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Sample records for idiotypic immune networks

  1. Idiotypic immune networks in mobile-robot control.

    PubMed

    Whitbrook, Amanda M; Aickelin, Uwe; Garibaldi, Jonathan M

    2007-12-01

    Jerne's idiotypic-network theory postulates that the immune response involves interantibody stimulation and suppression, as well as matching to antigens. The theory has proved the most popular artificial immune system (AIS) model for incorporation into behavior-based robotics, but guidelines for implementing idiotypic selection are scarce. Furthermore, the direct effects of employing the technique have not been demonstrated in the form of a comparison with nonidiotypic systems. This paper aims to address these issues. A method for integrating an idiotypic AIS network with a reinforcement-learning (RL)-based control system is described, and the mechanisms underlying antibody stimulation and suppression are explained in detail. Some hypotheses that account for the network advantage are put forward and tested using three systems with increasing idiotypic complexity. The basic RL, a simplified hybrid AIS-RL that implements idiotypic selection independently of derived concentration levels, and a full hybrid AIS-RL scheme are examined. The test bed takes the form of a simulated Pioneer robot that is required to navigate through maze worlds detecting and tracking door markers.

  2. Stochastic dynamics for idiotypic immune networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, Adriano; Agliari, Elena

    2010-12-01

    In this work we introduce and analyze the stochastic dynamics obeyed by a model of an immune network recently introduced by the authors. We develop Fokker-Planck equations for the single lymphocyte behavior and coarse grained Langevin schemes for the averaged clone behavior. After showing agreement with real systems (as a short path Jerne cascade), we suggest, both with analytical and numerical arguments, explanations for the generation of (metastable) memory cells, improvement of the secondary response (both in the quality and quantity) and bell shaped modulation against infections as a natural behavior. The whole emerges from the model without being postulated a-priori as it often occurs in second generation immune networks: so the aim of the work is to present some out-of-equilibrium features of this model and to highlight mechanisms which can replace a-priori assumptions in view of further detailed analysis in theoretical systemic immunology.

  3. The Murine Humoral Immune Response to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: Idiotype Network Pathways.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, Michael Roy

    Recognition of a wide spectrum in disease outcomes following Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection has led to the suggestion that individual differences may be due to characteristics of the immune response. HBV, a hepatotropic virus, is not directly cytopathic to the host hepatocytes but the cellular damage which does not occur may be due to the host's own immune response. It is this variety in immune response capabilities following natural infection or vaccination which led to the present study in which the murine humoral immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was examined. Following immunization with purified HBsAg an anti-HBs response could be detected in 19 inbred strains of mice. The response, which varied among the strains, was linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Among high responders to HBsAg were two strains in which a poor response to a single epitope could be detected. Although quantitatively serum from these strains resembled serum from other high responders, there was a major difference in the qualitative aspects. Included within this study was the role of idotype networks within the murine anti-HBs response. By directly targeting HBsAg-specific B cells within the framework of an idiotype network by an Ab-2, it was possible to circumvent T cell-dependent regulation of an immune response. In each of five inbred strains of mice immunized with a polyclonal rabbit Ab-2 an Ab-3 population with HBsAg-specificity (Ab -1^') was induced. These mice were also immunized with HBsAg resulting in a higher anti-HBs response as compared to HBsAg immunization alone in all of the strains tested except for one. The response in this strain, normally a low responder to HBsAg, indicated that the mechanisms for genetic restriction of the anti -HBs response was still active, although it was not apparent during anti-Id immunization. The effects of an anti-Id on the murine antibody response to HBsAg may lead to insights on the presence of idiotype

  4. Dynamics of a class of immune networks. I. Global stability of idiotype interactions.

    PubMed

    Varela, F J; Stewart, J

    1990-05-10

    This paper establishes the conditions under which a class of differential equations which appear in the study of immune systems (Varela et al., 1988a, In: Theoretical Immunology Part II. New Jersey: Addison Wesley), are globally stable. This is proved by adapting a Liapunov functional originally proposed by Cohen & Grossberg (1983, IEEE Transac SMC 13, 815-826) for competitive systems. The global stability thus obtained is valid on the fast time scale where only idiotypic interactions are relevant, thus excluding both lymphocyte proliferation processes and repertoire change via recruitment from immature bone marrow B cells.

  5. Patterns in randomly evolving networks: Idiotypic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brede, Markus; Behn, Ulrich

    2003-03-01

    We present a model for the evolution of networks of occupied sites on undirected regular graphs. At every iteration step in a parallel update, I randomly chosen empty sites are occupied and occupied sites having occupied neighbor degree outside of a given interval (tl,tu) are set empty. Depending on the influx I and the values of both lower threshold and upper threshold of the occupied neighbor degree, different kinds of behavior can be observed. In certain regimes stable long-living patterns appear. We distinguish two types of patterns: static patterns arising on graphs with low connectivity and dynamic patterns found on high connectivity graphs. Increasing I patterns become unstable and transitions between almost stable patterns, interrupted by disordered phases, occur. For still larger I the lifetime of occupied sites becomes very small and network structures are dominated by randomness. We develop methods to analyze the nature and dynamics of these network patterns, give a statistical description of defects and fluctuations around them, and elucidate the transitions between different patterns. Results and methods presented can be applied to a variety of problems in different fields and a broad class of graphs. Aiming chiefly at the modeling of functional networks of interacting antibodies and B cells of the immune system (idiotypic networks), we focus on a class of graphs constructed by bit chains. The biological relevance of the patterns and possible operational modes of idiotypic networks are discussed.

  6. Deposition of idiotype-anti-idiotype immune complexes in renal glomeruli after polyclonal B cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M.; Rose, L.M.; Hochmann, A.; Lambert, P.H.

    1982-05-01

    We investigated the possible role of idiotypic interactions in the pathogenesis of the glomerular lesions observed in mice undergoing polyclonal B cell activation. BALB/c mice were studied for the presence of renal deposits of T15 idiotype-anti-T15 idiotype-immune complexes (IC) after injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The T15 idiotype is the major idiotype of BALB/c mice anti-phosphorylcholine (PC) antibodies, which are cross-reactive with the idiotype of the TEPC-15 myeloma protein. This model was used because T15 idiotype-anti-T15 idiotype IC have been detected in the circulation of BALB/c mice after polyclonal B cell activation. First, an idiotype-specific immunofluorescence technique allowed us to detect T15 idiotype-bearing immunoglobulins in glomeruli from day 6 to day 28 after LPS injection. Second, fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated TEPC-15 myeloma protein was found to localize in the glomeruli after in vivo injection 18 d after LPS administration. This renal localization was shown to be idiotype-specific and could be quantified in a trace-labeling experiment. Third, kidney-deposited immunoglobulins of mice injected with LPS were eluted, radiolabeled, and analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Both T15 idiotype-bearing immunoglobulins and anti-T15 idiotype antibodies were detected in the eluates, providing further evidence for a renal deposition of T15 idiotype-anti-T15 idiotype IC. Polyclonal B cell activation is likely to result in a simultaneous triggering of many idiotypic clones and of corresponding anti-idiotypic clones represented in the B cell repertoire. This could lead to the formation of a variety of idiotype-anti-idiotype IC that could participate in the development of glomerular lesions.

  7. Architecture of idiotypic networks: Percolation and scaling Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brede, Markus; Behn, Ulrich

    2001-07-01

    We investigate a model where idiotypes (characterizing B lymphocytes and antibodies of an immune system) and anti-idiotypes are represented by complementary bit strings of a given length d allowing for a number of mismatches (matching rules). In this model, the vertices of the hypercube in dimension d represent the potential repertoire of idiotypes. A random set of (with probability p) occupied vertices corresponds to the expressed repertoire of idiotypes at a given moment. Vertices of this set linked by the above matching rules build random clusters. We give a structural and statistical characterization of these clusters, or in other words of the architecture of the idiotypic network. Increasing the probability p one finds at a critical p a percolation transition where for the first time a large connected graph occurs with probability 1. Increasing p further, there is a second transition above which the repertoire is complete in the sense that any newly introduced idiotype finds a complementary anti-idiotype. We introduce structural characteristics such as the mass distribution and the fragmentation rate for random clusters, and determine the scaling behavior of the cluster size distribution near the percolation transition, including finite size corrections. We find that slightly above the percolation transition the large connected cluster (the central part of the idiotypic network) consists typically of one highly connected part and a number of weakly connected constituents and coexists with a number of small, isolated clusters. This is in accordance with the picture of a central and a peripheral part of the idiotypic network and gives some support to idealized architectures of the central part used in recent dynamical mean field models.

  8. Autoantibodies to Insulin Receptor Spontaneously Develop as Anti-Idiotypes in Mice Immunized with Insulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shechter, Yoram; Maron, Ruth; Elias, Dana; Cohen, Irun R.

    1982-04-01

    Mice immunized with insulin developed antibodies to both insulin and the insulin receptor. The antibodies to insulin receptor displaced labeled insulin from insulin receptors and mimicked the actions of insulin in stimulating the oxidation of glucose and its incorporation into lipids, and in inhibiting lipolysis. The antibodies to insulin receptor could be blocked by or bound to the antibodies to insulin, and therefore were identified as anti-idiotypes. Thus, immunization against a hormone may activate spontaneously an idiotype-anti-idiotype network resulting in antibodies to the hormone receptor.

  9. Quasispecies dynamics on a network of interacting genotypes and idiotypes: applications to autoimmunity and immunodeficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Valmir C.; Donangelo, Raul; Souza, Sergio R.

    2016-06-01

    In spite of their many facets, the phenomena of autoimmunity and immunodeficiency seem to be related to each other through the subtle links connecting the mutation and action of retroviruses (viruses whose genetic material can find its way into that of the host’s cells and destroy them) to immune response and adaptation. In a previous work, we introduced a network model of how a set of interrelated genotypes (called a quasispecies, in the stationary state, representing for example a population of viruses) and a set of interrelated idiotypes (an idiotypic network, representing the immune system through its population of B and T cells) interact. That model, which does not cover the case of a retroviral quasispecies, is here extended by the addition of a further parameter (ν) to account for the action of retroviruses (i.e. the destruction of idiotypes by genotypes). We give simulation results within a suitable parameter niche, highlighting the issues of quasispecies survival and of the onset of autoimmunity through the appearance of the so-called pathogenic idiotypes (those that mimic some external pathogen). Our main findings refer to how ν and λ, a parameter describing the rate at which idiotypes get stimulated, relate to each other. While for ν >λ the quasispecies survives at the expense of weakening the immune system significantly or even destroying it, for ν <λ the fittest genotypes of the quasispecies become mimicked inside the immune system as pathogenic idiotypes. The latter is in agreement with the current understanding of the HIV quasispecies.

  10. Random Evolution of Idiotypic Networks: Dynamics and Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brede, Markus; Behn, Ulrich

    The paper deals with modelling a subsystem of the immune system, the so-called idiotypic network (INW). INWs, conceived by N.K. Jerne in 1974, are functional networks of interacting antibodies and B cells. In principle, Jernes' framework provides solutions to many issues in immunology, such as immunological memory, mechanisms for antigen recognition and self/non-self discrimination. Explaining the interconnection between the elementary components, local dynamics, network formation and architecture, and possible modes of global system function appears to be an ideal playground of statistical mechanics. We present a simple cellular automaton model, based on a graph representation of the system. From a simplified description of idiotypic interactions, rules for the random evolution of networks of occupied and empty sites on these graphs are derived. In certain biologically relevant parameter ranges the resultant dynamics leads to stationary states. A stationary state is found to correspond to a specific pattern of network organization. It turns out that even these very simple rules give rise to a multitude of different kinds of patterns. We characterize these networks by classifying `static' and `dynamic' network-patterns. A type of `dynamic' network is found to display many features of real INWs.

  11. Analysis and modulation of the immune response of mice to acetylcholine receptor by anti-idiotypes.

    PubMed

    Souroujon, M C; Barchan, D; Fuchs, S

    1985-01-01

    Anti-idiotypes were raised in mice against three well-characterized anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) monoclonal antibodies (mcAbs), as well as against polyclonal mouse anti-AChR antibodies. In binding experiments, the anti-idiotypic antibodies inhibited the binding of AChR only to the immunizing idiotype. However, a less restricted specificity was found in in vivo experiments. Mice producing anti-idiotypes were challenged with AChR and the idiotypic composition of their anti-AChR response was analysed using specific rabbit anti-idiotypic antibodies. It was found that preimmunization with a certain idiotype leads to the preferential suppression of this particular idiotype in the polyclonal response to AChR. However, preimmunization with either polyclonal or monoclonal anti-AChR antibodies resulted in a reduction of the overall anti-Torpedo AChR and anti-muscle AChR titers. This reduction was greater than would be expected from the representation of each of the respective idiotypes in the polyclonal anti-AChR serum, and may imply that in addition to the immunizing idiotype other anti-AChR idiotypes are also suppressed. Our results suggest that anti-idiotypes may have a potential for the modulation of the autoimmune response directed against AChR in myasthenia.

  12. On the genesis of the idiotypic network theory.

    PubMed

    Civello, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The idiotypic network theory (INT) was conceived by the Danish immunologist Niels Kaj Jerne in 1973/1974. It proposes an overall view of the immune system as a network of lymphocytes and antibodies. The paper tries to offer a reconstruction of the genesis of the theory, now generally discarded and of mostly historical interest, first of all, by taking into account the context in which Jerne's theoretical proposal was advanced. It is argued the theory challenged, in a sense, the supremacy of the clonal selection theory (CST), this being regarded as the predominant paradigm in the immunological scenario. As CST found shortcomings in explaining certain phenomena, anomalies, one could view INT as a competing paradigm claiming to be able to make sense of such phenomena in its own conceptual framework. After a summary outline of the historical background and some relevant terminological elucidations, a narrative of the various phases of elaboration of the theory is proposed, up to its official public presentation.

  13. Modulation of immune response to Lol p I by pretreatment with anti-idiotypic antibody is not restricted to the idiotypic expression.

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, Y; Hébert, J

    1994-01-01

    To study the role of anti-idiotypic antibodies in the regulation of the immune response to Lol p I (the major allergenic component of rye grass pollen), we have recently generated a panel of three MoAbs directed against distinct epitopes of Lolp I and an anti-idiotypic MoAb directed against the idiotype borne by one of the anti-Lol p I MoAbs (290A-167). The effects of pretreatment with this anti-idiotypic MoAb in BALB/c mice before immunization with the antigen have been examined. The anti-idiotypic MoAb or unrelated MoAb were given weekly for 8 weeks intraperitoneally. Mice then received the antigen (2 micrograms) adsorbed with alum (2 mg) at weeks 9, 11 and 13. Serum anti-Lol p I antibodies (IgG or IgE) and specific idiotypic responses were measured. Anti-Lol p I IgG antibodies could be detected before immunization with Lol p I only in mice pretreated with anti-idiotypic MoAb. Immunization with Lol p I induced an anti-Lol p I IgG response in both groups, but this response was higher in mice that received anti-idiotypic MoAb. Similar profiles were seen for specific IgE antibodies and idiotypic responses. Surprisingly, idiotypes borne by other anti-Lol p I MoAbs (539A-6 and 348A-6) had also been enhanced after pretreatment with the anti-290A-167 MoAb. These observations suggested that the pretreatment with this anti-idiotypic MoAb modulates not only the expression of the respective idiotype, but also affects other idiotype responses. PMID:7514517

  14. Modulation of immune response to Lol p I by pretreatment with anti-idiotypic antibody is not restricted to the idiotypic expression.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Y; Hébert, J

    1994-05-01

    To study the role of anti-idiotypic antibodies in the regulation of the immune response to Lol p I (the major allergenic component of rye grass pollen), we have recently generated a panel of three MoAbs directed against distinct epitopes of Lolp I and an anti-idiotypic MoAb directed against the idiotype borne by one of the anti-Lol p I MoAbs (290A-167). The effects of pretreatment with this anti-idiotypic MoAb in BALB/c mice before immunization with the antigen have been examined. The anti-idiotypic MoAb or unrelated MoAb were given weekly for 8 weeks intraperitoneally. Mice then received the antigen (2 micrograms) adsorbed with alum (2 mg) at weeks 9, 11 and 13. Serum anti-Lol p I antibodies (IgG or IgE) and specific idiotypic responses were measured. Anti-Lol p I IgG antibodies could be detected before immunization with Lol p I only in mice pretreated with anti-idiotypic MoAb. Immunization with Lol p I induced an anti-Lol p I IgG response in both groups, but this response was higher in mice that received anti-idiotypic MoAb. Similar profiles were seen for specific IgE antibodies and idiotypic responses. Surprisingly, idiotypes borne by other anti-Lol p I MoAbs (539A-6 and 348A-6) had also been enhanced after pretreatment with the anti-290A-167 MoAb. These observations suggested that the pretreatment with this anti-idiotypic MoAb modulates not only the expression of the respective idiotype, but also affects other idiotype responses.

  15. Quasispecies dynamics on a network of interacting genotypes and idiotypes: formulation of the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Valmir C.; Donangelo, Raul; Souza, Sergio R.

    2015-01-01

    A quasispecies is the stationary state of a set of interrelated genotypes that evolve according to the usual principles of selection and mutation. Quasispecies studies have for the most part concentrated on the possibility of errors during genotype replication and their role in promoting either the survival or the demise of the quasispecies. In a previous work, we introduced a network model of quasispecies dynamics, based on a single probability parameter (p) and capable of addressing several plausibility issues of previous models. Here we extend that model by pairing its network with another one aimed at modeling the dynamics of the immune system when confronted with the quasispecies. The new network is based on the idiotypic-network model of immunity and, together with the previous one, constitutes a network model of interacting genotypes and idiotypes. The resulting model requires further parameters and as a consequence leads to a vast phase space. We have focused on a particular niche in which it is possible to observe the trade-offs involved in the quasispecies' survival or destruction. Within this niche, we give simulation results that highlight some key preconditions for quasispecies survival. These include a minimum initial abundance of genotypes relative to that of the idiotypes and a minimum value of p. The latter, in particular, is to be contrasted with the stand-alone quasispecies network of our previous work, in which arbitrarily low values of p constitute a guarantee of quasispecies survival.

  16. Selective elimination of idiotype-binding cells in vivo by a drug-idiotype conjugate demonstrates the functional significance of these cells in immune regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Hadid, M M; Bankert, R B; Mayers, G L

    1988-01-01

    A receptor-specific cytotoxic drug delivery system has been used to eliminate idiotype-binding cells in vivo to ascertain the possible functional significance of these cells in regulating the humoral immune response to dextran. Protein M104E, a mouse myeloma protein that binds dextran, expresses a private idiotope that is present on a significant proportion of the normal dextran-specific antibody repertoire. Immunocompetent cells that bind and internalize M104E idiotype-bearing molecules were eliminated by the intravenous administration of a single dose of cytosine arabinonucleoside conjugated to purified M104E protein. The administration of this cytotoxic drug-idiotype conjugate had a profound effect upon the expression of the M104E idiotype in euthymic but not in athymic BALB/c mice following immunization with dextran. In euthymic mice, the depletion of the idiotype-binding cells resulted in a marked elevation in the level of M104E idiotype present in the immune sera. Moreover, treated but not control mice developed idiotype-positive molecules that did not bind dextran. These results demonstrate the functional significance of idiotype-binding cells in the regulation of individual clonotypes during an immune response. PMID:2453882

  17. An idiotypic network model of AIDS immunopathogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, G W; Kion, T A; Grant, M D

    1991-01-01

    Considerations from a network theory of the immune system suggest that human immunodeficiency virus and allogeneic stimuli may act synergistically to cause AIDS. The immune responses to these stimuli include two components that are directed against each other. In some AIDS risk groups other antigens that mimic major histocompatibility complex antigens may substitute for allogeneic stimuli. Implications for the prevention of AIDS are discussed. Images PMID:1901653

  18. Anti-idiotypes, receptors, and molecular mimicry

    SciTech Connect

    Linthicum, D.S.; Farid, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a review of new methods and results in anti-idiotypes, receptors, and molecular mimicry. It begins with a discussion of the theoretical background of the anti-idiotypic network, it's role in the regulation of immune response, and the physical characteristics of anti-idiotypic antibodies. It then goes on to explore many applications in such areas as insulin action, thyroid cell function, the neurosciences, cardiology, virology, pharmacology, and reproduction.

  19. Oral immunization with xenogeneic antibodies stimulates the production of systemic and mucosal anti-idiotypic antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, A M; Roberton, D M; Hosking, C S; Flannery, G R

    1991-01-01

    The humoral and mucosal immune responses to oral immunization with xenogeneic antibodies were studied using an animal model in which female rabbits were fed daily doses of the MOPC-315 murine IgA antibody, and were mated during the course of the feeding programme. Serum and colostrum samples were assayed for the presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies by ELISA assay, before and after depletion of anti-IgA antibodies, by affinity chromatography using another murine IgA idiotype. It was shown that all animals responded to exposure to the MOPC-315 idiotype with the production of serum anti-murine immunoglobulin antibodies and that four of six animals produced serum anti-idiotypic antibodies. That the immune response included antibodies directed against the antigen-binding site was confirmed by competition ELISA assay. Mucosal IgG and IgA anti-immunoglobulin antibodies were present in milk from all antibody-fed rabbits tested, and IgA anti-idiotypic antibodies were detectable in the colostrum of one rabbit. The results provide some support for the hypothesis that human exposure to xenogeneic antibodies, most commonly bovine milk immunoglobulins, may provoke the production of anti-idiotypic antibodies, and that such exposure may lead to disturbances of immune regulation. PMID:1916890

  20. A Possible Role for Idiotype/Anti-idiotype B-T Cell Interactions in Maintaining Immune Memory.

    PubMed

    Seledtsov, Victor I; Seledtsova, Galina V

    2017-01-01

    Variable regions of both B-cell receptors (BCRs) and T-cell receptors (TCRs) are completely formed in the postnatal period, and, consequently, no innate immune tolerance against these structures exists in adulthood. Indeed, antibodies (Abs) specific to TCRs have been found in both animals and humans. These facts clearly indicate the existence of B cells able to directly interact with T cells through binding of BCRs to TCRs without implicating major histocompatibility complex molecules. A novel paradigm is proposed in that the immune memory is based on idiotype/anti-idiotype interactions occurring between BCRs and TCRs following clearance of the antigen that elicited immune responses. It is envisaged that direct contact between memory T and B cells could provide co-stimulatory signals needed to sustain viability, growth, and differentiation of the interacting immune cells. In contrast, plasma cells originating from memory B-cells could produce anti-TCR Abs that inhibit direct BCR-to-TCR interactions, thereby downregulating the B- to T-cell contact-based immune memory via a negative feedback mechanism.

  1. Idiotype vaccination following ABMT can stimulate specific anti-idiotype immune responses in patients with B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Davis, T A; Hsu, F J; Caspar, C B; van Beckhoven, A; Czerwinsk, D K; Liles, T M; Taidi, B; Benike, C J; Engleman, E G; Levy, R

    2001-01-01

    Vaccination with the idiotype (Id) protein derived from B-cell malignancies can produce Id-specific immune responses that correlate with improved remission duration and survival rates in patients with follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). A state of minimal or no residual disease correlates strongly with the laboratory detection of a cellular or humoral immune response. High-dose cytotoxic therapy (HDCT) with autologous stem cell support (autologous bone marrow transplantation [ABMT]) can provide profound cytoreduction of B-cell NHL, but the potential immune suppression associated with myeloablative therapy may compromise a patient's ability to mount a specific immune response. To determine whether patients with NHL could mount detectable immuneresponses following ABMT, Id vaccines were administered at 2 to 12 months following myeloablative therapy to a series of patients with relapsed or resistant B-cell NHL. Two different vaccination strategies produced robust immune responses against KLH in all patients, supporting the capacity of the reconstituted immune system following HDCT to react against a strong antigen. Combining the results from both vaccination strategies, 10 of 12 patients mounted Id-specific humoral or cellular responses. Vaccinations were consistently well tolerated. Of the 12 patients, 7 have experienced prolonged remissions with a follow-up from HDCT ranging from 3 to more than 11 years. Our experience serves to document the ability of the recovering immune system to react against both self and xenotypic antigens and supports the feasibility and safety of antigen-specific vaccination following myeloablative therapy in patients with B-cell NHL.

  2. Induction of Immunity to Toxins with Anti-Idiotypic Antibody

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    The moese antisera were initially tested for presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies in an Ouchterlony analysis against the anti-exotoxin and anti... Ouchterlony Analysis of Mouse Anti-sere for Anti-idlotype Allotype Imenogen H-2 IgM IgA TC-9 TC-13 TC-15 TC-31 A/J a • d Id+ Ig+ - AKR/J k - d -- Id...n.d. n.d. NMRI d/dex - a n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. 8 Con~firmation of the Ouchterlony patterns was provided by a test for Das:ive herraglutination of sheep

  3. Mimicry of the Hodgkin-associated IRAC antigen by an anti-idiotype network: potential use in active immunotherapy of Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Schobert, I; Renner, C; Pfreundschuh, M; Diehl, V; Pohl, C

    1994-05-01

    The murine monoclonal antibody anti-IRac, defining a surface-antigen structure (MW 70 kDa) on Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg and interdigitating reticulum cells, was used to generate a cascade of anti-idiotypic antibodies as well as a cellular immunity against Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells in syngeneic BALB/c-mice. The anti-idiotypic antibody monoclonal antibody 4B4 demonstrated characteristics of an "internal image" or network antibody (Ab2 beta). Ab2 beta 4B4 bound specifically to anti-IRac and inhibited anti-IRac-binding to antigen-bearing cells effectively. 4B4 induced an IRac-specific humoral polyclonal immune response in BALB/c-mice and New Zealand white rabbits as judged by Flow cytometric and histochemical analysis. Moreover, BALB/c-mice immunized with 4B4 showed statistically significant (p > 0.01) delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction against IRac-expressing Hodgkin cell-lines. Ab2 beta 4B4 induced in syngeneic BALB/c mice a monoclonal anti-anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab3) termed 3G10, which mimicked the specificities of Ab1 anti-IRac and thus confirms the internal image nature of Ab2 beta 4B4. The anti-idiotype-induced tumor cell specific T- and B-cell mediated immune response even across species barriers via the Hodgkin related IRac-antigen may play an important part in active specific immunotherapy of Hodgkin's disease.

  4. Suppression of immune response to Lol pI by administration of idiotype.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Y; Hébert, J

    1995-03-01

    Allergic diseases are characterized by an increased production of specific IgE antibodies. Suppression of IgE antibody production may be accomplished through idiotypic manipulation. Using an animal model, we explored the effects of anti-Lol pI monoclonal antibody administration on the subsequent IgE and IgG antibody response against Lol pI. Mice were treated with an anti-Lol pI monoclonal antibody (290A-167), which resulted in the production of anti-idiotypic antibodies as evidenced by their ability to bind to the Fab fraction of 290A-167 and to inhibit the binding of rabbit polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies to 290A-167. The animals were then immunized with Lol pI adsorbed onto alum, and the immune response to the protein was analyzed. Antigen-specific IgG1 and IgE responses were strongly suppressed as determined by immunoassay. Suppression of anti-Lol pI IgE antibodies was confirmed by a reduction of end-point titers measured by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. The suppression of antigen-specific antibody was accompanied by a reduction of anti-Lol pI antibody-producing spleen cells. These data indicate that pretreatment with 290A-167 can strongly downregulate the IgE response to the main allergen of ryegrass pollen, which is associated with an increase in anti-idiotypic antibodies. This approach could provide rapid, long-term hyposensitization in patients with grass pollen allergy.

  5. Anti-idiotype guinea pig antibodies as response to insulin immunization.

    PubMed

    Camberos, M C; Perez, A; Cresto, J C

    1998-01-01

    The study was done using 39 guinea pigs grouped as followed; 18 were injected with 0.5 mg of porcine insulin emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant; 12 were injected with saline and 9 were used as control of cardiac bleeding during the assay. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IGTT) were carried out on days 0, 11, 32 and 38. Seven of the thirteen guinea pigs immunized with insulin which survived after the study, showed glucose intolerance on day 32 at 90 and 120 min (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) and on day 38 at 120 min (p < 0.05). Anti-idiotypic IgG partially purified from a sera pool from these animals inhibited 125-Insulin binding to rat hepatocytes, immunoprecipitated 125I-rat insulin receptors and recognized the alpha-subunit of insulin receptor in immunoblotting. We conclude that insulin anti-idiotypes in guinea pigs offer a simple way to produce antibodies against insulin receptor binding site. The methodology for anti-idiotype identification can be applied to patients with insulin resistance.

  6. Suppression of the immune response to ovalbumin in vivo by anti-idiotypic antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Grinevich, A.S.; Pinegin, B.V.

    1986-12-01

    Conditions of suppression of the immune response to a food allergin (ovalbumin) were studied with the aid of anti-idiotypic (AID) antibodies. Hen ovalbumin was used and the experiments were performed on mice. Antibodies were isolated from the resulting protein fractions and tested for inhibitor activity by the method of direct radioimmunologic analysis. The test system consisted of the reaction of binding the globulin fraction to the total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin from mice and a /sup 125/I-labeled total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin of the same animals.

  7. Evidence from the anti-idiotypic network that the acetylcholine receptor is a rabies virus receptor.

    PubMed

    Hanham, C A; Zhao, F; Tignor, G H

    1993-01-01

    We have developed idiotype-anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies that provide evidence for rabies virus binding to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Hybridoma cell lines 7.12 and 7.25 resulted after fusion of NS-1 myeloma cells with spleen cells from a BALB/c mouse immunized with rabies virus strain CVS. Antibody 7.12 reacted with viral glycoprotein and neutralized virus infectivity in vivo. It also neutralized infectivity in vitro when PC12 cells, which express neuronal AChR, but not CER cells or neuroblastoma cells (clone N18), which have no AChR, were used. Antibody 7.25 reacted with nucleocapsid protein. Anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody B9 was produced from fusion of NS-1 cells with spleen cells from a mouse immunized with 7.12 Fab. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoprecipitation, B9 reacted with 7.12, polyclonal rabies virus immune dog serum, and purified AChR. The binding of B9 to 7.12 and immune dog serum was inhibited by AChR. B9 also inhibited the binding of 7.12 to rabies virus both in vitro and in vivo. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed that B9 reacted at neuromuscular junctions of mouse tissue. B9 also reacted in indirect immunofluorescence with distinct neurons in mouse and monkey brain tissue as well as with PC12 cells. B9 staining of neuronal elements in brain tissue of rabies virus-infected mice was greatly reduced. Rabies virus inhibited the binding of B9 to PC12 cells. Mice immunized with B9 developed low-titer rabies virus-neutralizing antibody. These mice were protected from lethal intramuscular rabies virus challenge. In contrast, anti-idiotypic antibody raised against nucleocapsid antibody 7.25 did not react with AChR.

  8. The role of idiotypic interactions in the adaptive immune system: a belief-propagation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolucci, Silvia; Mozeika, Alexander; Annibale, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    In this work we use belief-propagation techniques to study the equilibrium behaviour of a minimal model for the immune system comprising interacting T and B clones. We investigate the effect of the so-called idiotypic interactions among complementary B clones on the system’s activation. Our results show that B-B interactions increase the system’s resilience to noise, making clonal activation more stable, while increasing the cross-talk between different clones. We derive analytically the noise level at which a B clone gets activated, in the absence of cross-talk, and find that this increases with the strength of idiotypic interactions and with the number of T cells sending signals to the B clones. We also derive, analytically and numerically, via population dynamics, the critical line where clonal cross-talk arises. Our approach allows us to derive the B clone size distribution, which can be experimentally measured and gives important information about the adaptive immune system response to antigens and vaccination.

  9. Insights into the immunogenetic basis of two ganglioside-associated idiotypic networks.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Mabel; Roque-Navarro, Lourdes; López-Requena, Alejandro; Moreno, Ernesto; Mateo de Acosta, Cristina; Pérez, Rolando; María Vázquez, Ana

    2007-01-01

    The heavy-chain variable regions (VH) from 14F7 MAb, an IgG1 antibody specific for GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside, and its anti-idiotype, the 4G9 MAb, were cloned and sequenced. Comparison with previously reported sequences showed that VH 14F7 belongs to the J558(VHI) gene family and that it is highly mutated. VH 4G9 belongs to the Q52(VHII) gene family. The HCDR3 14F7 sequence contains three basic residues that could be involved in the binding to 4G9 MAb, which bears acidic residues in its HCDR3. Studies performed in the syngeneic model showed that 14F7 MAb requires both coupling to KLH and the use of Freund's adjuvant to induce an effective anti-idiotypic IgG (Ab2) response. In contrast, P3 MAb, a germline gene-encoded Ab1 that also recognizes the GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside through a basic motif in its H-CDRs, has been reported to be immunogenic in syngeneic mice, even when injected in saline. In addition, when Leghorn chickens were immunized with 14F7 or P3 MAbs emulsified in Freund's adjuvant, only P3-immunized animals were able to develop antibodies that recognized NeuGc-containing gangliosides, antigens which are not present in the normal tissues of this animal species. This phenomenon could be due to the lack of idiotypic connectivity of 14F7MAb.

  10. IVIg inhibits reticuloendothelial system function and ameliorates murine passive-immune thrombocytopenia independent of anti-idiotype reactivity.

    PubMed

    Crow, A R; Song, S; Semple, J W; Freedman, J; Lazarus, A H

    2001-12-01

    Although the mechanism of action of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) in treating antibody-dependent thrombocytopenia remains unclear, most studies have suggested that IVIg blocks the function of Fc receptors in the reticuloendothelial system (RES) and/or the protective effect may be due to the presence of variable region-reactive (anti-idiotype) antibodies within IVIg. We evaluated the effect of IVIg on platelet counts in a murine model of passively induced immune thrombocytopenia (PIT). Although IVIg was unable to neutralize the binding of two platelet-specific monoclonal antibodies to their target antigens either in vivo or in vitro, it was able to prevent PIT as well as ameliorate pre-established PIT mediated by these antibodies. IVIg adsorbed against the antibody used to induce thrombocytopenia or endogenous murine immunoglobulin also protected against PIT, indicating that antibodies with anti-idiotype activity present in IVIg are not necessary for its effective treatment of PIT. IVIg significantly blocked the ability of the RES to clear antibody-sensitized red blood cells. F(ab')2 fragments of IVIg, which are unable to block the RES but retain the idiotypic regions, were ineffective at protecting mice from PIT. Our data suggest that IVIg exerts its rapid effect by inhibiting RES function and that anti-idiotype interactions are not required.

  11. The immune response to ferredoxin: characterization of a major idiotype in serum using monoclonal antibody derived by cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Weaver, M S; Sikora, L; Levy, J G

    1982-01-01

    Ferredoxin (Fd) is a low mol. wt protein (6000 d) isolated from Clostridium pasteurianum. This antigen possess two non-cross-reactive antigenic determinants and engenders a restricted antibody response in selected strains of mice. Immunochemical studies of Fd have shown that antibody responses are confined to two sequences of between five and seven amino acids in extent located at the NH2-and COOH-termini of the molecule. Serum antibodies from responder strains of mice bind these epitopes in proportions which are regulated by genes mapping in the Ir-region of the H-2 complex. A hybrid cell line secreting monoclonal Fd-binding antibody has been isolated from an immune mouse through fusion with the SP2/0 myeloma cell line. The resulting antibody binds to a single determinant located at the nH2-terminal of the molecule. An anti-idiotype antibody to this monoclonal antibody was raised in rabbits. After appropriate absorptions, its specificity for the paratopic regions of the hybridoma antibody was established by demonstrating its displacement from reaction with the idiotype by Fd. Analysis of the distribution of the hybridoma idiotype in serum antibodies from congenic mouse strains indicates that it is a major idiotype expressed in different inbred strains sharing identity at the Igh-1 locus.

  12. Regulation of immune responses via genetically-restricted cellular interactions. I. Augmentation of antibody responses by idiotype-specific enhancing B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Bitoh, S; Fujimoto, S

    1984-12-01

    We previously reported that B lymphocytes obtained from BALB/c mice that had been immunized with M104E myeloma protein have an idiotype-specific enhancing activity for anti-dextran B1355S antibody responses in vivo. The enhancing cells were Thy-1-, Lyt-1-,2-, nylon wool-adherent and rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin (RAMG) dish adherent. The in vitro analysis described in this report also revealed that the enhancing cells had a B cell phenotype and were specifically enriched in M104E or J558 myeloma protein-coated dishes but not by irrelevant monoclonal antibodies. The significance of these B-B cell interactions were analyzed in vitro by using various Igh-1 and H-2 congeneic strains of mice. The idiotype immune B lymphocytes obtained from BALB/c and BAB-14 could enhance the antidextran antibody responses of BALB/c B lymphocytes in an idiotype-specific manner. On the other hand, C.AL-20 and CB-20 strains could not induce the idiotype-specific enhancing B cell activity in dextran-immune BALB/c B cells. These results suggest that the capability of enhancing B cell induction is related to the producibility of the respective idiotype in that strain of mice. Moreover, the B cells obtained from BALB/c mice immune to the idiotype cooperated well with the dextran-immune B cells of BALB/c but not of BALB.K and vice versa. These results indicate that successful cooperation between those two types of B lymphocytes requires the same MHC haplotype. The roles of these genetically restricted cellular interactions in the immune system are discussed.

  13. Internal complementarities in the immune system: regulation of the expression of helper T-cell idiotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, C; Pereira, P; Bernabé, R; Bandeira, A; Larsson, E L; Cazenave, P A; Coutinho, A

    1984-01-01

    More than half of BALB/c helper T lymphocytes specific for 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified syngeneic spleen cells are inhibited in their proliferative responses to antigen-presenting cells and in their cooperation with B lymphocytes by monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies directed to a TNP-binding BALB/c myeloma protein (MOPC 460). This inhibition is specific for anti-TNP-self helper cells of BALB/c origin and is controlled by IgCh-linked genes, as it is not observed with CB.20 helper cells of the same specificity. In contrast, anti-TNP-self helper cells prepared from BALB/c mice that were chronically suppressed with anti-mu chain antibodies and possessed no B lymphocytes were not inhibited by anti-idiotypic antibodies. We conclude that the B-cell antibody repertoires contribute to the selection of the (idiotypic) T-helper-cell repertoires. PMID:6235521

  14. Evidence of idiotypic modulation in the immune response to gp43, the major antigenic component of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in both mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Souza, A R; Gesztesi, J -L; Moraes, J Z; Cruz, C R B; Sato, J; Mariano, M; Lopes, J D

    1998-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America, with a high prevalence in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela. The aetiologic agent of disease is a thermal dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. A glycoprotein of 43 000 D (gp43) is the major antigen of P. brasiliensis. Antibodies directed to this antigen are detected in the sera of all patients with PCM. Gp43 binds to laminin, thus participating in adhesion, invasion and pathogenesis of the fungus. As the role of antibodies in PCM is not fully understood, we decided to investigate the outcome of mice immunization with three distinct anti-gp43 MoAbs (17c, 8a and 24a) coupled with keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). Results show not only the expected presence of anti-Id (AB2) antibodies in the sera of these animals but also a spontaneous and increasing amount of anti-anti-Id (AB3) antibodies after the third course of immunization. Hybridomas producing both AB2 and AB3 MoAbs were obtained using spleen cells from mice immunized with MoAb 17c. AB3 MoAbs were also obtained with spleen cells of mice immunized with MoAbs 8a and 24a. It was also shown that human PCM patients' sera with high titres of anti-gp43 antibodies generate anti-Id antibodies. These data suggest that the immune response to P. brasiliensis can be spontaneously modulated by the idiotypic network. PMID:9764601

  15. Regulation of allotype-linked NPb idiotype by an idiotype-positive soluble factor derived from a T cell hybridoma. Coupling of the circuit regulation to the network concept.

    PubMed

    Abe, R; Karasuyama, H; Yagi, J; Tada, T

    1984-01-01

    We reported in this paper genetic requirements for the suppression of anti-4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl (NP) antibody response induced by an NP-specific, Igh-1 linked idiotype (NPb) positive T suppressor factor (NPb-TsF) derived from a T cell hybridoma 7C3-13 of B10.BR (Igh-1b, H-2k) mouse origin. NPb-TsF could suppress the responses mounted by primed spleen cells of all IgVH compatible strains regardless of their H-2 haplotypes. The majority of the anti-NP antibody response suppressed by NPb-TsF was idiotype positive (Id+). NPb-TsF was also capable of suppressing the responses of H-2 compatible but Igh incompatible strains where responding cells do not produce NPb idiotype. NPb-TsF was incapable of suppressing the responses of mouse strains who are incompatible both in IgVH and H-2 loci, indicating that the identity in either IgVH or H-2 genes between NPb-TsF and responding cells was necessary for the initiation of the suppression by NPb-TsF. It was further found that the NPb-TsF utilizes anti-idiotypic Lyt-1+2+3+ T cells (transducer cells), which are present only in IgVH compatible strains, to ultimately suppress the Id+ antibody production by B cells. These results indicate that there exists a pathway where an idiotypic NPb-TsF activates a suppressor circuit mediated via the idiotype-antiidiotype interactions apart from the previously described carrier-specific and H-2 restricted suppressor circuit. Both pathways involve the 'transduction' step utilizing Lyt-1+2+3+ intermediary T cells. Our experiments provide important clues for coupling the two major immunological concepts, network and circuit.

  16. Regulation of T15 Idiotype Dominance. I. Mice Expressing the xid Immune Defect Provide Normal Help to T15(+) B Cell Precursors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    Quintans, J., Z. S. Quan, and Miguel A. Arias. 1982. Mice v/ith the xid defect have helper cells for T15 idiotype dominant anti- phosphorylcholine primary...and socondary plaque-forming cell responses. J. Exp. Mod. 155:1245. REFERENCES 1. Kohlef, H. 1975. The responsa to phosphorylcholine : dissecting...associated with the immune response o( inbred mice to phosphorylcholine . Eur. J. Immunol. 2:319. 4. Cosenza, H., and H. Köhler. 1972. Specific

  17. Binding-site analysis of opioid receptors using monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Structural relatedness between the variable region of anti-ligand antibodies and opioid binding sites allowed the generation of anti-idiotypic antibodies which recognized opioid receptors. The IgG{sub 3}k antibodies which bound to opioid receptors were obtained when an anti-morphine antiserum was the idiotype. Both antibodies bound to opioid receptors, but only one of these blocked the binding of ({sup 3}H)naloxone. The antibody which did not inhibit the binding of ({sup 3}H)naloxone was itself displaced from the receptor by opioid ligands. The unique binding properties displayed by this antibody indicated that anti-idiotypic antibodies are not always a perfect image of the original ligand, and therefore may be more useful than typical ligands as probes for the receptor. An auto-anti-idiotypic technique was successfully used to obtain anti-opioid receptor antibodies. Another IgG{sub 3}k antibody that blocked the binding of ({sup 3}H)naloxone to rat brain opioid receptors was obtained when a mouse was immunized with naloxone conjugated to bovine serum albumin. These data confirmed that an idiotype-anti-idiotype network which can generate an anti-receptor antibody normally functions when an opioid ligand is introduced into an animal in an immunogenic form.

  18. The promise of the anti-idiotype concept

    PubMed Central

    Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Monzavi-Karbassi, Bejatohlah; Pashov, Anastas; Saha, Somdutta; Murali, Ramachandran; Kohler, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    A basic tenet of antibody-based immunity is their specificity to antigenic determinates from foreign pathogen products to abnormal cellular components such as in cancer. However, an antibody has the potential to bind to more than one determinate, be it an antigen or another antibody. These observations led to the idiotype network theory (INT) to explain immune regulation, which has wax and waned in enthusiasm over the years. A truer measure of the impact of the INT is in terms of the ideas that now form the mainstay of immunological research and whose roots are spawned from the promise of the anti-idiotype concept. Among the applications of the INT is understanding the structural implications of the antibody-mediated network that has the potential for innovation in terms of rational design of reagents with biological, chemical, and pharmaceutical applications that underlies concepts of reverse immunology which is highlighted herein. PMID:23267437

  19. Idiotype profile of an immune response. I. Contrasts in idiotypic dominance between primary and secondary responses and between IgM and IgG plaque- forming cells

    PubMed Central

    Conger, JD; Lewis, GK; Goodman, JW

    1981-01-01

    The primary response of A/J mice to p-azobenzenearsonate-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (ABA-KLH) was investigated. A day-by-day analysis at the plaque- forming cell (PFC) level was performed, with inhibition by anti-cross- reactive idiotype (CRI) serum to determine percentage of CRI(+) PFC. A regular pattern in the dynamics of Id (idiotype) dominance was observed. Just as in the NP-b and NP-a systems (9, 12), the major Id (CRI) is more dominant in primary than in secondary or hyperimmune responses. This trend is more apparent in IgG PFC which are generally 80-95 percent CRI(+) at day 10 in the primary response but only 30-40 percent CRI(+) at day 10 in secondary or hyperimmune responses. A somewhat different pattern is seen with IgM PFC. These may reach a peak of 85 percent CRI(+) in the primary response, but secondary or hyperimmune IgM PFC, which are lower in numbers than IgG PFC, remain high in CRI content at approximately 70 percent. The PFC data on extent of id dominance in secondary or hyperimmune responses is fully compatible with previously reported serological data by others. Analysis of IgG PFC by hapten inhibition indicated that heterogeneity was in the order secondary PFC {greater than} primary PFC {greater than} hybridoma AK-2.2 PFC with H(75)/H(25) values of 22.9, 6.2, and 2.7, respectively; where H(75) and H(25) are the hapten concentrations required to give 75 percent and 25 percent of inhibition of PFC, respectively. Hapten inhibition data also suggested that secondary IgG PFC were 10 times higher in median binding avidity for ABA-L-tyrosine than primary IgG PFC. The kinetic analysis strongly indicated that CRI(+) IgM PFC were preferentially switched to IgG PFC in the primary response. In both studies, the CRI content of the earliest-appearing IgG PFC was significantly higher than that of IgM PFC on that day. For example, in one case IgM PFC were 60 percent CRI + on day 6 whereas IgG PFC were 100 percent CRI(+). The high Id dominance and selective

  20. Idiotype connectance in the immune system. I. Expression of a cross- reactive idiotype on induced anti-p-azophenylarsonate antibodies and on endogenous antibodies not specific for arsonate

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    A new cross-reactive idiotope family (CRIAD8) is described that contains subpopulations of antibodies binding to different epitopes. One subpopulation occurs naturally in normal sera from strain A mice, is found mainly on IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses, does not bind p- azobenzenearsonate (ABA)+, does not express CRI5Ci, and can be selectively stimulated by low doses of antiidiotype antibody (AD8). The second subpopulation is not found in normal serum, binds ABA, is found on all IgG subclasses, expresses CRI5Ci, and is selectively stimulated by ABA-conjugated proteins. Since CRIAD8 was found on both subpopulations of antibody, and since each subpopulation could be selectively expanded, it was possible to study the effect that expansion of the ABA- CRIAD8+ set had on subsequent responses elicited by ABA-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in the ABA+ CRIAD8+ set. In these experiments, prior immunization with AD8 restricted the subsequent response of the ABA+ CRIAD8+ set to ABA-KLH. Furthermore, only those doses of AD8 that stimulated the ABA-CRIAD8+ set reduced the responsiveness of the ABA+ CRIAD8+ set to ABA-KLH, suggesting that the two phenomena are causally related. These findings argue that CRIAD8 correlates well with a regulatory idiotope and that immune responses by lymphocyte clones that have different antigen-binding specificities can affect one another as a result of their sharing such an idiotope. These results strongly favor a network organization of the immune system. PMID:6403653

  1. Anti-ganglioside anti-idiotypic vaccination: more than molecular mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Ana M. H.; Rodrèguez-Zhurbenko, Nely; López, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are standard modalities for cancer treatment, but the effectiveness of these treatments has reached a plateau. Thus, other strategies are being explored to combine with the current treatment paradigms in order to reach better clinical results. One of these approaches is the active immunotherapy based on the induction of anti-tumor responses by anti-idiotypic vaccination. This approach arose from Jerne’s idiotypic network theory, which postulates that B lymphocytes forms a functional network, with a role in the establishment of the immune repertoires, in the regulation of natural antibody production and even in the establishment of natural tolerance. Due to the large potential diversity of the immunoglobulin variable regions, the idiotypes repertoire can mimic the universe of self and foreign epitopes, even those of non-protein nature, like gangliosides. Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycolipids that have been considered attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy, based on the qualitative and quantitative changes they suffer during malignant transformation and due to their importance for tumor biology. Although any idiotype could be able to mimic any antigen, only those related to antigens involved in functions relevant for organism homeostasis, and that in consequence has been fixed by evolution, would be able not only to mimic, but also to activate the idiotypic cascades related with the nominal antigen. The present review updates the results, failures and hopes, obtained with ganglioside mimicking anti-idiotypic antibodies and presents evidences of the existence of a natural response against gangliosides, suggesting that these glycolipids could be idiotypically relevant antigens. PMID:23181219

  2. Idiotype-specific T lymphocytes. II. capability of generation of idiotype-specific T lymphocytes is determined by corresponding VH gene

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    MOPC-104E (M104E) idiotype-specific and major histocompatibility complex-restricted T lymphocyte activities were investigated in BALB/c (Igh-1a) and its Igh-1-congenic strains of mice, such as C.AL-20 (Igh- 1d), BAB-14 (Igh-1b), and CB-20 (Igh-1b). Idiotype-specific T lymphocytes could be induced in BALB/c and BAB-14 by immunization of viable M104E tumor cells followed by surgical removal and in vitro restimulation with the homologous tumor cells. On the other hand, C.AL- 20 and CB-20 mice did not show the idiotype-recognizing capacity even though they could mount comparable cytotoxic T lymphocyte activities against M104E to BALB/c and BAB-14. The results strongly suggest that the inducibility of M104E cross-reactive idiotypy closely paralleled the producibility of corresponding idiotype-specific T lymphocytes. Genetically defined VH gene products might act as internal images that construct idiotype network systems. PMID:6193227

  3. Idiotype-specific T lymphocytes. II. capability of generation of idiotype-specific T lymphocytes is determined by corresponding VH gene.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Bitoh, S; Fujimoto, S

    1983-08-01

    MOPC-104E (M104E) idiotype-specific and major histocompatibility complex-restricted T lymphocyte activities were investigated in BALB/c (Igh-1a) and its Igh-1-congenic strains of mice, such as C.AL-20 (Igh-1d), BAB-14 (Igh-1b), and CB-20 (Igh-1b). Idiotype-specific T lymphocytes could be induced in BALB/c and BAB-14 by immunization of viable M104E tumor cells followed by surgical removal and in vitro restimulation with the homologous tumor cells. On the other hand, C.AL-20 and CB-20 mice did not show the idiotype-recognizing capacity even though they could mount comparable cytotoxic T lymphocyte activities against M104E to BALB/c and BAB-14. The results strongly suggest that the inducibility of M104E cross-reactive idiotypy closely paralleled the producibility of corresponding idiotype-specific T lymphocytes. Genetically defined VH gene products might act as internal images that construct idiotype network systems.

  4. Toward a New Kind of Vaccine: A Logical Extension of the Symmetrical Immune Network Theory.

    PubMed

    Gorczynski, Reginald; Hoffmann, Geoffrey

    2017-07-05

    The symmetrical immune network theory, developed in 1975, is based on the existence of specific T cell factors and hypothesizes that normal IgG immune responses comprise the production of 2 kinds of antibodies, namely antigen-specific antibodies and anti-idiotypic antibodies. The aim of this study was to confirm the existence of specific T cells factors and to show that immunization of C3H mice with BL/6 skin or using nominal antigen for immunization (Tetanus Toxoid) induced production of antigen-specific (anti-BL/6 or antitetanus) antibodies plus anti-idiotypic antibodies (C3H anti-anti-C3H). Subsequently, we investigated the role of combinations of antigen-specific and anti-idiotype antibodies in a variety of animal models of clinical diseases. Antigen-specific antibodies were produced by conventional immunization of mice (eg, with tetanus toxoid or by skin allografting). Subsequent anti-idiotypic antibodies were derived by exhaustive absorption of antigen-specific antibody, with confirmation of anti-idiotypic specificity by binding to relevant target antigen-specific antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antigen-specific plus anti-idiotypic antibodies were then used to modulate skin allograft survival, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, ovalbumin (OVA)-induced IgE production, and breast cancer growth in mice. Infusions of anti-BL/6 antibodies together with BL/6 anti-anti-BL/6 antibodies specifically suppressed (>85%) an immune response to BL/6 lymphocytes in C3H mice. The two kinds of antibodies with complementary specificity are hypothesized to stimulate 2 populations of T lymphocytes. Coselection of these 2 populations leads to a new stable steady state of the system with diminished reactivity to BL/6 tissue. A combination of anti-C3H and C3H anti‑anti-C3H IgG antibodies down-regulated inflammation in a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease (>75%) and attenuated anti-IgE production and sensitization to produce IL4

  5. Immunization of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2002-03-01

    Complex networks such as the sexual partnership web or the Internet often show a high degree of redundancy and heterogeneity in their connectivity properties. This peculiar connectivity provides an ideal environment for the spreading of infective agents. Here we show that the random uniform immunization of individuals does not lead to the eradication of infections in all complex networks. Namely, networks with scale-free properties do not acquire global immunity from major epidemic outbreaks even in the presence of unrealistically high densities of randomly immunized individuals. The absence of any critical immunization threshold is due to the unbounded connectivity fluctuations of scale-free networks. Successful immunization strategies can be developed only by taking into account the inhomogeneous connectivity properties of scale-free networks. In particular, targeted immunization schemes, based on the nodes' connectivity hierarchy, sharply lower the network's vulnerability to epidemic attacks.

  6. Onset of power-law scaling behavior in idiotypic random and scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudino, Elder S.; Lyra, M. L.; Gleria, Iram; Campos, Paulo R. A.; Bertrand, Delvis

    2012-10-01

    We numerically study the dynamics of model immune networks with random and scale-free topologies. We observe that a memory state is reached when the antigen is attached to the most connected sites of the network, whereas a percolation state may occur when the antigen attaches to the less connected sites. For increasing values of the connectivity of the antibody directly binded to the antigen, its population converges exponentially to the asymptotic value of the memory state. On the other hand, the next-nearest populations evolve slowly as power-laws towards the virgin-like state.

  7. The production of monovalent and anti-idiotype antivenom against Mesobuthus eupeus (Scorpionida: Buthidae) venom in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Khoobdel, M; Nayeri Fasaei, B; Zahraei Salehi, T; Khosravi, M; Taheri, M; Koochakzadeh, A; Masihipour, B; Motedayen, M H; Akbari, S

    2013-12-15

    The antivenom production against poisonous creatures encounters a number of difficulties. Interestingly, according to the network theory the conventional antigens are not necessarily needed for producing antibodies against the venoms. In this investigation, the antivenom against Mesobuthus eupeus venom was produced based on the aforementioned theory. Polyclonal antibodies against M. eupeus venom were obtained from the immunized rabbits and the specific antibodies were isolated. After separation of Fab2, immunization process and production of the monovalent and anti-idiotype, these antivenoms were analyzed for the determination of their neutralizing power. The level of the produced antibodies in different stages of this study was also measured by ELISA assay. Four hundred and fifty micrograms of the venom can be neutralized by 4.2, 18 and 291 mg of monovalent, polyvalent and anti-idiotype antivenom, respectively. The ELISA results revealed that idiotypic antigens were six times more immunogenic than anti-idiotypes. The anti-idiotype antivenom can be produced on a large scale with minimum venom consumption. In addition, they are non-toxicant in immunized animals and can be used as a vaccine in people at the risk of scorpion stings. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. National Network for Immunization Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists . © Copyright National Network for Immunization Information. The information contained in the National Network for Immunization Information Web site should not be ...

  9. Genetic control of the immune response to staphylococcal nuclease. IX. Recombination between genes determining BALB/c antinuclease idiotypes and the heavy chain allotype locus.

    PubMed

    Pisetsky, D S; Riordan, S E; Sachs, D H

    1979-03-01

    The genetic linkage relationship of two antinuclease idiotypes produced by the BALB/c strain was investigated in the backcross (BALB/c x CB.20) X CB.20. These two idiotypes were detected by Lewis rat anti-idiotypic antisera prepared against affinity-purified A/J and SJL antinuclease antibodies, termed the A/J and SJL idiotypes, respectively. Both idiotypes were found to be linked to the IgCHa immunoglobulin heavy chain allotype locus. There was, however, a high frequency of recombination observed between both markers and the IgCHa locus, with eight of 83 backcross animals recombinant for the A/J idiotype and five of 83 recombinant for the SJL idiotype. All such recombinant animals were IgCHb/b homozygotes that had gained one or both idiotypes. These results are consistent with a genetic map of VHr region genes in the BALB/c strain in which genes determining the SJL idiotype are closer to the IgCHa allotype locus than are genes determining the A/J idiotype. This high frequency of recombination may indicate that the chromosome segment containing VH region genes is very large or that it has structural features that promote recombination.

  10. Protective role of anti-idiotypic antibodies in autoimmunity – Lessons for type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    HAMPE, CHRISTIANE S.

    2017-01-01

    Circulating autoantibodies to beta cell antigens are present in the majority of patients with Type 1 diabetes. These autoantibodies can be detected before and at time of clinical diagnosis of disease. Although the role of autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of the disease is debated, their presence indicates a dysregulation of the humoral immune response. Mechanisms regulating autoantibodies in Type 1 diabetes are not well understood. In contrast, in other autoimmune diseases there is acceptance that autoantibodies are regulated not only by antigen but also by other antibodies that bind to the antigen-binding site of these autoantibodies (anti-idiotypic antibodies). The proposed purpose of this network is to maintain an equilibrium between autoantibodies and their anti-idiotypic antibodies, preventing autoimmunity, while allowing a robust response to exogenous antigen. Anti-idiotypic antibodies regulate both autoantibody binding and their levels by a) neutralizing autoantibodies, and b) inhibiting the secretion of autoantibodies. Because it has been proposed that the B lymphocytes that produce autoantibodies function as autoantigen presenting cells, inhibiting their binding to autoantigen by anti-idiotypic antibodies may prevent development of autoimmune disease. This hypothesis is supported by the presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies in healthy individuals and in patients in remission from autoimmune diseases, and by the lack of anti-idiotypic antibodies during active disease. We recently reported the presence of autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase in the majority of healthy individuals, where their binding to autoantigen is prevented by anti-idiotypic antibodies. These anti-idiotypic antibodies are absent at clinical diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes, revealing the presence of autoantibodies. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the dysfunction and destruction of insulin-producing beta cells by autoreactive T cells. Although much

  11. [Establishment and biological properties of hybridoma cell lines secreting anti-IBDV idiotypic antibodies].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rui-Liang; Cui, Zhi-Zhong; Zhao, Jing

    2003-07-01

    In recent years, the prevention and cure of infectious bursal disease (IBD) have become more and more difficult due to the emergence of very virulent strains of infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) and the variant strains of IBDV. In this research, the hybridoma cell lines which secretes anti-idiotypic antibodies against anti-IBDV IgG were established. According to the Jerne's theory of immune network, the use of the anti-idiotypic antibodies as a vaccine will be a new method for the prevention of IBD. In this study, the SPF chickens were inoculated with the IBDV- SD strain, and the bursal was obtained from the died chickens. The bursal was then homogenized and frozen-thawed 3 cycles, and the virus samples were prepared by cane sugar density gradient centrifugation and dialysis. Typical IBDV particles were observed under an electron microscope, and the concentration of the virus protein measured by ultraviolet absorbance spectrophotometry was 10.8 mg/mL. SPF chickens were immunized with the virus and the highly immunized sera were prepared and purified by Sulfuric acid ammonia salt out and Sephadex G-25 chromatography. Then, Balb/C mice of six or eight weeks old were immunized interapertoneally(I. P.) with purified antibodies to IBDV at regular intervals. SP2/0 myeloma cells were fused with the spleencytes from the immunized mice at a ratio of 10:1, in 50% polyethylene glycol (1540) and were then cultured in HAT until all the SP2/0 cells died. The hybridoma cells were selected by ELISA and the highly positive holes were cloned 3 times with the method of limited dilution. Two strains (2B6 strain,5F4 strain) of hybridoma cells were obtained, which were shown by ELISA to steadily secrete anti-IBDV idiotypic antibodies. The chromosome number of the two hybridoma cells were about 88 - 106, 95 in average, and the antibodies secreted belonged to the types of IgG1 and Kappa. Balb/c mice of 3 months old were inoculated I.P. with about 10(7) hybridoma cells per capita

  12. Anti-idiotypic antibodies: a new approach in prion research

    PubMed Central

    Colja Venturini, Anja; Bresjanac, Maja; Vranac, Tanja; Koren, Simon; Narat, Mojca; Popović, Mara; Čurin Šerbec, Vladka

    2009-01-01

    Background In certain cases, anti-idiotypic antibodies that recognize an antigen-combining site of an antibody can mimic the structure and/or function of certain nominal antigens. This feature makes them particularly useful if conventional experimental approaches fail to fulfil expectations, especially when the molecule of interest is infectious, toxic or difficult to isolate and purify. We suggest the application of an anti-idiotype concept to the field of prion biology, with the aim of evoking a humoral immune response against the pathological isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc). Different ways to induce anti-idiotypic responses were studied in mice and chickens using various forms of V5B2, a PrPSc-specific monoclonal antibody we have described previously. Results The preparation of anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies was achieved with well-defined strategies of immunization, selection and subsequent characterization. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to induce a strong anti-idiotypic immune response against the V5B2 monoclonal antibody in both xenogeneic and syngeneic experimental systems. From the competition seen between polyclonal and monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies and the original immunogen, the P1 peptide, and even more importantly, the ultimate target antigen, PrPSc, we conclude that selected antibodies bind to the antigen-combining site of the V5B2 monoclonal antibody and might even resemble the PrPSc-specific epitope. The involvement of both antigen-combining sites in the interaction between V5B2 and the most promising monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody was further supported by molecular docking. Conclusion The results of the present study not only provide an example of the successful production of Ab2 monoclonal antibodies based on a well planned strategy for selection, but should also provide a new experimental approach that is applicable to the field of prion diseases. PMID:19298674

  13. Suppression of collagen induced arthritis by idiotype coupled lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nagler-Anderson, C.; Gurish, M.F.; Robinson, M.E.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1986-03-01

    Studies were initiated to evaluate the regulatory influence of idiotype (Id) networks in an experimental auto-immune disease. Collagen induced arthritis is an animal model of polyarthritis induced in susceptible mice by immunization with collagen II (CII). A humoral immune response to CII appears to be critical for the development of diseases. If subpopulations of the anti-CII abs, important for the induction of arthritis, could be identified and manipulated through the presence of a major Id, it should be possible to decrease arthritis incidence by suppressing the production of these Ids. Specifically purified anti-CII abs from arthritic DBA/1 mice were coupled to syngeneic spleen cells and administered IV prior to intradermal immunization with CII. By day 34 after 1/sup 0/ immunization, 100% of control mice and 50% of treated mice had developed arthritis. Suppression of the Id population administered to the treated group was confirmed by RIA. Sera from individual mice were tested as inhibitors of binding of /sup 125/I-labelled polyclonal DBA/1 anti-CII to a rabbit anti-Id directed against polyclonal anti-CII isolated from the sera of arthritic mice. Mean percentage of inhibition of binding of /sup 125/I-Id to rabbit anti-Id by sera from non-arthritic treated mice was found to be significantly lower than that observed in the arthritic control group (p = .045), but did not correlate with total anti-CII ab titers.

  14. Monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies as functional internal images of enzyme active sites: production of a catalytic antibody with a cholinesterase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Izadyar, L; Friboulet, A; Remy, M H; Roseto, A; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody 9A8 was selected by immunizing mice with AE-2, a monoclonal antibody directed against the active site of acetylcholinesterase. In accordance with the idiotypic network theory, monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody 9A8 displayed internal-image properties of the original immunogen, the acetylcholinesterase active site. Hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine and related esters of thiocholine by 9A8 follows saturation kinetics and kinetic parameters were determined. The hydrolytic activity is characterized by a lowered kcat value (81 s-1) and an increased Km value (0.6 mM) when compared with the original enzyme. However, the rate acceleration (kcat/kuncat = 4.15 x 10(8) remains higher than for the esterase activities usually described for catalytic antibodies directed against transition-state analogs. The 9A8 activity exhibits a relaxation of specificity toward both substrates and inhibitors. This specificity does not correspond to a known enzymatic activity. The anti-idiotypic approach should be valuable for producing different structural and functional copies of the same enzyme active site. This should allow further insights into structure-activity relationships. Furthermore, use of chemically modified enzymes as immunogens may result in anti-idiotypic antibodies with catalytic activities not found in the native enzymes. PMID:8415624

  15. Studies of guinea pig immunoglobulin isotype, idiotype and antiidiotype

    SciTech Connect

    Tirrell, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Immunization of Guinea pigs with diphtheria toxoid generated antibodies of the IgG class that were capable of neutralizing native toxin in vivo. Sera from these animals were used to affinity purify idiotypic antibodies (AB1). AB1 vaccines derived from the IgG1 class and from F(ab{prime}){sub 2} of IgG1 + IgG2 (IgG1/2) classes were effective in inducing a syngeneic anti-idiotype (AB2) response. Animals immunized with AB1 consisting of both IgG1/2 did not elicit a detectable AB2 response. Binding of homologous {sup 125}I-F(ab{prime}){sub 2} (AB1) to the antiidiotype was inhibited 90% in the presence of DT.F(ab{prime}){sub 2} derived from preimmune serum or had no inhibitory effects on the idiotype-antiidiotype interactions. Two groups of outbred guinea pigs were vaccinated with alum absorbed F(ab{prime}){sub 2} of anti-idiotype IgG1/2 (AB2). Of the ten animals inoculated with AB2, three tested positive by RIA against {sup 125}I-DT. Two of the RIA positive sera contained antibodies that neutralized diphtheria toxin in a rabbit intracutaneous assay. Purification of guinea pig IgG by protein A-Sepharose affinity chromatography resulted in the separation of three distinct IgG populations.

  16. Similar Idiotypes in Antibody-Forming Cells and in Cells Synthesizing Immunoglobulins Without Detectable Antibody Function

    PubMed Central

    Cazenave, P. -A.; Ternynck, T.; Avrameas, S.

    1974-01-01

    The occurrence of immunoglobulins with and without antibody specificity and with and without idiotypic specificity was studied, by use of enzyme-labeled antigen and antibodies, in lymph node cells of rabbits immunized with horse-radish peroxidase and hen ovalbumin. Some cells, containing immunoglobulins without detectable antibody function, were shown to contain idiotypes similar to those found in antibody-producing cells. PMID:4140504

  17. Reactive immunization on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfinito, Eleonora; Beccaria, Matteo; Fachechi, Alberto; Macorini, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Epidemic spreading on complex networks depends on the topological structure as well as on the dynamical properties of the infection itself. Generally speaking, highly connected individuals play the role of hubs and are crucial to channel information across the network. On the other hand, static topological quantities measuring the connectivity structure are independent of the dynamical mechanisms of the infection. A natural question is therefore how to improve the topological analysis by some kind of dynamical information that may be extracted from the ongoing infection itself. In this spirit, we propose a novel vaccination scheme that exploits information from the details of the infection pattern at the moment when the vaccination strategy is applied. Numerical simulations of the infection process show that the proposed immunization strategy is effective and robust on a wide class of complex networks.

  18. Immunization of epidemics in multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dawei; Wang, Lianhai; Li, Shudong; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Lin; Gao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, immunization of disease propagation has attracted great attention in both theoretical and experimental researches. However, vast majority of existing achievements are limited to the simple assumption of single layer networked population, which seems obviously inconsistent with recent development of complex network theory: each node could possess multiple roles in different topology connections. Inspired by this fact, we here propose the immunization strategies on multiplex networks, including multiplex node-based random (targeted) immunization and layer node-based random (targeted) immunization. With the theory of generating function, theoretical analysis is developed to calculate the immunization threshold, which is regarded as the most critical index for the effectiveness of addressed immunization strategies. Interestingly, both types of random immunization strategies show more efficiency in controlling disease spreading on multiplex Erdös-Rényi (ER) random networks; while targeted immunization strategies provide better protection on multiplex scale-free (SF) networks.

  19. Transcriptional networks in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Kenichi; Somssich, Imre E

    2015-05-01

    Next to numerous abiotic stresses, plants are constantly exposed to a variety of pathogens within their environment. Thus, their ability to survive and prosper during the course of evolution was strongly dependent on adapting efficient strategies to perceive and to respond to such potential threats. It is therefore not surprising that modern plants have a highly sophisticated immune repertoire consisting of diverse signal perception and intracellular signaling pathways. This signaling network is intricate and deeply interconnected, probably reflecting the diverse lifestyles and infection strategies used by the multitude of invading phytopathogens. Moreover it allows signal communication between developmental and defense programs thereby ensuring that plant growth and fitness are not significantly retarded. How plants integrate and prioritize the incoming signals and how this information is transduced to enable appropriate immune responses is currently a major research area. An important finding has been that pathogen-triggered cellular responses involve massive transcriptional reprogramming within the host. Additional key observations emerging from such studies are that transcription factors (TFs) are often sites of signal convergence and that signal-regulated TFs act in concert with other context-specific TFs and transcriptional co-regulators to establish sensory transcription regulatory networks required for plant immunity.

  20. Monoclonal approach to investigate whether the idiotypic network plays a role in the formation of Graves' autoantibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (LE4) specific for a thyrotropin (TSH) epitope shared by beta subunits of bovine (b), ovine (o), and human (h) TSH was obtained by immunization of mice with mixtures of purified bTSH and hTSH. LE4 also bound the beta subunits of bovine, ovine, and human lutropin (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) but not the beta subunits of porcine LH and TSH. Preliminary studies with deglycosylated (dg) bTSH and dg-hCG indicated that part of the epitope may be carbohydrate. Preincubation of LE4 with (/sup 125/I)bTSH inhibited the binding of the hormone to TSH receptor of bovine thyroid membranes in a dose-dependent manner. LE4 also inhibited TSH-induced mitogenesis of FRTL-5 cells. We conclude that LE4 binds to a site on the bTSH molecule that participates in high affinity binding of hormone to TSH receptor.

  1. Immunizing complex networks with limited budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzasoleiman, Baharan; Babaei, Mahmoudreza; Jalili, Mahdi

    2012-05-01

    In this letter we studied the epidemic spreading on scale-free networks assuming a limited budget for immunization. We proposed a general model in which the immunity of an individual against the disease depends on its immunized friends in the network. Furthermore, we considered the possibility that each individual might be eager to pay a price to buy the vaccine and become immune against the disease. Under these assumptions we proposed an algorithm for improving the performance of all previous immunization algorithms. We also introduced a heuristic extension of the algorithm, which works well in scale-free networks.

  2. A major anti-myoglobin idiotype. Influence of H-2-linked Ir genes on idiotype expression

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    A rabbit antiidiotypic antiserum raised against an A.SW IgG1K monoclonal anti-sperm whale myoglobin (Mb) antibody, HAL19, and extensively absorbed with normal mouse immunoglobulin and MOPC 21 (IgG1K), was found to detect a common or major anti-Mb idiotype expressed by some but not all anti-Mb monoclonal antibodies, regardless of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass, and by 40-50% of the anti-Mb antibodies in immune serum from five high responder strains of mice representing five different Igh allotypes. It did not inhibit antibodies to three unrelated protein antigens. The fraction of antibodies expressing this idiotype, denoted IdHAL19, was regulated by H-2-linked genes that correlated exactly in four independent haplotypes and an F1 with the known Mb immune response (Ir) genes and may be identical to these. Whereas less than 50% of antibodies from high responder mice were inhibitable by anti-IdHAL19, greater than 80% of antibodies from low responder mice, tested at comparable final antibody concentration, were inhibitable. This result was true for both low responder haplotypes, H-2b (B10) and H-2k (B10.BR). The idiotype was found to be present on antibodies that bound to native Mb but not fragments 1-55 or 132-153 of Mb or a denatured form, S-methyl Mb. This specificity for native Mb paralleled that of the monoclonal idiotype HAL19 itself. Therefore, the production of antibodies specific for native in contrast to denatured Mb was studied in H-2-congenic high and low responder strains. Strikingly, low responders produced antibodies that reacted almost exclusively with the native conformation, whereas a larger proportion of antibodies from high responder mice also reacted with the denatured form, S-methyl Mb. Bypassing of the Ir gene defect by immunization with Mb attached to a carrier, F gamma G, resulted in low responder antisera resembling higher responder sera in both idiotype expression and conformational specificity. The simplest explanation of these results is

  3. Immunity of multiplex networks via acquaintance vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Da-Wei; Wang, Lin; Sun, Gui-Quan; Jin, Zhen

    2015-11-01

    How to find the effective approach of immunizing a population is one open question in the research of complex systems. Up to now, there have been a great number of works focusing on the efficiency of various immunization strategies. However, the majority of these existing achievements are limited to isolated networks, how immunization affects disease spreading in multiplex networks seems to need further exploration. In this letter, we explore the impact of the acquaintance immunization in multiplex networks, where two kinds of immunization strategies, multiplex node-based acquaintance immunization and layer node-based acquaintance immunization, are proposed. With the generating function method, our theoretical framework is able to accurately calculate the critical immunization threshold which is one of the most important indexes to predict the epidemic regime. Moreover, we further uncover that, with the increment of degree correlation between network layers, the immunization threshold declines for multiplex node-based acquaintance immunization, but slowly increases for layer node-based acquaintance immunization.

  4. Phage idiotype vaccination: first phase I/II clinical trial in patients with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple myeloma is characterized by clonal expansion of B cells producing monoclonal immunoglobulins or fragments thereof, which can be detected in the serum and/or urine and are ideal target antigens for patient-specific immunotherapies. Methods Using phage particles as immunological carriers, we employed a novel chemically linked idiotype vaccine in a clinical phase I/II trial including 15 patients with advanced multiple myeloma. Vaccines composed of purified paraproteins linked to phage were manufactured successfully for each patient. Patients received six intradermal immunizations with phage idiotype vaccines in three different dose groups. Results Phage idiotype was well tolerated by all study participants. A subset of patients (80% in the middle dose group) displayed a clinical response indicated by decrease or stabilization of paraprotein levels. Patients exhibiting a clinical response to phage vaccines also raised idiotype-specific immunoglobulins. Induction of a cellular immune response was demonstrated by a cytotoxicity assay and delayed type hypersensitivity tests. Conclusion We present a simple, time- and cost-efficient phage idiotype vaccination strategy, which represents a safe and feasible patient-specific therapy for patients with advanced multiple myeloma and produced promising anti-tumor activity in a subset of patients. PMID:24885819

  5. Enhancing robustness and immunization in geographical networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang; Yang, Kongqing; Yang, Lei

    2007-03-01

    We find that different geographical structures of networks lead to varied percolation thresholds, although these networks may have similar abstract topological structures. Thus, strategies for enhancing robustness and immunization of a geographical network are proposed. Using the generating function formalism, we obtain an explicit form of the percolation threshold qc for networks containing arbitrary order cycles. For three-cycles, the dependence of qc on the clustering coefficients is ascertained. The analysis substantiates the validity of the strategies with analytical evidence.

  6. Network representations of immune system complexity

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Naeha; Torabi-Parizi, Parizad; Gottschalk, Rachel A.; Germain, Ronald N.; Dutta, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian immune system is a dynamic multi-scale system composed of a hierarchically organized set of molecular, cellular and organismal networks that act in concert to promote effective host defense. These networks range from those involving gene regulatory and protein-protein interactions underlying intracellular signaling pathways and single cell responses to increasingly complex networks of in vivo cellular interaction, positioning and migration that determine the overall immune response of an organism. Immunity is thus not the product of simple signaling events but rather non-linear behaviors arising from dynamic, feedback-regulated interactions among many components. One of the major goals of systems immunology is to quantitatively measure these complex multi-scale spatial and temporal interactions, permitting development of computational models that can be used to predict responses to perturbation. Recent technological advances permit collection of comprehensive datasets at multiple molecular and cellular levels while advances in network biology support representation of the relationships of components at each level as physical or functional interaction networks. The latter facilitate effective visualization of patterns and recognition of emergent properties arising from the many interactions of genes, molecules, and cells of the immune system. We illustrate the power of integrating ‘omics’ and network modeling approaches for unbiased reconstruction of signaling and transcriptional networks with a focus on applications involving the innate immune system. We further discuss future possibilities for reconstruction of increasingly complex cellular and organism-level networks and development of sophisticated computational tools for prediction of emergent immune behavior arising from the concerted action of these networks. PMID:25625853

  7. Individual and meta-immune networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bransburg-Zabary, Sharron; Kenett, Dror Y.; Dar, Gittit; Madi, Asaf; Merbl, Yifat; Quintana, Francisco J.; Tauber, Alfred I.; Cohen, Irun R.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2013-04-01

    Networks can be found everywhere—in technology, in nature and in our bodies. In this paper we present how antigen networks can be used as a model to study network interaction and architecture. Utilizing antigen microarray data of the reactivity of hundreds of antibodies of sera of ten mothers and their newborns, we reconstruct networks, either isotype specific (IgM or IgG) or person specific—mothers or newborns—and investigate the network properties. Such an approach makes it possible to decipher fundamental information regarding the personal immune network state and its unique characteristics. In the current paper we demonstrate how we are successful in studying the interaction between two dependent networks, the maternal IgG repertoire and the one of the offspring, using the concept of meta-network provides essential information regarding the biological phenomenon of cross placental transfer. Such an approach is useful in the study of coupled networks in variety of scientific fields.

  8. Enhancing robustness and immunization in geographical networks

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Liang; Yang Kongqing; Yang Lei

    2007-03-15

    We find that different geographical structures of networks lead to varied percolation thresholds, although these networks may have similar abstract topological structures. Thus, strategies for enhancing robustness and immunization of a geographical network are proposed. Using the generating function formalism, we obtain an explicit form of the percolation threshold q{sub c} for networks containing arbitrary order cycles. For three-cycles, the dependence of q{sub c} on the clustering coefficients is ascertained. The analysis substantiates the validity of the strategies with analytical evidence.

  9. Antigen- and receptor-driven regulatory mechanisms. V. The failure of idiotype-coupled spleen cells to induce unresponsiveness in animals lacking the appropriate VH genes is caused by the lack of idiotype-matched targets.

    PubMed

    Sy, M S; Dietz, M H; Nisonoff, A; Germain, R N; Benacerraf, B; Greene, M I

    1980-11-01

    A/J anti-p-azobenzenearsonate (ABA) antibodies bearing cross-reactive idiotypic (CRI) determinants, when coupled to spleen cells and then injected intravenously into naive animals, stimulate suppressor T cell (Ts) responses. Moreover, previous studies have demonstrated that the ability of such idiotype-coupled spleen cells to induce immune unresponsiveness to subsequent immunization with ABA-coupled spleen cells is linked to Igh-1 genes. Thus, CRI bearing antibodies from A/J mice, when conjugated to normal BALB/c spleen cells in vitro and then injected intravenously to syngeneic BALB/c mice, failed to induce tolerance in these animals. However, spleen cells taken from these animals transferred significant degrees of suppression to Igh-1 congenic C.AL-20 but not to H-2 congenic, Igh-1 distinct B10.D2 mice. Therefore, the failure of CRI-coupled spleen cells to induce suppressor cell- mediated unresponsiveness in animals unable to express the appropriate VH genes (i.e. BALB/c and B10.D2) appears to be caused by the lack of idiotype- matched targets. The notion that the ability to express certain Vn genes in the recipient animal is a prerequisite for suppressor cell function was further supported by the observation that suppressor cells induced in C.AL-20 mice failed to transfer any degree of suppression to BALB/c mice. The ability to transfer suppression from BALB/c mice to C.AL-20 mice is a T cell- dependent phenomenon, since in vitro treatment with anti-Thy 1.2 antiserum and complement completely abrogated suppressor cell function. Furthermore, these suppressor T cells are antigen specific and can be enriched on idiotype-coated petri dishes, indicating they possess anti-idiotypic receptors. Therefore, appropriate anti-idiotype and idiotype interaction is essential for the manifestation of suppressor T cell function in ABA-specific suppressor pathways.

  10. Antigen- and receptor-driven regulatorymechanisms. The failure of idiotype- coupled spleen cells to induce unresponsiveness in animals lacking the appropriate VH genes is caused by the lack of idiotype-matehed targets

    PubMed Central

    Sy, M-S; Dietz, MH; Nisonoff, A; Germain, RN; Benacerraf, B; Greene, MI

    1980-01-01

    A/J anti-p-azobenzenearsonate (ABA) antibodies bearing cross-reactive idiotypic (CRI) determinants, when coupled to spleen cells and then injected intravenously into naive animals, stimulate suppressor T cell (Ts) responses. Moreover, previous studies have demonstrated that the ability of such idiotype-coupled spleen cells to induce immune unresponsiveness to subsequent immunization with ABA-coupled spleen cells is linked to Igh-1 genes. Thus, CRI bearing antibodies from A/J mice, when conjugated to normal BALB/c spleen cells in vitro and then injected intravenously to syngeneic BALB/c mice, failed to induce tolerance in these animals. However, spleen cells taken from these animals transferred significant degrees of suppression to Igh-1 congenic C.AL-20 but not to H-2 congenic, Igh-1 distinct B10.D2 mice. Therefore, the failure of CRI-coupled spleen cells to induce suppressor cell- mediated unresponsiveness in animals unable to express the appropriate VH genes (i.e. BALB/c and B10.D2) appears to be caused by the lack of idiotype- matched targets. The notion that the ability to express certain Vn genes in the recipient animal is a prerequisite for suppressor cell function was further supported by the observation that suppressor cells induced in C.AL-20 mice failed to transfer any degree of suppression to BALB/c mice. The ability to transfer suppression from BALB/c mice to C.AL-20 mice is a T cell- dependent phenomenon, since in vitro treatment with anti-Thy 1.2 antiserum and complement completely abrogated suppressor cell function. Furthermore, these suppressor T cells are antigen specific and can be enriched on idiotype-coated petri dishes, indicating they possess anti-idiotypic receptors. Therefore, appropriate anti-idiotype and idiotype interaction is essential for the manifestation of suppressor T cell function in ABA-specific suppressor pathways. PMID:6159446

  11. Anti-Leu3a induces combining site-related anti-idiotypic antibody without inducing anti-HIV activity.

    PubMed

    Reeves, J P; Buck, D; Berkower, I; Murphy, D; Epstein, S L

    1991-01-01

    Development of a vaccine for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has proven difficult, and so alternative approaches such as idiotypic manipulation have been suggested. As applied to AIDS, this approach could involve immunizing with an anti-CD4 antibody resembling gp120, to induce anti-idiotypic antibodies which would bind to gp120. The CD4 binding site on gp120 is conserved, and so, such an immune response should protect against all variants. Induction of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunity has been reported using anti-Leu3a, and this result has led to testing in humans. Negative results obtained by others have been attributed to differences in immunization protocols. Because of the importance of this question, we reinvestigated the potential of anti-Leu3a to induce anti-HIV antibodies, compared with control immunizations with OKT4A (another anti-CD4 antibody) and the irrelevant Ig MOPC-21. Responses to anti-Leu3a showed induction of high-titer anti-idiotypic activity, and included combining-site-related activity. Yet sera showed no binding to gp160 above controls and no detectable neutralizing activity in a sensitive HIV plaque assay, so the anti-idiotypes induced were not internal images of CD4. We conclude that the pronounced anti-HIV responses reported with anti-Leu3a cannot be generalized, and thus that anti-Leu3a does not offer promise as an HIV vaccine. However, these results do not negate the promise of the idiotypic approach, and a vaccine for AIDS based on idiotype manipulation remains a possibility.

  12. Idiotypic manipulation in mice: BALB/c mice can express the crossreactive idiotype of A/J mice.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, M; Leo, O; Hiernaux, J; Urbain, J

    1983-01-01

    The response of A/J mice to arsonate-coupled keyhole limpet hemocyanin is characterized by a crossreactive idiotype (CRIA). CRIA+ antibodies are restricted to the Igh-Ic haplotype and are never expressed in BALB/c mice after immunization with antigen. Studies at the DNA level suggest that the gene encoding the CRIA heavy chain in A/J mice is probably absent in the genome of BALB/c mice. Despite this, using the immunization cascade tool, we have been able to induce the expression of CRIA+ antibodies in BALB/c mice. These studies led to an apparent paradox, whose understanding will provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of the immune system. We suggest that clones secreting CRIA-like Igs in BALB/c mice are "somatic variants" that could arise from gene conversion events. PMID:6576348

  13. Rational design of peptide vaccines for autoimmune disease: harnessing molecular recognition to fix a broken network.

    PubMed

    Weathington, Nathaniel M; Blalock, J Edwin

    2003-02-01

    Autoreactive T-cells and antibodies are found at low levels in normal individuals and are thought to be kept at bay by regulatory T-cells and a network of idiotypic and anti-idiotype-bearing antigen receptors on lymphocytes as well as idiotypic anti-idiotypic antibodies. Disruption of this network by genetic, environmental and unknown factors is thought to result in autoimmune diseases. An obvious, ideal and specific therapy for such disorders would be to harness this regulatory network to re-establish immunologic homeostasis. In practice, however, this is not an easy task as most autoimmune diseases involve polyclonal responses to self antigen. Thus, we are faced with the conundrum of not knowing which autoreactive idiotype-bearing antibody or antigen receptor(s) to target in order to restore or induce network regulatory function. The thesis of this review is that understanding a fundamental property governing peptide/protein shape can be used in part to circumvent the problems of self reactivity and polyclonality in autoimmune disorders. More specifically, an algorithm has been developed to design peptide vaccines with shapes that are thought to be complementary in contour to self epitopes which seem to be the focus of autoimmunity. In theory, such complementary shapes should be engendered in certain autoreactive antigen receptors--these complementary constructs consequently represent receptor mimetics. By targeting an immune response against such mimetics, one generates a polyclonal anti-idiotype response that matches the complexity of the autoimmune response itself. This article will describe the algorithm for vaccine design, summarize the in vitro and in vivo evidence for its efficacy and discuss possible therapeutic utility in human autoimmune diseases.

  14. Induction of a systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease in mice by a common human anti-DNA idiotype

    SciTech Connect

    Mendlovic, S.; Brocke, S.; Meshorer, A.; Mozes, E. ); Shoenfeld, Y.; Bakimer, R. ); Ben-Bassat, M. )

    1988-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is considered to be the quintessential autoimmune disease. It has not been possible to induce SLE in animal models by DNA immunization or by challenge with anti-DNA antibodies. The authors report a murine model of SLE-like disease induced by immunization of C3H.SW female mice with a common human monoclonal anti-DNA idiotype (16/6 idiotype). Following a booster injection with the 16/6 idiotype, high levels of murine anti-16/6 and anti-anti-16/6 antibodies (associated with anti-DNA activity) were detected in the sera of the immunized mice. Elevated titers of autoantibodies reacting with DNA, poly(I), poly(dT), ribonucleoprotein, autoantigens (Sm, SS-A (Ro), and SS-B (La)), and cardiolipin were noted. The serological findings were associated with increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukopenia, proteinuria, immune complex deposition in the glomerular mesangium, and sclerosis of the glomeruli. The immune complexes in the kidneys were shown to contain the 16/6 idiotype. This experimental SLE-like model may be used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying SLE.

  15. Multiple-Valued Immune Network with Apoptosis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Tang, Zheng

    In this paper, we describe a new model of immune network based on biological immune response network. We propose an immunity like multiple-valued network with apoptosis mechanism. The model is based on the interaction between B cells and T cells and the biological apoptosis mechanism in human body. With the mechanism, a naturally immune system can be reproduced. The model is also applied to pattern recognition. It gets possible with a conventional model to restricting categories increase of memory patterns.

  16. Network properties of robust immunity in plants.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Kenichi; Sato, Masanao; Stoddard, Thomas; Glazebrook, Jane; Katagiri, Fumiaki

    2009-12-01

    Two modes of plant immunity against biotrophic pathogens, Effector Triggered Immunity (ETI) and Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI), are triggered by recognition of pathogen effectors and Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs), respectively. Although the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling sectors are generally antagonistic and important for immunity against necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens, respectively, their precise roles and interactions in ETI and PTI have not been clear. We constructed an Arabidopsis dde2/ein2/pad4/sid2-quadruple mutant. DDE2, EIN2, and SID2 are essential components of the JA, ET, and SA sectors, respectively. The pad4 mutation affects the SA sector and a poorly characterized sector. Although the ETI triggered by the bacterial effector AvrRpt2 (AvrRpt2-ETI) and the PTI triggered by the bacterial MAMP flg22 (flg22-PTI) were largely intact in plants with mutations in any one of these genes, they were mostly abolished in the quadruple mutant. For the purposes of this study, AvrRpt2-ETI and flg22-PTI were measured as relative growth of Pseudomonas syringae bacteria within leaves. Immunity to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola was also severely compromised in the quadruple mutant. Quantitative measurements of the immunity levels in all combinatorial mutants and wild type allowed us to estimate the effects of the wild-type genes and their interactions on the immunity by fitting a mixed general linear model. This signaling allocation analysis showed that, contrary to current ideas, each of the JA, ET, and SA signaling sectors can positively contribute to immunity against both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. The analysis also revealed that while flg22-PTI and AvrRpt2-ETI use a highly overlapping signaling network, the way they use the common network is very different: synergistic relationships among the signaling sectors are evident in PTI, which may amplify the signal; compensatory

  17. Use of Anti-Idiotypes and Synthetic Peptides for Control of Human T- Lymphotropic Virus Type 3 Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-28

    recognized gp41 by Western blot analysis and inhibited the Id-anti-ld reac- tion. Thus, anti-Id immunization of mice induces an antigen (Ag) positive, Id...FIELD GROUP SUBAGROUP Synthetic peptides, anti-idiotypes, vaccines, 06 03 human immunodeficiency virus, chimpanzees, RAI, Virology, 06 13 HTLV III

  18. Blocking by anti-idiotypic antibodies of monoclonal antibody-mediated protection against lethal Semliki Forest virus in mice.

    PubMed

    Oosterlaken, T A; Harmsen, M; Kraaijeveld, C A; Snippe, H

    1990-02-01

    Semliki Forest virus-(SEV) neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), produced after fusion of spleen cells from BALB/c mice and myeloma cell line P3-X63-AG8. 653 or SP2/0, were used for anti-idiotypic immunization of female BALB/c mice. Two intracutaneous immunizations (2 x 40 micrograms per animal), 3 weeks apart, with keyhole limpet haemocyanin-conjugated MoAbs mixed with the saponin Quil A were sufficient to induce high levels of anti-idiotypic antibodies in the circulation of these mice with the capacity to block specifically in vitro MoAb-mediated virus neutralization. Anti-idiotypic antibodies against SFV-neutralizing MoAbs, either passively transferred or actively acquired by immunization, are also able to abrogate (specifically) passive immunity, mediated by critical protective doses of MoAb, in mice against infection with a lethal strain of SFV. Furthermore we confirmed by intervention with anti-idiotypic serum in vivo that an SFV-neutralizing MoAb exerts its greatest protective effect during the first 2 days of infection.

  19. Biotechnological approaches to the production of idiotypic vaccines and antiidiotypic antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Magliani, W; Conti, S; Salati, A; Arseni, S; Ravanetti, L; Frazzi, R; Polonelli, L

    2003-04-01

    The potential therapeutic activity of a killer toxin produced by the yeast Pichia anomala (PaKT) characterized by its wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity has been exploited through the simulation of its interaction with the specific cell wall receptor (KTR) of PaKT-sensitive microorganisms by the idiotypic network. Killer antiidiotypes (PaKTantiId) produced by idiotypic vaccination with a PaKT-neutralizing monoclonal antibody have proven to confer active and passive immunoprotection in experimental models of systemic and vaginal candidiasis. PaKTantiId-like human anti-KTR antibodies are naturally produced in infections caused by PaKT-sensitive microorganisms. PaKTantiId in its monoclonal and recombinant formats as well as expressed on human commensal bacteria have shown microbicidal activity in vitro and a therapeutic effect in experimental models of infection caused by PaKT-sensitive microorganisms. New perspectives of idiotypic vaccination and antiidiotypic antibiotic therapy and biotechnological approaches to the production of trandisease idiotypic vaccines and wide-spectrum antiidiotypic antibiotics (killer mimotopes) will be discussed as effective tools to fight epidemiologically important mucosal and systemic microbial infections.

  20. Idiotypic analysis of a monoclonal anti-Sm antibody.

    PubMed

    Pisetsky, D S; Lerner, E A

    1982-10-01

    Among murine models of autoimmunity, MRL mice are unique in their expression of antibodies to the nuclear antigen Sm. To assess genetic mechanisms in the control of this response, the idiotypes borne by a monoclonal anti-Sm antibody of MRL-Ipr/Ipr origin were investigated. Rabbit antisera were prepared against Y2, a hybridoma product with anti-Sm activity, and were rendered specific for idiotype by extensive absorption with normal globulins from BALB/c mice. In assays of idiotype by an inhibition ELISA, Y2 was shown to share idiotypes with Y12, another monoclonal anti-Sm derived from the same fusion as Y2; other monoclonal autoantibodies of MRL origin but different antigenic specificity failed to display idiotype activity in this assay. The presence of other anti-idiotypic specificities was revealed by absorption and elution of the anti-idiotype from an MRL globulin column; sera from both anti-Sm-positive and negative mice demonstrated these idiotypes. These results suggest that the predominant specificities detected by the anti-idiotype were unique to the monoclonal antibodies of the same animal, although there was also activity to idiotypes not related to anti-Sm binding molecules.

  1. Characterization of anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies that bind antigen and an anti-idiotype

    PubMed Central

    Goldbaum, Fernando A.; Velikovsky, C. Alejandro; Dall’Acqua, William; Fossati, Carlos A.; Fields, Barry A.; Braden, Bradford C.; Poljak, Roberto J.; Mariuzza, Roy A.

    1997-01-01

    Two mouse monoclonal anti-anti-idiotopic antibodies (anti-anti-Id, Ab3), AF14 and AF52, were prepared by immunizing BALB/c mice with rabbit polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id, Ab2) raised against antibody D1.3 (Ab1) specific for the antigen hen egg lysozyme. AF14 and AF52 react with an “internal image” monoclonal mouse anti-Id antibody E5.2 (Ab2), previously raised against D1.3, with affinity constants (1.0 × 109 M−1 and 2.4 × 107 M−1, respectively) usually observed in secondary responses against protein antigens. They also react with the antigen but with lower affinity (1.8 × 106 M−1 and 3.8 × 106 M−1). This pattern of affinities for the anti-Id and for the antigen also was displayed by the sera of the immunized mice. The amino acid sequences of AF14 and AF52 are very close to that of D1.3. In particular, the amino acid side chains that contribute to contacts with both antigen and anti-Id are largely conserved in AF14 and AF52 compared with D1.3. Therapeutic immunizations against different pathogenic antigens using anti-Id antibodies have been proposed. Our experiments show that a response to an anti-Id immunogen elicits anti-anti-Id antibodies that are optimized for binding the anti-Id antibodies rather than the antigen. PMID:9238040

  2. Decline in Titers of Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Specific to Autoantibodies to GAD65 (GAD65Ab) Precedes Development of GAD65Ab and Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Helena Elding; Jönsson, Ida; Lernmark, Åke; Ivarsson, Sten; Radtke, Jared R.; Hampe, Christiane S.

    2013-01-01

    The humoral Idiotypic Network consisting of antibodies and their anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id) can be temporarily upset by antigen exposure. In the healthy immune response the original equilibrium is eventually restored through counter-regulatory mechanisms. In certain autoimmune diseases however, autoantibody levels exceed those of their respective anti-Id, indicating a permanent disturbance in the respective humoral Idiotypic Network. We investigated anti-Id directed to a major Type 1 diabetes (T1D)-associated autoantibody (GAD65Ab) in two independent cohorts during progression to disease. Samples taken from participants of the Natural History Study showed significantly lower anti-Id levels in individuals that later progressed to T1D compared to non-progressors (anti-Id antibody index of 0.06 vs. 0.08, respectively, p = 0.02). We also observed a significant inverse correlation between anti-Id levels and age at sampling, but only in progressors (p = 0.014). Finally, anti-Id levels in progressors showed a significant decline during progression as compared to longitudinal anti-Id levels in non-progressors (median rate of change: −0.0004 vs. +0.0004, respectively, p = 0.003), suggesting a loss of anti-Id during progression. Our analysis of the Diabetes Prediction in Skåne cohort showed that early in life (age 2) individuals at risk have anti-Id levels indistinguishable from those in healthy controls, indicating that low anti-Id levels are not an innate characteristic of the immune response in individuals at risk. Notably, anti-Id levels declined significantly in individuals that later developed GAD65Ab suggesting that the decline in anti-Id levels precedes the emergence of GAD65Ab (median rate of change: −0.005) compared to matched controls (median rate of change: +0.001) (p = 0.0016). We conclude that while anti-Id are present early in life, their levels decrease prior to the appearance of GAD65Ab and to the development of T1D. PMID

  3. Targeting Immune Regulatory Networks to Counteract Immune Suppression in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Camisaschi, Chiara; Vallacchi, Viviana; Vergani, Elisabetta; Tazzari, Marcella; Ferro, Simona; Tuccitto, Alessandra; Kuchuk, Olga; Shahaj, Eriomina; Sulsenti, Roberta; Castelli, Chiara; Rodolfo, Monica; Rivoltini, Licia; Huber, Veronica

    2016-11-04

    The onset of cancer is unavoidably accompanied by suppression of antitumor immunity. This occurs through mechanisms ranging from the progressive accumulation of regulatory immune cells associated with chronic immune stimulation and inflammation, to the expression of immunosuppressive molecules. Some of them are being successfully exploited as therapeutic targets, with impressive clinical results achieved in patients, as in the case of immune checkpoint inhibitors. To limit immune attack, tumor cells exploit specific pathways to render the tumor microenvironment hostile for antitumor effector cells. Local acidification might, in fact, anergize activated T cells and facilitate the accumulation of immune suppressive cells. Moreover, the release of extracellular vesicles by tumor cells can condition distant immune sites contributing to the onset of systemic immune suppression. Understanding which mechanisms may be prevalent in specific cancers or disease stages, and identifying possible strategies to counterbalance would majorly contribute to improving clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Here, we intend to highlight these mechanisms, how they could be targeted and the tools that might be available in the near future to achieve this goal.

  4. Targeting Immune Regulatory Networks to Counteract Immune Suppression in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Camisaschi, Chiara; Vallacchi, Viviana; Vergani, Elisabetta; Tazzari, Marcella; Ferro, Simona; Tuccitto, Alessandra; Kuchuk, Olga; Shahaj, Eriomina; Sulsenti, Roberta; Castelli, Chiara; Rodolfo, Monica; Rivoltini, Licia; Huber, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    The onset of cancer is unavoidably accompanied by suppression of antitumor immunity. This occurs through mechanisms ranging from the progressive accumulation of regulatory immune cells associated with chronic immune stimulation and inflammation, to the expression of immunosuppressive molecules. Some of them are being successfully exploited as therapeutic targets, with impressive clinical results achieved in patients, as in the case of immune checkpoint inhibitors. To limit immune attack, tumor cells exploit specific pathways to render the tumor microenvironment hostile for antitumor effector cells. Local acidification might, in fact, anergize activated T cells and facilitate the accumulation of immune suppressive cells. Moreover, the release of extracellular vesicles by tumor cells can condition distant immune sites contributing to the onset of systemic immune suppression. Understanding which mechanisms may be prevalent in specific cancers or disease stages, and identifying possible strategies to counterbalance would majorly contribute to improving clinical efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Here, we intend to highlight these mechanisms, how they could be targeted and the tools that might be available in the near future to achieve this goal. PMID:27827921

  5. Generation of anti-idiotype antibodies for application in clinical immunotherapy laboratory analyses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanqi; Panousis, Con; Smyth, Fiona E; Murphy, Roger; Wirth, Veronika; Cartwright, Glenn; Johns, Terrance G; Scott, Andrew M

    2003-08-01

    The chimeric monoclonal antibody ch806 specifically targets the tumor-associated mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (de 2-7EGFR or EGFRVIII) and is currently under investigation for its potential use in cancer therapy. The humanised monoclonal antibody hu3S193 specifically targets the Lewis Y epithelial antigen and is currently in Phase I clinical trials in patients with advanced breast, colon, and ovarian carcinomas. To assist the clinical evaluation of ch806 and hu3S193, laboratory assays are required to monitor their serum pharmacokinetics and quantitate any immune responses to the antibodies. Mice immunized with ch806 or hu3S193 were used to generate hybridomas producing antibodies with specific binding to ch806 or hu3S193 and competitive for antigen binding. These anti-idiotype antibodies (designated Ludwig Melbourne Hybridomas, LMH) were investigated as reagents suitable for use as positive controls for HAHA or HACA analyses and for measuring hu3S193 or ch806 in human serum. Anti-idiotypes with the ability to concurrently bind two target antibody molecules were identified, which enabled the development of highly reproducible, sensitive, specific ELISA assays for determining serum concentrations of hu3S193 and ch806 with a 3 ng/mL limit of quantitation using LMH-3 and LMH-12, respectively. BIAcore analyses determined high apparent binding affinity for both idiotypes: LMH-3 binding immobilized hu3S193, Ka = 4.76 x 10(8) M(-1); LMH-12 binding immobilised ch806, Ka = 1.74 x 10(9) M(-1). Establishment of HAHA or HACA analysis of sera samples using BIAcore was possible using LMH-3 and LMH-12 as positive controls for quantitation of immune responses to hu3S193 or ch806 in patient sera. These anti-idiotypes could also be used to study the penetrance and binding of ch806 or hu3S193 to tumor cells through immunohistochemical analysis of tumor biopsies. The generation of anti-idiotype antibodies capable of concurrently binding a target antibody on each variable

  6. Monoclonal anti-idiotype induces antibodies against bovine Q17 rotavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Cornaglia, E M; Elazhary, Y M; Brodeur, B R; Talbot, B G

    1992-01-01

    This study describes, for the first time, the production and use of an "internal-image" anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody (MAb) to elicit a rotavirus-specific antibody response. An immunoglobulin G2a MAb, designated RQ31 (MAb1), specific for the outer capsid protein VP4 of bovine Q17 rotavirus and capable of neutralizing viral infection in vitro was used to generate an anti-idiotypic MAb (MAb2). This MAb2, designated RQA2, was selected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using F(ab')2 fragments of RQ31. RQA2 (MAb2) inhibited the binding of RQ31 (MAb1) to the virus but had no effect on the binding of other rotavirus-specific MAbs. The MAb2 also inhibited virus neutralization mediated by MAb1 in a dose-dependent fashion. Naive guinea pigs immunized with the MAb2 produced anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab3) that reacted with bovine Q17 rotavirus in an ELISA and neutralized rotavirus infection in vitro. The Ab3 response was characterized as MAb1-like because the Ab3 recognizes only the Q17 and neonatal calf diarrhea virus rotavirus strains in ELISA, as did RQ31 (MAb1). The Ab3 response also possessed two other characteristics of RQ31: the abilities to bind the 1.36 (double-capsid) but not the 1.38 (single-capsid) purified rotavirus fraction in ELISA and to immunoprecipitate the VP4 rotavirus protein. Images PMID:1326641

  7. Expression of crossreactive idiotypes by human antibodies specific for the capsular polysaccharide of Hemophilus influenzae B.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, A H

    1988-01-01

    Human antibodies specific, for polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP), the capsular polysaccharide of Hemophilus influenzae b, were studied using idiotypic analysis. Antisera were prepared against purified F(ab')2 anti-PRP from two unrelated adults, H.H. and P.T. After repeated absorption with IgG myeloma proteins and with PRP-absorbed normal human Ig and donor Ig, anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) sera were obtained that specifically reacted with anti-PRP antibodies. Anti-IdHH and anti-IdPT reciprocally crossreacted with H.H. and P.T. anti-PRP antibodies and F(ab')2 fragments, and also reacted with the serum anti-PRP antibodies from three additional adults unrelated to P.T. and H.H. Both anti-Id sera partially inhibited anti-PRP paratopes but not anti-tetanus toxoid paratopes. PRP did not inhibit anti-Id recognition of shared or crossreactive idiotypic (CRI) determinants. Naturally occurring and PRP immunization-induced anti-PRP antibodies expressed CRI. While CRI titer increased after immunization, the increase was usually less than the rise in total anti-PRP antibody. Quantitative differences in CRI expression were also apparent between natural and immunization-induced H.H. and P.T. anti-PRP antibodies as shown by their differential inhibitability by anti-Id. Our data demonstrate that anti-PRP antibodies from five unrelated adults express CRI determinants that are probably distant from the PRP combining site. Naturally occurring and immunization-induced anti-PRP antibodies share CRI and therefore appear to be clonally related, although immunization apparently induces the expression CRI-negative antibodies as well. These results, taken with previous studies showing restricted and identical anti-PRP isoelectric focusing spectrotypes in unrelated adults, suggest that some PRP-specific V domains are structurally conserved and probably germ-line encoded. PMID:3257499

  8. Anti-idiotypic antibodies of a predefined specificity generated against CDR3VH synthetic peptides define a private anti-CD4 idiotype.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, R; Kennedy, R C; Allan, J S; Maino, V C; Buck, D; Kanda, P

    1990-06-01

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to the third complementarity determining region (CDR) of the heavy chain (CDR3VH) of anti-Leu3a, a monoclonal anti-CD4 antibody which inhibits HIV gp120 binding to CD4, was used to elicit specific anti-peptide antibodies in rabbits. The anti-peptide antisera showed anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id) activity and recognized both the immunizing peptide and the intact cognate protein by ELISA. In addition, the antisera reacted with isolated heavy chains of anti-Leu3a by Western blot analysis. The lack of reactivity with a panel of monoclonal anti-CD4 antibodies suggested that the anti-peptide antisera recognize a private idiotype (Id) associated with the anti-Leu3a CDR3VH region. Further studies demonstrated the inability of the rabbit antisera to inhibit the binding of anti-Leu3a to the CD4 molecule. In addition, soluble recombinant CD4 was unable to inhibit the binding of the rabbit anti-peptide antisera to anti-Leu3a indicating that the CDR3VH region may not be involved in CD4 recognition. Anti-Id containing sera from mice, rabbits and nonhuman primates immunized with the intact anti-Leu3a molecule did not bind the CDR3VH synthetic peptide, suggesting that the corresponding region of anti-Leu3a may not represent an immunodominant idiotypic determinant in thes e species. These results suggest the potential use of synthetic peptides corresponding to immunoglobulin variable (V) region amino acid sequences in generating anti-Id reagents of a predefined specificity. In addition, V-region synthetic peptides may be useful in mapping the idiotopes recognized by an anti-Id response to the cognate molecule.

  9. The Reticular Cell Network: A Robust Backbone for Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Textor, Johannes; Mandl, Judith N.; de Boer, Rob J.

    2016-01-01

    Lymph nodes are meeting points for circulating immune cells. A network of reticular cells that ensheathe a mesh of collagen fibers crisscrosses the tissue in each lymph node. This reticular cell network distributes key molecules and provides a structure for immune cells to move around on. During infections, the network can suffer damage. A new study has now investigated the network’s structure in detail, using methods from graph theory. The study showed that the network is remarkably robust to damage: it can still support immune responses even when half of the reticular cells are destroyed. This is a further important example of how network connectivity achieves tolerance to failure, a property shared with other important biological and nonbiological networks. PMID:27727272

  10. Direct detection of idiotypic determinants on blotted monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Petit, C; Sauron, M E; Gilbert, M; Thèze, J

    1982-01-01

    The protein-blotting technique has been tested as a mean to study the expression of idiotypic determinants. A monoclonal BALB/c antipoly (Glu60-Ala30-Tyr10) GAT antibody (G5) was caused to migrate on SDS gel and transferred to a nitrocellulose filter. To facilitate the renaturation of the idiotypic determinants, the blotted proteins were incubated in NP40 buffer, immediately after the transfer. The ability of two anti-idiotypic sera to detect two defined idiotypic specificities of the blotted G5 molecules was investigated. When G5 was electrophoresed on SDS gel under non-reducing conditions, a specific detection of two idiotypic specificities of the G5-blotted molecules was obtained. On the other hand, when G5 was migrated under reducing conditions, none of the two antiidiotypic sera gave a staining of the heavy and the light chains. This result indicates that molecules expressing conformational idiotypic determinants can be detected by protein-blotting technique after migration on SDS gel. Moreover, this suggests the possible interest of this technique to analyse non-antibody molecules bearing idiotypic determinants.

  11. Antigen- and receptor-driven regulatory mechanisms. III. Induction of delayed type hypersensitivity to azobenzenearsonate with anti-cross- reactive idiotypic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to p-azobenzenearsonate (ABA) can be induced in A/J mice with intravenous injection of minute amounts of anti-cross-reactive idiotypic (CRI) antibodies, providing that the animals have been pretreated 2 d earlier with low doses of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg). However intravenous injection of the F(ab')2 fragments of the anti-CRI antibodies or subcutaneous administration with anti-CRI antibodies induces comparable immunity in both cyclophosphamide-pretreated and normal nontreated animals. Furthermore adoptive transfer experiments indicate that lymph node cells taken from animals sensitized with anti-CRI 4 d earlier can adoptively transfer immunity to naive recipients. Transfer of immunity is mediated by a population of thymus-dependent (T) cells, which express idiotypic structures on their surface. Treatment of effector cells with either anti-theta serum or anti-idiotypic antibodies plus complement completely abrogated their ability to transfer immunity. In addition idiotype-bearing suppressor T cells induced with ABA-coupled spleen cells inhibit the development of ABA-specific DTH induced with anti-CRI antibodies. Genetic analysis revealed that the ability of anti- CRI antibodies to induce ABA-specific DTH was linked to Igh-1 heavy- chain allotype. Anti-idiotypic antibodies to the major CRI associated with anti-ABA antibodies in A/J mice failed to induce significant immunity in BALB/c mice (H-2d, Igh-1a). Nevertheless, they were able to induce significant immunity in C.AL20 mice (H-2d, Igh-1d) which possess a heavy-chain allotype similar to that of A/J mice. PMID:6445395

  12. Antigen- and receptor-driven regulatory mechanisms. III. Induction of delayed type hypersensitivity to azobenzenearsonate with anti-cross-reactive idiotypic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sy, M S; Brown, A R; Benacerraf, B; Greene, M I

    1980-04-01

    Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to p-azobenzenearsonate (ABA) can be induced in A/J mice with intravenous injection of minute amounts of anti-cross-reactive idiotypic (CRI) antibodies, providing that the animals have been pretreated 2 d earlier with low doses of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg). However intravenous injection of the F(ab')2 fragments of the anti-CRI antibodies or subcutaneous administration with anti-CRI antibodies induces comparable immunity in both cyclophosphamide-pretreated and normal nontreated animals. Furthermore adoptive transfer experiments indicate that lymph node cells taken from animals sensitized with anti-CRI 4 d earlier can adoptively transfer immunity to naive recipients. Transfer of immunity is mediated by a population of thymus-dependent (T) cells, which express idiotypic structures on their surface. Treatment of effector cells with either anti-theta serum or anti-idiotypic antibodies plus complement completely abrogated their ability to transfer immunity. In addition idiotype-bearing suppressor T cells induced with ABA-coupled spleen cells inhibit the development of ABA-specific DTH induced with anti-CRI antibodies. Genetic analysis revealed that the ability of anti-CRI antibodies to induce ABA-specific DTH was linked to Igh-1 heavy-chain allotype. Anti-idiotypic antibodies to the major CRI associated with anti-ABA antibodies in A/J mice failed to induce significant immunity in BALB/c mice (H-2d, Igh-1a). Nevertheless, they were able to induce significant immunity in C.AL20 mice (H-2d, Igh-1d) which possess a heavy-chain allotype similar to that of A/J mice.

  13. The immune network in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Varricchi, Gilda; Marone, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The immune system plays critical roles in tumor prevention, but also in its initiation and progression. Tumors are subjected to immunosurveillance, but cancer cells generate an immunosuppressive microenvironment that favors their escape from immune-mediated elimination. During chronic inflammation, immune cells can contribute to the formation and progression of tumors by producing mitogenic, prosurvival, proangiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors. Thyroid cancer is the most frequent type of endocrine neoplasia and is the most rapidly increasing cancer in the US. In this review, we discuss recent findings on how different immune cells and mediators can contribute to thyroid cancer development and progression. PMID:27471646

  14. Network intrusion detection by the coevolutionary immune algorithm of artificial immune systems with clonal selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamatova, T.; Zhukov, V.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents the application of the artificial immune systems apparatus as a heuristic method of network intrusion detection for algorithmic provision of intrusion detection systems. The coevolutionary immune algorithm of artificial immune systems with clonal selection was elaborated. In testing different datasets the empirical results of evaluation of the algorithm effectiveness were achieved. To identify the degree of efficiency the algorithm was compared with analogs. The fundamental rules based of solutions generated by this algorithm are described in the article.

  15. U. S. Veterinary Immune Reagents Network: Progress with poultry immune reagents development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A major obstacle to advances in veterinary immunology and disease research is the lack of sufficient immunological reagents specific for veterinary animal species. In 2006, U. S. Veterinary Immune Reagent Network (VIRN) Consortium (www.vetimm.org) was developed to develop immune reagents against ma...

  16. The CD4 molecule, the human immunodeficiency virus and anti-idiotypic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Del Guercio, P; Zanetti, M

    1987-01-01

    The CD4 molecule is the cellular receptor for human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). Administration of antibodies to the equivalent molecule in mice (L3T4) induces unresponsiveness to antigens given to or around the same time. Here Paolo del Guercio and Maurizio Zanetti suggest that in AIDS patients anti-idiotypic antibodies elicited to anti-HIV antibodies may bind to CD4 molecules, inducing unresponsiveness to viral and other antigens as anti-L3T4 antibodies do in mice. This possibility may hinder attempts to establish anti-HIV immunity by vaccination.

  17. An artificial immune system algorithm approach for reconfiguring distribution network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahputra, Ramadoni; Soesanti, Indah

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes an artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm approach for reconfiguring distribution network with the presence distributed generators (DG). The distribution network with high-performance is a network that has a low power loss, better voltage profile, and loading balance among feeders. The task for improving the performance of the distribution network is optimization of network configuration. The optimization has become a necessary study with the presence of DG in entire networks. In this work, optimization of network configuration is based on an AIS algorithm. The methodology has been tested in a model of 33 bus IEEE radial distribution networks with and without DG integration. The results have been showed that the optimal configuration of the distribution network is able to reduce power loss and to improve the voltage profile of the distribution network significantly.

  18. Plant-produced idiotype vaccines for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: safety and immunogenicity in a phase I clinical study.

    PubMed

    McCormick, A A; Reddy, S; Reinl, S J; Cameron, T I; Czerwinkski, D K; Vojdani, F; Hanley, K M; Garger, S J; White, E L; Novak, J; Barrett, J; Holtz, R B; Tusé, D; Levy, R

    2008-07-22

    Plant-made vaccines have been the subject of intense interest because they can be produced economically in large scale without the use of animal-derived components. Plant-made therapeutic vaccines against challenging chronic diseases, such as cancer, have received little research attention, and no previous human clinical trials have been conducted in this vaccine category. We document the feasibility of using a plant viral expression system to produce personalized (patient-specific) recombinant idiotype vaccines against follicular B cell lymphoma and the results of administering these vaccines to lymphoma patients in a phase I safety and immunogenicity clinical trial. The system allowed rapid production and recovery of idiotypic single-chain antibodies (scFv) derived from each patient's tumor and immunization of patients with their own individual therapeutic antigen. Both low and high doses of vaccines, administered alone or co-administered with the adjuvant GM-CSF, were well tolerated with no serious adverse events. A majority (>70%) of the patients developed cellular or humoral immune responses, and 47% of the patients developed antigen-specific responses. Because 15 of 16 vaccines were glycosylated in plants, this study also shows that variation in patterns of antigen glycosylation do not impair the immunogenicity or affect the safety of the vaccines. Collectively, these findings support the conclusion that plant-produced idiotype vaccines are feasible to produce, safe to administer, and a viable option for idiotype-specific immune therapy in follicular lymphoma patients.

  19. Detection of auto-anti-idiotypic antibodies to Lol p I (rye I) IgE antibodies in human sera by the use of murine idiotypes: levels in atopic and non-atopic subjects and effects of immunotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, J; Bernier, D; Mourad, W

    1990-01-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id Abs) are involved in the regulation of a number of immune responses including the IgE antibody production. In atopic patients, the increased synthesis of IgE antibodies could be related to a defective production of regulatory anti-Id Abs. In the present study, we first developed a sensitive assay for measuring the levels of anti-Id Abs directed against antibodies specific for Lol p I, the major allergenic determinant of Lolium perenne (rye grass). In this assay, we used previously described murine monoclonal anti-Lol p I antibodies that were shown to share epitopic specificities with human anti-Lol p I IgE and IgG antibodies, thus short-cutting the need for purification of F(ab')2 fragments of human IgG Abs and insuring optimal specificity and sensitivity. Levels of anti-Id Abs against two anti-Lol p I monoclonal antibodies (290A-167, 348A-6) were higher in normal volunteers than in untreated atopic patients. Specific immunotherapy increased the levels of anti-Id Abs to those of normal volunteers. These observations suggest a role for the Id-anti-Id network in the regulation of IgE antibody production. PMID:2372990

  20. Detection of auto-anti-idiotypic antibodies to Lol p I (rye I) IgE antibodies in human sera by the use of murine idiotypes: levels in atopic and non-atopic subjects and effects of immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hébert, J; Bernier, D; Mourad, W

    1990-06-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id Abs) are involved in the regulation of a number of immune responses including the IgE antibody production. In atopic patients, the increased synthesis of IgE antibodies could be related to a defective production of regulatory anti-Id Abs. In the present study, we first developed a sensitive assay for measuring the levels of anti-Id Abs directed against antibodies specific for Lol p I, the major allergenic determinant of Lolium perenne (rye grass). In this assay, we used previously described murine monoclonal anti-Lol p I antibodies that were shown to share epitopic specificities with human anti-Lol p I IgE and IgG antibodies, thus short-cutting the need for purification of F(ab')2 fragments of human IgG Abs and insuring optimal specificity and sensitivity. Levels of anti-Id Abs against two anti-Lol p I monoclonal antibodies (290A-167, 348A-6) were higher in normal volunteers than in untreated atopic patients. Specific immunotherapy increased the levels of anti-Id Abs to those of normal volunteers. These observations suggest a role for the Id-anti-Id network in the regulation of IgE antibody production.

  1. Mimotope and anti-idiotypic vaccines to induce an anti-IgE response.

    PubMed

    Stadler, B M; Zürcher, A W; Miescher, S; Kricek, F; Vogel, M

    1999-01-01

    We have defined epitopes on human IgE by screening different phage display random peptide libraries with a monoclonal anti-IgE antibody termed BSW17. The selected mimotopes and epitopes within the Cepsilon3 and Cepsilon4 region of IgE induced antibodies that were nonanaphylactogenic and had biological activity similar to BSW17. The chemically synthesized and KLH-coupled IgE epitopes or mimotopes were used to induce an anti-IgE response in rhesus monkeys. The immunized rhesus monkeys were subsequently protected in a PCA test when sensitized with human IgE and triggered with the corresponding allergen. Furthermore, using the same monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, we also generated an anti-idiotypic antibody that showed sequence homology with the IgE epitope in the Cepsilon3 domain. This anti-idiotypic antibody as well as the mimotopes were then used in a mouse model to induce orally an anti-IgE immune response. For this purpose mice were fed by intragastric gavages with bacteriophages displaying the small IgE-homologous structures. Orally immunized mice produced serum anti-IgE antibodies that were inhibited by BSW17 suggesting that it may be possible to induce a systemic anti-IgE response orally.

  2. Competing spreading processes and immunization in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Bo; Deng, Zhenghong; Zhao, Dawei

    2016-12-01

    Epidemic spreading on physical contact network will naturally introduce the human awareness information diffusion on virtual contact network, and the awareness diffusion will in turn depress the epidemic spreading, thus forming the competing spreading processes of epidemic and awareness in a multiplex networks. In this paper, we study the competing dynamics of epidemic and awareness, both of which follow the SIR process, in a two-layer networks based on microscopic Markov chain approach and numerical simulations. We find that strong capacities of awareness diffusion and self-protection of individuals could lead to a much higher epidemic threshold and a smaller outbreak size. However, the self-awareness of individuals has no obvious effect on the epidemic threshold and outbreak size. In addition, the immunization of the physical contact network under the interplay between of epidemic and awareness spreading is also investigated. The targeted immunization is found performs much better than random immunization, and the awareness diffusion could reduce the immunization threshold for both type of random and targeted immunization significantly.

  3. Immunization and Targeted Destruction of Networks using Explosive Percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clusella, Pau; Grassberger, Peter; Pérez-Reche, Francisco J.; Politi, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    A new method ("explosive immunization") is proposed for immunization and targeted destruction of networks. It combines the explosive percolation (EP) paradigm with the idea of maintaining a fragmented distribution of clusters. The ability of each node to block the spread of an infection (or to prevent the existence of a large cluster of connected nodes) is estimated by a score. The algorithm proceeds by first identifying low score nodes that should not be vaccinated or destroyed, analogously to the links selected in EP if they do not lead to large clusters. As in EP, this is done by selecting the worst node (weakest blocker) from a finite set of randomly chosen "candidates." Tests on several real-world and model networks suggest that the method is more efficient and faster than any existing immunization strategy. Because of the latter property it can deal with very large networks.

  4. Physicochemical and biological characterization of 1E10 Anti-Idiotype vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background 1E10 monoclonal antibody is a murine anti-idiotypic antibody that mimics N-glycolyl-GM3 gangliosides. This antibody has been tested as an anti-idiotypic cancer vaccine, adjuvated in Al(OH)3, in several clinical trials for melanoma, breast, and lung cancer. During early clinical development this mAb was obtained in vivo from mice ascites fluid. Currently, the production process of 1E10 is being transferred from the in vivo to a bioreactor-based method. Results Here, we present a comprehensive molecular and immunological characterization of 1E10 produced by the two different production processes in order to determine the impact of the manufacturing process in vaccine performance. We observed differences in glycosylation pattern, charge heterogeneity and structural stability between in vivo-produced 1E10 and bioreactor-obtained 1E10. Interestingly, these modifications had no significant impact on the immune responses elicited in two different animal models. Conclusions Changes in 1E10 primary structure like glycosylation; asparagine deamidation and oxidation affected 1E10 structural stability but did not affect the immune response elicited in mice and chickens when compared to 1E10 produced in mice. PMID:22108317

  5. Idiotype vaccines for human B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Inoges, S; de Cerio, A Lopez-Diaz; Soria, E; Villanueva, H; Pastor, F; Bendandi, M

    2010-01-01

    After twenty years of use in humans, customized idiotypic vaccination yet remains a non-approved, experimental therapeutic option for patients with lymphoma and myeloma. Potentially applicable to all B-cell malignancies whose cells express a clonal immunoglobulin or its epitopes on their surface, this treatment is designed to prevent disease recurrence or progression. Mostly used in follicular lymphoma patients so far, idiotype vaccines have clearly shown biological efficacy, clinical efficacy and clinical benefit in this setting, although no study aiming at regulatory approval of the procedure has been able to meet its main clinical endpoints. In mantle cell lymphoma, only biological efficacy has been proven for idiotypic vaccination, while in multiple myeloma a limited number of studies support the notion of biological and perhaps even clinical efficacy, although no credible evidence of clinical benefit has still emerged. Idiotype vaccines have been produced and administered in a number of substantially different manners. Therefore, the results of most clinical trials cannot be easily compared, and even less pooled together in meaningful meta-analyses. A more creative and yet scientifically sound way to design clinical trials of customized active immunotherapies will be key to the future development of idiotype vaccines, particularly considering that we currently lack any clinical or biological indicator to possibly predict which patients are more likely to respond to idiotypic vaccination from an immunologic point of view. This review aims at summarizing the multifaceted success achieved by idiotype vaccines, as well as at outlining the challenges awaiting them in the near future: how to improve feasibility, immunogenicity and efficacy, as well as how to confirm benefit and gain regulatory approval.

  6. Active Idiotypic Vaccination Versus Control Immunotherapy for Follicular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Ronald; Ganjoo, Kristen N.; Leonard, John P.; Vose, Julie M.; Flinn, Ian W.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Connors, Joseph M.; Berinstein, Neil L.; Belch, Andrew R.; Bartlett, Nancy L.; Nichols, Craig; Emmanouilides, Christos E.; Timmerman, John M.; Gregory, Stephanie A.; Link, Brian K.; Inwards, David J.; Freedman, Arnold S.; Matous, Jeffrey V.; Robertson, Michael J.; Kunkel, Lori A.; Ingolia, Diane E.; Gentles, Andrew J.; Liu, Chih Long; Tibshirani, Robert; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Denney, Dan W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Idiotypes (Ids), the unique portions of tumor immunoglobulins, can serve as targets for passive and active immunotherapies for lymphoma. We performed a multicenter, randomized trial comparing a specific vaccine (MyVax), comprising Id chemically coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) plus granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to a control immunotherapy with KLH plus GM-CSF. Patients and Methods Patients with previously untreated advanced-stage follicular lymphoma (FL) received eight cycles of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone. Those achieving sustained partial or complete remission (n = 287 [44%]) were randomly assigned at a ratio of 2:1 to receive one injection per month for 7 months of MyVax or control immunotherapy. Anti-Id antibody responses (humoral immune responses [IRs]) were measured before each immunization. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included IR and time to subsequent antilymphoma therapy. Results At a median follow-up of 58 months, no significant difference was observed in either PFS or time to next therapy between the two arms. In the MyVax group (n = 195), anti-Id IRs were observed in 41% of patients, with a median PFS of 40 months, significantly exceeding the median PFS observed in patients without such Id-induced IRs and in those receiving control immunotherapy. Conclusion This trial failed to demonstrate clinical benefit of specific immunotherapy. The subset of vaccinated patients mounting specific anti-Id responses had superior outcomes. Whether this reflects a therapeutic benefit or is a marker for more favorable underlying prognosis requires further study. PMID:24799467

  7. Non-classical binding of a polyreactive α-type anti-idiotypic antibody to B cells.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Tays; de Acosta, Cristina Mateo; López-Requena, Alejandro; Moreno, Ernesto; Alonso, Ruby; Fernández-Marrero, Yuniel; Pérez, Rolando

    2010-01-01

    Detailed information on the immunological relevance of α-type anti-idiotypic antibodies is lacking after more than 30 years since Jerne postulated his Idiotypic Network Theory. The B7Y33 mutant is a mouse-human chimeric version of the B7 MAb, a polyreactive α-type anti-idiotypic antibody, generated against an anti-GM2 ganglioside IgM Ab1 antibody. It retained the unusual self-binding activity and multispecificity of the parental murine antibody, being able to recognize several anti-ganglioside IgM antibodies as well as non-immunoglobulin antigens. Previous work with the murine B7 MAb suggested that this antibody might have immunoregulatory properties, and therefore we investigated the possible interaction of B7Y33 with immune cells. We found that B7Y33 binds to human and murine B lymphocytes. Inhibition assays using flow cytometry indicated that this antibody is capable of binding the Fc γ receptor II (FcγRII). The recognition of FcγRII-expressing K562, Raji and Daudi human cell lines, together with the capability of inhibiting the binding of an anti-human FcγRII antibody to these cells, suggest that B7Y33 interacts with both the FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb isoforms. We evaluated the contribution to the binding of different surface-exposed residues at the top of the heavy chain variable region (VH) CDR loops through the construction of mutants with substitutions in the three conventional VH CDRs (HCDRs) and the "HCDR4", located in the framework 3 (HFR3). In addition, we assessed the involvement of the Fc region by performing key mutations in the CH2 domain. Furthermore, chimeric hybrid molecules were obtained by combining the B7Y33 heavy chain with unrelated light chains. Our results indicate that the multispecificity and self-binding properties of B7Y33 are not linked to its recognition of B lineage cells, and that this phenomenon occurs in a non-classical way with the participation of both the variable and constant regions of the antibody. Two possible models for

  8. Protection of mice against Clostridium chauvoei infection by anti-idiotype antibody to a monoclonal antibody to flagella.

    PubMed

    Kijima-Tanaka, M; Nakamura, M; Nagamine, N; Takahashi, T; Aoki, A; Tamura, Y

    1994-03-01

    Polyclonal rabbit anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id) against the protective monoclonal antibody specific to the flagella of Clostridium chauvoei was produced, purified, and characterized. Anti-Id inhibited the binding of its related monoclonal antibody to the flagellar antigen, suggesting that the anti-Id bore an internal image of the flagellar antigen. When mice were immunized with anti-Id intraperitoneally, the survival rate increased significantly, compared with mice immunized with normal rabbit IgG (P < 0.01), and specific anti-flagellar antibodies were induced.

  9. Tubular antigen-derivatized cells induce a disease-protective, antigen- specific, and idiotype-specific suppressor T cell network restricted by I-J and Igh-V in mice with experimental interstitial nephritis

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The nephritogenic effector T cell response producing interstitial nephritis in mice can be largely inhibited by the adoptive transfer of suppressor T cells before or after the induction of disease. These suppressor T cells are harvested from donor mice primed with tubular antigen-derivatized syngeneic lymphocytes, and two subsets of suppressor cells can be characterized within this donor cell population. The first suppressor cell in this network is an L3T4+, I- J+, RE-Id+ cell (Ts-1). Ts-1 cells are antigen-binding suppressor cells that inhibit afferent phase immune responses and, in the presence of tubular antigen, specifically induce Lyt-2+, I-J+ cells (Ts-2) that are antiidiotypic (RE-Id-binding) suppressors. The Ts-2 cell is functionally restricted in its suppressive effect by I-J and Igh-V gene products, and acts on the effector limb of the cell-mediated anti- tubular basement membrane immune response. These studies provide an experimental basis for further efforts to use immunoregulatory modulation in the control of autoimmune renal disease. PMID:3159824

  10. A local immunization strategy for networks with overlapping community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghavian, Fatemeh; Salehi, Mostafa; Teimouri, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    Since full coverage treatment is not feasible due to limited resources, we need to utilize an immunization strategy to effectively distribute the available vaccines. On the other hand, the structure of contact network among people has a significant impact on epidemics of infectious diseases (such as SARS and influenza) in a population. Therefore, network-based immunization strategies aim to reduce the spreading rate by removing the vaccinated nodes from contact network. Such strategies try to identify more important nodes in epidemics spreading over a network. In this paper, we address the effect of overlapping nodes among communities on epidemics spreading. The proposed strategy is an optimized random-walk based selection of these nodes. The whole process is local, i.e. it requires contact network information in the level of nodes. Thus, it is applicable to large-scale and unknown networks in which the global methods usually are unrealizable. Our simulation results on different synthetic and real networks show that the proposed method outperforms the existing local methods in most cases. In particular, for networks with strong community structures, high overlapping membership of nodes or small size communities, the proposed method shows better performance.

  11. Targeting lymphoma with precision using semisynthetic anti-idiotype peptibodies

    PubMed Central

    Torchia, James; Weiskopf, Kipp; Levy, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    B-cell lymphomas express a functionally active and truly tumor-specific cell-surface product, the variable region of the B-cell receptor (BCR), otherwise known as idiotype. The tumor idiotype differs, however, from patient to patient, making it a technical challenge to exploit for therapy. We have developed a method of targeting idiotype by using a semisynthetic personalized therapeutic that is more practical to produce on a patient-by-patient basis than monoclonal antibodies. In this method, a small peptide with affinity for a tumor idiotype is identified by screening a library, chemically synthesized, and then affixed to the amino terminus of a premade IgG Fc protein. We demonstrate that the resultant semisynthetic anti-idiotype peptibodies kill tumor cells in vitro with specificity, trigger tumor cell phagocytosis by macrophages, and efficiently clear human lymphoma in a murine xenograft model. This method could be used to target tumor with true precision on a personalized basis. PMID:27114517

  12. Plasma anti-serotonin and serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies are elevated in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Coplan, J D; Tamir, H; Calaprice, D; DeJesus, M; de la Nuez, M; Pine, D; Papp, L A; Klein, D F; Gorman, J M

    1999-04-01

    The psychoneuroimmunology of panic disorder is relatively unexplored. Alterations within brain stress systems that secondarily influence the immune system have been documented. A recent report indicated elevations of serotonin (5-HT) and ganglioside antibodies in patients with primary fibromyalgia, a condition with documented associations with panic disorder. In line with our interest in dysregulated 5-HT systems in panic disorder (PD), we wished to assess if antibodies directed at the 5-HT system were elevated in patients with PD in comparison to healthy volunteers. Sixty-three patients with panic disorder and 26 healthy volunteers were diagnosed by the SCID. Employing ELISA, we measured anti-5-HT and 5-HT anti-idiotypic antibodies (which are directed at 5-HT receptors). To include all subjects in one experiment, three different batches were run during the ELISA. Plasma serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies: there was a significant group effect [patients > controls (p = .007)] and batch effect but no interaction. The mean effect size for the three batches was .76. Following Z-score transformation of each separate batch and then combining all scores, patients demonstrated significantly elevated levels of plasma serotonin anti-idiotypic antibodies. Neither sex nor age as covariates affected the significance of the results. There was a strong correlation between anti-serotonin antibody and serotonin anti-idiotypic antibody measures. Plasma anti-serotonin antibodies: there was a significant diagnosis effect [patients > controls (p = .037)]. Mean effect size for the three batches was .52. Upon Z-score transformation, there was a diagnosis effect with antibody elevations in patients. Covaried for sex and age, the result falls below significance to trend levels. The data raise the possibility that psychoimmune dysfunction, specifically related to the 5-HT system, may be present in PD. Potential interruption of 5-HT neurotransmission through autoimmune mechanisms may be of

  13. A Danger-Theory-Based Immune Network Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Xiao, Xin; Shi, Yuanquan

    2013-01-01

    Existing artificial immune optimization algorithms reflect a number of shortcomings, such as premature convergence and poor local search ability. This paper proposes a danger-theory-based immune network optimization algorithm, named dt-aiNet. The danger theory emphasizes that danger signals generated from changes of environments will guide different levels of immune responses, and the areas around danger signals are called danger zones. By defining the danger zone to calculate danger signals for each antibody, the algorithm adjusts antibodies' concentrations through its own danger signals and then triggers immune responses of self-regulation. So the population diversity can be maintained. Experimental results show that the algorithm has more advantages in the solution quality and diversity of the population. Compared with influential optimization algorithms, CLONALG, opt-aiNet, and dopt-aiNet, the algorithm has smaller error values and higher success rates and can find solutions to meet the accuracies within the specified function evaluation times. PMID:23483853

  14. AINIDS: an immune-based network intrusion detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qiao; Yu, Jianping

    2006-04-01

    Intrusion detection can be looked as a problem of pattern classification. Since intrusion detection has some intrinsic characteristic such as high dimensional feature spaces, linearity non-differentiation, severe unevenness of normal pattern and anomaly pattern, it is very difficult to detection intrusions directly by use of classical pattern recognition method. Nature immune system is a self-adaptive and self-learning classifier, which can accomplish recognition and classification by learning, remembrance and association. First we use four-tuple to define nature immune system and intrusion detection system, then we give the mathematic formalization description of performance index of intrusion detection system. Finally we design and develop an immune-based network intrusion detection system-- AINIDS, which includes a data collector component, a packet head parser and feature extraction component, antibody generation and antigen detection component, co-stimulation and report component and rule optimization component. The antibody generation and antigen detection component is the key module of AINIDS. In the component the passive immune antibodies and the automatic immune antibodies that include memory automatic immune antibodies and fuzzy automatic immune antibodies are proposed by analogy with natural immune system. The passive immune antibodies inherit available rules and can detect known intrusion rapidly. The automatic immune antibodies integrate statistic method with fuzzy reasoning system to improve the detection performance and can discover novel attacks. AINIDS is tested by the data that we collect from our LANs and by the data from 1999 DARPA intrusion detection evaluation data sets. Both experiments prove AINIDS has good detection rate for old and novel attacks.

  15. Anti-idiotypic protein domains selected from protein A-based affibody libraries.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Malin; Axelsson, Lars; Uhlén, Mathias; Nygren, Per-Ake

    2002-08-15

    Three pairs of small protein domains showing binding behavior in analogy with anti-idiotypic antibodies have been selected using phage display technology. From an affibody protein library constructed by combinatorial variegation of the Fc binding surface of the 58 residue staphylococcal protein A (SPA)-derived domain Z, affibody variants have been selected to the parental SPA scaffold and to two earlier identified SPA-derived affibodies. One selected affibody (Z(SPA-1)) was shown to recognize each of the five domains of wild-type SPA with dissociation constants (K(D)) in the micromolar range. The binding of the Z(SPA-1) affibody to its parental structure was shown to involve the Fc binding site of SPA, while the Fab-binding site was not involved. Similarly, affibodies showing anti-idiotypic binding characteristics were also obtained when affibodies previously selected for binding to Taq DNA polymerase and human IgA, respectively, were used as targets for selections. The potential applications for these types of affinity pairs were exemplified by one-step protein recovery using affinity chromatography employing the specific interactions between the respective protein pair members. These experiments included the purification of the Z(SPA-1) affibody from a total Escherichia coli cell lysate using protein A-Sepharose, suggesting that this protein A/antiprotein A affinity pair could provide a basis for novel affinity gene fusion systems. The use of this type of small, robust, and easily expressed anti-idiotypic affibody pair for affinity technology applications, including self-assembled protein networks, is discussed.

  16. The immune system as a self-centered network of lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Santori, Fabio R

    2015-08-01

    This essay makes a brief historical and comparative review of selective and network theories of the immune system which is presented as a chemical sensory system with immune and non-immune functions. The ontogeny of immune networks is the result of both positive and negative selection of lymphocytes to self-epitopes that serve as a "template" for the recognition of foreign antigens. The development of immune networks progresses from single individual clones in early ontogeny into complex "information processing networks" in which lymphocytes are linked to inhibitory and stimulatory immune cells. The results of these regulatory interactions modulate immune responses and tolerance.

  17. Autoanti-idiotypes exhibit mimicry of myocyte antigens in virus-induced myocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Paque, R E; Miller, R

    1991-01-01

    Mice infected with coxsackievirus B develop immunologically mediated inflammatory myocarditis in heart tissue that results in the development of autoantibodies with multiple idiotypes. The specificity and temporal development of autoantibodies produced during coxsackievirus B3 infection were assessed. Antiviral idiotypes and anti-idiotypic antibodies against coxsackievirus B3 idiotypes were detected and quantitated over 21- and 42-day periods, respectively. Both polyclonal and monoclonal anti-idiotypes exhibited greater but nonspecific binding to heart, liver, kidney, and spleen cells from virus-exposed animals and normal tissue. Binding of anti-idiotypes was also demonstrated to myosin and to solubilized heart-associated antigens but not to virus. Western immunoblot analysis revealed that monoclonal and polyclonal anti-idiotypes selectively bound to hypertonic, salt-extracted, solubilized proteins of myocyte extracts of virus-exposed animals. Images PMID:1845881

  18. Anti-idiotypic antibodies induce neutralizing antibodies to bovine herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed Central

    Srikumaran, S; Onisk, D V; Borca, M V; Nataraj, C; Zamb, T J

    1990-01-01

    A neutralizing murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) of the IgG2a isotype (MM-113), specific for bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein gIV, was used to develop anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id) in a calf. The bovine anti-Id were isolated from the serum of the immunized calf by affinity chromatography on an MM-113-Sepharose column, followed by repeated adsorption on a murine IgG2a column. The anti-Id thus obtained specifically reacted with MM-113, but not with isotype-matched controls. They also inhibited the binding of MM-113 to BHV-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Mice immunized with the anti-Id produced neutralizing antibodies to BHV-1. The anti-Id bound to cells permissive to BHV-1 in a cell-binding radioimmunoassay (RIA). PMID:2165998

  19. Inheritance of immunoglobulin M rheumatoid-factor idiotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, J L; Fong, S; Tsoukas, C; Vaughan, J H; Carson, D A

    1980-01-01

    The idiotypic determinants on IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) from a single family have been analyzed. Rabbit Fab'2 antiidiotypic antibody was prepared against purified IgM-RF from a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. As measured by radioimmunoassay, the antiidiotype reacted with at least 90% of the patient's RF, but not with non-RF immunoglobulins from the same serum, nor with 10 of 11 polyclonal and monoclonal RF from unrelated individuals. Cross-reacting idiotypes were detected on RF in four of the patients' first degree relatives, spanning three generations, without apparent relation of HLA type or clinical rheumatoid arthritis. These results suggest that IgM-RF associated idiotypes were inherited in this family. PMID:7419724

  20. Tumor-induced perturbations of cytokines and immune cell networks.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, Brett; Huang, Ren-Yu; Burgess, Rob; Luo, Shuhong; Jones, Valerie Sloane; Zhang, Wenji; Lv, Zhi-Qiang; Gao, Chang-Yu; Wang, Bao-Ling; Zhang, Yu-Ming; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    2014-04-01

    Until recently, the intrinsically high level of cross-talk between immune cells, the complexity of immune cell development, and the pleiotropic nature of cytokine signaling have hampered progress in understanding the mechanisms of immunosuppression by which tumor cells circumvent native and adaptive immune responses. One technology that has helped to shed light on this complex signaling network is the cytokine antibody array, which facilitates simultaneous screening of dozens to hundreds of secreted signal proteins in complex biological samples. The combined applications of traditional methods of molecular and cell biology with the high-content, high-throughput screening capabilities of cytokine antibody arrays and other multiplexed immunoassays have revealed a complex mechanism that involves multiple cytokine signals contributed not just by tumor cells but by stromal cells and a wide spectrum of immune cell types. This review will summarize the interactions among cancerous and immune cell types, as well as the key cytokine signals that are required for tumors to survive immunoediting in a dormant state or to grow and spread by escaping it. Additionally, it will present examples of how probing secreted cell-cell signal networks in the tumor microenvironment (TME) with cytokine screens have contributed to our current understanding of these processes and discuss the implications of this understanding to antitumor therapies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Extensive mapping of an innate immune network with CRISPR

    PubMed Central

    Aregger, Michael; Hart, Traver; Moffat, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system marks a major breakthrough for genetic screens, particularly in mammalian cells where high-throughput targeted gene editing has been lacking. Parnas et al (2015) apply this screening technology to mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in order to study the regulation of the immune response triggered by PAMPs. Through integrated analysis of gene knockouts in conjunction with changes in protein and mRNA expression, CRISPR screens are facilitating dissection of immune regulatory networks at unprecedented resolution. PMID:26208794

  2. Immune allied genetic algorithm for Bayesian network structure learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qin; Lin, Feng; Sun, Wei; Chang, KC

    2012-06-01

    Bayesian network (BN) structure learning is a NP-hard problem. In this paper, we present an improved approach to enhance efficiency of BN structure learning. To avoid premature convergence in traditional single-group genetic algorithm (GA), we propose an immune allied genetic algorithm (IAGA) in which the multiple-population and allied strategy are introduced. Moreover, in the algorithm, we apply prior knowledge by injecting immune operator to individuals which can effectively prevent degeneration. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, we present some experimental results.

  3. Immunization against the Spread of Rumors in Homogenous Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Laijun; Wang, Jiajia; Huang, Rongbing

    2015-01-01

    Since most rumors are harmful, how to control the spread of such rumors is important. In this paper, we studied the process of "immunization" against rumors by modeling the process of rumor spreading and changing the termination mechanism for the spread of rumors to make the model more realistic. We derived mean-field equations to describe the dynamics of the rumor spread. By carrying out steady-state analysis, we derived the spreading threshold value that must be exceeded for the rumor to spread. We further discuss a possible strategy for immunization against rumors and obtain an immunization threshold value that represents the minimum level required to stop the rumor from spreading. Numerical simulations revealed that the average degree of the network and parameters of transformation probability significantly influence the spread of rumors. More importantly, the simulations revealed that immunizing a higher proportion of individuals is not necessarily better because of the waste of resources and the generation of unnecessary information. So the optimal immunization rate should be the immunization threshold. PMID:25933430

  4. Transient selection in multicellular immune networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanchenko, M. V.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a multi-clonotype naive T-cell population competing for survival signals from antigen-presenting cells. We find that this competition provides with an efficacious selection of clonotypes, making the less able and more repetitive get extinct. We uncover the scaling principles for large systems the extinction rate obeys and calibrate the model parameters to their experimental counterparts. For the first time, we estimate the physiological values of the T-cell receptor-antigen presentation profile recognition probability and T-cell clonotypes niche overlap. We demonstrate that, while the ultimate state is a stable fixed point, sequential transients dominate the dynamics over large timescales that may span over years, if not decades, in real time. We argue that what is currently viewed as "homeostasis" is a complex sequential transient process, while being quasi-stationary in the total number of T-cells only. The discovered type of sequential transient dynamics in large random networks is a novel alternative to the stable heteroclinic channel mechanism.

  5. Global efficiency of local immunization on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Allard, Antoine; Young, Jean-Gabriel; Dubé, Louis J.

    2013-07-01

    Epidemics occur in all shapes and forms: infections propagating in our sparse sexual networks, rumours and diseases spreading through our much denser social interactions, or viruses circulating on the Internet. With the advent of large databases and efficient analysis algorithms, these processes can be better predicted and controlled. In this study, we use different characteristics of network organization to identify the influential spreaders in 17 empirical networks of diverse nature using 2 epidemic models. We find that a judicious choice of local measures, based either on the network's connectivity at a microscopic scale or on its community structure at a mesoscopic scale, compares favorably to global measures, such as betweenness centrality, in terms of efficiency, practicality and robustness. We also develop an analytical framework that highlights a transition in the characteristic scale of different epidemic regimes. This allows to decide which local measure should govern immunization in a given scenario.

  6. The immune system as a self-centered network of lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Santori, Fabio R.

    2015-01-01

    This essay makes a brief historical and comparative review of selective and network theories of the immune system which is presented as a chemical sensory system with immune and non-immune functions. The ontogeny of immune networks is the result of both positive and negative selection of lymphocytes to self-epitopes that serve as a “template” for the recognition of foreign antigens. The development of immune networks progresses from single individual clones in early ontogeny into complex “information processing networks” in which lymphocytes are linked to inhibitory and stimulatory immune cells. The results of these regulatory interactions modulate immune responses and tolerance. PMID:26092524

  7. Network immunization under limited budget using graph spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, R.; Khansari, M.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new algorithm that minimizes the worst expected growth of an epidemic by reducing the size of the largest connected component (LCC) of the underlying contact network. The proposed algorithm is applicable to any level of available resources and, despite the greedy approaches of most immunization strategies, selects nodes simultaneously. In each iteration, the proposed method partitions the LCC into two groups. These are the best candidates for communities in that component, and the available resources are sufficient to separate them. Using Laplacian spectral partitioning, the proposed method performs community detection inference with a time complexity that rivals that of the best previous methods. Experiments show that our method outperforms targeted immunization approaches in both real and synthetic networks.

  8. Host Immunity via Mutable Virtualized Large-Scale Network Containers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-25

    migrate to different IP addresses multiple 6mes. We implement a virtual machine based system prototype and evaluate it using state-of-the-a1t scanning...entire !Pv4 address space within 5 Host Immunity via Mutable Virtualized Large-Scale Network Containers 45 minutes from a single machine . Second, when...that the attacker will be trapped into one decoy instead of the real server. We implement a virtual machine (VM)-based prototype that integrates

  9. A cross-reactive idiotype in scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    VÁZQUEZ-ABAD, D; TIAN, L; ZANETTI, M; ROTHFIELD, N F

    1997-01-01

    Autoantibodies to centromere proteins (anti-CENPs) and to topoisomerase-I are highly specific for scleroderma. Unlike most autoantibodies in other diseases, these autoantibodies are mutually exclusive. We have analysed the idiotypes (Ids) expressed by anti-CENP-B, antitopoisomerase-I, and IgGs from 20 scleroderma patients. Rabbit anti-Ids were prepared to antitopoisomerase-I from two scleroderma patients, and to anti-CENP-B from four patients. These six anti-Ids were used to study the purified autoantibodies from 20 scleroderma patients: four antitopoisomerase-I, 10 anti-CENP-B, and six purified IgG from scleroderma patients who were negative for both autoantibodies. In addition, we studied sera from 40 normal autoantibody-negative controls, and sera and purified immunoglobulins from 17 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients containing high titres of anti-double-stranded DNA, and/or autoantibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA). Using direct binding, and competitive inhibition ELISAs and immunoblots, we identified an Id present in the heavy chains of all the affinity-purified antitopoisomerase-I, and anti-CENP-B. Interestingly, this Id was also present in the immunoglobulins of the scleroderma patients who had neither of the two autoantibodies. By contrast, cross-reactive Id-EM was not found in the sera or immunoglobulins from 17 SLE patients, or in the sera from 40 normal subjects. Several samples from two patients showed that this cross-reactive Id-EM was stable over time. The scleroderma disease-specific autoantibodies may be identified through a common structural feature at the variable region of the heavy chain: cross-reactive Id-EM. PMID:9182886

  10. A cross-reactive idiotype in scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Abad, D; Tian, L; Zanetti, M; Rothfield, N F

    1997-06-01

    Autoantibodies to centromere proteins (anti-CENPs) and to topoisomerase-I are highly specific for scleroderma. Unlike most autoantibodies in other diseases, these autoantibodies are mutually exclusive. We have analysed the idiotypes (Ids) expressed by anti-CENP-B, antitopoisomerase-I, and IgGs from 20 scleroderma patients. Rabbit anti-Ids were prepared to antitopoisomerase-I from two scleroderma patients, and to anti-CENP-B from four patients. These six anti-Ids were used to study the purified autoantibodies from 20 scleroderma patients: four antitopoisomerase-I, 10 anti-CENP-B, and six purified IgG from scleroderma patients who were negative for both autoantibodies. In addition, we studied sera from 40 normal autoantibody-negative controls, and sera and purified immunoglobulins from 17 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients containing high titres of anti-double-stranded DNA, and/or autoantibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA). Using direct binding, and competitive inhibition ELISAs and immunoblots, we identified an Id present in the heavy chains of all the affinity-purified antitopoisomerase-I, and anti-CENP-B. Interestingly, this Id was also present in the immunoglobulins of the scleroderma patients who had neither of the two autoantibodies. By contrast, cross-reactive Id-EM was not found in the sera or immunoglobulins from 17 SLE patients, or in the sera from 40 normal subjects. Several samples from two patients showed that this cross-reactive Id-EM was stable over time. The scleroderma disease-specific autoantibodies may be identified through a common structural feature at the variable region of the heavy chain: cross-reactive Id-EM.

  11. Peptide derived from anti-idiotypic single-chain antibody is a potent antifungal agent compared to its parent fungicide HM-1 killer toxin peptide.

    PubMed

    Kabir, M Enamul; Karim, Nurul; Krishnaswamy, Senthilkumar; Selvakumar, Dakshnamurthy; Miyamoto, Masahiko; Furuichi, Yasuhiro; Komiyama, Tadazumi

    2011-12-01

    Based on anti-idiotypic network theory in light of the need for new antifungal drugs, we attempted to identify biologically active fragments from HM-1 yeast killer toxin and its anti-idiotypic antibody and to compare their potency as an antifungal agent. Thirteen overlapping peptides from HM-1 killer toxin and six peptides from its anti-idiotypic single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies representing the complementarity determining regions were synthesized. The binding affinities of these peptides were investigated and measured by Dot blot and surface plasmon resonance analysis and finally their antifungal activities were investigated by inhibition of growth, colony forming unit assay. Peptide P6, containing the potential active site of HM-1 was highly capable of inhibiting the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae but was less effective on pathogenic fungi. However, peptide fragments derived from scFv antibody exerted remarkable inhibitory effect on the growth of pathogenic strains of Candida and Cryptococcus species in vitro. One scFv-derived decapeptide (SP6) was selected as the strongest killer peptide for its high binding affinity and antifungal abilities on both Candida and Cryptococcus species with IC(50) values from 2.33 × 10(-7) M to 36.0 × 10(-7) M. SP6 peptide activity was neutralized by laminarin, a β-1,3-glucan molecule, indicating this peptide derived from scFv anti-idiotypic antibody retains antifungal activity through interaction with cell wall β-glucan of their target fungal cells. Experimental evidence strongly suggested the possibility of development of anti-idiotypic scFv peptide-based antifungal agents which may lead to improve therapeutics for the management of varieties of fungal infections.

  12. Dissemination strategy for immunizing scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Alexandre O.; Barbosa, Valmir C.

    2006-11-01

    We consider the problem of distributing a vaccine for immunizing a scale-free network against a given virus or worm. We introduce a method, based on vaccine dissemination, that seems to reflect more accurately what is expected to occur in real-world networks. Also, since the dissemination is performed using only local information, the method can be easily employed in practice. Using a random-graph framework, we analyze our method both mathematically and by means of simulations. We demonstrate its efficacy regarding the trade-off between the expected number of nodes that receive the vaccine and the network’s resulting vulnerability to develop an epidemic as the virus or worm attempts to infect one of its nodes. For some scenarios, the method is seen to render the network practically invulnerable to attacks while requiring only a small fraction of the nodes to receive the vaccine.

  13. Specific and shared idiotypes found on hybridoma anti-DNA autoantibodies derived from rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Rauch, J; Massicotte, H; Tannenbaum, H

    1985-10-01

    The idiotype determinants found on hybridoma anti-DNA autoantibodies produced from the fusion of peripheral blood lymphocytes from 13 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and five rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with the GM 4672 human lymphoblastoid line were analyzed. A total of 47 SLE and 21 RA hybridomas were studied, of which 26 SLE and 10 RA produced anti-DNA autoantibodies. Rabbit antisera, raised to six of the SLE hybridoma anti-DNA IgM antibodies, were rendered idiotype specific by multiple absorptions on human IgM and IgG immunoabsorbent columns. In direct binding radioimmunoassays, all six anti-idiotype antisera reacted specifically with the anti-DNA antibody used as immunogen. In competition studies, five anti-idiotype antisera were able to inhibit the binding of their homologous idiotype to DNA-coated tubes. In addition, DNA and polynucleotides inhibited the binding of the five idiotypes to anti-idiotype-coated tubes, suggesting that these anti-idiotypes react with idiotype determinants located within the antigen-combining sites of the anti-DNA antibody molecules. Shared idiotypes were detected among the 68 hybridoma antibodies by direct binding studies on anti-idiotype-coated tubes. Our results revealed that 58% (21/36) of the anti-DNA antibodies and 16% (5/32) of the non-DNA-binding antibodies reacted with at least one anti-idiotype serum. Five anti-idiotype antisera reacted only with hybridoma anti-DNA antibodies from SLE patients. The other anti-idiotype antiserum reacted with both SLE- and RA-derived hybridoma anti-DNA and non-DNA-binding antibodies. These studies indicate that some anti-idiotype antisera may detect specific idiotypes found only on SLE-derived anti-DNA auto-antibodies, whereas other antisera detect shared idiotypes found on both RA and SLE DNA-binding and non-DNA-binding antibodies.

  14. Sweet immunity in the plant circadian regulatory network.

    PubMed

    Bolouri Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Van den Ende, Wim

    2013-04-01

    All organisms have an internal timing mechanism, termed the circadian clock, to anticipate the light/dark cycle. The clock, with an oscillating rhythm that approximates 24h, is a rather robust system persisting to a great extent in continuous light and dark. It is widely accepted that plant growth and development are regulated by the clock, hormones, and sugar signals. On the one hand, sugar signalling can affect circadian rhythms by altering the expression pattern of clock-regulated genes. More in particular, the clock seems to be particularly sensitive to sucrose-mediated signalling which is also associated with immunity and abiotic stress responses. Also, hormonal interaction with the clock can contribute to appropriate plant immune responses. Recent data show a prominent role for the clock in growth and stress responses. On the other hand, the clock seems to be essential in controlling the gene expression and activity of an array of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, suggesting a complex reciprocal relationship between the clock and metabolic signalling processes. Therefore, the clock fulfils a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks. The players involved in the complex plant circadian network and their possible contribution to the novel 'sweet immunity' concept are discussed.

  15. An improved local immunization strategy for scale-free networks with a high degree of clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Lingling; Jiang, Guoping; Song, Yurong; Song, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The design of immunization strategies is an extremely important issue for disease or computer virus control and prevention. In this paper, we propose an improved local immunization strategy based on node's clustering which was seldom considered in the existing immunization strategies. The main aim of the proposed strategy is to iteratively immunize the node which has a high connectivity and a low clustering coefficient. To validate the effectiveness of our strategy, we compare it with two typical local immunization strategies on both real and artificial networks with a high degree of clustering. Simulations on these networks demonstrate that the performance of our strategy is superior to that of two typical strategies. The proposed strategy can be regarded as a compromise between computational complexity and immune effect, which can be widely applied in scale-free networks of high clustering, such as social network, technological networks and so on. In addition, this study provides useful hints for designing optimal immunization strategy for specific network.

  16. B-CD8+ T Cell Interactions in the Anti-Idiotypic Response against a Self-Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Darel; Pupo, Amaury; Cabrera, Lianet; Raymond, Judith; Holodick, Nichol E.

    2017-01-01

    P3 is a murine, germline, IgM mAb that recognizes N-glycolylated gangliosides and other self-antigens. This antibody is able to induce an anti-idiotypic IgG response and B-T idiotypic cascade, even in the absence of any adjuvant or carrier protein. P3 mAb immunization induces the expression of activation markers in a significant percentage of B-1a cells in vivo. Interestingly, transfer of both B-1a and B-2 to BALB/Xid mice was required to recover anti-P3 IgG response in this model. In fact, P3 mAb activated B-2 cells, in vitro, inducing secretion of IFN-γ and IL-4, although this activation was not detected ex vivo. Interestingly, naïve CD8+ T cells increased the expression of activation markers and IFN-γ secretion in the presence of B-1a cells isolated from P3 mAb-immunized mice, even without in vitro restimulation. In contrast, B-2 cells were able to stimulate CD8+ T cells only if P3 was added in vitro. Using bioinformatics, a MHC class I-binding peptide from P3 VH region was identified. P3 mAb was able to induce a specific CTL response in vivo against cells presenting this peptide. Both humoral and CTL anti-idiotypic responses could be mechanisms to protect against the self-reactive antibody, contributing to keeping the tolerance to self-antigens. PMID:28491873

  17. Responsive immunization and intervention for infectious diseases in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingchu; Zhang, Haifeng; Zeng, Guanghong

    2014-06-01

    By using the microscopic Markov-chain approximation approach, we investigate the epidemic spreading and the responsive immunization in social networks. It is assumed that individual vaccination behavior depends on the local information of an epidemic. Our results suggest that the responsive immunization has negligible impact on the epidemic threshold and the critical value of initial epidemic outbreak, but it can effectively inhibit the outbreak of epidemic. We also analyze the influence of the intervention on the disease dynamics, where the vaccination is available only to those individuals whose number of neighbors is greater than a certain value. Simulation analysis implies that the intervention strategy can effectively reduce the vaccine use under the epidemic control.

  18. Autoantibodies to anti-DNA with anti-allotypic and anti-idiotypic specificities in (NZB X NZW)F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Eilat, D; Fischel, R; Zlotnick, A

    1985-04-01

    The monoclonal A52 (IgG2b, kappa) anti-DNA autoantibody represents a major cross-reactive idiotype in the murine and human autoimmune response to DNA. Examination of sera and purified IgG derived from (NZB X NZW)F1 mice showed that these mice develop an age-dependent binding reactivity with the pure anti-DNA IgG. Three monoclonal antibodies possessing this reactivity were prepared from unprimed female (NZB X NZW)F1 mice. One of these monoclonal antibodies appeared to be directed against allotypic determinants present in the NZB IgG2b; the other two antibodies exhibited a marked preference for idiotypic determinants of the A52 IgG. The IgG anti-allotype and anti-idiotype activities in (NZB X NZW)F1 mice may, therefore, represent the products of a deregulated immune system and/or constitute the normal elements of a functional immune regulation system.

  19. Towards an integrated network of coral immune mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, C. V.; Traylor-Knowles, N.

    2012-01-01

    Reef-building corals form bio-diverse marine ecosystems of high societal and economic value, but are in significant decline globally due, in part, to rapid climatic changes. As immunity is a predictor of coral disease and thermal stress susceptibility, a comprehensive understanding of this new field will likely provide a mechanistic explanation for ecological-scale trends in reef declines. Recently, several strides within coral immunology document defence mechanisms that are consistent with those of both invertebrates and vertebrates, and which span the recognition, signalling and effector response phases of innate immunity. However, many of these studies remain discrete and unincorporated into the wider fields of invertebrate immunology or coral biology. To encourage the rapid development of coral immunology, we comprehensively synthesize the current understanding of the field in the context of general invertebrate immunology, and highlight fundamental gaps in our knowledge. We propose a framework for future research that we hope will stimulate directional studies in this emerging field and lead to the elucidation of an integrated network of coral immune mechanisms. Once established, we are optimistic that coral immunology can be effectively applied to pertinent ecological questions, improve current prediction tools and aid conservation efforts. PMID:22896649

  20. Induction of a cross-reactive idiotype dextran-positive antibody response in two IgH-Cb mouse strains treated with anti-J558 cross- reactive idiotype antibodies

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The effect of IdX-specific rabbit and allogeneic antiidiotype antibodies (Ab2) was investigated in vivo in Igh-Cb mouse strains with respect to the induction of a cross-reactive idiotype (IdX)-positive anti-alpha (1-3) Dextran (Dex) response. These C.B20 and C57Bl/6 mice have an allotype-linked incapacity to respond with IdX-positive anti- alpha (1-3) Dex antibodies upon conventional immunization with Dex B1355. 7 d after the rabbit Ab2 injections, IdX-positive Ig (Ab3) and IdX-positive anti-alpha (1-3) Dex antibodies (Ab1') were detected in the sera of each tested mouse. The affinity-purified Ab1' were idiotypically indistinguishable from reference BALB/c IdX-positive myeloma proteins and BALB/c anti-alpha (1-3) Dex antibodies (Ab1) in a competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay, while Ab3 Ig appeared idiotypically deficient and did not bind to Dex. The response to the alpha (1-6) linkage of Dex was not affected in these mice. A large fraction of the Ab1' and Ab3 responses of both mouse strains were of the IgG1 class. The Ab1' antibodies differed from BALB/c Ab1 by lower relative binding to five of eight tested Dex, and by expressing the Igh4b allotype determinants on the IgG1 antibodies. This study identifies the products of a VHDex gene that appears to be under regulatory control in the Ighb mice. Its association with the b haplotype suggests that this gene may differ structurally from the BALB/c VHDex gene. PMID:6189941

  1. The cytokine networks of adaptive immunity in fish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiehui; Secombes, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    Cytokines, produced at the site of entry of a pathogen, drive inflammatory signals that regulate the capacity of resident and newly arrived phagocytes to destroy the invading pathogen. They also regulate antigen presenting cells (APCs), and their migration to lymph nodes to initiate the adaptive immune response. When naive CD4+ T cells recognize a foreign antigen-derived peptide presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex class II on APCs, they undergo massive proliferation and differentiation into at least four different T-helper (Th) cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17, and induced T-regulatory (iTreg) cells in mammals. Each cell subset expresses a unique set of signature cytokines. The profile and magnitude of cytokines produced in response to invasion of a foreign organism or to other danger signals by activated CD4+ T cells themselves, and/or other cell types during the course of differentiation, define to a large extent whether subsequent immune responses will have beneficial or detrimental effects to the host. The major players of the cytokine network of adaptive immunity in fish are described in this review with a focus on the salmonid cytokine network. We highlight the molecular, and increasing cellular, evidence for the existence of T-helper cells in fish. Whether these cells will match exactly to the mammalian paradigm remains to be seen, but the early evidence suggests that there will be many similarities to known subsets. Alternative or additional Th populations may also exist in fish, perhaps influenced by the types of pathogen encountered by a particular species and/or fish group. These Th cells are crucial for eliciting disease resistance post-vaccination, and hopefully will help resolve some of the difficulties in producing efficacious vaccines to certain fish diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of the activity of cytotoxic murine T lymphocytes by antibodies to idiotypic determinants.

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitz, R; Schlesinger, M

    1980-01-01

    The nature of the receptors on the surface of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), which enable these cells to recognize antigens on allogeneic targets, is still a matter of controversy. In the present study various mouse alloantisera were tested for their capacity to inhibit, in the absence of complement, the cytotoxic activity of sensitized peritoneal T lymphocytes. The only antiserum which, even after heat inactivation, consistently inhibited cytotoxic T lymphocytes was an antiserum elicited in (C3H X C57B1/6)F1 mice by immunization with AKR/Cum thymus cells. The serum inhibited the cytotoxic reaction of either AKR/J or AKR/Cum CTL on EL-4 target cells but had no inhibitory activity on the cytotoxic reaction of AKR/J cells against P-815 target cells. Thus the inhibitory activity of the serum could not be attributed to antibodies against Ly-3 determinants present in the serum. This conclusion was strengthened by the finding that the inhibitory activity of the serum could be removed by absorption, not only with AKR/J thymus cells but also with AKR/J bone-marrow cells, a procedure which did not affect the titre of Ly-3 antibodies. The serum failed to exert any inhibition on cytotoxic T lymphocytes of BALB/c and C3H mice reacting against EL-4 target cells, indicating that the inhibitory activity of the antiserum did not result from contamination by antibodies against C57B1 antigenic determinants. It was concluded that the inhibitory activity of the antiserum resulted from the presence of antibodies against idiotypic determinants expressed on AKR/Cum thymus cells reacting against the hybrid hosts. It seems, therefore, that idiotypic determinants expressed on the surface of cytotoxic T lymphocytes may be directly involved in their cytotoxic activity. PMID:6155324

  3. Immune networks: multi-tasking capabilities at medium load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, E.; Annibale, A.; Barra, A.; Coolen, A. C. C.; Tantari, D.

    2013-08-01

    Associative network models featuring multi-tasking properties have been introduced recently and studied in the low-load regime, where the number P of simultaneously retrievable patterns scales with the number N of nodes as P ˜ log N. In addition to their relevance in artificial intelligence, these models are increasingly important in immunology, where stored patterns represent strategies to fight pathogens and nodes represent lymphocyte clones. They allow us to understand the crucial ability of the immune system to respond simultaneously to multiple distinct antigen invasions. Here we develop further the statistical mechanical analysis of such systems, by studying the medium-load regime, P ˜ Nδ with δ ∈ (0, 1]. We derive three main results. First, we reveal the nontrivial architecture of these networks: they exhibit a high degree of modularity and clustering, which is linked to their retrieval abilities. Second, by solving the model we demonstrate for δ < 1 the existence of large regions in the phase diagram where the network can retrieve all stored patterns simultaneously. Finally, in the high-load regime δ = 1 we find that the system behaves as a spin-glass, suggesting that finite-connectivity frameworks are required to achieve effective retrieval.

  4. Characterization of a purified nicotinic receptor from rat brain by using idiotypic and anti-idiotypic antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Abood, L.G.; Langone, J.J.; Bjercke, R.; Lu, X.; Banerjee, S.

    1987-09-01

    The availability of an anti-nicotine monoclonal antibody has made it possible to further establish the nature of the nicotine recognition proteins purified from rat brain by affinity chromatography and to provide a highly sensitive assay for determining (/sup 3/H)nicotine binding to the purified material. An enantiomeric analogue of nicotine. (-)-6-hydroxymethylnicotine, was used to prepare the affinity column. In addition, with the use of an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody, it was confirmed that the recognition site for nicotine resides on a protein complex composed of two components with molecular masses of 62 and 57 kDa. It was also demonstrated that the same two proteins could be purified by immunoaffinity chromatography with the use of an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody. With the use of the anti-nicotine antibody to measure (/sup 3/H)nicotine binding, the purified material was shown to bind 250 pmol/mg of protein. By utilizing a procedure in which the purified receptor protein was conjugated to membranes by disulfide bonds, a binding activity of 80 pmol/mg was obtained. With the availability of sterospecific monoclonal antibodies to (-)-nicotine as well as monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies derived when the anti-nicotine antibodies were used as immunogens, additional procedures became available for the further characterization of the purified nicotine receptor and examining its (-)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine-binding characteristics.

  5. Anti-ganglioside antibodies induced in chickens by an alum-adsorbed anti-idiotype antibody targeting NeuGcGM3

    PubMed Central

    Guthmann, Marcelo D.; Venier, Cecilia; Toledo, Darien; Segatori, Valeria I.; Alonso, Daniel F.; Fainboim, Leonardo; Vázquez, Ana M.; Ostrowski, Hector

    2013-01-01

    Racotumomab is a murine anti-idiotype cancer vaccine targeting NeuGcGM3 on melanoma, breast, and lung cancer. In order to characterize the immunogenicity of alum-adsorbed racotumomab in a non-clinical setting, Leghorn chickens were immunized in dose levels ranging from 25 μg to 1600 μg. Racotumomab was administered subcutaneously in the birds' neck with three identical boosters and serum samples were collected before, during and after the immunization schedule. A strong antibody response was obtained across the evaluated dose range, confirming the immunogenicity of racotumomab even at dose levels as low as 25 μg. As previously observed when using Freund's adjuvant, alum-adsorbed racotumomab induced an idiotype-specific response in all the immunized birds and ganglioside-specific antibodies in 60–100% of the animals. In contrast to the rapid induction anti-idiotype response, detection of ganglioside-specific antibodies in responsive animals may require repeated boosting. Kinetics of anti-NeuGcGM3 antibody titers showed a slight decline 2 weeks after each booster, arguing in favor of repeated immunizations in order to maintain antibody titer. Interestingly, the intensity of the anti-NeuGcGM3 response paralleled that of anti-mucin antibodies and anti-tumor antibodies, suggesting that the in vitro detection of anti-ganglioside antibodies might be a surrogate for an in vivo activity of racotumomab. Taken together, these results suggest that Leghorn chicken immunization might become the means to test the biological activity of racotumomab intended for clinical use. PMID:23335925

  6. Natural killer cells in the innate immunity network of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Irene; De Pasquale, Claudia; Campana, Stefania; Barberi, Chiara; Cavaliere, Riccardo; Benedetto, Filippo; Ferlazzo, Guido

    2015-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes which have recently been proposed to play an immunoregulatory role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. Although several studies have evaluated the frequency and the functions of NK cells both in human and in experimental animal models of atherosclerosis, it is yet not clear whether NK cells might behave as protective or pro-atherogenic effectors. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the role of NK cells in atherosclerosis and discuss the potential interactions that might occur in atherosclerotic lesions between NK cells and antigen presenting cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. A clearer depiction of the innate immune cell network operating in atherosclerosis might pave the way to novel interesting approaches for the prevention and treatment of this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An artificial immune network for multiobjective optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanaridis, Aris; Stafylopatis, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Multiobjective optimization is an important problem of great complexity and evolutionary algorithms have been established as a dominant approach in the field. This article suggests a method for approximating the Pareto front of a given function based on artificial immune networks. The proposed method uses cloning and mutation on a population of antibodies to create local subsets of the Pareto front. Elements of these local fronts are combined, in a way that maximizes diversity, to form the complete Pareto front of the function. The method is tested on a number of well-known benchmark problems, as well as an engineering problem. Its performance is compared against state-of-the-art algorithms, yielding promising results.

  8. Fine specificity and idiotypic expression of monoclonal antibodies directed against poly(Tyr,Glu)-poly(DLAla)--poly(Lys) and its ordered analogue (Tyr-Tyr-Glu-Glu)-poly(DLAla)--poly(Lys).

    PubMed Central

    Parhami-Seren, B; Eshhar, Z; Mozes, E

    1983-01-01

    In order to study the repertoire of poly(Tyr,Glu)-poly(DLAla)--poly(Lys) [(T,G)-A--L] specific antibodies, monoclonal antibodies were prepared by fusing myeloma cells with spleen cells from C3H.SW mice immunized with (T,G)-A--L and boosted with (Tyr-Tyr-Glu-Glu)-poly(DLAla)--poly(Lys)](T-T-G-G)-A--L]. Eleven clones which secreted homogeneous antibodies were obtained. In general, two families of monoclonal antibodies were detected: those which bind exclusively (T-T-G-G)-A--L and those which bind both (T-T-G-G)-A--L and (T,G)-A--L. Analysis for idiotypic expression revealed that only two antibodies (clones no. 103 and 160), which were found to be similar in their fine specificity, cross-reacted with antibodies against the major idiotypes of (T,G)A--L specific antibodies. Guinea-pig antibodies against clone no. 160 reacted with the polyclonal (T,G)-A--L specific antibodies, whereas antibodies against 103 monoclonal antibodies did not react with C3H.SW anti-(T,G)-A--L antibodies, but did cross-react with four other monoclonal antibodies. It appears that the idiotypic determinants expressed on polyclonal (T,G)-A--L specific antibodies are heterogeneous, and consist of at least two serologically different idiotypes detected by clones no. 103 and 160. PMID:6840812

  9. Immune network behavior: Oscillations, chaos and stationary states

    SciTech Connect

    De Boer, R.J.; Perelson, A.S.; Kevrekidis, I.G.

    1994-04-01

    The authors report two types of behavior in models of immune networks. The typical behavior of simple models, which involve B cells only, consists of several coexisting steady states. Finite amplitude perturbations may cause the model to switch between different equilibria. The typical behavior of more realistic models, which involve both B cells and antibody, consists of autonomous oscillations and/or chaos. While steady-state behavior leads to easy interpretations in terms of immune memory, oscillatory behavior seems to be in better agreement with experimental data obtained in unimmunized animals. The stability of the steady states, and the structure and interactions of the stable and unstable manifolds of the saddle-type equilibria turn out to be factors influencing the model`s behavior. Whether or not the model is able to attain any form of sustained oscillatory behavior, i.e., limit cycles or chaos, seems to be determined by (global) bifurcations involving the stable and unstable manifolds of the steady states.

  10. Optimization strategies with resource scarcity: From immunization of networks to the traveling salesman problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Agliari, Elena; Cassi, Davide

    2015-10-01

    The best strategy to immunize a complex network is usually evaluated in terms of the percolation threshold, i.e. the number of vaccine doses which make the largest connected cluster (LCC) vanish. The strategy inducing the minimum percolation threshold represents the optimal way to immunize the network. Here we show that the efficacy of the immunization strategies can change during the immunization process. This means that, if the number of doses is limited, the best strategy is not necessarily the one leading to the smallest percolation threshold. This outcome should warn about the adoption of global measures in order to evaluate the best immunization strategy.

  11. Artificial immune-network based autonomous mobile robots navigation and coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Q. J.; Wang, R. X.

    2005-12-01

    Based on the analogies between multi autonomous robots system (MARS) and immune system, a synthesized immune network is proposed, and used to solve the navigation and coordination problem on MARS. Individual robot was regarded as small-scaled immune networks (SN). Task was regarded as antigen, and behavior tactics were deemed to the antibodies respectively. Behavior tactic to a robot sensor was taken as B cell. Navigation and coordination problem is transformed into the interaction mechanism among antibody, antigen and small-scaled immune networks. The pursuit problem was used to validate the hypothesis. Simulation results suggest that the proposal is promising.

  12. Network Theory Analysis of Antibody-Antigen Reactivity Data: The Immune Trees at Birth and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bransburg-Zabary, Sharron; Merbl, Yifat; Quintana, Francisco J.; Tauber, Alfred I.; Cohen, Irun R.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2011-01-01

    Motivation New antigen microarray technology enables parallel recording of antibody reactivities with hundreds of antigens. Such data affords system level analysis of the immune system's organization using methods and approaches from network theory. Here we measured the reactivity of 290 antigens (for both the IgG and IgM isotypes) of 10 healthy mothers and their term newborns. We constructed antigen correlation networks (or immune networks) whose nodes are the antigens and the edges are the antigen-antigen reactivity correlations, and we also computed their corresponding minimum spanning trees (MST) – maximal information reduced sub-graphs. We quantify the network organization (topology) in terms of the network theory divergence rate measure and rank the antigen importance in the full antigen correlation networks by the eigen-value centrality measure. This analysis makes possible the characterization and comparison of the IgG and IgM immune networks at birth (newborns) and adulthood (mothers) in terms of topology and node importance. Results Comparison of the immune network topology at birth and adulthood revealed partial conservation of the IgG immune network topology, and significant reorganization of the IgM immune networks. Inspection of the antigen importance revealed some dominant (in terms of high centrality) antigens in the IgG and IgM networks at birth, which retain their importance at adulthood. PMID:21408156

  13. Reconfiguration of the immune system network during food limitation in the caterpillar Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Davies, Gillian; Easy, Russell; Kovalko, Ilya; Turnbull, Kurtis F

    2016-03-01

    Dwindling resources might be expected to induce a gradual decline in immune function. However, food limitation has complex and seemingly paradoxical effects on the immune system. Examining these changes from an immune system network perspective may help illuminate the purpose of these fluctuations. We found that food limitation lowered long-term (i.e. lipid) and short-term (i.e. sugars) energy stores in the caterpillar Manduca sexta. Food limitation also: altered immune gene expression, changed the activity of key immune enzymes, depressed the concentration of a major antioxidant (glutathione), reduced resistance to oxidative stress, reduced resistance to bacteria (Gram-positive and -negative bacteria) but appeared to have less effect on resistance to a fungus. These results provide evidence that food limitation led to a restructuring of the immune system network. In severely food-limited caterpillars, some immune functions were enhanced. As resources dwindled within the caterpillar, the immune response shifted its emphasis away from inducible immune defenses (i.e. those responses that are activated during an immune challenge) and increased emphasis on constitutive defenses (i.e. immune components that are produced consistently). We also found changes suggesting that the activation threshold for some immune responses (e.g. phenoloxidase) was lowered. Changes in the configuration of the immune system network will lead to different immunological strengths and vulnerabilities for the organism. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Communicating immunization science: the genesis and evolution of the National Network for Immunization Information.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Christy J W; Willett, Kristen L; Kreps, Gary L

    2012-01-01

    For 10 years, the National Network for Immunization Information (NNii) has pursued its goal to "provide the public, health professionals, policy makers, and the media with up-to-date, scientifically valid information related to immunizations to help them understand the issues and to make informed decisions." This investigation provides a critical evaluation of the strategic communication planning and implementation of NNii from conception to present day. The study uses a case study methodology, developing a systematic analysis of organizational documents, the media environment, and in-depth interviews by applying Weick's model of organizing as an interpretive framework. Iterative data analysis included open coding, axial coding, and thematic saturation. Themes were compared with phases of strategic communication and present study propositions. Major themes identified included the organization's informative nature, funding credibility, nonbranding, reflective evaluation, collaborative partnerships, and media strategy. NNii meets the requirements of requisite variety, nonsummativity, and organizational flexibility proposed by Weick's model of organizing. However, a lack of systematic evaluation of organization goals prevents it from adapting communication tactics and strategies. In addition, the authors recommend that NNii, while maintaining its informative nature, adopt persuasive strategies to attract and retain the attention of its target audiences.

  15. Generation and characterization of an anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody related to GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Mabel; Llanes, Leticia; Pérez, Alexis; Pérez, Rolando; Vázquez, Ana María

    2003-10-01

    The 14F7 monoclonal antibody (MAb), IgG1 isotype, which reacts specifically to GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside induced a specific IgG anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) response in syngeneic mice when it was administered coupled with KLH and in the presence of Freund's adjuvant. Spleen cells from these mice were used in somatic-cell hybridization experiments using the murine myeloma cell line P3-X63-Ag8 653 as fusion partner. An IgG1 Ab2 MAb was selected. This Ab2 MAb, called 4G9, was able to block the binding of 14F7 MAb to GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside and developed a strong IgG anti-anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab3) response, when injected into syngeneic mice. These Ab3 antibodies were characterized to bear 14F7 MAb idiotopes, but did not have the same specificity as 14F7 MAb. In the other hand, a very specific anti-NeuGc-containing ganglioside response was generated in chickens immunized with this Ab2 MAb, thus behaving, in this species as an "internal image" antibody.

  16. Influence of dynamic immunization on epidemic spreading in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingchu; Fu, Xinchu; Jin, Zhen; Small, Michael

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a new dynamic immunization method based on the static immunization algorithm and study the relationship between dynamic and static immunization. By nodes to be immunized according to static immunization strategies, we build a connection between dynamic and static immunization. Using theoretical arguments and computational simulation we show that dynamic immunization (from a finite vaccine reservoir) is not sufficient to prevent epidemic outbreak, nor does it significantly change the asymptotic prevalence. Nonetheless, we do find that less total vaccine is required to implement this strategy. To help understand this better, we examine the extent and distribution of dynamic immunization required to achieve this reduced vaccine demand. Our results suggest that it is not necessary to increase the immunization rate when the infection rate is relatively small.

  17. Expression of a highly conserved anti-DNA idiotype in normal and autoimmune mice.

    PubMed

    Mayus, J L; Pisetsky, D S

    1985-03-01

    The specificity and idiotypic relationships of a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody were investigated to evaluate genetic control in this autoantibody response. 6/0 is an IgG2a monoclonal anti-DNA derived by the fusion of spleen cells from an autoimmune MRL-lpr/lpr mouse and the cell line NS1. By an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-DNA, 6/0 demonstrated preference for single-stranded DNA and bound deoxyribo- and ribohomopolymers of dissimilar base composition. The control of 6/0 expression was evaluated by idiotypic analysis using a rabbit anti-6/0 antiserum made specific by absorption with the BALB/c myelomas UPC 10 (IgG2a) and MOPC 21 (IgG1). The resulting preparation was fractionated by BALB/c IgG affinity columns to provide antibodies to idiotypic determinants essentially unique to 6/0 and those commonly expressed in sera. The commonly expressed 6/0 idiotype was found in sera of ten inbred strains of mice and was not exclusive to the autoimmune strains. MRL-lpr/lpr and A/J strain mice displayed idiotype levels almost fivefold greater than other strains, with 6/0 idiotype-bearing antibodies having serum concentrations as high as 1 mg/ml. Levels of the 6/0 idiotype, however, did not correlate with anti-DNA levels among the various strains. In addition to mice, the majority of individuals of three inbred rat strains showed detectable 6/0 idiotype in their sera. These results suggest that the 6/0 idiotype, although identified using a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody, represents a framework determinant that is phylogenetically conserved. The mechanisms for the expression of this determinant may differ among the normal and autoimmune strains.

  18. From network-to-antibody robustness in a bio-inspired immune system.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Leon, Jose A; Acosta, Gerardo G; Mayosky, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural robustness at antibody and immune network level is discussed. The robustness of the immune response that drives an autonomous mobile robot is examined with two computational experiments in the autonomous mobile robots trajectory generation context in unknown environments. The immune response is met based on the immune network metaphor for different low-level behaviours coordination. These behaviours are activated when a robot sense the appropriate conditions in the environment in relation to the network current state. Results are obtained over a case study in computer simulation as well as in laboratory experiments with a Khepera II microrobot. In this work, we develop a set of tests where such an immune response is externally perturbed at network or low-level behavioural modules to analyse the robust capacity of the system to unexpected perturbations. Emergence of robust behaviour and high-level immune response relates to the coupling between behavioural modules that are selectively engaged with the environment based on immune response. Experimental evidence leads discussions on a dynamical systems perspective of behavioural robustness in artificial immune systems that goes beyond the isolated immune network response.

  19. Yeast Killer Toxin-Like Candidacidal Ab6 Antibodies Elicited through the Manipulation of the Idiotypic Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Polonelli, Luciano; Beninati, Concetta; Teti, Giuseppe; Felici, Franco; Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Sperindè, Martina; Passo, Carla Lo; Pernice, Ida; Domina, Maria; Arigò, Milena; Papasergi, Salvatore; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A mouse anti-anti-anti-idiotypic (Id) IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb K20, Ab4), functionally mimicking a Wyckerhamomyces anomalus (Pichia anomala) killer toxin (KT) characterized by fungicidal activity against yeasts presenting specific cell wall receptors (KTR) mainly constituted by β-1,3-glucan, was produced from animals presenting anti-KT Abs (Ab3) following immunization with a rat IgM anti-Id KT-like mAb (mAb K10, Ab2). MAb K10 was produced by immunization with a KT-neutralizing mAb (mAb KT4, Ab1) bearing the internal image of KTR. MAb K20, likewise mAb K10, proved to be fungicidal in vitro against KT-sensitive Candida albicans cells, an activity neutralized by mAb KT4, and was capable of binding to β-1,3-glucan. MAb K20 and mAb K10 competed with each other and with KT for binding to C. albicans KTR. MAb K20 was used to identify peptide mimics of KTR by the selection of phage clones from random peptide phage display libraries. Using this strategy, four peptides (TK 1-4) were selected and used as immunogen in mice in the form of either keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) conjugates or peptide-encoding minigenes. Peptide and DNA immunization could induce serum Abs characterized by candidacidal activity, which was inhibited by laminarin, a soluble β-1,3-glucan, but not by pustulan, a β-1,6-glucan. These findings show that the idiotypic cascade can not only overcome the barrier of animal species but also the nature of immunogens and the type of technology adopted. PMID:25162681

  20. Yeast killer toxin-like candidacidal Ab6 antibodies elicited through the manipulation of the idiotypic cascade.

    PubMed

    Polonelli, Luciano; Beninati, Concetta; Teti, Giuseppe; Felici, Franco; Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Sperindè, Martina; Lo Passo, Carla; Pernice, Ida; Domina, Maria; Arigò, Milena; Papasergi, Salvatore; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A mouse anti-anti-anti-idiotypic (Id) IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb K20, Ab4), functionally mimicking a Wyckerhamomyces anomalus (Pichia anomala) killer toxin (KT) characterized by fungicidal activity against yeasts presenting specific cell wall receptors (KTR) mainly constituted by β-1,3-glucan, was produced from animals presenting anti-KT Abs (Ab3) following immunization with a rat IgM anti-Id KT-like mAb (mAb K10, Ab2). MAb K10 was produced by immunization with a KT-neutralizing mAb (mAb KT4, Ab1) bearing the internal image of KTR. MAb K20, likewise mAb K10, proved to be fungicidal in vitro against KT-sensitive Candida albicans cells, an activity neutralized by mAb KT4, and was capable of binding to β-1,3-glucan. MAb K20 and mAb K10 competed with each other and with KT for binding to C. albicans KTR. MAb K20 was used to identify peptide mimics of KTR by the selection of phage clones from random peptide phage display libraries. Using this strategy, four peptides (TK 1-4) were selected and used as immunogen in mice in the form of either keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) conjugates or peptide-encoding minigenes. Peptide and DNA immunization could induce serum Abs characterized by candidacidal activity, which was inhibited by laminarin, a soluble β-1,3-glucan, but not by pustulan, a β-1,6-glucan. These findings show that the idiotypic cascade can not only overcome the barrier of animal species but also the nature of immunogens and the type of technology adopted.

  1. Immunotherapy of murine sarcomas with auto-anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies which bind to tumor-specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Nelson, K A; George, E; Swenson, C; Forstrom, J W; Hellström, K E

    1987-09-15

    Hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were obtained from BALB/c mice immunized against either of two transplanted, chemically induced syngeneic sarcomas, MCA-1490 or MCA-1511. Two mAb, 4.72 and 5.96, were obtained, one from each immunization. They were found to have apparent anti-idiotypic specificity in that they, when injected s.c., primed naive BALB/c mice for delayed-type hypersensitivity that was specific for the immunizing tumor and required homology at genes linked to the Igh-1 allotype locus. Neither mAb bound tumor antigen. When mice with established transplants of MCA-1490 or MCA-1511 were treated by repeated i.p. injections of the appropriate anti-idiotypic mAb (4.72 and 5.96, respectively), a significant reduction in tumor growth was observed in those mice that had received the appropriate mAb. The idiotope defined by mAb 4.72 was expressed by T cells in mice responding to MCA-1490. mAb 4.72 bound to T cell suppressor factors that were specific for MCA-1490 and were derived from T cell hybridomas or sera of mice bearing MCA-1490. mAb 4.72 also bound to cells from lymph nodes draining the area of a growing MCA-1490 tumor. It was used, in combination with cell sorting, to establish a T cell line, which mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity to MCA-1490 and inhibited the outgrowth of MCA-1490 in BALB/c mice. Thus, mAb specific for idiotopes on T cells responding to syngeneic tumor antigen had both direct immunotherapeutic activity and could be used to establish cultures of tumor-reactive T cells.

  2. An effective immunization strategy for airborne epidemics in modular and hierarchical social contact network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhichao; Ge, Yuanzheng; Luo, Lei; Duan, Hong; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2015-12-01

    Social contact between individuals is the chief factor for airborne epidemic transmission among the crowd. Social contact networks, which describe the contact relationships among individuals, always exhibit overlapping qualities of communities, hierarchical structure and spatial-correlated. We find that traditional global targeted immunization strategy would lose its superiority in controlling the epidemic propagation in the social contact networks with modular and hierarchical structure. Therefore, we propose a hierarchical targeted immunization strategy to settle this problem. In this novel strategy, importance of the hierarchical structure is considered. Transmission control experiments of influenza H1N1 are carried out based on a modular and hierarchical network model. Results obtained indicate that hierarchical structure of the network is more critical than the degrees of the immunized targets and the modular network layer is the most important for the epidemic propagation control. Finally, the efficacy and stability of this novel immunization strategy have been validated as well.

  3. The immune-body cytokine network defines a social architecture of cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Frankenstein, Ziv; Alon, Uri; Cohen, Irun R

    2006-10-24

    Three networks of intercellular communication can be associated with cytokine secretion; one limited to cells of the immune system (immune cells), one limited to parenchymal cells of organs and tissues (body cells), and one involving interactions between immune and body cells (immune-body interface). These cytokine connections determine the inflammatory response to injury and subsequent healing as well as the biologic consequences of the adaptive immune response to antigens. We informatically probed the cytokine database to uncover the underlying network architecture of the three networks. We now report that the three cytokine networks are among the densest of complex networks yet studied, and each features a characteristic profile of specific three-cell motifs. Some legitimate cytokine connections are shunned (anti-motifs). Certain immune cells can be paired by their input-output positions in a cytokine architecture tree of five tiers: macrophages (MPhi) and B cells (BC) comprise the first tier; the second tier is formed by T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cells; the third tier includes dendritic cells (DC), mast cells (MAST), Natural Killer T cells (NK-T) and others; the fourth tier is formed by neutrophils (NEUT) and Natural Killer cells (NK); and the Cytotoxic T cell (CTL) stand alone as a fifth tier. The three-cell cytokine motif architecture of immune system cells places the immune system in a super-family that includes social networks and the World Wide Web. Body cells are less clearly stratified, although cells involved in wound healing and angiogenesis are most highly interconnected with immune cells. Cytokine network architecture creates an innate cell-communication platform that organizes the biologic outcome of antigen recognition and inflammation. Informatics sheds new light on immune-body systems organization. This article was reviewed by Neil Greenspan, Matthias von Herrath and Anne Cooke.

  4. The immune-body cytokine network defines a social architecture of cell interactions

    PubMed Central

    Frankenstein, Ziv; Alon, Uri; Cohen, Irun R

    2006-01-01

    Background Three networks of intercellular communication can be associated with cytokine secretion; one limited to cells of the immune system (immune cells), one limited to parenchymal cells of organs and tissues (body cells), and one involving interactions between immune and body cells (immune-body interface). These cytokine connections determine the inflammatory response to injury and subsequent healing as well as the biologic consequences of the adaptive immune response to antigens. We informatically probed the cytokine database to uncover the underlying network architecture of the three networks. Results We now report that the three cytokine networks are among the densest of complex networks yet studied, and each features a characteristic profile of specific three-cell motifs. Some legitimate cytokine connections are shunned (anti-motifs). Certain immune cells can be paired by their input-output positions in a cytokine architecture tree of five tiers: macrophages (MΦ) and B cells (BC) comprise the first tier; the second tier is formed by T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2) cells; the third tier includes dendritic cells (DC), mast cells (MAST), Natural Killer T cells (NK-T) and others; the fourth tier is formed by neutrophils (NEUT) and Natural Killer cells (NK); and the Cytotoxic T cell (CTL) stand alone as a fifth tier. The three-cell cytokine motif architecture of immune system cells places the immune system in a super-family that includes social networks and the World Wide Web. Body cells are less clearly stratified, although cells involved in wound healing and angiogenesis are most highly interconnected with immune cells. Conclusion Cytokine network architecture creates an innate cell-communication platform that organizes the biologic outcome of antigen recognition and inflammation. Informatics sheds new light on immune-body systems organization. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Neil Greenspan, Matthias von Herrath and Anne Cooke. PMID:17062134

  5. Coding and non-coding gene regulatory networks underlie the immune response in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xueming; Huang, Yongming; Yang, Zhengpeng; Zhang, Yuguo; Zhang, Weihui; Gao, Zu-hua; Xue, Dongbo

    2017-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is recognized as being the consequence of immune-mediated hepatocyte damage and repair processes. However, the regulation of these immune responses underlying liver cirrhosis has not been elucidated. In this study, we used GEO datasets and bioinformatics methods to established coding and non-coding gene regulatory networks including transcription factor-/lncRNA-microRNA-mRNA, and competing endogenous RNA interaction networks. Our results identified 2224 mRNAs, 70 lncRNAs and 46 microRNAs were differentially expressed in liver cirrhosis. The transcription factor -/lncRNA- microRNA-mRNA network we uncovered that results in immune-mediated liver cirrhosis is comprised of 5 core microRNAs (e.g., miR-203; miR-219-5p), 3 transcription factors (i.e., FOXP3, ETS1 and FOS) and 7 lncRNAs (e.g., ENTS00000671336, ENST00000575137). The competing endogenous RNA interaction network we identified includes a complex immune response regulatory subnetwork that controls the entire liver cirrhosis network. Additionally, we found 10 overlapping GO terms shared by both liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma including “immune response” as well. Interestingly, the overlapping differentially expressed genes in liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma were enriched in immune response-related functional terms. In summary, a complex gene regulatory network underlying immune response processes may play an important role in the development and progression of liver cirrhosis, and its development into hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:28355233

  6. Systems infection biology: a compartmentalized immune network of pig spleen challenged with Haemophilus parasuis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Network biology (systems biology) approaches are useful tools for elucidating the host infection processes that often accompany complex immune networks. Although many studies have recently focused on Haemophilus parasuis, a model of Gram-negative bacterium, little attention has been paid to the host's immune response to infection. In this article, we use network biology to investigate infection with Haemophilus parasuis in an in vivo pig model. Results By targeting the spleen immunogenome, we established an expression signature indicative of H. parasuis infection using a PCA/GSEA combined method. We reconstructed the immune network and estimated the network topology parameters that characterize the immunogene expressions in response to H. parasuis infection. The results showed that the immune network of H. parasuis infection is compartmentalized (not globally linked). Statistical analysis revealed that the reconstructed network is scale-free but not small-world. Based on the quantitative topological prioritization, we inferred that the C1R-centered clique might play a vital role in responding to H. parasuis infection. Conclusions Here, we provide the first report of reconstruction of the immune network in H. parasuis-infected porcine spleen. The distinguishing feature of our work is the focus on utilizing the immunogenome for a network biology-oriented analysis. Our findings complement and extend the frontiers of knowledge of host infection biology for H. parasuis and also provide a new clue for systems infection biology of Gram-negative bacilli in mammals. PMID:23339624

  7. Systems infection biology: a compartmentalized immune network of pig spleen challenged with Haemophilus parasuis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Liu, Xiang-dong; Li, Xin-yun; Chen, Hong-bo; Jin, Hui; Zhou, Rui; Zhu, Meng-jin; Zhao, Shu-hong

    2013-01-22

    Network biology (systems biology) approaches are useful tools for elucidating the host infection processes that often accompany complex immune networks. Although many studies have recently focused on Haemophilus parasuis, a model of Gram-negative bacterium, little attention has been paid to the host's immune response to infection. In this article, we use network biology to investigate infection with Haemophilus parasuis in an in vivo pig model. By targeting the spleen immunogenome, we established an expression signature indicative of H. parasuis infection using a PCA/GSEA combined method. We reconstructed the immune network and estimated the network topology parameters that characterize the immunogene expressions in response to H. parasuis infection. The results showed that the immune network of H. parasuis infection is compartmentalized (not globally linked). Statistical analysis revealed that the reconstructed network is scale-free but not small-world. Based on the quantitative topological prioritization, we inferred that the C1R-centered clique might play a vital role in responding to H. parasuis infection. Here, we provide the first report of reconstruction of the immune network in H. parasuis-infected porcine spleen. The distinguishing feature of our work is the focus on utilizing the immunogenome for a network biology-oriented analysis. Our findings complement and extend the frontiers of knowledge of host infection biology for H. parasuis and also provide a new clue for systems infection biology of Gram-negative bacilli in mammals.

  8. Differentiation--a consequence of idiotype-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Glock, H; Gregorius, H R

    1984-01-01

    The present paper deals with a model of idiotype-environment interaction and its application to a tissue culture experiment with birch (Betula pendula ROTH.). The data of the experiment are characterized with respect to the physiological reactions and are discussed in the light of the model. The main results of the paper are: With respect to the environmental action one has to discriminate between the environment inside and outside the cell (external and internal environment). The environmental influences cause a differential gene activity which lead to transient differentiation states and to final states of differentiatedness. During mitosis two types of information transmission take place: transmission of genetic material (the "blueprint") and transmission of the milieu (the "experience" of previous events). They together give rise to differentiation. The data of the experiment show that differentiation is no one-way street: Because of the transmitted milieu it is sometimes easier to regain an earlier differentiation state than to reach a new one. Only the interaction of idiotype (sum of genetic information) and the milieu state (internal environment) causes parallel as well as divergent development of cell lines. The model is also used to reinterpret some selected papers in the literature.

  9. Idiotypic mimicry and the assembly of a supramolecular structure: an anti-idiotypic antibody that mimics taxol in its tubulin-microtubule interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Leu, J G; Chen, B X; Diamanduros, A W; Erlanger, B F

    1994-01-01

    Taxol, originally extracted from the bark of the western yew, Taxus brevifolia, is reportedly the first of a new class of anti-cancer agents. It acts by promoting and irreversibly stabilizing microtubule assembly, thus interfering with the dynamic processes required for cell viability and multiplication. With the aim of using immunological techniques to study the mechanism of action of taxol, a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody that mimics taxol was prepared, using an auto-anti-idiotypic strategy. It and its Fab fragment inhibited the binding of [3H]taxol to microtubules. Moreover, like taxol, both promoted the assembly of tubulin into microtubules. These findings provide an example of an anti-idiotypic antibody capable of assembling an organized supramolecular structure from soluble cellular components. In addition, it further establishes the ability of anti-idiotypic antibodies to be functional mimics of ligand molecules bearing no structural similarity to immunoglobulins. The variable regions of the antibody have been sequenced. With the exception of the complementarity-determining region 3, the sequence of the heavy chain variable region is strikingly similar to that of an anti-idiotypic antibody raised to anti-insulin. The finding that a polypeptide can mimic taxol raises the possibility that taxol acts as a peptidomimetic compound that interferes with the function of an endogenous polypeptide. Images PMID:7840821

  10. Expression-based network biology identifies immune-related functional modules involved in plant defense.

    PubMed

    Tully, Joel P; Hill, Aubrey E; Ahmed, Hadia M R; Whitley, Ryan; Skjellum, Anthony; Mukhtar, M Shahid

    2014-06-03

    Plants respond to diverse environmental cues including microbial perturbations by coordinated regulation of thousands of genes. These intricate transcriptional regulatory interactions depend on the recognition of specific promoter sequences by regulatory transcription factors. The combinatorial and cooperative action of multiple transcription factors defines a regulatory network that enables plant cells to respond to distinct biological signals. The identification of immune-related modules in large-scale transcriptional regulatory networks can reveal the mechanisms by which exposure to a pathogen elicits a precise phenotypic immune response. We have generated a large-scale immune co-expression network using a comprehensive set of Arabidopsis thaliana (hereafter Arabidopsis) transcriptomic data, which consists of a wide spectrum of immune responses to pathogens or pathogen-mimicking stimuli treatments. We employed both linear and non-linear models to generate Arabidopsis immune co-expression regulatory (AICR) network. We computed network topological properties and ascertained that this newly constructed immune network is densely connected, possesses hubs, exhibits high modularity, and displays hallmarks of a "real" biological network. We partitioned the network and identified 156 novel modules related to immune functions. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses provided insight into the key biological processes involved in determining finely tuned immune responses. We also developed novel software called OCCEAN (One Click Cis-regulatory Elements ANalysis) to discover statistically enriched promoter elements in the upstream regulatory regions of Arabidopsis at a whole genome level. We demonstrated that OCCEAN exhibits higher precision than the existing promoter element discovery tools. In light of known and newly discovered cis-regulatory elements, we evaluated biological significance of two key immune-related functional modules and proposed mechanism(s) to explain

  11. Alterations of idiotypic profiles: The cellular basis of T15 dominance in BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wemhoff, G.A.; Quintans, J. )

    1987-01-01

    Phosphorylcholine (PC) is a component of cell walls and membranes from a variety of widely distributed microorganisms. It is highly immunogenic in mice and most murine strains have circulating anti-PC antibodies which are known to confer protection against certain bacterial infections. BALB/c mice offer a striking example of a high responsiveness to PC, a propensity to generate PC-binding myelomas, and a great restriction of idiotype expression in anti-PC antibodies; in fact, most BALB/c anti-PC IgM antibodies express the T15 idiotype marker. Although it has been suspected that T15 dominance is somewhat related to the continuous antigenic load presented by microorganismal flora found in conventional mice, a complete experimental account of how antigenic selection brings about such extreme idiotypic dominance is not yet available. In the studies presented below, we investigated the role played by the host environment, T cells, and antigen in affecting the generation of the anti-PC T15 idiotype profile in lethally irradiated adoptive hosts reconstituted with syngeneic neonatal liver cells. The results presented herein indicate that the transfer of mature carrier-primed T cells with neonatal liver cells does not influence the generation of the T15 idiotype profile. We also demonstrated that anti-T15 idiotype suppressed mice, used as lethally irradiated hosts of immature immunocompetent cells, allow an increased rate of reconstitution of the anti-PC response when compared to nonsuppressed hosts. Since the administration of a T15+ anti-PC antibody inhibits both reconstitution and idiotype expansion, we conclude that T15+ B cells do not self-promote themselves. In contrast, we observed that exposure of adoptive hosts to PC antigens can enhance the anti-PC response and alter the idiotypic profile in favor of T15-bearing clones.

  12. Concomitant cellular and humoral expression of a regulatory cross-reactive idiotype in acute Schistosoma japonicum infection.

    PubMed Central

    Kresina, T F; Olds, G R

    1986-01-01

    In this study the expression of a regulatory cross-reactive idiotype (SJ-CRIM), which is associated with anti-soluble egg antigen (SEA) molecules in murine Schistosoma japonicum infection, is described. Both humoral and cellular components of the immune response were analyzed during the course of infection with S. japonicum. In the humoral immune response, the content of SJ-CRIM decreases as the titer of anti-SEA antibody increases throughout infection. Quantitatively, values for serum ranged from 13.8 +/- 0.3 micrograms of SJ-CRIM, which binds anti-idiotypic antibody per ml of serum at 6 weeks postinfection, to 1.3 +/- 1.8 micrograms/ml at 30 weeks postinfection. Analysis of splenic cell subpopulations for expression of SJ-CRIM revealed that only splenic B cells expressed SJ-CRIM during acute infection (5 to 10 weeks postinfection). On the other hand, thymic cells with a high expression of the SJ-CRIM and Ly-1 marker were observed in acute infections up to 15 weeks postinfection. These data indicate that SJ-CRIM-bearing T cells are selectively localized in acute infection. In addition, the disappearance of expression of SJ-CRIM in serum and cells of chronically infected animals parallels the modulation of granulomatous inflammation and portal hypertension. Results of this study suggest that expression of SJ-CRIM on anti-SEA molecules could represent a marker for acute infection, while its disappearance from serum serves as a marker for modulation of disease. PMID:2873105

  13. Cytotoxic effect of anti-idiotype antibody-chlorambucil conjugates against human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tung, E; Goust, J M; Chen, W Y; Kang, S S; Wang, I Y; Wang, A C

    1983-01-01

    The secreted IgMs of two human lymphoblastoid cell lines, RPMI-6410 and RPMI-8392, were purified. Antisera against these two IgMs were raised in rabbits and made idiotypically specific to the respective antigens through various absorption procedures. By immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay techniques, the purified anti-idiotype antibodies were found to react also with the membrane Igs of the respective cell lines, but not with those of other cell lines. The purified anti-idiotype antibodies were then coupled with Chlorambucil to form antibody-drug conjugates, whose effectiveness in the in-vitro killing of target cells was evaluated by a chromium-release cytotoxicity assay. The results showed that these anti-idiotype antibody-Chlorambucil conjugates were specifically cytotoxic to lymphoblastoid cells that bore membrane Igs carrying the respective idiotypic determinant(s). Furthermore, the conjugates were far more effective in causing cytolysis to the target cells than either Chlorambucil or the anti-idiotype antibodies alone. PMID:6350169

  14. Cytotoxic effect of anti-idiotype antibody-chlorambucil conjugates against human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, E; Goust, J M; Chen, W Y; Kang, S S; Wang, I Y; Wang, A C

    1983-09-01

    The secreted IgMs of two human lymphoblastoid cell lines, RPMI-6410 and RPMI-8392, were purified. Antisera against these two IgMs were raised in rabbits and made idiotypically specific to the respective antigens through various absorption procedures. By immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay techniques, the purified anti-idiotype antibodies were found to react also with the membrane Igs of the respective cell lines, but not with those of other cell lines. The purified anti-idiotype antibodies were then coupled with Chlorambucil to form antibody-drug conjugates, whose effectiveness in the in-vitro killing of target cells was evaluated by a chromium-release cytotoxicity assay. The results showed that these anti-idiotype antibody-Chlorambucil conjugates were specifically cytotoxic to lymphoblastoid cells that bore membrane Igs carrying the respective idiotypic determinant(s). Furthermore, the conjugates were far more effective in causing cytolysis to the target cells than either Chlorambucil or the anti-idiotype antibodies alone.

  15. Emulation of the Active Immune Response in a Computer Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-15

    Dynamics of the Estimation Process 53 15 Dual Network Interface for concurrent execution of testbed experiments and lab management 57 16 Hardware Testbed...Two Physical Nodes 62 20 Network Security Testbed Management Software Stack 63 21 Virtual Network Topology for Worm Propagation Experiment Generated...system could be reformulated in terms of the characteristics of computer networks and interpreted as a set of instructions to a network manager . This

  16. Revealing Shared and Distinct Gene Network Organization in Arabidopsis Immune Responses by Integrative Analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaobao; Jiang, Zhenhong; Peng, You-Liang; Zhang, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) are two main plant immune responses to counter pathogen invasion. Genome-wide gene network organizing principles leading to quantitative differences between PTI and ETI have remained elusive. We combined an advanced machine learning method and modular network analysis to systematically characterize the organizing principles of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PTI and ETI at three network resolutions. At the single network node/edge level, we ranked genes and gene interactions based on their ability to distinguish immune response from normal growth and successfully identified many immune-related genes associated with PTI and ETI. Topological analysis revealed that the top-ranked gene interactions tend to link network modules. At the subnetwork level, we identified a subnetwork shared by PTI and ETI encompassing 1,159 genes and 1,289 interactions. This subnetwork is enriched in interactions linking network modules and is also a hotspot of attack by pathogen effectors. The subnetwork likely represents a core component in the coordination of multiple biological processes to favor defense over development. Finally, we constructed modular network models for PTI and ETI to explain the quantitative differences in the global network architecture. Our results indicate that the defense modules in ETI are organized into relatively independent structures, explaining the robustness of ETI to genetic mutations and effector attacks. Taken together, the multiscale comparisons of PTI and ETI provide a systems biology perspective on plant immunity and emphasize coordination among network modules to establish a robust immune response. PMID:25614062

  17. A multifactorial screening strategy to identify anti-idiotypic reagents for bioanalytical support of antibody therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Salimi-Moosavi, Hossein; Winters, Aaron; Abbott, Christina; Patel, Jennifer; Hager, Todd; Patel, Vimal; Shih, Judy; Zhuang, Yao; Ma, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Antibodies are critical tools for protein bioanalysis; their quality and performance dictate the caliber and robustness of ligand binding assays. After immunization, polyclonal B cells generate a diverse antibody repertoire against constant and variable regions of the therapeutic antibody immunogen. Herein we describe a comprehensive and multifactorial screening strategy to eliminate undesirable constant region-specific antibodies and select for anti-idiotypic antibodies with specificity for the unique variable region. Application of this strategy is described for the therapeutic antibody Mab-A case study. Five different factors were evaluated to select a final antibody pair for the quantification of therapeutics in biological matrices: (i) matrix effect in preclinical and clinical matrices, (ii) assay sensitivity with lower limit of quantification goal of single-digit ng/ml (low pM) at a signal-to-background ratio greater than 5, (iii) epitope distinction or nonbridging antibody pair, (iv) competition with target and inhibitory capacity enabling measurement of free drug, and (v) neutralizing bioactivity using bioassay. The selected antibody pair demonstrated superior assay sensitivity with no or minimal matrix effect in common biological samples, recognized two distinct binding epitopes on the therapeutic antibody variable region, and featured inhibitory and neutralizing effects with respect to quantification of free drug levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neonatal Idiotypic Exposure Alters Subsequent Cytokine, Pathology, and Survival Patterns in Experimental Schistosoma mansoni Infections

    PubMed Central

    Angela Montesano, M.; Colley, Daniel G.; Eloi-Santos, Silvana; Freeman, George L.; Secor, W. Evan

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to maternal idiotypes (Ids) or antigens might predispose a child to develop an immunoregulated, asymptomatic clinical presentation of schistosomiasis. We have used an experimental murine system to address the role of Ids in this immunoregulation. Sera from mice with 8-wk Schistosoma mansoni infection, chronic (20-wk infection) moderate splenomegaly syndrome (MSS), or chronic hypersplenomegaly syndrome (HSS) were passed over an S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) immunoaffinity column to prepare Ids (8WkId, MSS Id, HSS Id). Newborn mice were injected with 8WkId, MSS Id, HSS Id, or normal mouse immunoglobulin (NoMoIgG) and infected with S. mansoni 8 wk later. Mice exposed to 8WkId or MSS Id as newborns had prolonged survival and decreased morbidity compared with mice that received HSS Id or NoMoIgG. When stimulated with SEA, 8WkId, or MSS Id, spleen cells from mice neonatally injected with 8WkId or MSS Id produced more interferon γ than spleen cells from mice neonatally injected with HSS Id or NoMoIgG. Furthermore, neonatal exposure to 8WkId or MSS Id, but not NoMoIgG or HSS Id, led to significantly smaller granuloma size and lower hepatic fibrosis levels in infected mice. Together, these results indicate that perinatal exposure to appropriate anti-SEA Ids induces long-term effects on survival, pathology, and immune response patterns in mice subsequently infected with S. mansoni. PMID:9989978

  19. Expression of two cross-reactive idiotypes on mouse antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, S

    1987-01-01

    Two cross-reactive anti-idiotype (Id) antibodies were previously prepared from sera of rabbits immunized with mouse monoclonal antibodies against bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes (BrMRBC). Most of the anti-BrMRBC plaque-forming cells (PFC) were suppressed by either of the two anti-Id antibodies. The Id profiles of anti-BrMRBC PFC were almost identical among various cell populations in a strain, but different among various mouse strains. Mouse sera contained both of the Id-bearing immunoglobulins Ig, and a significant part of the Id-bearing Ig were eliminated by absorption with BrMRBC. Nude BALB/c mice were almost equal to normal BALB/c mice in the Id patterns of anti-BrMRBC PFC and in the concentrations of the Id-bearing Ig. The injections of anti-Id antibodies into suckling mice suppressed, specifically, the development of the B cells to produce the homologous Id-bearing Ig, but the injection of Id-bearing monoclonal antibodies barely affected Id expression. It is suggested that the two Id are encoded in germ-line genes of mice, and are expressed independently of each other and Id-anti-Id regulations by T cells or B cells. PMID:3327804

  20. A high frequency idiotypic marker of anti-DNA autoantibodies in MRL-Ipr/Ipr mice.

    PubMed

    Rauch, J; Murphy, E; Roths, J B; Stollar, B D; Schwartz, R S

    1982-07-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies were used to analyze relatedness of anti-DNA autoantibodies of MRL mice. The antiidiotypic antibodies, produced by immunization of rabbits with MRL-Ipr-derived hybridoma anti-DNA antibodies, were defined by their ability to inhibit specifically the binding of hybridoma anti-DNA antibody to DNA. One monoclonal anti-DNA antibody, H130, cross-reacted with two thirds of other hybridoma anti-DNA antibodies. The H130/anti-H130 system detected high amounts (up to 5 mg/ml) of immunoreactivity in sera of MRL-Ipr mice, whereas levels in MRL-+ sera were relatively low. The H130 family increased 10-fold in MRL-Ipr mice over the course of 5 mo, but its levels did not correlate chronologically with those of anti-DNA antibodies, cardiolipin-binding antibodies, or total serum immunoglobulins. H130 cross-reactivity was found, by quantitative immunoadsorption, in 40 to 60% of serum anti-DNA antibodies; however, a large excess of H130-related serum antibodies did not bind to DNA. The H130 family and anti-DNA antibodies therefore seem to constitute overlapping populations.

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Effectiveness of Three Immunization Strategies in Controlling Disease Outbreaks in Realistic Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhijing; Zu, Zhenghu; Zheng, Tao; Zhang, Wendou; Xu, Qing; Liu, Jinjie

    2014-01-01

    The high incidence of emerging infectious diseases has highlighted the importance of effective immunization strategies, especially the stochastic algorithms based on local available network information. Present stochastic strategies are mainly evaluated based on classical network models, such as scale-free networks and small-world networks, and thus are insufficient. Three frequently referred stochastic immunization strategies—acquaintance immunization, community-bridge immunization, and ring vaccination—were analyzed in this work. The optimal immunization ratios for acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization strategies were investigated, and the effectiveness of these three strategies in controlling the spreading of epidemics were analyzed based on realistic social contact networks. The results show all the strategies have decreased the coverage of the epidemics compared to baseline scenario (no control measures). However the effectiveness of acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization are very limited, with acquaintance immunization slightly outperforming community-bridge immunization. Ring vaccination significantly outperforms acquaintance immunization and community-bridge immunization, and the sensitivity analysis shows it could be applied to controlling the epidemics with a wide infectivity spectrum. The effectiveness of several classical stochastic immunization strategies was evaluated based on realistic contact networks for the first time in this study. These results could have important significance for epidemic control research and practice. PMID:24787718

  2. An incoherent feed-forward loop mediates robustness and tunability in a plant immune network.

    PubMed

    Mine, Akira; Nobori, Tatsuya; Salazar-Rondon, Maria C; Winkelmüller, Thomas M; Anver, Shajahan; Becker, Dieter; Tsuda, Kenichi

    2017-03-01

    Immune signaling networks must be tunable to alleviate fitness costs associated with immunity and, at the same time, robust against pathogen interferences. How these properties mechanistically emerge in plant immune signaling networks is poorly understood. Here, we discovered a molecular mechanism by which the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana achieves robust and tunable immunity triggered by the microbe-associated molecular pattern, flg22. Salicylic acid (SA) is a major plant immune signal molecule. Another signal molecule jasmonate (JA) induced expression of a gene essential for SA accumulation, EDS5 Paradoxically, JA inhibited expression of PAD4, a positive regulator of EDS5 expression. This incoherent type-4 feed-forward loop (I4-FFL) enabled JA to mitigate SA accumulation in the intact network but to support it under perturbation of PAD4, thereby minimizing the negative impact of SA on fitness as well as conferring robust SA-mediated immunity. We also present evidence for evolutionary conservation of these gene regulations in the family Brassicaceae Our results highlight an I4-FFL that simultaneously provides the immune network with robustness and tunability in A. thaliana and possibly in its relatives. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Retrieving infinite numbers of patterns in a spin-glass model of immune networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, E.; Annibale, A.; Barra, A.; Coolen, A. C. C.; Tantari, D.

    2017-01-01

    The similarity between neural and (adaptive) immune networks has been known for decades, but so far we did not understand the mechanism that allows the immune system, unlike associative neural networks, to recall and execute a large number of memorized defense strategies in parallel. The explanation turns out to lie in the network topology. Neurons interact typically with a large number of other neurons, whereas interactions among lymphocytes in immune networks are very specific, and described by graphs with finite connectivity. In this paper we use replica techniques to solve a statistical mechanical immune network model with “coordinator branches” (T-cells) and “effector branches” (B-cells), and show how the finite connectivity enables the coordinators to manage an extensive number of effectors simultaneously, even above the percolation threshold (where clonal cross-talk is not negligible). A consequence of its underlying topological sparsity is that the adaptive immune system exhibits only weak ergodicity breaking, so that also spontaneous switch-like effects as bi-stabilities are present: the latter may play a significant role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis.

  4. Security framework for networked storage system based on artificial immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianzhong; Xie, Changsheng; Zhang, Chengfeng; Zhan, Ling

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical framework for the networked storage system addressing the storage security. The immune system is an adaptive learning system, which can recognize, classify and eliminate 'non-self' such as foreign pathogens. Thus, we introduced the artificial immune technique to the storage security research, and proposed a full theoretical framework for storage security system. Under this framework, it is possible to carry out the quantitative evaluation for the storage security system using modeling language of artificial immune system (AIS), and the evaluation can offer security consideration for the deployment of networked storage system. Meanwhile, it is potential to obtain the active defense technique suitable for networked storage system via exploring the principle of AIS and achieve a highly secure storage system with immune characteristic.

  5. Development of non-toxic (anti-idiotypic) mucosal vaccines to block the absorption of the chemical carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Silbart, L.K.; Keren, D.F.; McDonald, R.A.; Goslinoski, L.; Brownlee, B.E.; Lash, C.; Smart, J.B. )

    1991-03-15

    One difficulty in developing mucosal vaccines to block carcinogen absorption has been the necessity of using carcinogen, or closely related structural analogs, coupled to carrier proteins in the vaccine preparation. The authors have developed anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) antibodies capable of mimicking the carcinogenic epitope. Anti-AAF antibodies (Ab{sub 1}) were prepared from three different sources. Groups of four female BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with 50 ug of either the rabbit polyclonal IgG anti-AAF, or the most anti-AAF monoclonal IgG{sub 1}-KLH conjugate in a 50:50 emulsion of complete Freund's adjuvant; booster doses were given four weeks later. A third group of two mice was immunized with approximately 1 ug of affinity-purified rat IgG anti-AAF, and boosted four weeks later, then one year later. Retro-orbital blood samples were collected and assayed for anti-Id activity by ELISA. Although all three groups produced anti-idiotypic antibodies, the strongest response was observed in mice receiving the affinity-purified polyclonal rat IgG anti-AAF. Once anti-Id producing hybridoma clones have been isolated, the anti-Id antibodies will replace the carcinogen in vaccine preparations designed to elicit anti-carcinogen antibodies.

  6. Antigen- and receptor-driven regulatory mechanisms. I. Induction of suppressor T cells with anti-idiotypic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to the azobenzenearsonate (ABA) hapten can be readily induced in A/J mice injecting ABA-coupled syngeneic spleen cells subcutaneously. To further characterize this T- cell-dependent immunological phenomenon, the effect of passively administered anti-cross-reactive idiotype common to anti-ABA antibodies of A/J mice (CRI) antibodies on the development of ABA-specific DTH was investigated. Animals given daily injections (of minute amounts) of anti-CRI antibodies subsequent to immunization with ABA-coupled cells show significant reduction of ABA specific responses. This inhibition is antigen specific and requires the intact immunoglobulin molecule, as F(ab')2 treatments were ineffective in suppressing the reaction. Investigations of the mechanism of the anti-CRI-induced suppression of ABA DTH revealed that the observed suppression is a result of the activation of suppressor cells. Spleen cells taken from animals which received anti-CRI antibodies were able to adoptively transfer suppression to naive recipients. This suppression was shown to be mediated by T cells, as anti-Thy1.2 plus complement completely abrogated the transfer of suppression. In addition, animals pretreated with low doses of cyclophosphamide were not suppressed by the administration of anti-CRI antibodies. The genetic restriction of anti- CRI-induced suppression was demonstrated. Antibodies to the major cross- reactive idiotype, (CRI) associated with anti-ABA antibodies in A/J mice were unable to suppress the development of DTH to ABA in BALB/c mice (H-2d, Igh-1a). Such antibodies were, however, fully active in suppressing ABA DTH in the allotype-congenic C.AL-20 strain which has an allotype (Igh-1d) similar to that of A/J (Igh-1e) on a BALB/c background, and which produces humoral antibodies with the CRI. PMID:91656

  7. Production of a single-chain fragment of the murine anti-idiotypic antibody ACA125 as phage-displayed and soluble antibody by recombinant phage antibody technique.

    PubMed

    Schlebusch, H; Reinartz, S; Kaiser, R; Grünn, U; Wagner, U

    1997-02-01

    The F(ab')2 fragment of the murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody ACA125 mimicking the tumor-associated antigen CA125 is used as a vaccine for the induction of an anti-tumoral immunity in patients with ovarian carcinoma. We tried to generate a single-chain fragment (ScFv) composed of ACA125 heavy- and light-chain variable domains connected by a polypeptide linker as an alternative to the corresponding F(ab')2 fragment. Heavy- and light-chain genes of antibody-producing mouse hybridoma cell line were amplified separately and assembled into a ScFv gene with linker DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ScFv gene was ligated into the phagemid vector pCANTAB5E, which allows the production of both phage-displayed and soluble ScFv. Transformed Escherichia coli TG1 cells were infected with M13K07 helper phage to yield recombinant phage, which display ScFv fragments as a g3p fusion protein on the surface of the filamentous phage M13. Recombinant phages could be selected by binding to the idiotypic antibody OC125 after one round of panning and directly used to reinfect E. coli TG1 cells. The E. coli nonsuppressor strain HB2151 was infected with an antigen-positive phage clone, previously screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), to express soluble ScFv fragments. Functional soluble ScFv binding to the idiotypic antibody OC125 F(ab')2 could be detected in the bacterial periplasm by Western blot and ELISA. The variable heavy- and light-chain genes of the ACA125 ScFv fragment were further sequenced and compared with known antibody sequences.

  8. Gangliosides, Ab1 and Ab2 antibodies II. Light versus heavy chain: An idiotype-anti-idiotype case study.

    PubMed

    López-Requena, Alejandro; Rodríguez, Mabel; de Acosta, Cristina Mateo; Moreno, Ernesto; Puchades, Yaquelin; González, Majela; Talavera, Ariel; Valle, Aisel; Hernández, Tays; Vázquez, Ana María; Pérez, Rolando

    2007-02-01

    The antibody heavy chain is generally more important than the light chain for the interaction with the antigen, although many reports demonstrate the influence of the light chain in the antibody binding properties. The heavy chains of anti-N-glycolyl-ganglioside P3 mAb and anti-idiotypic 1E10 mAb display complementary charged residues in their H-CDRs, particularly in H-CDR3. A basic residue in P3 mAb H-CDR1 was shown to be crucial for the interaction with the antigen and 1E10 mAb. The immunogenetic features of three other P3 mAb anti-idiotypic mAbs are now analyzed. One of them bears the same heavy chain as 1E10 mAb and a different light chain, but differs in its binding to P3 mAb mutants where H-CDR basic residues were replaced and in the binding to 1E10-specific phagotopes. Chimeric hybrid antibodies with P3 and 1E10 mAb heavy chains and unrelated light chains were obtained to further determine the importance of heavy chains in P3 and 1E10 mAb binding properties. One of the P3 heavy chain hybrid antibodies retained the specificity of P3 mAb with slight affinity differences. The heavy chains appear to play the main role in these mAb interactions, with the light chains modulating the affinity to their ligands.

  9. The simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates complex functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Sun, Ying; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai; Gao, Qiang; Song, Linsheng

    2016-05-19

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of the host. In the present study, the bioinformatical analysis of the transcriptomic data from oyster Crassostrea gigas and further biological validation revealed that oyster TNF (CgTNF-1 CGI_10018786) could activate the transcription factors NF-κB and HSF (heat shock transcription factor) through MAPK signaling pathway, and then regulate apoptosis, redox reaction, neuro-regulation and protein folding in oyster haemocytes. The activated immune cells then released neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, norepinephrine and [Met(5)]-enkephalin to regulate the immune response by arising the expression of three TNF (CGI_10005109, CGI_10005110 and CGI_10006440) and translocating two NF-κB (Cgp65, CGI_10018142 and CgRel, CGI_10021567) between the cytoplasm and nuclei of haemocytes. Neurotransmitters exhibited the immunomodulation effects by influencing apoptosis and phagocytosis of oyster haemocytes. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine could down-regulate the immune response, while [Met(5)]-enkephalin up-regulate the immune response. These results suggested that the simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster might be activated by oyster TNF and then regulate the immune response by virtue of neurotransmitters, cytokines and transcription factors.

  10. The simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates complex functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Sun, Ying; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai; Gao, Qiang; Song, Linsheng

    2016-05-01

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of the host. In the present study, the bioinformatical analysis of the transcriptomic data from oyster Crassostrea gigas and further biological validation revealed that oyster TNF (CgTNF-1 CGI_10018786) could activate the transcription factors NF-κB and HSF (heat shock transcription factor) through MAPK signaling pathway, and then regulate apoptosis, redox reaction, neuro-regulation and protein folding in oyster haemocytes. The activated immune cells then released neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, norepinephrine and [Met5]-enkephalin to regulate the immune response by arising the expression of three TNF (CGI_10005109, CGI_10005110 and CGI_10006440) and translocating two NF-κB (Cgp65, CGI_10018142 and CgRel, CGI_10021567) between the cytoplasm and nuclei of haemocytes. Neurotransmitters exhibited the immunomodulation effects by influencing apoptosis and phagocytosis of oyster haemocytes. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine could down-regulate the immune response, while [Met5]-enkephalin up-regulate the immune response. These results suggested that the simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster might be activated by oyster TNF and then regulate the immune response by virtue of neurotransmitters, cytokines and transcription factors.

  11. The simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates complex functions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Sun, Ying; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai; Gao, Qiang; Song, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of the host. In the present study, the bioinformatical analysis of the transcriptomic data from oyster Crassostrea gigas and further biological validation revealed that oyster TNF (CgTNF-1 CGI_10018786) could activate the transcription factors NF-κB and HSF (heat shock transcription factor) through MAPK signaling pathway, and then regulate apoptosis, redox reaction, neuro-regulation and protein folding in oyster haemocytes. The activated immune cells then released neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, norepinephrine and [Met5]-enkephalin to regulate the immune response by arising the expression of three TNF (CGI_10005109, CGI_10005110 and CGI_10006440) and translocating two NF-κB (Cgp65, CGI_10018142 and CgRel, CGI_10021567) between the cytoplasm and nuclei of haemocytes. Neurotransmitters exhibited the immunomodulation effects by influencing apoptosis and phagocytosis of oyster haemocytes. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine could down-regulate the immune response, while [Met5]-enkephalin up-regulate the immune response. These results suggested that the simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster might be activated by oyster TNF and then regulate the immune response by virtue of neurotransmitters, cytokines and transcription factors. PMID:27193598

  12. Reverse engineering biological networks :applications in immune responses to bio-toxins.

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, Anthony A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davidson, George S.; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Thomas, Edward Victor; Slepoy, Alexander; Zhang, Zhaoduo; May, Elebeoba Eni; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel

    2005-12-01

    Our aim is to determine the network of events, or the regulatory network, that defines an immune response to a bio-toxin. As a model system, we are studying T cell regulatory network triggered through tyrosine kinase receptor activation using a combination of pathway stimulation and time-series microarray experiments. Our approach is composed of five steps (1) microarray experiments and data error analysis, (2) data clustering, (3) data smoothing and discretization, (4) network reverse engineering, and (5) network dynamics analysis and fingerprint identification. The technological outcome of this study is a suite of experimental protocols and computational tools that reverse engineer regulatory networks provided gene expression data. The practical biological outcome of this work is an immune response fingerprint in terms of gene expression levels. Inferring regulatory networks from microarray data is a new field of investigation that is no more than five years old. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt that integrates experiments, error analyses, data clustering, inference, and network analysis to solve a practical problem. Our systematic approach of counting, enumeration, and sampling networks matching experimental data is new to the field of network reverse engineering. The resulting mathematical analyses and computational tools lead to new results on their own and should be useful to others who analyze and infer networks.

  13. MicroRNA-mediated networks underlie immune response regulation in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen-Tsung; Oyang, Yen-Jen; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2014-09-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a common endocrine malignancy with low death rate but increased incidence and recurrence in recent years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with diverse regulatory capacities in eukaryotes and have been frequently implied in human cancer. Despite current progress, however, a panoramic overview concerning miRNA regulatory networks in PTC is still lacking. Here, we analyzed the expression datasets of PTC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Data Portal and demonstrate for the first time that immune responses are significantly enriched and under specific regulation in the direct miRNA-target network among distinctive PTC variants to different extents. Additionally, considering the unconventional properties of miRNAs, we explore the protein-coding competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) and the modulatory networks in PTC and unexpectedly disclose concerted regulation of immune responses from these networks. Interestingly, miRNAs from these conventional and unconventional networks share general similarities and differences but tend to be disparate as regulatory activities increase, coordinately tuning the immune responses that in part account for PTC tumor biology. Together, our systematic results uncover the intensive regulation of immune responses underlain by miRNA-mediated networks in PTC, opening up new avenues in the management of thyroid cancer.

  14. Specificity and idiotype analysis of a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody.

    PubMed

    Pisetsky, D

    1983-06-01

    The binding properties and idiotypes of a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody were studied to investigate the control of specificity in this autoimmune response. This antibody, A9, was derived from the fusion of spleen cells of an MRL-lpr/lpr mouse and the cell line X63-Ag8.653. In inhibition binding studies, A9 showed preference for single-stranded DNA and bound both ribo- and deoxyribohomopolymers. An antiserum prepared in a rabbit against A9 showed anti-idiotypic specificity after absorption with BALB/c immunoglobulins and the BALB/c myeloma MOPC 195. At least two distinct idiotypic specificities could be demonstrated by this serum, one apparently exclusive to A9 and one commonly expressed in sera of MRL-lpr/lpr mice. Serum levels of the commonly expressed A9 idiotype were also elevated in sera of C3H mice expressing the lpr gene suggesting association with B-cell activation induced by this genetic mechanism. The demonstration of a commonly expressed A9 idiotype indicates that some autoantibody variable region determinants may be genetically controlled.

  15. New human single chain anti-idiotypic antibody against benzo[a]pyrene

    PubMed Central

    Ustinov, Valentin A.; Morozova, Vera V.; Tikunova, Nina V.; Glushkov, Andrey N.

    2017-01-01

    The nal¨ve library from the lymphocytes of healthy humans was screened by murine single-stranded idiotypic antibodies against benzo[a]pyrene (pSh). The phage clone which contained of anti-idiotypic antibody against benzo[a]pyrene, designated as A4, was chosen for further work because of highly specific to pSh. The available protein databases were searched. The A4 amino acid sequence was unique and 76% identical to a sequence in antibody against interferon g. The A4 protein was expressed in bacteria and purified by two different methods: His-tagged A4 and CBD-fusion A4. Both the A4 bound to pSh and also to the human single chain idiotypic antibody against the benzo[a]pyrene (T72) by ELISA. The Kd values of A4 for pSh and T72 were very close: 4.44 × 10-7 M and 5.71 × 10-7M, respectively. A4 was a competitor with benzo[a]pyrene for binding sites of both idiotypic pSh and T72 in competitive ELISA. Thus, A4 was a high affinity anti-idiotypic against benzo[a]pyrene which recognised pSh and T72 active sites. PMID:28860930

  16. The Impact of Established Immunoregulatory Networks on Vaccine Efficacy and the Development of Immunity to Malaria.

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca, Marcela; Good, Michael F; McCarthy, James S; Engwerda, Christian R

    2016-12-15

    The development of vaccines to protect against parasites is difficult, in large part due to complex host-parasite interactions that have evolved over millennia. Parasitic factors such as antigenic variation and host factors such as age, transmission intensity, and genetic influences are all thought to contribute to the limited efficacy of parasite vaccines. A developing theme in field studies investigating antiparasitic immunity is the emergence, establishment, and maintenance of immunoregulatory networks that shape the immune responses to new infections, as well as vaccines, thereby influencing disease outcome. In this review, we will examine why parasite vaccine candidates perform poorly in target populations and, in particular, the role of immunoregulatory networks in influencing antimalarial immunity and vaccine efficacy. We will focus our discussion on malaria, the most important parasitic disease of humans, but also highlight the broader impact of immunoregulatory networks on vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Endogenous humoral autoreactive immune responses to apoptotic cells: Effects on phagocytic uptake, chemotactic migration and antigenic spread.

    PubMed

    Das, Joy; Arora, Pooja; Gracias, Donald; Praveen, Alagangula; Raj, Beena P J; Martin, Elishba; Pal, Rahul

    2008-12-01

    Enhanced cell death and deficient clearance of cellular debris are thought to contribute to increased self-antigen exposure in systemic autoimmune disease. To investigate the characteristics of early humoral autoimmune responses, six monoclonal antibodies were generated from two autoimmune prone strains of mice. All antibodies specifically bound the surface of late-stage apoptotic cells. Similar antibody reactivities were present in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. While IgM antibodies significantly reduced the phagocytic uptake of apoptotic thymocytes, IgG antibodies enhanced uptake. Poly-reactivity was demonstrated in the recognition of ribonucleoproteins and lipids. An antibody reactive towards lysophosphatidylcholine reversed lysophosphatidylcholine-mediated inhibition of LPS-induced TNF-alpha production and adversely affected the transmigration of phagocytes towards an apoptotic stimulus. In several instances, CDR were characterized by the accumulation of somatic mutations. Anti-idiotypic antibodies generated upon immunization bound distinct cellular moieties and self-antigens. Poly-specific, apoptotic cell-reactive autoantibodies can therefore directly impact upon the course of disease by influencing phagocytic uptake of apoptotic cells, by inducing a pro-inflammatory environment through neutralization of bioactive lipids, by blinding phagocytes to the presence of dying cells through the negation of lipidic chemotactic signals, and by mediating diversification of the humoral autoimmune response via the idiotypic network.

  18. Expression and regulation of two idiotype families and subsets within an idiotype family among BALB/c antibodies against p-azophenylarsonate

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, A.R.

    1984-06-01

    The expression and regulation of the two different iodiotype (id) families associated with the anti-p-azophenylarsonate (Ar) antibodies of BALB/c mice examined. Both families (5AF6 and 3C6) represented cross-reactive idiotypes (CRI) expressed in the anti-Ar of most individual BALB/c mice. In response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin-Ar, an average of about 28% of BALB/c anti-Ar had 5AF6 family idiotopes, while 3C6 family was expressed on about 16% of BALBc anti-Ar antibodies. Suppression induced by anti-idiotype treatment against one family did not suppress the expression of the other family suggesting that the two families were regulated independently. However, the relative expression of one family could influence the expression of the other, because depression of the 5AF6 family tended to increase the expression of the 3C6 family of anti-Ar. Analysis of the 5AF6 family showed that a majority of BALB/c mice produced antibodies heating most or all of the idiotopes associated with the family, but that a subset of about 35% of the antibodies synthesized lacked idiotopes associated with a monoclonal anti-Ar member of this family, 2.4. Treatment of mice with anti-idiotypes prepared against two different monoclonal anti-Ar of the 5AF6 family produced different effects: one enhanced while the other suppressed idiotype expression, suggesting that there are differences in the idiotopes associated with these two regulatory pathways. Additionally, results indicated that subsets of antibodies within the 5AF6 idiotype family could be regulated independently of each other.

  19. Distributed Immune Systems for Wireless Network Information Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-26

    constraints. When possible , we have tried to take advantage of the special nature of wireless networks to improve assurance and security, while keeping...the protection of commercial networks from virus attacks; recent advances in complex waveform generation which can be profitably utilized to secure...tools, models or products or other technology transition results: (a) Distributed detection of spreading worms and viruses (b) On-line detection of

  20. Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Immunizations KidsHealth > For Teens > Immunizations Print A A A ... That Shot? en español Las vacunas Why Are Vaccinations Important? Measles, mumps, and whooping cough may seem ...

  1. Immunization

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against things like measles, ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  2. Immunization information systems in Canada: Attributes, functionality, strengths and challenges. A Canadian Immunization Research Network study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah E; Quach, Susan; MacDonald, Shannon E; Naus, Monika; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Mahmud, Salaheddin M; Tran, Dat; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Tu, Karen; Johnson, Caitlin; Desai, Shalini

    2017-03-01

    Canada does not have a national immunization registry. Diverse systems to record vaccine uptake exist, but these have not been systematically described. Our objective was to describe the immunization information systems (IISs) and non-IIS processes used to record childhood and adolescent vaccinations, and to outline the strengths and limitations of the systems and processes. We collected information from key informants regarding their provincial, territorial or federal organization's surveillance systems for assessing immunization coverage. Information collection consisted of a self-administered questionnaire and a follow-up interview. We evaluated systems against attributes derived from the literature using content analysis. Twenty-six individuals across 16 public health organizations participated over the period of April to August 2015. Twelve of Canada's 13 provinces and territories (P/Ts) and two organizations involved in health service delivery for on-reserve First Nations people participated. Across systems, there were differences in data collection processes, reporting capabilities and advanced functionality. Commonly cited challenges included timeliness and data completeness of records, particularly for physician-administered immunizations. Privacy considerations and the need for data standards were stated as challenges to the goal of information sharing across P/T systems. Many P/Ts have recently implemented new systems and, in some cases, legislation to improve timeliness and/or completeness. Considerable variability exists among IISs and non-IIS processes used to assess immunization coverage in Canada. Although some P/Ts have already pursued legislative or policy initiatives to address the completeness and timeliness of information, many additional opportunities exist in the information technology realm.

  3. [Effect of forest therapy on the human psycho-neuro-endocrino-immune network].

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2011-09-01

    Traditional thinking considered the nervous system, endocrine system and immune system to be independent of each other. However, it is now widely accepted that these systems interact through the psycho-neuro-endocrino-immune network. The nervous system affects the endocrine and immune systems by releasing neurotransmitters through the hypothalamus in the hypothalamic-pituitary portal circulation. The endocrine system affects the nervous and immune systems by secreting hormones and the immune system feeds back to the nervous and endocrine systems via cytokines. Forest therapy reduces sympathetic nervous activity, increases parasympathetic nervous activity, and regulates the balance of autonomic nerves. As a result, forest therapy decreases blood pressure and heart rate and has a relaxing effect. Forest therapy affects psychological responses via the brain and nervous system thereby decreasing the scores for anxiety, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion, and increasing the score for vigor in the POMS test. Forest therapy acts on the endocrine system to reduce stress hormone levels such as urinary adrenaline, urinary noradrenaline, salivary cortisol, and blood cortisol levels and shows a relaxing effect. Forest therapy also acts directly and indirectly on the immune system to promote NK activity by increasing the number of NK cells and intracellular levels of anticancer proteins such as perforin, granulysin and granzymes. Taken together, forest therapy brings various effects on human health via the psycho-neuro-endocrino-immune network.

  4. RBF network based on artificial immune algorithm for regional head conductivity estimation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guoya; Zhou, Ying; Qiu, Zhiliang; Yan, Weili

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network model based on Artificial Immune principle, termed AI-based RBF, to estimate the regional head tissue conductivity. In this model, immune learning algorithm is used for determining the number and location of the centers of the hidden layer by regarding the input data of network as antigens, and the centers of the hidden layer as antibodies. The least square algorithm is adopted for achieving the weights of the output layer. With a 2-D concentric circular model of 3 layers, the higher precision and less computation time by this strategy are obtained than those by RBF model.

  5. Innate Immune Network in the Retina Activated by Optic Nerve Crush

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Justin P.; Freeman, Natalie E.; Nickerson, John M.; Jablonski, Monica M.; Rex, Tonia S.; Williams, Robert W.; Geisert, Eldon E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Innate immunity plays a role in many diseases, including glaucoma and AMD. We have used transcriptome profiling in the mouse to identify a network of genes involved in innate immunity that is present in the normal retina and that is activated by optic nerve crush (ONC). Methods. Using a recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strain set (BXD, C57BL/6 crossed with DBA/2J mice), we generate expression datasets (Illumina WG 6.2 arrays) in the normal mouse retina and 2 days after ONC. The normal dataset is constructed from retinas from 80 mouse strains and the ONC dataset is constructed from 62 strains. These large datasets are hosted by GeneNetwork.org, along with a series of powerful bioinformatic tools. Results. In the retina datasets, one intriguing network involves transcripts associated with the innate immunity. Using C4b to interrogate the normal dataset, we can identify a group of genes that are coregulated across the BXD RI strains. Many of the genes in this network are associated with the innate immune system, including Serping1, Casp1, C3, Icam1, Tgfbr2, Cfi, Clu, C1qg, Aif1, and Cd74. Following ONC, the expression of these genes is upregulated, along with an increase in coordinated expression across the BXD strains. Many of the genes in this network are risk factors for AMD, including C3, EFEMP1, MCDR2, CFB, TLR4, HTA1, and C1QTNF5. Conclusions. We found a retina-intrinsic innate immunity network that is activated by injury including ONC. Many of the genes in this network are risk factors for retinal disease. PMID:23493296

  6. 1E10 anti-idiotype vaccine in non-small cell lung cancer: experience in stage IIIb/IV patients.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Saily; Diaz, Rosa M; de la Torre, Ana; Santiesteban, Eduardo; Aguirre, Frank; Pérez, Kirenia; Rodríguez, José L; Barroso, María del Carmen; Hernández, Ana M; Toledo, Darien; Gabri, Mariano R; Alonso, Daniel F; Viada, Carmen; Gómez, Roberto E; Suárez, Eduardo; Vazquez, Ana M; Perez, Rolando; Macias, Amparo E

    2007-12-01

    Conventional treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has apparently reached a plateau of effectiveness in improving the survival of the patients. For that reason the search for new therapeutic strategies in this type of tumor is justified. 1E10 is an anti-idiotype murine monoclonal antibody (Ab2 MAb) specific to P3 Ab1 MAb, which reacts with NeuGc-containing gangliosides, sulfatides and with antigens expressed in some tumors, including those from the lung. We report the treatment with aluminum hydroxide-precipitated 1E10 MAb of 34 stage IIIb and 37 stage IV NSCLC patients. These patients were treated with the anti-idiotype vaccine, after received standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy, in a compassionate-use basis study. Patients received five bi-weekly injections of 1 mg of 1E10/Alum, other 10 doses at 28-day intervals and later the patients who maintained a good performance status continued to be immunized at this same time interval. No evidence of unexpected or serious adverse effects was reported. The median survival time of the 56 patients who entered the study with partial response or disease stabilization and with a PS 1 after the first line of chemo/radiotherapy, was 11.50 months from starting vaccination. In contrast, the median survival time calculated for patients who started vaccination with progressive disease and/or a PS2 was 6.50 months.

  7. Trail networks formed by populations of immune cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Taeseok Daniel; Kwon, Tae Goo; Park, Jin-sung; Lee, Kyoung J.

    2014-02-01

    Populations of biological cells that communicate with each other can organize themselves to generate large-scale patterns. Examples can be found in diverse systems, ranging from developing embryos, cardiac tissues, chemotaxing ameba and swirling bacteria. The similarity, often shared by the patterns, suggests the existence of some general governing principle. On the other hand, rich diversity and system-specific properties are exhibited, depending on the type of involved cells and the nature of their interactions. The study on the similarity and the diversity constitutes a rapidly growing field of research. Here, we introduce a new class of self-organized patterns of cell populations that we term as ‘cellular trail networks’. They were observed with populations of rat microglia, the immune cells of the brain and the experimental evidence suggested that haptotaxis is the key element responsible for them. The essential features of the observed patterns are well captured by the mathematical model cells that actively crawl and interact with each other through a decomposing but non-diffusing chemical attractant laid down by the cells. Our finding suggests an unusual mechanism of socially cooperative long-range signaling for the crawling immune cells.

  8. Development of Mathematical Models of Immune Networks Intended for Information Security Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    AISs based on natural immune networks differ remarkably from ANNs, intelligent agents, genetic algorithms, and cellular automata in their ability to...singular value decomposition (SVD) of interval matrices, procedures for supervised learning, unsupervised learning, classification and presentation of...Programming and Software 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON PAUL LOSIEWICZ, Ph. D. a. REPORT UNCLAS b. ABSTRACT

  9. Learning ensembles of neural networks by means of a Bayesian artificial immune system.

    PubMed

    Castro, Pablo A Dalbem; Von Zuben, Fernando José

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we apply an immune-inspired approach to design ensembles of heterogeneous neural networks for classification problems. Our proposal, called Bayesian artificial immune system, is an estimation of distribution algorithm that replaces the traditional mutation and cloning operators with a probabilistic model, more specifically a Bayesian network, representing the joint distribution of promising solutions. Among the additional attributes provided by the Bayesian framework inserted into an immune-inspired search algorithm are the automatic control of the population size along the search and the inherent ability to promote and preserve diversity among the candidate solutions. Both are attributes generally absent from alternative estimation of distribution algorithms, and both were shown to be useful attributes when implementing the generation and selection of components of the ensemble, thus leading to high-performance classifiers. Several aspects of the design are illustrated in practical applications, including a comparative analysis with other attempts to synthesize ensembles.

  10. Understanding the role of human variation in vaccine adverse events: the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Network.

    PubMed

    LaRussa, Philip S; Edwards, Kathryn M; Dekker, Cornelia L; Klein, Nicola P; Halsey, Neal A; Marchant, Colin; Baxter, Roger; Engler, Renata J M; Kissner, Jennifer; Slade, Barbara A

    2011-05-01

    The Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Network is a collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and 6 academic medical centers to provide support for immunization safety assessment and research. The CISA Network was established by the CDC in 2001 with 4 primary goals: (1) develop research protocols for clinical evaluation, diagnosis, and management of adverse events following immunization (AEFI); (2) improve the understanding of AEFI at the individual level, including determining possible genetic and other risk factors for predisposed people and subpopulations at high risk; (3) develop evidence-based algorithms for vaccination of people at risk of serious AEFI; and (4) serve as subject-matter experts for clinical vaccine-safety inquiries. CISA Network investigators bring in-depth clinical, pathophysiologic, and epidemiologic expertise to assessing causal relationships between vaccines and adverse events and to understanding the pathogenesis of AEFI. CISA Network researchers conduct expert reviews of clinically significant adverse events and determine the validity of the recorded diagnoses on the basis of clinical and laboratory criteria. They also conduct special studies to investigate the possible pathogenesis of adverse events, assess relationships between vaccines and adverse events, and maintain a centralized repository for clinical specimens. The CISA Network provides specific clinical guidance to both health care providers who administer vaccines and those who evaluate and treat patients with possible AEFI. The CISA Network plays an important role in providing critical immunization-safety data and expertise to inform vaccine policy-makers. The CISA Network serves as a unique resource for vaccine-safety monitoring efforts conducted at the CDC.

  11. Identifying causal networks linking cancer processes and anti-tumor immunity using Bayesian network inference and metagene constructs

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Jacob L.; Bland, Cassidy L.; Klinke, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer arises from a deregulation of both intracellular and intercellular networks that maintain system homeostasis. Identifying the architecture of these networks and how they are changed in cancer is a pre-requisite for designing drugs to restore homeostasis. Since intercellular networks only appear in intact systems, it is difficult to identify how these networks become altered in human cancer using many of the common experimental models. To overcome this, we used the diversity in normal and malignant human tissue samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database of human breast cancer to identify the topology associated with intercellular networks in vivo. To improve the underlying biological signals, we constructed Bayesian networks using metagene constructs, which represented groups of genes that are concomitantly associated with different immune and cancer states. We also used bootstrap resampling to establish the significance associated with the inferred networks. In short, we found opposing relationships between cell proliferation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) with regards to macrophage polarization. These results were consistent across multiple carcinomas in that proliferation was associated with a type 1 cell-mediated anti-tumor immune response and EMT was associated with a pro-tumor anti-inflammatory response. To address the identifiability of these networks from other datasets, we could identify the relationship between EMT and macrophage polarization with fewer samples when the Bayesian network was generated from malignant samples alone. However, the relationship between proliferation and macrophage polarization was identified with fewer samples when the samples were taken from a combination of the normal and malignant samples. PMID:26785356

  12. A statistical mechanics approach to autopoietic immune networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, Adriano; Agliari, Elena

    2010-07-01

    In this work we aim to bridge theoretical immunology and disordered statistical mechanics. We introduce a model for the behavior of B-cells which naturally merges the clonal selection theory and the autopoietic network theory as a whole. From the analysis of its features we recover several basic phenomena such as low-dose tolerance, dynamical memory of antigens and self/non-self discrimination.

  13. Prediction of microRNAs involved in immune system diseases through network based features.

    PubMed

    Prabahar, Archana; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding regulatory RNA molecules that modulate the expression of several genes at post-transcriptional level and play a vital role in disease pathogenesis. Recent research shows that a range of miRNAs are involved in the regulation of immunity and its deregulation results in immune mediated diseases such as cancer, inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Computational discovery of these immune miRNAs using a set of specific features is highly desirable. In the current investigation, we present a SVM based classification system which uses a set of novel network based topological and motif features in addition to the baseline sequential and structural features to predict immune specific miRNAs from other non-immune miRNAs. The classifier was trained and tested on a balanced set of equal number of positive and negative examples to show the discriminative power of our network features. Experimental results show that our approach achieves an accuracy of 90.2% and outperforms the classification accuracy of 63.2% reported using the traditional miRNA sequential and structural features. The proposed classifier was further validated with two immune disease sub-class datasets related to multiple sclerosis microarray data and psoriasis RNA-seq data with higher accuracy. These results indicate that our classifier which uses network and motif features along with sequential and structural features will lead to significant improvement in classifying immune miRNAs and hence can be applied to identify other specific classes of miRNAs as an extensible miRNA classification system.

  14. Canadian paediatricians’ approaches to managing patients with adverse events following immunization: The role of the Special Immunization Clinic network

    PubMed Central

    Top, Karina A; Zafack, Joseline; De Serres, Gaston; Halperin, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When moderate or severe adverse events occur after vaccination, physicians and patients may have concerns about future immunizations. Similar concerns arise in patients with underlying conditions whose risk for adverse events may differ from the general population. The Special Immunization Clinic (SIC) network was established in 2013 at 13 sites in Canada to provide expertise in the clinical evaluation and vaccination of these patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess referral patterns for patients with vaccine adverse events or potential vaccine contraindications among paediatricians and to assess the anticipated utilization of an SIC. METHODS: A 12-item questionnaire was distributed to paediatricians and subspecialists participating in the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program through monthly e-mail and mail contacts. RESULTS: The response rate was 24% (586 of 2490). Fifty-three percent of respondents practiced general paediatrics exclusively and 52% reported that they administer vaccines. In the previous 12 months, 26% of respondents had encountered children with challenging adverse events or potential vaccine contraindications in their practice and 29% had received referrals for such patients, including 27% of subspecialists. Overall, 69% of respondents indicated that they would be likely or very likely to refer patients to an SIC, and 34% indicated that they would have referred at least one patient to an SIC in the previous 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who experience challenging adverse events following immunization or potential vaccine contraindications are encountered by paediatricians and subspecialists in all practice settings. The SIC network will be able to respond to a clinical need and support paediatricians in managing these patients. PMID:25332661

  15. Dose-Dependent Induction of an Idiotypic Cascade by Anti-Glycosaminoglycan Monoclonal Antibody in apoE−/− Mice: Association with Atheroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Sarduy, Roger; Brito, Victor; Castillo, Adriana; Soto, Yosdel; Griñán, Tania; Marleau, Sylvie; Vázquez, Ana María

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the underlying pathology of most cardiovascular diseases, is triggered by the retention of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins in the arterial wall through electrostatic interactions with glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains of proteoglycans. Previously, we reported the antiatherogenic properties of the chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) chP3R99-LALA, which binds sulfated GAGs, inhibits low-density lipoprotein (LDL)–chondroitin sulfate (CS) association, and abrogates LDL oxidation and foam cell formation. In preventive and therapeutic settings, apoE-deficient (apoE−/−) mice immunized with 50 μg of this mAb showed reduced atherosclerotic lesions related with the induction of autologous anti-GAG antibodies. Knowing that age and sex are major non-modifiable risk factors in the development of atherosclerosis, the present study aimed to assess the influence of these variables on the capacity of chP3R99-LALA mAb to generate an anti-CS antibody response. Also, we aimed at defining the impact of the dose of chP3R99-LALA on the anti-CS antibody induction and the atheroprotective effect of this mAb in apoE−/− mice. Neither age nor sex had an impact in the IgG anti-CS antibody response induced by s.c. immunization with this mAb. Moreover, chP3R99-LALA mAb reduced atherosclerotic lesions to a similar extent in both young male and female apoE−/− mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet and, in middle-aged female apoE−/− mice, with spontaneous lesions. On the other hand, increasing the dose of chP3R99-LALA (200 vs. 50 μg) elicited an anti-idiotype antibody cascade characterized by higher levels of anti-idiotype (Ab2), anti-anti-idiotype (Ab3), and anti-CS antibody responses. Moreover, this dose increment resulted in a striking reduction of aortic atherosclerotic lesions in immunized mice. PMID:28316603

  16. Network analysis reveals cross-links of the immune pathways activated by bacteria and allergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Colin; Thakar, Juilee; Albert, Réka

    2011-09-01

    Many biological networks are characterized by directed edges that represent either activating (positive) or inhibiting (negative) regulation. Most graph-theoretical methods used to study biological networks either disregard this important feature, or study the role of edge sign only in the context of small subgraphs called motifs. Here, we develop path-based measures which capture, on continuous scales spanning negative and positive values, both the long- and short-range regulatory relationships among node pairs. These measures also allow the quantification of each node's overall influence on the whole network and its susceptibility to regulation by the rest of the network. We apply the measures to a network representation of the mammalian immune response to simultaneous attack by allergen and respiratory bacteria. Although allergen and bacteria elicit different immune pathways, there is significant overlap (cross-talk) and feedback between these pathways. We identify key immune components in this cross-talk; particularly revealing the importance of natural killer cells as a key regulatory target in the cross-talk.

  17. A cascade reaction network mimicking the basic functional steps of adaptive immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Da; Wu, Cuichen; You, Mingxu; Zhang, Tao; Wan, Shuo; Chen, Tao; Qiu, Liping; Zheng, Zheng; Liang, Hao; Tan, Weihong

    2015-10-01

    Biological systems use complex ‘information-processing cores’ composed of molecular networks to coordinate their external environment and internal states. An example of this is the acquired, or adaptive, immune system (AIS), which is composed of both humoral and cell-mediated components. Here we report the step-by-step construction of a prototype mimic of the AIS that we call an adaptive immune response simulator (AIRS). DNA and enzymes are used as simple artificial analogues of the components of the AIS to create a system that responds to specific molecular stimuli in vitro. We show that this network of reactions can function in a manner that is superficially similar to the most basic responses of the vertebrate AIS, including reaction sequences that mimic both humoral and cellular responses. As such, AIRS provides guidelines for the design and engineering of artificial reaction networks and molecular devices.

  18. B and T cell responses elicited by monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2beta) mimicking gp43 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Souza, E B; Lopes, J D; Almeida, S R

    2004-07-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America, with a high prevalence in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela. The aetiological agent of disease is the thermal dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. A glycoprotein of 43 kD (gp43) is the major antigen of P. brasiliensis. Antibodies directed to this antigen are detected in the sera of all patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Recently, it has been shown that mice immunized with anti-gp43 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (Ab1), induce the idiotypic cascade in the gp43 system, which produced both, anti-Id antibodies (Ab2) and anti-anti-Id antibodies (Ab3). To further characterize the idiotypic cascade modulation in mice immunized with anti-gp43 MAb 17c, hybridomas were produced. Ab2 MAbs named 7.B12 inhibited (>95%) the binding of gp43 to MAb 17c (Ab1), suggesting that this anti-Id MAb bind to the idiotope, thus fulfilling the internal image criteria. To elucidate whether Ab2 MAb could act as antigen in serological assays, instead of gp43, sera from PCM patients were tested. Using an ELISA test, it was observed that antibodies from patients and not normal serum bound to Ab2. However, the ELISA test using Ab2 bound to the solid phase made possible to serologically monitor the patients after antifungal therapy, showing an equivalent curve when compared with ELISA test employing purified gp43. Our results also showed that, when mice were immunized with Ab2beta and their cells were exposed to gp43 in vitro, a T cell proliferation response was observed.

  19. B and T cell responses elicited by monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2β) mimicking gp43 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    SOUZA, E B; LOPES, J D; ALMEIDA, S R

    2004-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America, with a high prevalence in Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela. The aetiological agent of disease is the thermal dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. A glycoprotein of 43 kD (gp43) is the major antigen of P. brasiliensis. Antibodies directed to this antigen are detected in the sera of all patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Recently, it has been shown that mice immunized with anti-gp43 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (Ab1), induce the idiotypic cascade in the gp43 system, which produced both, anti-Id antibodies (Ab2) and anti-anti-Id antibodies (Ab3). To further characterize the idiotypic cascade modulation in mice immunized with anti-gp43 MAb 17c, hybridomas were produced. Ab2 MAbs named 7.B12 inhibited (>95%) the binding of gp43 to MAb 17c (Ab1), suggesting that this anti-Id MAb bind to the idiotope, thus fulfilling the internal image criteria. To elucidate whether Ab2 MAb could act as antigen in serological assays, instead of gp43, sera from PCM patients were tested. Using an ELISA test, it was observed that antibodies from patients and not normal serum bound to Ab2. However, the ELISA test using Ab2 bound to the solid phase made possible to serologically monitor the patients after antifungal therapy, showing an equivalent curve when compared with ELISA test employing purified gp43. Our results also showed that, when mice were immunized with Ab2β and their cells were exposed to gp43 in vitro, a T cell proliferation response was observed. PMID:15196252

  20. Characterization of the human immune cell network at the gingival barrier

    PubMed Central

    Greenwell-Wild, Teresa; Moutsopoulos, Niki M.

    2015-01-01

    The oral mucosa is a barrier site constantly exposed to rich and diverse commensal microbial communities, yet little is known of the immune cell network maintaining immune homeostasis at this interface. We have performed a detailed characterization of the immune cell subsets of the oral cavity in a large cohort of healthy subjects. We focused our characterization on the gingival interface, a particularly vulnerable mucosal site, with thin epithelial lining and constant exposure to the tooth adherent biofilm. In health, we find a predominance of T cells, minimal B cells, a large presence of granulocytes/neutrophils, a sophisticated network of professional antigen presenting cells (APC) and a small population of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) policing the gingival barrier. We further characterize cellular subtypes in health and interrogate shifts in immune cell populations in the common oral inflammatory disease periodontitis. In disease we document an increase in neutrophils and an up regulation of IL-17 responses. We identify the main source of IL-17 in health and periodontitis within the CD4+ T cell compartment. Collectively our studies provide a first view of the landscape of physiologic oral immunity and serve as a baseline for the characterization of local immunopathology. PMID:26732676

  1. Construction of an integrated gene regulatory network link to stress-related immune system in cattle.

    PubMed

    Behdani, Elham; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-08-20

    The immune system is an important biological system that is negatively impacted by stress. This study constructed an integrated regulatory network to enhance our understanding of the regulatory gene network used in the stress-related immune system. Module inference was used to construct modules of co-expressed genes with bovine leukocyte RNA-Seq data. Transcription factors (TFs) were then assigned to these modules using Lemon-Tree algorithms. In addition, the TFs assigned to each module were confirmed using the promoter analysis and protein-protein interactions data. Therefore, our integrated method identified three TFs which include one TF that is previously known to be involved in immune response (MYBL2) and two TFs (E2F8 and FOXS1) that had not been recognized previously and were identified for the first time in this study as novel regulatory candidates in immune response. This study provides valuable insights on the regulatory programs of genes involved in the stress-related immune system.

  2. Local immunization program for susceptible-infected-recovered network epidemic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingchu; Lou, Yijun

    2016-02-01

    The immunization strategies through contact tracing on the susceptible-infected-recovered framework in social networks are modelled to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of information-based vaccination programs with particular focus on the scenario where individuals belonging to a specific set can get vaccinated due to the vaccine shortages and other economic or humanity constraints. By using the block heterogeneous mean-field approach, a series of discrete-time dynamical models is formulated and the condition for epidemic outbreaks can be established which is shown to be not only dependent on the network structure but also closely related to the immunization control parameters. Results show that increasing the immunization strength can effectively raise the epidemic threshold, which is different from the predictions obtained through the susceptible-infected-susceptible network framework, where epidemic threshold is independent of the vaccination strength. Furthermore, a significant decrease of vaccine use to control the infectious disease is observed for the local vaccination strategy, which shows the promising applications of the local immunization programs to disease control while calls for accurate local information during the process of disease outbreak.

  3. Spatial and Functional Heterogeneities Shape Collective Behavior of Tumor-Immune Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Daniel K.; Chuang, Yishan; Knapp, Louis M.; Brockmann, Dirk; Kath, William L.; Leonard, Joshua N.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor growth involves a dynamic interplay between cancer cells and host cells, which collectively form a tumor microenvironmental network that either suppresses or promotes tumor growth under different conditions. The transition from tumor suppression to tumor promotion is mediated by a tumor-induced shift in the local immune state, and despite the clinical challenge this shift poses, little is known about how such dysfunctional immune states are initiated. Clinical and experimental observations have indicated that differences in both the composition and spatial distribution of different cell types and/or signaling molecules within the tumor microenvironment can strongly impact tumor pathogenesis and ultimately patient prognosis. How such “functional” and “spatial” heterogeneities confer such effects, however, is not known. To investigate these phenomena at a level currently inaccessible by direct observation, we developed a computational model of a nascent metastatic tumor capturing salient features of known tumor-immune interactions that faithfully recapitulates key features of existing experimental observations. Surprisingly, over a wide range of model formulations, we observed that heterogeneity in both spatial organization and cell phenotype drove the emergence of immunosuppressive network states. We determined that this observation is general and robust to parameter choice by developing a systems-level sensitivity analysis technique, and we extended this analysis to generate other parameter-independent, experimentally testable hypotheses. Lastly, we leveraged this model as an in silico test bed to evaluate potential strategies for engineering cell-based therapies to overcome tumor associated immune dysfunction and thereby identified modes of immune modulation predicted to be most effective. Collectively, this work establishes a new integrated framework for investigating and modulating tumor-immune networks and provides insights into how such

  4. Influence of helper T cells on the expression of a murine intrastrain crossreactive idiotype.

    PubMed Central

    Hathcock, K S; Gurish, M F; Nisonoff, A; Conger, J D; Hodes, R J

    1986-01-01

    The requirement for idiotype-specific helper T (Th) cells in the generation of a major intrastrain crossreactive idiotype was investigated. This idiotype, designated CRIA, is associated with a large proportion of anti-p-azobenzenearsonate (anti-Ar) antibodies in A/J mice. Secondary in vitro responses were studied. Using carrier-primed heterogeneous Th-cell populations, it was found that CRIA expression is determined by the mouse strain that provides the responding B cells and is independent of the strain of the Th cells functioning in vitro. Thus, A/J or A.BY (Ighe) B-plus-accessory-cell populations, primed in vivo to keyhole limpet hemocyanin-Ar (KLH-Ar), generated CRIA-dominant responses in vitro in the presence of KLH-Ar regardless of whether the KLH-primed Th cells were derived from CRIA+ strains (A/J or A.BY, Ighe) or CRIA- strains (B10.A or C57BL/10, Ighb). Further, when major histocompatibility complex-restricted, KLH-specific Th-cell clones were used, the CRIA dominance of the Ar-specific responses was again determined by the strain providing B plus accessory cells. Similar levels of expression of CRIA in Ar-specific antibodies were generated in the presence of heterogeneous or cloned Th cells. The results suggest that there is no absolute requirement for idiotype-specific Th cells in generating an Ar-specific secondary antibody response in vitro. PMID:2934739

  5. Anti-Idiotypic Monobodies Derived from a Fibronectin Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Mark A.; Brooks, Lauren R.; Weidenborner, Philip; Domm, William; Mattiacio, Jonelle; Xu, Qingfu; Tiberio, Michael; Wentworth, Timothy; Kobie, James; Bryk, Peter; Zheng, Bo; Murphy, Mary; Sanz, Ignacio; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Mimetics of conformational protein epitopes have broad applications, but have been difficult to identify using conventional peptide phage display. The tenth type III domain of human fibronectin (FNfn10) has two extended, randomizable surface-exposed loops and might be more amenable to the identification of such mimetics. We therefore selected a library of FNfn10 clones, randomized in both loops (15 residues in all), for binding to monoclonal antibodies (MAb) that recognize the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Anti-idiotypic monobodies (αIMs) mimicking both “linear” epitopes (2F5 and 4E10 MAbs) and conformational epitopes (b12 and VRC01 MAbs) were generated. αIMs selected against 2F5 and 4E10 frequently displayed sequence homology to the corresponding linear native epitopes. In the case of b12 and VRC01, we expected that the two constrained loop domains of FNfn10 would both contribute to complex conformational interactions with target antibodies. However, mutagenesis studies revealed differences from this simple model An αIM selected against b12 was found to bind its cognate antibody via only a few residues within the BC loop of FNfn10, with minimal contribution from the FG loop. Unexpectedly, this was sufficient to generate a protein that engaged its cognate antibody in a manner very similar to HIV-1 Env, and with a strong KD (43 nM). In contrast, an αIM selected against VRC01 engaged its cognate antibody in a manner that was dependent on both BC and FG loop sequences. Overall, these data suggest that the FNfn10 scaffold can be used to identify complex structures that mimic conformational protein epitopes. PMID:23394681

  6. Anti-idiotypic monobodies derived from a fibronectin scaffold.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Mark A; Brooks, Lauren R; Weidenborner, Philip; Domm, William; Mattiacio, Jonelle; Xu, Qingfu; Tiberio, Michael; Wentworth, Timothy; Kobie, James; Bryk, Peter; Zheng, Bo; Murphy, Mary; Sanz, Ignacio; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2013-03-12

    Mimetics of conformational protein epitopes have broad applications but have been difficult to identify using conventional peptide phage display. The 10th type III domain of human fibronectin (FNfn10) has two extended, randomizable surface-exposed loops and might be more amenable to the identification of such mimetics. We therefore selected a library of FNfn10 clones, randomized in both loops (15 residues in all), for binding to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that recognize the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Anti-idiotypic monobodies (αIMs) mimicking both "linear" epitopes (2F5 and 4E10 mAbs) and conformational epitopes (b12 and VRC01 mAbs) were generated. αIMs selected against 2F5 and 4E10 frequently displayed sequence homology to the corresponding linear native epitopes. In the case of b12 and VRC01, we expected that the two constrained loop domains of FNfn10 would both contribute to complex conformational interactions with target antibodies. However, mutagenesis studies revealed differences from this simple model. An αIM selected against b12 was found to bind its cognate antibody via only a few residues within the BC loop of FNfn10, with minimal contribution from the FG loop. Unexpectedly, this was sufficient to generate a protein that engaged its cognate antibody in a manner very similar to that of HIV-1 Env, and with a strong KD (43 nM). In contrast, an αIM selected against VRC01 engaged its cognate antibody in a manner that was dependent on both BC and FG loop sequences. Overall, these data suggest that the FNfn10 scaffold can be used to identify complex structures that mimic conformational protein epitopes.

  7. Prokaryotic ancestry of eukaryotic protein networks mediating innate immunity and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Kopec, Klaus O; Lupas, Andrei N

    2014-04-03

    Protein domains characteristic of eukaryotic innate immunity and apoptosis have many prokaryotic counterparts of unknown function. By reconstructing interactomes computationally, we found that bacterial proteins containing these domains are part of a network that also includes other domains not hitherto associated with immunity. This network is connected to the network of prokaryotic signal transduction proteins, such as histidine kinases and chemoreceptors. The network varies considerably in domain composition and degree of paralogy, even between strains of the same species, and its repetitive domains are often amplified recently, with individual repeats sharing up to 100% sequence identity. Both phenomena are evidence of considerable evolutionary pressure and thus compatible with a role in the "arms race" between host and pathogen. In order to investigate the relationship of this network to its eukaryotic counterparts, we performed a cluster analysis of organisms based on a census of its constituent domains across all fully sequenced genomes. We obtained a large central cluster of mainly unicellular organisms, from which multicellular organisms radiate out in two main directions. One is taken by multicellular bacteria, primarily cyanobacteria and actinomycetes, and plants form an extension of this direction, connected via the basal, unicellular cyanobacteria. The second main direction is taken by animals and fungi, which form separate branches with a common root in the α-proteobacteria of the central cluster. This analysis supports the notion that the innate immunity networks of eukaryotes originated from their endosymbionts and that increases in the complexity of these networks accompanied the emergence of multicellularity. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Using an agent-based model to analyze the dynamic communication network of the immune response

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The immune system behaves like a complex, dynamic network with interacting elements including leukocytes, cytokines, and chemokines. While the immune system is broadly distributed, leukocytes must communicate effectively to respond to a pathological challenge. The Basic Immune Simulator 2010 contains agents representing leukocytes and tissue cells, signals representing cytokines, chemokines, and pathogens, and virtual spaces representing organ tissue, lymphoid tissue, and blood. Agents interact dynamically in the compartments in response to infection of the virtual tissue. Agent behavior is imposed by logical rules derived from the scientific literature. The model captured the agent-to-agent contact history, and from this the network topology and the interactions resulting in successful versus failed viral clearance were identified. This model served to integrate existing knowledge and allowed us to examine the immune response from a novel perspective directed at exploiting complex dynamics, ultimately for the design of therapeutic interventions. Results Analyzing the evolution of agent-agent interactions at incremental time points from identical initial conditions revealed novel features of immune communication associated with successful and failed outcomes. There were fewer contacts between agents for simulations ending in viral elimination (win) versus persistent infection (loss), due to the removal of infected agents. However, early cellular interactions preceded successful clearance of infection. Specifically, more Dendritic Agent interactions with TCell and BCell Agents, and more BCell Agent interactions with TCell Agents early in the simulation were associated with the immune win outcome. The Dendritic Agents greatly influenced the outcome, confirming them as hub agents of the immune network. In addition, unexpectedly high frequencies of Dendritic Agent-self interactions occurred in the lymphoid compartment late in the loss outcomes. Conclusions

  9. Immunization strategies for epidemic processes in time-varying contact networks.

    PubMed

    Starnini, Michele; Machens, Anna; Cattuto, Ciro; Barrat, Alain; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-11-21

    Spreading processes represent a very efficient tool to investigate the structural properties of networks and the relative importance of their constituents, and have been widely used to this aim in static networks. Here we consider simple disease spreading processes on empirical time-varying networks of contacts between individuals, and compare the effect of several immunization strategies on these processes. An immunization strategy is defined as the choice of a set of nodes (individuals) who cannot catch nor transmit the disease. This choice is performed according to a certain ranking of the nodes of the contact network. We consider various ranking strategies, focusing in particular on the role of the training window during which the nodes' properties are measured in the time-varying network: longer training windows correspond to a larger amount of information collected and could be expected to result in better performances of the immunization strategies. We find instead an unexpected saturation in the efficiency of strategies based on nodes' characteristics when the length of the training window is increased, showing that a limited amount of information on the contact patterns is sufficient to design efficient immunization strategies. This finding is balanced by the large variations of the contact patterns, which strongly alter the importance of nodes from one period to the next and therefore significantly limit the efficiency of any strategy based on an importance ranking of nodes. We also observe that the efficiency of strategies that include an element of randomness and are based on temporally local information do not perform as well but are largely independent on the amount of information available. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analyses of antigen dependency networks unveil immune system reorganization between birth and adulthood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madi, Asaf; Kenett, Dror Y.; Bransburg-Zabary, Sharron; Merbl, Yifat; Quintana, Francisco J.; Boccaletti, Stefano; Tauber, Alfred I.; Cohen, Irun R.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2011-03-01

    Much effort has been devoted to assess the importance of nodes in complex biological networks (such as gene transcriptional regulatory networks, protein interaction networks, and neural networks). Examples of commonly used measures of node importance include node degree, node centrality, and node vulnerability score (the effect of the node deletion on the network efficiency). Here, we present a new approach to compute and investigate the mutual dependencies between network nodes from the matrices of node-node correlations. To this end, we first define the dependency of node i on node j (or the influence of node j on node i), D(i, j) as the average over all nodes k of the difference between the i - k correlation and the partial correlations between these nodes with respect to node j. Note that the dependencies, D(i, j) define a directed weighted matrix, since, in general, D(i, j) differs from D( j, i). For this reason, many of the commonly used measures of node importance, such as node centrality, cannot be used. Hence, to assess the node importance of the dependency networks, we define the system level influence (SLI) of antigen j, SLI( j) as the sum of the influence of j on all other antigens i. Next, we define the system level influence or the influence score of antigen j, SLI( j) as the sum of D(i, j) over all nodes i. We introduce the new approach and demonstrate that it can unveil important biological information in the context of the immune system. More specifically, we investigated antigen dependency networks computed from antigen microarray data of autoantibody reactivity of IgM and IgG isotypes present in the sera of ten mothers and their newborns. We found that the analysis was able to unveil that there is only a subset of antigens that have high influence scores (SLI) common both to the mothers and newborns. Networks comparison in terms of modularity (using the Newman's algorithm) and of topology (measured by the divergence rate) revealed that, at birth

  11. Immune-directed therapy for type 1 diabetes at the clinical level: the Immune Tolerance Network (ITN) experience.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Mario R; Nepom, Gerald T

    2012-01-01

    Reestablishing immune tolerance in type 1 diabetes (T1D), a chronic autoimmune disease, is a major goal. The Immune Tolerance Network (ITN) has initiated eight clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapies in recent-onset T1D over the past decade. Results have been mixed in terms of clinical efficacy, but the studies have provided valuable mechanistic insight that are enhancing our understanding of the disease and guiding the design of future trials. Trials of non-Fc-binding anti-CD3 mAbs have revealed that modulation of this target leads to partial responses, and ITN's AbATE trial led to identification of a robust responder group that could be distinguished from non-responders by baseline metabolic and immunologic features. A pilot study of the combination of IL-2 and rapamycin gave the first demonstration that frequency and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) can be enhanced in T1D subjects, although the therapy triggered the activation of effectors with transient β-cell dysfunction. Similarly, therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin led to substantial lymphocyte depletion, but also to the activation of the acute-phase response with no clinical benefit during preliminary analyses. These and other results provide mechanistic tools that can be used as biomarkers for safety and efficacy in future trials. Furthermore, our results, together with those of other organizations, notably TrialNet, delineate the roles of the major components of the immune response in T1D. This information is setting the stage for future combination therapy trials. The development of disease-relevant biomarkers will also enable the implementation of innovative trial designs, notably adaptive trials, which will increase efficiencies in terms of study duration and sample size, and which will expedite the conduct of trials in which there are uncertainties about dose response and effect size.

  12. H-2 control of expression of an idiotype shared by normal B cells and a B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bishop, G A; Haughton, G

    1985-01-01

    The spleens of normal B10.H-2aH-4bp/Wts (2a4b) mice contain cells which, in response to mitogen stimulation, secrete hemolytic antibody specific for a determinant present on both sheep and bromelain-treated mouse erythrocytes. These cells were found to be Ly-1 positive. Approximately 50% of these cells bear surface immunoglobulin (sIg) with the same idiotype as the sIg of a 2a4b-derived B-cell lymphoma, CH12. Backcross analysis revealed H-2 control of the frequency of the idiotype-positive B cell. The regulatory gene did not correlate with the Igh-1 allotype, and analysis of 22 inbred mouse strains mapped the gene to the I-E subregion. Surprisingly, only strains homozygous for Ek alpha expressed the idiotype, and expression was a recessive trait. Possible mechanisms for this control of idiotype expression and its relation to lymphomagenesis are discussed.

  13. Ten years of the Immune Tolerance Network: an integrated clinical research organization.

    PubMed

    Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Krensky, Alan M; Turka, Laurence A; Rotrosen, Daniel; Matthews, Jeffrey B

    2010-02-17

    The U.S. National Institutes of Health Roadmap and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Critical Path Initiative have endorsed the establishment of large academic clinical research networks as part of the solution to the growing divide between increased R&D spending and the lagging number of new drugs making it to market. Clearly, the role of these networks as translational science incubators that complement industry-sponsored programs is laudable and much-needed. However, the path to success for such organizations is less clear. Here, drawing on the experiences of the Immune Tolerance Network, a multidisciplinary clinical research network founded in 1999, we discuss some of the barriers inherent in developing such consortia and offer firsthand insight into the planning, resources, and organizational infrastructure required for a successful research program.

  14. Isolation of a T-cell clone that reacts with both antigen and anti-idiotype: evidence for anti-idiotype as internal image for antigen at the T-cell level.

    PubMed Central

    Singhai, R; Levy, J G

    1987-01-01

    T-cell lines were derived from ferredoxin nonresponder B10.D2 mice that share an idiotype expressed by a monoclonal antibody (Fd-B2) with specificity for one of the two major antigenic determinants (the C determinant) of the antigen. The T-cell line and T-cell clones derived from it release interleukin 2 not only in the presence of anti-Fd-B2 idiotype antibody but in the presence of ferredoxin. The line was shown to be major histocompatibility complex-restricted in that it would respond to the anti-idiotype and antigen only in the context of presentation by cells of the H-2d haplotype. This observation also establishes that the nonresponder status of H-2d animals cannot be attributed to a lesion at the level of antigen presentation. Analysis of the fine specificity of one idiotypic clone showed that it responded only to the anti-idiotype or products of the antigen containing the C determinant, since enzymatically degraded peptides devoid of this determinant did not stimulate these cells. Furthermore, it was found that presentation of both the antigen and the anti-idiotype to the specific clone could be blocked by the Fd-B2 monoclonal antibody. PMID:3495798

  15. The cellular and signaling networks linking the immune system and metabolism in disease.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Olivia; Olefsky, Jerrold M

    2012-03-06

    It is now recognized that obesity is driving the type 2 diabetes epidemic in Western countries. Obesity-associated chronic tissue inflammation is a key contributing factor to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and a number of studies have clearly demonstrated that the immune system and metabolism are highly integrated. Recent advances in deciphering the various cellular and signaling networks that participate in linking the immune and metabolic systems together have contributed to understanding of the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases and may also inform new therapeutic strategies based on immunomodulation. Here we discuss how these various networks underlie the etiology of the inflammatory component of insulin resistance, with a particular focus on the central roles of macrophages in adipose tissue and liver.

  16. Analysis and optimization of cross-immunity epidemic model on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Yin-Hua; Feng, Wei-Qiang; Zhang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    There are various infectious diseases in real world, and these diseases often spread on a network of population and compete for the limited hosts. Cross-immunity is an important disease competing pattern, which has attracted the attention of many researchers. In this paper, we discovered an important conclusion for two cross-immunity epidemics on a network. When the infectious ability of the second epidemic takes a fixed value, the infectious ability of the first epidemic has an optimal value which minimizes the sum of the infection sizes of the two epidemics. We also proposed a simple mathematical analysis method for the infection size of the second epidemic using the cavity method. The proposed method and conclusion are verified by simulation results. Minor inaccuracies of the existing mathematical methods for the infection size of the second epidemic are also found and discussed in experiments, which have not been noticed in existing research.

  17. A radial basis function neural network based on artificial immune systems for remote sensing image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qin; Zhong, Yanfei

    2008-12-01

    The radial basis function (RBF) neural network is a powerful method for remote sensing image classification. It has a simple architecture and the learning algorithm corresponds to the solution of a linear regression problem, resulting in a fast training process. The main drawback of this strategy is the requirement of an efficient algorithm to determine the number, position, and dispersion of the RBF. Traditional methods to determine the centers are: randomly choose input vectors from the training data set; vectors obtained from unsupervised clustering algorithms, such as k-means, applied to the input data. These conduce that traditional RBF neural network is sensitive to the center initialization. In this paper, the artificial immune network (aiNet) model, a new computational intelligence based on artificial immune networks (AIN), is applied to obtain appropriate centers for remote sensing image classification. In the aiNet-RBF algorihtm, each input pattern corresonds to an antigenic stimulus, while each RBF candidate center is considered to be an element, or cell, of the immune network model. The steps are as follows: A set of candidate centers is initialized at random, where the initial number of candidates and their positions is not crucial to the performance. Then, the clonal selection principle will control which candidates will be selected and how they will be upadated. Note that the clonal selection principle will be responsible for how the centers will represent the training data set. Finally, the immune network will identify and eliminate or suppress self-recognizing individuals to control the number of candidate centers. After the above learning phase, the aiNet network centers represent internal images of the inuput patterns presented to it. The algorithm output is taken to be the matrix of memory cells' coordinates that represent the final centers to be adopted by the RBF network. The stopping criterion of the proposed algorithm is given by a pre

  18. Protective Autoimmunity: A Unifying Model for the Immune Network Involved in CNS Repair.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michal; Raposo, Catarina

    2014-08-01

    Immune activity in the CNS parenchyma under various acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions has been often interpreted as a sign of pathological inflammation. The apparent resemblance of the local neuroinflammatory processes to autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), generated the view that, despite differences in etiology and pathology, neurodegenerative disorders with a local inflammatory component can benefit from systemic anti-inflammatory therapy. In addition, as CNS self-reactive T cells are associated with the etiology of MS, autoimmunity was assumed to solely reflect pathology, and therefore, was universally linked to autoimmune disease. Yet, it is becoming increasingly clear that CNS-specific T cells, along with circulating and local innate immune cells, can enhance CNS healing processes following non-infectious injuries, or any deviation from homeostasis, including chronic pathological conditions. Here, we discuss the theory of "protective autoimmunity," which describes the activity of an immune cell network encompassing effector and regulatory T cells with specificity for CNS antigens, in CNS maintenance and repair. Such an immune network, evoked in response to external and internal threats, functions in a tightly regulated way, ensuring restoration of the brain's equilibrium and return to homeostasis.

  19. Cellular Neural Network Models of Growth and Immune of Effector Cells Response to Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yongmei; Min, Lequan

    Four reaction-diffusion cellular neural network (R-D CNN) models are set up based on the differential equation models for the growths of effector cells and cancer cells, and the model of the immune response to cancer proposed by Allison et al. The CNN models have different reaction-diffusion coefficients and coupling parameters. The R-D CNN models may provide possible quantitative interpretations, and are good in agreement with the in vitro experiment data reported by Allison et al.

  20. Exploiting temporal network structures of human interaction to effectively immunize populations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungmin; Rocha, Luis E C; Liljeros, Fredrik; Holme, Petter

    2012-01-01

    Decreasing the number of people who must be vaccinated to immunize a community against an infectious disease could both save resources and decrease outbreak sizes. A key to reaching such a lower threshold of immunization is to find and vaccinate people who, through their behavior, are more likely than average to become infected and to spread the disease further. Fortunately, the very behavior that makes these people important to vaccinate can help us to localize them. Earlier studies have shown that one can use previous contacts to find people that are central in static contact networks. However, real contact patterns are not static. In this paper, we investigate if there is additional information in the temporal contact structure for vaccination protocols to exploit. We answer this affirmative by proposing two immunization methods that exploit temporal correlations and showing that these methods outperform a benchmark static-network protocol in four empirical contact datasets under various epidemic scenarios. Both methods rely only on obtainable, local information, and can be implemented in practice. For the datasets directly related to contact patterns of potential disease spreading (of sexually-transmitted and nosocomial infections respectively), the most efficient protocol is to sample people at random and vaccinate their latest contacts. The network datasets are temporal, which enables us to make more realistic evaluations than earlier studies--we use only information about the past for the purpose of vaccination, and about the future to simulate disease outbreaks. Using analytically tractable models, we identify two temporal structures that explain how the protocols earn their efficiency in the empirical data. This paper is a first step towards real vaccination protocols that exploit temporal-network structure--future work is needed both to characterize the structure of real contact sequences and to devise immunization methods that exploit these.

  1. Exploiting Temporal Network Structures of Human Interaction to Effectively Immunize Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungmin; Rocha, Luis E. C.; Liljeros, Fredrik; Holme, Petter

    2012-01-01

    Decreasing the number of people who must be vaccinated to immunize a community against an infectious disease could both save resources and decrease outbreak sizes. A key to reaching such a lower threshold of immunization is to find and vaccinate people who, through their behavior, are more likely than average to become infected and to spread the disease further. Fortunately, the very behavior that makes these people important to vaccinate can help us to localize them. Earlier studies have shown that one can use previous contacts to find people that are central in static contact networks. However, real contact patterns are not static. In this paper, we investigate if there is additional information in the temporal contact structure for vaccination protocols to exploit. We answer this affirmative by proposing two immunization methods that exploit temporal correlations and showing that these methods outperform a benchmark static-network protocol in four empirical contact datasets under various epidemic scenarios. Both methods rely only on obtainable, local information, and can be implemented in practice. For the datasets directly related to contact patterns of potential disease spreading (of sexually-transmitted and nosocomial infections respectively), the most efficient protocol is to sample people at random and vaccinate their latest contacts. The network datasets are temporal, which enables us to make more realistic evaluations than earlier studies—we use only information about the past for the purpose of vaccination, and about the future to simulate disease outbreaks. Using analytically tractable models, we identify two temporal structures that explain how the protocols earn their efficiency in the empirical data. This paper is a first step towards real vaccination protocols that exploit temporal-network structure—future work is needed both to characterize the structure of real contact sequences and to devise immunization methods that exploit these. PMID

  2. Network Topologies and Dynamics Leading to Endotoxin Tolerance and Priming in Innate Immune Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yan; Glaros, Trevor; Zhu, Meng; Wang, Ping; Wu, Zhanghan; Tyson, John; Li, Liwu; Xing, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune system, acting as the first line of host defense, senses and adapts to foreign challenges through complex intracellular and intercellular signaling networks. Endotoxin tolerance and priming elicited by macrophages are classic examples of the complex adaptation of innate immune cells. Upon repetitive exposures to different doses of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) or other stimulants, macrophages show either suppressed or augmented inflammatory responses compared to a single exposure to the stimulant. Endotoxin tolerance and priming are critically involved in both immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. By means of a computational search through the parameter space of a coarse-grained three-node network with a two-stage Metropolis sampling approach, we enumerated all the network topologies that can generate priming or tolerance. We discovered three major mechanisms for priming (pathway synergy, suppressor deactivation, activator induction) and one for tolerance (inhibitor persistence). These results not only explain existing experimental observations, but also reveal intriguing test scenarios for future experimental studies to clarify mechanisms of endotoxin priming and tolerance.

  3. Network Topologies and Dynamics Leading to Endotoxin Tolerance and Priming in Innate Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yan; Glaros, Trevor; Zhu, Meng; Wang, Ping; Wu, Zhanghan; Tyson, John J.; Li, Liwu; Xing, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune system, acting as the first line of host defense, senses and adapts to foreign challenges through complex intracellular and intercellular signaling networks. Endotoxin tolerance and priming elicited by macrophages are classic examples of the complex adaptation of innate immune cells. Upon repetitive exposures to different doses of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) or other stimulants, macrophages show either suppressed or augmented inflammatory responses compared to a single exposure to the stimulant. Endotoxin tolerance and priming are critically involved in both immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. By means of a computational search through the parameter space of a coarse-grained three-node network with a two-stage Metropolis sampling approach, we enumerated all the network topologies that can generate priming or tolerance. We discovered three major mechanisms for priming (pathway synergy, suppressor deactivation, activator induction) and one for tolerance (inhibitor persistence). These results not only explain existing experimental observations, but also reveal intriguing test scenarios for future experimental studies to clarify mechanisms of endotoxin priming and tolerance. PMID:22615556

  4. Types of tolerance seen in autoreactive phosphocholine-specific B cells are dependent on the idiotype of the receptors expressed.

    PubMed

    Mi, Qing-Sheng; Kenny, James J

    2013-07-01

    Phosphocholine (PC) is the immunodominant epitope found on the surface of a number of microorganisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPn), and is thought to play a vital role in the pathogenesis of SPn. B cells expressing M167Hκ24L immunoglobulin receptors specific for PC have been shown to be autoreactive in that they undergo clonal deletion in both X-linked immune-deficient and Rag(-/-) mice. We have now shown that B cells expressing M603Hκ8L PC-specific receptors also delete in Rag(-/-) mice, whereas those expressing T15Hκ22L transgenes do not delete. However, T15Hκ22L B cells are lost in normal heterozygous transgenic mice because they cannot compete with normal B cells. These data indicate that M167Hκ24L and M603Hκ8L PC-specific B cells are recognizing an autoantigen expressed on membranes which causes them to downregulate their receptors and clonally delete, while T15Hκ22L B cells are tolerized by a soluble form of PC-antigen which results in their being trapped in the spleen. Thus, the types of tolerance seen in autoreactive PC-specific B cells are dependent on the idiotype of the receptors expressed.

  5. Immunization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Nicole; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this double journal issue concern immunization and primary health care of children. The issue decribes vaccine storage and sterilization techniques, giving particular emphasis to the role of the cold chain, i.e., the maintenance of a specific temperature range to assure potency of vaccines as they are moved from a national storage…

  6. Immunization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Nicole; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this double journal issue concern immunization and primary health care of children. The issue decribes vaccine storage and sterilization techniques, giving particular emphasis to the role of the cold chain, i.e., the maintenance of a specific temperature range to assure potency of vaccines as they are moved from a national storage…

  7. Linking Transcriptional Changes over Time in Stimulated Dendritic Cells to Identify Gene Networks Activated during the Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Ashwini; Kumagai, Yutaro; Liang, Kuo-ching; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune response is primarily mediated by the Toll-like receptors functioning through the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways. Despite being widely studied, it is not yet completely understood and systems-level analyses have been lacking. In this study, we identified a high-probability network of genes activated during the innate immune response using a novel approach to analyze time-course gene expression profiles of activated immune cells in combination with a large gene regulatory and protein-protein interaction network. We classified the immune response into three consecutive time-dependent stages and identified the most probable paths between genes showing a significant change in expression at each stage. The resultant network contained several novel and known regulators of the innate immune response, many of which did not show any observable change in expression at the sampled time points. The response network shows the dominance of genes from specific functional classes during different stages of the immune response. It also suggests a role for the protein phosphatase 2a catalytic subunit α in the regulation of the immunoproteasome during the late phase of the response. In order to clarify the differences between the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways in the innate immune response, time-course gene expression profiles from MyD88-knockout and TRIF-knockout dendritic cells were analyzed. Their response networks suggest the dominance of the MyD88-dependent pathway in the innate immune response, and an association of the circadian regulators and immunoproteasomal degradation with the TRIF-dependent pathway. The response network presented here provides the most probable associations between genes expressed in the early and the late phases of the innate immune response, while taking into account the intermediate regulators. We propose that the method described here can also be used in the identification of time-dependent gene sub-networks

  8. Linking transcriptional changes over time in stimulated dendritic cells to identify gene networks activated during the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ashwini; Kumagai, Yutaro; Liang, Kuo-Ching; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Kenta

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune response is primarily mediated by the Toll-like receptors functioning through the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways. Despite being widely studied, it is not yet completely understood and systems-level analyses have been lacking. In this study, we identified a high-probability network of genes activated during the innate immune response using a novel approach to analyze time-course gene expression profiles of activated immune cells in combination with a large gene regulatory and protein-protein interaction network. We classified the immune response into three consecutive time-dependent stages and identified the most probable paths between genes showing a significant change in expression at each stage. The resultant network contained several novel and known regulators of the innate immune response, many of which did not show any observable change in expression at the sampled time points. The response network shows the dominance of genes from specific functional classes during different stages of the immune response. It also suggests a role for the protein phosphatase 2a catalytic subunit α in the regulation of the immunoproteasome during the late phase of the response. In order to clarify the differences between the MyD88-dependent and TRIF-dependent pathways in the innate immune response, time-course gene expression profiles from MyD88-knockout and TRIF-knockout dendritic cells were analyzed. Their response networks suggest the dominance of the MyD88-dependent pathway in the innate immune response, and an association of the circadian regulators and immunoproteasomal degradation with the TRIF-dependent pathway. The response network presented here provides the most probable associations between genes expressed in the early and the late phases of the innate immune response, while taking into account the intermediate regulators. We propose that the method described here can also be used in the identification of time-dependent gene sub-networks

  9. Nonlinear identification using a B-spline neural network and chaotic immune approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Coelho, Leandro; Pessôa, Marcelo Wicthoff

    2009-11-01

    One of the important applications of B-spline neural network (BSNN) is to approximate nonlinear functions defined on a compact subset of a Euclidean space in a highly parallel manner. Recently, BSNN, a type of basis function neural network, has received increasing attention and has been applied in the field of nonlinear identification. BSNNs have the potential to "learn" the process model from input-output data or "learn" fault knowledge from past experience. BSNN can be used as function approximators to construct the analytical model for residual generation too. However, BSNN is trained by gradient-based methods that may fall into local minima during the learning procedure. When using feed-forward BSNNs, the quality of approximation depends on the control points (knots) placement of spline functions. This paper describes the application of a modified artificial immune network inspired optimization method - the opt-aiNet - combined with sequences generate by Hénon map to provide a stochastic search to adjust the control points of a BSNN. The numerical results presented here indicate that artificial immune network optimization methods are useful for building good BSNN model for the nonlinear identification of two case studies: (i) the benchmark of Box and Jenkins gas furnace, and (ii) an experimental ball-and-tube system.

  10. An artificial immune-activated neural network applied to brain 3D MRI segmentation.

    PubMed

    Younis, Akmal; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Kabuka, Mansur; John, Nigel

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, a new neural network model inspired by the biological immune system functions is presented. The model, termed Artificial Immune-Activated Neural Network (AIANN), extracts classification knowledge from a training data set, which is then used to classify input patterns or vectors. The AIANN is based on a neuron activation function whose behavior is conceptually modeled after the chemical bonds between the receptors and epitopes in the biological immune system. The bonding is controlled through an energy measure to ensure accurate recognition. The AIANN model was applied to the segmentation of 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of the brain and a contextual basis was developed for the segmentation problem. Evaluation of the segmentation results was performed using both real MRI data obtained from the Center for Morphometric Analysis at Massachusetts General Hospital and simulated MRI data generated using the McGill University BrainWeb MRI simulator. Experimental results demonstrated that the AIANN model attained higher average results than those obtained using published methods for real MRI data and simulated MRI data, especially at low levels of noise.

  11. Monocytes and Macrophages Regulate Immunity through Dynamic Networks of Survival and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Parihar, Arti; Eubank, Timothy D.; Doseff, Andrea I.

    2010-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages are central cells of the innate immune system, responsible for defending against diverse pathogens. While they originate from a common myeloid precursor and share functions in innate immunity, each has a very distinct life span finely tuned by the apoptotic caspases. Normally, circulating monocytes are short-lived and undergo spontaneous apoptosis on a daily basis. Macrophages, however, have a longer life span. In chronic inflammatory diseases and, as recently recognized, in the tumor microenvironment, the inhibition of the apoptotic program promotes monocyte survival contributing to the accumulation of macrophages and the persistence of an inflammatory milieu. A complex network of differentiation factors and inflammatory stimuli determine monocyte/macrophage life span by blocking the apoptotic pathway and activating a myriad of survival pathways. Our understanding of apoptosis has flourished over the last decade, and its relevance in the regulation of the immune system is now indisputable. Nevertheless, how the complicated networks of survival and apoptotic regulators are integrated to determine cellular life span remains elusive. This review summarizes the contribution of the caspases and their regulators in monocyte/macrophage cell fate and discusses how these molecules orchestrate the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of inflammation. More provocatively, we discuss possible strategies to control inflammation by manipulating leukocyte life span. PMID:20375558

  12. The combination of immune evolution and neural network for nonlinear time series forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiulan; Xue, Xiaolan; Zhang, Peng; Tan, Jing

    2006-11-01

    Forecasting and dynamic modeling have common applications in science and engineering. Time series data are often found from different sources, astrophysical, biological, economical, etc. It is then very important to predict future values of these data series from the existing data. The immune system is a very complex system with several mechanisms to defense against pathogenic organisms. Inspired by the principles of immune system and biology evolution, a novel algorithm based on the combination of immune evolution and neural network is proposed to forecast nonlinear time series, which imitates the cellular clonal selection theory of biology immune system and the mutation ideas of biology evolution process. Then, the mutation intensity of each antibody is decided by its objective function value; similar antibodies are suppressed by computing the affinity of antibodies and new antibodies are produced dynamically to maintain the diversity. Application of the proposed algorithm to nonlinear time series of sunspots number modelling and prediction is investigated. The experimental results by different methods confirm that the proposed method has better generalization performance than that of the Fuzzy genetic algorithm (FGA), Genetic programming (GP), Automatic Regression Model (AR) and Automatic Regression Moving Average Model (ARMA)

  13. Development of a delivery system for the continuous endogenous release of an anti-idiotypic antibody against ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hann, Evelin; Reinartz, Silke; Clare, Susan E; Passow, Sebastian; Kissel, Thomas; Wagner, Uwe

    2005-06-01

    The treatment of several cancers with anti-idiotype antibodies has shown promising results in animals and clinical trials. A common drawback of many anti-idiotypic antibodies is their low immunogenicity. The aim of this work was to construct a new delivery form for the anti-idiotypic antibody ACA125hFc, with the goal of improving its immunogenicity as vaccine against ovarian carcinoma. Designed on bioencapsulation technologies, we generated an in vitro depot that acts as a continuous delivery system for the anti-idiotypic antibody ACA125hFc. C2C12 myoblasts were transfected with the anti-idiotypic chimeric antibody ACA125hFc, which mimics the CA125 tumor antigen and which consists of variable regions of the monoclonal murine antibody ACA125 (currently in clinical trial) and the human IgG Fc domain. Recombinant myoblasts were encapsulated in 1-cm semipermeable, polyethersulfone (PES), or polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) hollow fibers, which differ in their molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). Encapsulated cells were evaluated in vitro for viability and antibody secretion over a period of 3 months. PES hollow fibers with a higher MWCO showed a twofold higher secretion rate of chACA125hFc compared to PES devices with a lower MWCO. No remarkable level of ACA125hFc could be detected for PVDF devices. The expression levels of the anti-idiotypic antibody ACA125hFc from capsules with a lower MWCO could be improved substantially, in both PES as well as PVDF, by inserting an internal polyethyleneterephtalate (PET) yarn. We conclude that murine recombinant C2C12 myoblasts encapsulated in PES as well as PVDF hollow fibers containing an internal PET matrix can act as a long-term secretion system for anti-idiotypic antibodies.

  14. Early signaling network in rice PRR-mediated and R-mediated immunity.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yoji; Shimamoto, Ko

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies on plant immunity and pathogen infection have revealed sophisticated forms of plant-pathogen interaction. Considerable progress has been made recently in our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying chitin signaling in rice. The identification and characterization of two direct substrates, OsRacGEF1 and OsRLCK185, as components in the chitin receptor complex of OsCERK1 have revealed how pattern recognition receptors transduce pathogen signals to downstream molecules in rice. In this review, we highlight these and other recent studies that have contributed to our current understanding of the signaling network in rice immunity, especially with regard to pattern recognition receptors, disease resistance (R) proteins, and their downstream targets.

  15. Distributive immunization of networks against viruses using the `honey-pot' architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenberg, Jacob; Shavitt, Yuval; Shir, Eran; Solomon, Sorin

    2005-12-01

    Although computer viruses cause tremendous economic loss, defence mechanisms fail to adapt to their rapid evolution. Previous immunization strategies have been characterized as being static and centralized, which has made virus containment difficult or even impossible. We suggest, instead, to propagate the immunization agent as an epidemic. The main problem with epidemic vaccine propagation is that it is bound to lag behind the virus. We suggest giving the vaccine an advantage over the virus by allowing it to leapfrog through a separate, overlapping, partially correlated network. This enables the antivirus to contain the epidemic efficiently. We systemize this concept with a `honey-pot' architecture that achieves both early virus discovery and rapid antivirus dissemination. We present analytic, as well as simulation, results for a set of realistic topologies that illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  16. Chemokines and Heart Disease: A Network Connecting Cardiovascular Biology to Immune and Autonomic Nervous Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dusi, Veronica; Ghidoni, Alice; Ravera, Alice; De Ferrari, Gaetano M.; Calvillo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Among the chemokines discovered to date, nineteen are presently considered to be relevant in heart disease and are involved in all stages of cardiovascular response to injury. Chemokines are interesting as biomarkers to predict risk of cardiovascular events in apparently healthy people and as possible therapeutic targets. Moreover, they could have a role as mediators of crosstalk between immune and cardiovascular system, since they seem to act as a “working-network” in deep linkage with the autonomic nervous system. In this paper we will describe the single chemokines more involved in heart diseases; then we will present a comprehensive perspective of them as a complex network connecting the cardiovascular system to both the immune and the autonomic nervous systems. Finally, some recent evidences indicating chemokines as a possible new tool to predict cardiovascular risk will be described. PMID:27242392

  17. A neural network model based on the analogy with the immune system.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, G W

    1986-09-07

    The similarities between the immune system and the central nervous system lead to the formulation of an unorthodox neural network model. The similarities between the two systems are strong at the system level, but do not seem to be so striking at the level of the components. A new model of a neuron is therefore formulated, in order that the analogy can be used. The essential feature of the hypothetical neuron is that it exhibits hysteresis at the single neuron level. A network of N such neurons is modelled by an N-dimensional system of ordinary differential equations, which exhibits almost 2N attractors. The model has a property that resembles free will. A conjecture concerning how the network might learn stimulus-response behaviour is described. According to the conjecture, learning does not involve modifications of the strengths of synaptic connections. Instead, stimuli ("questions") selectively applied to the network by a "teacher" can be used to take the system to a region of the N-dimensional phase space where the network gives the desired stimulus-response behaviour. A key role for sleep in the learning process is suggested. The model for sleep leads to prediction that the variance in the rates of firing of the neurons associated with memory should increase during waking hours, and decrease during sleep.

  18. Idiotypic cascades in cancer patients treated with monoclonal antibody CO17-1A.

    PubMed Central

    Wettendorff, M; Iliopoulos, D; Tempero, M; Kay, D; DeFreitas, E; Koprowski, H; Herlyn, D

    1989-01-01

    We have previously shown that gastrointestinal cancer patients treated with monoclonal antibody CO17-1A (Ab1) developed anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2) to the Ab1. We now demonstrate that patients produce anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab3) to their autologous Ab2. Ab3 were demonstrated in culture supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from five Ab1-treated patients after stimulation of the cells with heterologous Ab2 that functionally mimicked the tumor antigen (Ag) defined by Ab1 and immunologically cross reacted with the patients' Ab2. Ab3 shared idiotopes with Ab1 and were Ab1-like in their binding specificities to tumor cells, Ag, and Ab2. Such antibodies were also elicited by stimulating cells with Ag. However, they were not produced by stimulating posttreatment mononuclear cells with control proteins or by stimulating pretreatment cells with either Ag or Ab2. Our results demonstrate idiotypic cascades in cancer patients treated with monoclonal antibody. Ag-specific Ab3 responses may underlie delayed clinical responses often observed in cancer patients treated with monoclonal antibodies of various specificities. Images PMID:2786203

  19. Anti-idiotypic antibody: A new strategy for the development of a growth hormone receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hainan; Zheng, Xin; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Li, Steven

    2015-11-01

    In general, traditional growth hormone receptor antagonist can be divided into two major classes: growth hormone (GH) analogues and anti-growth hormone receptor (GHR) antibodies. Herein, we tried to explore a new class of growth hormone receptor (GHR) antagonist that may have potential advantages over the traditional antagonists. For this, we developed a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody growth hormone, termed CG-86. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate this antibody, and the results from a competitive receptor-binding assay, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) and epitope mapping demonstrate that CG-86 behaved as a typical Ab2β. Next, we examined its antagonistic activity using in vitro cell models, and the results showed that CG-86 could effectively inhibit growth hormone receptor-mediated signalling and effectively inhibit growth hormone-induced Ba/F3-GHR638 proliferation. In summary, these studies show that an anti-idiotypic antibody (CG-86) has promise as a novel growth hormone receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the current findings also suggest that anti-idiotypic antibody may represent a novel strategy to produce a new class of growth hormone receptor antagonist, and this strategy may be applied with other cytokines or growth factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polymorphism of germ-line immunoglobulin VH genes correlates with allotype and idiotype markers.

    PubMed

    Ben-Neriah, Y; Cohen, J B; Rechavi, G; Zakut, R; Givol, D

    1981-12-01

    The polymorphic nature of the immunoglobulin VH genes was investigated by Southern blot analysis of liver DNA of sixteen different mouse strains and hybridization with VH probes. Differences in restriction enzyme pattern (REP) were observed and six different patterns of restriction fragments were found for the sixteen strains analyzed. No equivalent polymorphism was observed in another multigene family, the actins. The six patterns correlate with immunoglobin constant region allotypes (Igh-1). Experiments with Igh-1-congenic strains suggest that the VH REP is linked to immunoglobulin constant region haplotype. Mouse strains which share inherited idiotypes also share identical VH restriction pattern. This provides a structural basis for the genetic linkage between idiotypes and allotypes. It also indicates that different strains carry different VH gene repertoires, which may be the basis for the expression of different inherited idiotypes in various strains. We propose that a VH group in a set of linked genes that are coinherited as a cluster with the constant region genes and that VH and Ch can be regarded as an extended haplotype.

  1. The stress response and immune system share, borrow, and reconfigure their physiological network elements: Evidence from the insects.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A

    2017-02-01

    The classic biomedical view is that stress hormone effects on the immune system are largely pathological, especially if the stress is chronic. However, more recent interpretations have focused on the potential adaptive function of these effects. This paper examines stress response-immune system interactions from a physiological network perspective, using insects because of their simpler physiology. For example, stress hormones can reduce disease resistance, yet activating an immune response results in the release of stress hormones in both vertebrates and invertebrates. From a network perspective, this phenomenon is consistent with the 'sharing' of the energy-releasing ability of stress hormones by both the stress response and the immune system. Stress-induced immunosuppression is consistent with the stress response 'borrowing' molecular components from the immune system to increase the capacity of stress-relevant physiological processes (i.e. a trade off). The insect stress hormones octopamine and adipokinetic hormone can also 'reconfigure' the immune system to help compensate for the loss of some of the immune system's molecular resources (e.g. apolipophorin III). This view helps explain seemingly maladaptive interactions between the stress response and immune system. The adaptiveness of stress hormone effects on individual immune components may be apparent only from the perspective of the whole organism. These broad principles will apply to both vertebrates and invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibody networks and imaging: elicitation of anti-fluorescein antibodies in response to the metatypic state of fluorescein-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, A M; Miklasz, S D; Voss, E W

    1996-01-01

    Studies are described regarding generation of anti-hapten antibodies starting with a monoclonal Ig immunogen in the ligand-induced conformation or metatypic state. Liganded monoclonal Ab1 antibodies represent the unique feature of the study since previous reports investigating internal imaging in the original Idiotype Network Hypothesis [Jerne, 1974 (Ann. Immun. 125C, 373-389)] were based on the non-liganded or idiotypic state [as reviewed in: Rodkey, 1980 (Microbiol. Rev. 44, 631-659); Kohler et al., 1979 (In: Methods in Enzymology: Antibodies, Antigens and Molecular Mimicry, pp. 3-35); Greenspan and Bona, 1993 (FASEB J. 7,437-444)]. Affinity-labeled liganded murine monoclonal anti-fluorescein antibodies served as immunogens administered both in the syngenic and xenogenic modes to determine if the metatypic state elicited anti-hapten antibodies through imaging-like mechanisms. Polyclonal and monoclonal anti-Ab1 reagents in various hosts were assayed for anti-fluorescein and/or anti-metatype specificity. Significant anti-fluorescein responses were measured indicating that the metatypic state directly or indirectly stimulates an anti-hapten antibody population.

  3. Auxin crosstalk to plant immune networks: a plant-pathogen interaction perspective.

    PubMed

    Naseem, Muhammad; Srivastava, Mugdha; Tehseen, Muhammad; Ahmed, Nazeer

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin regulates a whole repertoire of plant growth and development. Many plant-associated microorganisms, by virtue of their auxin production capability, mediate phytostimulation effects on plants. Recent studies, however, demonstrate diverse mechanisms whereby plant pathogens manipulate auxin biosynthesis, signaling and transport pathways to promote host susceptibility. Auxin responses have been coupled to their antagonistic and synergistic interactions with salicylic acid and jasmonate mediated defenses, respectively. Here, we discuss that a better understanding of auxin crosstalk to plant immune networks would enable us to engineer crop plants with higher protection and low unintended yield losses.

  4. Modeling Immune Network Through Cellular Automata:. a Unified Mechanism of Immunological Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Debashish; Deshpande, Varsha; Stauffer, Dietrich

    The populations of the various types of immunocompetent cells in the immune system are described as cellular automata and the population dynamics of these cells are formulated in terms of dynamical maps in discrete time. Both intra-clonal interactions (i.e., interactions among the cell types belonging to the same clone) and inter-clonal interactions (i.e., interactions among the cell types belonging to different clones) are included in the models proposed here. While the intra-clonal interactions are shown to play a crucial role in the primary response of some clones and in the formation of the immunological memory, the inter-clonal interactions are responsible for retaining the memory through a dynamical process driven by the mutual stimulation of the clones. We present the results for two different types of connectivity, namely, a “necklace” network and a network in “shape space”.

  5. Approaching mathematical model of the immune network based DNA Strand Displacement system.

    PubMed

    Mardian, Rizki; Sekiyama, Kosuke; Fukuda, Toshio

    2013-12-01

    One biggest obstacle in molecular programming is that there is still no direct method to compile any existed mathematical model into biochemical reaction in order to solve a computational problem. In this paper, the implementation of DNA Strand Displacement system based on nature-inspired computation is observed. By using the Immune Network Theory and Chemical Reaction Network, the compilation of DNA-based operation is defined and the formulation of its mathematical model is derived. Furthermore, the implementation on this system is compared with the conventional implementation by using silicon-based programming. From the obtained results, we can see a positive correlation between both. One possible application from this DNA-based model is for a decision making scheme of intelligent computer or molecular robot.

  6. Securing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Danger Theory-Based Artificial Immune Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs. PMID:25946001

  7. Securing mobile ad hoc networks using danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm.

    PubMed

    Abdelhaq, Maha; Alsaqour, Raed; Abdelhaq, Shawkat

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs.

  8. Salivary Defense Proteins: Their Network and Role in Innate and Acquired Oral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fábián, Tibor Károly; Hermann, Péter; Beck, Anita; Fejérdy, Pál; Fábián, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate), periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid) and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate) may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins), are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI), BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone) proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed. PMID:22605979

  9. Vaccinomics, adversomics, and the immune response network theory: Individualized vaccinology in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Poland, Gregory A.; Kennedy, Richard B.; McKinney, Brett A.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Lambert, Nathaniel D.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Oberg, Ann L.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines, like drugs and medical procedures, are increasingly amenable to individualization or personalization, often based on novel data resulting from high throughput “omics” technologies. As a result of these technologies, 21st century vaccinology will increasingly see the abandonment of a “one size fits all” approach to vaccine dosing and delivery, as well as the abandonment of the empiric “isolate–inactivate–inject” paradigm for vaccine development. In this review, we discuss the immune response network theory and its application to the new field of vaccinomics and adversomics, and illustrate how vaccinomics can lead to new vaccine candidates, new understandings of how vaccines stimulate immune responses, new biomarkers for vaccine response, and facilitate the understanding of what genetic and other factors might be responsible for rare side effects due to vaccines. Perhaps most exciting will be the ability, at a systems biology level, to integrate increasingly complex high throughput data into descriptive and predictive equations for immune responses to vaccines. Herein, we discuss the above with a view toward the future of vaccinology. PMID:23755893

  10. Network intrusion detection based on a general regression neural network optimized by an improved artificial immune algorithm.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianfa; Peng, Dahao; Li, Zhuping; Zhao, Li; Ling, Huanzhang

    2015-01-01

    To effectively and accurately detect and classify network intrusion data, this paper introduces a general regression neural network (GRNN) based on the artificial immune algorithm with elitist strategies (AIAE). The elitist archive and elitist crossover were combined with the artificial immune algorithm (AIA) to produce the AIAE-GRNN algorithm, with the aim of improving its adaptivity and accuracy. In this paper, the mean square errors (MSEs) were considered the affinity function. The AIAE was used to optimize the smooth factors of the GRNN; then, the optimal smooth factor was solved and substituted into the trained GRNN. Thus, the intrusive data were classified. The paper selected a GRNN that was separately optimized using a genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and fuzzy C-mean clustering (FCM) to enable a comparison of these approaches. As shown in the results, the AIAE-GRNN achieves a higher classification accuracy than PSO-GRNN, but the running time of AIAE-GRNN is long, which was proved first. FCM and GA-GRNN were eliminated because of their deficiencies in terms of accuracy and convergence. To improve the running speed, the paper adopted principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimensions of the intrusive data. With the reduction in dimensionality, the PCA-AIAE-GRNN decreases in accuracy less and has better convergence than the PCA-PSO-GRNN, and the running speed of the PCA-AIAE-GRNN was relatively improved. The experimental results show that the AIAE-GRNN has a higher robustness and accuracy than the other algorithms considered and can thus be used to classify the intrusive data.

  11. Network Intrusion Detection Based on a General Regression Neural Network Optimized by an Improved Artificial Immune Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianfa; Peng, Dahao; Li, Zhuping; Zhao, Li; Ling, Huanzhang

    2015-01-01

    To effectively and accurately detect and classify network intrusion data, this paper introduces a general regression neural network (GRNN) based on the artificial immune algorithm with elitist strategies (AIAE). The elitist archive and elitist crossover were combined with the artificial immune algorithm (AIA) to produce the AIAE-GRNN algorithm, with the aim of improving its adaptivity and accuracy. In this paper, the mean square errors (MSEs) were considered the affinity function. The AIAE was used to optimize the smooth factors of the GRNN; then, the optimal smooth factor was solved and substituted into the trained GRNN. Thus, the intrusive data were classified. The paper selected a GRNN that was separately optimized using a genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and fuzzy C-mean clustering (FCM) to enable a comparison of these approaches. As shown in the results, the AIAE-GRNN achieves a higher classification accuracy than PSO-GRNN, but the running time of AIAE-GRNN is long, which was proved first. FCM and GA-GRNN were eliminated because of their deficiencies in terms of accuracy and convergence. To improve the running speed, the paper adopted principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimensions of the intrusive data. With the reduction in dimensionality, the PCA-AIAE-GRNN decreases in accuracy less and has better convergence than the PCA-PSO-GRNN, and the running speed of the PCA-AIAE-GRNN was relatively improved. The experimental results show that the AIAE-GRNN has a higher robustness and accuracy than the other algorithms considered and can thus be used to classify the intrusive data. PMID:25807466

  12. Integrated Systems View on Networking by Hormones in Arabidopsis Immunity Reveals Multiple Crosstalk for Cytokinin[W

    PubMed Central

    Naseem, Muhammad; Philippi, Nicole; Hussain, Anwar; Wangorsch, Gaby; Ahmed, Nazeer; Dandekar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Phytohormones signal and combine to maintain the physiological equilibrium in the plant. Pathogens enhance host susceptibility by modulating the hormonal balance of the plant cell. Unlike other plant hormones, the detailed role of cytokinin in plant immunity remains to be fully elucidated. Here, extensive data mining, including of pathogenicity factors, host regulatory proteins, enzymes of hormone biosynthesis, and signaling components, established an integrated signaling network of 105 nodes and 163 edges. Dynamic modeling and system analysis identified multiple cytokinin-mediated regulatory interactions in plant disease networks. This includes specific synergism between cytokinin and salicylic acid pathways and previously undiscovered aspects of antagonism between cytokinin and auxin in plant immunity. Predicted interactions and hormonal effects on plant immunity are confirmed in subsequent experiments with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and Arabidopsis thaliana. Our dynamic simulation is instrumental in predicting system effects of individual components in complex hormone disease networks and synergism or antagonism between pathways. PMID:22643121

  13. Prioritization of rheumatoid arthritis risk subpathways based on global immune subpathway interaction network and random walk strategy.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wenhua; Wang, Qiuyu; Chen, He; Jiang, Yongshuai; Zheng, Jiajia; Shi, Miao; Xu, Yanjun; Han, Junwei; Li, Chunquan; Zhang, Ruijie

    2015-11-01

    The initiation and development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is closely related to mutual dysfunction of multiple pathways. Furthermore, some similar molecular mechanisms are shared between RA and other immune diseases. Therefore it is vital to reveal the molecular mechanism of RA through searching for subpathways of immune diseases and investigating the crosstalk effect among subpathways. Here we exploited an integrated approach combining both construction of a subpathway-subpathway interaction network and a random walk strategy to prioritize RA risk subpathways. Our research can be divided into three parts: (1) acquisition of risk genes and identification of risk subpathways of 85 immune diseases by using subpathway-lenient distance similarity (subpathway-LDS) method; (2) construction of a global immune subpathway interaction (GISI) network with subpathways identified by subpathway-LDS; (3) optimization of RA risk subpathways by random walk strategy based on GISI network. The results showed that our method could effectively identify RA risk subpathways, such as MAPK signaling pathway, prostate cancer pathway and chemokine signaling pathway. The integrated strategy considering crosstalk between immune subpathways significantly improved the effect of risk subpathway identification. With the development of GWAS, our method will provide insight into exploring molecular mechanisms of immune diseases and might be a promising approach for studying other diseases.

  14. Generation and Characterization of a Human/Mouse Chimeric GD2-Mimicking Anti-Idiotype Antibody Ganglidiximab for Active Immunotherapy against Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Eger, Christin; Siebert, Nikolai; Seidel, Diana; Zumpe, Maxi; Jüttner, Madlen; Brandt, Sven; Müller, Hans-Peter; Lode, Holger N.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination with proteins mimicking GD2 that is highly expressed on neuroblastoma (NB) cells is a promising strategy in treatment of NB, a pediatric malignancy with poor prognosis. We previously showed efficacy of ganglidiomab in vivo, a murine anti-idiotype (anti-Id) IgG1. In order to tailor immune responses to variable regions, we generated a new human/mouse chimeric anti-Id antibody (Ab) ganglidiximab by replacing murine constant fragments with corresponding human IgG1 regions. DNA sequences encoding for variable regions of heavy (VH) and light chains (VL) were synthesized by RT-PCR from total RNA of ganglidiomab-producing hybridoma cells and further ligated into mammalian expression plasmids with coding sequences for constant regions of human IgG1 heavy and light chains, respectively. We established a stable production cell line using Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells co-transfected with two expression plasmids driving the expression of either ganglidiximab heavy or light chain. After purification from supernatants, anti-idiotypic characteristics of ganglidiximab were demonstrated. Binding of ganglidiximab to anti-GD2 Abs of the 14.18 family as well as to NK-92tr cells expressing a GD2-specific chimeric antigen receptor (scFv(ch14.18)-zeta) was shown using standard ELISA and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Ganglidiximab binding affinities to anti-GD2 Abs were further determined by surface plasmon resonance technique. Moreover, binding of anti-GD2 Abs to the nominal antigen GD2 as well as GD2-specific Ab-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC, CDC) was competitively inhibited by ganglidiximab. Finally, ganglidiximab was successfully used as a protein vaccine in vivo to induce a GD2-specific humoral immune response. In summary, we report generation and characterization of a new human/mouse chimeric anti-Id Ab ganglidiximab for active immunotherapy against NB. This Ab may be useful to tailor immune responses to the paratope regions mimicking GD2 overexpressed in NB

  15. Spectral characteristics of fluorescence and circular dichroism of aflatoxin B1 reaction with its anti-idiotypic antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aiping; Yang, Hongxiu; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-11-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a toxic secondary metabolite and sensitive methods for its analysis have been developed. In our lab, a number of works have been carried out, including exploitation of detection methods and production of anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) against Fab fragment of anti-AFB1 antibody (Ab1). In this paper, Ab2 was generated upon the immunization of mice with F(ab')2 fragment, which was specific to AFB1 and obtained by pepsin digestion of Ab1. The characteristics of Ab2 was primarily investigated by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA), which indicated that Ab2, might bear an internal image of antigen AFB1 and was able to combine to F(ab')2 in competition with AFB1, and the concentration of Ab2 to cause 50% inhibition of binding (IC50) was 131.8 μg/mL. In addition, fluorescence and circular dichroism studies were designed to explore the mutual relationship among AFB1, F(ab')2 and Ab2. The fluorescence spectroscopy implied that both AFB1 and Ab2 act as a quencher upon F(ab')2, and the Ab2 could compete with AFB1 when both of Ab2 and AFB1 reacted with F(ab')2. The circular dichroism (CD) spectrum suggested that both the binding of Ab2 and AFB1 on F(ab')2 brought secondary conformation change of F(ab')2, especially in the changes of α helix and β sheet. The research performed would provide unique insight into the comprehension of interaction among AFB1, F(ab')2 and Ab2 as well as offer structural information for substitution researches of toxic antigen like AFB1.

  16. Antigen- and receptor-driven regulatory mechanisms. VIII. Suppression of idiotype-negative, p-azobenzenearsonate-specific T cells results from the interaction of an anti-idiotypic second-order T suppressor cell with a cross-reactive-idiotype-positive, p-azobenzenearsonate- primed T cell target

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    The suppressor pathway that regulates the T cell response to p- azobenzenearsonate (ABA)-coupled cells has been studied. It has been found that the ability of anti-idiotypic second-order T suppressor cells (Ts2) to inhibit T cell-dependent delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses depended upon the presence of cross-reactive-idiotype (CRI)-bearing T cells present in ABA-primed mice. This suppressor T cell subset, termed Ts2, so exists with CRI-negative T cells that mediate DTH in vivo. It appears that antigen-activated CRI+ Ts3 require signals from the anti-CRI Ts2 subset to suppress DTH reactions in an idiotype-nonspecific manner. The relevance of these observations to a comprehensive scheme of T and B cell regulation is discussed. PMID:6454748

  17. QML-AiNet: An immune network approach to learning qualitative differential equation models

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the application of Opt-AiNet, an immune network approach for search and optimisation problems, to learning qualitative models in the form of qualitative differential equations. The Opt-AiNet algorithm is adapted to qualitative model learning problems, resulting in the proposed system QML-AiNet. The potential of QML-AiNet to address the scalability and multimodal search space issues of qualitative model learning has been investigated. More importantly, to further improve the efficiency of QML-AiNet, we also modify the mutation operator according to the features of discrete qualitative model space. Experimental results show that the performance of QML-AiNet is comparable to QML-CLONALG, a QML system using the clonal selection algorithm (CLONALG). More importantly, QML-AiNet with the modified mutation operator can significantly improve the scalability of QML and is much more efficient than QML-CLONALG. PMID:25648212

  18. QML-AiNet: An immune network approach to learning qualitative differential equation models.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei; Coghill, George M

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we explore the application of Opt-AiNet, an immune network approach for search and optimisation problems, to learning qualitative models in the form of qualitative differential equations. The Opt-AiNet algorithm is adapted to qualitative model learning problems, resulting in the proposed system QML-AiNet. The potential of QML-AiNet to address the scalability and multimodal search space issues of qualitative model learning has been investigated. More importantly, to further improve the efficiency of QML-AiNet, we also modify the mutation operator according to the features of discrete qualitative model space. Experimental results show that the performance of QML-AiNet is comparable to QML-CLONALG, a QML system using the clonal selection algorithm (CLONALG). More importantly, QML-AiNet with the modified mutation operator can significantly improve the scalability of QML and is much more efficient than QML-CLONALG.

  19. Idiotypes of murine monoclonal antibodies to clotting factor VIII:C

    SciTech Connect

    Pechet, L.; Tiarks, C.Y.; Ghalili, K.; Humphreys, R.E.

    1986-03-05

    The authors goal is to study idiotypic immunoregulation of inhibitors to clotting factor VIII:C. To this end, they used monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against VIII:C: Synbiotics, C7F7, and C5, directed against epitopes on the C terminal fragment of VIII:C; C2, C6, C8 directed against epitopes on the N terminal fragment of VIII:C; C10, directed against a non-functional epitope; IB3, Chemicon and Hybritech, to undetermined epitopes. Anti-idiotypic antibodies against C7F7, C8, Synbiotics and Hybritech were produced in rabbits. Competitive radioimmunoassays (RIA) tested cross-reactivity between each immunogen and the other MoAbs. Synbiotics cross-reacted with Chemicon and IB3, indicating they were directed against the same epitope on the C terminal fragment of VIII:C. They did not cross-react with Hybritech, C7F7, C2, C5, C6, C8, or C10. C7F7 showed no cross-reactivities. C8 cross-reacted with C6 but not with C2, C5, C10, C7F7, Synbiotics, or Hybritech. Hybritech did not did not cross-react with any of the other MoAbs. In conclusion, with four anti-idiotypic antibodies and ten MoAbs to VIII:C, they defined at least five functional epitopes and one non-functional epitope on the factor VIII:C molecule to which inhibitors may develop: C2, C6-C8 (N terminal), C7F7, C5, Synbiotics (C terminal), Hybritech (undetermined epitope) and C10 (non-functional).

  20. Tomato MAPKKKε is a positive regulator of cell-death signaling networks associated with plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Melech-Bonfil, Shiri; Sessa, Guido

    2010-11-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades are fundamental components of the signaling pathways associated with plant immunity. Despite the large number of MAP kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKK) encoded in the plant genome, only very few of them have an assigned function. Here, we identified MAPKKK gene of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), SIMAPKKKε, which is required for hypersensitive response cell death and disease resistance against Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Silencing of SIMAPKKKε compromised tomato resistance to Xanthomonas campestris and Pseudomonas syringae strains, resulting in the appearance of disease symptoms and enhanced bacterial growth. In addition, silencing of NbMAPKKKε in Nicotiana benthamiana plants significantly inhibited the cell death triggered by expression of different R gene/effector gene pairs. Conversely, overexpression of either the full-length SIMAPKKKε gene or its kinase domain in N. benthamiana leaves caused pathogen-independent activation of cell death that required an intact kinase catalytic domain. Moreover, by suppressing the expression of various MAPKK and MAPK genes and overexpressing the SIMAPKKKε kinase domain, we identified a signaling cascade acting downstream of SIMAPKKKε that includes MEK2, WIPK and SIPK. Additional epistasis experiments revealed that SIPKK functions as a negative regulator of SIMAPKKKε-mediated cell death. Our results provide evidence that SIMAPKKKε is a signaling molecule that positively regulates cell death networks associated with plant immunity.

  1. On the nature of IgG dimers. II. Idiotype--anti-idiotype complexes of polyclonal and monoclonal origin: size distribution patterns and molecular geometries.

    PubMed

    Gronski, P; Bauer, R; Bodenbender, L; Boland, P; Diderrich, G; Harthus, H P; Kanzy, E J; Kühn, K; Schmidt, K H; Walter, G

    1988-04-01

    Electron micrographs of a fraction containing dimers isolated from pooled human polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) suggest essentially a cyclic geometry compatible with bivalently associated monomers. It is obvious that such a structure can be produced by idiotype (Id)--anti-idiotype (anti-Id) interactions where the latter are able to neutralize certain combining site related Id functions. Accordingly, antibody (ab) activities against tetanus toxoid (tt) and rubella antigen (ag) were found to be almost exclusively confined to the monomeric molecules in preparations composed of monomers and dimers only. Moreover, electron micrographs of complexes prepared from a murine monoclonal Id as well as anti-Id reveal the presence of ring complexes, especially of cyclic tetramers. Gel filtration patterns of mixtures containing equimolar concentrations (concns) of such abs (1.6 x 10(-6) M) show, correspondingly for 9 different Id--anti-Id pairs and therefore probably representing a more common feature, mainly the formation of even-numbered complexes, especially tetramers. That is basically in accordance to an equilibrium model developed by Archer and Krakauer but not from a quantitative point of view because non-ideality terms had not been originally included. Despite taking strain energies determined by Schumaker et al. for cyclic complexes of polyclonal rabbit abs and a bivalent hapten into account for computation of size distribution patterns, the predominant formation of dimers was, nevertheless, again predicted by the modified theory in contrast to the experimental results. Fundamental conformity could only be achieved by further decreasing one of the statistical factors, namely the ring closing factor, which theoretically influences the generation of cyclic dimers. Therefore, referring to the experimental results of Schumaker et al., we postulate a strain energy well above 700 cal/mol for cyclic dimers produced by interacting Ids and anti-Ids. In general, the findings

  2. An artificial immune network approach to land use / land cover classification using multi-sensor remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Binglei

    An optimized immune network-based classification (OPTINC) method was developed and adapted for land use / land cover classification. Based on the widely-used artificial immune network (aiNet) model, three major improvements were made: (1) the preservation of the best antibodies for each class from being suppressed; (2) the usage of self-adaptive mutation rates in response to changes in model performance between learning generations; and (3) the integration of genetic algorithm-optimized linear combinations of Euclidean distance and spectral angle mapping distance as affinity measurements. OPTINC was evaluated for two study sites with multi-sensor data. Decision trees, neural networks and aiNet were also tested and compared in terms of classification accuracy, local homogeneity of the classified image, and model sensitivity to sample size. OPTINC outperformed the other models with higher accuracy and much less salt-and-pepper noise in the classification images. OPTINC was relatively less sensitive to training sample size than decision trees and neural networks were. Key Words: Artificial immune networks; Artificial neural networks; Decision trees; Land use / land cover classification

  3. Immune system functional pathway analysis using single cell network profiling (SCNP): a novel tool in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cesano, Alessandra; Spellmeyer, David

    2014-01-01

    The development of cancer immunotherapies has been ongoing for many years and has shown limited success. Novel biomarkers are needed to identify patients most likely to respond to anticancer immune-therapeutic approaches. Moreover, a systems-level approach is required for comprehensive understanding of the interconnected components, pathways, and cell types associated with an immune response. In this chapter, we describe single cell network profiling (SCNP), a novel method for assessing and measuring immune function/dysfunction at a systems level. SCNP is a multiparametric flow-cytometry-based analysis that can simultaneously measure, at the single cell level, both extracellular surface markers and changes in intracellular signaling proteins in response to extracellular modulators. Measuring changes in signaling proteins following the application of an external modulation informs on the functional capacity of the signaling network which cannot be assessed by the measurement of basal signaling alone. In addition, the simultaneous analysis of multiple pathways in multiple cell subsets can provide insight into the connectivity of both cell signaling networks and immune cell subtypes. The experimental steps associated with an SCNP assay are (1) pre-analytical sample preparation; (2) modulation for functional analysis; (3) staining with antibody cocktail; (4) data acquisition on flow cytometer; and (5) data analysis and metrics. Important considerations for each step of the assay will be discussed, and data demonstrating the utility of SCNP for immune monitoring applications will be summarized.

  4. Positive network assortativity of influenza vaccination at a high school: implications for outbreak risk and herd immunity.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Victoria C; Smieszek, Timo; He, Jianping; Cao, Guohong; Rainey, Jeanette J; Gao, Hongjiang; Uzicanin, Amra; Salathé, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Schools are known to play a significant role in the spread of influenza. High vaccination coverage can reduce infectious disease spread within schools and the wider community through vaccine-induced immunity in vaccinated individuals and through the indirect effects afforded by herd immunity. In general, herd immunity is greatest when vaccination coverage is highest, but clusters of unvaccinated individuals can reduce herd immunity. Here, we empirically assess the extent of such clustering by measuring whether vaccinated individuals are randomly distributed or demonstrate positive assortativity across a United States high school contact network. Using computational models based on these empirical measurements, we further assess the impact of assortativity on influenza disease dynamics. We found that the contact network was positively assortative with respect to influenza vaccination: unvaccinated individuals tended to be in contact more often with other unvaccinated individuals than with vaccinated individuals, and these effects were most pronounced when we analyzed contact data collected over multiple days. Of note, unvaccinated males contributed substantially more than unvaccinated females towards the measured positive vaccination assortativity. Influenza simulation models using a positively assortative network resulted in larger average outbreak size, and outbreaks were more likely, compared to an otherwise identical network where vaccinated individuals were not clustered. These findings highlight the importance of understanding and addressing heterogeneities in seasonal influenza vaccine uptake for prevention of large, protracted school-based outbreaks of influenza, in addition to continued efforts to increase overall vaccine coverage.

  5. Positive Network Assortativity of Influenza Vaccination at a High School: Implications for Outbreak Risk and Herd Immunity

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianping; Cao, Guohong; Rainey, Jeanette J.; Gao, Hongjiang; Uzicanin, Amra; Salathé, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Schools are known to play a significant role in the spread of influenza. High vaccination coverage can reduce infectious disease spread within schools and the wider community through vaccine-induced immunity in vaccinated individuals and through the indirect effects afforded by herd immunity. In general, herd immunity is greatest when vaccination coverage is highest, but clusters of unvaccinated individuals can reduce herd immunity. Here, we empirically assess the extent of such clustering by measuring whether vaccinated individuals are randomly distributed or demonstrate positive assortativity across a United States high school contact network. Using computational models based on these empirical measurements, we further assess the impact of assortativity on influenza disease dynamics. We found that the contact network was positively assortative with respect to influenza vaccination: unvaccinated individuals tended to be in contact more often with other unvaccinated individuals than with vaccinated individuals, and these effects were most pronounced when we analyzed contact data collected over multiple days. Of note, unvaccinated males contributed substantially more than unvaccinated females towards the measured positive vaccination assortativity. Influenza simulation models using a positively assortative network resulted in larger average outbreak size, and outbreaks were more likely, compared to an otherwise identical network where vaccinated individuals were not clustered. These findings highlight the importance of understanding and addressing heterogeneities in seasonal influenza vaccine uptake for prevention of large, protracted school-based outbreaks of influenza, in addition to continued efforts to increase overall vaccine coverage. PMID:24505274

  6. Galectins: their network and roles in immunity/tumor growth control.

    PubMed

    Kaltner, Herbert; Toegel, Stefan; Caballero, Gabriel García; Manning, Joachim C; Ledeen, Robert W; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2017-02-01

    One route of realizing the information of glycans involves endogenous receptors (lectins). Occurrence at branch ends renders galactosides particularly accessible. Thus, they are suited for such a recognition process. Fittingly, these epitopes serve as physiological ligands. The ga(lactoside-binding) lectins share the β-sandwich fold with a sequence signature around a central tryptophan residue besides this specificity. Three modes of presentation of the carbohydrate recognition domain are known for galectins, and genome monitoring from fungi to mammals discloses that galectins form a network. The extent of its complexity varies considerably between organisms, for chicken reaching seven proteins, more for mammals. The current status of network analysis reveals overlapping and distinct expression profiles. Matching intra- and extracellular galectin presence, they have a broad range of functions at each site depending on their specific counterreceptor(s), with the possibility even for functional antagonism between family members. Orchestration of expression of galectin, the cognate glycan, its scaffold (protein or sphingolipid) and spatial aspects of glycoconjugate presentation has been detected to lead to growth regulation of immune and tumor cells. To delineate the factors that underlie the specificity of a galectin for its counterreceptor(s) in the cellular context and the details of structure-activity relationships by comparatively analyzing natural and rationally engineered proteins is the main challenge for ongoing research.

  7. Isolation from individual A/J mice of anti-rho-azophenylarsonate antibodies bearing a cross-reactive idiotype.

    PubMed

    Tung, A S; Nisonoff, A

    1975-01-01

    Immuization of A/J mice with a KLH-p-azophenylarsonate conjugate induces the formation of antihapten antibodies, some of which share idiotypic specificity common to all recipients. The subpopulation carrying the idiotype generally comprises 20-70% of the total antibody content. Large quantities of antihapten antibody (occasionally over 100 mg) were obtained from individual mice through the induction of an ascites fluid. This facilitated isolation of antibodies with the cross-reactive idiotype by isoelectric focusing. Most of this subpopulation has pI values between 6.65 and 6.95 and essentially all is of the IgG1 subclass. Two peaks, near pI 6.7 and 6.9, were frequently observed. Upon refocusing, the protein artifact of the procedure, but indicates microheterogeneity. The antibodies in the two peaks were found to be idiotypically identical by measurements of cross-inhibition. Preliminary studies have indicated that it is feasible to initiate investigations of primary structure with antibodies from individual inbred mice.

  8. Isolation from individual A/J mice of anti-rho-azophenylarsonate antibodies bearing a cross-reactive idiotype

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Immuization of A/J mice with a KLH-p-azophenylarsonate conjugate induces the formation of antihapten antibodies, some of which share idiotypic specificity common to all recipients. The subpopulation carrying the idiotype generally comprises 20-70% of the total antibody content. Large quantities of antihapten antibody (occasionally over 100 mg) were obtained from individual mice through the induction of an ascites fluid. This facilitated isolation of antibodies with the cross- reactive idiotype by isoelectric focusing. Most of this subpopulation has pI values between 6.65 and 6.95 and essentially all is of the IgG1 subclass. Two peaks, near pI 6.7 and 6.9, were frequently observed. Upon refocusing, the protein artifact of the procedure, but indicates microheterogeneity. The antibodies in the two peaks were found to be idiotypically identical by measurements of cross-inhibition. Preliminary studies have indicated that it is feasible to initiate investigations of primary structure with antibodies from individual inbred mice. PMID:46907

  9. Overview of the Clinical Consult Case Review of adverse events following immunization: Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) network 2004-2009.

    PubMed

    Williams, S Elizabeth; Klein, Nicola P; Halsey, Neal; Dekker, Cornelia L; Baxter, Roger P; Marchant, Colin D; LaRussa, Philip S; Sparks, Robert C; Tokars, Jerome I; Pahud, Barbara A; Aukes, Laurie; Jakob, Kathleen; Coronel, Silvia; Choi, Howard; Slade, Barbara A; Edwards, Kathryn M

    2011-09-16

    In 2004 the Clinical Consult Case Review (CCCR) working group was formed within the CDC-funded Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Network to review individual cases of adverse events following immunizations (AEFI). Cases were referred by practitioners, health departments, or CDC employees. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) searches and literature reviews for similar cases were performed prior to review. After CCCR discussion, AEFI were assessed for a causal relationship with vaccination and recommendations regarding future immunizations were relayed back to the referring physicians. In 2010, surveys were sent to referring physicians to determine the utility and effectiveness of the CCCR service. CISA investigators reviewed 76 cases during 68 conference calls between April 2004 and December 2009. Almost half of the cases (35/76) were neurological in nature. Similar AEFI for the specific vaccines received were discovered for 63 cases through VAERS searches and for 38 cases through PubMed searches. Causality assessment using the modified WHO criteria resulted in classifying 3 cases as definitely related to vaccine administration, 12 as probably related, 16 as possibly related, 18 as unlikely related, 10 as unrelated, and 17 had insufficient information to assign causality. The physician satisfaction survey was returned by 30 (57.7%) of those surveyed and a majority of respondents (93.3%) felt that the CCCR service was useful. The CCCR provides advice about AEFI to practitioners, assigns potential causality, and contributes to an improved understanding of adverse health events following immunizations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Syngeneic anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies to an anti-NeuGc-containing ganglioside monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, A M; Pérez, A; Hernández, A M; Macías, A; Alfonso, M; Bombino, G; Pérez, R

    1998-12-01

    An IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb), named P3, has the characteristic to react specifically with a broad battery of N-glycolyl containing-gangliosides and with antigens expressed on breast tumors. When this MAb was administered alone in syngeneic mice, an specific IgG anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) response was induced, this Ab2 response was increased when P3 MAb was injected coupled to a carrier protein and in the presence of Freund's adjuvant. Spleen cells from these mice were used in somatic-cell hybridization experiments, using the murine myeloma cell line P3-X63-Ag8.653 as fusion partner. Five Ab2 MAbs specific to P3 MAb were selected. These IgG1 Ab2 MAbs were able to block the binding of P3 MAb to GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside and to a human breast carcinoma cell line. Cross-blocking experiments demonstrated that these Ab2 MAbs are recognizing the same or very close sites on the Abl MAb. The five Ab2 MAbs were injected into syngeneic mice and four of them produced strong anti-anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab3) response. While these Ab2 MAbs were unable to generate Ab3 antibodies with the same antigenic specificity than P3 MAb, three of them induced antibodies bearing P3 MAb idiotopes (Ag-Id+ Ab3). These results demonstrated that these Ab2 MAbs are not "internal image" antibodies, but they could define "regulatory idiotopes."

  11. Antigen receptors on murine T lymphocytes in contact sensitivity. II. Presentation and characterization of syngeneic anti-idiotype serum against DNFB-sensitized T cells.

    PubMed

    Moorhead, J W; Sy, M S

    1982-06-01

    This manuscript describes the preparation and characterization of a syngeneic antiserum raised in BALB/c mice against nylon wool-purified lymph node (LN) T cells from 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene- (DNFB) sensitized BALB/c mice. This antiserum (anti-T DH-DNP) plus complement blocks the ability of LN or purified T cells from DNFB-sensitized donors to transfer immunity to naive recipients. The inhibitory activity of the serum is due to antibodies; these antibodies have specificity for idiotype (Id) determinants as shown by their ability to bind to purified mouse anti-DNP antibodies but not to rabbit anti-DNP or normal mouse Ig. Inhibition of transfer of immunity by the anti-Id serum is not restricted by either H-2 gene products or Igh-1 allotypes. The antiserum is antigen specific when tested on LN cells from oxazolone-sensitized mice, but has a low level of cross-reactivity against T cells from 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene- (TNCB) sensitized mice. In addition, it was shown that naturally occurring anti-Id antibodies, epsilon-DNP-L-lysine, or DNP-protein (but not NIP-protein) and the anti-Id in syngeneic anti-T DH-DNP serum compete for similar binding sites on DNFB-immune T cells. We interpret these findings to indicate that immunization of mice with T cells from DNFB-sensitized syngeneic mice induces the production of anti-Id antibodies. These anti-Id antibodies are specific for determinants expressed on the T cell receptor or receptor subsite that is specific for the hapten DNP.

  12. Gene Networks Specific for Innate Immunity Define Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Michael S.; Maihofer, Adam X.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Tylee, Daniel S.; Chandler, Sharon D.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Baker, Dewleen G.; O’Connor, Daniel T.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Woelk, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular factors involved in the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) remain poorly understood. Previous transcriptomic studies investigating the mechanisms of PTSD apply targeted approaches to identify individual genes under a cross-sectional framework lack a holistic view of the behaviours and properties of these genes at the system-level. Here we sought to apply an unsupervised gene-network based approach to a prospective experimental design using whole-transcriptome RNA-Seq gene expression from peripheral blood leukocytes of U.S. Marines (N=188), obtained both pre- and post-deployment to conflict zones. We identified discrete groups of co-regulated genes (i.e., co-expression modules) and tested them for association to PTSD. We identified one module at both pre- and post-deployment containing putative causal signatures for PTSD development displaying an over-expression of genes enriched for functions of innate-immune response and interferon signalling (Type-I and Type-II). Importantly, these results were replicated in a second non-overlapping independent dataset of U.S. Marines (N=96), further outlining the role of innate immune and interferon signalling genes within co-expression modules to explain at least part of the causal pathophysiology for PTSD development. A second module, consequential of trauma exposure, contained PTSD resiliency signatures and an over-expression of genes involved in hemostasis and wound responsiveness suggesting that chronic levels of stress impair proper wound healing during/after exposure to the battlefield while highlighting the role of the hemostatic system as a clinical indicator of chronic-based stress. These findings provide novel insights for early preventative measures and advanced PTSD detection, which may lead to interventions that delay or perhaps abrogate the development of PTSD. PMID:25754082

  13. Analysis of schizophrenia and hepatocellular carcinoma genetic network with corresponding modularity and pathways: novel insights to the immune system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizophrenic patients show lower incidences of cancer, implicating schizophrenia may be a protective factor against cancer. To study the genetic correlation between the two diseases, a specific PPI network was constructed with candidate genes of both schizophrenia and hepatocellular carcinoma. The network, designated schizophrenia-hepatocellular carcinoma network (SHCN), was analysed and cliques were identified as potential functional modules or complexes. The findings were compared with information from pathway databases such as KEGG, Reactome, PID and ConsensusPathDB. Results The functions of mediator genes from SHCN show immune system and cell cycle regulation have important roles in the eitology mechanism of schizophrenia. For example, the over-expressing schizophrenia candidate genes, SIRPB1, SYK and LCK, are responsible for signal transduction in cytokine production; immune responses involving IL-2 and TREM-1/DAP12 pathways are relevant for the etiology mechanism of schizophrenia. Novel treatments were proposed by searching the target genes of FDA approved drugs with genes in potential protein complexes and pathways. It was found that Vitamin A, retinoid acid and a few other immune response agents modulated by RARA and LCK genes may be potential treatments for both schizophrenia and hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusions This is the first study showing specific mediator genes in the SHCN which may suppress tumors. We also show that the schizophrenic protein interactions and modulation with cancer implicates the importance of immune system for etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:24564241

  14. Homology of the NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of the heavy and light chains of human monoclonal lupus autoantibodies containing the dominant 16/6 idiotype.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, P M; Lampman, G W; Furie, B C; Naparstek, Y; Schwartz, R S; Stollar, B D; Furie, B

    1985-01-01

    The NH2-terminal amino acid sequences have been determined by automated Edman degradation for the heavy and light chains of five monoclonal IgM anti-DNA autoantibodies that were produced by human-human hybridomas derived from lymphocytes of two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Four of the antibodies were closely related to the idiotype system 16/6, whereas the fifth antibody was unrelated idiotypically. The light chains of the 16/6 idiotype-positive autoantibodies (HF2-1/13b, HF2-1/17, HF2-18/2, and HF3-16/6) had identical amino acid sequences from residues 1 to 40. Their framework structures were characteristic of VKI light chains. The light chain of the 16/6 idiotype-negative autoantibody HF6-21/28 was characteristic of the VKII subgroup. The heavy chains of the 16/6 idiotype-positive autoantibodies had nearly identical amino acid sequences from residues 1 to 40. The framework structures were characteristic of the VHIII subgroup. In contrast, the GM4672 fusion partner of the hybridoma produced small quantities of an IgG with a VHI heavy chain and a VKI light chain. The heavy chains of the lupus autoantibodies and the light chains of those autoantibodies that were idiotypically related to the 16/6 system had marked sequence homology with WEA, a Waldenstrom IgM that binds to Klebsiella polysaccharides and expresses the 16/6 idiotype. These results indicate a striking homology in the amino termini of the heavy and light chains of the lupus autoantibodies studied and suggest that the V regions of the heavy and light chains of the 16/6 idiotype-positive DNA-binding lupus auto-antibodies are each encoded by a single germ line gene. PMID:3921567

  15. microRNA Expression in Sentinel Nodes from Progressing Melanoma Patients Identifies Networks Associated with Dysfunctional Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Vallacchi, Viviana; Camisaschi, Chiara; Dugo, Matteo; Vergani, Elisabetta; Deho, Paola; Gualeni, Ambra; Huber, Veronica; Gloghini, Annunziata; Maurichi, Andrea; Santinami, Mario; Sensi, Marialuisa; Castelli, Chiara; Rivoltini, Licia; Rodolfo, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is a main staging biomarker in melanoma and is the first lymph node to drain the tumor, thus representing the immunological site where anti-tumor immune dysfunction is established and where potential prognostic immune markers can be identified. Here we analyzed microRNA (miR) profiles in archival tumor-positive SNBs derived from melanoma patients with different outcomes and performed an integrated analysis of transcriptional data to identify deregulated immune signaling networks. Twenty-six miRs were differentially expressed in melanoma-positive SNB samples between patients with disease progression and non-progressing patients, the majority being previously reported in the regulation of immune responses. A significant variation in miR expression levels was confirmed in an independent set of SNB samples. Integrated information from genome-wide transcriptional profiles and in vitro assessment in immune cells led to the identification of miRs associated with the regulation of the TNF receptor superfamily member 8 (TNFRSF8) gene encoding the CD30 receptor, a marker increased in lymphocytes of melanoma patients with progressive disease. These findings indicate that miRs are involved in the regulation of pathways leading to immune dysfunction in the sentinel node and may provide valuable markers for developing prognostic molecular signatures for the identification of stage III melanoma patients at risk of recurrence. PMID:27983661

  16. Study of idiotypes expressed by monoclonal antibodies to the 35 kD and 12 kD antigens of Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed Central

    Praputpittaya, K; Ivanyi, J

    1987-01-01

    Rabbit antisera were raised against four monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) binding with the 35 kD protein and four MoAb binding with the 12 kD protein antigen of Mycobacterium leprae. Antisera showed idiotype (Id) specificity following cross-absorption with normal mouse globulin. One Id on a single MoAb and another Id shared between three MoAb were identified for each group. Functional studies were carried out with the Rb04 anti [anti-35 kD] specificity. The expression of this Id and paratope in antigen immunized mice was associated with Igh alleles. Inoculation of mice with anti-Id Rb04 induced an 'Ab3' serum response of corresponding Id specificity only when the anti-Id was given in emulsion with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). Conversely, prior injection of soluble anti-Id inhibited the subsequent Ab3 response to Rb04/IFA. Moreover, the suppressive effect of soluble anti-Id was abrogated by prior injection of 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that regulatory mechanisms similar to those involved in antigenic stimulation may explain the stimulatory or suppressive potency of anti-Id antibodies. Finally, the Ab3 responses to the two tested anti-Ids did not contain any antigen binding activity. PMID:3322615

  17. A murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody detects a common idiotope on human, mouse and rabbit antibodies to allergen Lol p IV.

    PubMed

    Zhou, E M; Dzuba-Fischer, J M; Rector, E S; Sehon, A H; Kisil, F T

    1991-09-01

    A syngeneic mouse monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id), designated as B1/1, was generated against a monoclonal antibody (MoAb 91) specific for Ryegrass pollen allergen Lol p IV. This anti-Id recognized an idiotope (Id) that was also present on other monoclonal antibodies with the same specificity as MoAb 91. Observations that (i) the anti-Id inhibited the binding of MoAb 91 to Lol p IV and (ii) the Id-anti-Id interaction could be inhibited by Lol p IV indicated that the Id was located within or near the antigen combining site. These properties served to characterize B1/1 as an internal image anti-Id. Evidence that an immune response in different species to Lol p IV elicits the formation of antibodies which express a common Id was provided by the observations that (i) the Id-anti-Id interactions could be inhibited by mouse, human and rabbit antisera to Lol p IV and (ii) the binding of these antisera to Lol p IV could be inhibited by the anti-Id. Interestingly, the internal image anti-Id B1/1 also recognized an Id on a monoclonal antibody which was directed to an epitope of Lol p IV, different from that recognized by MoAb 91.

  18. RNA sequencing analysis of human podocytes reveals glucocorticoid regulated gene networks targeting non-immune pathways.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lulu; Hindmarch, Charles C T; Rogers, Mark; Campbell, Colin; Waterfall, Christy; Coghill, Jane; Mathieson, Peter W; Welsh, Gavin I

    2016-10-24

    Glucocorticoids are steroids that reduce inflammation and are used as immunosuppressive drugs for many diseases. They are also the mainstay for the treatment of minimal change nephropathy (MCN), which is characterised by an absence of inflammation. Their mechanisms of action remain elusive. Evidence suggests that immunomodulatory drugs can directly act on glomerular epithelial cells or 'podocytes', the cell type which is the main target of injury in MCN. To understand the nature of glucocorticoid effects on non-immune cell functions, we generated RNA sequencing data from human podocyte cell lines and identified the genes that are significantly regulated in dexamethasone-treated podocytes compared to vehicle-treated cells. The upregulated genes are of functional relevance to cytoskeleton-related processes, whereas the downregulated genes mostly encode pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. We observed a tendency for dexamethasone-upregulated genes to be downregulated in MCN patients. Integrative analysis revealed gene networks composed of critical signaling pathways that are likely targeted by dexamethasone in podocytes.

  19. RNA sequencing analysis of human podocytes reveals glucocorticoid regulated gene networks targeting non-immune pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lulu; Hindmarch, Charles C. T.; Rogers, Mark; Campbell, Colin; Waterfall, Christy; Coghill, Jane; Mathieson, Peter W.; Welsh, Gavin I.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are steroids that reduce inflammation and are used as immunosuppressive drugs for many diseases. They are also the mainstay for the treatment of minimal change nephropathy (MCN), which is characterised by an absence of inflammation. Their mechanisms of action remain elusive. Evidence suggests that immunomodulatory drugs can directly act on glomerular epithelial cells or ‘podocytes’, the cell type which is the main target of injury in MCN. To understand the nature of glucocorticoid effects on non-immune cell functions, we generated RNA sequencing data from human podocyte cell lines and identified the genes that are significantly regulated in dexamethasone-treated podocytes compared to vehicle-treated cells. The upregulated genes are of functional relevance to cytoskeleton-related processes, whereas the downregulated genes mostly encode pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. We observed a tendency for dexamethasone-upregulated genes to be downregulated in MCN patients. Integrative analysis revealed gene networks composed of critical signaling pathways that are likely targeted by dexamethasone in podocytes. PMID:27774996

  20. Alteration of transcriptional networks in the entorhinal cortex after maternal immune activation and adolescent cannabinoid exposure.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Sharon L; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Cairns, Murray J

    2016-08-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) and adolescent cannabinoid exposure (ACE) have both been identified as major environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined the effects of these two risk factors alone, and in combination, on gene expression during late adolescence. Pregnant rats were exposed to the viral infection mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) on gestational day (GD) 15. Adolescent offspring received daily injections of the cannabinoid HU210 for 14days starting on postnatal day (PND) 35. Gene expression was examined in the left entorhinal cortex (EC) using mRNA microarrays. We found prenatal treatment with poly I:C alone, or HU210 alone, produced relatively minor changes in gene expression. However, following combined treatments, offspring displayed significant changes in transcription. This dramatic and persistent alteration of transcriptional networks enriched with genes involved in neurotransmission, cellular signalling and schizophrenia, was associated with a corresponding perturbation in the expression of small non-coding microRNA (miRNA). These results suggest that a combination of environmental exposures during development leads to significant genomic remodeling that disrupts maturation of the EC and its associated circuitry with important implications as the potential antecedents of memory and learning deficits in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  1. Infection propagator approach to compute epidemic thresholds on temporal networks: impact of immunity and of limited temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdano, Eugenio; Poletto, Chiara; Colizza, Vittoria

    2015-12-01

    The epidemic threshold of a spreading process indicates the condition for the occurrence of the wide spreading regime, thus representing a predictor of the network vulnerability to the epidemic. Such threshold depends on the natural history of the disease and on the pattern of contacts of the network with its time variation. Based on the theoretical framework introduced in [E. Valdano, L. Ferreri, C. Poletto, V. Colizza, Phys. Rev. X 5, 21005 (2015)] for a susceptible-infectious-susceptible model, we formulate here an infection propagator approach to compute the epidemic threshold accounting for more realistic effects regarding a varying force of infection per contact, the presence of immunity, and a limited time resolution of the temporal network. We apply the approach to two temporal network models and an empirical dataset of school contacts. We find that permanent or temporary immunity do not affect the estimation of the epidemic threshold through the infection propagator approach. Comparisons with numerical results show the good agreement of the analytical predictions. Aggregating the temporal network rapidly deteriorates the predictions, except for slow diseases once the heterogeneity of the links is preserved. Weight-topology correlations are found to be the critical factor to be preserved to improve accuracy in the prediction.

  2. Pattern formation in B-cell immune networks: Domains and dots in shape-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noest, A. J.; Takumi, K.; de Boer, R.

    1997-02-01

    The immune system contains many types of B-cells, which can activate each other if the shapes and surface properties of their receptors (or antibodies) match well. The dynamics of the resulting network is analysed using a recently derived B-cell activation function which captures the effects of the binding and crosslinking of B-cell receptors. All receptor/antibody shapes are parametrised by a continuous ‘shape-space’, such that matching pairs of shapes interact locally. The model produces a variety of activation patterns across shape-space for a wide range of parameters. The spatio-temporal structures differ qualitatively from those seen with a previously used type of activation function. In either case, the pattern formation can largely be understood analytically, by first solving exactly for the various uniform fixed solutions, and then computing the evolution of spatially modulated perturbations. For the more realistic activation function, the following scenario is found. Most (random) initial conditions first lead to the formation of coarse domains, of three possible types: the ‘virgin’-(V) state, the ‘ {immune}/{suppresed}’ ( {I}/{S)-state }, and its reverse ( {S}/{I}) . V-domains are stable, but the other two types are unstable to spatial perturbations with a wavelength which is of the order of the interaction range. In the second stage, this instability causes big {I}/{S}- and {S}/{I-domains } to split up into arrays of small ‘dots’ which preserve the {I}/{S-asymmetry } of their parent domain. These dots are stable, even in isolation, which allows them to act as a ‘memory’ for previously encountered antigens. No stable dots are obtained when the model is made to emulate the simpler activation function which has been used widely in earlier models. With this less realistic choice, unstable waves propagate from the boundaries of coarse {I}/{S-domains }, eventually filling up most of shape-space. This instability was previously described as

  3. Legacy of Polio-Use of India's Social Mobilization Network for Strengthening of the Universal Immunization Program in India.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Nicole; Singh, Prem; Singh, Vivek; Curtis, Rod; Siddique, Anisur Rahman

    2017-07-01

    The Social Mobilization Network (SMNet) has been lauded as one of the most successsful community engagement strategies in public health for its role in polio elimination in India. The UNICEF-managed SMNet was created as a strategy to eradicate polio by engaging >7000 frontline social mobilizers to advocate for vaccination in some of the most underserved, marginalized, and at-risk communities in India. This network focused initially on generating demand for polio vaccination but later expanded its messaging to promote routine immunization and other health and sanitation interventions related to maternal and children's health. As an impact of the network's interventions, in collaboration with other eradication efforts, these high-risk pockets witnessed an increase in full routine immunization coverage. The experience of the SMNet offers lessons for health-system strengthening for social mobilization and promoting positive health behaviors for other priority health programs like the Universal Immunization Program. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  4. Target coverage optimisation of wireless sensor networks using a multi-objective immune co-evolutionary algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yong-Sheng; Lu, Xing-Jia; Hao, Kuang-Rong; Li, Long-Fei; Hu, Yi-Fan

    2011-09-01

    Target coverage is an important topic of wireless sensor networks. The target cover can be modelled as a minimal multi-objective vertex cover model with constraint of network connection. In order to search the optimal solution of the target cover set, we propose a multi-objective immune co-evolutionary algorithm (MOICEA) for target coverage. The MOICEA is inspired from the biological mechanisms of immune systems including clonal proliferation, hypermutation, co-evolution, immune elimination and memory mechanism. The affinity between antibody and antigen is used to measure the optimal target cover, and the affinity between antibodies is used to evaluate the diversity of population and to instruct the population evolution process. In order to examine the effectiveness of the MOICEA, we compare its performance with that of integer linear program and genetic algorithm in terms of four objectives while maintaining network connectivity. The experiment results show that the MOICEA can obtain promising performance in efficiently searching optimal vertex set by comparing with other approaches.

  5. Structure of idiotopes associated with antiphenylarsonate antibodies expressing an intrastrain crossreactive idiotype

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We have explored the structural basis of idiotopes associated with the major idiotype (CRIA) of A/J anti-p-azobenzenearsonate antibodies, with emphasis on the regions of contact with anti-idiotypic antibody. The analysis was facilitated by a recent description of the three- demensional structure of the Fab portion of a CRIA-related antibody molecule. Direct binding measurements failed to reveal idiotopes associated exclusively with the L chain. However, the L chain participated in the formation of approximately 80% of the idiotopes recognized by polyclonal anti-Id. This indicates that multiple complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) participate in the formation of idiotopes. The affinity of anti-Id for CDRs on L chains must be appreciable but insufficient to permit direct binding (i.e., less than approximately 10(4) M-1). Approximately 20-35% of polyclonal anti-Id reacted with high affinity with H chains recombined with non-CRIA- related L chains. This interaction was found to involve the D region as well as one or both CDRs in the VH segment, again indicating the contribution of multiple CDRs. It is suggested that a typical idiotope may be similar in size to that of protein epitopes whose three- dimensional structures are known; such epitopes comprise a substantial fraction of the surface area occupied by the CDRs of an antibody. The expression of an idiotope recognized by the mAb AD8, which interacts with the VH segment, was found to be unaffected by major changes in the neighboring D and VL regions. This observation is relevant to efforts to predict three-dimensional structure from the amino acid sequence of CRIA+ molecules. PMID:2507724

  6. Biological characterization and partial purification of an idiotype and antigen specific T cell lymphokine

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    An idiotype (Id) and antigen-specific T cell lymphokine has been partially purified and characterized biologically. This lymphokine appears to be derived from the T helper/sub 2/ (Th/sub 2/) lymphocyte and plays a key role in the optimal expression of the cross-reactive idiotype (CRI/sup +/-TMA) associated with both anti-phenyltrimethylammonium (TMA) and anti-trinitrophenyl (TNP) antibodies. An apparent molecular weight of 30-35 Kd was determined using molecular sieve chromatography. Upon SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) however, the biological activity migrated to 68 Kd as well as 35 Kd. Equivalent amounts of activity are found in both SDS-PAGE fractions. The Th/sub 2/F has two isoelectric points, 5.7 and 6.3, although 99% of the activity is found at pH 6.3. The Id-enhancing factor is an acid stable and heat labile protein. As in the case for the expression of serum CRI-TMA, the production of the Th/sub 2/F is linked to the allotype (Igh-1/sup e/) of the heavy chain locus. Using Con A Sns from various genetically distinct strains of mice, it has been shown that the production of the Th/sub 2/F is allotype-linked, and works across major histocompatibility (MHC) barriers. Isolation of Th/sub 2/F has been carried out using a combination of affinity chromatography and gel filtration. The partially purified material has been /sup 125/I labeled and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and flat bed isoelectric focusing. Two radiolabeled proteins which could be the Th/sub 2/F were identified.

  7. Use of anti-idiotypic antibodies to identify a receptor for the T-cell I-J determinant.

    PubMed Central

    Zupko, K; Waltenbaugh, C; Diamond, B

    1985-01-01

    In order to identify the molecule(s) interacting with the I-J determinant on suppressor T cells, we have generated two anti-idiotypic sera: one to monoclonal anti-I-Jd antibody and one to monoclonal anti-I-Jk antibody. These antisera specifically block suppressor T-cell function in a genetically restricted manner and have no effect on helper T-cell activation. Both recognize a marker on primary monocytes and B cells but not on T cells. A myeloma cell line bearing this marker has been identified. Therefore, these antisera may recognize a molecule on cells interacting with suppressor T cells that is involved in mediating suppressor T-cell activity. The relationship between the T-cell I-J determinant and the molecule identified by the anti-idiotype may be similar to the relationship between the receptor on helper T cells and Ia molecules. Images PMID:2932739

  8. Anti-idiotypic VHH phage display-mediated immuno-PCR for ultrasensitive determination of mycotoxin zearalenone in cereals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianxian; He, Qinghua; Xu, Yang; Liu, Xing; Shu, Mei; Tu, Zhui; Li, Yanping; Wang, Wei; Cao, Dongmei

    2016-01-15

    Immunoassay is frequently used to analyze mycotoxin contamination. However, the introduction of mycotoxins or their conjugates in conventional immunoassay threatens the safety of individuals and the environment. The variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHHs) can be used as alternative compounds to produce anti-idiotypic antibodies, which work as non-toxic surrogate reagents in immunoassay. In this work, anti-zearalenone (ZEN) monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used as the target for biopanning anti-idiotypic VHH from a naïve alpaca VHH phage display library. After four panning cycles, one anti-idiotypic VHH phage clone (Z1) was isolated and the Z1 based phage ELISA for ZEN showed a half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.25±0.02ng/mL, a linear range of 0.11-0.55ng/mL, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.08ng/mL. Furthermore, the phage particles of Z1 were also applied to immuno-polymerase chain reaction (PD-IPCR), which supplied both the detection antigens and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) templates. Compared with that of phage ELISA, the LOD of Z1 based PD-IPCR was 12-fold improved, with a detection limit of 6.5pg/mL and a linear range of 0.01-100ng/mL. The proposed method was then validated with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results showed the reliability of PD-IPCR for the determination of ZEN in cereal samples. The use of anti-idiotypic VHH phage as non-toxic surrogate and signal-amplification function of PCR make it a promising method for actual ZEN analysis in cereals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Complete amino acid sequence of heavy chain variable regions derived from two monoclonal anti-p-azophenylarsonate antibodies of BALB/c mice expressing the major cross-reactive idiotype of the A/J strain

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The primary structure of A/J anti-p-azophenylarsonate (anti-Ars) antibodies expressing the major A-strain cross-reactive idiotype (CRIA) has provided important insights into issues of antibody diversity and the molecular basis of idiotypy in this important model system. Until recently, this idiotype was thought to be rarely, if ever, expressed in BALB/c mice. Indeed, it has been reported that BALB/c mice lack the heavy chain variable segment (VH) gene that is utilized by the entire family of anti-Ars antibodies expressing the A/J CRI. Recently, however, it has been possible to elicit CRIA+, Ars binding antibodies in the BALB/c strain by immunizing first with anti-CRI and then with antigen. Such BALB/c, CRIA+ anti-Ars antibodies can be induced occasionally with antigen alone. VH region amino acid sequences are described for two CRIA+ hybridoma products derived from BALB/c mice. While remarkably similar to each other, their VH segments (1-98) differ from the VH segments of A/J CRIA+, anti-Ars antibodies in over 40 positions. Rather than the usual JH2 gene segment used by most A/J CRIA+ anti-Ars antibodies, one BALB/c CRIA+ hybridoma utilizes a JH1 gene segment, while the other uses a JH4. However, the D segments of both of the BALB/c antibodies are remarkably homologous to the D segments of several A/J CRIA+ antibodies sequenced previously, as are the amino terminal amino acid sequences of their light chains. These data imply that BALB/c mice express the A/J CRIA by producing antibodies with very similar, if not identical, light chain and heavy chain D segments, but in the context of different VH and JH gene segments than their A/J counterparts. The results document that molecules that share serologic specificities can have vastly different primary structures. PMID:6207261

  10. Fibronectin of human liver sinusoids binds hepatitis B virus: identification by an anti-idiotypic antibody bearing the internal image of the pre-S2 domain.

    PubMed Central

    Budkowska, A; Bedossa, P; Groh, F; Louise, A; Pillot, J

    1995-01-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Ids) have been successfully used to characterize and isolate receptors of several cell ligands. To prepare an immunological probe for identification of cellular components interacting with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), polyclonal antisera against a panel of five HBV-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced in syngeneic BALB/c mice. MAbs to HBV used for immunization (Ab1) recognized biologically important and potentially neutralizing epitopes, located in the pre-S1, pre-S2, or S region-encoded domains of HBV proteins. All the anti-Ids (Ab2) were specific to idiotopes of the homologous Ab1 and inhibited their interaction with the corresponding viral epitopes, suggesting that they recognized unique determinants on the paratope of each immunizing Ab1. Therefore, all five generated polyclonal anti-Ids were of the Ab2 beta type and could represent internal images of viral epitopes. Ab2 raised against the pre-S2 region-specific MAb F124 bound to the extracellular matrix fibronectin of human liver sinusoids. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated the attachment of viral and recombinant (S, M) hepatitis B surface antigen particles with the pre-S2 region-encoded epitopes to the fibronectin of human liver sinusoids. In contrast, recombinant (S, L*) hepatitis B surface antigen particles, in which the epitope recognized by F124 MAb was not expressed, did not show any binding capacity. These findings suggest that human liver fibronectin may bind HBV in vivo by the pre-S2 region-encoded epitopes in a species-restricted manner. Furthermore, binding of the circulating virus to liver sinusoids could facilitate its subsequent uptake by hepatocytes. PMID:7815551

  11. An Interspecies Regulatory Network Inferred from Simultaneous RNA-seq of Candida albicans Invading Innate Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Lanay; Linde, Jörg; Müller, Sebastian; Brunke, Sascha; Molina, Juan Camilo; Hube, Bernhard; Schöck, Ulrike; Guthke, Reinhard; Kuchler, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The ability to adapt to diverse micro-environmental challenges encountered within a host is of pivotal importance to the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. We have quantified C. albicans and M. musculus gene expression dynamics during phagocytosis by dendritic cells in a genome-wide, time-resolved analysis using simultaneous RNA-seq. A robust network inference map was generated from this dataset using NetGenerator, predicting novel interactions between the host and the pathogen. We experimentally verified predicted interdependent sub-networks comprising Hap3 in C. albicans, and Ptx3 and Mta2 in M. musculus. Remarkably, binding of recombinant Ptx3 to the C. albicans cell wall was found to regulate the expression of fungal Hap3 target genes as predicted by the network inference model. Pre-incubation of C. albicans with recombinant Ptx3 significantly altered the expression of Mta2 target cytokines such as IL-2 and IL-4 in a Hap3-dependent manner, further suggesting a role for Mta2 in host–pathogen interplay as predicted in the network inference model. We propose an integrated model for the functionality of these sub-networks during fungal invasion of immune cells, according to which binding of Ptx3 to the C. albicans cell wall induces remodeling via fungal Hap3 target genes, thereby altering the immune response to the pathogen. We show the applicability of network inference to predict interactions between host–pathogen pairs, demonstrating the usefulness of this systems biology approach to decipher mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis. PMID:22416242

  12. Anti-tumor immunity induced by CDR3-based DNA vaccination in a murine B-cell lymphoma model.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Monica; Fioretti, Daniela; Iurescia, Sandra; Signori, Emanuela; Pierimarchi, Pasquale; Seripa, Davide; Tonon, Giancarlo; Fazio, Vito Michele

    2008-05-30

    The idiotypic structure present on B-cell neoplasms is a tumor-specific antigen and an attractive target for immunotherapy. Here, the tumor protective effects recruited by CDR3-based DNA vaccines in the poorly immunogenic, highly aggressive 38C13 murine B-cell lymphoma model were evaluated. The regions belonging to the idiotypic V(H) and V(L) CDR3 sequences were chosen for the design of two synthetic mini-genes and arranged in high-level expression plasmids. Syngeneic C3H/HeN mice were immunized by intramuscular electroporation with pV(H)CDR3-IL-2 and pV(L)CDR3-IL-2 naked DNAs. This approach provided protection in about 60% of animals challenged with a 2-fold lethal dose of tumor cells, as opposed to non-survivors in control groups. Furthermore, a long-term survival was induced in these mice since they were still alive and tumor-free 4 months following tumor challenge. Analysis of the humoral immunity revealed the presence of antibodies reactive with the peptides encompassing the CDR3 sequences in the sera of vaccinated mice. Moreover, immune sera specifically reacted with the parental 38C13 tumor cells in flow cytometry assays, indicating that such immunization elicited anti-idiotypic antibodies. These findings provide a basis for exploring the use of CDR3-based DNA vaccines against B-cell lymphoma.

  13. [Study on the immunization status and its influencing factors among workers from the polio network laboratories in China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Y S; Wang, J Q; Xu, C; Liu, Y N; He, X H; Wei, Q

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To Investigate the immune status and influencing factors of provincial polio network laboratory (PNL) workers in China so as to provide evidence for the development of related strategies to protect personnel working at the PNLs. Methods: All the practitioners from the PNLs at the provincial centers for disease control, were selected as objects for this study, from October to December, 2016, under a questionnaire survey. Information on status of immunity and influencing factors was collected, with SAS software, trend chi-square used for statistics analysis. Results: A total of 77 workers were involved in this survey, with 60 (78%) of them completed the polio-based immune program but the rest 17 (22%) remained records unclear. 66 people (about 86%) remembered clearly that they had received vaccination when engaging in the polio-lab work, but the rest 11 (14%) with only partial vaccination records. We also noticed that the Influencing factors realted to vaccination status were: age (χ(2)=2.48, P<0.05), title (χ(2)=2.51, P<0.05), years of employment (P<0.000 1), education (χ(2)=0.74, P=0.46) and gender (χ(2)=0.46, P=0.50). Conclusion: Immune status of the Chinese provincial PNL practitioners appeared fairly good as 86% of all the workers had received polio-related vaccination, with 41% of them completed a 3-time inoculation program, when started working in this field.

  14. Neuro-Endocrine Networks Controlling Immune System in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Procaccini, Claudio; Pucino, Valentina; De Rosa, Veronica; Marone, Gianni; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The nervous and immune systems have long been considered as compartments that perform separate and different functions. However, recent clinical, epidemiological, and experimental data have suggested that the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), might involve factors, hormones, and neural mediators that link the immune and nervous system. These molecules are members of the same superfamily, which allow the mutual and bi-directional neural–immune interaction. More recently, the discovery of leptin, one of the most abundant adipocyte-derived hormones that control food intake and metabolism, has suggested that nutritional/metabolic status, acting at central level, can control immune self-tolerance, since it promotes experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS. Here, we summarize the most recent advances and the key players linking the central nervous system, immune tolerance, and the metabolic status. Understanding this coordinated interaction may pave the way for novel therapeutic approaches to increase host defense and suppress immune-mediated disorders. PMID:24778633

  15. Serological analysis of idiotypic determinants on monoclonal antibodies specific to poly(Tyr,Glu)-poly(DLAla)--poly(Lys) and its ordered analogue (Tyr-Tyr-Glu-Glu)-poly(DLAla)--poly(Lys).

    PubMed Central

    Parhami-Seren, B; Eshhar, Z; Mozes, E

    1984-01-01

    Anti-idiotypic sera (aIds) were raised in C57BL/6 mice against monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) which bind poly(Tyr,Glu)-poly(DLAla)--poly(Lys)--abbreviated to (T,G)-A--L--and (Tyr-Tyr-Glu-Glu)-poly(DLAla)--poly(Lys)--abbreviated to (T-T-G-G)-A--L--(nos. 103 and 160) and McAbs which react only with (T-T-G-G)-A--L (nos. 100 and 114). Anti-Id antibodies against 103 McAb reacted with (T,G)-A--L specific antibodies and specifically inhibited their binding to iodinated antigen. Similarly, conventional antibodies against the major idiotypes of (T,G)-A--L-specific antibodies inhibited the binding of 103 McAb to antigen. It is therefore suggested that 103 McAb shares major idiotypes with (T,G)-A--L-specific polyclonal antibodies of C3H.SW origin. Anti-Ids against 114 McAb also inhibited the binding of (T,G)-A--L-specific antibodies to antigen, but the binding of 114 McAb could not be inhibited by conventional aIds. Therefore, idiotypes of 103 and 114 McAbs define idiotypic determinants expressed on two different subpopulations of (T,G)-A--L-specific antibodies: those that carry major idiotypes and those which express idiotypic determinants other than the major one (minor Ids). Anti-idiotypic sera against McAbs nos. 100 and 160 reacted with the homologous idiotypes and not with the major idiotypes of (T,G)-A--L-specific antibodies. In addition to the aforementioned specificities we could define cross-reactive idiotypes (private) shared by McAbs nos. 100, 103 and 114 McAbs nos. 160 and 114. The analysis of idiotypes expressed on anti-(T,G)-A--L McAbs enabled the detection of new antigen binding site related idiotypic determinants in addition to the major idiotypes which were immunodominant in the polyclonal anti-(T,G)-A--L antibodies. PMID:6198270

  16. A Systems Biology Methodology Combining Transcriptome and Interactome Datasets to Assess the Implications of Cytokinin Signaling for Plant Immune Networks.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Meik; Dandekar, Thomas; Naseem, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) play an important role in plant growth and development. Also, several studies highlight the modulatory implications of CKs for plant-pathogen interaction. However, the underlying mechanisms of CK mediating immune networks in plants are still not fully understood. A detailed analysis of high-throughput transcriptome (RNA-Seq and microarrays) datasets under modulated conditions of plant CKs and its mergence with cellular interactome (large-scale protein-protein interaction data) has the potential to unlock the contribution of CKs to plant defense. Here, we specifically describe a detailed systems biology methodology pertinent to the acquisition and analysis of various omics datasets that delineate the role of plant CKs in impacting immune pathways in Arabidopsis.

  17. Genetic and serological analysis of the expression of crossreactive idiotypic determinants on anti-p-azobenzenarsonate antibodies and p-azobenzenarsonate-specific suppressor T cell factors.

    PubMed Central

    Sy, M S; Brown, A; Bach, B A; Benacerraf, B; Gottlieb, P D; Nisonoff, A; Greene, M I

    1981-01-01

    Data are reported on the genetic control and structure of antigen-specific suppressive molecules obtained from azobenzenearsonate (ABA)-specific suppressor T cells (Ts). Ts-derived suppressor factors (TsFs) were previously shown to bear determinants encoded by genes of the I-J subregion of the H-3 major histocompatibility complex and structures encoded by VH (variable region of heavy chains) genes linked to the Igh locus. To further characterize TsF we have made use of a K light (L) chain variable region (VK) genetic marker linked to the locus governing expression of a crossreactive idiotype on anti-ABA antibodies. The experiments evaluated the possible contribution to TsF of structures under control of the VK locus. TsF was prepared in strains of mice with known Igh and VK genes. Mice carrying Igh-1e genes produced TsF that was retained by an immunoadsorbent containing bound anti-idiotype antibodies; the genetic constitution at the VK locus was not relevant. By using a panel of anti-idiotypic antibodies prepared against the antigen-binding site of antibody carrying the idiotype, against determinants outside the site or against VH structures, we determined that idiotypic structures on the TsF are associated with V-region elements associated with the H chain and not with the binding site formed by a VH-BL combination. PMID:6165006

  18. Insight into bacterial virulence mechanisms against host immune response via the Yersinia pestis-human protein-protein interaction network.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiying; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Jian; Tan, Yafang; Myeni, Sebenzile K; Li, Dong; Shi, Qinghai; Yan, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Guo, Zhaobiao; Yuan, Yanzhi; Yang, Xiaoming; Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin

    2011-11-01

    A Yersinia pestis-human protein interaction network is reported here to improve our understanding of its pathogenesis. Up to 204 interactions between 66 Y. pestis bait proteins and 109 human proteins were identified by yeast two-hybrid assay and then combined with 23 previously published interactions to construct a protein-protein interaction network. Topological analysis of the interaction network revealed that human proteins targeted by Y. pestis were significantly enriched in the proteins that are central in the human protein-protein interaction network. Analysis of this network showed that signaling pathways important for host immune responses were preferentially targeted by Y. pestis, including the pathways involved in focal adhesion, regulation of cytoskeleton, leukocyte transendoepithelial migration, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Cellular pathways targeted by Y. pestis are highly relevant to its pathogenesis. Interactions with host proteins involved in focal adhesion and cytoskeketon regulation pathways could account for resistance of Y. pestis to phagocytosis. Interference with TLR and MAPK signaling pathways by Y. pestis reflects common characteristics of pathogen-host interaction that bacterial pathogens have evolved to evade host innate immune response by interacting with proteins in those signaling pathways. Interestingly, a large portion of human proteins interacting with Y. pestis (16/109) also interacted with viral proteins (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]), suggesting that viral and bacterial pathogens attack common cellular functions to facilitate infections. In addition, we identified vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) as a novel interaction partner of YpkA and showed that YpkA could inhibit in vitro actin assembly mediated by VASP.

  19. Distinct Types of T-cell Help for the Induction of a Humoral Immune Response to Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    cell-wall protein pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) and the phosphorylcholine (PC) determinant of the cell-wall teichoic acid, was determined by...the cell- wall C-polysaccharide (teichoic acid). Phosphorylcholine (PC) residues are covalently linked to the teichoic acid and bind several...Clonal nature of the immune response to phosphorylcholine . I. Specificity, class, and idiotype of phosphorylcholine -binding receptors on lymphoid cells. J

  20. Analysis and simulation of the dynamic spectrum allocation based on parallel immune optimization in cognitive wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Huixin, Wu; Duo, Mo; He, Li

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum allocation is one of the key issues to improve spectrum efficiency and has become the hot topic in the research of cognitive wireless network. This paper discusses the real-time feature and efficiency of dynamic spectrum allocation and presents a new spectrum allocation algorithm based on the master-slave parallel immune optimization model. The algorithm designs a new encoding scheme for the antibody based on the demand for convergence rate and population diversity. For improving the calculating efficiency, the antibody affinity in the population is calculated in multiple computing nodes at the same time. Simulation results show that the algorithm reduces the total spectrum allocation time and can achieve higher network profits. Compared with traditional serial algorithms, the algorithm proposed in this paper has better speedup ratio and parallel efficiency.

  1. Analysis and Simulation of the Dynamic Spectrum Allocation Based on Parallel Immune Optimization in Cognitive Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Huixin, Wu; Duo, Mo; He, Li

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum allocation is one of the key issues to improve spectrum efficiency and has become the hot topic in the research of cognitive wireless network. This paper discusses the real-time feature and efficiency of dynamic spectrum allocation and presents a new spectrum allocation algorithm based on the master-slave parallel immune optimization model. The algorithm designs a new encoding scheme for the antibody based on the demand for convergence rate and population diversity. For improving the calculating efficiency, the antibody affinity in the population is calculated in multiple computing nodes at the same time. Simulation results show that the algorithm reduces the total spectrum allocation time and can achieve higher network profits. Compared with traditional serial algorithms, the algorithm proposed in this paper has better speedup ratio and parallel efficiency. PMID:25254255

  2. Characterization of the spontaneous autoimmune (anti-erythrocyte) response in NZB mice using a pathogenic monoclonal autoantibody and its anti-idiotype.

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, M J; Stanko, D; Calkins, C

    1989-01-01

    A monoclonal anti-mouse RBC antibody (G-8) has been prepared that appears to represent a pathogenic autoantibody related to those that arise spontaneously in aging NZB mice and which cause autoimmune haemolytic disease (AIHD). When G-8-producing hybridoma cells were grown as tumours in BALB/c mice, the mice developed AIHD characterized by a decrease in the number of erythrocytes (haematocrit) and the development of Coombs-positivity. An anti-idiotypic antibody (E8) was prepared against G-8 and was found to recognize an idiotypic determinant present on most autoantibody-forming cells derived from old (Coombs-positive) NZB mice. The results suggest that the IgM autoantibody response of NZB mice to self-erythrocytes is restricted to a limited number of clones, most of which express the G-8 idiotype. PMID:2925223

  3. CD40L induces functional tunneling nanotube networks exclusively in dendritic cells programmed by mediators of type-1 immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zaccard, Colleen R.; Watkins, Simon C.; Kalinski, Pawel; Fecek, Ronald J.; Yates, Aarika L.; Salter, Russell D.; Ayyavoo, Velpandi; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Mailliard, Robbie B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DC) to mediate CD4+ T cell help for cellular immunity is guided by instructive signals received during DC maturation, and the resulting pattern of DC responsiveness to the Th signal, CD40L. Furthermore, the professional transfer of antigenic information from migratory DC to lymph node-residing DC is critical for the effective induction of cellular immune responses. Here we report that, in addition to their enhanced IL-12p70 producing capacity, human DC matured in the presence of inflammatory mediators of type-1 immunity (DC1) are uniquely programmed to form networks of tunneling nanotube-like structures in response to CD40L-expressing Th cells or recombinant CD40L. This immunologic process of DC ‘reticulation’ facilitates intercellular trafficking of endosome-associated vesicles and Ag, but also pathogens such HIV-1, and is regulated by the opposing roles of IFN-γ and IL-4. The initiation of DC reticulation represents a novel helper function of CD40L and a superior mechanism of intercellular communication possessed by DC1, as well as a target for exploitation by pathogens to enhance direct cell-to-cell spread. PMID:25548234

  4. Antigenic mimicry of Clostridium chauvoei flagella by polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kijima-Tanaka, M; Tamura, Y; Suzuki, S; Nagamine, N; Nakamura, M

    1994-01-01

    Polyclonal rabbit anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) antibodies against two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for the flagella of Clostridium chauvoei were produced, purified and characterised. Lack of cross-reactivity with heterologous MAbs indicated that the anti-Id antibodies were highly specific. The surface-exposed epitopes of the flagellar filament recognised with protective MAb were further distinguished by the anti-Id antibodies. Moreover, each anti-Id antibody inhibited the binding of its related MAb to flagellar antigens in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, suggesting that the anti-Id antibodies bore an internal image of the flagellar antigens. The survival rate of mice was increased to nearly twice that of controls by immunisation with anti-Id 41, which had been produced with a protective MAb; in contrast, anti-Id 114, produced with a non-protective MAb, failed to immunise. The results suggest that an anti-Id antibody containing an internal image of C. chauvoei flagella might be used as a vaccine.

  5. The Enteric Network: Interactions between the Immune and Nervous Systems of the Gut.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Bryan B; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

    2017-06-20

    Interactions between the nervous and immune systems enable the gut to respond to the variety of dietary products that it absorbs, the broad spectrum of pathogens that it encounters, and the diverse microbiome that it harbors. The enteric nervous system (ENS) senses and reacts to the dynamic ecosystem of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by translating chemical cues from the environment into neuronal impulses that propagate throughout the gut and into other organs in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS). This review will describe the current understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the GI tract by focusing on the ENS and the mucosal immune system. We highlight emerging literature that the ENS is essential for important aspects of microbe-induced immune responses in the gut. Although most basic and applied research in neuroscience has focused on the brain, the proximity of the ENS to the immune system and its interface with the external environment suggest that novel paradigms for nervous system function await discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Network, degeneracy and bow tie. Integrating paradigms and architectures to grasp the complexity of the immune system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the network paradigm, an application of graph theory to biology, has proven to be a powerful approach to gaining insights into biological complexity, and has catalyzed the advancement of systems biology. In this perspective and focusing on the immune system, we propose here a more comprehensive view to go beyond the concept of network. We start from the concept of degeneracy, one of the most prominent characteristic of biological complexity, defined as the ability of structurally different elements to perform the same function, and we show that degeneracy is highly intertwined with another recently-proposed organizational principle, i.e. 'bow tie architecture'. The simultaneous consideration of concepts such as degeneracy, bow tie architecture and network results in a powerful new interpretative tool that takes into account the constructive role of noise (stochastic fluctuations) and is able to grasp the major characteristics of biological complexity, i.e. the capacity to turn an apparently chaotic and highly dynamic set of signals into functional information. PMID:20701759

  7. A Conserved Circular Network of Coregulated Lipids Modulates Innate Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Köberlin, Marielle S; Snijder, Berend; Heinz, Leonhard X; Baumann, Christoph L; Fauster, Astrid; Vladimer, Gregory I; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2015-07-02

    Lipid composition affects the biophysical properties of membranes that provide a platform for receptor-mediated cellular signaling. To study the regulatory role of membrane lipid composition, we combined genetic perturbations of sphingolipid metabolism with the quantification of diverse steps in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and mass spectrometry-based lipidomics. Membrane lipid composition was broadly affected by these perturbations, revealing a circular network of coregulated sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids. This evolutionarily conserved network architecture simultaneously reflected membrane lipid metabolism, subcellular localization, and adaptation mechanisms. Integration of the diverse TLR-induced inflammatory phenotypes with changes in lipid abundance assigned distinct functional roles to individual lipid species organized across the network. This functional annotation accurately predicted the inflammatory response of cells derived from patients suffering from lipid storage disorders, based solely on their altered membrane lipid composition. The analytical strategy described here empowers the understanding of higher-level organization of membrane lipid function in diverse biological systems.

  8. Enhancing Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Self-Adaptive Searching Strategy and Artificial Immune Network Operators for Global Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tinggui; Xiao, Renbin

    2014-01-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, was proposed by Karaboga. It has been shown to be superior to some conventional intelligent algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA), artificial colony optimization (ACO), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). However, the ABC still has some limitations. For example, ABC can easily get trapped in the local optimum when handing in functions that have a narrow curving valley, a high eccentric ellipse, or complex multimodal functions. As a result, we proposed an enhanced ABC algorithm called EABC by introducing self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators to improve the exploitation and exploration. The simulation results tested on a suite of unimodal or multimodal benchmark functions illustrate that the EABC algorithm outperforms ACO, PSO, and the basic ABC in most of the experiments. PMID:24772023

  9. Characterization of the in vivo immune network of IDO, tryptophan metabolism, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 in circulating immune cells in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Chevolet, I; Speeckaert, R; Schreuer, M; Neyns, B; Krysko, O; Bachert, C; Hennart, B; Allorge, D; van Geel, N; Van Gele, M; Brochez, L

    2015-03-01

    In melanoma, both the induction of immunosuppression by tumor cells and the inflammatory antitumor response can induce an upregulation of counter-regulatory mechanisms such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and CTLA-4(+) regulatory T-cells (Tregs) in the tumor microenvironment. Even though these immunosuppressive mediators are targets for immunotherapy, research investigating their expression in the peripheral blood is lacking. We therefore, performed flow cytometry on PBMCs of stage I-IV melanoma patients. IDO expression was detected in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (mMDSC), and increased in advanced disease stage (p = 0.027). Tryptophan breakdown confirmed the functional activity of IDO and was linked with increased PD-L1+ cytotoxic T-cells (p = 0.009), relative lymphopenia (p = 0.036), and a higher mDC/pDC ratio (p = 0.002). High levels of circulating PD-L1+ cytotoxic T-cells were associated with increased CTLA-4 expression by Tregs (p = 0.005) and MDSC levels (p = 0.033). This illustrates that counter-regulatory immune mechanisms in melanoma should be considered as one interrelated signaling network. Moreover, both increased PD-L1+ T-cells and CTLA-4 expression in Tregs conferred a negative prognosis, indicating their in vivo relevance. Remarkably, circulating CTLA-4, IDO, and pDC levels were altered according to prior invasion of the sentinel lymph node and IDO expression in the sentinel was associated with more IDO+ PBMCs. We conclude that the expression of IDO, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 in the peripheral blood of melanoma patients is strongly interconnected, associated with advanced disease and negative outcome, independent of disease stage. Combination treatments targeting several of these markers are therefore likely to exert a synergistic response.

  10. The endocrine-immune network during taeniosis by Taenia solium: The role of the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that sex hormones play an important role during Taenia solium infection; however, to our knowledge no studies exist concerning the immune response following complete or lobe-specific removal of the pituitary gland during T. solium infection. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze in hamsters, the effects of lack of pituitary hormones on the duodenal immune response, and their impact on T. solium establishment and development. Thus, in order to achieve this goal, we perform anterior pituitary lobectomy (AL, n = 9), neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL, n = 9) and total hypophysectomy (HYPOX, n = 8), and related to the gut establishment and growth of T. solium, hematoxylin-eosin staining of duodenal tissue and immunofluorescence of duodenal cytokine expression and compared these results to the control intact (n = 8) and control infected group (n = 8). Our results indicate that 15 days post-infection, HYPOX reduces the number and size of intestinally recovered T. solium adults. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of duodenal IFN-γ and IL-12 Th1 cytokines was mildly expressed in the infected controls, in contrast with the high level of expression of these cytokines in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, the duodenum of HYPOX animals showed an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-6, when compared to control hamsters. Histological analysis of duodenal mucosa from HYPOX hamsters revealed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria and related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that lobe-specific pituitary hormones affect differentially the T. solium development and the gut immune response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Escherichia coli-based production of a tumor idiotype antibody fragment--tetanus toxin fragment C fusion protein vaccine for B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kedar G; Ng, Patrick P; Levy, Shoshana; Levy, Ronald; Swartz, James R

    2011-01-01

    The unique immunoglobulin idiotype expressed on the surface of B lymphoma cells can be used as an effective antigen in tumor-specific vaccines when fused to immunostimulatory proteins and cytokines. A DNA vaccine encoding for an idiotype antibody single chain Fv (scFv) fragment fused to the Tetanus Toxin Fragment C (TTFrC) has been shown to induce protective anti-tumor responses. Protein-based strategies may be more desirable since they provide greater control over dosage, duration of exposure, and in vivo distribution of the vaccine. However, production of fusion protein vaccines containing complex disulfide bonded idiotype antibodies and antibody-derived fragments is challenging. We use an Escherichia coli-based cell-free protein synthesis platform as well as high-level expression of E. coli inclusion bodies followed by refolding for the rapid generation of an antibody fragment - TTFrC fusion protein vaccine. Vaccine proteins produced using both methods were shown to elicit anti-tumor humoral responses as well as protect from tumor challenge in an established B cell lymphoma mouse model. The development of technologies for the rapid production of effective patient-specific tumor idiotype-based fusion protein vaccines provides opportunities for clinical application. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Primary response to GAT in F344 rats: anti-GAT antibodies, nonspecific immunoglobulins, and expression of the GAT-13 idiotype.

    PubMed

    Petit, C; Gilbert, M

    1983-08-01

    It has been reported that antigen induces differentiation of two populations of Ig-containing cells: the first one to appear, IgCC, synthesizes nonspecific Ig and the second, AbCC, synthesizes antibodies. Along with other arguments, the observation that nonspecific Ig bear idiotypic determinants, which cross-react with those of antibodies, had led to the hypothesis that IgCC are precursors of AbCC. However, the synthesis of such idiotype-positive nonspecific Ig before the appearance of the antibodies has not yet been proven. This problem was investigated by analyzing the primary response to poly(Glu60-Ala30-Tyr10) (GAT) in F344 rats. Kinetics studies of cells synthesizing Ig expressing a major idiotype (GAT-13), and of cells synthesizing Ig not expressing GAT-13 idiotype, revealed that these two cell populations were undetectable before the appearance of the anti-GAT antibodies. This demonstrates that IgCC differentiation is not a necessary condition for the development of all antibody responses.

  13. An immune orthogonal learning particle swarm optimisation algorithm for routing recovery of wireless sensor networks with mobile sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yifan; Ding, Yongsheng; Hao, Kuangrong; Ren, Lihong; Han, Hua

    2014-03-01

    The growth of mobile handheld devices promotes sink mobility in an increasing number of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) applications. The movement of the sink may lead to the breakage of existing routes of WSNs, thus the routing recovery problem is a critical challenge. In order to maintain the available route from each source node to the sink, we propose an immune orthogonal learning particle swarm optimisation algorithm (IOLPSOA) to provide fast routing recovery from path failure due to the sink movement, and construct the efficient alternative path to repair the route. Due to its efficient bio-heuristic routing recovery mechanism in the algorithm, the orthogonal learning strategy can guide particles to fly on better directions by constructing a much promising and efficient exemplar, and the immune mechanism can maintain the diversity of the particles. We discuss the implementation of the IOLPSOA-based routing protocol and present the performance evaluation through several simulation experiments. The results demonstrate that the IOLPSOA-based protocol outperforms the other three protocols, which can efficiently repair the routing topology changed by the sink movement, reduce the communication overhead and prolong the lifetime of WSNs with mobile sink.

  14. Immune System and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  15. Targeted DNA vaccines for enhanced induction of idiotype-specific B and T cells

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksen, Agnete B.; Sandlie, Inger; Bogen, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Idiotypes (Id) are antigenic determinants localized in variable (V) regions of Ig. Id-specific T and B cells (antibodies) play a role in immunotherapy of Id+ tumors. However, vaccine strategies that enhance Id-specific responses are needed. Methods: Id+ single-chain fragment variable (scFv) from multiple myelomas and B cell lymphomas were prepared in a fusion format that bivalently target surface molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APC). APC-specific targeting units were either scFv from APC-specific mAb (anti-MHC II, anti-CD40) or chemokines (MIP-1α, RANTES). Homodimeric Id-vaccines were injected intramuscularly or intradermally as plasmids in mice, combined with electroporation. Results: (i) Transfected cells secreted plasmid-encoded Id+ fusion proteins to extracellular fluid followed by binding of vaccine molecules to APC. (ii) Targeted vaccine molecules increased Id-specific B and T cell responses. (iii) Bivalency and xenogeneic sequences both contributed to enhanced responses. (iv) Targeted Id DNA vaccines induced tumor resistance against challenges with Id+ tumors. (v) Human MIP-1α targeting units enhanced Id-specific responses in mice, due to a cross reaction with murine chemokine receptors. Thus, targeted vaccines designed for humans can be quality tested in mice. (vi) Human Id+ scFv from four multiple myeloma patients were inserted into the vaccine format and were successfully tested in mice. (vii) Human MIP-1α vaccine proteins enhanced human T cell responses in vitro. (viii) A hypothetical model for how the APC-targeted vaccine molecules enhance Id-specific T and B cells is presented. Conclusion: Targeted DNA Id-vaccines show promising results in preclinical studies, paving the way for testing in patients. PMID:23115759

  16. Idiotypic and subgroup analysis of human monoclonal rheumatoid factors. Implications for structural and genetic basis of autoantibodies in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, G J; Goldfien, R D; Chen, P; Mageed, R A; Jefferis, R; Goñi, F; Frangione, B; Fong, S; Carson, D A

    1988-01-01

    Rheumatoid factors (RFs) in humans have been studied intensively because of their association with autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases. Many human IgM-RFs express cross-reactive idiotypes (CRIs) and have homologous light chains, some of which are encoded by a single V kappa gene, termed V kappa 325. However, although antibody activity generally requires the interaction between heavy and light chain variable regions, much less is known about structural relationships among RF heavy chains. To delineate further the structural and genetic basis of RF autoantibody synthesis, we generated "sequence-dependent" reagents specific for the human heavy and kappa light chain subgroups, and used them to analyze a panel of 27 monoclonal RFs. In addition, these proteins were tested for the expression of a heavy chain-associated CRI (G6), and a light chain-associated CRI (17.109). The results showed that most 17.109-reactive RFs contain heavy chains of the VHI subgroup, which bear the G6 idiotypic marker. However, among the 14 17.109-reactive RFs, two have heavy chains of the VHII subgroup, and another two contain heavy chains of the VHIII subgroup. Previously, we have shown that 17.109 is a phenotypic marker of the human V kappa 325 gene. Accordingly, these results demonstrate that the same human V kappa gene can combine with several VH genes from different VH gene subgroups to generate RF activity. Images PMID:3136191

  17. PBMC transcriptome profiles identifies potential candidate genes and functional networks controlling the innate and the adaptive immune response to PRRSV vaccine in Pietrain pig.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Aminul; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine; Pröll, Maren Julia; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Aqter Rony, Sharmin; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Hoelker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Neuhoff, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating viral disease affecting swine production, health and welfare throughout the world. A synergistic action of the innate and the adaptive immune system of the host is essential for mounting a durable protective immunity through vaccination. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the transcriptome profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to characterize the innate and the adaptive immune response to PRRS Virus (PRRSV) vaccination in Pietrain pigs. The Affymetrix gene chip porcine gene 1.0 ST array was used for the transcriptome profiling of PBMCs collected at immediately before (D0), at one (D1) and 28 days (D28) post PRRSV vaccination with three biological replications. With FDR <0.05 and log2 fold change ±1.5 as cutoff criteria, 295 and 115 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in PBMCs during the stage of innate and adaptive response, respectively. The microarray expression results were technically validated by qRT-PCR. The gene ontology terms such as viral life cycle, regulation of lymphocyte activation, cytokine activity and inflammatory response were enriched during the innate immunity; cytolysis, T cell mediated cytotoxicity, immunoglobulin production were enriched during adaptive immunity to PRRSV vaccination. Significant enrichment of cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, signaling by interleukins, signaling by the B cell receptor (BCR), viral mRNA translation, IFN-gamma pathway and AP-1 transcription factor network pathways were indicating the involvement of altered genes in the antiviral defense. Network analysis revealed that four network modules were functionally involved with the transcriptional network of innate immunity, and five modules were linked to adaptive immunity in PBMCs. The innate immune transcriptional network was found to be regulated by LCK, STAT3, ATP5B, UBB and RSP17. While TGFß1, IL7R, RAD21, SP1 and GZMB are likely to

  18. PBMC transcriptome profiles identifies potential candidate genes and functional networks controlling the innate and the adaptive immune response to PRRSV vaccine in Pietrain pig

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Aminul; Große-Brinkhaus, Christine; Pröll, Maren Julia; Uddin, Muhammad Jasim; Aqter Rony, Sharmin; Tesfaye, Dawit; Tholen, Ernst; Hoelker, Michael; Schellander, Karl; Neuhoff, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a devastating viral disease affecting swine production, health and welfare throughout the world. A synergistic action of the innate and the adaptive immune system of the host is essential for mounting a durable protective immunity through vaccination. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the transcriptome profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to characterize the innate and the adaptive immune response to PRRS Virus (PRRSV) vaccination in Pietrain pigs. The Affymetrix gene chip porcine gene 1.0 ST array was used for the transcriptome profiling of PBMCs collected at immediately before (D0), at one (D1) and 28 days (D28) post PRRSV vaccination with three biological replications. With FDR <0.05 and log2 fold change ±1.5 as cutoff criteria, 295 and 115 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in PBMCs during the stage of innate and adaptive response, respectively. The microarray expression results were technically validated by qRT-PCR. The gene ontology terms such as viral life cycle, regulation of lymphocyte activation, cytokine activity and inflammatory response were enriched during the innate immunity; cytolysis, T cell mediated cytotoxicity, immunoglobulin production were enriched during adaptive immunity to PRRSV vaccination. Significant enrichment of cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, signaling by interleukins, signaling by the B cell receptor (BCR), viral mRNA translation, IFN-gamma pathway and AP-1 transcription factor network pathways were indicating the involvement of altered genes in the antiviral defense. Network analysis revealed that four network modules were functionally involved with the transcriptional network of innate immunity, and five modules were linked to adaptive immunity in PBMCs. The innate immune transcriptional network was found to be regulated by LCK, STAT3, ATP5B, UBB and RSP17. While TGFß1, IL7R, RAD21, SP1 and GZMB are likely to

  19. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    were altered by p, p' DDE, MXC, and flutamide. Interestingly, immune-related gene networks were suppressed by all three chemicals. The data suggest that p, p' DDE and flutamide affected more genes in common with each other than either chemical with MXC, consistent with studies suggesting that p, p' DDE is a more potent anti-androgen than MXC. These data demonstrate that reproductive health was not affected by these specific dietary treatments, but rather the immune system, which may be a significant target of organochlorine pesticides. The interaction between the reproductive and immune systems should be considered in future studies on these legacy and persistent pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Conserved Circular Network of Coregulated Lipids Modulates Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Köberlin, Marielle S.; Snijder, Berend; Heinz, Leonhard X.; Baumann, Christoph L.; Fauster, Astrid; Vladimer, Gregory I.; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lipid composition affects the biophysical properties of membranes that provide a platform for receptor-mediated cellular signaling. To study the regulatory role of membrane lipid composition, we combined genetic perturbations of sphingolipid metabolism with the quantification of diverse steps in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and mass spectrometry-based lipidomics. Membrane lipid composition was broadly affected by these perturbations, revealing a circular network of coregulated sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids. This evolutionarily conserved network architecture simultaneously reflected membrane lipid metabolism, subcellular localization, and adaptation mechanisms. Integration of the diverse TLR-induced inflammatory phenotypes with changes in lipid abundance assigned distinct functional roles to individual lipid species organized across the network. This functional annotation accurately predicted the inflammatory response of cells derived from patients suffering from lipid storage disorders, based solely on their altered membrane lipid composition. The analytical strategy described here empowers the understanding of higher-level organization of membrane lipid function in diverse biological systems. PMID:26095250

  1. Negative Selection of Artificial Immune Applied to Voltage Inadequacy Detection in Distribution Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delboni, Luiz Fernando; Zambroni da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliveira, Denisson Queiroz

    2015-04-01

    The problem of voltage control and reactive power management plays a crucial role on power system's operations. Particularly, detecting the most effective control actions to reduce the system loss and enhance the voltage profile is of major interest. This paper deals with system voltage inadequacy detection. To address this problem, artificial immune system is employed considering its negative selection mechanism. Its purpose is to monitor system operation data entry and check if the voltage level is within its operating values. In this sense, the user may define the range of control, so the proposed methodology may be useful for normal and emergency operating conditions. Corrective actions are undertaken if necessary. The IEEE 34 nodes distribution system is used to test the proposed methodology.

  2. A genome-wide CRISPR screen in primary immune cells to dissect regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Parnas, Oren; Jovanovic, Marko; Eisenhaure, Thomas M.; Herbst, Rebecca H.; Dixit, Atray; Ye, Chun Jimmie; Przybylski, Dariusz; Platt, Randall J.; Tirosh, Itay; Sanjana, Neville E.; Shalem, Ophir; Satija, Rahul; Raychowdhury, Raktima; Mertins, Philipp; Carr, Steven A.; Zhang, Feng; Hacohen, Nir; Regev, Aviv

    2015-01-01

    Finding the components of cellular circuits and determining their functions systematically remains a major challenge in mammalian cells. Here, we introduced genome-wide pooled CRISPR-Cas9 libraries into dendritic cells (DCs) to identify genes that control the induction of tumor necrosis factor (Tnf) by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a key process in the host response to pathogens, mediated by the Tlr4 pathway. We found many of the known regulators of Tlr4 signaling, as well as dozens of previously unknown candidates that we validated. By measuring protein markers and mRNA profiles in DCs that are deficient in the known or candidate genes, we classified the genes into three functional modules with distinct effects on the canonical responses to LPS, and highlighted functions for the PAF complex and oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex. Our findings uncover new facets of innate immune circuits in primary cells, and provide a genetic approach for dissection of mammalian cell circuits. PMID:26189680

  3. Sex-specific effects of developmental lead exposure on the immune-neuroendocrine network.

    PubMed

    Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Lawrence, David A

    2017-09-11

    The environmental toxicant lead (Pb) has long been known to induce neurological deficits. The 1st century Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides noted that "lead makes the mind give way". Current studies are suggesting the effects of Pb on behaviors may involve the immune system and conversely some immunomodulatory changes may be due to Pb effects in the central nervous system. Although Pb-induced disorders do not appear to discriminate among females and males, this report discusses the differences observed in human and animal studies regarding differential gender effects on gene expression after Pb exposure. The overall ill health outcomes are apparent with variant levels of Pb exposure and exposures at different times in development. However, the consensus is that doses leading to blood lead levels>5μg/dl and prenatal exposures are most pathogenic. Although the general detriments induced by Pb may be similar in females and males, there are sex specific outcomes on health and behavior. It is suggested that Pb induces more oxidative stress in females and more upregulation of genes responding to oxidative stress, while males have more proteolytic destruction; but in both cases, there is generation of altered/denatured self-constituents causing inflammation and loss of homeostasis of neuronal and immune functions. The higher estrogen levels of females are indicated as the reason for more Pb-induced reactive oxygen species in females. This review describes some of the different genes involved in female and male responses to Pb exposure and involved pathways. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Further characterization of the thrombasthenia-related idiotype OG. Antiidiotype defines a novel epitope(s) shared by fibrinogen B beta chain, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor and required for binding to beta 3

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A patient (OG) with Glanzmann thrombasthenia became refractory to platelet transfusion after the production of an immunoglobulin G (IgG) isoantibody (Ab1) specific for the integrin subunit beta 3. To determine the frequency at which the OG idiotype is found in the general population and in immune-mediated disease states, we developed a rabbit polyclonal antibody (Ab2) specific for affinity-purified OG anti-beta 3 Fab. The binding of Ab2 to Ab1 is inhibited by purified alpha IIb beta 3. Ab2 als binds to IgG specific for alpha IIb beta 3 obtained from one nonrelated Glanzmann thrombasthenia patient ES who has developed isoantibodies of similar specificity. On the other hand, Ab2 does not recognize alpha IIb beta 3-specific antibodies produced by two Glanzmann thrombasthenia patients, AF and LUC, who have developed isoantibodies with specificities distinct from that of the OG isoantibody. Moreover, Ab2 does not recognize alpha IIb beta 3-specific antibodies developed by three representative patients with (autoimmune) thrombocytopenic purpura or six representative patients with alloimmune thrombocytopenias, nor does it bind to IgG from any of 13 nonimmunized individuals. We have found that Ab2 also binds to selected protein ligands of alpha IIb beta 3 namely, fibrinogen, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor, but not to other protein ligands or control proteins, such a fibronectin, type I collagen, and albumin. The epitope(s) recognized by Ab2 on each adhesive protein are either very similar or identical since each protein can inhibit the binding of Ab2 to any of the other proteins. The epitope on fibrinogen recognized by Ab2 resides in the B beta chain, and is likely contained within the first 42 amino acids from the NH2 terminus. Since OG IgG inhibits fibrinogen binding to alpha IIb beta 3, the specificity of the OG idiotype defines a novel binding motif for the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 that is shared by fibrinogen, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor, but

  5. Bisphenol A Disrupts HNF4α-Regulated Gene Networks Linking to Prostate Preneoplasia and Immune Disruption in Noble Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Hung-Ming; Chen, Jing; Medvedovic, Mario; Tam, Neville Ngai Chung

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of humans to bisphenol A (BPA) is widespread and continuous. The effects of protracted exposure to BPA on the adult prostate have not been studied. We subjected Noble rats to 32 weeks of BPA (low or high dose) or 17β-estradiol (E2) in conjunction with T replenishment. T treatment alone or untreated groups were used as controls. Circulating T levels were maintained within the physiological range in all treatment groups, whereas the levels of free BPA were elevated in the groups treated with T+low BPA (1.06 ± 0.05 ng/mL, P < .05) and T+high BPA (10.37 ± 0.43 ng/mL, P < .01) when compared with those in both controls (0.1 ± 0.05 ng/mL). Prostatic hyperplasia, low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and marked infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells into the PIN epithelium (P < .05) were observed in the lateral prostates (LPs) of T+low/high BPA-treated rats. In contrast, only hyperplasia and high-grade PIN, but no aberrant immune responses, were found in the T+E2-treated LPs. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis in LPs identified differential changes between T+BPA vs T+E2 treatment. Expression of multiple genes in the regulatory network controlled by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α was perturbed by the T+BPA but not by the T+E2 exposure. Collectively these findings suggest that the adult rat prostate, under a physiologically relevant T environment, is susceptible to BPA-induced transcriptomic reprogramming, immune disruption, and aberrant growth dysregulation in a manner distinct from those caused by E2. They are more relevant to our recent report of higher urinary levels BPA found in patients with prostate cancer than those with benign disease. PMID:26496021

  6. High contaminant loads in Lake Apopka's riparian wetland disrupt gene networks involved in reproduction and immune function in largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Prucha, Melinda S; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Kroll, Kevin J; Conrow, Roxanne; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-09-01

    Lake Apopka (FL, USA) has elevated levels of some organochlorine pesticides in its sediments and a portion of its watershed has been designated a US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site. This study assessed reproductive endpoints in Florida largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) after placement into experimental ponds adjacent to Lake Apopka. LMB collected from a clean reference site (DeLeon Springs) were stocked at two periods of time into ponds constructed in former farm fields on the north shore of the lake. LMB were stocked during early and late oogenesis to determine if there were different effects of contamination on LMB that may be attributed to their reproductive stage. LMB inhabiting the ponds for ~4months had anywhere from 2 to 800 times higher contaminant load for a number of organochlorine pesticides (e.g. p, p'-DDE, methoxychlor) compared to control animals. Gonadosomatic index and plasma vitellogenin were not different between reproductively-stage matched LMB collected at reference sites compared to those inhabiting the ponds. However, plasma 17β-estradiol was lower in LMB inhabiting the Apopka ponds compared to ovary stage-matched LMB from the St. Johns River, a site used as a reference site. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that genes related to reproduction (granulosa function, oocyte development), endocrine function (steroid metabolism, hormone biosynthesis), and immune function (T cell suppression, leukocyte accumulation) were differentially expressed in the ovaries of LMB placed into the ponds. These data suggest that (1) LMB inhabiting the Apopka ponds showed disrupted reproduction and immune responses and that (2) gene expression profiles provided site-specific information by discriminating LMB from different macro-habitats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative genomic analyses reveal a vast, novel network of nucleotide-centric systems in biological conflicts, immunity and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Zhang, Dapeng; Schäffer, Daniel E.; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Aravind, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di- and linear oligo-nucleotide signals activate defenses against invasive nucleic acids in animal immunity; however, their evolutionary antecedents are poorly understood. Using comparative genomics, sequence and structure analysis, we uncovered a vast network of systems defined by conserved prokaryotic gene-neighborhoods, which encode enzymes generating such nucleotides or alternatively processing them to yield potential signaling molecules. The nucleotide-generating enzymes include several clades of the DNA-polymerase β-like superfamily (including Vibrio cholerae DncV), a minimal version of the CRISPR polymerase and DisA-like cyclic-di-AMP synthetases. Nucleotide-binding/processing domains include TIR domains and members of a superfamily prototyped by Smf/DprA proteins and base (cytokinin)-releasing LOG enzymes. They are combined in conserved gene-neighborhoods with genes for a plethora of protein superfamilies, which we predict to function as nucleotide-sensors and effectors targeting nucleic acids, proteins or membranes (pore-forming agents). These systems are sometimes combined with other biological conflict-systems such as restriction-modification and CRISPR/Cas. Interestingly, several are coupled in mutually exclusive neighborhoods with either a prokaryotic ubiquitin-system or a HORMA domain-PCH2-like AAA+ ATPase dyad. The latter are potential precursors of equivalent proteins in eukaryotic chromosome dynamics. Further, components from these nucleotide-centric systems have been utilized in several other systems including a novel diversity-generating system with a reverse transcriptase. We also found the Smf/DprA/LOG domain from these systems to be recruited as a predicted nucleotide-binding domain in eukaryotic TRPM channels. These findings point to evolutionary and mechanistic links, which bring together CRISPR/Cas, animal interferon-induced immunity, and several other systems that combine nucleic-acid-sensing and nucleotide-dependent signaling

  8. Construction, characterization, and mutagenesis of an anti-fluorescein single chain antibody idiotype family.

    PubMed

    Denzin, L K; Voss, E W

    1992-05-05

    In addition to crystallographic studies that determined antigen contact residues for monoclonal anti-fluorescein (Fl) antibody 4-4-20 (Ka = 2.5 x 10(10) M-1), primary structure comparisons revealed idiotypically cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 9-40 (Ka = 4.4 x 10(7) M-1), 12-40 (Ka = 4.0 x 10(8) M-1), and 5-14 (Ka = 2.4 x 10(8) M-1) possessed identical Fl contact residues, with the exception of L34His for L34Arg. Site-specific mutagenesis of single chain antibody (SCA) 4-4-20 in which L34Arg was changed to L34His resulted in approximately 1000- and 3-fold decreases in binding affinity and Qmax (maximum quenching of bound Fl), respectively, which suggested that L34Arg was directly involved in increased binding affinity and fluorescence quenching. Therefore, substitution of Arg for His at residue L34 in mAbs 9-40, 12-40, and 5-14 should result in increased binding affinity and Qmax. To facilitate site-specific mutagenesis studies, single chain derivatives of mAbs 9-40, 12-40, and 5-14 were constructed. Following expression in Escherichia coli, characterization of the SCAs demonstrated that when compared with the respective parental mAb, the SCAs possessed identical binding affinities and similar Qmax and lambda max (absorption profiles of bound Fl) values. These results validated SCA 9-40, 12-40, and 5-14 for use in site-directed mutagenesis studies. Results of mutagenesis studies indicated that substitution of L34Arg into the active sites of 9-40, 12-40, and 5-14 was not enough to produce 4-4-20-like binding characteristics. Therefore, the following single chain mutants were constructed: 9-40L34Arg/L46Val, 12-40L34Arg/L46Val and 5-14L34Arg/L46Val, 9-40L34Arg/L46Val/H101Asp and 4-4-20H101Ala. Results demonstrated that these mutations were not able to render the mutant SCAs with increased binding affinity and fluorescence quenching values. Collectively, these results suggest that the combining sites of mAb 9-40, 12-40, and 5-14 may possess different active

  9. A systems biology pipeline identifies new immune and disease related molecular signatures and networks in human cells during microgravity exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sayak; Saha, Rohini; Palanisamy, Anbarasi; Ghosh, Madhurima; Biswas, Anupriya; Roy, Saheli; Pal, Arijit; Sarkar, Kathakali; Bagh, Sangram

    2016-05-01

    Microgravity is a prominent health hazard for astronauts, yet we understand little about its effect at the molecular systems level. In this study, we have integrated a set of systems-biology tools and databases and have analysed more than 8000 molecular pathways on published global gene expression datasets of human cells in microgravity. Hundreds of new pathways have been identified with statistical confidence for each dataset and despite the difference in cell types and experiments, around 100 of the new pathways are appeared common across the datasets. They are related to reduced inflammation, autoimmunity, diabetes and asthma. We have identified downregulation of NfκB pathway via Notch1 signalling as new pathway for reduced immunity in microgravity. Induction of few cancer types including liver cancer and leukaemia and increased drug response to cancer in microgravity are also found. Increase in olfactory signal transduction is also identified. Genes, based on their expression pattern, are clustered and mathematically stable clusters are identified. The network mapping of genes within a cluster indicates the plausible functional connections in microgravity. This pipeline gives a new systems level picture of human cells under microgravity, generates testable hypothesis and may help estimating risk and developing medicine for space missions.

  10. A systems biology pipeline identifies new immune and disease related molecular signatures and networks in human cells during microgravity exposure

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Sayak; Saha, Rohini; Palanisamy, Anbarasi; Ghosh, Madhurima; Biswas, Anupriya; Roy, Saheli; Pal, Arijit; Sarkar, Kathakali; Bagh, Sangram

    2016-01-01

    Microgravity is a prominent health hazard for astronauts, yet we understand little about its effect at the molecular systems level. In this study, we have integrated a set of systems-biology tools and databases and have analysed more than 8000 molecular pathways on published global gene expression datasets of human cells in microgravity. Hundreds of new pathways have been identified with statistical confidence for each dataset and despite the difference in cell types and experiments, around 100 of the new pathways are appeared common across the datasets. They are related to reduced inflammation, autoimmunity, diabetes and asthma. We have identified downregulation of NfκB pathway via Notch1 signalling as new pathway for reduced immunity in microgravity. Induction of few cancer types including liver cancer and leukaemia and increased drug response to cancer in microgravity are also found. Increase in olfactory signal transduction is also identified. Genes, based on their expression pattern, are clustered and mathematically stable clusters are identified. The network mapping of genes within a cluster indicates the plausible functional connections in microgravity. This pipeline gives a new systems level picture of human cells under microgravity, generates testable hypothesis and may help estimating risk and developing medicine for space missions. PMID:27185415

  11. Immunostimulatory Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing the CpG Motif are Effective as Immune Adjuvants in Tumor Antigen Immunization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, George J.; Liu, Hsin-Ming; Wooldridge, James E.; Dahle, Christopher E.; Krieg, Arthur M.

    1997-09-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the immune response are allowing for the logical design of new approaches to cancer immunization. One area of interest is the development of new immune adjuvants. Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides containing the CpG motif (CpG ODN) can induce production of a wide variety of cytokines and activate B cells, monocytes, dendritic cells, and NK cells. Using the 38C13 B cell lymphoma model, we assessed whether CpG ODN can function as immune adjuvants in tumor antigen immunization. The idiotype served as the tumor antigen. Select CpG ODN were as effective as complete Freund's adjuvant at inducing an antigen-specific antibody response but were associated with less toxicity. These CpG ODN induced a higher titer of antigen-specific IgG2a than did complete Freund's adjuvant, suggesting an enhanced TH1 response. Mice immunized with CpG ODN as an adjuvant were protected from tumor challenge to a degree similar to that seen in mice immunized with complete Freund's adjuvant. We conclude that CpG ODN are effective as immune adjuvants and are attractive as part of a tumor immunization strategy.

  12. Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides containing the CpG motif are effective as immune adjuvants in tumor antigen immunization

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, George J.; Liu, Hsin-Ming; Wooldridge, James E.; Dahle, Christopher E.; Krieg, Arthur M.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the immune response are allowing for the logical design of new approaches to cancer immunization. One area of interest is the development of new immune adjuvants. Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides containing the CpG motif (CpG ODN) can induce production of a wide variety of cytokines and activate B cells, monocytes, dendritic cells, and NK cells. Using the 38C13 B cell lymphoma model, we assessed whether CpG ODN can function as immune adjuvants in tumor antigen immunization. The idiotype served as the tumor antigen. Select CpG ODN were as effective as complete Freund’s adjuvant at inducing an antigen-specific antibody response but were associated with less toxicity. These CpG ODN induced a higher titer of antigen-specific IgG2a than did complete Freund’s adjuvant, suggesting an enhanced TH1 response. Mice immunized with CpG ODN as an adjuvant were protected from tumor challenge to a degree similar to that seen in mice immunized with complete Freund’s adjuvant. We conclude that CpG ODN are effective as immune adjuvants and are attractive as part of a tumor immunization strategy. PMID:9380720

  13. Improving immunization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallos, Lazaros K.; Liljeros, Fredrik; Argyrakis, Panos; Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo

    2007-04-01

    We introduce an immunization method where the percentage of required vaccinations for immunity are close to the optimal value of a targeted immunization scheme of highest degree nodes. Our strategy retains the advantage of being purely local, without the need for knowledge on the global network structure or identification of the highest degree nodes. The method consists of selecting a random node and asking for a neighbor that has more links than himself or more than a given threshold and immunizing him. We compare this method to other efficient strategies on three real social networks and on a scale-free network model and find it to be significantly more effective.

  14. Spontaneous reversal of acquired autoimmune dysfibrinogenemia probably due to an antiidiotypic antibody directed to an interspecies cross-reactive idiotype expressed on antifibrinogen antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Arguelles, A

    1988-01-01

    A young man with a long history of abnormal bleeding was seen in January 1985. Coagulation tests showed dysfibrinogenemia and an antifibrinogen autoantibody was demonstrable in his serum. This antibody, when purified, was capable of inhibiting the polymerization of normal fibrin monomers, apparently through binding to the alpha fibrinogen chain. 6 mo later the patient was asymptomatic, coagulation tests were normal, and the antifibrinogen autoantibody was barely detectable. At this time, affinity-purified autologous and rabbit antifibrinogen antibodies were capable of absorbing an IgG kappa antibody from the patient's serum, which reacted indistinctly with both autologous and xenogeneic antifibrinogen antibodies in enzyme immunoassays. It has been concluded that the patient's dysfibrinogenemia was the result of an antifibrinogen autoantibody, and that later on an anti-idiotype antibody, which binds an interspecies cross-reactive idiotype expressed on anti-human fibrinogen antibodies, inhibited the production of the antifibrinogen autoantibody which led to the remission of the disorder. Images PMID:3262127

  15. The activation and differential signalling of the growth hormone receptor induced by pGH or anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies in primary rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Lan, Hainan; Liu, Huimin; Fu, Zhiling; Yang, Yanhong; Han, Weiwei; Guo, Feng; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Jingsheng; Zheng, Xin

    2013-08-25

    In this report, we have developed a panel of monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies to pGH by immunising BALB/c mice with a purified monoclonal anti-pGH antibody (1A3), among which one mAb, termed CG-8F, was selected for further characterisation. We found that CG-8F behaved as a typical Ab2β, not only conformationally competing with pGH for 1A3 but also exhibiting recognition for GHR in a rat hepatocyte model. We next examined the resulting signal transduction pathways triggered by this antibody in rat hepatocytes and found that both pGH and CG-8F could trigger the JAK2-STAT1/3/5-mediated signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, the phosphorylation kinetics of pSTAT1/3/5 induced by either pGH or CG-8F were remarkably similar in the dose-response and time course rat hepatocyte experiments. In contrast, only pGH, but not CG-8F, was capable of inducing ERK phosphorylation. Further experimental studies indicated that the two functional binding sites on CG-8F are required for GHR activation. This study partially reveals the mechanism of action of GH anti-idiotypic antibodies and also indicates that monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies represent an effective way to produce GH mimics, suggesting that it is possible to produce signal-specific cytokine agonists using an anti-idiotypic antibody approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acquisition of an anti-idiotypic cytotoxic T lymphocyte repertoire in B cell-transferred or tetraparental bone marrow chimeric mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, H.; Bitoh, S.; Fujimoto, S.

    1987-10-01

    In previous studies we showed that major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for the cross-reactive idiotype (CRI) of MOPC-104E myeloma protein could only be induced in BALB/c or BAB-14 mice which have the ability to produce the CRI, but not in C.AL-20 or C.B-20 mice which have no ability to produce the CRI. The strong correlation between CRI-specific CTL responder strains and CRI producers supports the idea that the VH gene products are intrinsic primary antigenic stimuli for the generation of the anti-idiotypic CTL. To investigate the role of B lymphocytes in the selection of T lymphocyte repertoire, the purified B cells of CRI producer strains were repeatedly injected into anti-CRI CTL nonresponder neonatal mice. CRI-specific CTL activity was successfully induced in the CRI nonproducer mice only when they were exposed to CRI producer strain B lymphocytes from neonatal life. When the CTL nonresponder adult mice received CRI producer B lymphocytes, the nonresponder phenotype was not changed into the responder phenotype. Inducibility of CRI-specific CTL was also analyzed in tetraparental bone marrow chimeras. When CRI nonproducer bone marrow cells repopulated along with CRI producer bone marrow cells, the anti-CRI CTL of CRI nonproducer origin were generated. Adaptive differentiation of haplotype preference was also observed. When these observations are taken collectively, we see that the anti-idiotypic T lymphocyte repertoire is not a genetically determined one, but rather that the repertoire of T lymphocytes strongly depends on the postnatal selection process through the intrinsic idiotypic repertoire of B lymphocytes, i.e., internal images.

  17. Acquisition of an anti-idiotypic cytotoxic T lymphocyte repertoire in B cell-transferred or tetraparental bone marrow chimeric mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Bitoh, S; Fujimoto, S

    1987-10-01

    In previous studies we showed that major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for the cross-reactive idiotype (CRI) of MOPC-104E myeloma protein could only be induced in BALB/c or BAB-14 mice which have the ability to produce the CRI, but not in C.AL-20 or C.B-20 mice which have no ability to produce the CRI. The strong correlation between CRI-specific CTL responder strains and CRI producers supports the idea that the VH gene products are intrinsic primary antigenic stimuli for the generation of the anti-idiotypic CTL. To investigate the role of B lymphocytes in the selection of T lymphocyte repertoire, the purified B cells of CRI producer strains were repeatedly injected into anti-CRI CTL nonresponder neonatal mice. CRI-specific CTL activity was successfully induced in the CRI nonproducer mice only when they were exposed to CRI producer strain B lymphocytes from neonatal life. When the CTL nonresponder adult mice received CRI producer B lymphocytes, the nonresponder phenotype was not changed into the responder phenotype. Inducibility of CRI-specific CTL was also analyzed in tetraparental bone marrow chimeras. When CRI nonproducer bone marrow cells repopulated along with CRI producer bone marrow cells, the anti-CRI CTL of CRI nonproducer origin were generated. Adaptive differentiation of haplotype preference was also observed. When these observations are taken collectively, we see that the anti-idiotypic T lymphocyte repertoire is not a genetically determined one, but rather that the repertoire of T lymphocytes strongly depends on the postnatal selection process through the intrinsic idiotypic repertoire of B lymphocytes, i.e., internal images.

  18. T cell idiotypes recognizing self-major histocompatibility complex molecules: H-2 specificity, allotype linkage, and expression on functional T cell populations.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Z A; Elliott, B E; Carlow, D A; Rubin, B

    1982-05-01

    An anti-idiotypic serum (antiserum 5936, B. Rubin et al., J. Exp. Med. 1979. 150: 307) was used to demonstrate receptor sites for self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on T lymphocytes. The antiserum was raised by injecting rabbits tolerant to mouse Ig with a B6 anti-CBA (anti-H2k) alloantibody. It recognized a large proportion of T cells from H-2k strains carrying the b, c, d or e allele at the Igh-1 locus, but only a few T cells from H-2k strains with Igh-1 alleles a, f and j. Allotype linkage of the 5936 idiotype was also demonstrated by segregation analysis. The antiserum did not recognize either H-2k B cells or T cells from other H-2 haplotypes despite the presence of a permissive Igh-1 allele. The 5936 idiotype was found to be associated with several different antigen specificities, indicating that it is not located on the binding site for foreign antigen. Furthermore, the 5936 antiserum inhibited the binding of soluble Ik antigens by H-2k, Igh-1b, T cells, and, in the presence of complement, eliminated T cells responding to different antigens in an I-Ak-restricted fashion. Collectively, the data indicate that the structure bearing the 5936 idiotype is a receptor for I-Ak antigens, expressed by strains carrying the I-Ak allele and a permissive allele at the Igh-1 locus. The relevance of this finding to the MHC-restricted recognition of antigens by T cells is discussed.

  19. Differential major histocompatibility complex-related activation of idiotypic suppressor T cells. Suppressor T cells cross-reactive to two distantly related lysozymes are not induced by one of them.

    PubMed

    Adorini, L; Harvey, M A; Rozycka-Jackson, D; Miller, A; Sercarz, E E

    1980-09-01

    B10 (H-2b) mice are genetic nonresponders to hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) and the distantly related human lysozyme (HUL). However, anti-HEL or anti-HUL primary antibody responses in vivo or in vitro can be obtained in B10 mice by immunization with the appropriate lysozyme coupled to erythrocytes. T cells able to suppress either anti-lysozyme plaque-forming cells (PFC) response are induced in B10 mice after immunization with HEL-complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or HUL-CFA. This cross-reactivity of HEL and HUL in the induction and the expression of suppressive activity is in marked contrast to their very low cross-reactivity at the PFC level. These results suggest that either HEL or HUL can stimulate a suppressor T cell which recognizes a particular epitope present on both lysozymes. Suppressor cells induced by HEL or HUL bear the same predominant idiotype found on the majority of anti-HEL antibodies, and on the small proportion of anti-HUL antibodies cross-reactive with HEL. B10.Q (H-2q) mice are responders in vivo to HEL-CFA, but not to HUL-CFA. In contrast to B10, HEL-CFA priming in B10.Q micr induces helper cells whereas HUL-CFA priming induces suppressor cells. These suppressor cells are cross-reactive with HEL and are fully able to suppress HEL-specific helper cells. The presence of HEL-specific suppressor cell precursors in B10.Q mice which are not activated by HEL, seems to implicate differential choice by the antigen presenting system as a basis for Ir gene control, rather than the absence of a regulatory cell type from the T cell repertoire.

  20. Immunosuppressive networks and checkpoints controlling antitumor immunity and their blockade in the development of cancer immunotherapeutics and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Butt, A Q; Mills, K H G

    2014-09-18

    Vaccines that promote protective adaptive immune responses have been successfully developed against a range of infectious diseases, and these are normally administered prior to exposure with the relevant virus or bacteria. Adaptive immunity also plays a critical role in the control of tumors. Immunotherapeutics and vaccines that promote effector T cell responses have the potential to eliminate tumors when used in a therapeutic setting. However, the induction of protective antitumor immunity is compromised by innate immunosuppressive mechanisms and regulatory cells that often dominate the tumor microenvironment. Recent studies have shown that blocking these suppressor cells and immune checkpoints to allow induction of antitumor immunity is a successful immunotherapeutic modality for the treatment of cancer. Furthermore, stimulation of innate and consequently adaptive immune responses with concomitant inhibition of immune suppression, especially that mediated by regulatory T (Treg) cells, is emerging as a promising approach to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines against cancer. This review describes the immunosuppressive mechanisms controlling antitumor immunity and the novel strategies being employed to design effective immunotherapeutics against tumors based on inhibition of suppressor cells or blockade of immune checkpoints to allow induction of more potent effector T cell responses. This review also discusses the potential of using a combination of adjuvants with inhibition of immune checkpoint or suppressor cells for therapeutic vaccines and the translation of pre-clinical studies to the next-generation vaccines against cancer in humans.

  1. Detection of two distinct malignant B cell clones in a single patient using anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies and immunoglobulin gene rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Giardina, S L; Schroff, R W; Woodhouse, C S; Golde, D W; Oldham, R K; Cleary, M L; Sklar, J; Pritikin, N; Foon, K A

    1985-11-01

    Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement analysis and somatic cell hybridization techniques were used to examine the malignant cell population in an unusual patient with hairy cell leukemia and macroglobulinemia (N Engl J Med 296:92, 1977). Although previous investigations suggested that the IgM macroglobulin was secreted by the circulating leukemia cells, anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies raised to the IgM macroglobulin failed to react with the malignant cells in the circulation and bone marrow. In contrast, approximately 50% of the mononuclear cells from an enlarged inguinal lymph node reacted strongly with the anti-idiotype antibodies. Subsequent reanalysis of all cell populations demonstrated that whereas the circulating and bone marrow cells were IgM kappa-bearing, the macroglobulin was IgM gamma-bearing and the lymph node cells were evenly divided among IgM kappa-bearing and IgM gamma-bearing. Immunofluorescence flow cytometry indicated that those lymph node cells that reacted strictly with the anti-idiotype antibody were IgM gamma-bearing, demonstrating that they were the source of macroglobulin. An analysis of immunoglobulin gene DNA confirmed the coexistence of two distinct malignant B cell populations in the lymph node and indicated that the IgM kappa-bearing lymph node cells were identical to the circulating and bone marrow leukemic cells.

  2. Nucleic acid sequence of an internal image-bearing monoclonal anti-idiotype and its comparison to the sequence of the external antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, C; Co, M S; Slaoui, M; Gaulton, G N; Smith, T; Fields, B N; Mullins, J I; Greene, M I

    1986-01-01

    The monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (mAb2) 87.92.6 directed against the 9B.G5 antibody specific for the virus neutralizing epitope on the mammalian reovirus type 3 hemagglutinin was previously demonstrated to express an internal image of the receptor binding epitope of the reovirus type 3. Furthermore, this mAb2 has autoimmune reactivity to the cell surface receptor of the reovirus. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the 87.92.6 mAb2 heavy and light chains are described in this report. The sequence analysis reveals that the same heavy chain variable and joining (VH and JH) gene segments are used by the 87.92.6 anti-idiotypic mAb2 and by the dominant idiotypes of the BALB/c anti-GAT (cGAT) and anti-NP (NPa) responses. [GAT; random polymer that is 60% glutamic acid, 30% alanine, and 10% tyrosine. NP; (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl)-acetyl.] Despite extensive homology at the level of the heavy chain variable regions, the NPa positive BALB/c anti-NP monoclonal antibody 17.2.25 binds neither 9B.G5 nor the cellular receptor for the hemagglutinin. Amino acid sequence comparison between the viral hemagglutinin and the 87.92.6 mAb2 light chain "internal image," reveals an area of significant homology indicating that antigen mimicry by antibodies may be achieved by sharing primary structure. PMID:2428036

  3. Staphylococcus aureus infection induces protein A–mediated immune evasion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Noel T.; Kim, Hwan Keun; Falugi, Fabiana; Huang, Min; Dulac, John; Henry Dunand, Carole; Zheng, Nai-Ying; Kaur, Kaval; Andrews, Sarah F.; Huang, Yunping; DeDent, Andrea; Frank, Karen M.; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella; Schneewind, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacterial infection commonly results in chronic or recurrent disease, suggesting that humoral memory responses are hampered. Understanding how S. aureus subverts the immune response is critical for the rescue of host natural humoral immunity and vaccine development. S. aureus expresses the virulence factor Protein A (SpA) on all clinical isolates, and SpA has been shown in mice to expand and ablate variable heavy 3 (VH3) idiotype B cells. The effects of SpA during natural infection, however, have not been addressed. Acutely activated B cells, or plasmablasts (PBs), were analyzed to dissect the ongoing immune response to infection through the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The B cells that were activated by infection had a highly limited response. When screened against multiple S. aureus antigens, only high-affinity binding to SpA was observed. Consistently, PBs underwent affinity maturation, but their B cell receptors demonstrated significant bias toward the VH3 idiotype. These data suggest that the superantigenic activity of SpA leads to immunodominance, limiting host responses to other S. aureus virulence factors that would be necessary for protection and memory formation. PMID:25348152

  4. Immuno-Navigator, a batch-corrected coexpression database, reveals cell type-specific gene networks in the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbon, Alexis; Dinh, Viet H.; Mikami, Norihisa; Kitagawa, Yohko; Teraguchi, Shunsuke; Ohkura, Naganari; Sakaguchi, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput gene expression data are one of the primary resources for exploring complex intracellular dynamics in modern biology. The integration of large amounts of public data may allow us to examine general dynamical relationships between regulators and target genes. However, obstacles for such analyses are study-specific biases or batch effects in the original data. Here we present Immuno-Navigator, a batch-corrected gene expression and coexpression database for 24 cell types of the mouse immune system. We systematically removed batch effects from the underlying gene expression data and showed that this removal considerably improved the consistency between inferred correlations and prior knowledge. The data revealed widespread cell type-specific correlation of expression. Integrated analysis tools allow users to use this correlation of expression for the generation of hypotheses about biological networks and candidate regulators in specific cell types. We show several applications of Immuno-Navigator as examples. In one application we successfully predicted known regulators of importance in naturally occurring Treg cells from their expression correlation with a set of Treg-specific genes. For one high-scoring gene, integrin β8 (Itgb8), we confirmed an association between Itgb8 expression in forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)-positive T cells and Treg-specific epigenetic remodeling. Our results also suggest that the regulation of Treg-specific genes within Treg cells is relatively independent of Foxp3 expression, supporting recent results pointing to a Foxp3-independent component in the development of Treg cells. PMID:27078110

  5. Lymphoma Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in the Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Satish; Patel, Monita R.; Achenbach, Chad J.; Yanik, Elizabeth L.; Cole, Stephen R.; Napravnik, Sonia; Burkholder, Greer A.; Mathews, W. Christopher; Rodriguez, Benigno; Deeks, Steven G.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Moore, Richard D.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Richards, Kristy L.; Eron, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Lymphoma incidence is increased among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals soon after antiretroviral therapy (ART), perhaps due to unmasking immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Clinical characteristics and survival for unmasking lymphoma IRIS have not been described. Methods. We studied lymphoma patients in the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS) from 1996 until 2011. Unmasking lymphoma IRIS was defined as lymphoma within 6 months after ART accompanied by a ≥0.5 log10 copies/mL HIV RNA reduction. Differences in presentation and survival were examined between IRIS and non-IRIS cases. Results. Of 482 lymphoma patients, 56 (12%) met criteria for unmasking lymphoma IRIS. Of these, 12 (21%) had Hodgkin lymphoma, 22 (39%) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 5 (9%) Burkitt lymphoma, 10 (18%) primary central nervous system lymphoma, and 7 (13%) other non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Median CD4 cell count at lymphoma diagnosis among IRIS cases was 173 cells/µL (interquartile range, 73–302), and 48% had suppressed HIV RNA <400 copies/mL. IRIS cases were similar overall to non-IRIS cases in histologic distribution and clinical characteristics, excepting more frequent hepatitis B and C (30% vs 19%, P = .05), and lower HIV RNA at lymphoma diagnosis resulting from the IRIS case definition. Overall survival at 5 years was similar between IRIS (49%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 37%–64%) and non-IRIS (44%; 95% CI, 39%–50%), although increased early mortality was suggested among IRIS cases. Conclusions. In a large HIV-associated lymphoma cohort, 12% of patients met a uniformly applied unmasking lymphoma IRIS case definition. Detailed studies of lymphoma IRIS might identify immunologic mechanisms of lymphoma control. PMID:24755860

  6. Murine interstitial nephritis. III. The selection of phenotypic (Lyt and L3T4) and idiotypic (RE-Id) T cell preferences by genes in Igh-1 and H-2K characterizes the cell-mediated potential for disease expression: susceptible mice provide a unique effector T cell repertoire in response to tubular antigen.

    PubMed

    Neilson, E G; McCafferty, E; Mann, R; Michaud, L; Clayman, M

    1985-04-01

    The effector T cell repertoire in experimental interstitial nephritis was examined in a variety of susceptible and nonsusceptible mice. We observed that L3T4+ effector T cells in disease-susceptible mice disappear soon after immunization in preference to the emergence of Lyt-2+ effector cells. These latter cells respond with delayed-type hypersensitivity to tubular antigen in the context of H-2K. Such cells also express idiotypes (RE-Id) shared with kidney-bound alpha TBM-Ab that are regulated by an interactional effect of genes in Igh-1 and H-2K. These Lyt-2+ effector cells can be removed from renal infiltrates, and the transfer of similar cells under the renal capsule of naive mice results, within 5 days, in local interstitial nephritis. Nonsusceptible mice, however, not having these immune response genes, produce either L3T4+, Lyt-1+, RE-Id- effector T cells, which only respond to tubular antigen in the context of I-A, or Lyt-2+, RE-Id- T cells, which may lack very fine specificity. These findings suggest that susceptible mice carry a unique set of immune response genes that promote a T cell selection process that operates after induction, during the differentiation and development of disease-producing effector T cells.

  7. CD8 T-cell cross-reactivity networks mediate heterologous immunity in human Epstein-Barr (EBV) and murine vaccinia (VV) virus infections

    PubMed Central

    Cornberg, Markus; Clute, Shalyn C.; Watkin, Levi B.; Saccoccio, Frances M.; Kim, Sung-Kwon; Naumov, Yuri N.; Brehm, Michael A.; Aslan, Nuray; Welsh, Raymond M.; Selin, Liisa K.

    2011-01-01

    Here we demonstrate complex networks of CD8 T-cell cross-reactivities between influenza A virus (IAV) and Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) in humans and between lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and vaccinia virus (VV) in mice. We also show directly that cross-reactive T-cells mediate protective heterologous immunity in mice. Subsets of T-cell populations reactive with one epitope cross-reacted with either of several other epitopes encoded by the same or the heterologous virus. Human T-cells specific to EBV-encoded BMLF1280-288 could be cross-reactive with two IAV or two other EBV epitopes. Mouse T-cells specific to the VV-encoded a11r198-205 could be cross-reactive with three different LCMV, one Pichinde virus, or one other VV epitope. Patterns of cross-reactivity differed among individuals, reflecting the private specificities of the host’s immune repertoire, and divergence in the abilities of T-cell populations to mediate protective immunity. Defining such cross-reactive networks between commonly encountered human pathogens may facilitate the design of vaccines. PMID:20164414

  8. Abnormal networks of immune response-related molecules in bone marrow cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis as revealed by DNA microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic synovitis that progresses to destruction of cartilage and bone. Bone marrow (BM) cells have been shown to contribute to this pathogenesis. In this study, we compared differentially expressed molecules in BM cells from RA and osteoarthritis (OA) patients and analyzed abnormal regulatory networks to identify the role of BM cells in RA. Methods Gene expression profiles (GEPs) in BM-derived mononuclear cells from 9 RA and 10 OA patients were obtained by DNA microarray. Up- and down-regulated genes were identified by comparing the GEPs from the two patient groups. Bioinformatics was performed by Expression Analysis Systemic Explorer (EASE) 2.0 based on gene ontology, followed by network pathway analysis with Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) 7.5. Results The BM mononuclear cells showed 764 up-regulated and 1,910 down-regulated genes in RA patients relative to the OA group. EASE revealed that the gene category response to external stimulus, which included the gene category immune response, was overrepresented by the up-regulated genes. So too were the gene categories signal transduction and phosphate metabolism. Down-regulated genes were dominantly classified in three gene categories: cell proliferation, which included mitotic cell cycle, DNA replication and chromosome cycle, and DNA metabolism. Most genes in these categories overlapped with each other. IPA analysis showed that the up-regulated genes in immune response were highly relevant to the antigen presentation pathway and to interferon signaling. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E, HLA-F, and HLA-G, tapasin (TAP) and TAP binding protein, both of which are involved in peptide antigen binding and presentation via MHC class I molecules, are depicted in the immune response molecule networks. Interferon gamma and interleukin 8 were overexpressed and found to play

  9. Effects of the recombinant allergen rDer f 2 on neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthmatic mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong-Qian; Zhou, Zhi-Xiang; Ji, You-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Severe and life-threatening side effects can occur in patients receiving allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), and recombinant allergens made from cDNA have been used in clinical trials for ten years and appear promising for SIT. The aim of this study is to explore the effects of the recombinant allergen Der f 2 (the group 2 allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae) on the neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthmatic mice. Twenty-eight mice were divided into four groups - A, B, C and D. To induce asthma, a crude extract of D. farinae was injected intraperitoneally into the mice in groups B, C and D. Later, the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 was given to groups C and D, respectively. Normal saline was given to groups A and B. Serum corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), interleukin 4 (IL-4), and interferon γ (IFN-γ) were detected by immunoassay and the pathological change of lung tissue was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Serum CRH, ACTH, CORT, and IFN-γ were highest in healthy group A but lowest in asthma group B. Treatment with the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 significantly attenuated this response in asthmatic mice, but there was no difference between the two treatments (p > 0.05). Serum IL-4 was elevated in asthma group B but lowest in healthy group A. Treatment with the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 significantly attenuated this response in asthmatic mice, but there was no significant difference between the two treatments (p > 0.05). However, lung pathology as measured histologically (Underwood Score) showed that rDer f 2-treatment was significantly better than crude extract treatment (p < 0.05). In brief, recombinant allergen Der f 2 can strengthen the function of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, affect the balance of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and reduce pulmonary inflammation in asthmatic mice.

  10. Effects of the recombinant allergen rDer f 2 on neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthmatic mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yong-qian; Zhou, Zhi-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Severe and life-threatening side effects can occur in patients receiving allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), and recombinant allergens made from cDNA have been used in clinical trials for ten years and appear promising for SIT. The aim of this study is to explore the effects of the recombinant allergen Der f 2 (the group 2 allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae) on the neuro-endocrino-immune network in asthmatic mice. Twenty-eight mice were divided into four groups – A, B, C and D. To induce asthma, a crude extract of D. farinae was injected intraperitoneally into the mice in groups B, C and D. Later, the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 was given to groups C and D, respectively. Normal saline was given to groups A and B. Serum corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), interleukin 4 (IL-4), and interferon γ (IFN-γ) were detected by immunoassay and the pathological change of lung tissue was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Serum CRH, ACTH, CORT, and IFN-γ were highest in healthy group A but lowest in asthma group B. Treatment with the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 significantly attenuated this response in asthmatic mice, but there was no difference between the two treatments (p > 0.05). Serum IL-4 was elevated in asthma group B but lowest in healthy group A. Treatment with the crude extract or recombinant allergen rDer f 2 significantly attenuated this response in asthmatic mice, but there was no significant difference between the two treatments (p > 0.05). However, lung pathology as measured histologically (Underwood Score) showed that rDer f 2-treatment was significantly better than crude extract treatment (p < 0.05). In brief, recombinant allergen Der f 2 can strengthen the function of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, affect the balance of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and reduce pulmonary inflammation in asthmatic mice. PMID:26155138

  11. 1(st) EMBL/DFG Women in Science Network Conference Heidelberg 2016: From Genes, Cells and the Immune System towards Therapies - Meeting Report.

    PubMed

    Stripecke, Renata; Gouttefangeas, Cécile; Förster, Irmgard

    2016-11-01

    The 1(st) EMBL/DFG Women in Science (WiS) Conference "From Genes, Cells and the Immune System towards Therapies" was held on 19(th) - 20(th) September 2016 in Heidelberg, Germany. The WiS conference was funded by nine Collaborative Research Centers (CRCs) of the German Research Council (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG; Table 1) and benefited from an outstanding hosting environment at the Advanced Training Center of the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL). Scientific talks focused at genetic, cellular and immunologic mechanisms, and immune therapy, and progress from all stages of development covering basic research to clinical developments was described. The presentations were embedded between structured networking sessions and a round table discussion with representatives of the DFG, EMBL, European Molecular Biology Organisation (EMBO), and the German Society of Immunology (DGfI).

  12. Insight into Bacterial Virulence Mechanisms against Host Immune Response via the Yersinia pestis-Human Protein-Protein Interaction Network ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huiying; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Jian; Tan, Yafang; Myeni, Sebenzile K.; Li, Dong; Shi, Qinghai; Yan, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Guo, Zhaobiao; Yuan, Yanzhi; Yang, Xiaoming; Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin

    2011-01-01

    A Yersinia pestis-human protein interaction network is reported here to improve our understanding of its pathogenesis. Up to 204 interactions between 66 Y. pestis bait proteins and 109 human proteins were identified by yeast two-hybrid assay and then combined with 23 previously published interactions to construct a protein-protein interaction network. Topological analysis of the interaction network revealed that human proteins targeted by Y. pestis were significantly enriched in the proteins that are central in the human protein-protein interaction network. Analysis of this network showed that signaling pathways important for host immune responses were preferentially targeted by Y. pestis, including the pathways involved in focal adhesion, regulation of cytoskeleton, leukocyte transendoepithelial migration, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Cellular pathways targeted by Y. pestis are highly relevant to its pathogenesis. Interactions with host proteins involved in focal adhesion and cytoskeketon regulation pathways could account for resistance of Y. pestis to phagocytosis. Interference with TLR and MAPK signaling pathways by Y. pestis reflects common characteristics of pathogen-host interaction that bacterial pathogens have evolved to evade host innate immune response by interacting with proteins in those signaling pathways. Interestingly, a large portion of human proteins interacting with Y. pestis (16/109) also interacted with viral proteins (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]), suggesting that viral and bacterial pathogens attack common cellular functions to facilitate infections. In addition, we identified vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) as a novel interaction partner of YpkA and showed that YpkA could inhibit in vitro actin assembly mediated by VASP. PMID:21911467

  13. Mechanisms of action of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Crow, Andrew R; Song, Seng; Siragam, Vinayakumar; Lazarus, Alan H

    2006-10-15

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is currently used to treat a multitude of autoimmune disorders including immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), yet the mechanism of action of IVIG remains unresolved. Using a murine model of ITP in which IVIG functions therapeutically, our laboratory has addressed such theories as blockade/inhibition of the mononuclear phagocytic system, cytokine regulation, and neutralization of pathogenic autoantibodies mediated by anti-idiotypic antibodies, and these findings will be discussed herein. We have also demonstrated that soluble immune complexes can completely recapitulate the therapeutic effects of IVIG in ITP, and recent work from us has identified activating Fcgamma receptors on CD11c+ dendritic cells as the relevant molecular target of IVIG in the acute resolution of murine immune thrombocytopenia. This and other work to devise antibody-based IVIG alternative therapies will also be addressed. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Turning (Ir gene) low responders into high responders by antibody manipulation of the developing immune system.

    PubMed Central

    Martinz, C; Marcos, M A; Pereira, P; Marquez, C; Toribio, M; de la Hera, A; Cazenave, P A; Coutinho, A

    1987-01-01

    The ability of helper T cells directed against trinitrophenyl-modified syngeneic spleen cells to recognize low-hapten densities on target cells is under major histocompatibility complex-linked Ir gene control. Thus, BALB/c (H-2d) mice are low responders while H-2 congenic BALB.C3H (H-2k) mice are high responders. Immunization of adult BALB/c mice with the monoclonal antibody F6(51), directed to shared idiotopes by anti-trinitrophenyl antibodies and clonal receptors on anti-trinitrophenyl-self helper T cells, leads to the production of high titers of circulating idiotype, has no influence on helper T cell idiotypic profiles, but shifts to a high-responder phenotype the ability of helper T cells to recognize low-hapten densities. These effects on Ir gene phenotype are even more striking in untreated progenies from F6(51)-immunized BALB/c females, which are better responders than genetically high-responder BALB.C3H mice, although completely different in the expression of the F6(51)-defined clonotype. The general significance of these findings on Ir gene-directed T-cell repertoire selection is discussed, for they constitute formal evidence against antigen-presentation as a mechanism of Ir gene effects and strong support for the importance of maternal influences on the development of T-cell repertoires. PMID:2954161

  15. Anti-idiotypes to anti-Lolp I (Rye) antibodies in allergic and non-allergic individuals. Influence of immunotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Bose, R; Marsh, D G; Delespesse, G

    1986-01-01

    Anti-idiotypes (aId) reacting with anti-Lol I (Lolp I; Rye I) antibodies were detected by their ability to bind to radioiodinated F(ab')2 anti-Lol I. Sera were tested after removal of anti-Lol I and anti-heavy and light chain activity by adsorption on Lol I-Sepharose 4B and normal human serum Sepharose 4B. The binding of aId to Id was inhibited by affinity purified anti-Lol I but not by certain unrelated immunoglobulins; in some sera this binding was also inhibited by Lol I. The levels of aId were measured in serial bleedings collected over a 1 year period from Lol I-sensitive patients, allergic donors not sensitive to Lol I and non-allergic persons. In Lol I-allergic patients the levels of aId were significantly influenced by seasonal exposure to pollen and by immunotherapy with extracts of grass pollen. Moreover, in 12 out of 16 cases, there was also a significant inverse relationship between changes in serum levels of aId and of IgG or IgE anti-Lol I. Most interestingly, aId were also detected in non-allergic individuals; in this case, the levels of aId were not influenced by the pollen season. The data suggest that Id-aId interactions may play a role in the regulation of anti-Lol I antibody production. PMID:3492316

  16. Therapeutic activity of an anti-idiotypic antibody-derived killer peptide against influenza A virus experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Conti, Giorgio; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Nencioni, Lucia; Sgarbanti, Rossella; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Polonelli, Luciano

    2008-12-01

    The in vitro and in vivo activities of a killer decapeptide (KP) against influenza A virus is described, and the mechanisms of action are suggested. KP represents the functional internal image of a yeast killer toxin that proved to exert antimicrobial and anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activities. Treatment with KP demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity on the replication of two strains of influenza A virus in different cell lines, as evaluated by hemagglutination, hemadsorption, and plaque assays. The complete inhibition of virus particle production and a marked reduction of the synthesis of viral proteins (membrane protein and hemagglutinin, in particular) were observed at a KP concentration of 4 microg/ml. Moreover, KP administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 microg/mice once a day for 10 days to influenza A/NWS/33 (H1N1) virus-infected mice improved the survival of the animals by 40% and significantly decreased the viral titers in their lungs. Overall, KP appears to be the first anti-idiotypic antibody-derived peptide that displays inhibitory activity and that has a potential therapeutic effect against pathogenic microorganisms, HIV-1, and influenza A virus by different mechanisms of action.

  17. Metronomic Cyclophosphamide and Methotrexate Chemotherapy Combined with 1E10 Anti-Idiotype Vaccine in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Jorge L.; Batista, Noyde; Santiesteban, Eduardo; Lima, Mayté; González, Joaquín; García, Robin; Zarza, Yohanka; López, María V.; Rodríguez, Myriam; Loys, Jorge L.; Montejo, Narciso; Aguirre, Frank; Macías, Amparo; Vázquez, Ana M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of low doses of cytotoxic agents continuously for prolonged periods is an alternative for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer who have developed resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The combination of metronomic chemotherapy with therapeutic vaccines might increase the efficacy of the treatment. Twenty one patients with metastatic breast cancer in progression and a Karnosky index ≥60%, were treated with metronomic chemotherapy (50 mg of cyclophospamide orally daily and 2.5 mg of methotrexate orally bi-daily), in combination with five bi-weekly subcutaneous injections of 1 mg of aluminum hydroxide-precipitated 1E10 anti-idiotype MAb (1E10-Alum), followed by reimmunizations every 28 days. Five patients achieved objective response, eight showed stable disease and eight had disease progression. Median time to progression was 9,8 months, while median overall survival time was 12,93 months. The median duration of the response (CR+PR+SD) was 18,43 months (12,20–24,10 months), being higher than 12 months in 76,9% of the patients. Overall toxicity was generally mild. Metronomic chemotherapy combined with 1E10-Alum vaccine immunotherapy might be a useful therapeutic option for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer due to its potential impact on survival and patient quality of live, low toxicity and advantages of the administration. PMID:22295231

  18. Antigen- and receptor-driven regulatory mechanisms. II. Induction of suppressor T cells with idiotype-coupled syngeneic spleen cells.

    PubMed

    Sy, M S; Bach, B A; Brown, A; Nisonoff, A; Benacerraf, B; Greene, M I

    1979-11-01

    Anti-p-azobenzenearsonate (ABA) antibodies, coupled covalently to normal syngeneic spleen cells and then given intravenously to normal animals, were found to be potent tolerogens for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to ABA. The ability of the antibody-coupled cells to induce tolerance was determined to be a result of the cross-reactive idiotype (CRI+) fraction of the antibodies, because anti-ABA antibodies lacking the CRI+ components when coupled to spleen cells were unable to cause any significant inhibition. Furthermore, genetic analysis revealed that the ability of CRI-coupled cells to inhibit ABA-specific DTH is linked to Igh-1 heavy chain allotype, in as much animals which possess heavy chain allotypes similar to that of A/J were sensitive to this inhibition. Adoptive transfer experiments provided evidence that CRI-coupled cells induce suppressor cells, and spleen cells or thymocytes from animals received CRI-coupled cells were able to transfer suppression to naive recipients. In addition, treatment with anti-Thy1.2 serum plus complement completely abrogated their ability to transfer suppression. Thus, this active suppression is a T-cell-dependent phenomenon. In investigating the specificity of these suppressor T cells, it was found that they functioned in an antigen-specific manner and were unable to suppress the development of DTH to an unrelated hapten 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene.

  19. Antigen- and receptor-driven regulatory mechanisms. II. Induction of suppressor T cells with idiotype-coupled syngeneic spleen cells

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Anti-p-azobenzenearsonate (ABA) antibodies, coupled covalently to normal syngeneic spleen cells and then given intravenously to normal animals, were found to be potent tolerogens for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to ABA. The ability of the antibody-coupled cells to induce tolerance was determined to be a result of the cross- reactive idiotype (CRI+) fraction of the antibodies, because anti-ABA antibodies lacking the CRI+ components when coupled to spleen cells were unable to cause any significant inhibition. Furthermore, genetic analysis revealed that the ability of CRI-coupled cells to inhibit ABA- specific DTH is linked to Igh-1 heavy chain allotype, in as much animals which possess heavy chain allotypes similar to that of A/J were sensitive to this inhibition. Adoptive transfer experiments provided evidence that CRI-coupled cells induce suppressor cells, and spleen cells or thymocytes from animals received CRI-coupled cells were able to transfer suppression to naive recipients. In addition, treatment with anti-Thy1.2 serum plus complement completely abrogated their ability to transfer suppression. Thus, this active suppression is a T- cell-dependent phenomenon. In investigating the specificity of these suppressor T cells, it was found that they functioned in an antigen- specific manner and were unable to suppress the development of DTH to an unrelated hapten 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene. PMID:91657

  20. Autologous anti-metatype immune response in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Voss, E W; Moore, J K; Weidner-McGufficke, K M; Denzin, L K; Bedzyk, W D; Voss, V H

    1992-02-01

    Rabbits hyperimmunized with fluorescyl-conjugated KLH exhibited bound ligand associated with a high affinity circulating IgG anti-fluorescein population. After cessation of immunogen administration the liganded complexes were eventually spontaneously cleared from the circulation. Individual rabbits synthesized autologous anti-metatype antibodies specific for ligand-antibody complexes. Autologous anti-metatype antibodies reacted optimally with autologous liganded anti-fluorescein antibodies. However, cross reactivity was noted with allogenic rabbit liganded antibodies from three affinity-purified pools. An autologous anti-metatype response, reminiscent of autoanti-idiotype responses, has important implications concerning in vivo clearance of antigen-antibody complexes and may serve as a model to study immune complex diseases.

  1. Network Model of Immune Responses Reveals Key Effectors to Single and Co-infection Dynamics by a Respiratory Bacterium and a Gastrointestinal Helminth

    PubMed Central

    Thakar, Juilee; Pathak, Ashutosh K.; Murphy, Lisa; Albert, Réka; Cattadori, Isabella M.

    2012-01-01

    Co-infections alter the host immune response but how the systemic and local processes at the site of infection interact is still unclear. The majority of studies on co-infections concentrate on one of the infecting species, an immune function or group of cells and often focus on the initial phase of the infection. Here, we used a combination of experiments and mathematical modelling to investigate the network of immune responses against single and co-infections with the respiratory bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica and the gastrointestinal helminth Trichostrongylus retortaeformis. Our goal was to identify representative mediators and functions that could capture the essence of the host immune response as a whole, and to assess how their relative contribution dynamically changed over time and between single and co-infected individuals. Network-based discrete dynamic models of single infections were built using current knowledge of bacterial and helminth immunology; the two single infection models were combined into a co-infection model that was then verified by our empirical findings. Simulations showed that a T helper cell mediated antibody and neutrophil response led to phagocytosis and clearance of B. bronchiseptica from the lungs. This was consistent in single and co-infection with no significant delay induced by the helminth. In contrast, T. retortaeformis intensity decreased faster when co-infected with the bacterium. Simulations suggested that the robust recruitment of neutrophils in the co-infection, added to the activation of IgG and eosinophil driven reduction of larvae, which also played an important role in single infection, contributed to this fast clearance. Perturbation analysis of the models, through the knockout of individual nodes (immune cells), identified the cells critical to parasite persistence and clearance both in single and co-infections. Our integrated approach captured the within-host immuno-dynamics of bacteria-helminth infection and

  2. Probing Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Immune Response in the Progression of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using Multiscale Network Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhichao; Yu, Haishan; Liao, Jie-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by progressive destruction of lung tissues and airway obstruction. COPD is currently the third leading cause of death worldwide and there is no curative treatment available so far. Cigarette smoke (CS) is the major risk factor for COPD. Yet, only a relatively small percentage of smokers develop the disease, showing that disease susceptibility varies significantly among smokers. As smoking cessation can prevent the disease in some smokers, quitting smoking cannot halt the progression of COPD in others. Despite extensive research efforts, cellular and molecular mechanisms of COPD remain elusive. In particular, the disease susceptibility and smoking cessation effects are poorly understood. To address these issues in this work, we develop a multiscale network model that consists of nodes, which represent molecular mediators, immune cells and lung tissues, and edges describing the interactions between the nodes. Our model study identifies several positive feedback loops and network elements playing a determinant role in the CS-induced immune response and COPD progression. The results are in agreement with clinic and laboratory measurements, offering novel insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of COPD. The study in this work also provides a rationale for targeted therapy and personalized medicine for the disease in future. PMID:27669518

  3. Probing Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Immune Response in the Progression of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using Multiscale Network Modeling.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhichao; Yu, Haishan; Liao, Jie-Lou

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by progressive destruction of lung tissues and airway obstruction. COPD is currently the third leading cause of death worldwide and there is no curative treatment available so far. Cigarette smoke (CS) is the major risk factor for COPD. Yet, only a relatively small percentage of smokers develop the disease, showing that disease susceptibility varies significantly among smokers. As smoking cessation can prevent the disease in some smokers, quitting smoking cannot halt the progression of COPD in others. Despite extensive research efforts, cellular and molecular mechanisms of COPD remain elusive. In particular, the disease susceptibility and smoking cessation effects are poorly understood. To address these issues in this work, we develop a multiscale network model that consists of nodes, which represent molecular mediators, immune cells and lung tissues, and edges describing the interactions between the nodes. Our model study identifies several positive feedback loops and network elements playing a determinant role in the CS-induced immune response and COPD progression. The results are in agreement with clinic and laboratory measurements, offering novel insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of COPD. The study in this work also provides a rationale for targeted therapy and personalized medicine for the disease in future.

  4. Genetic Immunization with CDR3-Based Fusion Vaccine Confers Protection and Long-Term Tumor-Free Survival in a Mouse Model of Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Iurescia, Sandra; Fioretti, Daniela; Pierimarchi, Pasquale; Signori, Emanuela; Zonfrillo, Manuela; Tonon, Giancarlo; Fazio, Vito M.; Rinaldi, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccination against idiotype is a promising strategy for immunotherapy of B-cell malignancies. We have previously shown that CDR3-based DNA immunization can induce immune response against lymphoma and explored this strategy to provide protection in a murine B-cell lymphoma model. Here we performed vaccination employing as immunogen a naked DNA fusion product. The DNA vaccine was generated following fusion of a sequence derived from tetanus toxin fragment C to the VHCDR3109−116 epitope. Induction of tumor-specific immunity as well as ability to inhibit growth of the aggressive 38C13 lymphoma and to prolong survival of vaccinated mice has been tested. We determined that DNA fusion vaccine induced immune response, elicited a strong protective antitumor immunity, and ensured almost complete long-term tumor-free survival of vaccinated mice. Our results show that CDR3-based DNA fusion vaccines hold promise for vaccination against lymphoma. PMID:20445751

  5. Quantitative Trait Locus Based Virulence Determinant Mapping of the HSV-1 Genome in Murine Ocular Infection: Genes Involved in Viral Regulatory and Innate Immune Networks Contribute to Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Inna; Craven, Mark; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 causes mucocutaneous lesions, and is the leading cause of infectious blindness in the United States. Animal studies have shown that the severity of HSV-1 ocular disease is influenced by three main factors; innate immunity, host immune response and viral strain. We previously showed that mixed infection with two avirulent HSV-1 strains (OD4 and CJ994) resulted in recombinants that exhibit a range of disease phenotypes from severe to avirulent, suggesting epistatic interactions were involved. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of HSV-1 ocular virulence determinants and to identify virulence associated SNPs. Blepharitis and stromal keratitis quantitative scores were characterized for 40 OD4:CJ994 recombinants. Viral titers in the eye were also measured. Virulence quantitative trait locus mapping (vQTLmap) was performed using the Lasso, Random Forest, and Ridge regression methods to identify significant phenotypically meaningful regions for each ocular disease parameter. The most predictive Ridge regression model identified several phenotypically meaningful SNPs for blepharitis and stromal keratitis. Notably, phenotypically meaningful nonsynonymous variations were detected in the UL24, UL29 (ICP8), UL41 (VHS), UL53 (gK), UL54 (ICP27), UL56, ICP4, US1 (ICP22), US3 and gG genes. Network analysis revealed that many of these variations were in HSV-1 regulatory networks and viral genes that affect innate immunity. Several genes previously implicated in virulence were identified, validating this approach, while other genes were novel. Several novel polymorphisms were also identified in these genes. This approach provides a framework that will be useful for identifying virulence genes in other pathogenic viruses, as well as epistatic effects that affect HSV-1 ocular virulence. PMID:26962864

  6. CD4+ T cell-dependent and CD4+ T cell-independent cytokine-chemokine network changes in the immune responses of HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kelly B; Szeto, Gregory L; Alter, Galit; Irvine, Darrell J; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2015-10-20

    A vital defect in the immune systems of HIV-infected individuals is the loss of CD4(+) T cells, resulting in impaired immune responses. We hypothesized that there were CD4(+) T cell-dependent and CD4(+) T cell-independent alterations in the immune responses of HIV-1(+) individuals. To test this, we analyzed the secretion of cytokines and chemokines from stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) populations from HIV(+) donors, healthy donors, and healthy donors with CD4(+) T cells experimentally depleted. Multivariate analyses of 16 cytokines and chemokines at 6 and 72 hours after three stimuli (antibody-coated beads to stimulate T cells and R848 or lipopolysaccharide to stimulate innate immune cells) enabled integrative analysis of secreted profiles. Two major effects in HIV(+) PBMCs were not reproduced upon depletion of CD4(+) T cells in healthy PBMCs: (i) HIV(+) PBMCs maintained T cell-associated secreted profiles after T cell stimulation; (ii) HIV(+) PBMCs showed impaired interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion early after innate stimulation. These changes arose from hyperactive T cells and debilitated natural killer (NK) cell, respectively. Modeling and experiments showed that early IFN-γ secretion predicted later differences in secreted profiles in vitro. This effect was recapitulated in healthy PBMCs by blocking the IFN-γ receptor. Thus, we identified a critical deficiency in NK cell responses of HIV-infected individuals, independent of CD4(+) T cell depletion, which directs secreted profiles. Our findings illustrate a broad approach for identifying key disease-associated nodes in a multicellular, multivariate signaling network. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Selective Immunosuppression by Anti-Idiotypic Antibody in the Non-Human Primate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-15

    quite functional and data concerning the lymphocyte properties of M. speciosa were being defined. A care- ful kinetic examination of the cellular immune...is cyclosporin A (CS-A), an antifungal , cyclic ness. In one experiment using lymphocytes from M. speciosa, endeapeptide with a unique amino acid (4... alo "I-0lm different rI C VL LOS P0R I N A c~es. 08LEAPMAN ET AL. DIFFERENTio CONTROL. CULTURES CVCi.OSPOtt A IT I 9-1 i"rO*OCORT5ISOIIii primed 󈧄 0:55

  8. Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System A A A ... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  9. A molecular and structural analysis of the VH and VK regions of monoclonal antibodies bearing the A48 regulatory idiotype.

    PubMed

    Victor-Kobrin, C; Barak, Z T; Bonilla, F A; Kobrin, B; Sanz, I; French, D; Rothe, J; Bona, C

    1990-01-15

    The results presented in this paper explore the molecular basis for expression of the A48 regulatory Id (RI). A48 RI+ mAb derived from idiotypically manipulated mice molecularly resembled the A48 and UPC 10 prototypes of this system by utilizing a VHX24-Vk10 combination. Id expression by these antibodies was not restricted by a particular D region sequence, JH, or JK segment, but quantitative differences in Id expression were associated with utilization of different members of the VK10 germ-line gene families. The VL sequences of these A48 RI+ mAb has identified amino acid residues lying in four different idiotope-determining regions which may contribute to the structural correlate of this Id. A comparative sequence analysis of the VH regions of these VHX24 utilizing A48 RI+ mAb with several A48 RI+ mAb utilizing VHJ558 or VH7183 VH genes as well as a hybrid transfectoma antibody derived from two A48 RI-, VHJ558 utilizing hybridomas, all suggested that four nonconsecutive positions which lie outside the idiotope-determining regions may contribute structural elements toward expression of this Id. The VH and VL regions of the A48RI+, VHX24-Vk 10+ mAb showed low to moderate levels of somatic mutation which showed different patterns of distribution between the complementary determining region (CDR) and framework regions in the H and L chains. Although the VK sequences contained 50% of the replacement mutations in the CDR, with a replacement/silent mutation ratio of 10, the CDR of the VH sequences contained only 31% of the replacement mutations with a replacement/silent mutation ratio of 0.69.

  10. Increased activation of lymphocytes infiltrating primary colorectal cancers following immunisation with the anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody 105AD7.

    PubMed

    Maxwell-Armstrong, C A; Durrant, L G; Robins, R A; Galvin, A M; Scholefield, J H; Hardcastle, J D

    1999-10-01

    The anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody 105AD7 mimics the tumour associated antigen 791Tgp72, expressed on 70-80% of colorectal cancers. Phase I studies have shown that the vaccine is non-toxic, and a number of patients have been immunised prior to resection of their primary tumours. To assess lymphocyte activation at the tumour site by measuring expression of the alpha subunit of the interleukin 2 receptor (CD25). Nineteen patients with primary colorectal cancer were immunised with varying doses of 105AD7 prior to resection of their primary tumours. Samples of normal bowel and tumour edge/centre from 16 patients were available for immunohistochemical staining with a monoclonal antibody against CD25. Samples from a matched control group were also stained. Fresh tumours from 14 immunised patients and 31 unimmunised control patients were disaggregated, and the lymphocytes obtained labelled for CD25. Samples were analysed blindly by flow cytometry. Median infiltration of lymphocytes expressing CD25, measured immunohistochemically, was higher in trial patients, as was the ratio of tumour to normal bowel infiltration. Flow cytometric analysis of fresh tumour from immunised patients showed a significantly higher percentage of lymphocytes expressing CD25 tumour infiltrating lymphocytes than their matched and unmatched controls. The alpha subunit of the interleukin 2 receptor is increased on tumour infiltrating lymphocytes, in patients immunised with the colorectal cancer vaccine 105AD7. This suggests a population of activated lymphocytes capable of targeting 791Tgp72 expressing tumour cells, such as circulating micrometastases. 105AD7 may have a role as adjuvant therapy in early stage disease.

  11. Indications of neutralising anti-idiotypic antibodies and selective proteolytic fragmentation in polyclonal anti-D IgG preparations.

    PubMed

    Gronski, P; Haas, T; Kanzy, E J; Lang, W; Röder, J; Ruhwedel, K; Simshäuser, K

    2003-09-01

    Proteolytic fragmentation is the only suggested cause of potency losses during storage of liquid human polyclonal anti-D Ig. Besides the effect of fragmentation, we have investigated the potential contribution of neutralising anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Ids). Potency changes during storage and/or upon pH reduction in anti-D IgG batches with or without addition of plasminogen and urokinase were quantitatively analysed by the autoanalyser (AA) method or by a special procedure of flow cytometry (FC). Moreover, simultaneous changes of the molecular size distribution pattern have been determined by size exclusion chromatography. In contrast to the AA procedure, the particular FC methodology was found to be almost insensitive to proteolysis comprising up to 30% of total IgG. Data interpretation was based on the assumption that both assays cannot detect Ids with neutralised paratopes. In the absence of detectable neutralisation (functional absence of anti-Ids), it could be demonstrated that the anti-D IgG subpopulation is more sensitive to fragmentation by endogenous protease as compared to the unrelated bulk. However, both methods detected batch- and assay-dependently variable potency losses during storage. Moreover, the increase of potency induced by pH reduction correlated with the increase of monomeric IgG, essentially on the expense of dimers. This finding was interpreted to indirectly indicate the neutralising action of anti-Ids known to be the major driving force of dimer formation in polyclonal IgG. A more or less pronounced pH-dependent potency increase was also detectable in three arbitrarily selected batches of two other manufacturers. The data allows to assume that anti-Id-mediated neutralisation can significantly contribute to losses of anti-D potency. In addition, it turned out that anti-D plasma itself can be the source of anti-Ids.

  12. Onchocerca volvulus. Monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody as antigen signal for the microfilaricidal cytotoxicity of diethylcarbamazine-treated platelets.

    PubMed

    Cesbron, J Y; Hayasaki, M; Joseph, M; Lutsch, C; Grzych, J M; Capron, A

    1988-07-01

    Over the past 35 yr, diethylcarbamazine (DEC) has been the most widely used agent for the treatment of filarial diseases, particularly in onchocerciasis. The microfilaricidal action of DEC has been recently shown to be mediated by blood platelets with the additional triggering of a filarial excretory Ag (FEA). This FEA could be detected by using mAb in the serum of infected patients. By using one mAb (IA2(23] directed against Onchocerca volvulus and recognizing circulating Ag (Ab1), we purified by affinity chromatography the target molecule of IA2(23) (an O. volvulus glycoprotein recognized by IA2(23) mAb). This compound had a dose-dependent effect on the cytotoxic action of DEC-treated platelets. We subsequently produced an anti-idiotype mAb to Ab1 (Ab2), and considered the possibility of replacing the O. volvulus glycoprotein recognized by IA2(23) mAb by Ab2. Ab2 was selected according to its ability to inhibit the binding of radioiodinated Ab1 to the filarial target Ag. It induced the production of anti-O. volvulus antibodies (Ab3) in rats. At a constant concentration of DEC platelets, the addition of increasing amounts of Ab2 led to a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect against parasite larvae. Experiments performed with Ab2 on detergent solubilized surface proteins of platelets identified four bands of Mr 18, 26, 43.5, and 100 kDa, supporting the idea of the presence of binding sites on the platelets for a FEA required for the microfilaricidal cytotoxicity of DEC-treated platelets.

  13. Gene network analysis shows immune-signaling and ERK1/2 as novel genetic markers for multiple addiction phenotypes: alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gibby, Cielito C; Yuan, Christine; Wang, Jian; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Shete, Sanjay

    2015-06-05

    Addictions to alcohol and tobacco, known risk factors for cancer, are complex heritable disorders. Addictive behaviors have a bidirectional relationship with pain. We hypothesize that the associations between alcohol, smoking, and opioid addiction observed in cancer patients have a genetic basis. Therefore, using bioinformatics tools, we explored the underlying genetic basis and identified new candidate genes and common biological pathways for smoking, alcohol, and opioid addiction. Literature search showed 56 genes associated with alcohol, smoking and opioid addiction. Using Core Analysis function in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software, we found that ERK1/2 was strongly interconnected across all three addiction networks. Genes involved in immune signaling pathways were shown across all three networks. Connect function from IPA My Pathway toolbox showed that DRD2 is the gene common to both the list of genetic variations associated with all three addiction phenotypes and the components of the brain neuronal signaling network involved in substance addiction. The top canonical pathways associated with the 56 genes were: 1) calcium signaling, 2) GPCR signaling, 3) cAMP-mediated signaling, 4) GABA receptor signaling, and 5) G-alpha i signaling. Cancer patients are often prescribed opioids for cancer pain thus increasing their risk for opioid abuse and addiction. Our findings provide candidate genes and biological pathways underlying addiction phenotypes, which may be future targets for treatment of addiction. Further study of the variations of the candidate genes could allow physicians to make more informed decisions when treating cancer pain with opioid analgesics.

  14. Immune modulation by a cellular network of mesenchymal stem cells and breast cancer cell subsets: Implication for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Eltoukhy, Hussam S; Sinha, Garima; Moore, Caitlyn A; Sandiford, Oleta A; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2017-08-01

    The immune modulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are mostly controlled by the particular microenvironment. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which can initiate a clinical tumor, have been the subject of intense research. This review article discusses investigative studies of the roles of MSCs on cancer biology including on CSCs, and the potential as drug delivery to tumors. An understanding of how MSCs behave in the tumor microenvironment to facilitate the survival of tumor cells would be crucial to identify drug targets. More importantly, since CSCs survive for decades in dormancy for later resurgence, studies are presented to show how MSCs could be involved in maintaining dormancy. Although the mechanism by which CSCs survive is complex, this article focus on the cellular involvement of MSCs with regard to immune responses. We discuss the immunomodulatory mechanisms of MSC-CSC interaction in the context of therapeutic outcomes in oncology. We also discuss immunotherapy as a potential to circumventing this immune modulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development and Characterization of a Novel Anti-idiotypic Monoclonal Antibody to Growth Hormone, Which Can Mimic Physiological Functions of Growth Hormone in Primary Porcine Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hai-Nan; Jiang, Hai-Long; Li, Wei; Wu, Tian-Cheng; Hong, Pan; Li, Yu Meng; Zhang, Hui; Cui, Huan-Zhong; Zheng, Xin

    2015-04-01

    B-32 is one of a panel of monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies to growth hormone (GH) that we developed. To characterize and identify its potential role as a novel growth hormone receptor (GHR) agonist, we determined that B-32 behaved as a typical Ab2β based on a series of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay assays. The results of fluorescence-activated cell sorting, indirect immunofluorescence and competitive receptor binding assays demonstrated that B-32 specifically binds to the GHR expressed on target cells. Next, we examined the resulting signal transduction pathways triggered by this antibody in primary porcine hepatocytes. We found that B-32 can activate the GHR and Janus kinase (2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK2/STAT5) signalling pathways. The phosphorylation kinetics of JAK2/STAT5 induced by either GH or B-32 were analysed in dose-response and time course experiments. In addition, B32 could also stimulate porcine hepatocytes to secrete insulin-like growth factors-1. Our work indicates that a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody to GH (B-32) can serve as a GHR agonist or GH mimic and has application potential in domestic animal (pig) production.

  16. Molecular characteristics of antibodies bearing an anti-DNA-associated idiotype [published erratum appears in J Exp Med 1992 Jul 1;176(1):309

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies are the hallmark of the disease systemic lupus erythematosus and are believed to contribute to pathogenesis. While a large number of anti-DNA antibodies from mice with lupus-like syndromes have been characterized and their variable region genes sequenced, few human anti-DNA antibodies have been reported. We describe here the variable region gene sequences of eight antibodies produced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cells that bear the 3I idiotype, an idiotype expressed on anti-DNA antibodies and present in high titer in patients with systemic lupus. The comparison of these antibodies to the light chains of 3I+ myeloma proteins and serum antibodies reveals that EBV transformation yields B cells producing antibodies representative of the expressed antibody repertoire. The analysis of nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these antibodies suggests the first complementarity determining region of the light chain may be important in DNA binding and that paradigms previously generated to account for DNA binding require modification. The understanding of the molecular genetics of the anti-DNA response requires a more complete description of the immunoglobulin germ line repertoire, but data reported here suggest that somatic diversification is a characteristic of the anti-DNA response. PMID:1660528

  17. Interference by human anti-mouse antibodies in CA 125 assay after immunoscintigraphy: Anti-idiotypic antibodies not neutralized by mouse IgG but removed by chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Turpeinen, U.; Lehtovirta, P.; Alfthan, H.; Stenman, U.H. )

    1990-07-01

    Falsely increased concentrations of the ovarian carcinoma-associated antigen, CA 125, were measured by a monoclonal antibody (MAb)-based double determinant immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in patients who developed antibodies to mouse immunoglobulins (IgGs) after receiving injections of the same MAb as is used in the CA 125 IRMA. Addition of undiluted mouse serum or purified mouse IgG to the assay mixture failed to eliminate the falsely increased CA 125 concentrations in most of the samples, owing to the presence of anti-idiotype antibody. Because of their anti-idiotypic nature, the human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAS) had only little effect on other immunometric assays, and this effect could be completely eliminated by addition of mouse IgG. To eliminate the effect of HAMA on the CA 125 assay, we studied the ability of various chromatographic methods to separate the interfering HAMA from CA 125. For measuring HAMA in serum and chromatographic fractions we developed a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Adequate separation of CA 125 and HAMA was achieved by affinity chromatography of patients' sera with solid-phase Protein A, Protein G, cation-exchange chromatography on Mono S, and gel filtration on Superose 6. These results demonstrate that the interference can effectively be removed by rather simple chromatographic procedures.

  18. Immune responses to polyclonal T-cell vaccination in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Seledtsova, Galina V; Ivanova, Irina P; Shishkov, Alexey A; Seledtsov, Victor I

    2016-11-01

    The overall objective of disease management in autoimmune diseases is to suppress chronic inflammation and prevent organ damage. Therapies often revolve around five drug classes: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), anti-malarials, steroids, immunosuppressants, and bio-therapies. However, none of these is a 'cure' and each displays a potential for adverse events. In particular, while all of them suppress harmful autoimmune responses, they also impact on useful protective immune responses. T-Cell receptor (TCR) immunogenicity provides a rationale for T-cell vaccinations to induce anti-idiotypic immune responses with the purpose of down-regulating functionality of idiotype-bearing self-reactive T-cells. To explore this, in this study, 39 patients with progressive (chronic) multiple sclerosis (MS) were multiply immunized with autological polyclonal T-cell vaccines (TCVs). None of the TCV-treated patients experienced any significant side-effects during the entire follow-up period (2 years). T-Cell vaccination had no significant effects on T-cell sub-population contents in the blood of MS patients after 2 years of immunotherapy initiation. However, a substantial reduction in the frequency of CD4(+ )and CD8(+ )memory T-cells able to produce interferon (IFN)-γ following activation were noted in the blood of TCV-treated patients. Moreover, significant and sustained reduction in plasma IFNγ levels and concomitant increases in interleukin (IL)-4 levels were documented in these samples. The TCV-treated subjects, however, exhibited no significant changes in plasma IL-17 and IL-18. More importantly was a significant decline in proliferative T-cell responses to myelin antigens in the TCV-treated patients, indicating attenuation of myelin-specific T-cell activity. Collectively, the results suggest that polyclonal T-cell vaccination is safe to use, able to induce measurable, long-lasting, anti-inflammatory immune effects in patients with advanced MS.

  19. A possible new bridge between innate and adaptive immunity: Are the anti-mitochondrial citrate synthase autoantibodies components of the natural antibody network?

    PubMed

    Czömpöly, Tamás; Olasz, Katalin; Simon, Diána; Nyárády, Zoltán; Pálinkás, László; Czirják, László; Berki, Tímea; Németh, Péter

    2006-04-01

    Natural antibody (nAb) producing B-1 B cells are considered an intermediate stage of evolution between innate and adaptive immunity. nAbs are immunoglobulins that are produced without antigen priming. nAbs can recognize foreign targets and may serve in the first line of immune defense during an infection. Natural autoantibodies (nAAbs) present in the serum of both healthy humans and patients suffering from systemic autoimmune diseases recognize a set of evolutionarily conserved self-structures. Because of their endosymbiotic evolutionary origin, proteins compartmentalized into mitochondria represent an interesting transition from prokaryotic foreign (non-self) to essential (self) molecules. We investigated the possible overlap in recognized epitopes of innate and self-reactive nAbs and surveyed changes in physiological autoreactivity under pathological autoimmune conditions. Epitope mapping analysis of a mitochondrial inner membrane enzyme, citrate synthase (CS) (EC 2.3.3.1) by synthetic overlapping peptides and phage display libraries using sera from healthy individuals and from patients having systemic autoimmune disease revealed CS recognizing nAAbs with IgM isotype. We analyzed cross reactive epitopes on human CS, bacterial CS, and various standard autoantigens. The anti-CS nAAbs by participating in the nAb network, could function in innate defense mechanisms and at the same time recognize a target antigen (nucleosome) in a systemic autoimmune disease. Thus, at the level of recognized epitopes there is a possible new link between the innate like component and the adaptive-autoimmune arm of the humoral immune system.

  20. Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.; Petitto, Karen R.; McLaughlin, Don

    2001-01-01

    Describes the connectivity features and options of modern campus communication and information system networks, including signal transmission (wire-based and wireless), signal switching, convergence of networks, and network assessment variables, to enable campus leaders to make sound future-oriented decisions. (EV)

  1. Cell-type deconvolution with immune pathways identifies gene networks of host defense and immunopathology in leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Inkeles, Megan S.; Teles, Rosane M.B.; Pouldar, Delila; Andrade, Priscila R.; Madigan, Cressida A.; Ambrose, Mike; Sarno, Euzenir N.; Rea, Thomas H.; Ochoa, Maria T.; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa; Swindell, William R.; Ottenhoff, Tom H.M.; Geluk, Annemieke; Bloom, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptome profiles derived from the site of human disease have led to the identification of genes that contribute to pathogenesis, yet the complex mixture of cell types in these lesions has been an obstacle for defining specific mechanisms. Leprosy provides an outstanding model to study host defense and pathogenesis in a human infectious disease, given its clinical spectrum, which interrelates with the host immunologic and pathologic responses. Here, we investigated gene expression profiles derived from skin lesions for each clinical subtype of leprosy, analyzing gene coexpression modules by cell-type deconvolution. In lesions from tuberculoid leprosy patients, those with the self-limited form of the disease, dendritic cells were linked with MMP12 as part of a tissue remodeling network that contributes to granuloma formation. In lesions from lepromatous leprosy patients, those with disseminated disease, macrophages were linked with a gene network that programs phagocytosis. In erythema nodosum leprosum, neutrophil and endothelial cell gene networks were identified as part of the vasculitis that results in tissue injury. The present integrated computational approach provides a systems approach toward identifying cell-defined functional networks that contribute to host defense and immunopathology at the site of human infectious disease. PMID:27699251

  2. Burden of vaccine-preventable pneumococcal disease in hospitalized adults: A Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN) Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS) network study.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Jason J; ElSherif, May; Ye, Lingyun; MacKinnon-Cameron, Donna; Li, Li; Ambrose, Ardith; Hatchette, Todd F; Lang, Amanda L; Gillis, Hayley; Martin, Irene; Andrew, Melissa K; Boivin, Guy; Bowie, William; Green, Karen; Johnstone, Jennie; Loeb, Mark; McCarthy, Anne; McGeer, Allison; Moraca, Sanela; Semret, Makeda; Stiver, Grant; Trottier, Sylvie; Valiquette, Louis; Webster, Duncan; McNeil, Shelly A

    2017-06-22

    Pneumococcal community acquired pneumonia (CAPSpn) and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although childhood immunization programs have reduced the overall burden of pneumococcal disease, there is insufficient data in Canada to inform immunization policy in immunocompetent adults. This study aimed to describe clinical outcomes of pneumococcal disease in hospitalized Canadian adults, and determine the proportion of cases caused by vaccine-preventable serotypes. Active surveillance for CAPSpn and IPD in hospitalized adults was performed in hospitals across five Canadian provinces from December 2010 to 2013. CAPSpn were identified using sputum culture, blood culture, a commercial pan-pneumococcal urine antigen detection (UAD), or a serotype-specific UAD. The serotype distribution was characterized using Quellung reaction, and PCR-based serotyping on cultured isolates, or using a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotype-specific UAD assay. In total, 4769 all-cause CAP cases and 81 cases of IPD (non-CAP) were identified. Of the 4769 all-cause CAP cases, a laboratory test for S. pneumoniae was performed in 3851, identifying 14.3% as CAPSpn. Of CAP cases among whom all four diagnostic test were performed, S. pneumoniae was identified in 23.2% (144/621). CAPSpn cases increased with age and the disease burden of illness was evident in terms of requirement for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and 30-day mortality. Of serotypeable CAPSpn or IPD results, predominance for serotypes 3, 7F, 19A, and 22F was observed. The proportion of hospitalized CAP cases caused by a PCV13-type S. pneumoniae ranged between 7.0% and 14.8% among cases with at least one test for S. pneumoniae performed or in whom all four diagnostic tests were performed, respectively. Overall, vaccine-preventable pneumococcal CAP and IPD were shown to be significant causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized

  3. Innate immunity interactome dynamics.

    PubMed

    Elzawahry, Asmaa; Patil, Ashwini; Kumagai, Yutaro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Nakai, Kenta

    2014-01-06

    Innate immune response involves protein-protein interactions, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-protein interactions and signaling cascades. So far, thousands of protein-protein interactions have been curated as a static interaction map. However, protein-protein interactions involved in innate immune response are dynamic. We recorded the dynamics in the interactome during innate immune response by combining gene expression data of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated dendritic cells with protein-protein interactions data. We identified the differences in interactome during innate immune response by constructing differential networks and identifying protein modules, which were up-/down-regulated at each stage during the innate immune response. For each protein complex, we identified enriched biological processes and pathways. In addition, we identified core interactions that are conserved throughout the innate immune response and their enriched gene ontology terms and pathways. We defined two novel measures to assess the differences between network maps at different time points. We found that the protein interaction network at 1 hour after LPS stimulation has the highest interactions protein ratio, which indicates a role for proteins with large number of interactions in innate immune response. A pairwise differential matrix allows for the global visualization of the differences between different networks. We investigated the toll-like receptor subnetwork and found that S100A8 is down-regulated in dendritic cells after LPS stimulation. Identified protein complexes have a crucial role not only in innate immunity, but also in circadian rhythms, pathways involved in cancer, and p53 pathways. The study confirmed previous work that reported a strong correlation between cancer and immunity.

  4. Identification and assembly of V genes as idiotype-specific DNA fusion vaccines in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Sahota, Surinder S; Townsend, Mark; Stevenson, Freda K

    2005-01-01

    Tumor-specific markers are important in identifying and tracking malignant cells. In this regard, functionally rearranged immunoglobulin variable (V) region genes in B-cell tumors fulfill and extend these criteria. V genes provide signature motifs in tumor cells and can delineate critical features of the clonal history of the cell of origin. They also define a tumor-specific antigen, which can be targeted for immunotherapy. Our focus has been on using novel DNA fusion vaccines to induce antitumor immunity. Here, we describe in detail the methods for identifying tumor-derived V genes at the nucleotide level in the malignant plasma cells of multiple myeloma. We further present the methodology for assembly of tumor V genes as single-chain variable region fragments (scFv), fused in frame with an immunopotentiating nontoxic bacterial sequence, Fragment C (FrC) of tetanus toxin. These scFv.FrC DNA vaccines provide protection in myeloma models and are currently in clinical trials. The vaccines are patient specific and can be rapidly assembled for clinical use.

  5. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria.

  6. 1H NMR-based profiling reveals differential immune-metabolic networks during influenza virus infection in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Milner, J Justin; Wang, Jue; Sheridan, Patricia A; Ebbels, Tim; Beck, Melinda A; Saric, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Obese individuals are at greater risk for death from influenza virus infection. Paralleling human evidence, obese mice are also more susceptible to influenza infection mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms driving greater influenza severity in the obese remain unclear. Metabolic profiling has been utilized in infectious disease models to enhance prognostic or diagnostic methods, and to gain insight into disease pathogenesis by providing a more global picture of dynamic infection responses. Herein, metabolic profiling was used to develop a deeper understanding of the complex processes contributing to impaired influenza protection in obese mice and to facilitate generation of new explanatory hypotheses. Diet-induced obese and lean mice were infected with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiling of urine, feces, lung, liver, mesenteric white adipose tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum revealed distinct metabolic signatures in infected obese mice, including perturbations in nucleotide, vitamin, ketone body, amino acid, carbohydrate, choline and lipid metabolic pathways. Further, metabolic data was integrated with immune analyses to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of potential immune-metabolic interactions. Of interest, uncovered metabolic signatures in urine and feces allowed for discrimination of infection status in both lean and obese mice at an early influenza time point, which holds prognostic and diagnostic implications for this methodology. These results confirm that obesity causes distinct metabolic perturbations during influenza infection and provide a basis for generation of new hypotheses and use of this methodology in detection of putative biomarkers and metabolic patterns to predict influenza infection outcome.

  7. Platelet receptors for the Streptococcus sanguis adhesin and aggregation-associated antigens are distinguished by anti-idiotypical monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, K; Wen, D Y; Ouyang, T; Rao, A T; Herzberg, M C

    1995-01-01

    Platelets aggregate in response to an adhesin and the platelet aggregation-associated protein (PAAP) expressed on the cell surfaces of certain strains of Streptococcus sanguis. We sought to identify the corresponding PAAP receptor and accessory adhesin binding sites on platelets. Since the adhesion(s) of S. sanguis for platelets has not been characterized, an anti-idiotype (anti-id) murine monoclonal antibody (MAb2) strategy was developed. First, MAb1s that distinguished the adhesin and PAAP antigens on the surface of S. sanguis I 133-79 were selected. Fab fragments of MAb1.2 (immunoglobulin G2b [IgG2b]; 70 pmol) reacted with 5 x 10(7) cells of S. sanguis to completely inhibit the aggregation of human platelets in plasma. Under similar conditions, MAb1.1 (IgG1) inhibited the adhesion of S. sanguis cells to platelets by a maximum of 34%, with a comparatively small effect on platelet aggregation. Together, these two MAb1s inhibited S. sanguis-platelet adhesion by 63%. In Western immunoblots, both MAb1s reacted with S. sanguis 133-79 87- and 150-kDa surface proteins and MAb1.2 also reacted with purified type I collagen. The hybridomas producing MAb1.1 and MAb1.2 were then injected into BALB/c mice. Enlarged spleens were harvested, and a panel of MAb2 hybridomas was prepared. To identify anti-ids against the specific MAb1s, the MAb2 panel was screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for reaction with rabbit polyclonal IgG antibodies against the 87- and 150-kDa antigens. The reactions between the specific rabbit antibodies and anti-ids were inhibited by the 87- and 150-kDa antigens. When preincubated with platelets, MAb2.1 (counterpart of MAb1.1) inhibited adhesion to platelets maximally by 46% and MAb2.2 (anti-MAb1.2) inhibited adhesion to platelets maximally by 35%. Together, both MAb2s inhibited the adhesion of S. sanguis to platelets by 81%. MAb2.2 also inhibited induction of platelet aggregation. MAb2.2 immunoprecipitated a biotinylated platelet membrane

  8. Immune Thrombocytopenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Immune Thrombocytopenia? Immune thrombocytopenia (THROM-bo-si-toe-PE-ne- ... from one person to another. Types of Immune Thrombocytopenia The two types of ITP are acute (temporary ...

  9. Diversity in Compartmental Dynamics of Gene Regulatory Networks: The Immune Response in Primary Influenza A Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hilchey, Shannon P.; Thakar, Juilee; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Welle, Stephen L.; Henn, Alicia D.; Wu, Hulin; Zand, Martin S.

    2015-01-01

    Current approaches to study transcriptional profiles post influenza infection typically rely on tissue sampling from one or two sites at a few time points, such as spleen and lung in murine models. In this study, we infected female C57/BL6 mice intranasally with mouse-adapted H3N2/Hong Kong/X31 avian influenza A virus, and then analyzed the gene expression profiles in four different compartments (blood, lung, mediastinal lymph nodes, and spleen) over 11 consecutive days post infection. These data were analyzed by an advanced statistical procedure based on ordinary differential equation (ODE) modeling. Vastly different lists of significant genes were identified by the same statistical procedure in each compartment. Only 11 of them are significant in all four compartments. We classified significant genes in each compartment into co-expressed modules based on temporal expression patterns. We then performed functional enrichment analysis on these co-expression modules and identified significant pathway and functional motifs. Finally, we used an ODE based model to reconstruct gene regulatory network (GRN) for each compartment and studied their network properties. PMID:26413862

  10. Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Betty

    Networking is an information giving and receiving system, a support system, and a means whereby women can get ahead in careers--either in new jobs or in current positions. Networking information can create many opportunities: women can talk about how other women handle situations and tasks, and previously established contacts can be used in…

  11. Dynamic studies of lymphocytes labelled with indium-111 during and after treatment with monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody in advanced B cell lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, E M; Hekman, A; Hardeman, M R; Hoefnagel, C A

    1984-01-01

    The migration pattern of lymphocytes labelled with indium-111 was followed in a patient with B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with a murine monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody. During the early phase of continuous infusion of antibody rapid fluxes of labelled lymphocytes into and out of the blood were seen. Dynamic scanning showed immediate uptake in the lungs; thereafter activity decreased in the lungs and increased in the liver. Studies of labelled and unlabelled cells in the circulation showed that treatment resulted in the removal of lymphocytes from the blood which was repopulated from an extravascular compartment. Tumour cells were shown to be cleared from the blood by the reticuloendothelial system in the liver. Indium-111 should be used circumspectly because it may cause chromosomal damage in labelled cells, but it is clearly useful as a radiolabel for following the migration pathways of lymphocytes in vivo. Images FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 PMID:6435791

  12. Differential idiotype utilization for the in vivo type 14 capsular polysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin responses to intact Streptococcus pneumoniae versus a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Colino, Jesus; Duke, Leah; Arjunaraja, Swadhinya; Chen, Quanyi; Liu, Leyu; Lucas, Alexander H.; Snapper, Clifford M.

    2012-01-01

    Murine IgG responses specific for the capsular polysaccharide (PPS14) of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 (Pn14) induced in response to intact Pn14 or a PPS14-protein conjugate are both dependent on CD4+ T cell help, but appear to utilize marginal zone versus follicular B cells, respectively. Here we identify an idiotype (44.1-Id) that dominates the PPS14-specific IgG, but not IgM, responses to intact Pn14, isolated PPS14 and Group B Streptococcus (strain COH1-11) expressing capsular polysaccharide structurally identical to PPS14. The 44.1-Id is however not expressed in the repertoire of natural PPS14-specific antibodies. In distinct contrast, PPS14-specific IgG responses to a soluble PPS14-protein conjugate exhibits minimal usage of the 44.1-Id, although significant 44.1-Id expression is elicited in response to conjugate attached to particles. The 44.1-Id elicited in response to intact Pn14 was expressed in similar proportions among all 4 IgG subclasses during both the primary and secondary responses. 44.1-Id usage was linked to the Igha, but not Ighb, allotype and was associated with induction of relatively high total PPS14-specific IgG responses. In contrast to PPS14-protein conjugate, avidity maturation of the 44.1-Id-dominant PPS14-specific IgG responses were limited, even during the highly boosted T cell-dependent PPS14-specific secondary responses to COH1-11. These results indicate that different antigenic forms of the same capsular polysaccharide can recruit distinct B cell clones expressing characteristic idiotypes under genetic control, and suggest that the 44.1-Id is derived from marginal zone B cells. PMID:22706079

  13. Lupus-specific kidney deposits of HSP90 are associated with altered IgG idiotypic interactions of anti-HSP90 autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    KENDEROV, A; MINKOVA, V; MIHAILOVA, D; GILTIAY, N; KYURKCHIEV, S; KEHAYOV, I; KAZATCHKINE, M; KAVERI, S; PASHOV, A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that autoantibodies to heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) are elevated in a significant proportion of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who are more likely to have renal disease and a low C3 level. Using samples from 24 patients, we searched for glomerular deposits of HSP90 in renal biopsy specimens from seven patients with lupus nephritis and 17 cases of glomerulonephritis from patients without SLE. Positive glomerular immunofluorescent staining for HSP90 was observed in six of seven cases of SLE and positive tubular staining in two of seven SLE patients. The staining for HSP90 was granular in nature and was located in subepithelial, subendothelial and mesangial areas. None of the non-SLE renal biopsies revealed positive staining for HSP90 deposition. Further we showed the presence of anti-HSP90 IgG autoantibodies in IgG from sera of patients with SLE as well as in normal human IgG (IVIg). In normal IgG this autoreactivity could be adsorbed almost completely on F(ab′)2 fragments from the same IgG preparation, coupled to Sepharose and could be inhibited by the effluent obtained after subjecting normal IgG to HSP90 affinity column. These findings indicate that anti-HSP90 natural autoantibodies are blocked by idiotypic interactions within the IgG repertoire. Unlike natural autoantibodies, anti-HSP90 IgG from SLE patients’ sera were only moderately adsorbed on F(ab′)2 fragments of normal IgG. These results demonstrate that immunopathogenesis of lupus nephritis is associated with HSP90 (as an autoantigen) and that the pathology is associated with altered idiotypic regulation of the anti-HSP90 IgG autoantibodies. PMID:12100037

  14. Humanized mouse G6 anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody has therapeutic potential against IGHV1-69 germline gene-based B-CLL

    PubMed Central

    Chang, De-Kuan; Kurella, Vinodh B.; Biswas, Subhabrata; Avnir, Yuval; Sui, Jianhua; Wang, Xueqian; Sun, Jiusong; Wang, Yanyan; Panditrao, Madhura; Peterson, Eric; Tallarico, Aimee; Fernandes, Stacey; Goodall, Margaret; Zhu, Quan; Brown, Jennifer R.; Jefferis, Roy; Marasco, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 10–20% of the cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia of B-cell phenotype (B-CLL), the IGHV1-69 germline is utilized as VH gene of the B cell receptor (BCR). Mouse G6 (MuG6) is an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody discovered in a screen against rheumatoid factors (RFs) that binds with high affinity to an idiotope expressed on the 51p1 alleles of IGHV1-69 germline gene encoded antibodies (G6-id+). The finding that unmutated IGHV1-69 encoded BCRs are frequently expressed on B-CLL cells provides an opportunity for anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody immunotherapy. In this study, we first showed that MuG6 can deplete B cells encoding IGHV1-69 BCRs using a novel humanized GTL mouse model. Next, we humanized MuG6 and demonstrated that the humanized antibodies (HuG6s), especially HuG6.3, displayed ∼2-fold higher binding affinity for G6-id+ antibody compared to the parental MuG6. Additional studies showed that HuG6.3 was able to kill G6-id+ BCR expressing cells and patient B-CLL cells through antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Finally, both MuG6 and HuG6.3 mediate in vivo depletion of B-CLL cells in NSG mice. These data suggest that HuG6.3 may provide a new precision medicine to selectively kill IGHV1-69-encoding G6-id+ B-CLL cells. PMID:26963739

  15. Humanized mouse G6 anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody has therapeutic potential against IGHV1-69 germline gene-based B-CLL.

    PubMed

    Chang, De-Kuan; Kurella, Vinodh B; Biswas, Subhabrata; Avnir, Yuval; Sui, Jianhua; Wang, Xueqian; Sun, Jiusong; Wang, Yanyan; Panditrao, Madhura; Peterson, Eric; Tallarico, Aimee; Fernandes, Stacey; Goodall, Margaret; Zhu, Quan; Brown, Jennifer R; Jefferis, Roy; Marasco, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    In 10-20% of the cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia of B-cell phenotype (B-CLL), the IGHV1-69 germline is utilized as VH gene of the B cell receptor (BCR). Mouse G6 (MuG6) is an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody discovered in a screen against rheumatoid factors (RFs) that binds with high affinity to an idiotope expressed on the 51p1 alleles of IGHV1-69 germline gene encoded antibodies (G6-id(+)). The finding that unmutated IGHV1-69 encoded BCRs are frequently expressed on B-CLL cells provides an opportunity for anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody immunotherapy. In this study, we first showed that MuG6 can deplete B cells encoding IGHV1-69 BCRs using a novel humanized GTL mouse model. Next, we humanized MuG6 and demonstrated that the humanized antibodies (HuG6s), especially HuG6.3, displayed ∼2-fold higher binding affinity for G6-id(+) antibody compared to the parental MuG6. Additional studies showed that HuG6.3 was able to kill G6-id(+) BCR expressing cells and patient B-CLL cells through antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Finally, both MuG6 and HuG6.3 mediate in vivo depletion of B-CLL cells in NSG mice. These data suggest that HuG6.3 may provide a new precision medicine to selectively kill IGHV1-69-encoding G6-id(+) B-CLL cells.

  16. Time-resolved fluorescence immunochromatographic assay developed using two idiotypic nanobodies for rapid, quantitative, and simultaneous detection of aflatoxin and zearalenone in maize and its products.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoqian; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Zhaowei; Zhang, Wen; Jiang, Jun

    2017-09-13

    Aflatoxins and zearalenone (ZEN) are highly common mycotoxins in maize and maize-based products. This study aimed to report a time-resolved fluorescence immunochromatographic assay (TRFICA) developed using two idiotypic nanobodies for rapid, quantitative, and simultaneous detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ZEN in maize and its products. A novel Eu/Tb(III) nanosphere with enhanced fluorescence was prepared as a label and conjugated to anti-idiotypic nanobody (AIdnb) and monoclonal antibody (mAb). On the basis of nanosphere-antibody conjugation, two patterns of competitive time-resolved strip methods (AIdnb-TRFICA and mAb-TRFICA) were established and compared. The half inhibition concentration of AIdnb-TRFICA was 0.46 and 0.86 ng  mL1 for AFB1 and ZEN, which was 18.3- and 20.3-fold more sensitive than that of mAb-TRFICA for AFB1 and ZEN, respectively. Under optimal conditions, AIdnb-TRFICA for dual mycotoxin was established and provided a quantitative relationship ranging from 0.13 to 4.54 ng  mL1 for AFB1 and 0.20 to 2.77 ng  mL1 for ZEN, with a detection limit of 0.05 and 0.07 ng  mL1 in the buffer solution, respectively. AIdnb-TRFICA showed good recoveries (72.6%-106.6%) in samples and was applied to detect dual mycotoxin in maize samples with satisfied results. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report about time-resolved strip method based on AIdnbs for dual mycotoxin.

  17. Chilling acclimation provides immunity to stress by altering regulatory networks and inducing genes with protective functions in cassava.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Changying; Chen, Zheng; Xia, Jing; Zhang, Kevin; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Yufei; Bo, Weiping; Song, Shun; Deng, Deli; Guo, Xin; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Junfei; Peng, Hai; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Zhang, Weixiong

    2014-08-05

    Stress acclimation is an effective mechanism that plants acquired for adaption to dynamic environment. Even though generally considered to be sensitive to low temperature, Cassava, a major tropical crop, can be tolerant to much lower temperature after chilling acclimation. Improvement to chilling resistance could be beneficial to breeding. However, the underlying mechanism and the effects of chilling acclimation on chilling tolerance remain largely unexplored. In order to understand the mechanism of chilling acclimation, we profiled and analyzed the transcriptome and microRNAome of Cassava, using high-throughput deep sequencing, across the normal condition, a moderate chilling stress (14°C), a harsh stress (4°C) after chilling acclimation (14°C), and a chilling shock from 24°C to 4°C. The results revealed that moderate stress and chilling shock triggered comparable degrees of transcriptional perturbation, and more importantly, about two thirds of differentially expressed genes reversed their expression from up-regulation to down-regulation or vice versa in response to hash stress after experiencing moderate stress. In addition, microRNAs played important roles in the process of this massive genetic circuitry rewiring. Furthermore, function analysis revealed that chilling acclimation helped the plant develop immunity to further harsh stress by exclusively inducing genes with function for nutrient reservation therefore providing protection, whereas chilling shock induced genes with function for viral reproduction therefore causing damage. Our study revealed, for the first time, the molecular basis of chilling acclimation, and showed potential regulation role of microRNA in chilling response and acclimation in Euphorbia.

  18. Chilling acclimation provides immunity to stress by altering regulatory networks and inducing genes with protective functions in Cassava

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Stress acclimation is an effective mechanism that plants acquired for adaption to dynamic environment. Even though generally considered to be sensitive to low temperature, Cassava, a major tropical crop, can be tolerant to much lower temperature after chilling acclimation. Improvement to chilling resistance could be beneficial to breeding. However, the underlying mechanism and the effects of chilling acclimation on chilling tolerance remain largely unexplored. Results In order to understand the mechanism of chilling acclimation, we profiled and analyzed the transcriptome and microRNAome of Cassava, using high-throughput deep sequencing, across the normal condition, a moderate chilling stress (14°C), a harsh stress (4°C) after chilling acclimation (14°C), and a chilling shock from 24°C to 4°C. The results revealed that moderate stress and chilling shock triggered comparable degrees of transcriptional perturbation, and more importantly, about two thirds of differentially expressed genes reversed their expression from up-regulation to down-regulation or vice versa in response to hash stress after experiencing moderate stress. In addition, microRNAs played important roles in the process of this massive genetic circuitry rewiring. Furthermore, function analysis revealed that chilling acclimation helped the plant develop immunity to further harsh stress by exclusively inducing genes with function for nutrient reservation therefore providing protection, whereas chilling shock induced genes with function for viral reproduction therefore causing damage. Conclusions Our study revealed, for the first time, the molecular basis of chilling acclimation, and showed potential regulation role of microRNA in chilling response and acclimation in Euphorbia. PMID:25090992

  19. Network Analysis of the Chronic Hepatitis C Virome Defines Hypervariable Region 1 Evolutionary Phenotypes in the Context of Humoral Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Brendan A.; Schmidt-Martin, Daniel; Dimitrova, Zoya; Skums, Pavel; Crosbie, Orla; Kenny-Walsh, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) comprises the first 27 N-terminal amino acid residues of E2. It is classically seen as the most heterogeneous region of the HCV genome. In this study, we assessed HVR1 evolution by using ultradeep pyrosequencing for a cohort of treatment-naive, chronically infected patients over a short, 16-week period. Organization of the sequence set into connected components that represented single nucleotide substitution events revealed a network dominated by highly connected, centrally positioned master sequences. HVR1 phenotypes were observed to be under strong purifying (stationary) and strong positive (antigenic drift) selection pressures, which were coincident with advancing patient age and cirrhosis of the liver. It followed that stationary viromes were dominated by a single HVR1 variant surrounded by minor variants comprised from conservative single amino acid substitution events. We present evidence to suggest that neutralization antibody efficacy was diminished for stationary-virome HVR1 variants. Our results identify the HVR1 network structure during chronic infection as the preferential dominance of a single variant within a narrow sequence space. IMPORTANCE HCV infection is often asymptomatic, and chronic infection is generally well established in advance of initial diagnosis and subsequent treatment. HVR1 can undergo rapid sequence evolution during acute infection, and the variant pool is typically seen to diverge away from ancestral sequences as infection progresses from the acute to the chronic phase. In this report, we describe HVR1 viromes in chronically infected patients that are defined by a dominant epitope located centrally within a narrow variant pool. Our findings suggest that weakened humoral immune activity, as a consequence of persistent chronic infection, allows for the acquisition and maintenance of host-specific adaptive mutations at HVR1 that reflect virus fitness. PMID:26719263

  20. Anti-idiotypic antibody D12 and superantigen SPA both interact with human VH3-encoded antibodies on the external face of the heavy chain involving FR1, CDR2 and FR3.

    PubMed

    Potter, K N; Li, Y; Mageed, R A; Jefferis, R; Capra, J D

    1998-12-01

    The mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb) D12 specifically binds in the variable region (idiotype) of human V(H)3 encoded antibodies. We used mutational analysis to determine the subregions of a V(H)3 encoded antibody which effect the interaction with mAb D12. Recombinant antibodies composed of mutant heavy chains were produced using the baculovirus expression system. The results of this topographical study indicate that the combined conformations of FRI, CDR2 and FR3 are critical for mAb D12 binding. MAb D12 binding was not effected either by the heavy chain CDR3 sequence nor by the light chain. We previously demonstrated that structures within the same three subregions are required for the B cell superantigen Staphylococcal protein A (SPA) binding to V(H)3 encoded antibodies. Thus, some anti-idiotypic antibodies can interact with antibodies in a similar fashion to superantigens.

  1. Sympathetic Modulation of Immunity: Relevance to Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bellinger, Denise L.; Millar, Brooke A.; Perez, Sam; Carter, Jeff; Wood, Carlo; ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan; Molinaro, Christine; Lubahn, Cheri; Lorton, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Optimal host defense against pathogens requires cross-talk between the nervous and immune systems. This paper reviews sympathetic-immune interaction, one major communication pathway, and its importance for health and disease. Sympathetic innervation of primary and secondary immune organs is described, as well as evidence for neurotransmission with cells of the immune system as targets. Most research thus far as focused on neural-immune modulation in secondary lymphoid organs, and have revealed complex sympathetic modulation resulting in both potentiation and inhibition of immune functions. SNS-immune interaction may enhance immune readiness during disease- or injury-induced ‘fight’ responses. Research also indicate that dysregulation of the SNS can significantly affect the progression of immune-mediated diseases. However, a better understanding of neural-immune interactions is needed to develop strategies for treatment of immune-mediated diseases that are designed to return homeostasis and restore normal functioning neural-immune networks. PMID:18308299

  2. Integrated Immune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarnece

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the program to replace several recent studies about astronaut immune systems with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling. The study will address lack of in-flight data to determine the inflight status of immune systems, physiological stress, viral immunity, to determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, and to determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  3. In old BALB/c mice, bone marrow pre-B cell and surrogate light chain reduction is associated with increased B cell reactivity to phosphorylcholine, but reduced T15 idiotype dominance.

    PubMed

    Khomtchouk, Kelly; Alter, Sarah; Ratliff, Michelle; Blomberg, Bonnie B; Riley, Richard L

    2017-03-01

    In young adult BALB/c mice, antibodies to phosphorylcholine (PC) bearing the T15 (TEPC 15) idiotype confer protection against pneumococcal infections. In old age, even though PC reactive B cells are often increased, the proportion of T15(+) antibodies declines. We hypothesize that limited surrogate light chain (SLC) and compromise of the pre-B cell receptor checkpoint in old mice contribute to both reduced new B cell generation and changes in the anti-PC antibodies seen in old age. In old mice: 1) early pre-B cell loss is most pronounced at the preBCR checkpoint; however, the reduced pool of early pre-B cells continues to proliferate consistent with preBCR signaling; 2) increased PC reactivity is seen in bone marrow immature B cells; 3) deficient SLC promotes increased B cell PC reactivity and diminished T15 idiotype expression; and 4) as pre-B cell losses and reduced SLC become progressively more severe, increased T15 negative PC reactive B cells occur. These results associate a reduction in pre-B cells, imposed at the preBCR checkpoint, with increased reactivity to PC, but more limited expression of the protective T15 idiotype among PC reactive antibodies in old age.

  4. Transcriptome profiling based on protein-protein interaction networks provides a core set of genes for understanding blood immune response mechanisms against Edwardsiella tarda infection in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Li, Zan; Liu, Xiumei; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhang, Kai; Yu, Haiyang; He, Yan; Wang, Xubo; Qi, Jie; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Quanqi

    2017-09-18

    Marine organisms are commonly under threat from various pathogens. Edwardsiella tarda is one of the fish pathogens that can infect both cultured and wild fish species. E. tarda can also infect other vertebrates, including amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. Bacteremia caused by E. tarda can be a fatal disease in humans. Blood acts as a pipeline for the fish immune system. Generating blood transcriptomic resources from fish challenged by E. tarda is crucial for understanding molecular mechanisms underlying blood immune response process. In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide gene expression profiling of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) challenged by 8 and 48 h E. tarda stress. An average of 37 million clean reads per library was obtained, and approximately 85.6% of these reads were successfully mapped to the reference genome. In addition, 808 and 1265 differential expression genes (DEGs) were found at 8 and 48 h post-injection, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were conducted to search immune-related DEGs. A protein-protein interaction network was constructed to obtain the interaction relationship of immune genes during pathogens stress. Based on KEGG and protein association networks analysis, 30 hub genes were discovered and validated by quantitative RT-PCR. This study represents the first transcriptome analysis based on protein-protein interaction networks in fish and provides us with valuable gene resources for the research of fish blood immunity, which can significantly assist us to further understand the molecular mechanisms of humans and other vertebrates against E. tarda. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The most common friend first immunization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nian, Fu-Zhong; Hu, Cha-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a standard susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible(SIRS) epidemic model based on the Watts-Strogatz (WS) small-world network model and the Barabsi-Albert (BA) scale-free network model is established, and a new immunization scheme — “the most common friend first immunization” is proposed, in which the most common friend’s node is described as being the first immune on the second layer protection of complex networks. The propagation situations of three different immunization schemes — random immunization, high-risk immunization, and the most common friend first immunization are studied. At the same time, the dynamic behaviors are also studied on the WS small-world and the BA scale-free network. Moreover, the analytic and simulated results indicate that the immune effect of the most common friend first immunization is better than random immunization, but slightly worse than high-risk immunization. However, high-risk immunization still has some limitations. For example, it is difficult to accurately define who a direct neighbor in the life is. Compared with the traditional immunization strategies having some shortcomings, the most common friend first immunization is effective, and it is nicely consistent with the actual situation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61263019), the Program for International Science and Technology Cooperation Projects of Gansu Province, China (Grant No. 144WCGA166), and the Program for Longyuan Young Innovation Talents and the Doctoral Foundation of Lanzhou University of Technology, China.

  6. Genomic basis of evolutionary change: evolving immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Bregje

    2015-01-01

    Complex traits are manifestations of intricate gene interaction networks. Evolution of complex traits revolves around the genetic variation in such networks. Genomics has increased our ability to investigate the complex gene interaction networks, and characterize the extent of genetic variation in these networks. Immunity is a complex trait, for which the ecological drivers and molecular networks are fairly well understood in Drosophila. By characterizing the natural variation in immunity, and mapping how the genome changes during the evolution of immunity in Drosophila, we can integrate our knowledge on the complex genetic architecture of traits and the molecular basis of evolutionary processes. PMID:26150830

  7. Immunization Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccination strategies and operational plans to address immunization gaps and reach every person with lifesaving vaccines. WHO ... Assembly in 2018, 2020 and 2022 on the achievements against the GVAP goals and targets. World Immunization ...

  8. Immunizations - diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000331.htm Immunizations - diabetes To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Immunizations (vaccines or vaccinations) help protect you from some ...

  9. Childhood Immunization

    MedlinePlus

    ... lowest levels in history, thanks to years of immunization. Children must get at least some vaccines before ... child provide protection for many years, adults need immunizations too. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  10. Insect Immunity to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Lu, H-L; St Leger, R J

    2016-01-01

    The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect-pathogen coevolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Curating the innate immunity interactome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The innate immune response is the first line of defence against invading pathogens and is regulated by complex signalling and transcriptional networks. Systems biology approaches promise to shed new light on the regulation of innate immunity through the analysis and modelling of these networks. A key initial step in this process is the contextual cataloguing of the components of this system and the molecular interactions that comprise these networks. InnateDB (http://www.innatedb.com) is a molecular interaction and pathway database developed to facilitate systems-level analyses of innate immunity. Results Here, we describe the InnateDB curation project, which is manually annotating the human and mouse innate immunity interactome in rich contextual detail, and present our novel curation software system, which has been developed to ensure interactions are curated in a highly accurate and data-standards compliant manner. To date, over 13,000 interactions (protein, DNA and RNA) have been curated from the biomedical literature. Here, we present data, illustrating how InnateDB curation of the innate immunity interactome has greatly enhanced network and pathway annotation available for systems-level analysis and discuss the challenges that face such curation efforts. Significantly, we provide several lines of evidence that analysis of the innate immunity interactome has the potential to identify novel signalling, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators of innate immunity. Additionally, these analyses also provide insight into the cross-talk between innate immunity pathways and other biological processes, such as adaptive immunity, cancer and diabetes, and intriguingly, suggests links to other pathways, which as yet, have not been implicated in the innate immune response. Conclusions In summary, curation of the InnateDB interactome provides a wealth of information to enable systems-level analysis of innate immunity. PMID:20727158

  12. Efficient immunization strategies to prevent financial contagion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi; Hasui, Kohei

    2014-01-01

    Many immunization strategies have been proposed to prevent infectious viruses from spreading through a network. In this work, we study efficient immunization strategies to prevent a default contagion that might occur in a financial network. An essential difference from the previous studies on immunization strategy is that we take into account the possibility of serious side effects. Uniform immunization refers to a situation in which banks are ``vaccinated'' with a common low-risk asset. The riskiness of immunized banks will decrease significantly, but the level of systemic risk may increase due to the de-diversification effect. To overcome this side effect, we propose another immunization strategy, called counteractive immunization, which prevents pairs of banks from failing simultaneously. We find that counteractive immunization can efficiently reduce systemic risk without altering the riskiness of individual banks.

  13. Efficient immunization strategies to prevent financial contagion

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi; Hasui, Kohei

    2014-01-01

    Many immunization strategies have been proposed to prevent infectious viruses from spreading through a network. In this work, we study efficient immunization strategies to prevent a default contagion that might occur in a financial network. An essential difference from the previous studies on immunization strategy is that we take into account the possibility of serious side effects. Uniform immunization refers to a situation in which banks are “vaccinated” with a common low-risk asset. The riskiness of immunized banks will decrease significantly, but the level of systemic risk may increase due to the de-diversification effect. To overcome this side effect, we propose another immunization strategy, called counteractive immunization, which prevents pairs of banks from failing simultaneously. We find that counteractive immunization can efficiently reduce systemic risk without altering the riskiness of individual banks. PMID:24452277

  14. Efficient immunization strategies to prevent financial contagion.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Teruyoshi; Hasui, Kohei

    2014-01-23

    Many immunization strategies have been proposed to prevent infectious viruses from spreading through a network. In this work, we study efficient immunization strategies to prevent a default contagion that might occur in a financial network. An essential difference from the previous studies on immunization strategy is that we take into account the possibility of serious side effects. Uniform immunization refers to a situation in which banks are "vaccinated" with a common low-risk asset. The riskiness of immunized banks will decrease significantly, but the level of systemic risk may increase due to the de-diversification effect. To overcome this side effect, we propose another immunization strategy, called counteractive immunization, which prevents pairs of banks from failing simultaneously. We find that counteractive immunization can efficiently reduce systemic risk without altering the riskiness of individual banks.

  15. Regulation of herpes simplex virus-specific cell-mediated immunity by a specific suppressor factor.

    PubMed Central

    Horohov, D W; Wyckoff, J H; Moore, R N; Rouse, B T

    1986-01-01

    Our study was designed to investigate the nature of an antigen-specific suppressor factor generated by antigen-stimulated herpes simplex virus (HSV)-immune splenocytes. Factor SF-200, a 90,000- to 100,000-dalton fraction obtained after Sephacryl gel filtration, suppressed the generation of HSV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and lymphoproliferative responses. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis of SF-200 indicated that it contained an I-J+, anti-idiotypic protein. It was possible to adsorb the suppressor activity of SF-200 to an anti-I-J immunoaffinity column. The suppressor activity could be eluted from the immunoaffinity column with a low-pH buffer. The acid-eluted material was determined to be both I-J+ and reactive with anti-HSV antiserum by Western blot analysis. Both SF-200 and the I-J+ suppressor activity suppressed only HSV-specific cell-mediated immunity responses. However, it was possible to generate nonspecific suppressor activity by incubating the I-J+ suppressor factor with Lyt 1+ splenocytes from HSV-immune mice. The implication of these results with respect to the model for a suppressor cell circuit regulating HSV-specific cell-mediated immunity responses is discussed. Images PMID:3009850

  16. DNA Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2013-01-01

    DNA immunization was discovered in early 1990s and its use has been expanded from vaccine studies to a broader range of biomedical research, such as the generation of high quality polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as research reagents. In this unit, three common DNA immunization methods are described: needle injection, electroporation and gene gun. In addition, several common considerations related to DNA immunization are discussed. PMID:24510291

  17. Hypothalamic neurohormones and immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Quintanar, J. Luis; Guzmán-Soto, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive examination of the current literature describing the neural-immune interactions, with emphasis on the most recent findings of the effects of neurohormones on immune system. Particularly, the role of hypothalamic hormones such as Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In the past few years, interest has been raised in extrapituitary actions of these neurohormones due to their receptors have been found in many non-pituitary tissues. Also, the receptors are present in immune cells, suggesting an autocrine or paracrine role within the immune system. In general, these neurohormones have been reported to exert immunomodulatory effects on cell proliferation, immune mediators release and cell function. The implications of these findings in understanding the network of hypothalamic neuropeptides and immune system are discussed. PMID:23964208

  18. Hypothalamic neurohormones and immune responses.

    PubMed

    Quintanar, J Luis; Guzmán-Soto, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive examination of the current literature describing the neural-immune interactions, with emphasis on the most recent findings of the effects of neurohormones on immune system. Particularly, the role of hypothalamic hormones such as Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). In the past few years, interest has been raised in extrapituitary actions of these neurohormones due to their receptors have been found in many non-pituitary tissues. Also, the receptors are present in immune cells, suggesting an autocrine or paracrine role within the immune system. In general, these neurohormones have been reported to exert immunomodulatory effects on cell proliferation, immune mediators release and cell function. The implications of these findings in understanding the network of hypothalamic neuropeptides and immune system are discussed.

  19. Anti-idiotypic nanobody-phage based real-time immuno-PCR for detection of hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin in grains and feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jiawen; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Yanru; Zhang, Zhaowei; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zang, Wen

    2014-11-04

    Aflatoxins are a group of extremely toxic small molecules that have been involved in human hepatic and extrahepatic carcinogenesis as causative agents. Herein, we developed a real-time immuno polymerase chain reaction (IPCR) assay for the accurately quantitative detection of aflatoxins in agri-products base on a M13 phage containing aflatoxin anti-idiotypic nanobody and its encoding DNA which was used to design the specific primers. The limit of detection (LOD) of the assay is 0.02 ng/mL, which exhibits a 4-fold improvement over traditional phage ELISA. The developed method was successfully validated with the samples of corn, rice, peanut, and feedstuff, which are major aflatoxin-contaminated agri-products. And the recoveries were from 77.05 to 122.16%. For further validation, the developed assay was also compared with a reference HPLC method for the analysis of aflatoxins in corn and peanuts, and concordant results (R(2) = 0.991) were obtained. In this context, this study provides a novel opportunity to analyze aflatoxins in agri-products.

  20. Somatic diversification in the heavy chain variable region genes expressed by human autoantibodies bearing a lupus-associated nephritogenic anti-DNA idiotype

    SciTech Connect

    Demaison, C.; Chastagner, P.; Theze, J.; Zouali, M. )

    1994-01-18

    Monoclonal anti-DNA antibodies bearing a lupus nephritis-associated idiotype were derived from five patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Genes encoding their heavy (H)-chain variable (V[sub H]) regions were cloned and sequenced. When compared with their closest V[sub h] germ-line gene relatives, these sequences exhibit a number of silent (S) and replacement (R) substitutions. The ratios of R/S mutations were much higher in the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of the antibodies than in the framework regions. Molecular amplification of genomic V[sub H] genes and Southern hybridization with somatic CDR2-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that the configuration of the V[sub H] genes corresponding to V[sub H] sequences in the nephritogenic antibodies is not present in the patient's own germ-line DNA, implying that the B-cell clones underwent somatic mutation in vivo. These findings, together with the characteristics of the diversity and junctional gene elements utilized to form the antibody, indicate that these autoantibodies have been driven through somatic selection processes reminiscent of those that govern antibody responses triggered by exogenous stimuli.

  1. Dual anti-idiotypic purification of a novel, native-format biparatopic anti-MET antibody with improved in vitro and in vivo efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Godar, Marie; Morello, Virginia; Sadi, Ava; Hultberg, Anna; De Jonge, Natalie; Basilico, Cristina; Hanssens, Valérie; Saunders, Michael; Lambrecht, Bart N.; El Khattabi, Mohamed; de Haard, Hans; Michieli, Paolo; Blanchetot, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies are of great interest due to their ability to simultaneously bind and engage different antigens or epitopes. Nevertheless, it remains a challenge to assemble, produce and/or purify them. Here we present an innovative dual anti-idiotypic purification process, which provides pure bispecific antibodies with native immunoglobulin format. Using this approach, a biparatopic IgG1 antibody targeting two distinct, HGF-competing, non-overlapping epitopes on the extracellular region of the MET receptor, was purified with camelid single-domain antibody fragments that bind specifically to the correct heavy chain/light chain pairings of each arm. The purity and functionality of the anti-MET biparatopic antibody was then confirmed by mass spectrometry and binding experiments, demonstrating its ability to simultaneously target the two epitopes recognized by the parental monoclonal antibodies. The improved MET-inhibitory activity of the biparatopic antibody compared to the parental monoclonal antibodies, was finally corroborated in cell-based assays and more importantly in a tumor xenograft mouse model. In conclusion, this approach is fast and specific, broadly applicable and results in the isolation of a pure, novel and native-format anti-MET biparatopic antibody that shows superior biological activity over the parental monospecific antibodies both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27546726

  2. Autoimmunity induced by HgCl/sub 2/ in Brown-Norway rats. II. Monoclonal antibodies sharing specificities and idiotypes with mouse natural monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Lymberi, P.; Hirsch, F.; Kuhn, J.; Ternynck, T.; Druet, P.; Avrameas, S.

    1986-05-01

    Spleen cells derived from BN rats receiving HgCl/sub 2/ were fused with the nonsecreting rat myeloma cell line IR983F. Supernatants from immunoglobulin-secreting hybrids for antibody activity against actin, tubulin, autologous and heterologous myosin, myoglobin, dsDNA, peroxidase, and the haptens TNP, NIP, NNP, and NBrP were severed. Six monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were found to react with antigen(s) of the panel. At least three groups of antibody specificities were identified: 1) clones reacting with TNP (1 IgM, 1 Ige); 2) clones reacting with horseradish peroxidase (1 IgM); and 3) clones possessing widespread reactivity for several antigens as found for mouse natural autoantibodies (2 IgM, 1 IgE). The idiotypic (Id) determinants of the 59 mAb were also analyzed. All rat mAb that possessed widespread reactivities bore this Id. Similar studies were performed in sera from normal and mercury-stimulated rats. The results indicate 1) a role for HgCl/sub 2/ in the stimulation of natural antibodies producing cells and 2) the existence of interspecies cross-reactive Id among mouse and rat natural antibodies.

  3. Anti-idiotypic nanobody-alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins: Development of a one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay for fumonisin B1 detection in cereal.

    PubMed

    Shu, Mei; Xu, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Yanping; He, Qinghua; Tu, Zhui; Fu, Jinheng; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-06-14

    A rapid and sensitive one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay for the detection of FB1 was developed. The anti-idiotypic nanobody-alkaline phosphatase (Ab2β-Nb-AP) was validated by the AP enzyme activity and the properties of bounding to anti-FB1-mAb (3F11) through colorimetric and chemiluminescence analyses. The 50% inhibitory concentration and the detection limit (LOD) of colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for FB1 were 2.69 and 0.35 ng mL(-1), respectively, with a linear range of 0.93-7.73 ng mL(-1). The LOD of the chemiluminescence ELISA (CLIA) was 0.12 ng mL(-1), and the IC50 was 0.89 ± 0.09 ng mL(-1) with a linear range of 0.29-2.68 ng mL(-1). Compared with LC-MS/MS, the results of this assay indicated the reliability of the Ab2β-Nb-AP fusion protein based one-step competitive immunoassay for monitoring FB1 contamination in cereals. The Ab2β-Nb-AP fusion proteins have the potential to replace chemically-coupled probes in competitive enzyme immunoassay systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Expression of VHIII-associated cross-reactive idiotype on human B lymphocytes. Association with staphylococcal protein A binding and Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shokri, F; Mageed, R A; Maziak, B R; Jefferis, R

    1991-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that staphylococcal protein A (SPA) has an "alternative" binding site with specificity for human Ig H chain V region of the VHIII subgroup. Because the major mitogenic component of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC) is SPA, it is possible that SAC stimulates a subpopulation of B cells expressing Ig of the VHIII H chain subgroup. In the present study, we have investigated further the relationship between SPA binding and the expression of VHI- or VHIII-associated cross-reactive idiotype (CRI) on the surface of tonsillar B lymphocytes enriched for the expression or nonexpression of the CRI, and we examined the Ig secreted by cell lines established from these populations of B cells by EBV transformation. The VHIII CRI (D12)-enriched population yielded 21 cell lines, with 67% of them secreting SPA-reactive Ig; in contrast, only 6% (1 of 16) of VHI CRI-expressing lines secreted SPA-reactive Ig. The CRI-negative B cell population yielded 54 cell lines, of which 20% secreted SPA-reactive Ig, as might be anticipated because a majority of VHIII Ig+ B cells will be CRI-. SAC stimulation of CRI+ and CRI- populations showed preferential stimulation of the D12 population. These data support the proposal that SAC stimulation of human B cells is mediated through binding of SPA by its alternative binding site to IgV regions of the VHIII subgroup.

  5. Early-Onset Network Hyperexcitability in Presymptomatic Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Mice Is Suppressed by Passive Immunization with Anti-Human APP/Aβ Antibody and by mGluR5 Blockade.

    PubMed

    Kazim, Syed F; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Zhao, Wangfa; Wong, Robert K S; Bianchi, Riccardo; Iqbal, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Cortical and hippocampal network hyperexcitability appears to be an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, and may contribute to memory impairment. It remains unclear if network hyperexcitability precedes memory impairment in mouse models of AD and what are the underlying cellular mechanisms. We thus evaluated seizure susceptibility and hippocampal network hyperexcitability at ~3 weeks of age [prior to amyloid beta (Aβ) plaque deposition, neurofibrillary pathology, and cognitive impairment] in a triple transgenic mouse model of familial AD (3xTg-AD mouse) that harbors mutated human Aβ precursor protein (APP), tau and presenilin 1 (PS1) genes. Audiogenic seizures were elicited in a higher proportion of 3xTg-AD mice compared with wild type (WT) controls. Seizure susceptibility in 3xTg-AD mice was attenuated either by passive immunization with anti-human APP/Aβ antibody (6E10) or by blockade of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) with the selective antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP). In in vitro hippocampal slices, suppression of synaptic inhibition with the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline, induced prolonged epileptiform (>1.5 s in duration) ictal-like discharges in the CA3 neuronal network in the majority of the slices from 3xTg-AD mice. In contrast, only short epileptiform (<1.5 s in duration) interictal-like discharges were observed following bicuculline application in the CA3 region of WT slices. The ictal-like activity in CA3 region of the hippocampus was significantly reduced in the 6E10-immunized compared to the saline-treated 3xTg-AD mice. MPEP acutely suppressed the ictal-like discharges in 3xTg-AD slices. Remarkably, epileptiform discharge duration positively correlated with intraneuronal human (transgenic) APP/Aβ expression in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Our data suggest that in a mouse model of familial AD, hypersynchronous network activity underlying seizure susceptibility precedes

  6. Early-Onset Network Hyperexcitability in Presymptomatic Alzheimer’s Disease Transgenic Mice Is Suppressed by Passive Immunization with Anti-Human APP/Aβ Antibody and by mGluR5 Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Kazim, Syed F.; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Zhao, Wangfa; Wong, Robert K. S.; Bianchi, Riccardo; Iqbal, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Cortical and hippocampal network hyperexcitability appears to be an early event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis, and may contribute to memory impairment. It remains unclear if network hyperexcitability precedes memory impairment in mouse models of AD and what are the underlying cellular mechanisms. We thus evaluated seizure susceptibility and hippocampal network hyperexcitability at ~3 weeks of age [prior to amyloid beta (Aβ) plaque deposition, neurofibrillary pathology, and cognitive impairment] in a triple transgenic mouse model of familial AD (3xTg-AD mouse) that harbors mutated human Aβ precursor protein (APP), tau and presenilin 1 (PS1) genes. Audiogenic seizures were elicited in a higher proportion of 3xTg-AD mice compared with wild type (WT) controls. Seizure susceptibility in 3xTg-AD mice was attenuated either by passive immunization with anti-human APP/Aβ antibody (6E10) or by blockade of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) with the selective antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride (MPEP). In in vitro hippocampal slices, suppression of synaptic inhibition with the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline, induced prolonged epileptiform (>1.5 s in duration) ictal-like discharges in the CA3 neuronal network in the majority of the slices from 3xTg-AD mice. In contrast, only short epileptiform (<1.5 s in duration) interictal-like discharges were observed following bicuculline application in the CA3 region of WT slices. The ictal-like activity in CA3 region of the hippocampus was significantly reduced in the 6E10-immunized compared to the saline-treated 3xTg-AD mice. MPEP acutely suppressed the ictal-like discharges in 3xTg-AD slices. Remarkably, epileptiform discharge duration positively correlated with intraneuronal human (transgenic) APP/Aβ expression in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Our data suggest that in a mouse model of familial AD, hypersynchronous network activity underlying seizure susceptibility precedes

  7. Immune System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  8. Immune System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  9. Plant immunity to necrotrophs.

    PubMed

    Mengiste, Tesfaye

    2012-01-01

    Plants inhabit environments crowded with infectious microbes that pose constant threats to their survival. Necrotrophic pathogens are notorious for their aggressive and wide-ranging virulence strategies that promote host cell death and acquire nutrients for growth and reproduction from dead cells. This lifestyle constitutes the axis of their pathogenesis and virulence strategies and marks contrasting immune responses to biotrophic pathogens. The diversity of virulence strategies in necrotrophic species corresponds to multifaceted host immune response mechanisms. When effective, the plant immune system disarms the infectious necrotroph of its pathogenic arsenal or attenuates its effect, restricting further ingress and disease symptom development. Simply inherited resistance traits confer protection against host-specific necrotrophs (HSNs), whereas resistance to broad host-range necrotrophs (BHNs) is complex. Components of host genetic networks, as well as the molecular and cellular processes that mediate host immune responses to necrotrophs, are being identified. In this review, recent advances in our understanding of plant immune responses to necrotrophs and comparison with responses to biotrophic pathogens are summarized, highlighting common and contrasting mechanisms.

  10. Innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Revillard, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    For more than half a century immunological research has been almost exclusively orientated towards the acquired immune response and the mechanisms of immune tolerance. Major discoveries have enabled us to better understand the functioning of the specific immune system: the structure of antibody molecules, the genetic mechanisms leading to the molecular diversity of B (BCR) and T (TCR) lymphocyte antigen receptors, the biological function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the presentation of peptides to alpha/beta receptor bearing T lymphocytes, the processes of positive and negative selection of lymphocytes during the course of their differentiation. The major role of specific or acquired immunity has been shown by the rapidly lethal character of severe combined immune deficiency diseases and various alterations in the mechanisms of tolerance have been proposed to explain the chronic inflammatory illnesses which are considered to be auto-immune. Natural or innate immunity has been known since the first description of an inflammatory reaction attributed to Cornelius Celsus. It entered into the scientific era at the end of the 19th century with the discovery of phagocytes by Metchnikoff and of the properties of the complement system by Bordet [1] but due to the vastness of the field and its lack of clear definition, it failed to excite the interest of researchers. The discovery of cytokines and progress in knowledge of the mechanisms of the inflammatory reaction have certainly helped to banish preconceived ideas about natural immunity, which was wrongly labelled as non-specific. This has led to the proposition of a wider role for immune functions beyond the level of the cell or the organism [2] and to a better understanding of the importance of the immediate defence mechanisms and their role in the later orientation of the acquired response.

  11. Maternal Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Helen Y.; Englund, Janet A.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal immunization has the potential to protect the pregnant woman, fetus, and infant from vaccine-preventable diseases. Maternal immunoglobulin G is actively transported across the placenta, providing passive immunity to the neonate and infant prior to the infant's ability to respond to vaccines. Currently inactivated influenza, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccines are recommended during pregnancy. Several other vaccines have been studied in pregnancy and found to be safe and immunogenic and to provide antibody to infants. These include pneumococcus, group B Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and meningococcus vaccines. Other vaccines in development for potential maternal immunization include respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus vaccines. PMID:24799324

  12. The Microbiome, Systemic Immune Function, and Allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Nellore, Anoma; Fishman, Jay A

    2016-01-01

    Diverse effects of the microbiome on solid organ transplantation are beginning to be recognized. In allograft recipients, microbial networks are disrupted by immunosuppression, nosocomial and community-based infectious exposures, antimicrobial therapies, surgery, and immune processes. Shifting microbial patterns, including acute infectious exposures, have dynamic and reciprocal interactions with local and systemic immune systems. Both individual microbial species and microbial networks have central roles in the induction and control of innate and adaptive immune responses, in graft rejection, and in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Understanding the diverse interactions between the microbiome and the immune system of allograft recipients may facilitate clinical management in the future.

  13. The Microbiome, Systemic Immune Function, and Allotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Nellore, Anoma

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Diverse effects of the microbiome on solid organ transplantation are beginning to be recognized. In allograft recipients, microbial networks are disrupted by immunosuppression, nosocomial and community-based infectious exposures, antimicrobial therapies, surgery, and immune processes. Shifting microbial patterns, including acute infectious exposures, have dynamic and reciprocal interactions with local and systemic immune systems. Both individual microbial species and microbial networks have central roles in the induction and control of innate and adaptive immune responses, in graft rejection, and in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Understanding the diverse interactions between the microbiome and the immune system of allograft recipients may facilitate clinical management in the future. PMID:26656674

  14. Immunogenicity of Isogenic IgG in Aggregates and Immune Complexes.

    PubMed

    St Clair, J Benjamin; Detanico, Thiago; Aviszus, Katja; Kirchenbaum, Greg A; Christie, Merry; Carpenter, John F; Wysocki, Lawrence J

    2017-01-01

    A paradox in monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is that despite the well-documented tolerogenic properties of deaggregated IgG, most therapeutic IgG mAb induce anti-mAb responses. To analyze CD4 T cell reactions against IgG in various physical states, we developed an adoptive transfer model using CD4+ T cells specific for a Vκ region-derived peptide in the hapten-specific IgG mAb 36-71. We found that heat-aggregated or immune complexes (IC) of mAb 36-71 elicited anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) antibodies, while the deaggregated form was tolerogenic. All 3 forms of mAb 36-71 induced proliferation of cognate CD4+ T cells, but the aggregated and immune complex forms drove more division cycles and induced T follicular helper cells (TFH) development more effectively than did the deaggregated form. These responses occurred despite no adjuvant and no or only trace levels of endotoxin in the preparations. Physical analyses revealed large differences in micron- and nanometer-sized particles between the aggregated and IC forms. These differences may be functionally relevant, as CD4+ T cell proliferation to aggregated, but not IC mAb 36-71, was nearly ablated upon peritoneal injection of B cell-depleting antibody. Our results imply that, in addition to denatured aggregates, immune complexes formed in vivo between therapeutic mAb and their intended targets can be immunogenic.

  15. Use of Anti-Idiotypes and Synthetic Peptides for Control of Human T- Lymphotropic Virus Type 3 Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-28

    image Ab-?/ preparations. BALB/c mice immunized with the anti-Id produced an Ab-3 like response which bound HIV gp4l. The anti-Id induced anti- gp41 ...in nature. The ability to synthesize peptJdes predicted to contain these sequen- tial epitopes allowed us to evaluate those domains on gp120 and gp41 ...the lytic complex. These results suggest that the two peptides corresponding to sequences within the HIV transmembrane gp41 may play an important role

  16. [Ultraviolet: a regulator of immunity].

    PubMed

    Komura, Kazuhiro

    2008-06-01

    Humans establish acquired immune systems during the growth, which can sufficiently eliminate pathogen avoiding immune responses to self, such as allergy and autoimmunity. An imbalance of the acquired immune system leads up to immune-mediated disorders. Ultraviolet (UV) exposure helps to establish the normal peripheral tolerance to contact allergen avoiding excessive immune responses. By contrast, UV develops kinds of autoimmune diseases on rare occasions, suggesting that abnormality in the process of UV-induced peripheral tolerance may induce these diseases. To elucidate the mechanism of UV-induced tolerance is possible to provide a new approach for the management of immune diseases. In the current review, focus is on the suggested players of UV-induced tolerance, blocking mechanisms on the elicitation phase of contact hypersensitivity, and the association between UV and autoimmunity. The major impact in basic immunology in this area is the discovery of cell surface marker of regulatory T cells. Therefore, we first discuss about the association of regulatory/suppressor T cells with UV-induced tolerance. Since the elicitation phase depends on cellular influx into the inflammatory sites, which is tightly regulated by adhesion molecules, we also focused on the role of adhesion molecules. Finally, this paper also includes statistical findings concerning the association between UV-radiation and the prevalence of a myositis specific autoantibody. Thus, UV is one of the nice regulators of an immune network and the knowledge of UV-mediated immune regulation will be translated into new therapeutic strategies to human immune-mediated disorders.

  17. Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell proliferation and inhibition of PPARγ signaling as potential mechanism for the negative relationships between immune response and lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Information generated via microarrays might uncover interactions between the mammary gland and Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis) that could help identify control measures for the prevention and spread of S. uberis mastitis, as well as improve overall animal health and welfare, and decrease economic losses to dairy farmers. The main objective of this study was to determine the most affected gene networks and pathways in mammary tissue in response to an intramammary infection (IMI) with S. uberis and relate these with other physiological measurements associated with immune and/or metabolic responses to mastitis challenge with S. uberis O140J. Results Streptococcus uberis IMI resulted in 2,102 (1,939 annotated) differentially expressed genes (DEG). Within this set of DEG, we uncovered 20 significantly enriched canonical pathways (with 20 to 61 genes each), the majority of which were signaling pathways. Among the most inhibited were LXR/RXR Signaling and PPARα/RXRα Signaling. Pathways activated by IMI were IL-10 Signaling and IL-6 Signaling which likely reflected counter mechanisms of mammary tissue to respond to infection. Of the 2,102 DEG, 1,082 were up-regulated during IMI and were primarily involved with the immune response, e.g., IL6, TNF, IL8, IL10, SELL, LYZ, and SAA3. Genes down-regulated (1,020) included those associated with milk fat synthesis, e.g., LPIN1, LPL, CD36, and BTN1A1. Network analysis of DEG indicated that TNF had positive relationships with genes involved with immune system function (e.g., CD14, IL8, IL1B, and TLR2) and negative relationships with genes involved with lipid metabolism (e.g., GPAM, SCD, FABP4, CD36, and LPL) and antioxidant activity (SOD1). Conclusion Results provided novel information into the early signaling and metabolic pathways in mammary tissue that are associated with the innate immune response to S. uberis infection. Our study indicated that IMI challenge with S. uberis (strain O140J) elicited a strong

  18. Antibody responses to allergen Lol pIV are suppressed following adoptive transfer of B lymphocytes from the internal image anti-idiotypic antibody-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-10-01

    An internal image anti-idiotypic antibody, designated B1/1, was generated against an idiotope (Id91) of the monoclonal antibody (mAb91) specific for Lol pIV. The administration of B1/1 in PBS, at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms/mouse, to syngeneic Balb/c mice resulted in the suppression of the formation of anti-Lol pIV antibodies that possessed the Id91. Spleen cells obtained from the mice 2 weeks after the treatment with B1/1 (25 micrograms/mouse) were adoptively transferred intravenously into the syngeneic recipients which were challenged intraperitoneally with Lol pIV in alum 2 hr after the transfer. The recipients were boosted with Lol pIV 14 days later. It was demonstrated that the transfer of splenic B cells (but not of T cells) from B1/1-treated donors induced a significant suppression of not only the level of IgE and IgG antibodies to Lol pIV, but also the level of antibodies possessing the Id91. Treatment of the B cells with mAb91 plus complement abrogated their ability to transfer the suppression. This study indicates that the treatment with the anti-Id B1/1 generated B cells that were characterized, serologically, as possessing the anti-Id-like antibodies on their surface and were responsible for transferring the suppression of the formation of antibodies to allergen Lol pIV and the expression of Id91.

  19. Regulation of levels of serum antibodies to ryegrass pollen allergen Lol pIV by an internal image anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-01-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id), designated B1/1, was produced against an idiotope of a murine antibody (mAb91), which recognizes the epitope, site A, of allergen Lol pIV, one of the major groups of allergens in ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen. The ability of B1/1 to modulate the antibody responses to Lol pIV was investigated in murine model systems. In the first system, B1/1-keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) conjugate was administered to treat three different strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c and C3H). In the second and third model systems, a solution of B1/1 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was used to treat syngeneic BALB/c mice at various doses and time intervals, respectively. The treatment with either form of B1/1, administered at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms mouse, resulted in a reduction of the levels of the antibodies to Lol pIV. In particular, the level of IgE antibodies to Lol pIV was greatly reduced. The administration of a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of a solution of B1/1 8 weeks prior to the challenge with Lol pIV was still effective in reducing the level of antibodies to the allergen. Moreover, the level of antibodies to Lol pIV that expressed the idiotope mAb91 was also markedly decreased. By contrast, it was observed that the level of antibodies to Lol pIV in mice pretreated with B1/1 in PBS at a dose of 10 ng/mouse increased (albeit slightly) compared to that in mice treated with control mAb. These experimental models lend themselves for investigating the mechanism(s) by which an anti-Id modulates antibody responses to a grass pollen allergen. PMID:7751014

  20. Regulation of levels of serum antibodies to ryegrass pollen allergen Lol pIV by an internal image anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-03-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id), designated B1/1, was produced against an idiotope of a murine antibody (mAb91), which recognizes the epitope, site A, of allergen Lol pIV, one of the major groups of allergens in ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen. The ability of B1/1 to modulate the antibody responses to Lol pIV was investigated in murine model systems. In the first system, B1/1-keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) conjugate was administered to treat three different strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c and C3H). In the second and third model systems, a solution of B1/1 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was used to treat syngeneic BALB/c mice at various doses and time intervals, respectively. The treatment with either form of B1/1, administered at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms mouse, resulted in a reduction of the levels of the antibodies to Lol pIV. In particular, the level of IgE antibodies to Lol pIV was greatly reduced. The administration of a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of a solution of B1/1 8 weeks prior to the challenge with Lol pIV was still effective in reducing the level of antibodies to the allergen. Moreover, the level of antibodies to Lol pIV that expressed the idiotope mAb91 was also markedly decreased. By contrast, it was observed that the level of antibodies to Lol pIV in mice pretreated with B1/1 in PBS at a dose of 10 ng/mouse increased (albeit slightly) compared to that in mice treated with control mAb. These experimental models lend themselves for investigating the mechanism(s) by which an anti-Id modulates antibody responses to a grass pollen allergen.

  1. Efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) affinity-purified anti-desmoglein anti-idiotypic antibodies in the treatment of an experimental model of pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Mimouni, D; Blank, M; Payne, A S; Anhalt, G J; Avivi, C; Barshack, I; David, M; Shoenfeld, Y

    2010-12-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare life-threatening autoimmune bullous disease caused by immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies directed against desmogleins 1 and 3. Previously, we showed that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) ameliorates anti-desmoglein-induced experimental pemphigus vulgaris in newborn naive mice. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of anti-anti-desmoglein-specific IVIG in a similar model. Pemphigus-vulgaris-specific IVIG (PV-sIVIG) was affinity-purified from IVIG on a column of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) anti-desmogleins 1 and 3. The anti-idiotypic activity of PV-sIVIG was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, inhibition assay. After induction of pemphigus by injection of anti-desmogleins 1 and 3 scFv to newborn mice, the animals were treated with PV-sIVIG, IVIG (low or high dose) or IgG from a healthy donor (n = 10 each). The skin was examined 24-48 h later, and samples of affected areas were analysed by histology and immunofluorescence. In vitro study showed that PV-sIVIG significantly inhibited anti-desmogleins 1 and 3 scFv binding to recombinant desmoglein-3 in a dose-dependent manner. Specificity was confirmed by inhibition assay. In vivo analysis revealed cutaneous lesions of pemphigus vulgaris in mice injected with normal IgG (nine of 10 mice) or low-dose IVIG (nine of 10 mice), but not in mice treated with PV-sIVIG (none of 10) or high-dose IVIG (none of 10). On immunopathological study, PV-sIVIG and regular IVIG prevented the formation of acantholysis and deposition of IgG in intercellular spaces. In conclusion, the PV-sIVIG preparation is more effective than native IVIG in inhibiting anti-desmoglein-induced pemphigus vulgaris in mice and might serve as a future therapy in patients with the clinical disease.

  2. Idiotypes and allotypes on Ia-binding alloactivated Lyt-1+,2-,3- T cells are coded for by genes linked to the igh-1 allotype locus.

    PubMed

    Suzan, M; Elliott, B E; Rubin, B

    1983-03-01

    Xenogeneic antisera, designated 5936 and 6036, have been used in this laboratory to define 5936-idiotypes (Id) and 6036-T cell receptor (Tcr) allotype determinants, respectively, on populations of B6 anti-CBA MLC T blasts. The present experiments were carried out to determine a) whether T lymphocytes that bear 5936-Id also express antiserum 6036-defined Tcr allotypes; b) if so, what is the Lyt phenotype and c) specificity of this T lymphocyte population, and d) whether the genes coding for 5936-Id and 6036-allotypes are linked to immunoglobulin (Ig) allotype genes. The results showed that 5936-Id-bearing T lymphocytes were included in a subset of cells that expressed antiserum 6036-defined Tcr allotypic determinants and the Lyt-1+,2-,3- phenotype. By genetic segregation analysis it was shown that both 5936-Id and antiserum 6036-defined allotypic determinants on T cells were linked to Igh-1b allotypes. 5936-Id determinants were expressed on T lymphocytes of Igh-1b allotype strains, specific for allogeneic I-Ak but not on those specific for I-Ak/Ek molecules. In contrast, 6036-Tcr allotype determinants were present on T lymphocytes from Igh-1b allotype strains, specific for either I-Ak or I-Ak/Ek molecules. The results support the hypothesis that 5936-Id determinants are present only on a subset of anti-I-Ak T cell receptors, whereas 6036-Tcr allotype determinants are shared among T cell receptors of several unrelated specificities from Igh-1b allotype-bearing strains.

  3. Amino acid sequence diversity within the family of antibodies bearing the major antiarsonate cross-reactive idiotype of the A strain mouse

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    VH region amino acid sequences are described for five A/J anti-p- azophenylarsonate (anti-Ars) hybridoma antibodies for which the VL region sequences have previously been determined, thus completing the V domain sequences of these molecules. These antibodies all belong to the family designated Ars-A which bears the major anti-arsonate cross- reactive idiotype (CRI) of the A strain mouse. However, they differ in the degree to which they express the CRI in standard competition radioimmunoassays. Although the sequences are closely related, all are different from each other. Replacements are distributed throughout the VH region and occur in positions of the chain encoded by all three gene segments, VH, DH, and JH. It is likely that somatic diversification processes play a dominant role in producing the sequence variability in each of these segments. The number of differences from the sequence encoded by the germline is smallest for antibodies that express the CRI most strongly, suggesting that somatic diversification is responsible for loss of the CRI in members of the Ars-A antibody family. There is an unusual degree of clustering of differences in both CDR2 and CDR3 and many of the substitutions are located in "hot spots" of variation. The large number of differences between the chains prohibits the unambiguous identification of positions at which alterations play a major role in reducing the expression of the CRI. However, the data suggest that the loss of the CRI is associated with a definable repertoire of somatic changes at a restricted number of highly variable sites. PMID:6415209

  4. Studies on the origin of the precursor cells in multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia and benign monoclonal gammopathy. I. Cytoplasmic isotype and idiotype distribution in peripheral blood and bone marrow.

    PubMed Central

    Van Camp, B; Reynaert, P; Broodtaerts, L

    1981-01-01

    Lymphocytes and plasma cells in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of patients with multiple myeloma, benign monoclonal gammopathy and Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia were investigated for their cytoplasmic immunoglobul