with IP. Overall in comparison with IP, HP seems to be a more severe variant of chronic pancreatitis, inasmuch as it is associated with more frequent complications and need for surgical intervention.

  8. [Macrophage activation syndrome in a patient with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis].

    PubMed

    Tavares, Anna Carolina Faria Moreira Gomes; Ferreira, Gilda Aparecida; Guimarães, Luciano Junqueira; Guimarães, Raquel Rosa; Santos, Flávia Patrícia Sena Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Machrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a rare and potentially fatal disease, commonly associated with chronic rheumatic diseases, mainly juvenile idiopathic arthritis. It is included in the group of secondary forms of haemophagocytic syndrome, and other causes are lymphoproliferative diseases and infections. Its most important clinical and laboratorial manifestations are non-remitting fever, splenomegaly, bleeding, impairment of liver function, cytopenias, hypoalbuminemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypofibrinogenemia and hyperferritinemia. The treatment needs to be started quickly, and the majority of cases have a good response with corticosteroids and cyclosporine. The Epstein-Barr virus is described as a possible trigger for many cases of MAS, especially in these patients in treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers. In these refractory cases, etoposide (VP16) should be administered, associated with corticosteroids and cyclosporine. Our objective is to describe a rare case of MAS probably due to EBV infection in a subject with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which achieved complete remission of the disease after therapy guided by 2004-HLH protocol.

  9. Folate usage in MTX-treated juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients is inconsistent and highly variable.

    PubMed

    Amarilyo, Gil; Amarlilyo, Gil; Rullo, Ornella J; McCurdy, Deborah K; Woo, Jennifer M P; Furst, Daniel E

    2013-09-01

    Folate supplementation is widely accepted and utilized for the prevention of adverse events in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients who are treated with methotrexate. Despite the widespread use of folate supplementation, there is a lack of convincing evidence to support the role of folate in the enhancement of methotrexate efficacy and the prevention of methotrexate-related adverse events. In order to understand current practices used by experts, we surveyed 214 pediatric rheumatologists around the globe. Seventy-one unique folate supplementation regimens were reported for this study. Results indicated that folate supplementation (either in the form of folic acid or folinic acid) is inconsistent and highly variable within the United States as well as between the United States and other countries. This level of variability is often associated with lack of evidence and emphasizes the need for well-designed clinical trials to support a rational folate supplementation regimen in patients with JIA who are treated with methotrexate. PMID:23400770

  10. Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions and Answers about Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents This publication defines scoliosis and provides information about ... it is diagnosed and treated in children and adolescents. You may be interested in contacting one or ...

  11. Transient Monoplegia as a Result of Unilateral Femoral Artery Ischemia Detected by Multimodal Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Posterior Scoliosis Surgery: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pankowski, Rafal; Roclawski, Marek; Dziegiel, Krzysztof; Ceynowa, Marcin; Mikulicz, Marcin; Mazurek, Tomasz; Kloc, Wojciech

    2016-02-01

    This is to report a case of 16-year-old girl with transient right lower limb monoplegia as a result of femoral artery ischemia detected by multimodal intraoperative spinal cord neuromonitoring (MISNM) during posterior correction surgery of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.A patient with a marfanoid body habitus and LENKE IA type scoliosis with the right thoracic curve of 48° of Cobb angle was admitted for posterior spinal fusion from Th6 to L2. After selective pedicle screws instrumentation and corrective maneuvers motor evoked potentials (MEP) began to decrease with no concomitant changes in somato-sensory evoked potentials recordings.The instrumentation was released first partially than completely with rod removal but the patient demonstrated constantly increasing serious neurological motor deficit of the whole right lower limb. Every technical cause of the MEP changes was eliminated and during the wake-up test the right foot was found to be pale and cold with no popliteal and dorsalis pedis pulses palpable. The patient was repositioned and the pelvic pad was placed more cranially. Instantly, the pulse and color returned to the patient's foot. Following MEP recordings showed gradual return of motor function up to the baseline at the end of the surgery, whereas somato-sensory evoked potentials were within normal range through the whole procedure.This case emphasizes the importance of the proper pelvic pad positioning during the complex spine surgeries performed in prone position of the patient. A few cases of neurological complications have been described which were the result of vascular occlusion after prolonged pressure in the inguinal area during posterior scoliosis surgery when the patient was in prone position. If incorrectly interpreted, they would have a significant impact on the course of scoliosis surgery. PMID:26871822

  12. Cervical spine involvement in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis - MRI follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe MRI and clinical findings in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis with cervical spine involvement at onset and follow-up under therapy. Methods 13 patients with signs of cervical spine involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis with a median disease duration of 1.7 years were included in the study. Clinical records and MR images were retrospectively analyzed according to symptoms and findings concerning the cervical spine. Results At the onset of cervical spine involvement all patients showed limited range of motion, whereas only 5 of them complained of pain. In MR images joint hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, malalignment, ankylosis, erosion and narrowing of the spinal canal at cranio-cervical junction were found at 28, 32, 15, 2, 2 and 3 sites in 12 (93%), 13 (100%), 8 (62%), 2 (15%), 2 and 3 (20%) patients respectively. 3 of the 5 patients with pain (60%) showed ankylosis, erosions or narrowing of the spinal canal at cranio-cervical junction on MRI. At follow-up - after a median disease duration of cervical spine arthritis of 2.1 years and a variable duration of treatment with methotrexate (all patients) and biological agents (12 patients) - joint hyperintensity, enhancement and malalignment decreased to 15, 19 and 6 sites in 10 (77%), 11 (85%) and 3 (20%) patients respectively whereas ankylosis, erosion and narrowing of the spinal canal at cranio-cervical junction increased to 7, 6 and 4 sites in 3 (20%), 4 (31%) and 4 patients respectively. Pain was no longer reported, but 9 of 13 (69%) patients still had a limited range of motion with 6 of them (46%) showing skeletal changes on MRI. Conclusions This first MRI based follow-up study shows that cervical spine arthritis can follow a severe disease course in juvenile arthritis. While malalignments and inflammation sites decreased osseous changes with erosions, ankylosis, and narrowing of the spinal canal increased under treatment despite only minor subjective complaints

  13. Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in Hungarian Patients with Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Griger, Zoltán; Dankó, Katalin

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are autoimmune diseases characterized by symmetrical proximal muscle weakness. Our aim was to identify a correlation between VDR polymorphisms or haplotypes and myositis. We studied VDR-BsmI, VDR-ApaI, VDR-TaqI, and VDR-FokI polymorphisms and haplotypes in 89 Hungarian poly-/dermatomyositis patients (69 females) and 93 controls (52 females). We did not obtain any significant differences for VDR-FokI, BsmI, ApaI, and TaqI genotypes and allele frequencies between patients with myositis and healthy individuals. There was no association of VDR polymorphisms with clinical manifestations and laboratory profiles in myositis patients. Men with myositis had a significantly different distribution of BB, Bb, and bb genotypes than female patients, control male individuals, and the entire control group. Distribution of TT, Tt, and tt genotypes was significantly different in males than in females in patient group. According to four-marker haplotype prevalence, frequencies of sixteen possible haplotypes showed significant differences between patient and control groups. The three most frequent haplotypes in patients were the fbAt, FBaT, and fbAT. Our findings may reveal that there is a significant association: Bb and Tt genotypes can be associated with myositis in the Hungarian population we studied. We underline the importance of our result in the estimated prevalence of four-marker haplotypes. PMID:25649962

  14. Temporomandibular joint alterations and their orofacial complications in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Renata Teixeira de; Braga, Flávia Silva Farah Ferreira; Brito, Fernanda; Capelli Junior, Jonas; Figueredo, Carlos Marcelo; Sztajnbok, Flávio Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) can have alterations in bone metabolism and skeletal growth, as well as damage to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), which can generate extra and/or intraoral alterations, resulting in craniofacial disorders. Our goal is to carry out a review of the literature on orofacial alterations in patients with JIA. Among the orofacial disorders in patients with JIA, alterations in mandibular growth, caused by dysfunctions in the TMJ region, seem highly prevalent in these patients. The most often found alterations are: retrognathia, micrognathia, anterior open bite, dental crowding, facial asymmetry and mouth opening limitation. Thus, the rheumatologist becomes a key agent in the early detection of these disorders, helping with patient referral to a dentist. The diagnosis, in turn, should be performed by the orthodontist, using clinical examination and imaging methods, allowing early treatment and a favorable prognosis. TMJ disorders should be treated by a multidisciplinary team, including pharmacological treatment for pain control and dental care through functional appliance and/or orthodontic therapy, physical therapy and sometimes, speech therapy. We conclude that among the orofacial disorders in patients with JIA, alterations in mandibular growth generated by dysfunctions in the TMJ region seem highly prevalent. Such dysfunctions can cause mainly open bite, mandibular retrusion, micrognathia, dental crowding and facial asymmetry. The rheumatologist can detect these alterations at an early stage, with immediate patient referral to a team that should preferably be a multidisciplinary one, consisting of an orthodontist, physical therapist and speech therapist, to reduce future occlusal and mandibular growth complications.

  15. Platelet Kinetics in Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Patients Treated with Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Oliver; Herzig, Eric; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2012-01-01

    Aim Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (Tpo RA) increase platelet counts in the majority of chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenia (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura; ITP) patients. It is unknown whether this treatment may also improve platelet survival (PS) in these patients. Methods In order to determine platelet survival (PS), autologous platelets were labeled with 111In oxine and retransfused in six patients under treatment with Tpo RA (romiplostim n = 3; eltrombopag n = 3). Results Stable platelet counts of greater than 100 × 103/μl were observed in all 6 patients. Platelet survival was decreased in all cases (mean 2.10 days; range 0.13–3.73 days). No correlation was found between platelet count and PS. Similarly, there was no significant relationship between platelet turnover and platelet count. However, a high platelet turnover, exceeding 25 or three times the norm was observed in 2 patients who presented the lowest PS (0.13 or 0.83 days). Two patients had a moderately shortened PS (1.91 or 2.42 days), and, correspondingly, a moderately increased platelet turnover rate (63,072 or 72,872 platelets/μl/day). Conclusion These results indicate that Tpo RA may not only overcompensate platelet destruction in ITP, but may interfere with other mechanisms, which, in some cases, results in a reduced platelet destruction rate. PMID:22896760

  16. Nocardia transvalensis Disseminated Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    García-Méndez, Jorge; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M.; Rangel-Cordero, Andrea; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Arenas, Roberto; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia transvalensis complex includes a wide range of microorganisms with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. N. transvalensis is an unusual Nocardia species. However, it must be differentiated due to its natural resistance to aminoglycosides while other Nocardia species are susceptible. The present report describes a Nocardia species involved in an uncommon clinical case of a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and pulmonary nocardiosis. Microbiological and molecular techniques based on the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed diagnosis of Nocardia transvalensis sensu stricto. The successful treatment was based on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other drugs. We conclude that molecular identification of Nocardia species is a valuable technique to guide good treatment and prognosis and recommend its use for daily bases diagnosis. PMID:27313917

  17. [Cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus antibodies in patients with idiopathic ulcerative rectocolitis].

    PubMed

    Riegler, G; Piscitelli, A; Di Simone, A; Esposito, C; Sodano, G; Tarro, G

    1990-12-01

    The total and fractioned titres of circulating anticytomegalovirus (CMV) and antiherpesvirus (HSV) antibodies were evaluated in 63 idiopathic ulcerative proctocolitis patients in follow-up. The population was disaggregated applying criteria related to the stage of the disease: duration, extension, number of observed relapses over the follow-up. It was noted that just the anti-HSV antibodies were correlated in a statistically significant way to the extension (p less than 0.025) and duration (p less than 0.025) of the disease. We believe that this behaviour is a manifestation of the disease and that the antiHSV titration may be included in a score of evaluation during the follow-up.

  18. Widefield OCT Findings of a Patient With Stellate Nonhereditary Idiopathic Foveomacular Retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Jacqueline B; Kim, Alice Y; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Ameri, Hossein; Puliafito, Carmen A; Moshfeghi, Andrew A

    2016-08-01

    The authors report extensive peripheral retinoschisis in a patient with stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis (SNIFR) detected by widefield optical coherence tomography (OCT). A 64-year-old woman diagnosed with foveomacular retinoschisis 3 years prior presented for evaluation after being seen by multiple other retina specialists. Standard macular spectral-domain OCT (6 mm) revealed typical foveomacular schisis involving only the outer retina. However, widefield OCT (12 mm) revealed diffuse bilateral retinoschisis involving both inner and outer retinal layers in the macula and midperiphery. Widefield imaging is important to evaluate and monitor complex peripheral retinoschisis that may be otherwise undetectable using conventional techniques. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:774-777.]. PMID:27548456

  19. Widefield OCT Findings of a Patient With Stellate Nonhereditary Idiopathic Foveomacular Retinoschisis.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Jacqueline B; Kim, Alice Y; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Ameri, Hossein; Puliafito, Carmen A; Moshfeghi, Andrew A

    2016-08-01

    The authors report extensive peripheral retinoschisis in a patient with stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis (SNIFR) detected by widefield optical coherence tomography (OCT). A 64-year-old woman diagnosed with foveomacular retinoschisis 3 years prior presented for evaluation after being seen by multiple other retina specialists. Standard macular spectral-domain OCT (6 mm) revealed typical foveomacular schisis involving only the outer retina. However, widefield OCT (12 mm) revealed diffuse bilateral retinoschisis involving both inner and outer retinal layers in the macula and midperiphery. Widefield imaging is important to evaluate and monitor complex peripheral retinoschisis that may be otherwise undetectable using conventional techniques. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:774-777.].

  20. Nocardia transvalensis Disseminated Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    García-Méndez, Jorge; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Rangel-Cordero, Andrea; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Arenas, Roberto; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia transvalensis complex includes a wide range of microorganisms with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. N. transvalensis is an unusual Nocardia species. However, it must be differentiated due to its natural resistance to aminoglycosides while other Nocardia species are susceptible. The present report describes a Nocardia species involved in an uncommon clinical case of a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and pulmonary nocardiosis. Microbiological and molecular techniques based on the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed diagnosis of Nocardia transvalensis sensu stricto. The successful treatment was based on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other drugs. We conclude that molecular identification of Nocardia species is a valuable technique to guide good treatment and prognosis and recommend its use for daily bases diagnosis.

  1. Cellular senescence-like features of lung fibroblasts derived from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hagai; Shteinberg, Albert; Porat, Ziv; Budovsky, Arie; Braiman, Alex; Ziesche, Rolf; Zeische, Rolf; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2015-09-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an age-related fatal disease with unknown etiology and no effective treatment. In this study, we show that primary cultures of fibroblasts derived from lung biopsies of IPF patients exhibited (i) accelerated replicative cellular senescence (CS); (ii) high resistance to oxidative-stress-induced cytotoxicity or CS; (iii) a CS-like morphology (even at the proliferative phase); and (iv) rapid accumulation of senescent cells expressing the myofibroblast marker α-SMA. Our findings suggest that CS could serve as a bridge connecting lung aging and its quite frequent outcome -- pulmonary fibrosis, and be an important player in the disease progression. Consequently, targeting senescent cells offers the potential of being a promising therapeutic approach.

  2. Nocardia transvalensis Disseminated Infection in an Immunocompromised Patient with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    García-Méndez, Jorge; Carrillo-Casas, Erika M; Rangel-Cordero, Andrea; Leyva-Leyva, Margarita; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan; Arenas, Roberto; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia transvalensis complex includes a wide range of microorganisms with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. N. transvalensis is an unusual Nocardia species. However, it must be differentiated due to its natural resistance to aminoglycosides while other Nocardia species are susceptible. The present report describes a Nocardia species involved in an uncommon clinical case of a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and pulmonary nocardiosis. Microbiological and molecular techniques based on the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene allowed diagnosis of Nocardia transvalensis sensu stricto. The successful treatment was based on trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other drugs. We conclude that molecular identification of Nocardia species is a valuable technique to guide good treatment and prognosis and recommend its use for daily bases diagnosis. PMID:27313917

  3. Screening for Scoliosis: Different Countries' Perspectives and Evidence-Based Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaszewski, Maciej; Nowobilski, Roman; Kowalski, Pawel; Cieslinski, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis affects 2-3% of adolescents. Large, progressing deformities, mostly present in girls, may lead to pulmonary complications, pain symptoms, the feeling of social isolation, and even mental disorders. The correlation of screening programs with surgery rate reduction and the clinical effectiveness of bracing remain a matter of…

  4. Treatment pattern in patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy—practices in Sweden at the start of the millennium

    PubMed Central

    Lönnbro-Widgren, Jennie; Mölne, Johan; Haraldsson, Börje; Nyström, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Background Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (MN) is one of the leading causes of nephrotic syndrome in adults and may result in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In this retrospective study, we describe the outcomes and treatment patterns of patients with idiopathic MN in six nephrology clinics in the western part of Sweden. Methods Seventy-three consecutive patients with biopsy-proven MN in the years 2000–12 were classified as idiopathic, i.e. secondary forms were excluded. The patients were followed retrospectively for a mean period of 83 months and clinical data were collected through the medical files. Results A high proportion (88%) of the patients received supportive treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, angiotensin receptor blockade and/or statins. At the end of follow-up, 43 patients were in complete remission, 12 in partial remission, 10 patients had developed ESRD and 8 patients had on-going proteinuria. Fifty-one per cent of the patients received immunosuppressive therapy and the choice of therapy varied between and within the clinics. There was a tendency to initiate specific treatment at an early point instead of awaiting a possible spontaneous remission (21% of the patients), and non-recommended therapy such as corticosteroids only was used in a high proportion of these cases (47%). Conclusions Even though the treatment recommendations in idiopathic MN have not changed the last decade, the question of whom and when to treat seems to lead to uncertainty. Recent studies have presented promising results supporting the PLA2R antibody the predictive marker needed for this patient group. The diverse treatment approach presented in this study might have resulted in a worse outcome than expected. Hopefully, unnecessary exposure to immunosuppressive therapy or delayed treatment can be avoided through better support, education and treatment forums, and thus result in an improved outcome. PMID:26985373

  5. Assessment of spontaneous correction of lumbar curve after fusion of the main thoracic in Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis☆

    PubMed Central

    Mizusaki, Danilo; Gotfryd, Alberto Ofenhejm

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical and radiographic response of the lumbar curve after fusion of the main thoracic, in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis of Lenke type 1. Methods Forty-two patients with Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who underwent operations via the posterior route with pedicle screws were prospectively evaluated. Clinical measurements (size of the hump and translation of the trunk in the coronal plane, by means of a plumb line) and radiographic measurements (Cobb angle, distal level of arthrodesis, translation of the lumbar apical vertebral and Risser) were made. The evaluations were performed preoperatively, immediately postoperatively and two years after surgery. Results The mean Cobb angle of the main thoracic curve was found to have been corrected by 68.9% and the lumbar curve by 57.1%. Eighty percent of the patients presented improved coronal trunk balance two years after surgery. In four patients, worsening of the plumb line measurements was observed, but there was no need for surgical intervention. Less satisfactory results were observed in patients with lumbar modifier B. Conclusions In Lenke 1 patients, fusion of the thoracic curve alone provided spontaneous correction of the lumbar curve and led to trunk balance. Less satisfactory results were observed in curves with lumbar modifier B, and this may be related to overcorrection of the main thoracic curve. PMID:26962505

  6. [Costoplasty in scoliosis surgery].

    PubMed

    González López, J L; Riquelme García, O; Soleto Martín, F J; Villa García, A; Vázquez Estévez, J

    2006-04-01

    The rib hump is a protrusion of the apicals ribs of the convex side of the toracic scoliosis and it is due to the torsional deformity that appears in scoliosis. It originates a great cosmetic deformity that although improves with the correction of the scoliosis, it appears again by the costal elasticity. For this reason, in cases of important deformity it is necessary to associate a costoplasty for its definitive improvement. 10 cases of Idiopatic Scoliosis with 75.5 degrees of average and rib hump of 22.1 degrees were analysed. A resection of apicals ribs without stabilization in the same surgical act were done; the correction of the curve was 34.6 degrees (55%) and of the hump 8.1 degrees (64%); there were no important complications and the postoperative evolution was normal. The average follow up was 21,9 months, only in 1 case a slight deterioration of the hump was detected, although in all the cases the ribs recovered. In conclusion, costoplasty breaks the vertebro-bicosto-esternal ring. For that reason it is effective for the improvement of the costal hump without adding morbidity to the correction of the scoliosis.

  7. Exercise related ventilation dynamics and clinical correlates in patients with fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Marina; Cobuccio, Raffaele; Bruzzese, Dario; Rea, Gaetano; Meoli, Ilernando; Stefanelli, Francesco; Canora, Angelo; Capaccio, Annalisa; Sanduzzi, Alessandro; Matarese, Alessandro; Bocchino, Marialuisa

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of exercise performance is a key component in the management of interstitial lung diseases, as its limitation may occur very early. Aim of the present study was to assess ventilation dynamics in combination with pulse-oximetry changes in 54 clinically stable patients affected by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or idiopathic fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Testing was successfully performed with the Spiropalm 6-MWT Hand-held spirometer by the majority of cases (94%). End test oxygen saturation (SpO2) values <88% were common in most of patients (76%), with a mean distance walked of 403 meters. Ventilation significantly increased due to the contribution of the tidal volume and the respiratory frequency (RF). This finding was associated with a decrease of the end of test respiratory reserve (RR), that was <20% in 9 cases (17.6%). Lung function was inversely related to the end of test RF, while a positive correlation occurred with the end of test RR and the estimated maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV). RR was also a predictive factor of declining forced vital capacity and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) over a 6-month period. Further factors of DLCO impairment were low SpO2 and MVV. Comparison with the cardio-pulmonary exercise test (CPET) showed that the 6-MWT end of test RR was inversely related to the CPET-derived peak RF and VE/VCO2 suggesting RR as pivotal in exercise limitation assessment. Our results open challenging perspectives in an unexplored field. Future research will include management of latent respiratory failure and monitoring of disease progression and therapy response. PMID:27537719

  8. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Primary Headache and Dream-Enacting Behaviour in Japanese Patients with Narcolepsy or Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Multi-Centre Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Inoue, Yuichi; Matsui, Kentaro; Nishida, Shingo; Hayashida, Kenichi; Usui, Akira; Ueki, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Masaki; Murata, Momoyo; Numao, Ayaka; Watanabe, Yuji; Suzuki, Shiho; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Because the prevalence and characteristics of primary headache have yet to be thoroughly studied in patients with hypersomnia disorders, including narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia, we examined these parameters in the Japanese population. Methods In a multicentre cross-sectional survey, among 576 consecutive outpatients with sleep disorders, 68 narcolepsy patients and 35 idiopathic hypersomnia patients were included. Additionally, 61 healthy control subjects participated. Semi-structured headache questionnaires were administered to all participants. Results The patients with narcolepsy (52.9%) and idiopathic hypersomnia (77.1%) more frequently experienced headache than the healthy controls (24.6%; p<0.0001). The prevalence rates were 23.5%, 41.2% and 4.9% for migraine (p<0.0001) and 16.2%, 23.5% and 14.8% (p = 0.58) for tension-type headache among the narcolepsy patients, the idiopathic hypersomnia patients and the control subjects, respectively. Those who experienced migraine more frequently experienced excessive daytime sleepiness, defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of ≥10, than those who did not experience headache among the patients with narcolepsy (93.8% vs. 65.6%, p = 0.040) and idiopathic hypersomnia (86.7% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.026). Dream-enacting behaviour (DEB), as evaluated by the rapid eye movement sleep disorders questionnaire, was more frequently observed in the narcolepsy patients than in the idiopathic hypersomnia patients and the control subjects. An increased DEB frequency was observed in the narcolepsy patients with migraines compared to those without headache. Conclusions Migraines were frequently observed in patients with narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. DEB is a characteristic of narcolepsy patients. Further studies are required to assess the factors that contribute to migraines in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia patients. PMID:26418536

  9. Land-Jump Performance in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA): A Comparison to Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Melson, Paula G.; Darnell, Shannon C.; Brunner, Hermine I.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine if high functioning children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) with minimal disease activity have different biomechanics during high loading tasks compared to controls. Patients were included if they had minimal inflammation documented in one or both knees. Methods. The subject groups consisted of eleven patients with JIA and eleven sex, age, height, and weight matched controls. Sagittal plane kinematic and kinetics were calculated during a drop vertical jump maneuver. The Child Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) was collected on each patient with JIA. Results. The subjects with JIA had increased knee (P = .011) and hip flexion (P < .001) compared to control subjects. Subjects with JIA also demonstrated decreased knee extensor moments during take-off (P = .028) and ankle plantar flexor moments during landing (P = .024) and take-off (P = .004). In the JIA group, increased hip extensor moments were predictive of increased disability (R2 = .477, SEE = .131). Conclusions. Patients with JIA may demonstrate underlying biomechanical deviations compared to controls. In addition, biomechanical assessment of hip extensor mechanics during dynamic tasks may provide an objective assessment tool to determine overall function in patients with JIA. PMID:20148070

  10. The Importance of the Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Idiopathic Peripheral Facial Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kiliçkaya, M. Mustafa; Tuz, Mustafa; Yariktaş, Murat; Yasan, Hasan; Aynalı, Giray; Bagci, Özkan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there was a correlation between the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) value and the severity of idiopathic peripheral facial palsy (IPFP) and to determine whether or not NLR could be used as an early predictive parameter in the prognosis of IPFP patients. Material and Method. This retrospective study was conducted on 146 patients who were diagnosed with IPFP. The control group comprised 140 patients. Patients with IPFP were categorized according to the House-Brackmann grading system (HBS). The NLR value was obtained by dividing the neutrophil value by the lymphocyte value. Results. In the IPFP group, the mean NLR value was 3.63 ± 2.74 and, in the control group, 1.84 ± 0.78. The mean NLR value was significantly higher in IPFP patients than in the control subjects (p < 0.0001). The mean NLR value in group A (Grades I-II ) was 2.61 ± 2.28, in group B (Grades III-IV) 3.22 ± 2.65, and in group C (Grades V-VI) 10.69 ± 6.30. Conclusion. We determined that as the severity of IPFP increased, the NLR value increased. The NLR value can be used as a prognostic factor in the early prediction of IPFP prognosis. PMID:26713095

  11. [Central hemodynamics and cerebrovascular disorders in patients with idiopathic arterial hypotension].

    PubMed

    Foniakin, A V; Mashin, V Vl; Ataian, A S; Saprygina, L V

    2012-01-01

    A total of 65 patients (mean age 40.2 +/- 8.1 yr) with neurologic and neuropsychological disorders associated with long-term idiopathic arterial hypotension (IAH) were studied to estimate the state of their central blood circulation. Neuropsychological conditions were estimated from the state of higher psychic functions, such as memory speech, gnosis, praxis, cognition, attention, counting, writing, and reading abilities. Central hemodynamics was studied by 24 hr monitoring arterial pressure and echocardiography. Group 1 included patients without neurologic problems (n = 19), group 2 consisted of patients with early manifestations of chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency (n = 46, 71%). They were older than patients of group 1 and had a long history of IAH. It was shown that most patients presented with stably reduced systolic and diastolic AP and non-dipper type of low 24-hour SAD index. The cardiac index was elevated due to increased left ventricular ejection fraction (group 1) or increased heart rate (group 2). The severity of neuropsychic disorder was negatively related to SAD and DAD indices and positively to systolic hypotension time. PMID:23516869

  12. Autoantibodies in adult patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Graciela N; Gargiulo, María De Los Ángeles; Pérez, Nicolás; Collado, María Victoria; Suárez, Lorena V; Khoury, Marina; Sarano, Judith F

    2016-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies(IIM) are a heterogeneous group of diseases of the skeletal muscle. On the basis of clinical, serologic and histological differences, they are classified in dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), inclusion body myositis and immunomediated necrotizing myopathy. Autoantibodies directed against nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens are present with variable frequencies among studies. Myositis-specific antibodies (MSAs) are useful in IIM because they contribute to the diagnosis, help to identify different clinical subsets, and have prognostic value. This study aimed to explore the frequency of autoantibodies, especially MSAs, and their relationship with clinical features in adult patients with DM, PM and overlap syndrome. Medical records were reviewed. Myositis-associated antibodies (non-specific) and MSAs (anti Jo-1, PL-7, PL-12, Mi-2 and SRP) were measured using commercial kits. Twelve patients had MSAs, an overall frequency similar to those of international series, but PL-12 and Mi-2 were more frequent than Jo-1, which is the most frequently observed elsewhere. All five patients with Mi-2 had classical DM with a favorable response to treatment. Interstitial pneumonia (n: 4) and/or treatment-refractory disease (n: 3) were found in the presence of anti-PL-12, alone or associated with anti-SRP and/or Jo-1. In conclusion, the coexistence of AEM, a rare finding, was found in three patients. The presence of MSAs aided to the diagnosis of IIM, in particular in those patients without available or conclusive biopsy results.

  13. Autoantibodies in adult patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies in Buenos Aires.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Graciela N; Gargiulo, María De Los Ángeles; Pérez, Nicolás; Collado, María Victoria; Suárez, Lorena V; Khoury, Marina; Sarano, Judith F

    2016-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies(IIM) are a heterogeneous group of diseases of the skeletal muscle. On the basis of clinical, serologic and histological differences, they are classified in dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), inclusion body myositis and immunomediated necrotizing myopathy. Autoantibodies directed against nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens are present with variable frequencies among studies. Myositis-specific antibodies (MSAs) are useful in IIM because they contribute to the diagnosis, help to identify different clinical subsets, and have prognostic value. This study aimed to explore the frequency of autoantibodies, especially MSAs, and their relationship with clinical features in adult patients with DM, PM and overlap syndrome. Medical records were reviewed. Myositis-associated antibodies (non-specific) and MSAs (anti Jo-1, PL-7, PL-12, Mi-2 and SRP) were measured using commercial kits. Twelve patients had MSAs, an overall frequency similar to those of international series, but PL-12 and Mi-2 were more frequent than Jo-1, which is the most frequently observed elsewhere. All five patients with Mi-2 had classical DM with a favorable response to treatment. Interstitial pneumonia (n: 4) and/or treatment-refractory disease (n: 3) were found in the presence of anti-PL-12, alone or associated with anti-SRP and/or Jo-1. In conclusion, the coexistence of AEM, a rare finding, was found in three patients. The presence of MSAs aided to the diagnosis of IIM, in particular in those patients without available or conclusive biopsy results. PMID:27295700

  14. Revisiting scoliosis in the KNM-WT 15000 Homo erectus skeleton.

    PubMed

    Schiess, Regula; Boeni, Thomas; Rühli, Frank; Haeusler, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Owing to its completeness, the 1.5 million year old Nariokotome boy skeleton KNM-WT 15000 is central for understanding the skeletal biology of Homo erectus. Nevertheless, since the reported asymmetries and distortions of Nariokotome boy's axial skeleton suggest adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, possibly associated with congenital skeletal dysplasia, it is questionable whether it still can be used as a reference for H. erectus. Recently, however, the presence of skeletal dysplasia has been refuted. Here, we present a morphological and morphometric reanalysis of the assertion of idiopathic scoliosis. We demonstrate that unarticulated vertebral columns of non-scoliotic and scoliotic individuals can be distinguished based on the lateral deviation of the spinous process, lateral and sagittal wedging, vertebral body torsion, pedicle thickness asymmetry, and asymmetry of superior and inferior articular facet areas. A principal component analysis of the overall asymmetry of all seven vertebral shape variables groups KNM-WT 15000 within non-scoliotic modern humans. There is, however, an anomaly of vertebrae T1-T2 that is compatible with a short left convex curve at the uppermost thoracic region, possibly due to injury or local growth dysbalance. Asymmetries of the facet joints L3-L5 suggest a local right convex curve in the lower lumbar region that probably resulted from juvenile traumatic disc herniation. This pattern is incompatible with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis or other types of scoliosis, including congenital, neuromuscular or syndromic scoliosis. It is, however, consistent with a recent reanalysis of the rib cage that did not reveal any asymmetry. Except for these possibly trauma-related anomalies, the Nariokotome boy fossil therefore seems to belong to a normal H. erectus youth without evidence for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis or other severe pathologies of the axial skeleton. PMID:24491377

  15. Changes in Follicular Helper T Cells in Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jue; Cui, Dawei; Liu, Yan; Jin, Jie; Tong, Hongyan; Wang, Lei; Ruan, Guoxiang; Lu, Yun; Yuan, Huiming

    2015-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a primary autoimmune disease with a decreased platelet count caused by platelet destruction mediated mainly by platelet antibodies. T follicular helper (TFH) cells have demonstrated important roles in autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study is to explore the might role of TFH cells in the patients of ITP. Methods: Twenty-three ITP patients and 12 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in this study. The frequency of circulating TFH cells in both the patients and HC was analyzed by flow cytometry. Serum interleukin (IL)-21 and IL-6 levels were measured using ELISA, and platelet antibodies were tested using a solid phase technique. Additionally, IL-21, IL-6, Bcl-6 and c-Maf mRNA expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected using real-time PCR. Results: The percentages of circulating CXCR5+ CD4+TFH cells with ICOShigh or PD-1high expression were significantly higher in the ITP patients than in the HC. Moreover, the frequencies of circulating CXCR5+ CD4+TFH cells with inducible costimulator (ICOS)high or programmed death-1 (PD-1)high expression were notably higher in ITP with platelet-antibody-positive ( ITP (+) ) patients than in ITP with platelet-antibody-negative ( ITP (-) ) patients and HC, as were the serum IL-21 and IL-6 levels (significant). Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the CXCR5+CD4+TFH cells with ICOShigh or PD-1high expression and the serum IL-21 levels of ITP (+) patients. Additionally, the mRNA expression levels of IL-21, IL-6, Bcl-6 and c-Maf were significantly increased in ITP patients, especially in ITP (+) patients. Conclusions: This study demonstrated TFH cells and effector molecules might play an important role in the pathogenesis of ITP, which are possible therapeutic targets in ITP patients. PMID:25561904

  16. Patient considerations and drug selection in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Trawinska, Maria A; Rupesinghe, Ruwani D; Hart, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. Approximately 5,000 people are diagnosed with IPF in the UK every year. People with IPF suffer significant morbidity and, without any curative treatment at present, survival rates remain poor with a median survival of 3 years. While treatment remains largely supportive, many drug therapies have been trialed in IPF over the years. Pirfenidone and nintedanib are newly licensed treatments for IPF and the first drugs to have shown convincing evidence of slowing disease progression. In addition to evaluating clinical evidence, we also discuss elements affecting drug choice from the viewpoint of patients and health care professionals. We discuss pharmacological and nonpharmacological aspects of providing best supportive care for patients with IPF. However, few good quality studies exist focusing on controlling symptoms specifically in patients with IPF, and recommendations are often extrapolated from evidence in other chronic diseases. In covering these topics, we hope to provide readers with a comprehensive review of the available evidence pertaining to all aspects of care for patients suffering with IPF. PMID:27114711

  17. Coronary artery bypass grafting in a patient with active idiopathic cryoglobulinemia: revisiting the issue

    PubMed Central

    Fakih, Hafiz Abdul Moiz; Elueze, Emmanuel; Vij, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Background Cryoglobulinemia is a cold-reactive autoimmune disease. It is of distinctive importance in cardiac surgery because of the use of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Cryoglobulins, which activate at variable levels of hypothermia, can cause precipitation during surgery leading to possibly severe leukocytoclastic or necrotizing vasculitis, clinically manifested as ischemic events, such as cutaneous ulcerations, glomerulonephritis, arthritis, or peripheral neuropathies among the most reported associated comorbidities. Management of CPB and systemic protection in this rare but unique scenario requires individualized planning. We report the case of a patient with active cryoglobulinemia who was preoperatively managed with plasmapheresis. He underwent hypothermic coronary bypass with no precipitation and flare during and after surgery. Case presentation We describe the case of a 59-year-old Caucasian male with clinically significant idiopathic cryoglobulinemia and history of recurrent skin lesions and toe amputations secondary to cold exposure. He presented with 2-h duration of chest pain and new onset atrial fibrillation. After cardiac catheterization, a diagnosis of three-vessel coronary artery disease was established and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was scheduled. Because of a high risk of flare-up during surgery, the patient was preemptively treated with two sessions of plasmapheresis before bypass. He then underwent hypothermic CABG. The pre- and perioperative course was unremarkable without any clinical evidence of precipitation. The patient was discharged on day 6 postoperatively without any complications. Conclusion Preoperative plasmapheresis before hypothermic coronary bypass can prevent fatal cryoglobulinemia-related complications in patients with active disease. PMID:26908383

  18. Impact of Comorbidities on Mortality in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kreuter, Michael; Ehlers-Tenenbaum, Svenja; Palmowski, Karin; Bruhwyler, Jacques; Oltmanns, Ute; Muley, Thomas; Heussel, Claus Peter; Warth, Arne; Kolb, Martin; Herth, Felix J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Comorbidities significantly influence the clinical course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, their prognostic impact is not fully understood. We therefore aimed to determine the impact of comorbidities, as individual and as whole, on survival in IPF. Methods The database of a tertiary referral centre for interstitial lung diseases was reviewed for comorbidities, their treatments, their frequency and survival in IPF patients. Results 272 patients were identified of which 12% had no, 58% 1–3 and 30% 4–7 comorbidities, mainly cardiovascular, pulmonary and oncologic comorbidities. Median survival according to the frequency of comorbidities differed significantly with 66 months for patients without comorbidities, 48 months when 1–3 comorbidities were reported and 35 months when 4–7 comorbidities were prevalent (p = 0.004). A multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses identified other cardiac diseases and lung cancer as significant predictors of death, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and diastolic dysfunction had a significant positive impact on survival. A significant impact of comorbidities associated therapies on survival was not discovered. This included the use of proton pump inhibitors at baseline, which was not associated with a survival benefit (p = 0.718). We also established a predictive tool for highly prevalent comorbidities, termed IPF comorbidome which demonstrates a new relationship of IPF and comorbidities. Conclusion Comorbidities are frequent in IPF patients. Some comorbidities, especially lung cancer, mainly influence survival in IPF, while others such as GERD may inherit a more favourable effect. Moreover, their cumulative incidence impacts survival. PMID:27023440

  19. Efficacy of pirfenidone in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with more preserved lung function.

    PubMed

    Albera, Carlo; Costabel, Ulrich; Fagan, Elizabeth A; Glassberg, Marilyn K; Gorina, Eduard; Lancaster, Lisa; Lederer, David J; Nathan, Steven D; Spirig, Dominique; Swigris, Jeff J

    2016-09-01

    This post hoc analysis examined the differences in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis disease progression and the effects of pirfenidone in patients stratified by more preserved versus less preserved baseline lung function status using forced vital capacity (FVC) or GAP (gender, age and physiology) index stage.Efficacy outcomes, i.e. FVC, 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and dyspnoea (University of California San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (UCSD SOBQ)), were analysed at 12 months in patients randomised to pirfenidone 2403 mg·day(-1) or placebo in the pooled phase 3 CAPACITY/ASCEND population (n=1247), with subgroups stratified by baseline FVC ≥80% versus <80% or GAP stage I versus II-III. Treatment-by-subgroup interaction was tested based on a rank ANCOVA model; factors in the model included study, region, treatment, subgroup and treatment-by-subgroup interaction term.Patients with both more preserved (FVC ≥80% or GAP stage I) and less preserved (FVC <80% or GAP stage II-III) lung function at baseline demonstrated clinically significant disease progression at 12 months in terms of categorical decline in FVC, 6MWD and UCSD SOBQ. The magnitude of pirfenidone treatment effect was comparable between subgroups, regardless of whether lung function was classified using FVC or GAP index stage.These findings support the initiation of treatment with pirfenidone, irrespective of stage of baseline lung function in this patient population. PMID:27471208

  20. Effects of dietary interventions on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones.

    PubMed

    Kıraç, Mustafa; Küpeli, Bora; Irkilata, Lokman; Gülbahar, Ozlem; Aksakal, Nur; Karaoğlan, Ustünol; Bozkırlı, Ibrahim

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary factors on 24-hour urine parameters in patients with idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones. A total of 108 of idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate stones were included in the study. A 24-hour urinalysis was performed and metabolic abnormalities were measured for all of the patients. All of the patients were given specialized diets for their 24-hour urine abnormalities. At the end of first month, the same parameters were examined in another 24-hour urinalysis. Hyperoxaluria, hypernatruria, and hypercalciuria were found in 84 (77%), 43 (39.8%), and 38 (35.5%) of the patients, respectively. The differences between the oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate parameters before and after the dietary intervention were significant (p < 0.05). The calcium parameters were not significantly different before and after the intervention. We found that oxalate, sodium, volume, uric acid, and citrate-but not calcium-abnormalities in patients with recurrent calcium oxalate stones can be corrected by diet. The metabolic profiles of idiopathic calcium oxalate stone patients should be evaluated and the appropriate dietary interventions should be implemented to decrease stone recurrence.

  1. A rare course of scoliosis associated with Chiari malformation and syringomyelia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masato; Sugimoto, Yoshihisa; Arataki, Shinya; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Spinal deformity is an important clinical manifestation of Chiari I malformation (CM-I) and syringomyelia. Here we report the result of an 8-year follow-up of a 13-year-old girl with severe scoliosis associated with Chiari malformation and a large syringomyelia. The patient presented at our hospital at the age of 13 with a 68° scoliosis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed Chiari malformation and a large syringomyelia. Neurosurgical treatment involved foramen magnum decompression and partial C1 laminectomy, but the scoliosis still progressed. We present the first case report of a rare course of scoliosis in a patient with CM-I and a large syringomyelia.

  2. Frequency of supraventricular arrhythmias in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li; Sun, Ming-Li; An, Pei; Jiang, Xin; Sun, Kai; Zheng, Lu; Liu, Qian-Qian; Wang, Lan; Zhao, Qin-Hua; He, Jing; Jing, Zhi-Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Supraventricular arrhythmias (SVA) may be risk factors of prognosis in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. SVA are increasingly reported in patients with pulmonary hypertension, but little is known about their incidence and outcomes for patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) in a large cohort. In this 6-year prospective multicenter study, 280 patients with IPAH were enrolled to investigate the incidence of SVA and assess risk factors, clinical manifestation, management, and impact on survival. The cumulative 6-year incidence of SVA was 15.8%. The most common types of SVA were atrial fibrillation (n = 16) and atrial flutter (n = 13), followed by atrial tachycardia (n = 11). Most episodes of SVA were associated with significant clinical deterioration and right-sided cardiac failure. Sinus rhythm was successfully restored in most patients, resulting in clinical recovery. Increased right ventricular diameter, left atrial area, and higher right atrial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were associated with increased risk for experiencing SVA. SVA predicted a greater risk for mortality in a stepwise forward Cox analysis (hazard ratio 4.757, 95% confidence interval 2.695 to 8.397, p <0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that patients with SVA, mainly permanent SVA, had a lower survival rate than those who did not develop SVA (p = 0.008). In conclusion, SVA often lead to clinical deterioration and may be associated with an increased risk for death in a large cohort of patients with IPAH. Restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm are important treatment goals in patients with IPAH.

  3. Gastro-oesophageal reflux and gastric aspiration in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Savarino, Edoardo; Carbone, Roberto; Marabotto, Elisa; Furnari, Manuele; Sconfienza, Luca; Ghio, Massimo; Zentilin, Patrizia; Savarino, Vincenzo

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to characterise gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). 40 consecutive IPF patients underwent pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan and impedance-pH monitoring while off antisecretory therapy. The presence of pulmonary fibrosis was assessed using validated HRCT scores. Reflux features included distal oesophageal acid exposure, number of acid/weakly acidic reflux episodes and their proximal migration. 40 consecutive patients with interstitial lung disease other than IPF (non-IPF patients) and 50 healthy volunteers were also enrolled. IPF patients had significantly higher (p<0.01) oesophageal acid exposure (median (interquartile range (IQR)) 9.25 (4.7-15.4)% versus 3.3 (1.4-7.4)% versus 0.7 (0.2-4.2)%, number of acid (median (IQR) 45 (23-55) versus 32 (19-44) versus 18 (10-31)), weakly acidic (median (IQR) 34 (19-43) versus 21 (11-33) versus 18 (15-28)) and proximal reflux (median (IQR) 51 (26.5-65.5) versus 20 (9.5-34.5) versus 9 (5-20)) events compared to non-IPF patients and healthy volunteers, respectively. Pulmonary fibrosis HRCT scores correlated well with reflux episodes in both the distal (r(2)=0.567) and proximal (r(2)=0.6323) oesophagus. Patients with IPF had more bile acids and pepsin (p<0.03) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) (62% and 67%, respectively) and saliva (61% and 68%, respectively) than non-IPF patients (25% and 25% in BALF, and 33% and 36%, respectively, in saliva) and controls (0% and 0% in BALF and saliva, respectively). Acid GOR is common in IPF, but weakly acidic GOR may also occur. Patients with IPF had a risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. Outcome studies with intense antireflux therapy are needed.

  4. CR/PACS for scoliosis: a turn for the better?

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Richard I; Meyer, James S; Tomlinson, Christopher; Flynn, John; Ecker, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    As radiology departments convert to digital imaging, the acquisition, reading,and management of scoliosis studies pose unique challenges. This case study assesses the actual impact on efficiency,file management, cost, and clinical acceptability after a conversion to see whether goals were accomplished. As digital imaging for scoliosis studies became the new standard of care in the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia radiology department, it renewed interest and attention to these disorders and facilitated improved patient care. PMID:21591500

  5. Frequency and pattern of idiopathic osteosclerosis and condensing osteitis lesions in panoramic radiography of Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Farrokh; Ruhani, Mohammad Razavi; Zarandi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate of radiographic pattern and relative frequency of idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO) and condensing osteitis (CO) in panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Totally 411 panoramic radiographies were randomly selected from patients referred to Radiology Department of Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Descriptive characteristics of radiopacities, including shape, border, localization, and dental relationship, were recorded. The Chi-squared test was used. Results: IO was detected in 31 (7.5%) patients and 22 (68.8%) lesions had exact border while their shape was mostly irregular. About 17 (53.1%) lesions were apical, and 13 (40.6%) lesions had no relation to the teeth. The most involved teeth were the second premolar (28.1%) and first molar (25%). Moreover, CO was detected in 32 (7.8%) patients. 17 (53.1%) lesions had an ill-defined border, and their shape was mostly irregular (65.6%) with ill-defined border. Around 18 (56.3%) lesions were apical, and 11 (34.4) lesions were apical and interradicular. The most involved teeth were the second premolar (59.4%) and the first molar (21.9%). Conclusion: The results demonstrated that relative frequency of IO in the selected population was 7.5% and for CO, it was 7.8%.

  6. Frequency and pattern of idiopathic osteosclerosis and condensing osteitis lesions in panoramic radiography of Iranian patients

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Farrokh; Ruhani, Mohammad Razavi; Zarandi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate of radiographic pattern and relative frequency of idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO) and condensing osteitis (CO) in panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Totally 411 panoramic radiographies were randomly selected from patients referred to Radiology Department of Faculty of Dentistry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Descriptive characteristics of radiopacities, including shape, border, localization, and dental relationship, were recorded. The Chi-squared test was used. Results: IO was detected in 31 (7.5%) patients and 22 (68.8%) lesions had exact border while their shape was mostly irregular. About 17 (53.1%) lesions were apical, and 13 (40.6%) lesions had no relation to the teeth. The most involved teeth were the second premolar (28.1%) and first molar (25%). Moreover, CO was detected in 32 (7.8%) patients. 17 (53.1%) lesions had an ill-defined border, and their shape was mostly irregular (65.6%) with ill-defined border. Around 18 (56.3%) lesions were apical, and 11 (34.4) lesions were apical and interradicular. The most involved teeth were the second premolar (59.4%) and the first molar (21.9%). Conclusion: The results demonstrated that relative frequency of IO in the selected population was 7.5% and for CO, it was 7.8%. PMID:27605989

  7. Functional improvement in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis undergoing single lung transplantation *

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Adalberto Sperb; Nascimento, Douglas Zaione; Sanchez, Letícia; Watte, Guilherme; Holand, Arthur Rodrigo Ronconi; Fassbind, Derrick Alexandre; Camargo, José Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the changes in lung function in the first year after single lung transplantation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients with IPF who underwent single lung transplantation between January of 2006 and December of 2012, reviewing the changes in the lung function occurring during the first year after the procedure. Results: Of the 218 patients undergoing lung transplantation during the study period, 79 (36.2%) had IPF. Of those 79 patients, 24 (30%) died, and 11 (14%) did not undergo spirometry at the end of the first year. Of the 44 patients included in the study, 29 (66%) were men. The mean age of the patients was 57 years. Before transplantation, mean FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC ratio were 1.78 L (50% of predicted), 1.48 L (52% of predicted), and 83%, respectively. In the first month after transplantation, there was a mean increase of 12% in FVC (400 mL) and FEV1 (350 mL). In the third month after transplantation, there were additional increases, of 5% (170 mL) in FVC and 1% (50 mL) in FEV1. At the end of the first year, the functional improvement persisted, with a mean gain of 19% (620 mL) in FVC and 16% (430 mL) in FEV1. Conclusions: Single lung transplantation in IPF patients who survive for at least one year provides significant and progressive benefits in lung function during the first year. This procedure is an important therapeutic alternative in the management of IPF. PMID:26398749

  8. Resolution of Pulsatile Tinnitus after Venous Sinus Stenting in Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dinkin, Marc; Suurna, Maria; Hannsgen, Kelly; Bui, Xem

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the role of venous sinus stenting in the treatment of pulsatile tinnitus among patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) and significant venous sinus stenosis. Subjects and Methods A written informed consent approved by the Weill Cornell institutional review board was signed and obtained from the study participants. Thirty-seven consecutive patients with IIH and venous sinus stenosis who were treated with venous sinus stenting between Jan.2012-Jan.2016 were prospectively evaluated. Patients without pulsatile tinnitus were excluded. Tinnitus severity was categorized based on “Tinnitus Handicap Inventory” (THI) at pre-stent, day-0, 1-month, 3-month, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month and 2-year follow-up. Demographics, body-mass index (BMI), pre and post VSS trans-stenotic pressure gradient were documented. Statistical analysis performed using Pearson’s correlation, Chi-square analysis and Fischer’s exact test. Results 29 patients with a mean age of 29.5±8.5 years M:F = 1:28. Median (mean) THI pre and post stenting were: 4 (3.7) and 1 (1) respectively. Median time of tinnitus resolution post VSS was 0-days. There was significant improvement of THI (Δ Mean: 2.7 THI [95% CI: 2.3–3.1 THI], p<0.001) and transverse-distal sigmoid sinus gradient (Δ Mean: -15.3 mm Hg [95% CI: 12.7–18 mm Hg], p<0.001) post-stenting. Mean follow-up duration of 26.4±9.8 months (3–44 months). VSS was feasible in 100% patients with no procedural complications. Three-patients (10%) had recurrent sinus stenosis and tinnitus at mean follow-up of 12 months (6–30 months). Conclusion Venous sinus stenting is an effective treatment for pulsatile tinnitus in patients with IIH and venous sinus stenosis. PMID:27768690

  9. Thallium 201 imaging and gated cardiac blood pool scans in patients with ischemic and idiopathic congestive cardiomyopathy. A clinical and pathologic study.

    PubMed

    Bulkley, B H; Hutchins, G M; Bailey, I; Strauss, H W; Pitt, B

    1977-05-01

    In ischemic cardiomyopathy (CM) fibrosis replaces large segments of myocardium, but in idiopathic congestive CM the myocardium contains only small foci of fibrosis or is morphologically normal. As coronary disease and myocardial infarction may be clinically silent, it is not always possible to distinguish ischemic from idiopathic congestive CM during life without cardiac catheterization. To determine whether noninvasive methods, thallium 201 myocardial (Tl) imaging and technetium 99m gated cardiac blood pool scans (GCBPS), could separate the entities, we evaluated radioisotope images of the heart in 13 patients with ischemic, and eight patients with idiopathic congestive CM, and 14 patients with normal hearts. Diagnosis was setablished by cardiac catherterization and/or autopsy in each of the 35 patients. The 14 normals could be readily distinguished from CM, and ischemic could be distinguished from idiopathic dilated CM in 20 of 21 patients. All patients with myocardiopathy showed hypokinetic and dilated left ventricles, but right ventricular dilatation was evident mainly in those with idiopathic CM. Tl images in the ischemic type had defects of greater than 40% of image circumference which corresponded to segmental wall motion abnormalities on GCBPS, whereas those with the idiopathic congestive form were homogeneous or had defects of less than 20% of image circumference. Autopsy studies in 7 of 35 patients correlated Tl defects of greater than 20% of circumference with transmural myocardial fibrosis. PMID:557377

  10. Congenital scoliosis - Quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Debnath, Ujjwal K; Goel, Vivek; Harshavardhana, Nanjanduppa; Webb, John K

    2010-04-01

    Congenital spinal vertebral anomalies can present as scoliosis or kyphosis or both. The worldwide prevalence of the vertebral anomalies is 0.5-1 per 1000 live births. Vertebral anomalies can range from hemi vertebrae (HV) which may be single or multiple, vertebral bar with or without HV, block vertebrae, wedge shaped or butterfly vertebrae. Seventy per cent of congenital vertebral anomalies result in progressive deformities. The risk factors for progression include: type of defect, site of defect (junctional regions) and patient's age at the time of diagnosis. The key to success in managing these spinal deformities is early diagnosis and anticipation of progression. One must intervene surgically to halt the progression of deformity and prevent further complications associated with progressive deformity. Planning for surgery includes a preoperative MRI scan to rule out spinal anomalies such as diastematomyelia. The goals of surgical treatment for congenital spinal deformity are to achieve a straight growing spine, a normal standing sagittal profile, and a short fusion segment. The options of surgery include in situ fusion, convex hemi epiphysiodesis and hemi vertebra excision. These basic surgical procedures can be combined with curve correction, instrumentation and short segment fusion. Most surgeons prefer posterior (only) surgery for uncomplicated HV excision and short segment fusion. These surgical procedures can be performed through posterior, anterior or combined approaches. The advocates of combined approaches suggest greater deformity correction possibilities with reduced incidence of pseudoarthrosis and minimize crankshaft phenomenon. We recommend posterior surgery for curves involving only an element of kyphosis or modest deformity, whereas combined anterior and posterior approach is indicated for large or lordotic deformities. In the last decade, the use of growing rods and vertebral expandable prosthetic titanium rib has improved the armamentarium of the

  11. Scoliosis Research Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgeons, innovative research and the most advanced spine technologies in an international forum. Donate Your support can change the lives of others with spinal deformities! 100 percent of all donations to the Scoliosis Research Society’s (SRS) Research, Education Outreach (REO) Fund are used ...

  12. Scoliosis Screening in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.

    The booklet outlines New York state school policy and procedures for screening students for scoliosis, lateral curvature of the spine. It is explained that screening is designed to discover spinal deformities early enough to prevent surgery. Planning aspects, including organizing a planning team for the school district, are discussed. Among…

  13. Fibulin-1 Predicts Disease Progression in Patients With Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Sofia; Corte, Tamera J.; Keller, Michael; Wolters, Paul J.; Richeldi, Luca; Cerri, Stefania; Prêle, Cecilia M.; Hansbro, Philip M.; Argraves, William Scott; Oliver, Rema A.; Oliver, Brian G.; Black, Judith L.; Burgess, Janette K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The underlying mechanisms of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are unknown. This progressive disease has high mortality rates, and current models for prediction of mortality have limited value in identifying which patients will progress. We previously showed that the glycoprotein fibulin-1 is involved in enhanced proliferation and wound repair by mesenchymal cells and, thus, may contribute to lung fibrosis in IPF. METHODS: Serum, lung tissue, and lung function values were obtained from four independent locations (Sydney, NSW, and Perth, WA, Australia; San Francisco, CA; and Modena, Italy). Patients with IPF were followed for a minimum of 1 year and progression was defined as a significant decline in lung function or death. Primary parenchymal lung fibroblasts of 15 patients with and without IPF were cultured under nonstimulatory conditions. Fibulin-1 levels in serum, and secreted or deposited by fibroblasts, were measured by western blot and in lung tissue by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Serum fibulin-1 levels were increased in patients with IPF compared with subjects without lung disease (P = .006). Furthermore, tissue fibulin-1 levels were increased in patients with IPF (P = .02) and correlated negatively with lung function (r = −0.9, P < .05). Primary parenchymal fibroblasts from patients with IPF produced more fibulin-1 than those from subjects without IPF (P < .05). Finally, serum fibulin-1 levels at first blood draw predicted disease progression in IPF within 1 year (area under the curve , 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57-0.86; P = .012). CONCLUSIONS: Fibulin-1 is a novel potential biomarker for disease progression in IPF and raises the possibility that it could be used as a target for the development of new treatments. PMID:24832167

  14. Unusual idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patient with marked asymmetric and upper body parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyunghun; Choi, Dongho; Lee, Ho-Won

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetry of parkinsonian symptoms is strong evidence toward the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Lower body parkinsonism is characteristic in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH). We report an unusual INPH patient with marked asymmetric and upper body parkinsonism. An 83-year-old man presented with gait impairment and asymmetric clumsiness of movement. According to the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the motor subscore was 12 in the left limb and 8 in the right. The score was 14 for both the upper and lower body. After the cerebrospinal fluid tap test (CSFTT), he showed marked improvement in the upper body score. A loss of asymmetry of parkinsonian signs, with greater improvement in the left limb, was presented. Fluorinated N-3-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-nortropane (F-18 FP-CIT) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging was normal. In the differential diagnosis of elderly patients presenting with parkinsonism compatible with PD, we might need to consider a diagnosis of INPH. PMID:27293338

  15. Suppression of electrical storm by biventricular pacing in a patient with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Yasutaka; Chinushi, Masaomi; Washizuka, Takashi; Minagawa, Shirou; Furushima, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hosaka, Yukio; Komura, Satoru; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2003-01-01

    This study presents a patient with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who had suffered from multiple ICD shocks. Amiodarone and a beta-blocker failed to suppress ventricular tachycardia. His ECG showed a very wide QRS complex with an intraventricular conduction delay, so biventricular (BV) pacing was attempted. The BV pacing successfully prevented the multiple ICD shocks accompanied with an improvement in left ventricular systolic function and physical activity.

  16. Polymorphisms of genes encoding interleukin-4 and its receptor in Iranian patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ziaee, Vahid; Rezaei, Arezou; Harsini, Sara; Maddah, Marzieh; Zoghi, Samaneh; Sadr, Maryam; Moradinejad, Mohammad Hassan; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-08-01

    As cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), seem to have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), this study is aimed at investigating of association of polymorphisms in IL-4 and IL-4 receptor α (IL-4RA) genes with susceptibility to JIA. A case-control study was conducted on 53 patients with JIA and 139 healthy unrelated controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of IL-4 gene at positions -1098, -590, and -33, as well as IL-4RA gene at position +1902 were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers method and compared between patients and healthy individuals. At the allelic level, C allele at IL-4 -33 was found to be more frequent in patients compared to control (P value <0.01). At the genotypic level, CC genotype at IL-4 -590 (P value <0.01), together with CC and TT genotypes at IL-4 -33 (P value <0.01), were significantly higher in patients with JIA, while TC genotypes at IL-4 -590 and -33 positions were found to be lower in case group (P value <0.01). At the haplotypic level, IL-4 (positions -1098, -509, -33) TTC, GCC, and TTT haplotypes were significantly lower than controls (P value <0.01, P value = 0.03, and P value = 0.04, respectively). Although, TCC haplotype at the same positions was found to be higher in patients (P value <0.01). Polymorphic site of +1902 IL-4RA gene did not differ between cases and controls. Polymorphisms in promoter region of IL-4 but not IL-4RA genes confer susceptibility to JIA and may predispose individuals to adaptive immune responses. PMID:26951255

  17. Post-Traumatic Torticollis Due to Odontoid Fracture in a Patient With Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Shotaro; Inoue, Shinichi; Tachibana, Toshiya; Maruo, Keishi; Arizumi, Fumihiro; Yoshiya, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Descriptive case report. To report a rare case of post-traumatic torticollis by odontoid fracture in a patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Cervical fractures in DISH can result from minor trauma, and a delay in presentation often prevents their timely diagnosis. Cervical fractures in patients with spinal DISH usually occur in extension injuries, and almost always occur in the lower cervical spine. Reports of odontoid fractures with torticollis in patients with spinal DISH are rare. A 73-year-old man with DISH presented with severe neck pain and a cervical deformity presenting as torticollis without neurological deficits. He gave a history of a fall while riding a bicycle at a low speed 3 months ago. X-ray showed torticollis in the right side, and computed tomography (CT) showed a type-II odontoid fracture and subluxation at the C1-2 level. We performed a staged treatment because this patient had severe neck pain associated with a chronic course. Initially, the fracture dislocation was reduced under general anesthesia and was stabilized with a halo vest. We then performed posterior occipitocervical in situ fusion after confirming the correction of the cervical deformity by CT. The patient showed significant amelioration of neck symptoms postoperatively, and bony fusion was achieved 1 year after surgery. For post-traumatic torticollis due to an odontoid fracture, plain CT is useful for diagnosis and posterior occipitocervical in situ fusion following correction and immobilization with a halo vest is a safe and an effective treatment. PMID:26356707

  18. Reversal of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: a cohort study in Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jiang-Feng; Xu, Hong-Li; Duan, Jin; Chen, Rong-Rong; Li, Li; Li, Bin; Nie, Min; Min, Le; Zhang, Hong-Bing; Wu, Xue-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Although idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) has traditionally been viewed as a life-long disease caused by a deficiency of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons, a portion of patients may gradually regain normal reproductive axis function during hormonal replacement therapy. The predictive factors for potential IHH reversal are largely unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the incidence and clinical features of IHH male patients who had reversed reproductive axis function. In this retrospective cohort study, male IHH patients were classified into a reversal group (n = 18) and a nonreversal group (n = 336). Concentration of gonadotropins and testosterone, as well as testicle sizes and sperm counts, were determined. Of 354 IHH patients, 18 (5.1%) acquired normal reproductive function during treatment. The median age for reversal was 24 years old (range 21–34 years). Compared with the nonreversal group, the reversible group had higher basal luteinizing hormone (LH) (1.0 ± 0.7 IU l-1 vs 0.4 ± 0.4 IU l−1, P < 0.05) and stimulated LH (28.3 ± 22.6 IU l−1 vs 1.9 ± 1.1 IU l−1, P < 0.01) levels, as well as larger testicle size (5.1 ± 2.6 ml vs 1.5 ± 0.3 ml, P < 0.01), at the initial visit. In summary, larger testicle size and higher stimulated LH concentrations are favorite parameters for reversal. Our finding suggests that reversible patients may retain partially active reproductive axis function at initial diagnosis. PMID:25578938

  19. Asymmetric and Upper Body Parkinsonism in Patients with Idiopathic Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyunghun; Jeon, Ji-Su; Kim, Taegyeong; Choi, Dongho; Ko, Pan-Woo; Hwang, Sung Kyoo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Our aims were to analyze the characteristics of parkinsonian features and to characterize changes in parkinsonian motor symptoms before and after the cerebrospinal fluid tap test (CSFTT) in idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) patients. Methods INPH subjects were selected in consecutive order from a prospectively enrolled INPH registry. Fifty-five INPH patients (37 males) having a positive response to the CSFTT constituted the final sample for analysis. The mean age was 73.7±4.7 years. The pre-tap mean Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor (UPDRS-III) score was 24.5±10.2. Results There was no significant difference between the upper and lower body UPDRS-III scores (p=0.174). The parkinsonian signs were asymmetrical in 32 of 55 patients (58.2%). At baseline, the Timed Up and Go Test and 10-meter walking test scores were positively correlated with the total motor score, global bradykinesia score, global rigidity score, upper body score, lower body score, and postural instability/gait difficulties score of UPDRS-III. After the CSFTT, the total motor score, global bradykinesia score, upper body score, and lower body score of UPDRS-III significantly improved (p<0.01). There was a significant decrease in the number of patients with asymmetric parkinsonism (p<0.05). Conclusions In the differential diagnosis of elderly patients presenting with asymmetric and upper body parkinsonism, we need to consider a diagnosis of INPH. The association between gait function and parkinsonism severity suggests the involvement of similar circuits producing gait and parkinsonian symptoms in INPH.

  20. Mental rotation of body parts and non-corporeal objects in patients with idiopathic cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Fiorio, Mirta; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiaschi, Antonio; Moretto, Giuseppe; Edwards, Mark J; Bhatia, Kailash P; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2007-06-11

    Mental rotation of body parts is performed through inner simulation of actual movements, and is likely to rely upon cortical and subcortical systems (e.g. motor and premotor areas and basal ganglia) involved in motor planning and execution. Studies indicate that sensory and motor deficits, such as for example pain, limb amputation or focal hand dystonia, bring about a specific impairment in mental rotation of the affected body parts. Here we explored the ability of patients affected by idiopathic cervical dystonia (CD) to mentally rotate affected (neck) and unaffected (hands and feet) body districts. The experimental stimuli consisted of realistic photos of left or right hands or feet and the head of a young men with a black patch on the left or the right eye. As non-corporeal stimulus the front view of a car with a black patch on the left or the right headlight was used. The stimuli were presented at six different degrees of orientations. Twelve CD patients and 12 healthy participants were asked to verbally report whether the hands or feet were left or right, or whether the patch was on the left or the right eye or headlight. Reaction times and accuracy in performing the laterality tasks on the four stimuli were collected. Results showed that CD patients are slow in mental rotation of stimuli representing body parts, namely hand, foot and head. This abnormality was not due to a general impairment in mental rotation per se, since patients' ability to rotate a non-corporeal object (a car) was not significantly different from that of healthy participants. We posit that the deficit in mental rotation of body parts in CD patients may derive from a defective integration of body- and world-related knowledge, a process that is likely to allow a general representation of "me in the external world".

  1. Cancer Screening in Patients with Idiopathic Venous Thromboembolism--a Position Paper of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology Working Group on Hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Matzdorff, Axel; Riess, Hanno; Bergmann, Frauke; Bisping, Guido; Koschmieder, Steffen; Parmentier, Stefani; Petrides, Petro E; Sosada, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Cancer can trigger thromboembolism. There is a 4-10% chance of finding an asymptomatic occult cancer in patients with idiopathic venous thromboembolism (VTE). Current guidelines recommend limited cancer screening with history, physical examination, and screening examinations according to age after idiopathic VTE. Recent studies found that a more extensive screening program, including endoscopy and computed tomography, may increase the cancer detection rate. The Hemostasis Working Group of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology recommends a more extensive screening program after idiopathic VTE.

  2. Interleukin-7 treatment of PML in a patient with idiopathic lymphocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Miskin, Dhanashri P.; Chalkias, Spyridon G.; Dang, Xin; Bord, Evelyn; Batson, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the compassionate use of interleukin-7 (IL-7) for treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in the setting of idiopathic CD8+ greater than CD4+ lymphocytopenia. Methods: A 66-year-old HIV-seronegative man presented with progressive language dysfunction. MRI showed hyperintense lesions in the left hemispheric white matter with mild contrast enhancement. A brain biopsy performed 4 months after symptom onset established the diagnosis of PML. The patient had profound lymphocytopenia with absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at 168 cells/μL, 87 CD4+ T cells/μL, and 7 CD8+ T cells/μL. There was no evidence of hematologic malignancy or rheumatologic disease. Results: The patient received 3 intramuscular injections of IL-7 at a dose of 10 μg/kg per week with no adverse effects. ALC peaked at 595 cells/μL, CD4+ T cells at 301 cells/μL, and CD8+ T cells at 34 cells/μL 3 weeks after completion of treatment. His lesions on MRI stabilized and neurologic examination mildly improved. JCV-specific T-cell responses measured by intracellular cytokine staining were not altered after treatment with IL-7 but there was a marked increase in regulatory T cells. Conclusion: This case further supports the investigational use of IL-7 in patients who develop PML in the setting of ICL. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for patients with ICL and PML, IL-7 improves PML-related-outcomes. The study is rated Class IV because it is a case report. PMID:27144212

  3. Management of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in clinical practice: the INSIGHTS-IPF registry.

    PubMed

    Behr, Jürgen; Kreuter, Michael; Hoeper, Marius M; Wirtz, Hubert; Klotsche, Jens; Koschel, Dirk; Andreas, Stefan; Claussen, Martin; Grohé, Christian; Wilkens, Henrike; Randerath, Winfried; Skowasch, Dirk; Meyer, F Joachim; Kirschner, Joachim; Gläser, Sven; Herth, Felix J F; Welte, Tobias; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Neurohr, Claus; Schwaiblmair, Martin; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Höffken, Gert; Held, Matthias; Koch, Andrea; Bahmer, Thomas; Pittrow, David

    2015-07-01

    After introduction of the new international guidelines on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in 2011, we investigated clinical management practices for patients with IPF according to physicians' diagnoses. A prospective, multicenter, noninterventional study with comprehensive quality measures including on-site source data verification was performed in Germany. 502 consecutive patients (171 newly diagnosed, 331 prevalent; mean±SD age 68.7±9.4 years, 77.9% males) with a mean disease duration of 2.3±3.5 years were enrolled. IPF diagnosis was based on clinical assessments and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in 90.2%, and on surgical lung biopsy combined with histology in 34.1% (lavage in 61.8%). The median 6-min walk distance was 320 m (mean 268±200 m). The mean forced vital capacity was 72±20% pred and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was 35±15% pred. No drugs were administered in 17.9%, oral steroids in 23.7%, N-acetylcysteine in 33.7%, pirfenidone in 44.2% and other drugs in 4.6% of patients. Only 2.8% of the cohort was listed for lung transplantation. IPF patients were diagnosed in line with the new guidelines. They had more severe disease than those enrolled in recent randomised controlled trials. In addition to HRCT, the frequency of lung biopsies was surprisingly high. Treatment patterns varied substantially. PMID:25837040

  4. Patterns of compensation of functional deficits of the knee joint in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a group of pathological syndromes of unknown aetiology, observed at the developmental age. Their common feature is sustained chronic arthritis with flares and remissions. Clinical signs and symptoms include joint pain, periarticular tissue oedema or articular exudate, frequently associated with hypertrophy of the synovial membrane. The intra- and extra-articular structural damage impairs the motion range and smoothness. The disease process may involve any joint. The knee joint is the most frequently affected in oligo- and polyarthritis. The aim of the study was to determine a direct correlation between disorders of knee joint function and the change in the range of motion of the ankle and hip joints of both lower extremities, and the so-called indirect impact of these changes on patients’ posture. Material and methods The study included 36 JIA patients and 56 healthy controls aged 8–16 years. The evaluation was based on physical examination. Results The results showed differences in the values of quality and range of motion between patients and controls. In the patient group pes planovalgus was more frequently associated with knee joint dysfunction along with the inherent restriction of dorsal flexion of the foot. Shortening of the iliotibial band, increased outward rotation of the right lower extremity with enlarged joint contour and augmented inward rotation of the contralateral healthy extremity all proved significant. Changes in motion range in the joints below and over the knee were associated with alterations of antero-posterior spine curvatures and vertebral rotation along the long spinal axis. Based on the results, the mechanism of the compensation is outlined. Conclusions The observed differences in the range and quality of motion in the ankle, hip and spinal joints between patients and healthy children provide evidence that dysfunction of the knee joint affects the function of the other above

  5. A Patient-Specific Foot Model for the Estimate of Ankle Joint Forces in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Prinold, Joe A I; Mazzà, Claudia; Di Marco, Roberto; Hannah, Iain; Malattia, Clara; Magni-Manzoni, Silvia; Petrarca, Maurizio; Ronchetti, Anna B; Tanturri de Horatio, Laura; van Dijkhuizen, E H Pieter; Wesarg, Stefan; Viceconti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the leading cause of childhood disability from a musculoskeletal disorder. It generally affects large joints such as the knee and the ankle, often causing structural damage. Different factors contribute to the damage onset, including altered joint loading and other mechanical factors, associated with pain and inflammation. The prediction of patients' joint loading can hence be a valuable tool in understanding the disease mechanisms involved in structural damage progression. A number of lower-limb musculoskeletal models have been proposed to analyse the hip and knee joints, but juvenile models of the foot are still lacking. This paper presents a modelling pipeline that allows the creation of juvenile patient-specific models starting from lower limb kinematics and foot and ankle MRI data. This pipeline has been applied to data from three children with JIA and the importance of patient-specific parameters and modelling assumptions has been tested in a sensitivity analysis focused on the variation of the joint reaction forces. This analysis highlighted the criticality of patient-specific definition of the ankle joint axes and location of the Achilles tendon insertions. Patient-specific detection of the Tibialis Anterior, Tibialis Posterior, and Peroneus Longus origins and insertions were also shown to be important.

  6. A Patient-Specific Foot Model for the Estimate of Ankle Joint Forces in Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Prinold, Joe A I; Mazzà, Claudia; Di Marco, Roberto; Hannah, Iain; Malattia, Clara; Magni-Manzoni, Silvia; Petrarca, Maurizio; Ronchetti, Anna B; Tanturri de Horatio, Laura; van Dijkhuizen, E H Pieter; Wesarg, Stefan; Viceconti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the leading cause of childhood disability from a musculoskeletal disorder. It generally affects large joints such as the knee and the ankle, often causing structural damage. Different factors contribute to the damage onset, including altered joint loading and other mechanical factors, associated with pain and inflammation. The prediction of patients' joint loading can hence be a valuable tool in understanding the disease mechanisms involved in structural damage progression. A number of lower-limb musculoskeletal models have been proposed to analyse the hip and knee joints, but juvenile models of the foot are still lacking. This paper presents a modelling pipeline that allows the creation of juvenile patient-specific models starting from lower limb kinematics and foot and ankle MRI data. This pipeline has been applied to data from three children with JIA and the importance of patient-specific parameters and modelling assumptions has been tested in a sensitivity analysis focused on the variation of the joint reaction forces. This analysis highlighted the criticality of patient-specific definition of the ankle joint axes and location of the Achilles tendon insertions. Patient-specific detection of the Tibialis Anterior, Tibialis Posterior, and Peroneus Longus origins and insertions were also shown to be important. PMID:26374518

  7. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome complicating staged corrective surgery for scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chee-Huan; Tzeng, Shiau-Tzu; Chen, Chiang-Sang; Chen, Po-Quang

    2007-02-01

    Superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) is a rare complication following correction of scoliosis with either nonoperative or operative methods. If the patient diagnosed with this syndrome is not managed timely and adequately, mortality may result. We report two cases of SMAS complicating staged corrective surgery for scoliosis using modern segmental derotation instrumentation system. The aim of this report is to highlight the clinical presentations, laboratory findings, radiologic features, and management of the syndrome. The first patient had the syndrome after two-staged scoliosis surgery with halo traction between two stages, and the second patient after three-staged scoliosis surgery with halo traction between the first and second surgeries. The first patient responded well to conservative treatment. However, the second patient failed to respond to conservative treatment and needed a gastrojejunostomy operation to bypass the duodenal obstruction. Clinicians treating post scoliosis surgery patients should always have a high index of suspicion for this potential life-threatening condition. Early diagnosis will enable a multidisciplinary team approach to be initiated early to provide optimal care for the patient. Nutritional and fluid supplementation is mandatory during conservative treatment. The duration for trial of conservative treatment should not exceed 1 week.

  8. Cervical Scoliosis: Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, Addisu; Bakhsh, Wajeeh R.; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Cervical scoliosis is a rare condition that can arise from various etiologies. Few reports on the surgical management of cervical scoliosis exist. Our objective was to evaluate clinical and radiographic outcomes following surgical management of cervical scoliosis. Methods We evaluated our cervical spine surgical database for patients with cervical scoliosis (Cobb angle > 10 degrees) from 2005 to 2010. Demographic data including age, gender, diagnoses, and primary versus revision surgery was collected. Surgical data including procedure (anterior versus posterior), estimated blood loss (EBL), length of surgery, length of hospitalization, and complications was recorded. Preoperative and postoperative Cobb angle measurements and Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores were recorded. Results Cervical scoliosis was identified in 18 patients. We excluded 5, leaving 5 men and 8 women with an average age of 50.7 (median 52, range 25 to 65). The average follow-up was 40 months (median 36.5, range 5 to 87). An anterior-only approach was used in 6 cases (average 4 levels fused), 5 cases were posterior-only approach (average 8.7 levels fused), and 2 cases were combined anterior-posterior approach. The EBL was an average of 286 mL (median 150, range 50 to 900), the average surgical time was 266 minutes (median 239, range 136 to 508), and the average hospital stay was 2.7 days (median 2, range 1 to 7). Complications occurred in 7 patients, and 2 developed adjacent segment pathology. The average coronal Cobb angle preoperatively was 35.1 degrees (median 31, range 13 to 63) and corrected was 15.7 degrees (median 10.5, range 2 to 59) postoperatively (p < 0.005). The average NDI preoperatively was 24.9 (median 26, range 6 to 37) and was reduced to 17.8 (median 18, range 7 to 30) postoperatively (p < 0.02). Conclusion Surgical management of cervical scoliosis can result in deformity correction and improvement in patient

  9. Gene expression of muscular and neuronal pathways is cooperatively dysregulated in patients with idiopathic achalasia.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Orazio; Mazza, Tommaso; Merla, Antonio; Fusilli, Caterina; Cuttitta, Antonello; Martino, Giuseppina; Latiano, Tiziana; Corritore, Giuseppe; Bossa, Fabrizio; Palumbo, Orazio; Muscarella, Lucia Anna; Carella, Massimo; Graziano, Paolo; Andriulli, Angelo; Latiano, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic achalasia is characterized by the absence of peristalsis secondary to loss of neurons in the myenteric plexus that hampers proper relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Achalasia can be considered a multifactorial disorder as it occurs in related individuals and is associated with HLA class II genes, thereby suggesting genetic influence. We used microarray technology and advanced in-silico functional analyses to perform the first genome-wide expression profiling of mRNA in tissue samples from 12 achalasia and 5 control patients. It revealed 1,728 differentially expressed genes, of these, 837 (48.4%) were up-regulated in cases. In particular, genes participating to the smooth muscle contraction biological function were mostly up-regulated. Functional analysis revealed a significant enrichment of neuronal/muscular and neuronal/immunity processes. Upstream regulatory analysis of 180 genes involved in these processes suggested TLR4 and IL18 as critical key-players. Two functional gene networks were significantly over-represented: one involved in organ morphology, skeletal muscle system development and function, and neurological diseases, and the other participating in cell morphology, humoral immune response and cellular movement. These results highlight on pivotal genes that may play critical roles in neuronal/muscular and neuronal/immunity processes, and that may contribute to the onset and development of achalasia. PMID:27511445

  10. Gene expression of muscular and neuronal pathways is cooperatively dysregulated in patients with idiopathic achalasia

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Orazio; Mazza, Tommaso; Merla, Antonio; Fusilli, Caterina; Cuttitta, Antonello; Martino, Giuseppina; Latiano, Tiziana; Corritore, Giuseppe; Bossa, Fabrizio; Palumbo, Orazio; Muscarella, Lucia Anna; Carella, Massimo; Graziano, Paolo; Andriulli, Angelo; Latiano, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic achalasia is characterized by the absence of peristalsis secondary to loss of neurons in the myenteric plexus that hampers proper relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Achalasia can be considered a multifactorial disorder as it occurs in related individuals and is associated with HLA class II genes, thereby suggesting genetic influence. We used microarray technology and advanced in-silico functional analyses to perform the first genome-wide expression profiling of mRNA in tissue samples from 12 achalasia and 5 control patients. It revealed 1,728 differentially expressed genes, of these, 837 (48.4%) were up-regulated in cases. In particular, genes participating to the smooth muscle contraction biological function were mostly up-regulated. Functional analysis revealed a significant enrichment of neuronal/muscular and neuronal/immunity processes. Upstream regulatory analysis of 180 genes involved in these processes suggested TLR4 and IL18 as critical key-players. Two functional gene networks were significantly over-represented: one involved in organ morphology, skeletal muscle system development and function, and neurological diseases, and the other participating in cell morphology, humoral immune response and cellular movement. These results highlight on pivotal genes that may play critical roles in neuronal/muscular and neuronal/immunity processes, and that may contribute to the onset and development of achalasia. PMID:27511445

  11. Adrenoleukodystrophy initially diagnosed as idiopathic Addison's disease in two patients: the importance of early testing.

    PubMed

    Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Liang, Jao-Shwann; Lee, Wang-Tso; Wang, Peng-Jung; Tsai, Wen-Yu

    2003-07-01

    Childhood cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare neurodegenerative disease typically presenting from age 4 to 8 years in males. We report 2 cases of X-ALD in boys. The diagnosis of Addison's disease was made before the development of neurological symptoms in both cases. The first patient had hyperpigmentation of the lips and an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level higher than 1250 pg/mL when he was 7 years 3 months old. The initial diagnosis was Addison's disease, but X-ALD was diagnosed at age 8 years 8 months, when his motor and mental function deteriorated. The second boy had hypoglycemia, skin pigmentation, and an ACTH level of 1086 pg/mL when he was 4 years 6 months old, but the diagnosis was changed from Addison's disease to X-ALD owing to deterioration in speech at age 7 years. Since both bone marrow transplantation and Lorenzo's oil are beneficial only at the early stage of disease and idiopathic Addison's disease is very rare in children, it is important to test for very-long-chain fatty acids in boys suspected of having Addison's disease.

  12. Recombinant human pentraxin-2 therapy in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: safety, pharmacokinetics and exploratory efficacy.

    PubMed

    van den Blink, Bernt; Dillingh, Marlous R; Ginns, Leo C; Morrison, Lake D; Moerland, Matthijs; Wijsenbeek, Marlies; Trehu, Elizabeth G; Bartholmai, Brian J; Burggraaf, Jacobus

    2016-03-01

    Abnormal fibrogenic repair response upon alveolar injury is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). PRM-151 (recombinant human pentraxin-2, also known as serum amyloid P), has been shown to reduce fibrosis in preclinical lung fibrosis models, and was well tolerated with a favourable pharmacokinetic profile in an earlier single-dose phase I study.A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple ascending dose trial was performed to assess the tolerability and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of multiple doses of PRM-151 in IPF patients. Subjects in three successive cohorts (1, 5, or 10 mg·kg(-1) versus placebo) received intravenous study drug on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 15, and were followed-up to day 57.PRM-151 was well tolerated at all dose levels, with no serious adverse reactions. Administration of PRM-151 resulted in two- to eight-fold dose-dependent increases in circulating pentraxin-2 levels. Forced vital capacity and 6-min walk test showed trends towards improvement in the combined PRM-151 dose groups. On high-resolution computed tomography scans, stable or improved lung volume unoccupied by interstitial lung abnormality was noted in some PRM-151 subjects compared to placebo subjects on day 57.The efficacy of PRM-151 in IPF remains to be investigated in dedicated future trials.

  13. Ureaplasma septic arthritis in an immunosuppressed patient with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    George, Michael David; Cardenas, Ana Maria; Birnbaum, Belinda K; Gluckman, Stephen J

    2015-06-01

    Mycoplasmas, including Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma species, are uncommon but important causes of septic arthritis, especially affecting immunosuppressed patients. Many of the reported cases have been associated with congenital immunodeficiency disorders, especially hypogammaglobulinemia. Mycoplasmas are difficult to grow in the laboratory, and these infections may be underdiagnosed using culture techniques. We report a case of a 21-year-old woman with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and hip arthroplasties treated with rituximab and adalimumab who developed urogenital infections and soft tissue abscesses followed by knee arthritis with negative routine cultures. Ureaplasma species was identified from synovial fluid on 2 separate occasions using a broad-range 16S ribosomal RNA gene polymerase chain reaction. Azithromycin led to rapid improvement in symptoms, but after completion of therapy, involvement of the hip prosthesis became apparent, and again, 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction was positive for Ureaplasma species. The literature is reviewed with a discussion of risk factors for Mycoplasma septic arthritis, clinical presentation, methods of diagnosis, and treatment.

  14. Outcome of patients presenting with idiopathic facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy) in a tertiary centre--a five year experience.

    PubMed

    Tang, I P; Lee, S C; Shashinder, S; Raman, R

    2009-06-01

    This is a retrospective study. The objective of this study is to review the factors influencing the outcome of treatment for the patients presented with idiopathic facial nerve paralysis. The demographic data, clinical presentation and management of 84 patients with idiopathic facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy) were collected from the medical record office, reviewed and analyzed from 2000 to 2005. Thirty-four (72.3%) out of 47 patients who were treated with oral prednisolone alone, fully recovered from Bell's palsy meanwhile 36 (97%) out of 37 patients who were treated with combination of oral prednisolone and acyclovir fully recovered. The difference was statistically significant. 42 (93.3%) out of 45 patients who presented within three days to our clinic, fully recovered while 28 (71.8%) out of 39 patients presented later then three days had full recovery from Bell's palsy. The difference was statistically significant. The outcome of full recovery is better with the patients treated with combined acyclovir and prednisolone compared with prednisolone alone. The patients who were treated after three days of clinical presentation, who were more than 50 years of age, who had concurrent chronic medical illness and facial nerve paralysis HB Grade IV to VI during initial presentation have reduced chance of full recovery of facial nerve paralysis.

  15. Use of mineral oil aids scoliosis correction by decreasing implant friction.

    PubMed

    Hoernschemeyer, Daniel G; Skaggs, David L; Sucher, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is commonly corrected through posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation using pedicle screws. One difficulty in performing the correction with this method is the potential for friction at the interface between the rod and each individual point of fixation. The authors have found that the application of mineral oil at these points of contact serves to reduce friction, reducing the need for undue force and increasing the likelihood of effective fixation. The lubrication afforded by the mineral oil is particularly helpful when performing scoliosis correction using the classic derotation of the rod and direct vertebral rotation.

  16. Scoliosis in cystic fibrosis - an appraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Paling, M.R.; Spasovsky-Chernick, M.

    1982-03-01

    An unusually high prevalence (10%) of scoliosis is described in a series of 151 patients aged four years and older with cystic fibrosis. The scolioses were of the late onset (juvenile and adolescent) type, being typically thoracic with the curve convex to the right, although there was no significant preference for either sex. No direct relationship was found between the spinal curvature and the severity or distribution of the lung disease, although the worse scolioses tended to occur in patients with relatively severe pulmonary involvement. There was no evidence of metabolic bone disease as a predisposing cause. Some indication of a familial tendency towards scoliosis was apparent, and a genetic or constitutional basis is postulated with an unknown precipitating factor.

  17. Rotenone Susceptibility Phenotype in Olfactory Derived Patient Cells as a Model of Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matigian, N.; Todorovic, M.; Cook, A. L.; Ravishankar, S.; Dong, L. F.; Neuzil, J.; Silburn, P.; Mackay-Sim, A.; Mellick, G. D.; Wood, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a complex age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Approximately 90% of Parkinson’s disease cases are idiopathic, of unknown origin. The aetiology of Parkinson’s disease is not fully understood but increasing evidence implies a failure in fundamental cellular processes including mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress. To dissect the cellular events underlying idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, we use primary cell lines established from the olfactory mucosa of Parkinson’s disease patients. Previous metabolic and transcriptomic analyses identified deficiencies in stress response pathways in patient-derived cell lines. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these deficiencies manifested as increased susceptibility, as measured by cell viability, to a range of extrinsic stressors. We identified that patient-derived cells are more sensitive to mitochondrial complex I inhibition and hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress, than controls. Exposure to low levels (50 nM) of rotenone led to increased apoptosis in patient-derived cells. We identified an endogenous deficit in mitochondrial complex I in patient-derived cells, but this did not directly correlate with rotenone-sensitivity. We further characterized the sensitivity to rotenone and identified that it was partly associated with heat shock protein 27 levels. Finally, transcriptomic analysis following rotenone exposure revealed that patient-derived cells express a diminished response to rotenone-induced stress compared with cells from healthy controls. Our cellular model of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease displays a clear susceptibility phenotype to mitochondrial stress. The determination of molecular mechanisms underpinning this susceptibility may lead to the identification of biomarkers for either disease onset or progression. PMID:27123847

  18. Scoliosis, spinal fusion, and intrathecal baclofen pump implantation.

    PubMed

    Scannell, Brian; Yaszay, Burt

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews the incidence, management, and complications of scoliosis in patients with cerebral palsy. Treatment of scoliosis in patients with cerebral palsy includes both nonoperative and operative management and often the decision to proceed with surgery is a multidisciplinary decision. Because of severe spasticity, many of these patients undergo intrathecal baclofen pump placement before, during, or after posterior spinal fusion. The complication rates can be high with intrathecal baclofen pump placement, but many patients can have significant benefit with this therapy. PMID:25479781

  19. Association Study for 26 Candidate Loci in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients from Four European Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Amit; Žižková, Veronika; Kocourková, Lenka; Petrkova, Jana; Bouros, Evangelos; Nunes, Hilario; Loštáková, Vladimíra; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Zissel, Gernot; Kolek, Vitezslav; Bouros, Demosthenes; Valeyre, Dominique; Petrek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) affects lung parenchyma with progressing fibrosis. In this study, we aimed to replicate MUC5B rs35705950 variants and determine new plausible candidate variants for IPF among four different European populations. We genotyped 26 IPF candidate loci in 165 IPF patients from four European countries, such as Czech Republic (n = 41), Germany (n = 33), Greece (n = 40), France (n = 51), and performed association study comparing observed variant distribution with that obtained in a genetically similar Czech healthy control population (n = 96) described in our earlier data report. A highly significant association for a promoter variant (rs35705950) of mucin encoding MUC5B gene was observed in all IPF populations, individually and combined [odds ratio (95% confidence interval); p-value as 5.23 (8.94–3.06); 1.80 × 10−11]. Another non-coding variant, rs7934606 in MUC2 was significant among German patients [2.85 (5.05–1.60); 4.03 × 10−4] and combined European IPF cases [2.18 (3.16–1.50); 3.73 × 10−5]. The network analysis for these variants indicated gene–gene and gene–phenotype interactions in IPF and lung biology. With replication of MUC5B rs35705950 previously reported in U.S. populations of European descent and indicating other plausible polymorphic variants relevant for IPF, we provide additional reference information for future extended functional and population studies aimed, ideally with inclusion of clinical parameters, at identification of IPF genetic markers. PMID:27462317

  20. The association between Chiari malformation Type I, spinal syrinx, and scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Strahle, Jennifer; Smith, Brandon W; Martinez, Melaine; Bapuraj, J Rajiv; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) is often found in patients with scoliosis. Most previous reports of CM-I and scoliosis have focused on patients with CM-I and a spinal syrinx. The relationship between CM-I and scoliosis in the absence of a syrinx has never been defined clearly. The authors sought to determine if there is an independent association between CM-I and scoliosis when controlling for syrinx status. METHODS The medical records of 14,118 consecutive patients aged ≤ 18 years who underwent brain or cervical spine MRI at a single institution in an 11-year span were reviewed to identify patients with CM-I, scoliosis, and/or syrinx. The relationship between CM-I and scoliosis was analyzed by using multivariate regression analysis and controlling for age, sex, CM-I status, and syrinx status. RESULTS In this cohort, 509 patients had CM-I, 1740 patients had scoliosis, and 243 patients had a spinal syrinx. The presence of CM-I, the presence of syrinx, older age, and female sex were each significantly associated with scoliosis in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate regression analysis, older age (OR 1.02 [95% CI 1.01-1.03]; p < 0.0001), female sex (OR 1.71 [95% CI 1.54-1.90]; p < 0.0001), and syrinx (OR 9.08 [95% CI 6.82-12.10]; p < 0.0001) were each independently associated with scoliosis. CM-I was not independently associated with scoliosis when controlling for these other variables (OR 0.99 [95% CI 0.79-1.29]; p = 0.9). CONCLUSIONS A syrinx was independently associated with scoliosis in a large pediatric population undergoing MRI. CM-I was not independently associated with scoliosis when controlling for age, sex, and syrinx status. Because CM-I is not independently associated with scoliosis, scoliosis should not necessarily be considered a symptom of low cerebellar tonsil position in patients without a syrinx.

  1. Prognostic Significance of Frontal QRS-T Angle in Patients with Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Na; Zhang, Xin-Lin; Cai, Guo-Long; Lin, Ruo-Wei; Jiang, He; Chen, Jian-Zhou; Xu, Biao; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current risk stratification of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) lacks sufficient sensitivity and specificity. The objective of this study was to investigate the predictive role of frontal QRS-T angles in IDC. Methods: A prospective study with 509 IDC patients was performed from February 2008 to December 2013 in the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine. Baseline values and changes in QRS-T angles were recorded. Follow-up was conducted every 6 months. Analyses by Cox Proportional Hazards model were performed to evaluate the association between QRS-T angle and outcomes. The primary outcome of interest was all-cause mortality. Results: During a median follow-up of 34 months, 90 of 316 patients with QRS-T angles >90° died compared to 31 of 193 patients with QRS-T angles ≤90° (hazard ratio [HR] =2.4, P < 0.001). Cardiac death was more prevalent in patients with a wide QRS-T angle (HR = 2.4, P < 0.001), similar to heart failure rehospitalization (HR = 2.5, P < 0.001). After adjustment for potential prognostic factors, the QRS-T angle was independently associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 2.5, P < 0.05), cardiac mortality (HR = 1.9, P < 0. 05), and heart failure rehospitalization (HR = 2.3, P < 0.01). Optimized therapy significantly narrowed the frontal QRS-T angle (100.9 ± 53.4° vs. 107.2 ± 54.4°, P < 0.001). The frontal QRS-T angle correlated well with established risk factors, such as left ventricular ejection fraction, brain natriuretic peptide, and New York Heart Association functional class. Conclusions: The frontal QRS-T angle is a powerful predictor of all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, and worsening heart failure in IDC patients, independent of well-established prognostic factors. Optimized therapy significantly narrows the QRS-T angle, which might be an indicator of medication compliance, but this requires further investigation. PMID:27503013

  2. Multiple domains of ADAMTS13 are targeted by autoantibodies against ADAMTS13 in patients with acquired idiopathic thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, X. Long; Wu, Haifeng M.; Shang, Dezhi; Falls, Erica; Skipwith, Christopher G.; Cataland, Spero R.; Bennett, Charles L.; Kwaan, Hau C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Type G immunoglobulins against ADAMTS13 are the primary cause of acquired (idiopathic) thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. However, the domains of ADAMTS13 which the type G anti-ADAMT13 immunoglobulins target have not been investigated in a large cohort of patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Design and Methods Sixty-seven patients with acquired idiopathic thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura were prospectively collected from three major U.S. centers. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay determined plasma concentrations of anti-ADAMTS13 type G immunoglobulins, whereas immunoprecipitation plus western blotting determined the binding domains of these type G immunoglobulins. Results Plasma anti-ADAMTS13 type G immunoglobulins from 67 patients all bound full-length ADAMTS13 and a variant truncated after the eighth TSP1 repeat (delCUB). Approximately 97% (65/67) of patients harbored type G immunoglobulins targeted against a variant truncated after the spacer domain (MDTCS). However, only 12% of patients’ samples reacted with a variant lacking the Cys-rich and spacer domains (MDT). In addition, approximately 37%, 31%, and 46% of patients’ type G immunoglobulins interacted with the ADAMTS13 fragment containing TSP1 2-8 repeats (T2-8), CUB domains, and TSP1 5-8 repeats plus CUB domains (T5-8CUB), respectively. The presence of type G immunoglobulins targeted against the T2-8 and/or CUB domains was inversely correlated with the patients’ platelet counts on admission. Conclusions This multicenter study further demonstrated that the multiple domains of ADAMTS13, particularly the Cys-rich and spacer domains, are frequently targeted by anti-ADAMTS13 type G immunoglobulins in patients with acquired (idiopathic) thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Our data shed more light on the pathogenesis of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and provide further rationales for adjunctive immunotherapy. PMID:20378566

  3. Blueberry Improves the Therapeutic Effect of Etanercept on Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Phase III Study.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yingjie; Wang, Ye; Guo, Jun; Chu, Haifeng; Gao, Yong; Pang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common arthritis in the adolescents under the age of 16. Etanercept, an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor, is often used to treat JIA despite its significant side effects. Homeopathic remedies, such as blueberries, have anti-inflammatory properties with fewer unwanted effects and should be considered as a primary treatment. We aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of blueberry and etanercept for JIA. Two hundred and one JIA patients were selected, and randomly and evenly assigned to three groups: ETA (50 mg of etanercept twice weekly), ETABJ (matched etanercept and 50 ml blueberry juice daily) and ETAPJ (matched etanercept and placebo juice). The severity of JIA was measured using American College of Rheumatology scales (ACR) 20, 50 and 70. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL1) alpha and IL1 beta, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA) were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA. After a 6-month follow-up, the ACR20, ACR50 and ACR70 in an ETABJ group were higher than those in other two groups (P < 0.05), suggesting clinically meaningful improvement in JIA. Meanwhile, the symptoms and side effects were reduced significantly or absent in an ETABJ group, including mental diseases, retrobulbar optic neuritis, gaining weight, infection, cutaneous vasculitis, diarrhea, uveitis and pancytopenia. Blueberries reduced the levels of IL1 alpha and beta, and increased the level of IL1RA. Thus, a combination therapy of blueberry and etanercept can reduce the severity of JIA and should be developed as a new method for JIA therapy. PMID:26477692

  4. Blueberry Improves the Therapeutic Effect of Etanercept on Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Phase III Study.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yingjie; Wang, Ye; Guo, Jun; Chu, Haifeng; Gao, Yong; Pang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common arthritis in the adolescents under the age of 16. Etanercept, an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor, is often used to treat JIA despite its significant side effects. Homeopathic remedies, such as blueberries, have anti-inflammatory properties with fewer unwanted effects and should be considered as a primary treatment. We aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of blueberry and etanercept for JIA. Two hundred and one JIA patients were selected, and randomly and evenly assigned to three groups: ETA (50 mg of etanercept twice weekly), ETABJ (matched etanercept and 50 ml blueberry juice daily) and ETAPJ (matched etanercept and placebo juice). The severity of JIA was measured using American College of Rheumatology scales (ACR) 20, 50 and 70. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL1) alpha and IL1 beta, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA) were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA. After a 6-month follow-up, the ACR20, ACR50 and ACR70 in an ETABJ group were higher than those in other two groups (P < 0.05), suggesting clinically meaningful improvement in JIA. Meanwhile, the symptoms and side effects were reduced significantly or absent in an ETABJ group, including mental diseases, retrobulbar optic neuritis, gaining weight, infection, cutaneous vasculitis, diarrhea, uveitis and pancytopenia. Blueberries reduced the levels of IL1 alpha and beta, and increased the level of IL1RA. Thus, a combination therapy of blueberry and etanercept can reduce the severity of JIA and should be developed as a new method for JIA therapy.

  5. X-Linked adrenoleukodystrophy is a frequent cause of idiopathic Addison`s disease in young adult male patients

    SciTech Connect

    Laureti, S.; Casucci, G.; Santeusanio, F.

    1996-02-01

    X-Linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a genetic disease associated with demyelination of the central nervous system, adrenal insufficiency, and accumulation of very long chain fatty acids in tissue and body fluids. ALD is due to mutation of a gene located in Xq28 that encodes a peroxisomal transporter protein of unknown function. The most common phenotype of ALD is the cerebral form (45%) that develops in boys between 5-12 yr. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) involves the spinal cord and peripheral nerves in young adults (35%). Adrenal insufficiency (Addison`s disease) is frequently associated with AMN or cerebral ALD and may remain the only clinical expression of ALD (8% of cases). The prevalence of ALD among adults with Addison`s disease remains unknown. To evaluate this prevalence, we performed biochemical analysis of very long chain fatty acids in 14 male patients (age ranging from 12-45 yr at diagnosis) previously diagnosed as having primary idiopathic adrenocortical insufficiency. In 5 of 14 patients (35%), elevated plasma concentrations of very long chain fatty acids were detected. None of these patients had adrenocortical antibodies. By electrophysiological tests and magnetic resonance imaging it was determined that two patients had cerebral ALD, one had adrenomyeloneuropathy with cerebral involvement, and two had preclinical AMN. Our data support the hypothesis that ALD is a frequent cause of idiopathic Addison`s disease in children and adults. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Successful management of acute respiratory failure in an Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis patient using an extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal system.

    PubMed

    Vianello, Andrea; Arcaro, Giovanna; Paladini, Luciana; Iovino, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) requiring Invasive Mechanical Ventilation (IMV) following unsuccessful treatment with Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) have a high mortality rate. IMV is, moreover, an independent predictor of poor outcome during the post-transplantation period in patients on waiting lists for Lung Transplantation (LT). Here we describe the successful management of an IPF patient with acute respiratory failure (ARF) using a pump-assisted veno-venous system for extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) (ProLUNG® system) as an alternative to endotracheal intubation (ETI) following NIV failure. Given this positive experience, further studies are warranted focusing on the ECCO2R system's tolerability, safety, and efficacy in patients with IPF and severe ARF in whom NIV alone is ineffective. PMID:27537725

  7. Successful management of acute respiratory failure in an Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis patient using an extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal system.

    PubMed

    Vianello, Andrea; Arcaro, Giovanna; Paladini, Luciana; Iovino, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) requiring Invasive Mechanical Ventilation (IMV) following unsuccessful treatment with Non-Invasive Ventilation (NIV) have a high mortality rate. IMV is, moreover, an independent predictor of poor outcome during the post-transplantation period in patients on waiting lists for Lung Transplantation (LT). Here we describe the successful management of an IPF patient with acute respiratory failure (ARF) using a pump-assisted veno-venous system for extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R) (ProLUNG® system) as an alternative to endotracheal intubation (ETI) following NIV failure. Given this positive experience, further studies are warranted focusing on the ECCO2R system's tolerability, safety, and efficacy in patients with IPF and severe ARF in whom NIV alone is ineffective.

  8. Double-Blind Randomized Trial of Pirfenidone in Chinese Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Dai, Hua Ping; Kang, Jian; Chen, Bao Yuan; Sun, Tie Ying; Xu, Zuo Jun

    2015-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lacks effective treatment. Pirfenidone has been used to treat IPF patients. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) exerts antioxidant and antifibrotic effects on IPF cases.This study is a double-blind, modified placebo-controlled, randomized phase II trial of pirfenidone in Chinese IPF patients. We randomly assigned the enrolled Chinese IPF patients with mild to moderate impairment of pulmonary function to receive either oral pirfenidone (1800 mg per day) and NAC (1800 mg per day) or placebo and NAC (1800 mg per day) for 48 weeks. The primary endpoints were the changes in forced vital capacity (FVC) and walking distance and the lowest SPO2 during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) at week 48. The key secondary endpoint was the progression-free survival time. This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov as number NCT01504334.Eighty-six patients were screened, and 76 cases were enrolled (pirfenidone + NAC: 38; placebo + NAC: 38). The effect of pirfenidone treatment was significant at the 24th week, but this effect did not persist to the 48th week. At the 24th week, the mean decline in both FVC and ΔSPO2 (%) during the 6MWT in the pirfenidone group was lower than that in the control group (-0.08 ± 0.20 L vs -0.22 ± 0.29 L, P = 0.02 and -3.44% ± 4.51% vs -6.29% ± 6.06%, P = 0.03, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between these 2 groups at the 48th week (-0.15 ± 0.25 L vs -0.25 ± 0.28 L, P = 0.11 and -4.25% ± 7.27% vs -5.31% ± 5.49%, P = 0.51, respectively). The pirfenidone treatment group did not achieve the maximal distance difference on the 6MWT at either the 24th or the 48th week. But pirfenidone treatment prolonged the progression-free survival time in the IPF patients (hazard ratio = 1.88, 95% confidence interval: 1.092-3.242, P = 0.02). In the pirfenidone group, the adverse event (AE) rate (52.63%) was higher than that in the control group (26.3%, P = 0.03). Rash was more common in the pirfenidone group (39

  9. Anterior endoscopic correction of scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Picetti, George D; Ertl, Janos P; Bueff, H Ulrich

    2002-04-01

    Our technique of anterior endoscopic scoliosis correction demonstrates the ability to perform an anterior approach through a minimally invasive technique with minimal disruption of the local biology. The initial results appear to equal curve correction and fusion rates to those of a formal open anterior approach. Additional benefits are: 1) shortened operative time, 2) lower blood loss, 3) shortened rehabilitation time, 4) less pain, and 5) shortened hospital stays. Endoscopic technique shows great promise in the management of scoliosis curves; however, this is a technically demanding procedure that requires cross-training in endoscopic discectomy and scoliosis management as well as familiarity with the anterior approach anatomy. PMID:12389288

  10. Surgical Outcomes of Lung Cancer Patients with Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema and Those with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis without Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Terumoto; Hashimoto, Takehisa; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Okada, Akira; Watanabe, Takehiro; Tsuchida, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a unique disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical outcomes of lung cancer patients with CPFE and those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) without emphysema. Methods: A total of 1548 patients who underwent surgery for primary lung cancer between January 2001 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of the 1548 patients, 55 (3.6%) had CPFE on computed tomography (CT), and 45 (2.9%) had IPF without emphysema. The overall and disease-free 5-year survival rates for patients with CPFE were not significantly worse than those for patients with IPF without emphysema (24.9% vs. 36.8%, p = 0.814; 39.8% vs. 39.3%, p = 0.653, respectively). Overall, 21 (38.1%) patients with CPFE and nine patients (20.0%) with IPF without emphysema developed postoperative cardiopulmonary complications. Patients with CPFE had significantly more postoperative cardiopulmonary complications involving pulmonary air leakage for >6 days, hypoxemia, and arrhythmia than patients with IPF without emphysema (p = 0.048). Conclusions: There was no significant difference in survival after surgical treatment between CPFE patients and IPF patients without emphysema, but CPFE patients had significantly higher morbidity than IPF patients without emphysema. PMID:27052999

  11. Risk factors for scoliosis in children with neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Paulino, Arnold C. . E-mail: apaulino@tmh.tmc.edu; Fowler, B. Zach

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk factors for scoliosis in children treated for neuroblastoma. Methods and materials: From 1957 to 1997, 58 children with neuroblastoma were treated at one institution and have survived a minimum of 5 years. There were 35 boys and 23 girls with a median age of 6 months (range, 2 weeks to 15 years) at initial diagnosis. Primary site was located in the adrenal gland in 25 (43.1%), abdominal/nonadrenal in 16 (27.6%), thoracic in 12 (20.7%), cervical in 3 (5.3%), and pelvic region in 2 (3.5%). The International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stage was Stage 1 in 10 (17.2%), Stage 2A in 7 (12.1%), Stage 2B in 5 (8.6%), Stage 3 in 22 (37.9%), Stage 4 in 4 (6.9%), and Stage 4S in 10 (17.2%). Thirty-three (56.9%) received chemotherapy whereas 5 (8.6%) had a laminectomy as part of the surgical procedure. Twenty-seven (46.6%) received radiotherapy (RT). Beam energy was 1.25 MV in 11 (41%), 250 kV in 10 (37%), 4 MV in 4 (15%), and 6-MV photons in 1 patient. One patient received 300 cGy in 1 fraction total skin RT using 6-MeV electrons. For the remaining patients, fraction size was 100 cGy in 6 (22%), 150-180 cGy in 11 (41%), 200 cGy in 4 (15%), and 250-300 cGy in 3. Three patients had total body irradiation at 333 cGy for 3 fractions. For all children who received RT, median total dose was 2000 cGy (range, 300-3900 cGy). Patients who were treated with RT had plain films of the irradiated area every 1 to 2 years until at least the age of puberty. Median follow-up was 10 years (range, 5-46 years). Results: The overall 5-, 10-, and 15-year scoliosis-free rates were 87.6%, 79.0%, and 76.0% respectively. Twelve (21%) developed scoliosis at a median time of 51 months (range, 8-137 months). The degree of scoliosis was mild ({<=}20 deg ) in 8 (67%). Four had scoliosis ranging from 30 deg to 66 deg ; 3 of these patients required surgical intervention, whereas 1 had an underlying Duchenne muscular dystrophy which manifested itself 8 years after

  12. The effect of platelet autoantibodies on the course of the disease and clinical response of patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Sikorska, A; Konopka, L; Maślanka, K

    2008-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the response to treatment of 409 idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) patients who were tested for the presence of platelet-associated autoantibodies by direct-platelet immunofluorescence test (PIFT) and for the presence of plasma antibodies directed against the GPIIb/IIIa, GPIb and GPIa/IIa by monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA). In patients with platelet autoantibodies in comparison with patients without antibodies more frequently were observed the chronic form of disease (83.5%vs. 68.5%) and severe symptoms of haemorrhage diathesis (17.3%vs. 6.9%). Evaluation of the treatment response (to corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and splenectomy) referred to patients with complete response, e.g. complete remission defined as platelet count of >100 x 10(9)/l for at least 2 years. The percentage of complete response in the whole population of ITP patients, both with and without autoantibodies regardless of the method of treatment, was similar (about 54%). However, the presence of platelet autoantibodies had effect on patients treated with corticosteroids: complete response approximately 71% (36/51) of patients with autoantibodies and in 60% (72/120) of patients without antibodies, as well as in patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs (cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, vincristin and vinblastin); complete response approximately 51% (11/21) of patients with autoantibodies and in 34.8% (6/17) of patients without autoantibodies. The presence of autoantibodies had no effect on the response of splenectomy patients. PMID:18190469

  13. Immunoglobulins from Graves' disease patients interact with different sites on TSH receptor/LH-CG receptor chimeras than either TSH or immunoglobulins from idiopathic myxedema patients.

    PubMed

    Tahara, K; Ban, T; Minegishi, T; Kohn, L D

    1991-08-30

    To examine the identity of binding sites for thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSAbs) associated with Graves' disease, we constructed eight human TSH receptor/rat LH-CG receptor chimeras. Substitution of amino acid residues 8-165 of the TSH receptor with the corresponding LH-CG receptor segment (Mc1 + 2) results in a chimera which retains high affinity TSH binding and the cAMP response to TSH but loses both the cAMP response to Graves' IgG and Graves' IgG inhibition of TSH binding. Two of three IgGs from idiopathic myxedema patients which contain thyroid stimulation blocking antibodies (TSBAbs) still, however, react with this chimera. Chimeras which substitute residues 90-165 (Mc2) and 261-370 (Mc4) retain the ability to interact with TSH, Graves' IgG, and idiopathic myxedema IgG. The data thus suggest that residues 8-165 contain an epitope specific for TSAbs and that TSH receptor determinants important for the activities of TSAbs and TSH are not identical. Further, binding sites for TSBAbs in idiopathic myxedema may be different from receptor binding sites for both Graves' IgG TSAb as well as TSH and may be different in individual patients.

  14. Cognitive disturbances and neuropsychological changes after surgical treatment in a cohort of 185