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Sample records for idosos hipertensos brasil

  1. IDD-BRASIL: Implementation and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.; Almeida, W. G.; Yoksas, T.; Cutrim, E. M.; Garrana, D.

    2007-05-01

    In response to the academic meteorological community's demand for real-time weather data, and access to datasets not readily available, the Unidata Program of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed the Internet Data Distribution, IDD system. With a modest beginning in the early 1990's, IDD has grown to become the leading Internet2 advanced-application by delivering over 20 terabytes of data per week to over 160 institutions in the US and around the world. Meteorological and related real-time data, model output, and a vast amount of experimental products are delivered at no cost to the Unidata participating institutions. In 2004, through a collaboration among three leading universities and research centers in Brazil, the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE), the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de São Paulo (USP), the Unidata IDD has expanded into Brazil creating a data sharing peer, the IDD-Brasil. Throughout a series of outreach initiatives, the IDD-Brasil is extending its reach, providing data to universities in Argentina, Chile, Africa and Portugal. By lowering the barrier between distant institutions, participants are now cooperating and sharing many datasets that were not generally available outside their organizations. Future plans include the deployment of a new data-relay node in cooperation with Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal in order to provide a local source of data for institutions in Portugal and Africa, and the distribution of products derived from the GOES-10 satellite, which covers mainly South America, through IDD in real-time. Jointly, the IDD and IDD-Brasil are fostering new collaborations among universities, WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centers, and national meteorological agencies, empowering the Atmospheric Sciences across several countries.

  2. [Constructivist evaluation, under an integrating and intersectoral approach, of actions of the Disque Idoso Project in Sobral (CE, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cibelly Aliny Siqueira Lima; Teófilo, Tiago José Silveira

    2010-09-01

    The population aging in Brazil and in the world is a reason for an epidemic inquietude. So, the violence against senior people has been considered a problem of public health. This study takes as context the health need of seniors that suffer of violence, aiming to evaluate in a constructive way the Disque Idoso Project in Sobral (Ceará, Brazil). We used Furtado's Constructivist Method of Evaluation, which provides practices of participative evaluation. Trying to reach such perspective, we are guided by paths of the integrative approach (inter, multi and transdisciplinary) and intersectoral. We accomplished the focal groups with representatives of the sections of health, social assistance, justice and senior, the benefited by the project as well as others that contribute to its development. When interacting with the professionals that act in the project headquarters we understood that there is a fear in publishing their work, because there is not structure to enlarge the attendance. The group believes that the efficiency of its actions is limited due to the lack of transport and other professionals. For the professionals of the support social networks, the project should look for intersectoral performance, once it intends to reach a complete attendance. For the seniors, the project is quite valid and needs to be consolidated in the district.

  3. [Medical assessments and measurements in ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Mill, Jose Geraldo; Pinto, Karina; Griep, Rosane Härter; Goulart, Alessandra; Foppa, Murilo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Maestri, Marcelo K; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Andreão, Rodrigo Varejão; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Oliveira, Ilka; Fuchs, Sandra C; Cunha, Roberto de Sá; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The article describes assessments and measurements performed in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Some assessments including anthropometric assessment, casual blood pressure measurement, and ankle-brachial index have an established clinical application while others including pulse wave velocity, heart rate variability, and carotid intima-media thickness have no established application and do not have reference values for healthy Brazilian population but may be important predictors of cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure measurement following postural change maneuver was included in the ELSA-Brasil because it has not been much tested in epidemiological studies. Innovative approaches were developed for assessing the ankle-brachial index using an automatic device instead of the mercury column to measure blood pressure and for assessing the anterior-posterior diameter of the right lobe of the liver by ultrasound for quantitative assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. All ELSA-Brasil subjects were younger (35 years or more) than those included in other cohorts studying subclinical atherosclerosis. The inclusion of younger individuals and a variety of assessments make the ELSA-Brasil a relevant epidemiology study nationwide and worldwide.

  4. [Alimentary, nutritional and health aspects of elderly women in attendance at the Núcleo de Atenção ao Idoso, Recife/2005].

    PubMed

    Amado, Tânia Campos Fell; Arruda, Ilma Kruze Grande de; Ferreira, Rogério Anderson Rodrigues

    2007-12-01

    Aging has become a worldwide problem. In order to identify food, nutritional and health aspects of elderly women, a across-sectional study was carried out in 2005 with 106 women over 60 years of age cared for at Núcleo de Atenção ao idoso-NAI at Federal University of Pernambuco. Clinical and social-demographic variables, along with the nutritional status by BMI (OMS and Lipschtz) were assessed, and the frequency of food intake according to food groups. The results disclosed that 38% of the elderly were pre-obese (WHO) and 47.2% were overweight (Lipschitz). As for blood pressure (BP) 69% was found to be hypertensive and 31% normotensive. The BMI mean of hypertensive and normal elderly women was statistically significant (p=0.027). Cereal and bread groups were reported to have been the highest consumption on a daily basis by the elderly women, 89% and 82% respectively. Legumes were present in 53% of the women's meals followed by vegetables with 61% and fruits with 66%. Concerning water intake, 51.9% stated to have ingested one to four glasses of water daily. There was a positive correlation between BMI and systolic (SP) and diastolic pressure (DP) (p<0.001). SP and DP levels showed no correlation with the food intake studied. The results are indicative of an overweight and not conscientious population as regards adequate food intake and point to the necessity of more effective actions in control and/or prevention, particularly for those still young.

  5. [Design and implementation of the ELSA-Brasil biobank: a prospective study in a Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M; Fedeli, Ligia M; Castilhos, Cristina; Vidigal, Pedro G; Maniero, Viviane; Leite, Claudia M; Pimentel, Robercia A; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2013-06-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a multicenter prospective cohort of civil servants designed to assess the determinants of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The present article describes the main design and implementation points of the ELSA-Brasil biobank project. Economic, political, logistical and technological aspects of this study are characterized. Additionally, it discusses the final biorepository protocol and the facilities implemented to achieve this objective. The design and implementation process of the ELSA-Brasil biobank took three years to be performed. Both the central and local biobanks were built according to the best biorepository techniques, using different technological solutions for the distinct needs expected in this study.

  6. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. [Routines of organization of clinical tests and interviews in the ELSA-Brasil investigation center].

    PubMed

    Bensenor, Isabela M; Griep, Rosane H; Pinto, Karina Araújo; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana; Caetano, Edna I; Albuquerque, Liliane da Silva; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA-Brasil (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a prospective cohort study with extensive assessments throughout time. This article describes the routine of clinical tests and interviews performed with participants and the structuring of the Research Center physical space and teams. The ELSA-Brasil assumes that participants will be present at the Research Center to have the tests and interviews performed, according to standard protocols developed by this study. Considering the multiplicity of activities involved, each with specific needs for standardization, several predetermined orders of clinical tests and interviews were created. This ensured a high standard of quality in data collection without harm to participants' comfort. Each participant was previously assigned to a specific sequence of clinical tests and interviews with a predefined arrival time, mean length of stay of five to six hours and departure time.

  8. Seismic waether over Brasil during the Chile earthquake/tsunami of September 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kherani, Esfhan; Klausner, Virginia

    2016-07-01

    During an earthquake and tsunami, the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere hosts varieities of disturbances. We refer, this phenomena, as seismic weather, drawing anology from the space weather. In this work, we study the seismic weather over Brasil, associated with the September Chile eqarthquake/tsunami. We aim to simulate this seismic weather for which the seismogenic magnetic and airglow disturbances over Brasil are already reported. We employ the Seismic-Atmsopheric-Ionospheric coupling model (SAI) developed by us, to study this seismic weather. The Earth's surface displacement obtained from seismometer is consisdered as an input to the model which them trigger the Acoustic-Gravity waves (AGWs) in the atmosphere and subsequent magnetic and airglow disturbances in the atmosphere-ionosphere coupled system. The results provide better understanding of coupling arising from the Rayleigh wave forcing.

  9. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  10. Avança Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2002-12-01

    "Avança Brasil" (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented by Avança Brasil. Generic problems with the licensing process include stimulation of a lobby in favor of construction before decisions are made on the advisability of the projects, the "dragging effect" of third parties, whereby economic activity is attracted to the infrastructure but escapes the environmental impact assessment system, a tendency for consulting firms to produce favorable reports, a bureaucratic emphasis on the existence of steps without regard to the content of what is said, and the inability to take account of the chain of events unleashed when a given project is undertaken. The environmental and social costs of forest loss are high; among them is loss of opportunities for sustainable use of the forest, including loss of environmental services such as biodiversity maintenance, water cycling, and carbon storage. The benefits of export infrastructure are meager, especially from the point of view of generating employment. Much of the transportation infrastructure is for soybeans, while the hydroelectric dams contribute to processing aluminum. The example of Avança Brasil makes clear the need to rethink how major development decisions are made and to reconsider a number of the plan's component projects.

  11. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  12. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa.

    PubMed

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ivia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2008-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas.

  13. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): objectives and design.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Estela M L; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Bensenor, Isabela M; Carvalho, Marilia S; Chor, Dóra; Duncan, Bruce B; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Mota, Eduardo L A; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Szklo, Moyses

    2012-02-15

    Although low- and middle-income countries still bear the burden of major infectious diseases, chronic noncommunicable diseases are becoming increasingly common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. However, information is generally scant in these countries regarding chronic disease incidence, social determinants, and risk factors. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information with respect to the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In this report, the authors delineate the study's objectives, principal methodological features, and timeline. At baseline, ELSA-Brasil enrolled 15,105 civil servants from 5 universities and 1 research institute. The baseline examination (2008-2010) included detailed interviews, clinical and anthropometric examinations, an oral glucose tolerance test, overnight urine collection, a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram, measurement of carotid intima-media thickness, echocardiography, measurement of pulse wave velocity, hepatic ultrasonography, retinal fundus photography, and an analysis of heart rate variability. Long-term biologic sample storage will allow investigation of biomarkers that may predict cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Annual telephone surveillance, initiated in 2009, will continue for the duration of the study. A follow-up examination is scheduled for 2012-2013.

  14. [The teaching of history at the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia of the Universidade do Brasil].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marieta de Moraes

    2012-06-01

    This work analyzes the trajectory of the history course at the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia of the Universidade do Brasil between 1939 and 1964/1965. Special emphasis is placed on the period between 1955 and 1965, when there was the separation of the history and geography courses, through to the onset of the reorganization of the schools and institutes of the university. The Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia was a benchmark for the other schools of philosophy in the country, as well as being a reference in the development of the history of education in Brazil. The approach adopted is geared to the field of the history of the historiography, with a focus on the study of the trajectories, institutions and relationship networks.

  15. Reproductive biology of the characid dourado Salminus franciscanus from the São Francisco River, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leonardo J A; Prado, Paula S; Arantes, Fabio P; Santiago, Kleber B; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-06-01

    The neotropical characid Salminus franciscanus is an economically valuable migratory fish whose populations have been drastically reduced in recent decades due to industrial and economic development in Brasil. To study its reproduction, a total of 283 adult specimens were captured in the Upper São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam, Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brasil, from August 2009 to July 2010. The gonadal maturity stages were determined from histological features of the gonads and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Gametogenesis was assessed by light and electron microscopy. For analysis of the oocyte's surface and fecundity, mature females were subjected to hormonal induction and oocyte stripping. Fish in resting (Stage 1) were common in all samplings, ripening/ripe and spawning (Stages 2 and 3) were predominant in October-November and December-January and post-spawning (Stage 4) occurred from December-January extending until April-May. The GSI followed the morphological changes of gonadal maturation, with a peak in October-November, when maximum GSI (7.08 in females and 3.46 in males) was achieved. From scanning electron microscopy, stripped oocytes showed a funnel-shaped micropyle and a simple oocyte surface arrangement, which is typical for non-adhesive eggs. Fecundity ranged from 160 to 440×10(3) oocytes per female and 129 to 175×10(3)oocytes/kg. The results of this study indicate that S. franciscanus reproduces in the Upper São Francisco River from October to January, exhibiting a total spawning pattern, non-adhesive eggs and high fecundity, providing support for aquaculture and conservation biology of this important neotropical characid fish.

  16. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  17. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, R.; Vigo, A.; Fedeli, L.M.G.; Chambless, L.E.; Bensenor, I.; Schmidt, M.I.; Vidigal, P.G.; Castilhos, C.D.; Duncan, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008–2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31–0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60–0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  18. Reproducibility of Left Ventricular Mass by Echocardiogram in the ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Alexandre Pereira; Foppa, Murilo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Lotufo, Paulo; El Aouar, Lilia Maria Mameri; Fernandes, Luciana Pereira; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-01-01

    Background Echocardiography, though non-invasive and having relatively low-cost, presents issues of variability which can limit its use in epidemiological studies. Objective To evaluate left ventricular mass reproducibility when assessed at acquisition (online) compared to when assessed at a reading center after electronic transmission (offline) and also when assessed by different readers at the reading center. Methods Echocardiographers from the 6 ELSA-Brasil study investigation centers measured the left ventricular mass online during the acquisition from 124 studies before transmitting to the reading center, where studies were read according to the study protocol. Half of these studies were blindly read by a second reader in the reading center. Results From the 124 echocardiograms, 5 (4%) were considered not measurable. Among the remaining 119, 72 (61%) were women, mean age was 50.2 ± 7.0 years and 2 had structural myocardial abnormalities. Images were considered to be optimal/ good by the reading center for 110 (92.4%) cases. No significant difference existed between online and offline measurements (1,29 g, CI 95% −3.60-6.19), and the intraclass correlation coefficient between them was 0.79 (CI 95% 0.71-0.85). For images read by two readers, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.86 (CI 95% 0.78-0.91). Conclusion There were no significant drifts between online and offline left ventricular mass measurements, and reproducibility was similar to that described in previous studies. Central quantitative assessment of echocardiographic studies in reading centers, as performed in the ELSA-Brasil study, is feasible and useful in clinical and epidemiological studies performed in our setting. PMID:25424165

  19. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  20. Assimilation of Aerosols from Biomass Burning by the Radiative Transfer Model Brasil-Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R. S.; Gonçalves, A. R.; Souza, J. G.; Martins, F. R.; Pereira, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR is the main tool used by the Earth System Science Centre from the National Institute for Space Research (CCST / INPE) for solar energy resource assessment. Due to large and frequent events of burning biomass in Brazil there is a need to improve the aerosol representation in this model, mainly during the dry season (September - November) in Northern and Central Brazil. The standard aerosol representation in this model is inadequate to capture these events. It is based on the mean monthly climatological horizontal visibility with latitudinal values based on coarse global observation data. To improve the aerosol representation, climatological data of daily horizontal visibility from National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) was used to generate monthly averages from 1999 to 2012. To do a better representation of aerosols from burning biomass events, from megacities aerosol generation, and from transport processes, horizontal visibility estimates performed using aerosol optical thickness at 550 nm data from MACC Project Reanalysis model were used to adjust the aerosol representation in regions were the simple horizontal visibility fails. A methodology to generate these new visibility data from the Reanalysis was made and the resulting data was compared with the average horizontal visibility to implement a new corrected database. The solar irradiation simulated by the model using this new aerosol representation proved to be better than the previous version of the model in all regions with high aerosol loading.

  1. Improvements in the detection efficiency model for the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naccarato, K. P.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    The detection efficiency (DE) is the most important performance gauge of a lightning detection network (LDN). Moreover, the main motivation for evaluating the DE of a LDN is to separate the geographical variations of the CG lightning parameters from the variations regarding the network performance. A review of previous relative DE techniques and simple methods to correct the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash density maps is presented. In addition, recent improvements in the flash DE model for the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT) are discussed. The DE estimated values are based on the sensor individual DE probability functions, which are derived from a large amount of CG stroke data provided by the network considering different distances from the sensor and specific peak current ranges. The new approach provides better results when compared with the previous developments, since the calculation of the sensor DE probability functions neglects the lightning data provided by the minimum number of reporting sensors. Hence it is possible to minimize the unrealistic enhancement of the DE closer to the network boundaries ("border effect") without affecting significantly the performance inside the network. The main result is a more realistic correction of the CG flash density maps, particularly at the outermost network areas, leading to an improvement in the model sensitivity.

  2. Factors associated with leisure time physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants: Ecological model.

    PubMed

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of the study was identify the prevalence and factors associated with leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in adult participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The LTPA was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), long version. A hierarchical ecological model was built with the possible factors associated with LTPA distributed across blocks. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using logistic regression. In men, being more educated, having a high family income, living in environments with conditions and opportunities for PA, being retired and being overweight were positively associated, while current smoking, obesity and abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. Among women, being over 60years old, being more educated, having a high family income, living in an environment with conditions and opportunities for PA practice and being retired were positively associated, while being overweight, obese and having abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. The proposed ecological model explains the LTPA through the social, physical and personal environment and highlights gender differences in physical activity.

  3. "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program: characterization and evolution between 2004 and 2012.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rondineli Mendes; Caetano, Rosangela

    2015-10-01

    The "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program (PFPB) aims to improve access to medicines, offering subsidized products. It is structured in an arrangement involving public and private sectors. The paper described the organization and expansion of the PFPB and examined the reference price (RP) of the medicines paid by the government, between 2004 and 2012. It is an exploratory study of quantitative and qualitative approach, developed from the literature review and analysis of public documents. Quantitative data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Electronic System of Citizens Information Services. The PFPB is organized in two delivery models: public owned facilities (Rede Própria) and accredited private retail pharmacies (Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular-ATFP). The ATFP has allowed its own expansion, from 2006. Antihypertensives, antidiabetics and antiasthmatics were exempt from copayment, since 2011. The expansion of the ATFP Program was significant, for facilities and covered municipalities, 750% and 528%, respectively. The RP was reduced by 33.6% on average (ranging from 23-52%) for medicines available since the beginning of the ATFP. The expansion was performed with the actions hitherto unprecedented, as copayment and accreditation of private retail pharmacies.

  4. Relation of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms to Coronary Artery Calcium (from the ELSA-Brasil Baseline Data).

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Rocco, Priscila T; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barreto, Sandhi M; Brunoni, André R; Goulart, Alessandra C; Blaha, Michael J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies of the association between symptoms of anxiety or depression and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have produced heterogeneous results. Our aim was to investigate whether psychopathological symptoms were associated with CAC in a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 4,279 ELSA-Brasil subjects (aged 35 to 74 years) from the São Paulo site without previous cardiovascular disease who underwent CAC score assessment at baseline. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score >0. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). We built binary logistic regression models to determine whether CIS-R scores, anxiety, or depression were associated with prevalent CAC. Prevalent CAC was found in 1,211 subjects (28.3%). After adjustment for age and gender, a direct association between CIS-R scores and prevalent CAC was revealed (odds ratio for 1-SD increase: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.22). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio for 1-SD increase 1.11; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20). No independent associations were found for specific diagnoses of anxiety or depression and prevalent CAC. In post hoc models, a significant interaction term (p = 0.019) suggested a stronger association in older subjects. In conclusion, psychopathological symptoms were directly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in the ELSA-Brasil baseline in adjusted models, and this association seems to be stronger in older subjects.

  5. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different.

  6. [Reproductive cycle of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Lenz, Tiago; Boehs, Guisla

    2011-03-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is important fishery resource along the entire Brasilian coast with excellent potential for marine culture. The purpose of this paper was to examine the reproductive characteristics of the oyster of the Maraú river estuary in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The samples were collected monthly, from September 2006 to August 2007, at two points (I and II) in Camamu Bay. At each site 20 oysters were collected for histological analysis, fixed in Davidson's solution, embedded in paraffin, dehydrated in an ethanol series, sectioned (7 microm thick) and stained with Harris hematoxylin and Eosin (HE). Additionally, 30 oysters were sampled, at each point, for a condition index analysis. The water temperature ranged from 23.5 degrees C to 30 degrees C and the salinity from 15 to 25 ups at Point I (Maraú) and from 25 to 35 at Point II (Tanque Island). The oyster's height ranged from 30 to 92 mm at Point I and from 27 to 102 mm at Point II, with an average of 49.0 mm +/- 9.1 (n = 230) and 49.9 mm +/- 9.9 (n = 237), respectively. Among the sampled oysters at Point I, 59.1% were females, 31.3% males, 1.3% hermaphrodites and 8.2% of the oysters of undetermined sex. At Point II, 66.2% were females, 30.4% males, 0.8% hermaphrodites and 2.5% (n = 237) of undetermined sex. The gonadic stage analysis indicated that the reproduction period of the C. rhizophorae in the Maraú Peninsula was continuous all year, without any regressive phase. The condition index (R) ranged from 8.0% to 17.7%. The peak periods of R coincided with the expressive oyster's percentage in the maturation and liberation gametic stages. The results of these findings will contribute information for the oyster spat collection and to the process installation of the oyster culture in Camamu Bay.

  7. Physical Activity and Lipid Profile in the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Raquel Caroline; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Alvim, Sheila; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Fedeli, Ligia Maria Giongo; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity (PA) induces desirable changes in plasma levels of high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively) and triglycerides (TG), important risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. However, doubts whether intensity and duration have equivalent benefits remain. Objective To assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG levels. Methods Cross-sectional study with 12,688 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline, who were not on lipid-lowering medication. After adjustment for important covariates, multiple linear regression was used to assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG (natural logarithm) levels. Results Both moderate and vigorous PA and PA practice ≥ 150 min/week were significantly associated with higher HDL and lower TG levels. Vigorous PA was associated with lower LDL only on univariate analysis. After adjustments, moderate and vigorous PA increased mean HDL level by 0.89 mg/dL and 1.71 mg/dL, respectively, and reduced TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL and 0.93 mg/dL, respectively. PA practice ≥ 150 min/week increased mean HDL level by 1.05 mg/dL, and decreased TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL. Conclusion Our findings reinforce the benefits of both PA parameters studied on HDL and TG levels, with a slight advantage for vigorous PA as compared to the recommendation based only on PA duration. PMID:27355470

  8. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35–74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61–0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11–1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29–1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol—metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference—wine or beer—appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations

  9. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  10. Maternal education, anthropometric markers of malnutrition and cognitive function (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The early exposure to poor social and nutritional conditions may influence cognitive function during adult age. However, the relative impact of these factors has not yet been established and they can vary during the course of life. Methods Analysis of data from 12,997 participants (35-64 years) of the baseline exams (2008-2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort of Brazilian civil servants. Four cognitive tests were applied: learning, recall and word recognition; semantic and phonemic verbal fluency; trail-making test version B. The markers of early nutritional and social conditions were maternal educational level, birth weight, and length of trunk and leg. The presence of independent association between every early marker and the poor performance in each cognitive test was investigated by multiple logistic regression, after mutual adjustment and considering the effects of gender, age and participant’s schooling level. The cut off for poor performance was the worst age-specific percentile of the final score distribution for each test. Results After full adjustments, lower maternal education increased the chances of poor performance in all cognitive tests, with a dose-response gradient; low birth-weight was related to poor performance in the trail-making test B (OR = 1.63, 95% IC = 1.29-2.06); and greater trunk length decreased the chances of poor performance in the semantic and phonemic verbal fluency (OR = 0.96, 95% IC = 0.94-0.97) and in the trail-making test B (OR = 0.94, 95% IC = 0.92-0.95). Leg length was not associated with any of the tests examined. The associations found were not modified by the educational attainment of the participants. Conclusions Early exposure to adverse social and nutritional conditions appear detrimental to semantic memory, learning, concentration, executive control and language among adults, independent of adulthood educational achievement. PMID:24989981

  11. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  12. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    PubMed

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics.

  13. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  14. Standardization and reference intervals of platelet volume indices: Insight from the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-BRASIL).

    PubMed

    Maluf, Chams B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Vidigal, Pedro G

    2015-01-01

    Platelet volume indices (PVI) are associated with hematological and non-hematological diseases, notably cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The establishment of PVI reference intervals (RIs) are essential to evaluate whether these indices are useful in clinical practice. Healthy-associated RIs have not yet been established for the Brazilian population. Here, we determined RIs of PVI for a health adult population, participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. A total of 580 individuals out of an initial sample of 3115 subjects constituted the healthy reference sample. To be part of the study, individuals had to fulfill the following criteria: blood count within 2 hours of collection, no use of continuous medication, self-rated health as good or very good, no reported diagnosis of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension, not smoking, lack of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m(2), and platelet, hemoglobin, and creatinine beyond reference values. The RIs are mean platelet volume (MPV): 8.9-11.8 fL, platelet distribution width (PDW): 9.6-15.3 fL, platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR): 15.6-39.5%. These parameters were not significantly affected by age, gender, smoking, obesity, and alcohol abuse. However, significant differences were found among self-rated race/color groups. Standardization of measurement procedures and the establishment of healthy-associated PVI RIs are essential to be able to support clinical decision-making from laboratorial test results. This study at the baseline of the ELSA Brasil reported herein may contribute to future efforts aiming to evaluate whether PVI values are associated with clinical conditions in the Brazilian population.

  15. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  16. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  17. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE TRI‑BORDER AREA OF ASSIS BRASIL, ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TELES, Carolina Bioni Garcia; MEDEIROS, Jansen Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Ana Paula de Azevedo; de FREITAS, Luís Antônio Rodrigues; KATSURAGAWA, Tony Hiroshi; CANTANHÊDE, Lilian Motta; FERREIRA, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; CAMARG, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study, Leishmaniaspecies were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia triborder was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmaniawas detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawiand L. (L.) amazonensis in Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting. PMID:26422160

  18. Use of the Method of Triads in the Validation of Sodium and Potassium Intake in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Mill, José Geraldo; Sichieri, Rosely; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Biomarkers are a good choice to be used in the validation of food frequency questionnaire due to the independence of their random errors. Objective To assess the validity of the potassium and sodium intake estimated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil. Subjects/Methods A subsample of participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort was included in this study in 2009. Sodium and potassium intake were estimated using three methods: Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, 12-hour nocturnal urinary excretion and three 24-hour food records. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the methods, and the validity coefficient was calculated using the method of triads. The 95% confidence intervals for the validity coefficient were estimated using bootstrap sampling. Exact and adjacent agreement and disagreement of the estimated sodium and potassium intake quintiles were compared among three methods. Results The sample consisted of 246 participants, aged 53±8 years, 52% of women. Validity coefficient for sodium were considered weak (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.37 and рbiomarker actual intake = 0.21) and moderate (рfood records actual intake 0.56). The validity coefficient were higher for potassium (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.60; рbiomarker actual intake = 0.42; рfood records actual intake = 0.79). Conclusions: The Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil showed good validity in estimating potassium intake in epidemiological studies. For sodium validity was weak, likely due to the non-quantification of the added salt to prepared food. PMID:28030625

  19. Factors associated with metabolically healthy status in obesity, overweight, and normal weight at baseline of ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P.; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40.8% (n = 5934) were overweight, and 37.5% (n = 5313) were of normal weight. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors related to MHS were ascertained. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of associations. We used 4 different criteria separately and in combination to define MHS: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and comorbidities, and the agreement between them were evaluated by Cohen-kappa coefficient. MHS was present among 12.0% (n = 396) of obese, 25.5% (n = 1514) of overweight, and 48.6% (n = 2582) of normal weight participants according to the combination of the 4 criteria. The agreement between all the 4 MHS criteria was strong (kappa 0.73 P < 0.001). In final logistic models, MHS was associated with lower age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and weight change from age 20 within all BMI categories. This study showed that, despite differences in prevalence among the 4 criteria, MHS was associated with common characteristics at every BMI category. PMID:27399079

  20. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN ELDERLY FROM VIÇOSA/MG, BRASIL.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Martinho, Karina; Luiz Araújo Tinôco, Adelson; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia

    2015-11-01

    La prevalencia de deficiencia nutricional de vitamina B12 aumenta con la edad y es especialmente común en la población mayor. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar su prevalencia y los factores asociados a esta carencia en mayores no institucionalizados de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: estudio poblacional interseccional, realizado para identificar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a deficiencia de vitamina B12 entre la población de mayores en Viçosa (MG). Los datos fueron recopilados desde agosto de 2011 hasta junio de 2012 mediante una encuesta en los hogares y pruebas hematológicas y bioquímicas realizadas en 340 mayores. Resultados: la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina B12 en este grupo fue del 17,4% (95% CI, 13,4% - 21,4%). La deficiencia cognitiva se presenta como un factor importante relacionado con la deficiencia de vitamina B12. Conclusiones: el informe actual contribuye a los estudios que destacan ciertos factores que podrían afectar al rendimiento de las personas mayores en su proceso de envejecimiento natural, especialmente cuando estos factores están asociados con deficiencia cognitiva y dan lugar a una discapacidad significativa así como pérdida de calidad de vida. Así, los resultados aquí presentados han servido para aportar un conocimiento más comprensivo sobre la relación entre deficiencia de B12 y su impacto sobre este grupo de población. También han demostrado su relevancia de cara a la planificación de programas e iniciativas de salud pública centrados en este grupo de población.

  1. Epicardial fat thickness: distribution and association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Daniela Bertol; Foppa, Murilo; Pires, Julio Cesar Gall; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has emerged as a marker of cardiometabolic risk, but its clinical use warrants proper knowledge of its distribution and associations in populations. We aimed to describe the distribution of EFT, its demographic correlates and independent associations with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS) in free-living Brazilian adults. From the baseline echocardiography of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a cohort study of civil servants aged 35-74 years-EFT was measured from a randomly selected sample of 998 participants as the mean of two paraesternal windows obtained at end systole (EFTsyst) and end diastole (EFTdiast). From the 421 individuals free of diabetes, hypertension and MS, we defined EFT reference values and the EFTsyst 75th percentile cut-off. Median EFTsyst was 1.5 (IQR 0-2.6) mm; a large proportion (84 %) had EFTdiast = 0. EFT was higher in women and lower in blacks, and increased with age and BMI. Although EFT was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, and MS, EFT associations were reduced when adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, and were non-significant after adjusting for obesity measures. In conclusion, the amount of EFT in this large multiethnic population is smaller than reported in other populations. EFT reference values varied across demographic and clinical variables, EFT associations with cardiometabolic variables being largely explained by age, sex, ethnicity and central obesity. Although EFT can help identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, it will likely have a limited additional role compared to current risk stratification strategies.

  2. Factors associated with metabolically healthy status in obesity, overweight, and normal weight at baseline of ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Bensenor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40.8% (n = 5934) were overweight, and 37.5% (n = 5313) were of normal weight.Socio-demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors related to MHS were ascertained. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of associations. We used 4 different criteria separately and in combination to define MHS: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and comorbidities, and the agreement between them were evaluated by Cohen-kappa coefficient.MHS was present among 12.0% (n = 396) of obese, 25.5% (n = 1514) of overweight, and 48.6% (n = 2582) of normal weight participants according to the combination of the 4 criteria. The agreement between all the 4 MHS criteria was strong (kappa 0.73 P < 0.001). In final logistic models, MHS was associated with lower age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and weight change from age 20 within all BMI categories.This study showed that, despite differences in prevalence among the 4 criteria, MHS was associated with common characteristics at every BMI category.

  3. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  4. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M.; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G.; Moreira, Rodrigo de C.; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. Methods We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls–FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Results Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. Conclusions We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events. PMID:27391355

  5. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  6. Participation of small municipalities in the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Program in the macro-region of Northern Paraná.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Fernanda de Freitas; Mattos, Luis Fernando Abucarub de; Oliveira, Emmeline Bernardes Duarte de; Domingos, Carolina Milena; Okamura, Carlos Takeo; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Nunes, Elisabete de Fátima Polo de Almeida

    2016-09-01

    Doctor shortage is a constant problem in smaller cities and towns, which tend to be more vulnerable from a social and economic point of view, and located in geographically isolated areas. The goal of this study was to establish the share and characteristics of the small cities and towns in the macro-region of northern Paraná that subscribed to the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (PMMB) program. This is a quantitative study of 82 cities and towns using primary and secondary data. Results show that only a few of them (6.1%) had any adherence criteria, which was not an impediment for other cities and towns (75%) to adhere to the project. Cities and towns with over five thousand inhabitants, lower municipal HDI (Human Development Index), some adherence criteria and more geographically isolated, either from the main city in the region or the closest large or mid-sized city, tended to adhere to the PMMB. It is undeniable that the PMMB significantly reduced the uneven distribution of doctors in Brazil and the study region. However, the sustainability of this policy is linked to addressing other remaining challenges in the SUS system.

  7. Economic evaluation of the Programs Rede Farmácia de Minas do SUS versus Farmácia Popular do Brasil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marina Morgado; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acúrcio, Francisco de Assis

    2017-01-01

    We conducted an economic assessment of the Pharmaceutical Assistance - Rede Farmácia de Minas Gerais-RFMG and Farmácia Popular do Brasil-FPB to ascertain which of the two models stands out as the most efficient. To do this, a model, which consisted of a study of incurred costs in both programs, up to the dispensing of medicine to citizens, was developed. The uncertainties of the proposed model were tested using the Monte Carlo method. If the entire population initially estimated in the RFMG were attended in the FPB, there would be an additional cost of R$ 139,324,050.19. The sensitivity analysis appeared to be favorable to the RFMG. A total of 10000 simulations were carried out, resulting in a median value of R$ 114,053,709.99 for the RFMG and R$ 254,106,120.65 for the FPB. The current National Drug Policy emphasizes the need to strengthen pharmaceutical services beyond the mere acquisition and delivery of pharmaceutical products. The public healthcare service model, consistent with the principles and guidelines of the SUS, seems to be more appropriate in ensuring complete and universal quality healthcare services to the citizens. The economic study conducted reinforces this fact, as it appears to be a more efficient alternative of the direct use of resources in the public health network.

  8. Academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Project in Santa Catarina: the ethical-political viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rita de Cássia Gabrielli Souza; Gripa, Denis William; Prospero, Elisete Navas Sanches; Ros, Marco Aurélio da

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify the fundamentals that drive the academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors for Brazil) project in Santa Catarina, based on the unit of analysis entitled values achieved. It is an exploratory and comprehensive study carried out in 2015, with tutors of the State of Santa Catarina, decentralized reference professionals of the Education and Health Ministries, and key reference professionals of the Education Ministry. Focus groups were used as the instrument for collection of data, through semi-structured interview. Based on the category Emergency care as a force of innovation in the Mais Médicos Program, the analysis was conducted from an ethical-political approach. Three fundamentals emerged: 'Putting out fires', 'Qualification of the Project', and 'the procedural point of view'. It was concluded that academic tutorship of the productive activities of doctors in emergency care is not an isolated pedagogical approach, since it is a part and a consequence of the historic development of the theory and of the practice. The activity corresponds, dialectically, to movements of rupture, resistance, emancipation and also requires collective reflection about the values chosen and achieved in the acts of decision.

  9. Diabetes mellitus and sensorineural hearing loss: is there an association? Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Samelli, Alessandra G; Santos, Itamar S; Moreira, Renata R; Rabelo, Camila M; Rolim, Laurie P; Bensenõr, Isabela J; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have investigated the effects of diabetes on hearing loss, the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Some studies have suggested that diabetes may cause sensorineural hearing loss, whereas others have failed to find an association. The biggest challenge in investigating the association between diabetes and hearing loss is the presence of confounding variables and the complexity of the auditory system. Our study investigated the association between diabetes and sensorineural hearing loss. We evaluated the influence of time from diabetes diagnosis on this association after controlling for age, gender, and hypertension diagnosis and excluding those subjects with exposure to noise. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated 901 adult and elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) participants from São Paulo, Brazil who underwent audiometry testing as part of ELSA-Brasil’s baseline assessment. RESULTS: Hearing thresholds and speech test results were significantly worse in the group with diabetes than in the group without diabetes. However, no significant differences were found between participants with and without diabetes after adjusting for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. Hearing thresholds were not affected by occupational noise exposure in the groups with and without diabetes. In addition, no association between the duration of diabetes and hearing thresholds was observed after adjusting for age, gender, and hypertension. CONCLUSION: We found no association between the duration of diabetes and worse hearing thresholds after models were adjusted for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. PMID:28226026

  10. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  11. Comparative study of satellite and ground techiniques for cloudcover determination and their effect over the radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Souza, M.; Pereira, E.

    Information about cloud cover is a very important input data for radiative transfer models and great effort is being made to improve its measurements. The BRASIL- SR model is a radiative transfer model that evaluates surface solar irradiation from cloud cover coefficient and climatological values of temperature and albedo. The original algorithm to derive cloud cover coefficient is based on the fact that clouds presents a bigger reflectance than Earth surface. Then, cloud cover coefficient is obtained for each pixel from GOES 8 visible channel-1 (0.52-0.75μm) from a linear relation between the maximum and minimum values over a specific time period. To minimize systematic errors caused by permanent cloudy or clear sky conditions, or caused by electronic noise, Martins has proposed two new algorithms. The first one is based on the albedo variability of clouds and Earth surface over a time period. The algorithm calculates the mean value and standard deviation of five minor visible radiance values measured by GOES-8 for each pixel in a one-month period. Clouds present a larger variability and, therefore, the standard deviation will be also larger when cloud contamination is present. The mean value is assigned to clear sky condition if cloud contamination is absent. Overcast condition is associated with the maximum radiance value measured. The second algorithm uses the ratio between the infrared radiance (10.2-11.2μm) and the visible radiance to identify cloud contamination in a pixel. The clear sky condition is associated to high values of this ratio and the overcast condition is associated to low ratio values (if snow coverage is absent). A linear relation between the two conditions is employed to obtain the cloud cover coefficient in both algorithms. Souza has developed an algorithm to determine cloud cover coefficient from images obtained by a CCD sensor on a ground platform. The CCD sensor operates in the visible range (0.4-0.7μm) and is adapted to a fisheye

  12. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; de Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14–1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) and ‘Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12–1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality—as measured by different indicators—are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access. PMID:26102079

  13. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Miname, M; Bensenor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes.

  14. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Olmos, R D; Figueiredo, R C de; Aquino, E M; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.

  15. Leisure-time and commuting physical activity and high blood pressure: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Treff, C; Benseñor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the association between leisure-time physical activity and commuting-related physical activity and high blood pressure among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Physical activity was assessed through application of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, particularly the domains addressing leisure and transportation. We used the World Health Organization's definition (⩾150 min per week of moderate activities or 75 min per week of vigorous activities) to establish three categories: active, insufficiently active and inactive. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure of >140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medications. From a universe of 15 105 participants, we analysed 13 857 subjects without previous cardiovascular diseases. The association between physical activity and hypertension was obtained using Poisson regression with adjustment for age, race, education, income, body mass index, diabetes and sodium and alcohol intake. Men who were active during leisure time had a multivariate prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.77-0.92) for hypertension compared with inactive men. For women, the prevalence ratio of active vs inactive during leisure time was 0.86 (0.79-0.95). However, this protective effect of leisure-time physical activity was not observed among men and women with diabetes or obese women. The association found between commuting-related physical activity and hypertension was not detected among men, and the prevalence ratio for women who were active during commuting time compared with inactive women was 1.11 (1.01-1.21). In conclusion, leisure-time physical activity was protective against hypertension, and commuting-related physical activity was associated with high blood pressure among women.

  16. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Miname, M.; Bensenor, I.M.; Lotufo, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes. PMID:27901176

  17. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão de; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14-1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12-1.32) and 'Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12-1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality-as measured by different indicators-are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access.

  18. Association between carotid intima-media thickness and adiponectin in participants without diabetes or cardiovascular disease of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Ferreira, Sandra Rg

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study assessed the association of adiponectin concentration with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in middle-aged participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Design Cross-sectional analyses. Methods A sample of 687 individuals (35-54 years old) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease was stratified into two categories according to CIMT (< or ≥ 75th percentile). Traditional risk factors, C-reactive protein and adiponectin values were compared between categories by Student's t-test and frequencies by chi-square test. In linear regression models, associations of CIMT with adiponectin, adjusted for adiposity, blood pressure, C-reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were tested. Mean CIMT values were compared across quartiles of adiponectin concentrations using analysis of variance. Results Three hundred and forty-one individuals (49.6%) were women and 130 (19.0%) had three traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Those with elevated CIMT (21.8%) had greater mean values of body mass index (26.2(3.8) vs. 27.7(4.0)kg/m(2), p < 0.001), waist circumference (86.9(10.1) vs. 90.1(10.8) cm, p = 0.001), systolic blood pressure (116.2(13.6) vs.121.2(16.1) mmHg, p < 0.001), homeostasis model assessment index (1.4(0.9-2.4) vs. 1.8(1.1-2.9), p = 0.011), C-reactive protein (1.2 (0.6-2.6) vs. 1.4(0.8-3.2) mg/l, p = 0.054) and adiponectin (9.9 (6.0-14.7) vs. 8.9 (5.3-13.8) µg/ml, p = 0.002) levels than the counterpart, while plasma glucose and lipids were not different between groups. In the adjusted model, blood pressure (directly) and adiponectin (inversely) persisted associated with high CIMT. Mean CIMT was greater in the first quartile of adiponectin when compared with the other three quartiles ( p = 0.019). Conclusions Lower adiponectin levels together with higher blood pressure were independently associated with

  19. Significance of the Nova Brasilândia metasedimentary belt in western Brazil: Redefining the Mesoproterozoic boundary of the Amazon craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, Eric; van der Pluijm, Ben; Mezger, Klaus; Essene, Eric; Scandolara, Jaime; Rizzotto, Gilmar

    2004-12-01

    The Nova Brasilândia metasedimentary belt (NBMB) of western Brazil marks a fundamental crustal boundary in the Amazon craton. The metasedimentary rocks of the NBMB (calc-silicates, metapelites, quartzites, metabasites) contrast strongly with the older, polycyclic granitoid rocks of the adjacent Amazon craton. Aeromagnetic anomalies indicate that the belt is continuous for at least 1000 km in an E-W direction, although the easternmost extent of the NBMB is covered by the Cretaceous sediments of the Parecis Formation. Additional geologic evidence suggests that the belt extends along an E-W trend for ~2000 km. The northern portion of the NBMB preserves vestiges of an early high pressure-temperature (P-T) assemblage (kyanite + staurolite) overprinted by sillimanite during prograde metamorphism. A higher metamorphic grade is observed in the southern portion of the belt, with peak conditions calculated to be 800 MPa and 800°C for granulitic assemblages. The combined P-T path demonstrates that the competing processes of imbrication (northern domain) and magma generation (southern domain) are responsible for regional metamorphism and crustal thickening. Cooling from peak metamorphic conditions is recorded by U-Pb monazite ages of 1090 Ma and titanite ages of ~1060 Ma. Integrated cooling rates of 2°-3°C/Myr from regional metamorphism are calculated from these U/Pb ages combined with 40Ar/39Ar ages of hornblende (~970 Ma) and biotite (~910 Ma). The NBMB marks the Mesoproterozoic limit of the SW Amazon craton. The discordance of the NBMB to the NNW structural trend of the younger Aguapeí belt (200 km SE of NBMB), together with marked differences between the two belts in sedimentary environment, metamorphic grade, and timing of deformation, signify that these two belts are not geologically continuous. The ``Grenvillian'' deformation recorded by the NBMB belt marks the final docking of the Amazon craton and Paragua craton within the Rodinia framework. The Aguapeí belt, in

  20. Presentation of the Multimédia Game "Geolover" Concept, to Educational Enchancement of the Geolocical Heritage of the Following Regions: "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal (Portugal) and Açores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Alfama, Vera; Oliveira, Sirlene; Pinharandas, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro; Campos, José; Nobre, José

    2013-04-01

    "Geolover" - Presentation of the multimédia game concept, to educational enchancement of the geolocical heritage of the following regions: : "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal and Açores (Portugal). "Geolover" is a multitouch game, played by four players simultaneously, identified by 4 mascots and using as sceneries, the four regions landscapes, aimed to the young people with ages between 8 and 12 years old. The main objective is value the geological heritage of the Ilha do Fogo (Cabo Verde), Seridó in State of Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil) , Sabugal in Beira Alta province (Portugal) and Arquipélago dos Açores (Portuguese autonomous region). These regions have a great geological heritage like volcanology, plutonic rocks, sedimentar formations, metamorphic, paleontologic, mineralogic, geomorphologic, hydric and mining resources. Such heritage is being used in the different regions has base of studies to senior scientists and were used to great scientific researches. The diversified and distinguished cultural heritage of these four regions is referenced and it's a value to the union of the students from these three continents, with the Portuguese language as communication tool. The variety of the geological wealth and cultural of these regions, results in the common objective of their valuing like Geoparks. His creation on these three regions is a strategy with a great relevance to the socio-economic development. With the creation of this game, we promote the union of these 3 countries from these three continents, the universal values of the heritage richness that are offered by our planet.

  1. Social mobility and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle-income country: Association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Joanna M N; Clarke, Philippa; Tate, Denise; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Santos, Itamar S; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Chor, Dora

    2016-11-01

    Over the past half century Brazil has undergone a process of dramatic industrialization and urbanization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have become common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. The association of social mobility with subclinical CVD has been rarely explored, particularly in developing societies. We investigated the association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical or asymptomatic atherosclerosis, in a large Brazilian sample (ELSA-Brasil). We used baseline data (2008-2010) for 7343 participants from ELSA-Brasil. Intra-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class between participants' first occupation and current occupation. Inter-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class of the head of the household when the participant started working and participants' current occupation. Social mobility groups were classified as: stable high (reference), upward, downward and stable low. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between type of social mobility and IMT. Compared to those who experienced stable high occupational status across generations, downward inter-generational mobility was associated with greater IMT. Additionally, those who declined the most in occupational status had the highest values of IMT, even after adjustments for lifestyle and cardiovascular factors. For intra-generational mobility, stable low versus stable high social mobility was independently associated with higher IMT. Subclinical atherosclerosis is patterned by socioeconomic status both within and across generations, demonstrating an association even before symptoms of CVD appear. The health consequences of downward inter-generational social mobility were not fully explained by lifestyle and cardiovascular factors, whereas being consistently exposed to low occupational

  2. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  3. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  4. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  5. Micoinseticidas e Micoacaricidas no Brasil: Como estamos?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides can be defined as biopesticide products based on living propagules of entomopathogenic fungi developed for inundative and inoculative biological control of insects and mites. Based on recently published data on global use of entomopathogenic fungi and a proposal f...

  6. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  7. Constraining depth of anisotropy in the Amazon region (Northern Brasil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Willy Corrêa Rosa, João; Bokelmann, Götz

    2014-05-01

    Seismic data recorded between November 2009 and September 2013, at the permanent station PTGA of the Brazilian seismic network were used to constrain the depth of anisotropy in the lithosphere beneath the station. 90 receiver functions (RF) have been computed, covering the backazimuthal directions from 0° to 180°. Both radial (R) and transverse (T) components of the RF contain useful information about the subsurface structure. The isotropic part of the seismic velocity profile at depth mainly affects the R-RF component, while anisotropy and dipping structures produce P-to-S conversion recorded on the T-RF component (Levin and Park, 1998; Savage, 1998). The incoming (radially polarized) S waves, when passing through an anisotropic crust, splits and part of it is projected onto the transverse component. The anisotropy symmetry orientations (Φ) can be estimated by the polarity change of the observed phases. The arrival times of the phases is related to the depth of the conversion. Depth and Φ are estimated by isolating phases at certain arrival times. SKS shear-wave splitting results from previous studies in this area (Krüger et al., 2002, Rosa et al., 2014), suggest the presence of anisotropy in the mantle with orientation of the fast splitting axis (about E-W) following major deep tectonic structures. The observed splitting orientation correlates well with the current South America plate motion (i.e. relative to mesosphere), and with observed aeromagnetic trends. This similarity leaves open the possibility of a linkage between the upper mantle fabric imaged by shear wave splitting analysis and the lower crustal structure imaged by aeromagnetometry. In this study we unravel, from RF data, two layers in which anisotropy concentrates, i.e. the lower crust and the upper mantle. Lower crustal and upper mantle anisotropy retrieved by RFs give some new hints in order to interpret the previously observed anisotropic orientations from SKS and the aeromagnetic anomalies.

  8. The Scientific program with RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Hussein, M. S.; Barioni, A.; Condori, R. Pampa; Morais, M. C.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Otani, Y.; Leistenschneider, E.; Scarduelli, V.; Benjamim, E. A.; Arazi, A.; Assuncao, M.

    2009-06-03

    The Radioactive Ion Beams Facility (RIBRAS) is in operation since 2004 at the Pelletron Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo and consists of two superconducting solenoids capable of producing low energy secondary beams of light exotic nuclei. Measurements of the elastic scattering, breakup and transfer reactions with radioactive projectiles such as {sup 6}He,{sup 8}Li,{sup 7}Be on several targets have been performed. A review of the research program carried on along the last four years using the RIBRAS facility is presented.

  9. Curriculum Studies in Brasil: A Study of the Teaching Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcondes, Maria Ines; Tura, Maria de Lourdes Rangel; de Macedo, Elizabeth Fernandes

    This study analyzes how undergraduate university teachers are thinking in the classroom about the theoretical and practical contents related to the subject called "Curriculum Studies." The study focuses on the aspects of the theory-practice relationship, the idea of curriculum, and the theoretical references used by the undergraduate…

  10. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  11. Dangerous Fog Analyses and Forecast in the Maceio Airport, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, N.; Silva, A.; Levit, V.; Santos, E.

    2010-07-01

    A small airplane fatal accident has occurred near Maceio Airport, on the coastal region on 26 July 2007. Low visibility in the intensive fog has provoked this accident. Weather forecast analysis, published in the local and central Brazilian newspapers during 2007, showed fog forecast absence during whole year. A study of the fog formation causes was elaborated using the high and low resolution satellite data, radar data, different products of NCEP reanalysis data and high resolution regional MM5 model simulation. The trade winds with a weak cyclonic curvature at the low levels have generated the humidity convergence at the superficial layers up to 850hPa on the coastal region. An anticyclonic circulation existence at the middle and higher levels and weak ascendant motion (by NCEP data) have support a weak convection development. The low levels clouds development on the continental region and convection development over ocean were confirmed by the radar and satellite data. A thermal inversion near surface level (up to 150m) and descendent movement at the middle and high levels were identified by MM5 model. Fog formation was simulated by PAFOG model. The conventional airport observations have shown the minimal visibility of 200m between 4 and 7a.m. Moreover visibility less than 1000m between 1 and 8a.m. with the minimal visibility of 213m was simulated by PAFOG model.

  12. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  13. Disciplines and Professors of Astronomy in Undergraduate Physics Teachers Formation Courses in Brazilian Universities. (Spanish Title: Disciplinas y Profesores de Astronomia en los Cursos de Licenciatura en Física en Las Universidades Brasileñas.) Disciplinas e Professores de Astronomia Nos Cursos de Licenciatura em Física das Universidades Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, Artur Justiniano, Jr.; Reis, Thiago Henrique; dos Reis Germinaro, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This article is the result of a research on basic training in Astronomy in physics degrees that performed the ENADE 2011 national examination. The objective was to identify whether there are disciplines of Astronomy in these courses, whether are mandatory or optional, its workload and when it is offered. The relationship between astronomers, physics degrees and disciplines of Astronomy was investigated. To perform this research we examined the results of ENADE 2011 and also the census of Brazilian Astronomical Society. As a result it is observed that in only 15% of the courses there is a mandatory subject of Astronomy, and therefore there is a high probability that 85% of physics teachers trained in 2011 have not had any discipline of Astronomy during their graduation. In addition, the data collected in this study shows a low number of members of SAB (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira) among the surveyed courses. We have verified that the presence of astronomers in a given university does not imply to have a mandatory discipline of Astronomy in physics degrees at the same university. Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación sobre la formación básica en Astronomía en los cursos de Profesorado en Física que hicieron el examen nacional ENADE 2011. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar se existen disciplinas de Astronomía en estos cursos, si son obligatorias u optativas, cuál es su carga horaria y el semestre en que son ofrecidas. Se investigó también la correlación entre astrónomos, los cursos de licenciatura en Física y las disciplinas de Astronomía. Para realizar esta investigación se utilizaron los datos del ENADE 2011 y también del censo de la Astronomía brasileña. Como resultado, se observó que en solo 15% de los cursos existe una disciplina obligatoria de Astronomía y que existe una grande probabilidad de que 85% de los profesores de Física formados en el año de 2011 no hayan cursado ninguna disciplina de Astronomía durante su

  14. [Determinant factors for healthy aging among senior citizens in a large city: the Epidoso Project in São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Population aging leads to an increase in the prevalence of chronic and disabling diseases, as well as a change in the public health paradigm. Diseases diagnosed in the elderly are generally not curable; if not properly treated and monitored over time, they tend to generate complications and sequelae that impair patients' independence and autonomy. Health is no longer measured by the presence or absence of disease, but by the degree of preservation of functional capacity. Factors for healthy aging with good functional capacity and those which increase the risk of death and disability need to be identified by longitudinal surveys that include the elderly population living in the community. This article presents data from the first follow-up survey of senior citizens in Brasil, called the Epidoso Project (from "epi" as in "epidemiologic" and "idoso" or "elderly" in Portuguese) implemented since 1991 in the city of São Paulo. The socio-demographic, clinical, and functional characteristics of a cohort of elderly are discussed, with a risk analysis for death and disability, and the implications for health planning are considered.

  15. R&D Equipment Information Report. Fault Tolerant Weather Radar Processor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Control System. 6) Type RUN IDOSO (Return). IDOS-0 will initialize its own tables including the page map (see Section 5.2.2.1.3), and then load and...typing ’RUN IDOSO --. 4 5.2.1 IDOS-0 Operation All user programs in the Intecolor which use the TIC must run as tasks under IDOS-0. At initialization...DOINI IDOS-0 Initialization starts Interval timer interrupts, sets up tables, calls IUSER DOIDL IDOS-O Idle Loop Entered From Fatal Errors IDOSO

  16. Psychometric properties of Multidimensional Health Locus of Control - A and General Self-Efficacy Scale in civil servants: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK)

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Luciana A. C.; Telles, Rosa W.; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Health-related control and self-efficacy beliefs can be assessed in the general population using Multidimensional Health Locus of Control-A subscales (MHLC-A) and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), respectively. Objective To test construct validity, internal consistency, reliability (test-retest) and ceiling and floor effects of Portuguese-Brazil versions of MHLC-A and GSES. Method Civil servants (N=2901) enrolled in a large Brazilian cohort were included. A new version of the GSES was produced (GSES-Brazil). Procedures for cross-cultural adaptation and testing of psychometric properties followed well-accepted international guidelines. Results Confirmatory factor analyses yielded the following indices: MHLC-A (tridimensional model): χ2[df]=223.45[132], p-value <0.01; CFI=0.87; TLI=0.85; RMSEA=0.07 (0.07-0.08); WRMR=3.00. GSES-Brazil (unidimensional model): χ2[df]=788.60[35], p-value <0.01; CFI=0.95; TLI=0.94; RMSEA=0.09 (0.08-0.09); WRMR=2.50. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC2,1) ranged from 0.57 (0.54-0.59) and 0.57 (0.47-0.65) for MHLC-A internality to 0.80 (0.79-0.81) and 0.71 (0.66-0.77) for GSES-Brazil, respectively. There was no evidence of ceiling and floor effects. Convergent validity analyses provided further support for construct validity of both scales. Conclusion These findings support the use of the newly developed version of GSES-Brazil for the assessment of general self-efficacy of adult Brazilians. Internal consistency was lower than ideal for MHLC-A, indicating these subscales may need further refinements to provide a more psychometrically sound measure of control beliefs. PMID:27878226

  17. Essentialism and the expression of social stereotypes: a comparative study of Spain, Brasil and England.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marcos Emanoel; Alvaro Estramiana, José Luis; Schweiger Gallo, Inge

    2010-11-01

    Over the past few years, one of the most productive directions in the study of the activation and application of stereotypes has been provided by the essentialist concept of categorization. The research presented here studied the impact of two dimensions of essentialist beliefs--naturalism and entitativity-by using data collected from Brazil, Spain and England. The aim was to test whether there was a greater degree of essentialization among the naturalizable categories (sex, age and race) than among the entitative categories (economic condition, religion, political orientation, nationality and social condition). The results not only showed that participants hold more essentialist beliefs with regard to naturalistic categories but also showed the differences in the degree of essentialization across the three cultures. A discussion is conducted on the implications of the present findings, and on the heuristic value of the theoretical model (of the bidimensional nature of essentialism) adopted by this research.

  18. Abandonment and accessibility in railway historical buildings: Central do Brasil and Leopoldina Railstation.

    PubMed

    Brasil, C C G; Costa, A M; Castañon, J A B

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the evolution of a study in the city of Juiz de Fora-MG, whose objective is the assessment of areas of train station in relation to the inclusion of people with disabilities and consequently promote the historical and cultural heritage of this city. The railway buildings are important landmarks in the history of the city and its surroundings was formed the first core of urban development. Because this building was of the early nineteenth century, these were not designed to assist people with disabilities, in effect, we observed that the buildings are being underutilized. The difficulty of insertion of incentive policies is therefore not due to the commitment by the majority, making the deployment of new access.

  19. The Research Program at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)-III

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Assuncao, M.; Moro, A. M.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Arazi, A.

    2010-04-30

    A part of the research program developed in the RIBRAS facility over the last four years is presented. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light exotic nuclei such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed. Elastic angular distributions have been analysed by the Optical Model and four body Continuous Discretized Coupled Channels Calculations (4b-CDCC) and the total reaction cross sections have been obtained. A comparison between the reaction cross sections of {sup 6}He and other stable projectiles with medium-heavy targets was performed. Measurements of the proton transfer reaction {sup 12}C({sup 8}Li,{sup 9}Be){sup 11}B are also presented.

  20. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  1. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  2. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  3. Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (Σ8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 μgC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

  4. Characteristics of male and female injecting drug users of the AjUDE-Brasil II Project.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida

    2006-04-01

    The object of this study is to compare female and male injection drug users (IDUs) in terms of sociodemographic profile and aspects of their initiation to the use of injection drugs. It was a cross-sectional and multicentric study realized in 2000-2001 in six Brazilian syringe-exchange programs. 146 women and 709 men were interviewed, with average ages of 29.5 and 28.3 years, respectively. Both began injection drug use at similar ages, 18.6 and 19.3, for women and men, respectively, although women report more frequently than men that they were initiated by a sexual partner to acquiring drugs and syringes, and to the act of injection. Compared to men, women report significantly more regular sexual partners (83% versus 72%); fewer casual partners (39% versus 58%), more use of injection drugs with their partners, as well as more "exchange" of sex for drugs. Among HIV-seropositive individuals, women show less education, had more chance of their sexual partners participating in their initiation to injection drugs, and report sexual partners that used injection drugs more frequently. Female IDUs exhibit aspects of behavior indicating greater vulnerability to HIV infection than do males.

  5. Analysis of geothermal temperatures for heat pumps application in Paraná (Brasil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Alexandre F.; de Souza, Heraldo J. L.; Cantao, Mauricio P.; Gaspar, Pedro D.

    2016-11-01

    Geothermal heat pumps are broadly used in developed countries but scarcely in Brazil, in part because there is a lack of Brazilian soil temperature data. The aims of this work are: to present soil temperature measurements and to compare geothermal heat pump system performances with conventional air conditioning systems. Geothermal temperature measurement results are shown for ten Paraná State cities, representing different soil and climate conditions. The measurements were made yearlong with calibrated equipment and digital data acquisition system in different measuring stations. Geothermal and ambient temperature data were used for simulations of the coeficient of performance (COP), by means of a working fluid pressure-enthalpy diagram based software for vapor-compression cycle. It was verified that geothermal temperature measured between January 13 to October 13, 2013, varied from 16 to 24 °C, while room temperature has varied between 2 and 35 °C. Average COP values for conventional system were 3.7 (cooling mode) and 5.0 kW/kW (heating mode), corresponding to 5.9 and 7.9 kW/kW for geothermal system. Hence it was verified an average eficiency gain of 59%with geothermal system utilization in comparison with conventional system.

  6. [Association between household solid waste disposal and health, Belo Horizonte (MG), Brasil].

    PubMed

    Catapreta, C A; Heller, L

    1999-02-01

    There are few published studies about the effects of inadequate solid waste collection on the health of the population exposed to this situation. The objective of the present work was to describe this association in a sample of children under 5 years of age living in seven low-income neighborhoods and favelas in the city of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We defined as "exposed" those children whose families were not served by waste collection; "not-exposed" were children who lived in areas with waste collection. The study employed data collected in 1994 and organized as a database by the municipal department of health. We employed a cross-sectional design, in which a "case" was defined as a child whose outpatient clinic record indicated a diagnosis of diarrheal, parasitic, or dermatological disease. Other diagnoses for the same age group composed the control group. Our epidemiological study revealed an association between the absence of domestic solid waste collection and public health. Our results suggest that the children exposed to the absence of solid waste collection have a 40% higher odds (OR = 1.40) of presenting diarrheal, parasitic, and dermatological diseases than not-exposed children. In addition, the calculation of attributable risk revealed that the presence of waste collection could prevent (based on the 1995 situation) 512 cases in the neighborhoods studied and (based on the 1994 conditions) 2316 cases among children in the entire city of Belo Horizonte.

  7. Ergonomics at Volkswagen Brasil. Multidisciplinary work to equalize health, productivity and quality.

    PubMed

    Filus, Rodrigo; Wruca, Rodrigo; Charleaux, Vanessa; Ortega, Auro; Ferreira, Claudio; Jesus, Leandro; Stramari, Anderson; Neufel, Michel; Maia, Uyara

    2012-01-01

    Following the technological developments and presented to the multidisciplinary processes as automakers, Volkswagen Brazil, represented by its ergonomists, through this paper, shows the importance of ergonomic efficiency of management applied to various levels of life of a product, since its creation to its final implementation on production lines.The preventive work of ergonomists during the processes leading to production of a vehicle is accomplished through assessments on a simulated system called the Digital Factory. Since the initial stages to final product delivery there is a need for a multidisciplinary aligning the concepts of ergonomics, productivity and quality of product. Industrial Engineering, Process Engineering, ergonomists and workers are involved in the analysis made through the Workshop's showing the importance of discussion between the various users of the systems. The processes of series are also equipped with a set of certifications flow of job and planned audits on items that describe processes and applied ergonomics.

  8. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture).

  9. [Logistics of collection and transportation of biological samples and the organization of the central laboratory in the ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Ligia G; Vidigal, Pedro G; Leite, Claudia Mendes; Castilhos, Cristina D; Pimentel, Robércia Anjos; Maniero, Viviane C; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a multicenter cohort study which aims at the identification of risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian population. The paper describes the strategies for the collection, processing, transportation, and quality control of blood and urine tests in the ELSA. The study decided to centralize the tests at one single laboratory. The processing of the samples was performed at the local laboratories, reducing the weight of the material to be transported, and diminishing the costs of transportation to the central laboratory at the Universidade de São Paulo Hospital. The study included tests for the evaluation of diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, electrolyte abnormalities, thyroid hormones, uric acid, hepatic enzyme abnormalities, inflammation, and total blood cell count. In addition, leukocyte DNA, urine, plasma and serum samples were stored. The central laboratory performed approximately 375,000 tests.

  10. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  11. The Navy of Brazil: An Emerging Power at Sea (Marinha do Brasil: Um Poder Emergente no Mar),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    neighboring countries were solved through diplomacy. Second, the Brazilian economy remained essentially based on agricultural production, with little...emphasis on the industrialization process that took place in other parts of the world. As a result, the technological base gained by the war effort...industrial base , many problems were not solved and dependence on foreign support was almost absolute. These facts became more evident when Brazil, after having

  12. Assessment of essential elements and chemical contaminants in thirteen fish species from the Bay Aratu, Bahia, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Silva, E; Viana, Z C V; Souza, N F A; Korn, M G A; Santos, V L C S

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of ten elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V and Zn) were determinate in muscle tissues of 13 fish species from Aratu Bay, Bahia, Brazil by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The accuracy and precision of our results were checked by using two certified reference materials: BCR-422 cod muscle and SRM 1566b oyster tissue. The average trace element concentrations in the fish species varied in the following ranges, in μg g-1: 0.03-0.8 for Cr; 2.0-33.7 for Cu, 2.4-135.1 for Fe, 1.6-25.6 for Se; 1.6-35.1 for Sr; and 2.8-40.5 for Zn. The Diaptereus rhombeus (carapeba) specie presented the highest concentrations of Se, Cu and Fe. Chromium and Se were present at levels above the limit of tolerance allowed by the National Agency of Sanitary Vigilance (ANVISA). The results were also evaluated using the multivariate analysis techniques: principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA).

  13. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  14. Is Brazil Actually Ready to be a World Economic Power? (CSL Issue Paper, Volume 13-11, July 2011)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Brazil, Porto Brasil : Economic Sectors, http://www.brasil.gov.br/sobre/economy/economy-sectors/agriculture-and-cattle- raising-agropecuaria (accessed...April 15, 2011); Federal Government of Brazil, “Porto Brasil : Federal Government Budget,” http://www.brasil.gov.br/sobre/ brazil/government/federal

  15. [Prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance in hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto Francisco; Rodríguez-López, Leticia; Lozano-Nuevo, José Juan; Vargas-Ayala, German; Beltrán-Soto, José Martín; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat Berenice

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tienden a coexistir en el mismo paciente. La hiperglucemia postprandial de dos horas es un predictor de enfermedad cardiovascular. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar la prevalencia de tolerancia a la glucosa alterada en sujetos hipertensos con glucosa de ayuno normal. Métodos: se incluyeron 65 pacientes hipertensos no diabéticos y con glucosa plasmática de ayuno < 100 mg/dL, en quienes se realizó una prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Resultados: encontramos tolerancia a la glucosa alterada en 32 pacientes (49.2 %), 29 en rango de intolerancia a la glucosa y tres casos en rango de diabetes mellitus. No hallamos relación entre glucosa postprandial con cifras de presión arterial ni con la edad, pero sí una correlación significativa entre intolerancia a la glucosa e índice de masa corporal > 32.6 (R = 0.59, p < 0.005, RR 4.2). Conclusión: nuestros resultados muestran que los pacientes hipertensos no diabéticos suelen cursar con tolerancia a la glucosa alterada, particularmente aquellos con índice de masa corporal aumentado, y que la glucosa de ayuno no es suficiente como prueba de monitoreo para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en ese tipo de pacientes.

  16. [Hypertension Control at the Primary Health Care: A Comparison Among Portuguese Natives and Portuguese Speaking African Coutries Immigrants].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Elisa; Alarcão, Violeta; Simões, Rui; Fernandes, Milene; Gómez, Verónica; Souto, Diana; Nogueira, Paulo; J Nicola, Paulo J; Rocha, Evangelista

    2016-03-01

    Introdução: Em Portugal, a percentagem de hipertensos tratados e controlados é relativamente baixa. Desconhece-se a relação dos determinantes socioeconómicos com o controlo tensional, particularmente nos imigrantes africanos. Objetivo: Comparar a frequência de controlo nos hipertensos tratados e identificar características associadas à hipertensão tratada não controlada, entre nativos portugueses (caucasianos) e imigrantes dos PALOP (negros). Material e Métodos: Estudo transversal de hipertensos tratados, com 40-80 anos, aleatorizados dos Cuidados de Saúde Primários da região de Lisboa. Recolheram-se dados sociodemográficos, clínicos e cuidados de saúde por entrevistas estruturadas. Comparou-se a frequência de hipertensos não controlados nos dois grupos, identificando-se fatores relacionados por análise univariada e multi-variada. Resultados: Participaram 786 hipertensos tratados (taxa de participação: 71%): 449 nativos e 337 imigrantes. Destes, 46% tinham a hipertensão controlada. A pressão arterial diastólica foi mais elevada nos imigrantes mais novos. Nos nativos, o não controlo associou--se a: sexo masculino, menor grau de escolaridade, ida aos serviços de urgência e/ou enfermagem e não ida ao médico de família; nos imigrantes, ser solteiro, recorrer ao farmacêutico, número de anos de doença e não adesão intencional à terapêutica. Discussão: O controlo da hipertensão tratada tem vindo a aumentar nos últimos anos. Nativos e imigrantes diferenciam-se no controlo tensional relativamente à frequência do recurso a consulta do médico de família, e de outros serviços e profissionais de saúde. Estas diferenças não se refletiram em taxas de controlo estatisticamente significativas. Conclusões: Será necessário definir estratégias para o controlo da hipertensão nos cuidados de saúde primários diferenciadas para os grupos étnicos.

  17. Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis (CPSA BRASIL 2015): on the way to innovation - pharmaceutical/analytical technology, regulation and knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Needham, Shane; Yates, Nathan; Barrientos, Rafael; Steel, Martin; Lee, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis, São Paulo, Brazil, 3-5 August 2015 The 2nd Annual Symposium on Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis was held on 3-5 August 2015 at Club Transatlântico, São Paulo, Brazil. This annual meeting began in 2014 and was the first industry-led event in Brazil to focus on the specific needs of industry researchers while bringing together technology and regulators. The goal of CPSA is to provide an in-depth review of innovative technology and industry practices through open discussion of industry-related issues and needs. Education and specialized training are the foundation of all CPSA events. As the industry has evolved so has CPSA. The CPSA annual meeting thrived with high quality scientific content, open interaction from industry opinion leaders and a collegial environment.

  18. Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil.

    PubMed

    d'Azevedo, P A; Secchi, C; Antunes, A L S; Sales, T; Silva, F M; Tranchesi, R; Pignatari, A C C

    2008-10-01

    In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant.

  19. Impact of vinasse application in the C and N in the soils cultivaded with sugarcane in South Brasil, using Isotopic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossete, A. M.; Medeiros, G. G.; Adorno, F. C.; Possignolo, N. V.; Moreira, M. Z.; Camargo, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    The main anthropogenic sources in the environment are fertilizers, pesticides, biomass burning, vehicle emissions, and disposal of urban and industrial waste. Vinasse is characterized as a residual of sugarcane distillery effluent with high concentrations of potassium and organic matter. The environmental impact caused by its use in the vinasse is modification chemical and physical properties in the soil and water. For this, the isotopic technique can be a powerful tool to understand the biogeochemical cycling of light elements (C and N). Some environmental studies have been conducted involving isotopic characterization of Carbon and Nitrogen in soil. Several soils cultivated with sugarcane of different regions of São Paulo state, Brazil, were analyzed to perform the isotopic characterization. The study area was selected where soil management is by mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. The area was divided into three parts: control (without cultivation); after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane; after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. Three days after the harvest of sugarcane the vinasse was applied and sampling of soil surface was carried out in two periods of 7 and 30 days after application of vinasse. The isotopic determination in the sample soil and concentration of C and N was by IRMS, Thermo Delta Plus, allowing simultaneous determination of 13C/12C isotope ratios (δ13C) and 15N/14N (δ15N). The results of the C and N concentration in the vinasse applied were average values 2.52% and 0.02% and isotopic values of 13C and 15N were -14.1‰ and 5.2‰. The results for the C concentration of the three areas in two periods showed values around 0.86 to 1.01%. The 13C isotopic values were -16.8 to -15.0‰, demonstrating the predominant cultivation in the region in relation to δ13C values of C4 plant (sugarcane). The results of N analysis were 0.08 to 0.10% and 15N isotope analysis, showing values ranging from 7.9 to 8.5‰. No significant variation in concentration of N and C in three study areas was observed. Considering 13C and 15N isotopic characterization independent of management, there was noted no isotopic fractionation by microbial activity. The results evidenced that the addition of vinasse in the soil did not increase the concentration of C and N does not represent a source of C and N. Furthermore, the isotopic technique can be applied in studies involving biogeochemical cycling, aiming to identify progress or setbacks in the quality of soil and possible impact in ecosystem.

  20. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  1. A Educacao dos Portadores de Necessidades Especiais no Brasil no Periodo de 1910 a 1949 (Education of Those with Special Needs in Brazil from 1920 to 1949).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carlos Alberto; Santiago, Mylene Cristina; de Moura, Simone Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Examines education given to those with special needs in Brazil from 1910-1949. Shows the dichotomy of meanings in which the education of special needs persons during that period, besides being marked by concepts related to the exclusion paradigm, already indicated signs of respect for diversity and civil rights. (BT)

  2. O Direito Costumeiro na Legislacao e na Jurisprudencia do Brasil: A Desescravizacao (Common Law in Legislation and Jurisprudence in Brazil: Abolition of Slavery).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebara, Ademir

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that in Brazil, common law was an important component for development of the political project, elaborated with the objective of organizing and disciplining the formation of a market of free workers. Considers that the history of work relations originated in the Portuguese discovery of Brazil in the 16th century. (BT)

  3. A Ideia de Universidade no Brasil: Influencia do Movimento de Cordoba (The Idea of the University in Brazil: Influences of the Cordoba Movement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzilli, Sueli

    2000-01-01

    Examines influences of the Cordoba Movement in formulation of ideas concerning the inseparability among teaching, research, and extension--a new paradigm for the Brazilian university. Finds the formulation of this inseparability had its origins in the Brazilian student movement of the 1960s which included theses of the Cordoba Manifesto. (BT)

  4. Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germano, Jose Willington

    1995-01-01

    Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social…

  5. Resistant hypertension: risk factors, subclinical atherosclerosis, and comorbidities among adults-the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Vasconcellos, Paulo S; Santos, Itamar S; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of resistant hypertension-defined as blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg with proven use of three antihypertensive medications, or as the use of four antihypertensive drug classes regardless of BP-is unknown in low-middle-income countries. Using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health, a cohort of 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, the authors identified 4116 patients taking treatment for hypertension, 11% of who had resistant hypertension. These participants were more likely to be older, black, less educated, poorer, and obese. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) were diabetes, 1.44 (1.20-1.72); glomerular filtration rate (<60 mL/min/1.72 m(2) ), 1.95 (1.60-2.38); albumin-to-creatinine ratio (>300 mg/g), 2.43 (1.70-3.50); carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity, 1.07 m/s (1.03-1.11 m/s); common carotid intima-media thickness, 2.57 mm (1.64-4.00 mm); left ventricular hypertrophy, 2.08 (1.21-3.57); and atrial fibrillation, 3.55 (2.02-6.25). Thus, the prevalence of resistant hypertension in Brazil is high and associated with subclinical markers of end-organ cardiovascular damage.

  6. Dating human occupation at Toca do Serrote das Moendas, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí-Brasil by electron spin resonance and optically stimulated luminescence.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Skinner, Anne R; Guidon, Niede; Ignacio, Elaine; Felice, Gisele Daltrini; Buco, Cristiane de A; Tatumi, Sonia; Yee, Márcio; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Excavation of Toca do Serrote das Moendas, in Piauí state, Brazil revealed a great quantity of fossil wild fauna associated with human remains. In particular, fossils of a cervid (Blastocerus dichotomus) were found, an animal frequently pictured in ancient rock wall paintings. In a well-defined stratum, two loose teeth of this species were found in close proximity to human bones. The teeth were independently dated by electron spin resonance (ESR) in two laboratories. The ages obtained for the teeth were 29 ± 3 ka (thousands of years) and 24 ± 1 ka. The concretion layer capping this stratum was dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the quartz grains to 21 ± 3 ka. As these values were derived independently in three different laboratories, using different methods and equipment, these results are compelling evidence of early habitation in this area.

  7. Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar irradiance models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, daily, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient ( β), Ångström's wavelength exponent ( α), aerosol single scattering albedo ( ω o ), forward scatterance ( F c ) and average surface albedo ( ρ g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar irradiance components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar irradiance (direct, diffuse and global) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27″ S, 43° 13' 58″ W), we use two parameterized broadband solar irradiance models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water ( u w ) and ozone concentration ( u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use global and diffuse solar irradiance data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar irradiance models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar irradiance data. Some daily results for Ångström's wavelength exponent α were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient β, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December-February) in the MARJ.

  8. The Archean-Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brasil): Current models and open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, F.; Albert, C.; Martínez Dopico, C.; Aguilar Gil, C.; Moreira, H.; Hippertt, J. P.; Cutts, K.; Alkmim, F. F.; Lana, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Quadrilátero Ferrífero is a metallogenic district (Au, Fe, Mn) located at the southernmost end of the São Francisco craton in eastern Brazil. In this region, a supracrustal assemblage composed of Archean greenstone and overlying Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks occur in elongated keels bordering domal bodies of Archean gneisses and granites. The tectonomagmatic evolution of the Quadrilàtero Ferrífero began in the Paleoarchean with the formation of continental crust between 3500 and 3200 Ma. Although this crust is today poorly preserved, its existence is attested to by the occurrence of detrital zircon crystals with Paleoarchean age in the supracrustal rocks. Most of the crystalline basement, which is composed of banded gneisses intruded by leucogranitic dikes and weakly foliated granites, formed during three major magmatic events: Rio das Velhas I (2920-2850 Ma), Rio das Velhas II (2800-2760 Ma) and Mamona (2760-2680 Ma). The Rio das Velhas II and Mamona events represent a subduction-collision cycle, probably marking the appearance of a modern-style plate tectonic regime in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Granitic rocks emplaced during the Rio das Velhas I and II events formed by mixing between a magma generated by partial melting of metamafic rocks with an end member derived by recycling gneissic rocks of older continental crust. After deformation and regional metamorphism at ca. 2770 Ma, a change in the composition of the granitic magmas occurred and large volumes of high-K granitoids were generated. The ca. 6000 m-thick Minas Supergroup tracks the opening and closure of a basin during the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, between 2600 and 2000 Ma. The basal sequence involves continental to marine sediments deposited in a passive margin basin and contain as a marker bed the Lake Superior-type Cauê Banded Iron Formation. The overlying sediments of the Sabará Group mark the inversion of the basin during the Rhyacian Minas accretionary orogeny. This orogeny results from the collision between the nuclei of the present-day São Francisco and Congo cratons, generated the fold-and thrust belt structure of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Afterwards, the post- orogenic collapse resulted in the deposition of the Itacolomi Group and in the genesis of the dome-and-keel structure. In this paper, we review current knowledge about the 1500 Ma long-lasting tectonomagmatic and structural evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero identifying the most compelling open questions and future challenges.

  9. Inconsistency of Association between Coffee Consumption and Cognitive Function in Adults and Elderly in a Cross-Sectional Study (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; Giatti, Luana; dos Reis, Rodrigo C. Padilha; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B.; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and the effect on cognition appears to be task specific and vary by age. Method: In cohort of 14,563 public service workers (35–74 years old) we assessed coffee consumption habits and examined cognitive function using standardized neuropsychological test battery. By linear regression and generalize linear regression with logarithmic link and gamma distribution we investigated the relation of coffee consumption (never/almost never, ≤1 cup/day, 2–3 cups/day, ≥3 cups/day) in the last 12 months to performance on specific domains of cognition for adults and elderly separately. Results: Among elderly, after adjustments, coffee consumption was associated only with an increase in the mean words remembered on learning, recall, and word recognition tests when comparing the 2–3 cups/day to never/almost never category (arithmetic mean ratio (AMR): 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.07), and to an increase in the mean words pronounced in semantic verbal fluency test when comparing the ≥3 cups/day to never/almost never category (difference of the mean: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.16 to 2.29). However, coffee consumption was not associated with any cognitive function tests in adults and also was not associated with the phonemic verbal fluency test and trail-making test B in elderly. Conclusions: Results suggest that coffee consumption might be slightly beneficial to memory in elderly but lacks a dose response relationship. Longitudinal analyses are needed to investigate possible, even if subtle, positive effects of coffee drinking on specific cognitive domains in elderly. PMID:26610556

  10. The Use of Seaplanes as an Advanced Weapon Systemxc

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Kreniski 1 Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial -IAE-ESB 12 225 - Sao Jose dos Campos - SP, Brasil 10. Director do Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial 1 Centro Tecnico... Aeroespacial 12 225 - Sao Jose dos Campos - SP, Brasil 11. Director do Instituto de Atividades Espaciais 1 Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial - IAE 12 225 - Sao...Jose dos Campos - SP, Brasil 98 12. Chefe da Divisao de Sistemas Belicos Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial 12 225 - Sao Jose dos Campos - SP, Brasil 13

  11. Adherence to a Physical Activity Program by Older Adults in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Doralice Lange; Vendruscolo, Rosecler

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a qualitative research project in which we investigated adherence factors to a physical activity (PA) program for older adults in Brazil named "Sem Fronteiras: Atividades Corporais Para Adultos Maduros e Idosos", which translated into English means "Without Borders: Physical Activities for Mature…

  12. 76 FR 36923 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    .... Under the Federal Reserve Bank of New York heading, the entry for Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil... Liberty Street, New York, New York 10045-0001: 1. Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil, and Caixa de Previdencia dos Funcionarios do Banco do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; to become bank holding companies...

  13. Effects of hearing aids in the balance, quality of life and fear to fall in elderly people with sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Clara Fonseca; Silva, Luciana Oliveira E; de Tavares Canto, Roberto Sérgio; Cheik, Nadia Carla

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: O processo de envelhecimento provoca modificações estruturais e funcionais à saude, comprometendo o controle postural e processamento central. Estudos têm abordado a necessidade de identificar os fatores de risco prejudiciais à saúde auditiva e segurança em idosos acometidos por déficits auditivos e com alterações de equilíbrio.Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da prótese auditiva na qualidade de vida, no equilíbrio e no medo de queda em idosos com perda auditiva bilateral.Método: Estudo clínico e experimental realizado com 56 idosos com perda auditiva neurossensorial, submetidos ao uso da prótese auditiva de amplificação sonora individual (AASI). Os idosos responderam aos questionários de qualidade de vida Short Form Health Survery (SF-36), Falls Efficacy Scale- Internacional (FES-I) e o teste de Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Após 4 meses, os idosos que adaptaram ao uso da AASI foram reavaliados.Resultados: Houve 50% de adaptação dos idosos ao AASI. Foi observado que o sexo masculino teve maior dificuldade em adaptar ao aparelho auditivo e que as variáveis idade, grau de perda, presença de zumbido e vertigem não interferiram na adaptação à prótese auditiva. Houve melhora da qualidade de vida nos domínios Estado da Saúde Geral (EGS) e Capacidade Funcional (CF) e do zumbido, assim como o aumento da auto-confiança após adaptação da prótese auditiva.Conclusão: O uso de prótese auditiva propiciou a melhora dos domínios da qualidade de vida, o que refletiu em uma melhor auto-confiança e consequentemente a longo prazo na redução do medo de queda em idosos com perda auditiva neurossensorial.

  14. NUTRITIONAL STATUS, DIET AND NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE IN ELDERS.

    PubMed

    de Melo Portela, Clarissa Lima; de Carvalho Sampaio, Helena Alves; Pereira de Melo, Maria Luísa; Ferreira Carioca, Antonio Augusto; Maia Pinto, Francisco José; Machado Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro

    2015-11-01

    Objetivo: evaluar las interrelaciones entre enfermedad grasa no alcohólica del hígado (HGNA) y factores dietéticos en una población de ancianos hipertensos. Métodos: 229 pacientes ancianos hipertensos fueron evaluados desde junio a diciembre del 2009. Todos los pacientes que aceptaron participar en el estudio firmaron un consentimiento libre e informado. Fueron realizadas evaluaciones antropométricas y de composición corporal. El diagnóstico de HGNA fue determinado por el American Guidelines. El consumo alimenticio regular fue estimado a través de una encuesta alimentaria de recordatorio de 24 horas. Resultados: el exceso de peso, ponderado por el índice de masa corporal y el exceso de grasa abdominal, fueron asociados con HGNA (p < 0,001). Un perfil inverso fue encontrado con las variables dietéticas. Conclusión: el grupo estudiado presentó una situación de riesgo para la salud, considerando los marcadores del estado nutricional. La dieta regular pareció ser inadecuada, mostrando exceso de sodio bajo consumo de fibras y vegetales.

  15. Impacts of the MERCOSUR Agreement on the Uruguayan Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    Polit’cas Comercial e CambiaI ,oohre Padrao de Comercio Inlernacional dos Paises da ALADI: o Caso do Brasil , mimeo, LNICAMP 1qt2."., I Mesquita Machado...Carlos, Comercio con Argentina y Brasil : Uno o Dos Patrones de Insercion Regional? Sextas Jornadas Anuales de Economia, Banco Central del Uruguay...34 Quintas Jornadas Anuales de Economia, BCU, 1990. Berreta, Nora and Paolino, Carlos, " Comercio con Argentina y Brasil : uno o dos patrones de inserci6n

  16. Latin America Report, No. 2688.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Proalcohol Program Discussed (0 ESTADO DE SAO PAULO, 12 Apr 83, JORNAL DO BRASIL , 3, 4 May 83) • Upward Revision of Targets First Quarter...BRAZILIENSE, 6 May 83) 24 Persons Charged With Participating in PCB Congress Named (JORNAL DO BRASIL , 14 Apr 83) 25 Ten Companies Account for...26 Percent of Export Sales (0 ESTADO DE SAO PAULO, 28 Apr 83) 27 Possible Purchase of Gabriel Missile Stirs Arms Industry (JORNAL DO BRASIL , 2

  17. Formal caregivers of older adults: reflection about their practice

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Marina Picazzio Perez; Barros, Juliana de Oliveira; de Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani; Mângia, Elisabete Ferreira; Lancman, Selma

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults), Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers’ exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos. PMID:25372163

  18. Request a Brown-Bag Check-Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... event when offered through your pharmacy, church or senior center. Resources Main Page ... | ISMP Brasil | International Group | Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite ...

  19. Policies for English Language Teacher Education in Brazil Today: Preliminary Remarks (Políticas para la formación de profesores de inglés en el Brasil de hoy: primeras aproximaciones)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Telma; Ferreira, Aparecida de Jesus; Alves Basso, Rosângela Aparecida; Carvalho Cruvinel, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade Brazil has begun to tackle the educational challenges of a developing country with a young population. The scale of such a demand is a result of the social and cultural inequalities that have historically been existent. Recent official policies and programs have addressed this gap by promoting greater opportunities for teacher…

  20. A spatial approach for the epidemiology of antibiotic use and resistance in community-based studies: the emergence of urban clusters of Escherichia coli quinolone resistance in Sao Paulo, Brasil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Population antimicrobial use may influence resistance emergence. Resistance is an ecological phenomenon due to potential transmissibility. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of ciprofloxacin (CIP) population consumption related to E. coli resistance emergence and dissemination in a major Brazilian city. A total of 4,372 urinary tract infection E. coli cases, with 723 CIP resistant, were identified in 2002 from two outpatient centres. Cases were address geocoded in a digital map. Raw CIP consumption data was transformed into usage density in DDDs by CIP selling points influence zones determination. A stochastic model coupled with a Geographical Information System was applied for relating resistance and usage density and for detecting city areas of high/low resistance risk. Results E. coli CIP resistant cluster emergence was detected and significantly related to usage density at a level of 5 to 9 CIP DDDs. There were clustered hot-spots and a significant global spatial variation in the residual resistance risk after allowing for usage density. Conclusions There were clustered hot-spots and a significant global spatial variation in the residual resistance risk after allowing for usage density. The usage density of 5-9 CIP DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants within the same influence zone was the resistance triggering level. This level led to E. coli resistance clustering, proving that individual resistance emergence and dissemination was affected by antimicrobial population consumption. PMID:21356088

  1. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  2. Effect of alpha lipoic acid on the blood cell count and iron kinetics in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Paula Renata Florêncio; Félix, Danielle dos Santos; Silva, Paulo César Dantas da; Pereira, Guêdijany Henrique; Simões, Mônica Oliveira da Silva

    2014-11-03

    Introducción: El Ácido -Lipóico (ALA) ha sido utilizado como recurso terapéutico para reducir daño oxidativo en la Hipertensión Arterial Sistémica (HAS), pero aún no existen estudios in vivo que reporten sobre su mecanismo de acción en el metabolismo del hierro. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto antioxidante del ácido Alfa- Lipóico sobre el hemograma y metabolismo del hierro en individuos hipertensos con o sin anemia. Métodos: Estudio clínico doble-ciego, randomizado y controlado con placebo. La muestra fue constituida por 60 individuos hipertensos, distribuidos aleatoriamente en grupo tratamiento (n = 32), que recibió 600 mg/día del ALA por doce semanas y grupo control (n = 28), que recibió el placebo por el mismo período. Fueron analizados antes y después de la intervención, los parámetros del hemograma, Hierro Sérico, Ferritina, Capacidad Latente de Enlace del hierro, Capacidad Total de Enlace del Hierro, Índice de Saturación de la Transferrina (ISI) y Transferrina. Para evaluar las alteraciones entre los grupos, se utilizó el teste t de Student y el análisis de varianza ANOVA, adoptándose el nivel de significación de 5%. Resultados: Después de la intervención, el suplemento con el ALA demostró una asociación estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,05) con la reducción de los leucocitos totales, aumento del número de neutrófilos y reducciones en los niveles de Hierro Sérico e ISI. Conclusión: La administración oral del ALA como un adyuvante terapéutico, altera la respuesta hematológica del leucograma y reduce la absorción del hierro. Cabe senãlar que el mecanismo de quelación de metales por el ácido lipoico puede ser responsable de estos cambios y, en consecuencia, podría desencadenar una condicion de anemia ferropénica en individuos hipertensos.

  3. [Achievement of physical activity healthy guidelines in hypertensive adults].

    PubMed

    Romero Blanco, Cristina; Villalvilla Soria, Diego José; Cabanillas Cruz, Esther; Laguna Nieto, María; Aznar Laín, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Parece necesario educar a los pacientes en la importancia de realizar AF para mejorar su salud, y específicamente, sobre las implicaciones que la intensidad de la AF tiene para la salud. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar si se cumplían las recomendaciones de actividad física (AF) para la salud en un grupo de pacientes hipertensos controlados de dos centros de atención primaria: La Estación y La Algodonera, situados en Talavera de la Reina (Toledo). Métodos: Diseño: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Emplazamiento: Centros de atención primaria “La Estación” y “La Algodonera”, situados en Talavera de la Reina. Participantes: Un total de 80 pacientes hipertensos controlados de 40 a 60 años que cumplían los criterios de inclusión, fueron invitados a formar parte en el estudio, de los cuales fueron analizados los resultados válidos de 52 pacientes. Mediciones principales: Se cuantificó la actividad física diaria con acelerometría, obteniéndose los minutos de AF a intensidad de moderada a vigorosa (AFMV) y de actividad ligera, y el número de pasos. Los datos se presentaron diferenciando los días laborables y los días festivos. Resultados: Sólo un 59,6 % de los sujetos de la muestra cumplía la recomendación de realizar un mínimo de 30 minutos de AF de intensidad de moderada a vigorosa al día para la mejora de la salud. Los hombres realizaron significativamente más minutos de AFMV en los días festivos que las mujeres, y solamente las mujeres, mostraron diferencias significativas en los minutos de AFMV entre en los días laborables respecto a los festivos. Conclusiones: El 59,6% de los pacientes hipertensos controlados de esta muestra cumplían con las recomendaciones mínimas de AF para la salud; el resto debería incrementar su AF para cumplir las recomendaciones y con ello mejorar sus niveles de tensión arterial.

  4. Association of systolic dysfunction with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Piskorz, Daniel; Bongarzoni, Laureano; Citta, Luciano; Citta, Norberto; Citta, Paula; Keller, Luis; Tommasi, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    ntroducción: La presencia de disfunción sistólica no ha sido reconocida en pacientes (p) hipertensos. Objetivos: El objetivo del presente estudio es demostrar que los p hipertensos con hipertrofia ventricular izquierda (HVI) presentan disfunción sistólica, y que ella se incrementa cuando se asocia a disfunción diastólica (DD). Material y métodos: estudio observacional de corte transversal con la muestra recolectada en forma prospectiva de acuerdo a criterios de inclusión y exclusión preestablecidos. La función ventricular izquierda fue evaluada por ecocardiografía convencional, Doppler del orificio valvular mitral y Doppler tisular siguiendo las normativas internacionales. Los p fueron divididos en cuatro grupos de acuerdo a la presencia o ausencia de HVI y DD. Análisis estadístico: test t de students y test de ANOVA, significación estadística <0,05. Resultados: se incluyeron 292 p, 130 p (51 %) HVI- DD-; 36 p (5,9 %) HVI- DD+; 87 p (37,6 %) HVI+ DD-; y 39 p (5,5 %) HVI+ DD+. Los p con DD fueron de mayor edad, más frecuentemente mujeres, y su PA sistólica y presión aórtica central estaban más elevados. La velocidad de acortamiento longitudinal de las fibras miocárdicas, medida como onda s con Doppler tisular fue 6,3 +1,1 cm/seg en p HVI+ DD+, 7,2+1,3 cm/seg en p HVI+ DD-, 6,8+1,2 cm/seg en p HVI- DD+, y 7,8+0,6 cm/seg en p HVI- DD- (<0,005). Conclusiones: los p hipertensos presentan disfunción sistólica cuando la HVI está presente y es mayor cuando se asocia a DD.

  5. [PRAdA intervention: effects on weight of dietary intervention among treated hypertensive Portuguese natives and African immigrants].

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Catarina; Carrilho, Gisela; Alarcão, Violeta; Guerra, Filipa; Simões, Rui; Fernandes, Milene; Nicola, Paulo; Guiomar, Sofia; Nogueira, Paulo; Rocha, Evangelista

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Perdas de peso melhoram o controlo da tensão arterial em indivíduos hipertensos. As intervenções comportamentais para a perda de peso parecem ser menos eficazes nos imigrantes de origem africana (IOA). Os principais objetivos foram avaliar os efeitos no peso de uma intervenção alimentar em hipertensos nativos de origem portugueses (NOP) e IOA; identificar fatores de sucesso na perda de peso; avaliar a evolução dos conhecimentos e adesão às recomendações alimentares. Material e Métodos: Foram selecionados aleatoriamente hipertensos medicados seguidos nos cuidados de saúde primários para um estudo de duas fases, observacional (15 meses) e de intervenção comportamental (seis meses). Os participantes foram divididos em dois grupos: IOA e NOP. Foram dadas recomendações alimentares e de estilos de vida em sessões individuais presenciais e telefónicas. Resultados: Dos 110 participantes, com IMC médio de 31,6 ± 3,7 kg/m2 e idade média 61,3 ± 10,0 anos, 60 eram imigrantes. Durante a intervenção os NOP perderam 1,4 ± 2,7% do peso e os IOA 0,8 ± 3,6%, sendo a perda superior comparativamente com a fase observacional. Ser do sexo masculino e consumir pelo menos duas porções de lacticínios magros por dia associou-se a maior perda de peso durante a intervenção, independentemente da idade e origem. Houve um aumento significativo no número de recomendações dietéticas conhecidas e cumpridas, com os NOP a cumprirem em média mais recomendações. Discussão: A intervenção foi bem sucedida relativamente à perda de peso, especialmente no grupo dos NOP, confirmando outros estudos. Conclusão: A intervenção aumentou os conhecimentos e adesão às recomendações, realçando a pertinência da educação alimentar, culturalmente adaptada, nos cuidados de saúde primários.

  6. Non-Linear Stability of Magnetically Focused Particle Beams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Grande do Sul, P.O.Box 15051,91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil N/A 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR...Grande do Sul, Brasil www.if.ufrgs.br/~rizzato Grant: FA9550-09-1-0283 Final Performance Report April/2012 • Objectives Our main program involves the

  7. FARC’s Influence in Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    of Military History. 26Luis Alberto Villamarin Pulido, FARC, Terrorismo na América do Sul (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: Biblioteca do Exército Editora...2009. ______. FARC, Terrorismo na América do Sul. Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: Biblioteca do Exército Editora, 2009. Skidmore, Thomas E. and Peter H

  8. Distributed Simulation with Automated Planning: Study and Support Tool for Relief Operations in Conflicted C2 Scenarios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    floods: More than 500 dead. Available in: <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-12187985>. Last accessed in: Apr. 2013. BRASIL (2010a...Presidência da República. Casa Civil. Subchefia para Assuntos Jurídicos. Decree number 7.257, 4th of August of 2010. Brasília. BRASIL . (2010b...Presidência da República. Casa Civil. Subchefia para Assuntos Jurídicos. Law number 12.340. December, 2010. Brasília. BRASIL . (2012) Presidência da

  9. Terrorist and Organized Crime Groups in the Tri-Border Area (TBA) of South America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    northwest corner of Misiones 9 Demographia: Brasil [Brazil]: Cities (Municipalities) Over 100,000...Population: 1996. [http://www.demographia.com/db- brasil -city96.htm] 10 “Homicide Rate Declines in Foz do Iguaçu,” A Gazeta do Iguaçu [Foz do Iguaçu...http://www.estado.estadao.com.br/editorias/2003/03/16/int026.html]; and Policarpo Junior, “Ele esteve no Brasil ” [He Was in Brazil], Veja on-line, no

  10. A Global Overview of Narcotics-Funded Terrorist and Other Extremist Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    Sergeant Derci Barroso told Rio de Janeiro’s daily Jornal do Brasil that members of the Arab community own properties scattered throughout Alto...Galhardo Enviado, “Paraguai pede a prisão de libanês no Brasil ” (Paraguay Sentences a Lebanese in Brazil to Prison), O Globo, November 6, 2001. Library...Eleonora Gosman, “Temen una guerra entre bandas de narcos en Brasil ” (Cartel Wars Are Feared), Clarín.com, April 24, 2001. 161 “The FARC-Tijuana Axis

  11. Characterization and Optimization of Auto-Transplantation and Allo-transplantation of Free Composite Tissue for Reconstruction of Battlefield Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-10

    suspended animation-like state in mice. Science 2005;308:518. [13] Brasile L, Glowacki P, Stubenitsky B. Pretransplant kidney-specific treatment to eliminate the need for systemic immunosuppression. Transplantation 2010; 90:1294.

  12. Counterinsurgency in Brazil: Lessons of the Fighting from 1968 to 1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    1964-1967): The organisms of spying and repression),” Quoted in Vestígios do Passado. Ampuh, RS: Associacao Nacional de Historia , 2008. http...Guerrilha e Movimentos de Resistencia ao longo da Historia (Irregular Warfare: Terrorism, Guerrilla Warfare and Resistance Movements throughout History...Castro. “O Brasil na Operação Condor (Brazil in Condor Operation). Aventuras na Historia ,” Abril online, http://historia.abril.com.br/politica/brasil

  13. International Symposium on Polymer Electrolytes (3rd) Held in Annecy, France on June 17-21, 1991. Extended Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Quimidca - Universidade. federal de. Sao Carlos - B~rasil. 2 - Instituto de Fisica e Quimica de Sao Carlos - BrasiL. SOLID STATE ELECTROCHROMIC DISPLAY...odense, Denaxk EFFECT OF PL4SrICIZERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF A NEW AMBIENT TEMPERATURE POLYMER ELECTROLYTE 4 page: 119 13 D. rDAmIL 1 ,. nGALTHIER2...and evaporating the solvents first at ambient temperature and finally under reduced pressure at 500 C for at least 48 hrs. The complexes were

  14. Brazilian Arms Production: Partial Dependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    supported by the government, which actively created state enterprises such as Banco do Brasil , Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (the state-owned steel...slate holding company Industria do Material Belico do Brasil (IMBEL) was formed to manage Brazil’s war materiel production factories and to formulate...34 Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS)-Latin America Daily Report (18 July 1988), 24. 12- Bernardini SA. Industria e Comercio , Brazil’s second

  15. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    COMERCIO 21 Aug] 23 NEAR EAST & SOUTH ASIA EGYPT Agreements Signed to Develop Domestic Uranium [AL-JUMHURIYAH 2 Aug] 24 INDIA Two Large...Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (Nuclebras) to Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), and trans- ferred the shares of its capital stock...96.622 authorizes the establishment of Uranium of Brasil S.A. as a subsidiary of INB, with headquarters in the city of Caldas, Minas Gerais State

  16. Developing a Partnership with Brazil - An Emerging Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Cultura e Opulência do Brasil ” (1711) was one of those who set the path of national pride, emphasizing the nation’s natural majesty and greatness. After...December 2003. See also Andres Cisneros, “ Un paso adelante con la relacion con Brasil ,” La Nacion, 29 December 2003; available from <http...and actually produced some arbitration contrary to its interests. 56 Ibid., 91. 57 “ Comercio I: Miami Produce un ALCA “Flexible,” Informe

  17. Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional…

  18. Parâmetros biológicos e de habitats físicos para avaliação de bacias no Sudeste do Brasil. Ação Ambiental of a protocol for evaluating land use, physical habitat structure, and fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages in Brazilian river basins”).

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: This article has no abstract, in keeping with the format of the Brazilian journal Ação Ambiental, an applied-science news journal aimed at environmental engineers and managers of water and fisheries resources. Here is a rough synopsis of the article in English: A p...

  19. [Morning rise in home blood pressure and target organ damage in hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Barochiner, Jessica; Aparicio, Lucas S; Cuffaro, Paula E; Rada, Marcelo A; Morales, Margarita S; Alfie, José; Marin, Marcos J; Galarza, Carlos R; Waisman, Gabriel D

    2014-01-01

    El incremento matutino de la presión arterial (IMPA) aumenta el riesgo cardiovascular. Los estudios que evalúan la asociación entre IMPA domiciliaria y daño de órgano blanco son escasos y casi exclusivamente basados en población asiática. Nuestro objetivo fue caracterizar a los pacientes hipertensos con IMPA domiciliaria y establecer una posible asociación con la presencia de hipertrofia ventricular izquierda (HVI). Métodos: se incluyeron hipertensos medicados ≥18 años que realizaron mediciones de PA domiciliaria (4 días de mediciones por duplicado, a la mañana, tarde y noche) y completaron un cuestionario acerca de sus factores de riesgo y antecedentes de enfermedad cardiovascular. Se revisaron las historias clínicas para extraer datos ecocardiográficos. Se definió como IMPA a una diferencia entre el promedio de PA sistólica domiciliaria matutina – vespertina ≥15 mmHg. Se consideró que los pacientes tenían HVI si el índice de masa ventricular era >95 g/m2 en mujeres y >115 g/m2 en varones. Las variables identificadas como predictores relevantes de IMPA fueron introducidos en un modelo multivariado de regresión logística. Resultados: se incluyeron 216 pacientes, con una edad media de 68 (+13,3) años, 69,4% mujeres y 99,1% caucásicos. La prevalencia de IMPA fue de 13,4% y las variables independientemente asociadas fueron HVI (OR 3,5; 95%CI 1,1-11,4), edad (OR 1,05; 95%CI 1,003-1,1) y antecedente de enfermedad cerebrovascular (OR 3,9; 95%CI 1,1-14,2). En conclusión, el IMPA evaluado por monitoreo domiciliario presenta asociación independiente con HVI, edad y antecedentes de enfermedad cerebrovascular, debiendo esclarecerse las implicancias terapéuticas de esta observación en estudios prospectivos a gran escala.

  20. [HYPOTENSIVE EFFECT OF AN EXTRACT OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF OLIVE LEAVES: PRELIMINARY CLINICAL STUDY].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Rodríguez Martínez, Carlos; Fonollá-Joya, Juristo

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: evaluar el posible efecto hipotensor en sujetos pre-hipertensos e hipertensos, de un extracto de hoja de olivo (EHO) estandarizado al 15% (m/m) en oleoeuropeína y con un contenido medio del 10% (m/m) en ácidos triterpénicos y del 1% (m/m) en hidroxitirosol. Asimismo, se ha valorado su acción sobre el estatus antioxidante y el perfil lipídico sanguíneos. Material y métodos: se ha llevado a cabo un ensayo de intervención en humanos con administración de 1.600 mg de extracto/día. Los parámetros evaluados han sido presión sistólica y diastólica, retardo de la oxidación del colesterol LDL (lag time) y niveles sanguíneos de óxido nítrico (NO), malondialdehído (MDA), capacidad antioxidante (CAO), perfil lipídico, glucosa, transaminasas y creatinina. Resultados: se observó en todos los sujetos una disminución estadísticamente significativa de la presión sistólica y diastólica, y un aumento de los niveles de NO (P < 0,050). En los sujetos con presión sistólica más elevada también se redujo significativamente su valor tras la intervención (P = 0,002). El “lag time” de las LDL aumentó significativamente (P = 0,047), y en todos los sujetos los niveles de colesterol (CHO) se redujeron significativamente. Los niveles de colesterol LDL, triglicéridos (TG) y del índice CHO/colesterol HDL disminuyeron con tendencia a la significancia (P = 0,076; P = 0,059; P = 0,056; respectivamente). Conclusión: este estudio, aunque preliminar, pone de relieve por primera vez la influencia positiva del EHO ensayado en la regulación de la hipertensión así como en la velocidad de oxidación de las LDL y en el perfil lipídico sanguíneo.

  1. [Abpm and duration of the antihypertensive effect: a study with a new formulation of sustained release losartan (CRONOS)].

    PubMed

    Bendersky, Mario; Juncos, Luis; Waisman, Gabriel Dario; Piskorz, Daniel; Lopez-Santi, Ricardo; Montaña, Oscar; Caruso, Gustavo; Kotetzky, Martin; Penna, Maria; Gomez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Antecedentes: una de las características relevantes de las drogas antihipertensivas es que su acción cubra 24 hs. Administrar una sola dosis diaria aumenta la adherencia al tratamiento, y redunda en mejorar el impacto sobre morbimortalidad, principal objetivo de todo tratamiento antihipertensivo. El MAPA permite valorar la duración del efecto. Losartán es un antagonista de receptores At1 de AII, de comprobada eficacia. Distintos estudios sugieren una cobertura antihipertensiva menor de 24 hs. La aparición de una nueva forma farmacéutica (Cronos) que libera 50 mg en forma regular y otros 50 mg en forma prolongada favorece una cobertura de 50 mg durante 24 hs. Objetivo: 1) Evaluar la eficacia de Losartán Cronos, en el control de 24 horas de la TA en hipertensos esenciales, utilizando MAPA. 2) Analizar tasa de respuesta ambulatoria, homogeneidad del efecto y rigidez arterial ambulatoria (AASI). Material y métodos: fueron incluidos 142 hipertensos esenciales de ambos sexos; Se trataron 105 pacientes con Losartán Cronos en monodosis matinal durante 8 semanas, momento del segundo MAPA. 97 pacientes con MAPAs válidos fueron evaluados. Resultados: se observó un descenso significativo tanto de TAS como TAD en todos los periodos evaluados: 24 hs, día, noche, y las últimas 4 hs interdosis. No hubo cambios significativos en la frecuencia cardíaca 24 hs. El ascenso matinal de la TA (mmHg/hora) descendió de 4.53 a 3,68 (p=0.03). La relación Valle:Pico fue 0.91 para TAS y 1.14 para TAD. El Índice de Alisado fue 2.86 para TAS y 3.17 para TAD. 19 pacientes tuvieron EA, todos fueron leves. Conclusión: Losartán Cronos mostró eficacia y seguridad. Desciende la TA sin efectos significativos sobre la FC, reduce la PP, y su efecto perdura 24 hs evaluado por relación Valle:Pico, por efecto de las ultimas 4 hs interdosis, y por descenso de la velocidad de ascenso matinal tensional, por lo que sugiere su administración en monodosis diaria.

  2. Prevalence of tinnitus in elderly individuals with and without history of occupational noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Melo, Juliana Jandre; Meneses, Caroline Luiz; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: A variedade de alterações metabólicas e circulatórias relacionadas com o ruído pode causar o aparecimento de inúmeros sintomas auditivos, incluindo, zumbido.Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de queixa de zumbido, em idosos com e sem história de exposição ao ruído ocupacional.Método: Forma de estudo prospectivo foi realizado em uma amostra populacional com 502 indivíduos com idade superior a 60 anos, através de questionário padronizado e avaliação audiológica. As variáveis estudadas foram frequência de queixa de zumbido e de e história de ruído ocupacional. Foi usada regressão logística para controlar confusão ou modificação de efeito para as outras variáveis sobre as associações de interesse.Resultado e Discussão: A queixa de zumbido foi verificada em 50% dos idosos com história de exposição ao ruído ocupacional e em 40,43% dos idosos sem história de exposição ao ruído ocupacional. Uma alta frequência de queixa de zumbido foi detectada na população sob investigação, porém não houve significativa diferença estatística entre a queixa de zumbido e história de ruído ocupacional.Conclusão: O resultado desta pesquisa pode ter ocorrido devido à existência de outros fatores que podem ter contribuído para a presença de zumbido, como a própria idade, nos indivíduos sem história de exposição ao ruído ocupacional.

  3. [Systolic pressure, abdominal obesity and body fat, metabolic syndrome predictors in Spanish preschoolers].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Hervás, Ana Isabel; Rizo Baeza, María Mercedes; Martínez Amorós, Natalia; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-05-01

    Se plantea como objetivo determinar la presencia de predictores de síndrome metabólico en niños de 2 a 7 años en relación a su estado nutricional. Método: Estudio descriptivo con análisis cuantitativo en 260 niños de 2-7 años (135 niñas y 125 niños), 66% del total censados. Se midieron parámetros antropométricos y tensión arterial y se calcularon IMC, grasa corporal según Hoffman e índice cintura-talla (ICT). Se realizaron subgrupos con Z-Score del IMC según edad y sexo (bajo peso, normopeso, sobrepeso y obesidad), según grasa corporal (normal y con exceso), ICT (normal y obesidad abdominal) y tensión sistólica (normotensos e hipertensos según edad y sexo). Se utilizó como variable principal la clasificación según Z-Score del IMC. Resultados: La prevalencia combinada de sobrepeso y obesidad fue del 27%, sin diferencias por sexo. El estado nutricional relacionó significativamente con tensión arterial, grasa corporal e índice cintura-talla. Mayor porcentaje de obesos con tensión arterial sistólica alta que de normonutridos (OR=4.1; IC95% 1.7-9.8; p.

  4. Mobile phones and elderly people: a noisy communication.

    PubMed

    Stamato, Cláudia; Moraes, Anamaria de

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the users is capital for building user-friendly digital interfaces. One way to think about the users is considering their familiarity with this technology. This article presents the results of twelve interviews with elderly people residing in the so-called South Zone of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) who have used mobile phones over at least one year. It is part of the Doctor's Thesis "Mobile phones for elderly people - usability for social integration" ("Celulares para idosos - usabilidade a serviço da integração social"), which is targeted at ascertaining if the current mobile phones are user-friendly for elderly people. Through the technique of Guided Interviews, we found usage time, criteria for choice of phones, reasons for changes, preferences, and manners of use. Preliminarily, we have noticed differences in the behavior of the participating users and performed a qualitative analysis according to groups of age and gender.

  5. Validity and reliability of the Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ).

    PubMed

    d'Almeida, Karina S M; Souza, Gabriela C; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire (DSRQ) evalúa actitudes y comportamientos de pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca (IC) relacionados con el cumplimiento de la restricción de sodio. Recientemente, ha sido traducido y adaptado culturalmente para uso en Brasil. No obstante, una validación adicional del instrumento se requiere para que pueda ser utilizado en el manejo de pacientes con IC en Brasil. Objetivo: Probar la fiabilidad y validez de la versión brasileña del DSRQ. Métodos: Validez aparente y de contenido fueron evaluados por un grupo de especialistas. Validez de constructo se evaluó mediante análisis factorial exploratoria y confirmatoria. La fiabilidad y consistencia interna del cuestionario fue evaluada mediante el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. Resultados: Un total de 206 pacientes ambulatorios con IC fueron evaluados (edad media, 60,4 ± 11,9 años). Los resultados de la validez aparente y de contenido demostró la equivalencia entre la versión brasileña y de la versión original. En el análisis factorial exploratorio, el análisis de componentes principales (PCA) se obtuvieron cuatro factores con valores superiores a 1. Tres modelos fueron probados en el análisis factorial confirmatoria, y el modelo de tres factores resultantes del PCA mostró el mejor ajuste, representando 49% de la varianza. El alfa obtenido para las escalas de actitud/norma subjetiva, control de la conducta percibido y comportamiento dependiente fueron 0,71, 0,67 y 0,79, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados sugieren que la versión brasileña del DSRQ es un instrumento válido y fiable para medir las actitudes y comportamientos relacionados con una dieta baja en sodio en pacientes brasileños con IC.

  6. Policy Dilemmas in Brazil-Africa Relations,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-22

    dirloiratic planner and spokesman is founc In Pona:Jc Sardenberz, "A politica externa do Brasil nas duas ultimas decadas," Re’.ista d Servicc 1u0ico 0 1...the cunntrv. Even though political interests may eventua!!1Y accrue with the development of comercial involvement in Africa, Brazil resists engagement...34Brazil’s Arms find Willing Buyers in the Third World," New York Times (August ?, 1?81), p. E-3; "Armas: Brasil invade o mercado mundial," Senhor (February

  7. Brazilian Participation in World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-15

    Progresso Editorial, 1947), 24. 6Ibid., 25. 7Brasil Estado-Maior do Exército, Anais do Exército Brasileiro (Brasília: Biblioteca Militar, 1940), 60...Janeiro: Biblioteca do Exército, 1995), 114. 15McCann, “The Brazilian Army and the Problem of Mission, 1939-1964,” 113. 16Seitenfus, 393. 17Casterllo... Biblioteca do Exército, 1984), 65. 32Medal, 19. 33Costa, 76. 34Moraes, 10. 35McCann, A Aliança Brasil Estados Unidos, 1937-1945, 292. 36Floriano de Lima

  8. International Symposium on Electrets (ISE 6) (6th) Held in Oxford, England on 1-3 September 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Ci6ncias, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (Edited by Milton Soares de Campos and organised by the Instituto de Fisica e QuImica de S5o Carlos, Universidade de Sfo...of 4 ns. The experimental simulation of dielectric discharge on satellites is carried out in a vacuum chamber, with an ambient pressure between 10- 5... Quimica de Sao Carlos-USP C.P. 369, 13560 S~o Carlos, Brasil. ABSTRACT Thermally Stimulated Current measurements in a-PVDF films were carried out under

  9. 75 FR 68684 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box: 38/2, BRASIL... Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box: 38/2,...

  10. 76 FR 52220 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer-Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A., Phenom Maintenance Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose..., 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box: 36/2, BRASIL; telephone: ++55 12 3927-5383;...

  11. Speech-Language Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda; Amato, Cibelle A. H.; Defense-Netrval, Danielle A.; Molini-Avejonas, Daniela R.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil has more than 200 million inhabitants living in an area of more than 8.5 million km[superscript 2] (Ministério da Saúde, Brasil, 2013a,b). Granting access to health and educational services for populations in such different environments clearly demands different actions and resources. Official policies regarding rehabilitation services and…

  12. Energy Levels and Predicted Absorption Spectra of Rare-Earth Ions in Rare-Earth Arsenides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    2 copies) Departmento de Fisica Ames, IA 50011 Attn: A. da Gama Attn: G. F. de SA Argonne National Laboratory Attn: 0. L. Malta Attn: W. T. Carnall...da UFPE, Cidade Universitaria 9700 South Ca.s Avenue 50,000, Recife, Pe, Brasil Argonne, IL 60439 26 Distribution (cont’d) Howard University

  13. The Brazilian Malaria Vector Anopheles (Kerteszia) Cruzii: Life Stages and Biology (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    of the humans in Casa Grande, Sao Paulo State, as well as in many domestic and wild animals . Three other viruses, whose relation to human disease...Publishing, Inc., Marlton, NJ. Comportamento das especies vetoras de Harbach, R.E. and K.L. Knight. 1982. Correc- malaria. Rev. Brasil. Malariol. Doenw

  14. Winning the Minds in ’Hearts and Minds’: A Systems Approach to Information Operations as Part of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    combatant commander, a subunified commander, or an existing joint task force commander.” 25 Ludwig von Bertalanffy , General Systems Theory, (New York...interact.173 This is an important consideration in 169 Ludwig von Bertalanffy was a Hungarian...D.C.: Brassey’s Incorporated, 2004. Bertalanffy , Ludwig von . General Systems Theory. New York, NY; George Brasiller, 1969. Boot, Max. The Savage

  15. Educating and Training Undergraduate Applied Statisticians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peres, Clovis A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A course on Applied Statistics, offered since 1978 at the Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil, is designed to educate statisticians at the bachelor's level for jobs in government statistical offices, industry, and business. (Author/LMO)

  16. Parameters, Journal of the US Army War College, Volume 14, Number 4, Winter 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Pa.: US Army War College, Strategic Studies In- 31. A Energia Nuclear no Brasil (Rio de Janeiro: stitute, 1979), p. 17. Biblioteca do Exercito Editors...security factors exist. These would be Monetary Fund officials. "Balance of Payments," in Annual US-Mexican relationships, moral renovation , demographic

  17. Future Expectations of Brasilian Street Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Future expectations of youth surviving on the streets of Porto Alegre, Brasil, were examined. The sample consisted of 35 boys and 34 girls aged 10-18 (M age 14.4) who participated in a sentence completion task and semi-structured interviews. Responses to two incomplete sentences regarding the future revealed a mismatch between hoped-for and…

  18. Brazilian National Assessment Data and Educational Policy: An Empirical Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Christine L.; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Martelli, Dale R.

    2016-01-01

    In concert with other Latin American countries, Brazil has developed and implemented its own national assessment system for the purpose of monitoring, evaluating and improving their educational system. Prova Brasil is a census-based bi-annual assessment of Portuguese and mathematics achievement of middle school students in Brazil accompanied by…

  19. Exotic Nuclei in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Assuncao, M.; Moro, A. M.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Arazi, A.

    2010-08-04

    The Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil(RIBRAS) is described. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light rare isotopes such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed and the results are presented.

  20. Photoproduction of charm particles at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Cumalat, John P.

    1997-03-15

    A brief description of the Fermilab Photoproduction Experiment E831 or FOCUS is presented. The experiment concentrates on the reconstruction of charm particles. The FOCUS collaboration has participants from several Central American and Latin American institutions; CINVESTAV and Universidad Autonoma de Puebla from Mexico, University of Puerto Rico from the United States, and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas in Rio de Janeiro from Brasil.

  1. Brazil’s National Defense Strategy: Prospects for the Twenty-First Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    also see Everardo Backheuser, Curso de Geopolitica Geral e do Brasil, (Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do ’Ex~rcito, 1952). 21 chance of dislocation of the... Biblioteca do Exdrcito, 1952). Bailey, Norman A., (ed.), Latin America: Politics, Economics, and Hemisphere Security, (New York: Praeger, 1965). Bonturi

  2. Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose Agostinho G. de; Marcelino, Jose R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Monica G.

    2009-06-03

    Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

  3. On the Axiomatic Theory of Multistate Coherent Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    ONR Contract N00014-76-C-0839. * S On leave from the Institute de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil. 01 1882 017 ON...THE AXIOMATIC THEORY OF MULTISTATE COHERENT STRUCTURES Wagner de Souza Borges and Fl~vio Wagner Rodrigues Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica

  4. Mossbauer Characterization of Iron Oxide Nanoclusters Grown within Aluminosilicate Matrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    2Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas , Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. 3Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas , Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. ABSTRACT...Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and the NSF: DMR 0074537 for support. Figures 1 and 2 ame reprinted with permission from reference [I]. Copyright 2001

  5. Emergence of a New Neotropical Malaria Vector Facilitated by Human Migration and Changes in Land Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    the abdomen was stored in 95% ethanol and used subsequently for molecular species identification, and the head/thorax was dried and stored for...Deane LM, Causey OR, Deane MP, 1948. Notas s6bre a distri- buigao e a biologia dos anofelinos das regi6es Nordestina e Amazonica do Brasil. Bras Rev

  6. The Contribution of the Peruvian Armed Forces to the Socio-Economic Development of the Country.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    cial concerns involved in steel production, pharmaceuticals, cement, and shipping. [Ref. 7: p. 1521. in Brasil , the Brazilian navy provides advanced...Army, 1981. 10. Constituent Assembly, of 1979, Constitucion Politica del Peru, Peruvian -%ir Force Press, 1979. 11. Benoit, E. , Defense and Economics

  7. Confirmation of Anopheles (Anopheles) calderoni Wilkerson, 1991 (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia and Ecuador Through Molecular and Morphological Correlation with Topotypic Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    of the Entomology Museum of the Universidad del Valle, Colombia Department Municipality Locality Elevation (m) Collection date Collector Antioquia ...Gómez Plata El Brasil 244 10 May1984 SEM Puerto Nare El Pescado 270 4 Oct 1983 SEM Santafe de Antioquia Paso Real 666 17 Mar 1984 SEM Bolívar Achí

  8. Summaries of Papers Presented at the High Resolution Spectroscopy Topical Meeting Held in Salt Lake City, Utah on 18-21 January 1993. Technical Digest Series. Volume 1. Postconference Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    to about J = 10 for CO, providing many energetically open channels. From this it is easy to conclude that ambient collisions between CO and He should...Fisica e Quimica de S. Carlos, USP, Caixa Postal 369, S. Carlos SP Brasil - 13560 2. On leave at the National Science Foundation, Physics Division, 1800 G

  9. Constitutions and Democratic Consolidation: Brazil in Comparative Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    Politica. Uma Estrategia para a Democracia," in Fabio W. Reis and Guillermo O’Donnell, eds.,A Democracia no Brasil: Dilemas e Perspectivas (Sao Paulo... Perspectiva dos Anos 80, Dados 24, no. 2, pp. 139-59. 32. Interview with a consultant to lobbies in Brasilia on May 16, 1988. Veja gave coverage to some

  10. Computational Technique for Teaching Mathematics (CTTM): Visualizing the Polynomial's Resultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Francisco Regis Vieira

    2015-01-01

    We find several applications of the Dynamic System Geogebra--DSG related predominantly to the basic mathematical concepts at the context of the learning and teaching in Brasil. However, all these works were developed in the basic level of Mathematics. On the other hand, we discuss and explore, with DSG's help, some applications of the polynomial's…

  11. Globalization and FARC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    through the National Security Doctrine, the ALCA (Area de Libre Comercio de las Americas, The Free Trade Area of the Americas) is, the Plan Colombia...which permeated throughout Paraguay, has a relationship with FARC through the main trafficker of Brasil , Luiz Fernando da Costa (Fernandinho Beira-Mar

  12. Communist Exploitation of Nationalism in Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    the crowd and prolonged cheers at his closing phrases: "We are all Brazilians.’" (Somos todos Brasileiros) , "Long live Brazil."’ (Viva o Brasil ...Jornal do Comercio , 6 Jan. 1952, p. 3. 30FBIS No. 51, 12 Mar. 1952, ZYC9 Rio de Janeiro, 12 Mar. 1952. 31FBIS No. 194, 5 Oct. 1953, PRL7 Rio de

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy of mCVs and other variable objects (Oliveira+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Cieslinski, D.; Jablonski, F. J.; Silva, K. M. G.; Almeida, L. A.; Rodriguez-Ardila, A.; Palhares, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    This catalog contains the spectra of the 45 variable objects, which was observed with SOAR 4.1m telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, and the Perkin- Elmer 1.6m telescope at Observatorio do Pico dos Dias (OPD-LNA/MCTI), locate in Brazopolis-MG, Brasil. (3 data files).

  14. Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; de Medeiros, José Agostinho G.; Marcelino, José R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Mônica G.

    2009-06-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

  15. Ferritin in hypertensive and diabetic women before and after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Marin, Flávia Andréia; Rasera Junior, Irineu; Leite, Celso Vieira De Souza; Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques de

    2014-10-16

    Además de importante marcador de las reservas de hierro, la ferritina sérica es un marcador de la inflamación sistémica, mientras que la obesidad se ha asociado con la inflamación crónica. Objetivo: Identificar, después de 6 meses, el efecto de la cirugía bariátrica sobre los niveles de ferritina sérica en hipertensos, diabéticos o sin estas comorbilidades preoperatorias mujeres. Pacientes y métodos: Los autores realizaron un estudio retrospectivo de 200 mujeres sometidas a bypass gástrico en Y de Roux (BGYR), con edades comprendidas entre 20 y 45 años, con un índice de masa corporal (IMC) superior a 35 kg/m2, con hipertensión arterial (HA, n = 70), la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2, n = 40) y sin comorbilidades (SC, n = 90) fueron evaluados antes y 6 meses después de BGYR. Antropométricas, de laboratorio (ferritina sérica y hemoglobina) y la información de comorbilidad se recogió de la historia clínica electrónica. Resultados: Antes de la cirugía, las mujeres con comorbilidades eran mayores, tenían mayores hipertensos IMC, niveles más altos de ferritina diabéticos en relación con el grupo SC. La resolución de las comorbilidades después de 6 meses de DGYR ocurrió en el 68 % de las mujeres con hipertensión y el 86 % de los diabéticos. 6 meses después de la cirugía, se observó una disminución de la ferritina sérica en mujeres con comorbilidades de 110,1 ± 86,3 a 88,7 ± 80,5 ng/dl en el grupo con hipertensión y 164,8 ± 133,4 a 101 2 ± 97,7 ng/dl en DM2 (p < 0,05) y la hemoglobina, excepto en los pacientes diabéticos (p > 0,05). Conclusión: El aumento de la ferritina en mujeres obesas en el periodo de premenopausia se relacionan con las principales comorbilidades de la obesidad, y la presencia de estas comorbilidades fue fundamental en la reducción de la ferritina sérica después de la cirugía bariátrica.

  16. [Results of PROMESA I study; efficacy and safety of a very low calorie diet application and following alimentary reeducation with the PronoKal® method in the treatment of excess of weight].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Riquelme, Amparo; Sajoux, Ignacio; Fondevila, Joan

    2014-02-01

    Introducción y Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la eficacia en la reducción de peso con la utilización de dieta de muy bajo aporte calórico cetogénica y posterior reeducación alimentaria según el método PronoKal ® en pacientes con sobrepeso y obesidad, y la seguridad durante su aplicación. Métodos: Estudio multicéntrico observacional, retrospectivo en que se analizaron estadísticamente variables descriptivas de los pacientes, variables relacionadas con el cambio ponderal, circunferencia de cintura abdominal, y bioquímica general al final de cada una de las etapas de tratamiento, y los acontecimientos adversos referidos en cada visita a lo largo del tratamiento. Resultados: De los 426 casos evaluables, el 62,3% de los pacientes eran obesos. El 16,7% presentaba hiperlipemia, el 2,3% diabetes mellitus tipo 2, y el 4,8% hipertensión arterial. Al final del tratamiento la media de peso perdido fue de 17,1 ± 8,0 kg (p < 0,001), con una reducción del IMC de 6,2 ± 3,0 kg/m2. El 54,2% de pacientes alcanzó la situación de normopeso (35,9% de los obesos), siendo mayor en mujeres que en hombres (62,5% vs 28,2%, respectivamente; p < 0,001). El perímetro de la cintura se redujo en 17,3 ± 9,5 cm. Hubo mejora de todos los parámetros analíticos en los pacientes diabéticos, hipertensos y dislipémicos, alcanzándose la significación estadística (p < 0,05) en la disminución de glucosa (28,8%) en diabéticos, en la disminución de glucosa (12,7%) y colesterol (14,5%) en hipertensos, y en la disminución de glucosa (11,7%), colesterol total (11,9%), colesterol LDL (11,3%) y triglicéridos (37,9%) en dislipémicos. La aparición de acontecimientos adversos se refirió en el 23,7% de los pacientes, principalmente estreñimiento (23,9%). Conclusiones: El método PronoKal® es un método eficaz y seguro de abordaje del exceso de peso, cuando se realiza de forma completa y bajo estricto control clínico multidisciplinar, mejorando diferentes par

  17. Expectation as a factor of influence on the success of use of hearing aids in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Larissa Cristina; Costa, Maristela Julio; Menegotto, Isabela Hoffmeister

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: Próteses auditivas destacam-se em função das tecnologias que as tornam cada vez menores, mais potentes e eficientes. O marketing pode gerar expectativas irreais quanto aos resultados com o uso de amplificação, principalmente em indivíduos inexperientes.Objetivo: Verificar a relação entre expectativas e sucesso do processo de seleção e adaptação de próteses auditivas em idosos.Método: Estudo clínico e experimental, 16 indivíduos idosos, inexperientes com o uso de amplificação, foram avaliados 15 dias antes e após a seleção e adaptação de próteses auditivas. Utilizou-se “Questionário para avaliação das expectativas do indivíduo adulto/idoso, novo usuário de próteses auditivas”, Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly/Screening Version, para avaliação da percepção da restrição de participação e o Questionário Internacional - Aparelho de Amplificação Sonora Individual (QI-AASI), para verificar o benefício subjetivo com o uso das próteses auditivas. Determinou-se o Índice Percentual de Reconhecimento de Sentenças no Silêncio (IPRSS), por meio do teste Listas de Sentenças em Português para verificar o benefício objetivo da adaptação. Os dados foram analisados por meio de teste não-paramétrico, com nível de significância de 5%.Resultados: Toda a amostra apresentou expectativas positivas. Subjetivamente verificou-se benefício pela diminuição da percepção da restrição de participação e pela avaliação positiva da adaptação, evidenciada pelo QI-AASI. Objetivamente a melhora do IPRSS com o uso de próteses auditivas também evidenciou beneficio.Conclusão: a expectativa quanto aos resultados com o uso de amplificação, foi fator de influência negativa no sucesso do processo de seleção e adaptação de próteses auditivas, no âmbito subjetivo.

  18. Vestibular system paresis due to emergency endovascular catheterization.

    PubMed

    Simoceli, Lucinda; Sguillar, Danilo Anunciatto; Santos, Henrique Mendes Paiva; Caputti, Camilla

    2012-04-01

    Objetivo: O objetivo deste relato de caso é descrever uma causa incomum de vestibulopatia periférica associada à perda auditiva unilateral em paciente idoso pós- cateterismo de urgência.Relato de caso: Paciente do gênero masculino, 82 anos, submetido à correção de aneurisma roto de aorta abdominal, no intra-operatório sofreu infarto agudo do miocárdio necessitando de angioplastia primária. Após alta hospitalar refere queixa de hipoacusia acentuada à direita e vertigem incapacitante, sem sinais neurológicos focais. Ao exame clínico otorrinolaringológico apresentava: Teste de Weber lateralizado para a esquerda, nistagmo espontâneo para a esquerda , marcha oscilante, leve disbasia e ataxia, índex-nariz e diadococinesia normais, Teste de Romberg com oscilação sem queda e Fukuda com desvio lateral para a direita. O exame audiométrico evidenciava anacusia à direita e perda neurossensorial à esquerda em agudos, arreflexia vestibular à direita na prova calórica e, na tomografia computadorizada dos ossos temporais e tronco-encefálico, presença de haste metálica atravessando o osso temporal direito, a partir da veia jugular interna e bulbo jugular, atravessando os canais semicirculares posterior, superior e vestíbulo, projetando-se em lobo temporal. O diagnóstico radiológico foi lesão traumática por guia endovascular metálico durante cateterismo de urgência e a conduta, considerando que o paciente não havia compensado o equilíbrio, foi reabilitação vestibular.Conclusão: Queixas de tontura no paciente idoso devem ser criteriosamente avaliadas diante do seu histórico clínico patológico pois os antecedentes de doenças e tratamentos prévios, em geral, direcionam as hipóteses diagnósticas porém podem trazer alterações inesperadas.

  19. FOREWORD International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, Mário Ernesto Giroldo; Jackson, R. A.

    2010-11-01

    applications will be presented alongside fundamental measurements and theories. The main scientific areas included: 1 Fundamental physical phenomena Point and extended defects in wide band-gap systems: oxides, fluorides, nitrides, alkali- and silver-halides, perovskites, minerals, ceramics, nano-structures, organic molecular crystals, glasses, high-k and low-k materials, photonic crystals. 2 Defects at surfaces and interfaces Thin films and low-dimensional systems. Colloids, nano-crystals, and aggregates. Defects and material preparation technology. Defects modelling and computational methods. Radiation effects, radiation induced defects, colour centres. Luminescence of excitons, impurities, and defects. Electronic excitations, excited state dynamics, radiative and non-radiative relaxations. Scintillation, energy transfer and storage, carrier trapping phenomena. Non-linear optical phenomena. Laser active centres. Phonons and defects, electron-phonon interactions. Defect diffusion, ionic relaxations, ionic transport. 3 Technological applications Radiologic imaging and detection, scintillators, and dosimeters. Optical devices and photonics, photorefractive electro-optics, optical fibres, lasers. Materials for micro-electronics. Solid electrolytes, fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, fast ionic conductors. Conference chairpersons: Mário E G Valerio (Conference Chairman), Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, SE, Brasil Robert A Jackson (Programme Chairman), School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, UK Conference committees: International Advisory Committee R Capelletti, Italy A V Chadwick, UK J Corish, Ireland J D Comins, South Africa H W den Hartog, The Netherlands K Funke, Germany Robert A Jackson, UK O Kanert, Germany A A Kaplyanskii, Russia A Lushchik, Estonia F Lüty, USA M Moreno, Spain P E Ngoepe, South Africa M Nikl, Czech Republic S V Nistor, Romania Ch Pedrini, France O F Schirmer, Germany J-M Spaeth, Germany A M Stoneham, UK

  20. [Microscopic examination of Guaraná powder--Paullinia cupana Kunth].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A T

    1999-01-01

    Guaraná is a product from the seeds of the Amazonian liana Paullinia cupana that is also cultivated since a couple of years. It is rich in caffeine and serves in Brasil for the production of stimulants, soft drinks, and sweets. In the drug scene it is sometimes trafficked as natural stimulant or drug surrogate. Microscopic examination shows the presence of starch and tannins and provides a simple, quick and cheap method to distinguish guaraná from drugs of abuse.

  1. New species of Triplocania Roesler with forewing M3 forked (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-07-16

    Four new Brazilian species of Triplocania with forewing M3 forked are described and illustrated based on male specimens, namely: Triplocania lamasi n.sp. (Mato Grosso: Brazil), Triplocania mariateresae n.sp. (Rio de Janeiro: Brazil), Triplocania newi n.sp. (Tocantins: Brazil) and Triplocania plaumanni n.sp. (Santa Catarina: Brasil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures.

  2. [Atypical presentation of cutaneous sporotrichosis in an alcoholic patient].

    PubMed

    Nassif, Priscila Wolf; Granado, Inandiara Rafaela Marco de Oliveira; Ferraz, Juliana Soares; Souza, Robson; Nassif, Aissar Eduardo

    2012-06-15

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis with a high prevalence in Brasil. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii, and may lead to different clinical presentations. The disseminated cutaneous form is uncommon and corresponds to 4 percent of the total number of cases. We report a case of atypical disseminated sporotrichosis in an alcoholic patient, whose culture for fungi revealed the presence of Sporothrix schenckii. The patient was treated with itraconazole 200 mg/day for 6 months with clinical clearing.

  3. Launching Latin America: International and Domestic Factors in National Space Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear, “Cronologia Da Energia Nuclear Do Brasil [Chronology of Brazilian Nuclear Energy],” accessed September 26, 2014, http...alternate launch site at Praia de Cassino (Cassino Beach) in a global effort to study the total solar eclipse on 12 November 1966.77 While initially...the design, construction, and systems integration of the satellite, with Italy providing solar panels, the Unites States developing two scientific

  4. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-18

    America- United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), by J. F. Hornbeck, CRS Report R40135, Mérida Initiative for Mexico and Central America: Funding and...January 27, 2009. 13 Ibid; Alberto Fajardo, “Funes quiere gobernar cerca Brasil y EEUU,” Reuters, March 16, 2009; “ Presidente electo El Salvador...for Mexico and Central America, by Colleen W. Cook and Clare Ribando Seelke. 26 It is unclear how much bilateral and Mérida Initiative assistance

  5. The Acoustic Model Evaluation Committee (AMEC) Reports. Volume 1. Model Evaluation Methodology and Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    limited to U.S. Government agencies only. ( APR A 04 Li ".., Other requests for this document must be referred to the Commanding Officer, Naval Ocean...Y, JAGUAR- BRASIL , one or both models). Here, a difficult HEARING STAKE, JOAST, ATOE, and IOMEDEX. practical Issue arises. In its applica- Table 3...198& b1 Ocean Science and Technology Laboratory IS- MUMBER Of PAGES NSTL Station, MS 39529 040 M4. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS( fI different from

  6. C2 System Engineering for the Adversities of the Amazon Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Bloco G, 2º andar Setor Militar Urbano Brasília-DF-Brasil 70630-901 tel: +55-61-3415-6139 kohlbr@yahoo.com.br kohl@cds.eb.mil.br Marcelo...done. Distances associated with all types of transportation difficulties explain most of the past and the current scenario. The difference resides...highlights the importance to have transport and command and control structures capable of operating under a wide variety of circumstances, including the

  7. Projected BCS-Tamm-Dancoff approximation with blocking effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, H.; Krmpotić, F.

    1982-05-01

    The blocking effect is introduced through a canonical transformation in the projected BCS-Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is suggested that the blocking effect may play an important role in the description of the low-lying states in odd-mass nuclei. Present address: Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. Member of Carrera de Investigador Científico, CONICET, Argentina. Sponsored by Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), Brasil.

  8. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross section of {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, P. N. de; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Pires, K. C. C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Barioni, A.; Morcelle, V.; Morais, M. C.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Moro, A. M.; Arazi, A.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Assuncao, M.

    2010-04-15

    The elastic scattering of {sup 6}He on {sup 120}Sn has been measured at four energies above the Coulomb barrier using the {sup 6}He beam produced at the RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil) facility. The elastic angular distributions have been analyzed with the optical model and three- and four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations. The total reaction cross sections have been derived and compared with other systems of similar masses.

  9. CEN A observation at MeV-energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballmoos, P. V.; Diehl, R.; Schoenfelder, V.

    1985-01-01

    During a balloon flight with the MPI Compton telescope from Uberaba/Brasil gamma-ray emission from the direction of Cen A was observed at MeV-energies. The observed flux connects to the X-ray spectrum of Cen A beyond 0.7 MeV and has a statistical significance of 4.1. The extension beyond 3 MeV has a significance of 3.8. Possible interpretations of the energy spectrum are discussed.

  10. Argyritarsis Section of the Subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae). Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Am. Entomol. Inst. (Ann Arbor) 1(2):1-17. 1967. Estudios sobre mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae). Ia. Un proyecto para un estudio sistematico de los...subgenero Nyssorhynchus do Brasil. Arq. Hig. Saude Publica 8:141-162. 1950. Do diagnostico diferencial entre A (N) strodel e A (N) pessoai na fase larvaria...Mex. , D. F. , Secr. Salubr. Asist. 181 p. Vargas V. M. 1956. Clave numerica para identificacion de larvas en cuarta fase de Anophelini en Costa Rica

  11. Brazil and the Vital South Atlantic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Weekly, p. 42-45 London 7 April 1984 Dzidzienyo, Anani. Relaciones Africanas y Latino Americanos Contemnporaneas: Problemas y Perspectivas . Brown...Resources to Carry on a War, Officers Say " New York Times, p. 1. 14 May 1984 Hayes, Margaret D. Brazil y el Atlantico Sur: cambios en las perspectivas de...Alfredo. "Marinha de Brasil: Atnalidodes e Perspectivas ." (Lecture on the Brazilian Naval War College.) Rio de Janeiro, Braz~I. 31 Agosto 1984. Kelly

  12. TRADOC Union List of Periodicals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    TTG v. 14, 1963+ Combat Forces Journal (continued by Arms Magazine) TSJ Aug 1950-Jjl 1956. Combat Lessons TSQ Vol. 2-5 (Bound). Comercio Exterior...TTY Jul 1985 Comercio -El TSL Current 12 issues only Command Information Package (includes Officers Call, Commanders Notes, Sergeants Business and...Inc). Joint Services Recognition Journal FTE v. 35, 1980+ TTF Feb 1977-1982 ( mnc). TTG v. I, 1946-v. 9, 1954 Jorrial Do Brasil TSL Current 12 issues

  13. Does the Dragon Soar Higher than the Eagle?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    invested USD 1.2 billion in Brazil’s iron ore mining firm, Itaminas Comercio de Minerios. Firms from China have also placed their bid for stakes in...P35271.xml&xsl=/bras il/tpl/p10f.xsl&base=/ brasil /tpl/top-bottom.xsl, 3–5. Bhagwati, J. In Defense of Globalization. New York: Oxford University Press

  14. The Large Quasar Reference Frame (LQRF). An Optical Representation of the ICRS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    A&A 505, 385–404 (2009) DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912041 c© ESO 2009 Astronomy & Astrophysics The large quasar reference frame (LQRF) An optical...RJ, Brasil Received 12 March 2009 / Accepted 20 May 2009 ABSTRACT Context. The large number and all-sky distribution of quasars from different...surveys, along with their presence in large , deep astro- metric catalogs, enables us to build of an optical materialization of the International Celestial

  15. Redescription of the Monotypic Neotropical Genus Crepititermes Emerson (Termitidae: Termitinae).

    PubMed

    Rocha, M M; Cuezzo, C

    2015-10-01

    Based on a reexamination of specimens of Crepititermes Emerson deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil (MZUSP), we characterize the morphology and coiling in situ of the digestive tube of workers of Crepititermes verruculosus Emerson for the first time. We provide additional notes on the imago and soldier and present digital images and illustrations for all castes. We also update the currently known geographical distribution of C. verruculosus, adding some biological remarks.

  16. Attache Extraordinaire: Vernon A. Walters and Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    identify the meaning- ful infl uence Brazil had upon Vernon Walters’ life. When considering that his professional career can be visualized in two main...relacionamento com o presidente Eisenhower, exceto por uma breve narrativa Walters com o presidente Eisenhower durante visita ao Congresso brasileiro, em 1960. A...tenha sido a participação de Walters nos episódios de 1964 no Brasil, de qualquer forma ele estaria errado: Sua narrativa desse período, entretanto

  17. Quality of life and its association with work, the Internet, participation in groups and physical activity among the elderly from the EpiFloripa survey, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Larissa Pruner; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-12-22

    The study aimed to investigate the association between changes in social relations and physical activity on the quality of life of the elderly in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Data on 1,197 elderly from two waves of the population and household survey, EpiFloripa Idoso, were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate association of social change variables and lifestyle on quality of life score (QoL; measured by CASP-16 Brazil, score can range from 0, which represents no QoL to 48, total satisfaction in all domains of CASP). The average QoL score in the sample was 37.6 (95%CI: 37.2; 38.1). The social relations that were associated with positive QoL score were to start to work, to continue to use the Internet, to start participating in religious or lifestyle groups, to remain and to become physically active, and for those who were physically active, but became inactive in the second wave. To remain living with family had a negative effect on QoL score for the elderly. Some changes in social relations had a positive effect on QoL, and results reaffirmed the importance of physical activity to healthy aging, since to pursue it in some of the waves was better than to remain inactive.

  18. [Factors that influence the sexuality of the elderly: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Alencar, Danielle Lopes de; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Vieira, Júlia de Cássia Miguel

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the scientific evidence addressing the factors that influence the sexuality of the elderly. It involved an online search carried out in pairs, including original articles published between 2006 and October 2011 in Portuguese, English or Spanish, which fulfilled the requirements of the study. The MEDLINE, LILACS, CidSaúde and BDENF databases were used with the key words: sexualidade e idoso / sexuality and elderly / sexualidad y anciano. The articles selected were assessed for methodological quality using two instruments, namely CASP and the Hierarchical Classification of Evidence. After analysis, 15 articles were included in the review, which discuss the culture of asexuality of the elderly, whereby the experience of sexuality only prevails among younger people. The absence of the partner due to widowhood, attributing value to beauty standards of the young, the occurrence of disease, use of medication, and changes in sexual physiology were identified as important factors that influence the sexuality of the elderly. The conclusion drawn is that social and cultural factors, changes in body physiology, and the occurrence of disease interfere with the sexuality of the elderly, making it necessary for nursing professionals to be proactive in debunking myths and providing orientation.

  19. [Training professionals for delivering ingreated health care to the aged: the interdisciplinary experience of NAI - UNATI/UERJ].

    PubMed

    da Motta, Luciana Branco; Caldas, Célia Pereira; de Assis, Mônica

    2008-01-01

    The training of professionals in the field of healthcare for the aged is one of the priorities of the national policy for the aged in Brazil due to the accelerated aging of the population. The Núcleo de Atenção ao Idoso (NAI), a unit of the Open University of the Third Age/UERJ (UNATI/UERJ) develops an educational program in this field, based on practical care delivery with emphasis to inter-disciplinarity and teamwork. The program includes different training levels and modalities: Residency, Specialization, Professional Practice and Graduation. The program includes an introductory course in gerontology and geriatrics common to all areas, and specific theoretical-practical qualification coordinated by the professional staff from the respective areas. The practical activities occur in different sceneries: long term care institutions, health promotion educational settings, outpatient facilities and the university hospital. Interdisciplinary thinking and acting is a continuous exercise, and the team should be open to innovative strategies. The experience is a contribution to the increasing social demand for qualified professionals committed with the principles of the Unified Health System and integrated health care.

  20. [Public policies for the elderly in Brazil: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luana Machado; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Pinheiro, Gleide Magali Lemos; Meira, Edmeia Campos; Lira, Lais Santana Santos Pereira

    2013-12-01

    This paper is an integrative review analyzing the scientific production and legal documents regarding public policies for the elderly in Brazil. Research was conducted in the Virtual Health Library and Scopus databases, examining publications since 2003. Data were collected from June to September of 2011 using the following key words: "elderly" (idosos), "public policies" (políticas públicas), "elderly person" (pessoa idosa), "aging" (envelhecimento) and "civic participation" (participação cidadã). The search resulted in the selection of 15 articles and six legal documents targeted at the elderly in Brazil that were submitted to content analysis by categorization. The results revealed that aging in Brazil has occurred in the midst of adaptations entrenched in cultural biases, social, economic and educational discrepancies and the implementation of public welfare policies. There were few studies that indicated the importance of strengthening social movements that elicit discussion related to the elderly in Brazil. The conclusion reached is that the study will provide material for reflection about the construction of a new reality about aging in Brazil.

  1. The influence of cloud cover index on the accuracy of solar irradiance model estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F. R.; Silva, S. A. B.; Pereira, E. B.; Abreu, S. L.

    2008-04-01

    Cloud cover index ( CCI) obtained from satellite images contains information on cloud amount and their optical thickness. It is the chief climate data for the assessment of solar energy resources in most radiative transfer models, particularly for the model BRASIL-SR that is currently operational at CPTEC. The wide range of climate environments in Brazil turns CCI determination into a challenging activity and great effort has been directed to develop new methods and procedures to improve the accuracy of these estimations from satellite images (Martins 2001; Martins et al. 2003a; Ceballos et al. 2004). This work demonstrates the influence of CCI determination methods on estimates of surface solar irradiances obtained by the model BRASIL-SR comparing deviations among ground data and model results. Three techniques using visible and/or thermal infrared images of GOES-8 were employed to generate the CCI for input into the model BRASIL-SR. The ground-truth data was provided by the solar radiation station located at Caicó/PE, in Brazilian Northeast region, which is part of the UNEP/GEF project SWERA (Solar and Wind Energy Resources Assessment). Results have shown that the application of the bi-spectral techniques have reduced mean bias error up to 66% and root mean square error up to 50% when compared to the usual technique for CCI determination based on the straightforward determination of month-by-month extremes for maximum and minimum cloud states.

  2. Reducing non-communicable disease via better detection of hypertension and alcohol problems in primary health care in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Gmel, Gerrit; Sierra, Cristina; Gual, Antoni

    2016-09-29

    With help of a simulation study, the potential effects of better detection of hypertension and improved screening for alcohol problems with subsequent interventions were estimated.  Results showed, that if 50% of Spanish men between 40 and 64 years of age currently not aware of their hypertension could be made aware of their condition and received usual interventions, and 50% among men with hypertension would be screened for alcohol and received interventions for hazardous drinking or treatment for alcohol use disorders, the percentage of uncontrolled hypertension among men with hypertension would decrease from 61.2% to 55.9%, i.e. by 8.6%.  Similarly, for women, these interventions would decrease the percentage of women in the same age group with uncontrolled hypertension by 7.4%.  The reduction of blood pressure in the population would lead to the avoidance of 412 premature CVD deaths (346 in men, 66 in women).  Better detection of hypertension and screening for alcohol with subsequent interventions would thus result in marked reductions of uncontrolled hypertension, and CVD mortality.Abstract in Spanish:Se estudian mediante un estudio de simulación los potenciales beneficios que puede comportar una mejora en la detección y tratamiento tanto de la hipertensión, como de los problemas relacionados con el alcohol. Los resultados muestran que si el 50% de los varones españoles entre 40 y 64 años que padecen hipertensión y no lo saben, fuesen detectados y recibiesen tratamiento; y si en el 50% de los varones hipertensos se realizase el cribado de consumo alcohólico y recibieran consejo para la reducción de consumos o tratamiento cuando procediera, el porcentaje de hipertensión no controlada descendería del 61,2% al 55,9% (disminuirá en un 8,6%). De forma similar, las mismas intervenciones en mujeres de los mismos grupos etarios implicarían una reducción del 7,4% de la hipertensión no controlada. La reducción de la presión arterial en la poblaci

  3. [Demographic factors and comorbidity associated to prehypertension].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Negrete, Adolfo; Márquez-Celedonio, Félix Guillermo; Soler-Huerta, Elizabeth; Rojas-Carrera, Sonia Irma; González-Santes, Mario; Blanco-Cornejo, Aída Verónica; Rojas-Uribe, Magdalena; Texon-Fernández, Obdulia

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la prehipertensión arterial es la categoría establecida en el JNC-7 para definir las cifras de presión arterial diastólica de 80-89 y sistólica de 120-139 mm Hg que se asocian a riesgo cardiovascular. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar su prevalencia y su asociación con factores sociodemográficos y de comorbilidad en una muestra representativa de la población del estado de Veracruz. Métodos: por medio de muestreo probabilístico y una encuesta transversal, se registraron variables sociodemográficas, estilo de vida, antropometría, presión arterial y glucosa. Se obtuvieron razones de momios (RM) e intervalos de confianza (IC) del 95 % para los factores de riesgo mencionados. Resultados: la prevalencia de prehipertensión fue de 33.8 %, con edad promedio de 40.9 ± 14.2 años en prehipertensos y 50.6 ± 12.7 en hipertensos (p < 0.05). Para prehipertensión, el sexo masculino presentó RM de 1.48 (1.18-1.86). Asimismo, aquellos mayores de 40 años tuvieron una RM de 1.9 (1.51-2.38); los que tenían escolaridad básica, RM de 1.73 (1.38-2.17); aquellos con hiperglucemia de ayuno, RM de 3.0 (1.5-3.75); con sobrepeso, RM de 1.41 (1.01-1.68); y con otras comorbilidades, una RM de 1.61 (1.09-2.36). Conclusiones: se encontró una elevada prevalencia de prehipertensión en esta muestra de la población y su asociación de riesgo fue con las personas de sexo masculino que eran mayores de 40 años y que tenían escolaridad básica y comorbilidades como diabetes y enfermedad cardiovascular.

  4. Perception of body image of adolescents and of their parents in relation to the nutritional status and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Silveira Vieira, Raquel; Dal Bosco, Simone Morelo; Grave, Magali Trezinha Quevedo; Adami, Fernanda Scherer

    2015-04-01

    La percepción de la imagen corporal de los adolescentes de un instrumento para la evaluación nutricional de las condiciones de salud. Objetivo: Verificar la percepción de la imagen corporal de los adolescentes y sus padres en relación con los niveles de estado y la presión arterial nutricionales. Métodos: Estudio poblacional, y el modelo de la sección transversal, realizada con los padres y adolescentes de 10 a 19 años de edad, en las zonas rurales y urbanas en las escuelas públicas. Se aplicó la Escala de siluetas de los padres acerca de la percepción de la imagen corporal descrita y una pregunta acerca de la preocupación de la situación nutricional de sus hijos. No se verificaron la circunferencia de la presión arterial, peso, altura y cintura, el IMC (kg / m²) cálculo de los adolescentes, y la imagen corporal de la percepción subjetiva. Los datos se expresaron como media ± desviación estándar y porcentajes. Resultados: La muestra estuvo constituida por 914 adolescentes con una edad media de 13,12 ± 2,17 años, 56,8% mujeres y 68,9% eran eutróficos. En cuanto a los niveles de presión arterial, el 17,6% fueron clasificados en pre-hipertensos, 18,8% en la etapa 1 de hipertensión y el 6% en la etapa 2. Sobre la percepción de sí mismo, el 68% se consideraban ser eutróficos y 64,75% de los padres a sus hijos como clasificado eutróficos. No se observó una correlación directa y significativa entre el índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de la cintura, el peso, la presión arterial sistémica y diastólica con la auto-percepción de los adolescentes y la percepción de imagen corporal de los padres (p.

  5. [Association between depression and hearing loss in patients with type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Zamora-Vega, Omar; Gómez-Díaz, Rita Angélica; Delgado-Solís, Margarita; Vázquez-Estupiñán, Felipe; Vargas-Aguayo, Alejandro Martín; Wacher-Rodarte, Niels H

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: se desconoce y es necesario entender con mayor claridad y precisión cuál es la asociación entre la diabetes, la hipoacusia y la depresión. Nuestro objetivo fue estimar la asociación entre depresión e hipoacusia en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). Métodos: estudio transversal analítico. Se estudiaron pacientes con DT2 mayores de 40 años. Se registraron medidas antropométricas y parámetros bioquímicos. Se aplicó el cuestionario de depresión de Beck y un estudio audiológico tonal. Se compararon los grupos con chi cuadrada y regresión logística. Resultados: se incluyeron 150 pacientes (76 % mujeres). El promedio de edad fue de 56 ± 9.3 años, con 12.4 ± 6.5 años de evolución de diabetes, con peso de 67.4 ± 11.6kg; fueron obesos el 31 %; 25.5 % hipertensos (126.3 ± 19.3/79.4 ± 19.7 mm Hg) y el 80.7 % presentó descontrol metabólico (HbA1c ≥ 7 %). El 45.3 % presentó hipoacusia y el 32.4 % depresión. El diagnóstico de depresión en pacientes con hipoacusia permaneció significativo después de ajustar para conseguir confusores (razón de momios [RM] = 2.3; intervalo de confianza [IC] al 95 % 1.051-5.333, p = 0.037). Las mujeres tuvieron mayor riesgo de padecer depresión, diferencia que permaneció significativa al ajustarse (RM = 3.2; IC 95 % 1.268-8.584, p = 0.014). Conclusiones: casi la mitad de los pacientes con diabetes presentaron hipoacusia y más de tres veces el riesgo de depresión. Los sujetos con depresión y diabetes mostraron mayor hipoacusia (> 20 dB) que aquellos sin diabetes o sin depresión.

  6. Quality of Life on Arterial Hypertension: Validity of Known Groups of MINICHAL.

    PubMed

    Soutello, Ana Lúcia Soares; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Jannuzzi, Fernanda Freire; São-João, Thaís Moreira; Martinix, Gabriela Giordano; Nadruz Jr, Wilson; Gallani, Maria-Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2015-02-27

    Introductions: In the care of hypertension, it is important that health professionals possess available tools that allow evaluating the impairment of the health-related quality of life, according to the severity of hypertension and the risk for cardiovascular events. Among the instruments developed for the assessment of health-related quality of life, there is the Mini-Cuestionario of Calidad de Vida en la Hipertensión Arterial (MINICHAL) recently adapted to the Brazilian culture. Objective: To estimate the validity of known groups of the Brazilian version of the MINICHAL regarding the classification of risk for cardiovascular events, symptoms, severity of dyspnea and target-organ damage. Methods: Data of 200 hypertensive outpatients concerning sociodemographic and clinical information and health-related quality of life were gathered by consulting the medical charts and the application of the Brazilian version of MINICHAL. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare health-related quality of life in relation to symptoms and target-organ damage. The Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA with ranks transformation were used to compare health-related quality of life in relation to the classification of risk for cardiovascular events and intensity of dyspnea, respectively. Results: The MINICHAL was able to discriminate health-related quality of life in relation to symptoms and kidney damage, but did not discriminate health-related quality of life in relation to the classification of risk for cardiovascular events. Conclusion: The Brazilian version of the MINICHAL is a questionnaire capable of discriminating differences on the health‑related quality of life regarding dyspnea, chest pain, palpitation, lipothymy, cephalea and renal damage.Fundamento: No cuidado ao hipertenso, é importante que o profissional de saúde disponha de ferramentas que possibilitem avaliar o comprometimento da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, de acordo com a gravidade da hipertensão e o risco

  7. [Hypofractionation in locally advanced breast cancer: "flash" scheme].

    PubMed

    Padilha, Marisa; Gonçalves, Sara; Fardilha, Carlos; Melo, Gilberto; Miranda, Cristina; Alves, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O carcinoma da mama é uma das principais causas de morte no nosso país. No Serviço de Radioterapia do Instituto Português de Oncologia de Coimbra de Coimbra utilizamos, desde há mais de 30 anos, um esquema de hipofraccionamento de radioterapia, denominado “Flash”, como opção terapêutica em doentes idosos ou com baixo Performance Status, portadores de carcinoma da mama localmente avançado ou com estádios IIb ou IV, com intenção neoadjuvante ou paliativa. Objectivos: Avaliar a resposta ao tratamento, nomeadamente sobrevivência global aos três anos, resposta local e toxicidades aguda e crónica, no grupo de doentes seleccionados submetidos a esquema de hipofraccionamento, em estudo retrospectivo. Metodologia: Entre Janeiro de 2006 e Dezembro de 2008, um total de 83 doentes com diagnóstico de Carcinoma da Mama Localmente Avançado ou com estádios IIb ou IV, foi submetido a “Flash” mamário. A dose de radioterapia prescrita foi de 13Gy / 2Fr / 3 dias (em 23 doentes - 27,7%) e 26Gy / 4Fr / 2,5 semanas (em 60 doentes - 72,3%), com fotões de 4 MV, sobre a mama afectada. Foi avaliada sobrevivência global segundo o método de Kaplan-Meier. A análise estatística foi efectuada através da aplicação SPSS, versão 17.0 e os testes estatísticos foram avaliados ao nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: 80 doentes (96,4%) que efectuaram “Flash” mamário eram do género feminino, com idades compreendidas entre os 59 e os 93 anos (idade média 80,72 + 5,87 anos) e Performance Status (Karnosfsky: 0 - 100) entre 90 e 50%. Em 72 doentes (86,7%) o diagnóstico histológico foi Carcinoma Ductal Invasivo. A cirurgia após a realização do “Flash” Mamário foi realizada em 44 doentes (53%) após evidência de resposta local à radioterapia, sendo a Mastectomia Radical Modificada a técnica cirúrgica mais frequente. Efectuou-se o diagnóstico de metastização óssea em 10 doentes (12%), sendo que a taxa de sobrevivência global foi

  8. Frailty and cardiovascular risk in community-dwelling elderly: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; Pessoa, Germane Silva; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Dias, Rosangela Correa; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests a possible bidirectional connection between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the frailty syndrome in older people. Purpose To verify the relationship between CVD risk factors and the frailty syndrome in community-dwelling elderly. Methods This population-based study used data from the Fragilidade em Idosos Brasileiros (FIBRA) Network Study, a cross-sectional study designed to investigate frailty profiles among Brazilian older adults. Frailty status was defined as the presence of three or more out of five of the following criteria: unintentional weight loss, weakness, self-reported fatigue, slow walking speed, and low physical activity level. The ascertained CVD risk factors were self-reported and/or directly measured hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, waist circumference measurement, and smoking. Results Of the 761 participants, 9.7% were characterized as frail, 48.0% as pre-frail, and 42.3% as non-frail. The most prevalent CVD risk factor was hypertension (84.4%) and the lowest one was smoking (10.4%). It was observed that among those participants with four or five risk factors there was a higher proportion of frail and pre-frail compared with non-frail (Fisher’s exact test: P=0.005; P=0.021). Self-reported diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among frail and pre-frail participants when compared with non-frail participants (Fisher’s exact test: P≤0.001; P≤0.001). There was little agreement between self-reported hypertension and hypertension identified by blood pressure measurement. Conclusion Hypertension was highly prevalent among the total sample. In addition, frail and pre-frail older people corresponded to a substantial proportion of those with more CVD risk factors, especially diabetes mellitus, highlighting the need for preventive strategies in order to avoid the co-occurrence of CVD and frailty. PMID:25336932

  9. Inauguração do Telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, João

    2004-04-01

    A comunidade astronômica brasileira de há muito almeja ter a sua disposição um instrumento científico com o qual possa fazer pesquisa de vanguarda e manter a competitividade científica a nível internacional. Hoje este sonho se torna uma realidade. O Brasil tem tido uma política de pesquisa e de pós-graduação bem sucedida. Estamos formando 7000 doutores por ano e produzimos 1,5% da ciência mundial. Nosso desafio, hoje, é associar a esta capacidade de gerar conhecimento também a capacidade de usar o conhecimento em beneficio da sociedade. A Astronomia não é exceção. Temos 7 programas de pós-graduação em nível de doutorado e 11 em nível de mestrado. O telescópio SOAR será o principal instrumento que sustentará estes programas nas próximas décadas. A inauguração do telescópio SOAR simboliza de forma concreta e decidida o apoio do MCT, do CNPq e da FAPESP para o financiamento à pesquisa básica em nosso país. O Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, criado a cerca de 20 anos pelo CNPq, a par do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, são até hoje, os únicos laboratórios nacionais do Brasil e ambos voltados basicamente ao avanço do conhecimento. Os vinte anos de existência do LNA foram decisivos para a estruturação da comunidade astronômica no Brasil e para a construção das parcerias como o SOAR.

  10. Comparison of Reference Values in Whole Blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J Mice Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Suzuki, M. F.; Júnior, C. R. B.; Sant'Anna, O. A.

    2011-08-01

    The Br, Ca, Cl, K, Na and S concentrations in whole blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J mice were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Reference values obtained from twenty one whole blood samples of these strains were analyzed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (São Paulo, Brasil). These data contribute for applications in veterinary medicine related to biochemistry analyses using whole blood as well as to evaluate the performance of treatments in muscular dystrophy.

  11. A new genus and species of micro bee flies from Brazil (Diptera: Mythicomyiidae: Psiloderoidinae).

    PubMed

    Lamas, Carlos J E; Falaschi, Rafaela L; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2015-05-05

    A new genus of Mythicomyiidae, Amydrostylus triadicophallus gen. nov. et sp. nov., is described from the Chaco of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The type-series was collected by Malaise traps during the development of the SISBIOTA-Brasil project. Amydrostylus is closely related to the genus Acridophagus Evenhuis in the subfamily Psiloderoidinae, but it is distinguished by the minute apical stylus and the same length of br and bm cells. The species is described and illustrated in detail, including the male terminalia and female spermathecae. This is the first record of the subfamily Psiloderoidinae in South America.

  12. Biomass Burning Controlled Modulation of the Solar Radiation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, E. B.; Martins, F. R.; Abreu, S. L.; Couto, P.; Colle, S.; Stuhlmann, R.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric combustion products from forest fires in Brazil can affect routine satellite techniques for the assessment of solar energy resource information. The mean overestimation of solar irradiance by BRASIL-SR clear sky model was up to 2.5 times larger than that found outside the region of biomass burnings. Within the region of biomass burnings the overestimation was over 5 times larger at the peak of the burning season when compared to the rest of the year. A positive correlation between combustion products and the number of fire spots counted by satellite technique suggests a possible method for the parameterization of these effects in radiation transfer models

  13. [Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos, 1947 (Hemiptera, Tratominae) in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul].

    PubMed

    Salvatella Agrelo, R; Basmadjian, Y; Rosa, R; Puime, A

    1993-01-01

    Triatoma delpontei (Romaña & Abalos, 1947) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) is an ornithophilic sylvatic with a particular association to the psittacid Myiopsitta monachus (Boaddert, 1783). It is found in the continental biogeographical province of the Chaco, where it inhabits the nests or M. monachus, in subtropical xerophytic forests. The authors report the first finding of T. delpontei in Brasil, in the "campanha" region of the State or Rio Grande do Sul (Barra do Quarai, Uruguaiana), on the right bank of the River Cuareim, not far from de Uruguayan border.

  14. The Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment /LACIE/ - A summary of three years' experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, R. B.; Moore, B. H.

    1979-01-01

    Aims, history and schedule of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) conducted by NASA, USDA and NOAA from 1974-1977 are described. The LACIE experiment designed to research, develop, apply and evaluate a technology to monitor wheat production in important regions throughout the world (U.S., Canada, USSR, Brasil) utilized quantitative multispectral data collected by Landsat in concert with current weather data and historical information. The experiment successfully exploited computer data and mathematical models to extract timely corp information. A follow-on activities for the early 1980's is planned focusing especially on the early warning of changes affecting production and quality of renewable resources and commodity production forecast.

  15. Wheat yield estimation at the farm level using TM Landsat and agrometeorological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudorff, B. F. T.; Batista, G. T.

    1991-01-01

    A model for estimating wheat yields on the farm level was developed, that integrates the Landsat TM data and agrometeorological information. Results obtained for a test site in southern Brasil for years of 1986 and 1987 show that the vegetation index derived from Landsat TM could account for the 60 to 40 percent wheat-yield variability observed between the two crop years. Compared to results using either the Landsat TM vegetation index or the agrometeorological data alone, the joint use of both types of data in a single model yielded a significant improvement.

  16. Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae): a New Potential Pest of Eucalyptus and Species Used for Atlantic Rainforest Restoration.

    PubMed

    Mafia, R G; da Silva, J B; Ramos, J F; Mafia, G V; Rosado-Neto, G H; Ferronatto, E M O

    2015-02-01

    Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a new pest of forest species, including eucalyptus (hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis), Joannesia princeps, Mimosa artemisiana, Croton urucurana, Croton floribundus, and Senna multijuga is recorded. The insect attack in clonal eucalyptus plantations and in forest restoration areas between 2010 and 2013 in the states of Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brasil, was observed for the first time. The outbreaks generally occurred from September to March. This new potential pest can affect the growth, productivity, and quality of the trees. We recommended monitoring this leaf-eating beetle especially during the critical period of its occurrence.

  17. TRANSLATION AND VALIDATION OF THE FOOD NEOPHOBIA SCALE (FNS) TO THE BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro de Andrade Previato, Helena Dória; Herman Behrens, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: La Escala de Neofobia Alimentaria (ENA), desarrollada originalmente en lengua inglesa, ha sido ampliamente utilizada en diferentes estudios para evaluar el deseo individual de probar nuevos alimentos. Sin embargo, es necesario un proceso de traducción y adaptación cultural para permitir su uso en otros países. Objetivo: traducir y validar la ENA en portugués brasileño. Métodos: la escala fue traducida al portugués, de forma independiente, por tres profesores de inglés, siendo traducido al revés al inglés por otros tres profesionales del sector. Se entregaron estas traduciones a una muestra de 40 estudiantes de posgrado de la Universidad de Campinas, São Paulo (Brasil), entre septiembre y octubre de 2014. La reproducibilidad entre los instrumentos se evaluó por medio del coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI). La confiabilidad interna de la escala se evaluó por medio del coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. La puntuación total de la ENA varió 10-70 y los individuos fueron clasificados con neofilia alimentaria (≤ 16,4), neutralidad (16,5-38,5) y neofobia alimentaria (≥ 38,6). Resultados: el CCI entre los ítems de la versión original y traducida se situó entre 0,266 y 0,815 (p < 0,05) y la puntuación total de la ENA fue 0,903 (p < 0,001). El coeficiente alfa de Cronbach fue 0,916. La mayoría de los encuestados fueron clasificados como neutrales (72,5%), el otro 10% como neofilia y solo el 17,5% con neofobia alimentaria. Conclusiones: la versión brasileña de la ENA resultó ser una herramienta adecuada y confiable para medir la neofobia alimentaria. No obstante, se necesitan investigaciones futuras para evaluar la presencia de neofobia alimentaria en la población brasileña y para analizar su impacto en la conducta alimentaria.

  18. Guide to the Identification and Geographic Distribution of Lutzomyia Sand Flies in Mexico, the West Indies, Central and South America (Diptera:Psychodidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-31

    Brasil Ent. 33:455-463. Blancas, F. & A. Herrer. 1959-1960. Estudios s~bre Ia enfermedad de Carrion en el valle interandino del Mantaro. mI. Descripcion... tipo do capture de 64 espdcies idaitificadas. Rev. Ser. Exp. Siude Pub. 2:817-842. References Cited 807 Damasceno, R. G. & 0. R. Causey. 1944. Estudo...r6giones endtmicas leishmaniasis cutbnea del Paraguay. Rev. Med. Paraguay 2:12. Gonzalez, R. B. & 1. Garcia Avila. 1981. Estudio y distribucion de la

  19. Security of the Brazilian Amazon Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    A Marat)a t3 CruzeiroJ do Sul Pu :alpa Porto Velho 10 Riberaitabra co P G, Lima c Trindade Goicinia CuiabA B 0 L 8rasfti.- FIGURE 3 cl bN VON * 10 c...341HA Problemas no Combate ao TrAfico de Drogas", Foiha de S~o Paulo - 23 June 1991, 5. ’Constituiqdo do Brasil, Artigo no 144 - Pardcirafo 1...Combate ao TrAafico de Drogas". Folha de Sgo Paulo, 23 June 1991: 5. 94 Valente, Maury Gurgel; Coimbra, Carlos; Albuquerque Lima , Aforiso Augusto; et al

  20. Colombia’s Conflicts: The Spillover Effects of a Wider War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    February 3, 2002. 32 19. “Las FARC y Venezuela,” El Comercio , Lima, Peru, April 5, 2002. 20. “Venezuela: Aqui no estan las FARC,” BBC Mundo.com...1999. 43. El Comercio , Quito, August 23, 1999, translated by FBIS, August 25, 1999. 44. George Gedda, “Ecuador Kidnapping Blamed on Rebels,” Associated... Brasil , Rio de Janeiro, May 12, 1999, translated by FBIS, May 13, 1999. 83. Associated Press, Rio de Janeiro, May 29, 1999. 84. Fabiano Lana, “President

  1. Description of Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Acre State, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi sp. n. is described as a new species of sand fly from the genus Trichophoromyia Barretto. This description is supported with illustrations and photographs that detail the morphological characteristics of male specimens collected in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, Brazilian Amazon. This species is similar to Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira), but the two species can be easily differentiated by the distribution of setae on their parameres, and by the presence of a dorsal lobe in the parameres of the new species. PMID:26487825

  2. Description of Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Acre State, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa

    2015-01-01

    Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi sp. n. is described as a new species of sand fly from the genus Trichophoromyia Barretto. This description is supported with illustrations and photographs that detail the morphological characteristics of male specimens collected in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, Brazilian Amazon. This species is similar to Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira), but the two species can be easily differentiated by the distribution of setae on their parameres, and by the presence of a dorsal lobe in the parameres of the new species.

  3. [Zika virus: a public health overview on epidemiology, clinical practice and prevention].

    PubMed

    D'Alò, Gian Loreto; Ciabattini, Marco; Zaratti, Laura; Franco, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an arbovirus mainly transmitted by mosquitoes bites. During the last months, the attention of Public Health Institutions has been drawn by a significant increase of microcephaly cases in Brasil and analyses highlighted a connection between Zika virus infection in pregnant women and fetal microcephaly. Since 2015, many Zika virus outbreaks have been identified in South America and there is concern about the spread of the virus in areas where competent vectors are present. Nowadays, vaccination is not available and prevention is based on individual measures and on vectors control. This review of the most recent studies give an overview on the Zika problem.

  4. Nonlinear Waves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-27

    con- €"" straints:’. *’Permanent address: Dipartimento di Fisica . Universita di Roma 1. 00185 u 11lia. tr(a U(x)) = 0. (7a. 2469 1. Math,. PyS. 26 (10...Tenenblat Universidade de Brasilia Departamento de Matematica Brasilia, Brasil September 1985 , - . Abstract The generalized wave equation and generalized...Permanent addrems: Dipartimento di Fisica . Universita di Roma t3 U, 0. Roma. Italy The linear limit of i3) provides the most general solution ot 2614 J. MatM

  5. Policy Implications of Achievement Testing Using Multilevel Models: The Case of Brazilian Elementary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Igor G.; Duran, Victor R.; Mendonça Filho, Euclides J.; Veloso, Tainã J.; Sarmento, Stella M. S.; Paget, Christine L.; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale educational assessment has been established as source of descriptive, evaluative and interpretative information that influence educational policies worldwide throughout the last third of the twentieth century. In the 1990s the Brazilian Ministry of Education developed the National Basic Education Assessment System (SAEB) that regularly measures management, resource and contextual school features and academic achievement in public and private institutions. In 2005, after significant piloting and review of the SAEB, a new sampling strategy was taken and Prova Brasil became the new instrument used by the Ministry to assess skills in Portuguese (reading comprehension) and Mathematics (problem solving), as well as collecting contextual information concerning the school, principal, teacher, and the students. This study aims to identify which variables are predictors of academic achievement of fifth grade students on Prova Brasil. Across a large sample of students, multilevel models tested a large number of variables relevant to student achievement. This approach uncovered critical variables not commonly seen as significant in light of other achievement determinants, including student habits, teacher ethnicity, and school technological resources. As such, this approach demonstrates the value of MLM to appropriately nuanced educational policies that reflect critical influences on student achievement. Its implications for wider application for psychology studies that may have relevant impacts for policy are also discussed. PMID:27933004

  6. Nutritional status of institutionalized elderly Brazilians: a study with the Mini Nutritional Assessment.

    PubMed

    Amorim Sena Pereira, Maria Luiza; de Almeida Moreira, Pricilla; Cunha de Oliveira, Carolina; Carneiro Roriz, Anna Karla; Teresópolis Reis Amaral, Magali; Lima Mello, Adriana; Barbosa Ramos, Lílian

    2014-10-04

    Objective: Evaluar el estado nutricional de los ancianos residentes en Hogares para Ancianos, en la ciudad de Salvador, Brasil y factores asociados. Métodos: Estudio transversal con 359 individuos mayores de 60 años, de ambos sexos y residentes en hogares de ancianos en la zona urbana de la ciudad de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Resultados: En cuanto al estado nutricional de acuerdo con Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), el 66,3% de los ancianos evaluados estaban desnutridos y en riesgo de desnutrición. La prevalencia de esta afección fue mayor entre los hombres (76,6%) en comparación con las mujeres (62,4%). Se ha observado, como resultado del análisis multivariado, que sólo la capacidad funcional variable para Actividades de la Vida Diaria (AVD) fue estadísticamente significativa. Hubo correlación moderada entre MNA y Mini Examen del Estado Mental (r = 0,454; p.

  7. Nutritional adequacy in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mesquita de Carvalho, Cláudia; Dias Mendonça, Dayana; Haas Piovesan, Carla; Edler Macagnan, Fabrício; Pandolfo Feoli, Ana Maria

    2014-11-16

    Introducción: La terapia nutricional en el tratamiento del síndrome metabólico es un factor clave. Es importante educar los pacientes sobre los beneficios de seguir el tratamiento cuando se quiere promover cambios nel estilo de vida. Objetivo: El objetivo fue evaluar la adecuación nutricional en individuos con síndrome metabólico de acuerdo con las recomendaciones dietéticas prescritas. Métodos: Un ensayo clínico con 72 sujetos con síndrome metabólico, llevados a cabo en el sur de Brasil. Asesoramiento nutricional se llevó a cabo, asociada o no con el ejercicio físico durante tres meses. Un retiro de alimentos de 24 horas, y un registro de alimentos de dos días fueron los métodos de referencia para el consumo de alimentos. La adecuación nutricional se determinó mediante la ingesta de energía y nutrientes, grupos de alimentos definidos por la Pirámide de Alimentos del Brasil. Results: Los voluntarios alcanzado un promedio del 80% del consumo de energía se recomienda. La ingestión de proteínas y lípidos fue mayor de lo esperado, y la ingesta de hidratos de carbono fue inferior a los niveles recomendados. Hubo una baja ingesta de cereales, verduras, productos lácteos y frijoles (p.

  8. Leaiid conchostracans from the uppermost Permian strata of the Paraná Basin, Brazil: Chronostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira-Oliveira, Luis Gustavo; Rohn, Rosemarie

    2010-03-01

    Conchostracan fossils are abundant and relatively diversified in the Rio do Rasto Formation (Passa Dois Group, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil), but leaiids (' Leaia pruvosti' [Reed, F.R.C., 1929. Novos Phyllopodos Fósseis do Brasil. Boletim do Serviço Geológico e Mineralógico do Brasil 34, 2-16]) were previously found at only one locality of the formation in the northern Santa Catarina State. New specimens of the Family Leaiidae, collected from two outcrops in central Paraná State near the top of the formation, stimulated a revision of related taxa. Both the new and the previously known leaiids are herein assigned to Hemicycloleaia mitchelli [Etheridge Jr., R., 1892. On Leaia mitchelli Etheridge. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 7, 307-310] based on the presence of three carinae and subovate shape. This species was originally recorded in the upper Tatarian (Wuchiapingian, Late Permian) of Sydney Basin, eastern Australia and therefore corroborates the interpretation that the leaiid bearing strata of the Rio do Rasto Formation cannot be younger than Permian. H. mitchelli possibly was one of the most widespread, eurytopic and conservative Late Paleozoic conchostracans of Gondwana (although records from Africa, India and Antarctica must still be confirmed) and it was also found in the Tatarian of Russia. The sudden disappearance of leaiids after their apparent success is consistent with the hypothesis about the biotic crisis around the Permo-Triassic boundary.

  9. Work-family conflict and time use: psychometric assessment of an instrument in ELSA-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Karina Araujo; Menezes, Greice Maria de Souza; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lima, Keury Thaisana Rodrigues Dos Santos; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-07-04

    In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the items to measure the work-family conflict and the time use for personal care and leisure, included in the baseline questionnaire of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil). We evaluated temporal stability (7-14 days) using kappa statistic and the validity of the construct by the correlation of Kendall's tau with other variables. Test-retest stability was discreet to moderate and the correlations were compatible with the underlying theory. Future studies in the context of ELSA-Brazil and in other populations will complement the assessment of its relevance. RESUMO Neste estudo, avaliamos as propriedades psicométricas dos itens para mensurar o conflito trabalho-família e o uso do tempo para cuidado pessoal e lazer, incluídos no questionário da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Foram avaliadas a estabilidade temporal (7-14 dias) utilizando estatística kappa e a validade do construto pela correlação tau de Kendall com outras variáveis. A estabilidade teste-reteste foi discreta a moderada e as correlações, compatíveis com a teoria subjacente. Estudos futuros no contexto do ELSA-Brasil e em outras populações complementarão a avaliação da sua pertinência.

  10. Biblioteca Virtual de Salud Enfermería Regional: Trayectoria de Construcción, Fuentes de Información, Estrategias y Próximos Pasos.

    PubMed Central

    Lana, Francisco C. F.; Malvárez, Silvina

    2012-01-01

    Resumen La BVS Enfermeria constituye un nuevo paradigma en enfermería una vez que o modelo representa una expansión de la cooperación técnica y ha como objetivos centrales promover la ampliación del acceso la información sobre enfermería la través del acceso universal equitativo y construir un patrimonio informacional en enfermería, ayudando la mejorar la formación y práctica de enfermería a actuar con compromiso ético-social en el área de educación, investigación y atención a la salud. Como resultado del proceso de sensibilización, verifica-se la construcción de Bibliotecas Virtuales de Enfermería en varios países (Brasil, Argentina, Bolívia y Uruguay). La expectativa es que las BVS’s nacionais convergen a un gran portal que se está construyendo en una colaboración con BIREME/OPS/OMS, de la Asesoría Regional de Enfermería de la OPS-Washington y de Ministerio de Salud del Brasil, así como instituciones líderes en la producción del conocimiento en enfermería Iberoamérica. PMID:24199093

  11. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  12. [Toxicological and immunological aspects of scorpion venom (Tytius pachyurus): neutralizing capacity of antivenoms produced in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Barona, Jacqueline; Otero, Rafael; Núñez, Vitelbina

    2004-03-01

    The toxicity and immunochemical properties of Tityus pachyurus Pocock scorpion venom was characterized, as well as the neutralization capacity against it by three anti-scorpion antivenoms (Alacramyn, Instituto Bioclón, México; Suero antiescorpiónico, Instituto Butantán, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Suero antiescorpiónico, Centro de Biotecnología, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela). The venom yield, obtained by manual milking, 680+/-20 microg venom, a 50% lethal dose in mice was 4.8 microg/kg (90 microg for an 18-20 g mouse). The most common symptoms of venom poisoning in mice were sialorrhea, respiratory distress, profuse sweating, ataxia, behavior alterations (restlessness, somnolence) and hyperglycemia at 3 and 24 hours after subcutaneous venom injection (0.5 LD50). The neutralizing capacity of Bioclón (México City) and Butantán (Sao Paulo) antivenoms (for a 50% effective dose) was 330 and 292 microg venom/ml antivenom, respectively. The Biotecnología (Caracas) antivenom did not neutralize the lethal effect of venom. By electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was demonstrated that the venom contains proteins from less than 14 kd to 97 kd. The Western blots indicated immunological reactivity of the three antivenoms with most of venom components, including proteins of low molecular mass (<14 kd). The results allow to conclude that T. pachyurus venom is neutralized efficiently by anti-scorpion antivenoms produced in México and Brasil.

  13. Genetic diversity in somatic mutants of grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivar Italia based on random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Maia, S H Z; Mangolin, C A; Collet, S A O; Machado, M F P S

    2009-01-13

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to detect polymorphism and to examine relationships among four table grape clones from northwestern Paraná, in southern Brazil. The 10 primers used for RAPD fingerprints generated 126 reproducible fragments, of which 63, 68, 76, and 72 were polymorphic in cultivars Italia, Rubi, Benitaka, and Brasil, respectively. Among the primers, OPP-08 generated the highest number of fragments, whereas OPE-15 was the most efficient for discriminating polymorphic fragments. The distribution of the clones by cluster analysis indicated that there were no differences in RAPD markers between the colored mutant and the original clone (cultivar Italia), supporting the hypothesis that the non-colored and the colored mutant are the same cultivar. However, we found high levels of polymorphism within and between the cultivars Italia, Rubi, Benitaka, and Brasil (65.1%), contrary to a previous hypothesis that the four clones are genetically uniform. This confirmed our expectation of genetic variation among the clones and within each clone. We conclude that the primers are useful for analyzing the development of the genetic diversity within each of these clones.

  14. An update on clinical oncology for the non-oncologist.

    PubMed

    Kaliks, Rafael Aliosha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTRecent advances in the understanding of tumor driver mutations, signaling pathways that lead to tumor progression, and the better understanding of the interaction between tumor cells and the immune system are revolutionizing cancer treatment. The pace at which new treatments are approved and the prices at which they are set have made it even more difficult to offer these treatments in countries like Brazil. In this review we present for the non-oncologist these new treatments and compare their availability in Brazilian public health system and private health system with that of developed countries.RESUMOAvanços recentes na compreensão de mutações promotoras de desenvolvimento do câncer, sinalização que leva à progressão de tumores, e o avanço no entendimento da interação entre as células tumorais e o sistema imunológico estão revolucionando o tratamento do câncer. A velocidade com que novos tratamentos são aprovados e o alto custo das medicações dificultam a disponibilização de terapêuticas em países como o Brasil. Nesta revisão, apresentamos ao não oncologista esses novos tratamentos e comparamos sua disponibilidade nos sistemas público e privado de saúde no Brasil com os países desenvolvidos.

  15. Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 (IVCF-20): rapid recognition of frail older adults

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; do Carmo, Juliana Alves; de Moraes, Flávia Lanna; Azevedo, Raquel Souza; Machado, Carla Jorge; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the adequacy of the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20, a rapid triage instrument to test vulnerability in Brazilian older adults, for the use in primary health care. METHODS The study included convenience sample of 397 patients aged older than or equal to 60 years attended at Centro de Referência para o Idoso (Reference Center for Older Adults) and of 52 older adults the same age attended at the community. The results of the questionnaire, consisting of 20 questions, were compared with those of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, considered a reference for identifying frail older adults. Spearman’s correlation was evaluated in the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 with the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment; the validity was verified by the area under the ROC curve; reliability was estimated by the percentage of agreement among evaluators and by the kappa coefficient, both with quadratic weighted. The cut-off point was obtained based on the higher accuracy criterion. Cronbach’s alpha, a measure of internal consistency, was estimated. RESULTS The Spearman’s correlation coefficient was high and positive for both groups (0.792 for older adults attended at the Reference Center and 0.305 for older adults from the community [p < 0.001]). The area under the ROC curve for older adults attended at the Reference Center was substantial (0.903). The cut-off point obtained was six, and older adults with scores in Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 above that value had strong possibility of being frail. For older adults from the community, the quadratic weighted agreement among evaluators was 99.5%, and the global quadratic weighted kappa coefficient was 0.94. Cronbach’s alpha was high for older adults attended at the Reference Center (0.861) and those attended at the community (0.740). CONCLUSIONS The Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 questionnaire, in the sample examined, turned out to be positively

  16. [Characterization and Evolution of Avoidable Admissions in Portugal: The Impact of Two Methodologic Approaches].

    PubMed

    Sarmento, João; Alves, Conceição; Oliveira, Paula; Sebastião, Rita; Santana, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: O objectivo deste estudo é avaliar a performance dos sistemas de saúde através dos internamentos evitáveis, dado que estes têm vindo a ganhar importância a nível internacional. Foram utilizadas duas metodologias distintas para a identificação dos internamentos por Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, fazendo uma descrição da realidade e a evolução destes em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Analisámos mais de 12 milhões de internamentos entre 2000 e 2012, utilizando as bases de dados de resumos de alta nacionais. Utilizaram-se duas metodologias de identificação das Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, determinando a sua concordância. Calculámos cenários de melhoria potencial. Resultados: Em 2012, 4,4% e 32,5% dos internamentos por causas médicas seriam evitáveis segundo a metodologia canadiana e espanhola respectivamente. Os internamentos são mais frequentes nas crianças e nos idosos, divergindo as suas causas de acordo com o grupo etário e a metodologia utilizada. A taxa de internamentos no período em análise diminuiu 20% segundo a metodologia canadiana e aumentou 16% segundo a espanhola. Existem agregados regionais de performance acima e abaixo da média nacional. A concord ncia entre as duas metodologias é baixa. Estimaram-se reduções potenciais entre 20,3% e 53,5% dos internamentos.Discussão: Os internamentos evitáveis assumem um volume considerável em Portugal. Apesar de em teoria serem evitáveis a sua eliminação por completo não é uma possibilidade prática, no entanto, o seu estudo possibilita a avaliação e monitorização de resultados e o estabelecimento de prioridades de intervenção. Conclusão: Para uma caracterização mais precisa dos internamentos evitáveis é necessário consensualizar em Portugal a metodologia para a sua identificação.

  17. [Hospital readmissions in Portugal over the last decade].

    PubMed

    Sousa-Pinto, Bernardo; Gomes, Ana Rita; Oliveira, Andreia; Ivo, Carlos; Costa, Gustavo; Ramos, João; Silva, Joel; Carneiro, Maria Carolina; Domingues, Maria João; Cunha, Maria João; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro Da; Freitas, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Os reinternamentos hospitalares estão associados a um incremento das despesas com a saúde e da mortalidade intrahospitalar. Neste trabalho, pretende-se caracterizar os reinternamentos hospitalares não-planeados, ocorridos num período de 30 dias após alta, de acordo com a sua Grande Categoria Diagnóstica, contexto hospitalar e características demográficas dos utentes, bem como estimar as taxas de mortalidade associadas. Pretende-se também estudar a evolução da taxa de reinternamentos na última década (2000-2008). Procurar-se-á ainda caracterizar os reinternamentos por insuficiência cardíaca.Material e Métodos: Procedeu-se à análise estatística da base de dados de internamentos hospitalares públicos fornecida pelaAutoridade Central do Sistema de Saúde. Recorreu-se aos testes do qui-quadrado e de tendência para comparação de taxas dereinternamentos.Resultados: Das 5 514 331 hospitalizações não-planeadas no período em estudo, 4,1% corresponderam a reinternamentos hospitalares. Entre 2000 e 2008, a taxa de reinternamentos hospitalares aumentou continuamente de 3,0% para 4,7%. A mortalidade hospitalar foi significativamente maior entre os episódios de reinternamento (9,5%) do que nos restantes episódios (5,6%), p < 0,001. A taxa de reinternamentos foi significativamente maior em homens (4,5% versus 3,9% nas mulheres, p < 0,001) e doentes mais velhos (2,6% nas crianças e 5,3% nos idosos), sendo menor na região de Lisboa (2,7%) e nos hospitais centrais (3,0%, p < 0,001). Para os episódios de insuficiência cardíaca, foi obtida uma taxa de reinternamentos de 6,7%.Discussão e Conclusão: Em termos gerais, as diferenças encontradas são similares às descritas noutros Países Ocidentais. Os episódios de reinternamento, cujas taxas têm vindo a aumentar em Portugal, estão associados a maior mortalidade intra-hospitalar.

  18. Early determinants of overweight and obesity at 5 years old in preschoolers from inner of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Luciana Neri; Silva, Kellen Cristine; de Castro Ferreira, Sofia Emanuelle; Lopes Moreira, Lidiane; Lessa, Angelina do Carmo; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Castro Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Brasil está experimentando una transición nutricional caracterizada por una reducción en la prevalencia de deficiencias nutricionales y un aumento del sobrepeso y la obesidad, no sólo en los adultos sino también en los niños y los adolescentes. Objetivos: Este estudio se diseñó para evaluar los factores asociados con el sobrepeso y la obesidad en preescolares brasileños de 5 años de edad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal de una cohorte de 232 preescolares nacidos en Diamantina/ Minas Gerais, Brasil. Los datos, que incluían situación socioeconómica, antropometría, dieta, antecedentes de los preescolares y familiares, se recogieron entre julio de 2009 y julio de 2010. Para identificar los factores asociados con sobrepeso y obesidad, se realizaron una regresión logística y un modelo jerárquico. Resultados: El sobrepeso y la obesidad ocurrieron en el 17,2 % de los preescolares. Tras ajustar para obesidad materna, la renta per cápita, la ingesta de alimentos, la ganancia de peso entre los 0-4 meses de edad y el tiempo dedicado al juego, los factores asociados con el sobrepeso y la obesidad que alcanzaban una significación estadística fueron la obesidad materna [OR = 3,12 (IC al 95 % 1,41- 6,91), P = 0,01], la ganancia de peso de más de 0,85 kg/mes en los primeros 4 meses de vida [OR = 2,16 (IC al 95 % 1,01-4,64), P = 0,04] y una menor renta per cápita [OR = 0,32 (IC al 95 % 0,13-0,79), P = 0,01]. Conclusión: Los resultados muestran que la mayor ganancia de peso durante los 4 primeros meses de vida y tener una madre obesa aumentan las probabilidades de sobrepeso/obesidad en los preescolares, mientras que una menor renta per cápita es un factor de protección.

  19. Cloud cover index obtained from satellite data and its role on reliability of surface solar radiation assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F. R.; Pereira, E. B.; Abreu, S. L.

    Cloud cover index (CCI) is a very important input data for radiative transfer models and great effort is being made to its determination from satellite images with high confidence. Cloud cover index is obtained from a linear relation between the clear and overcast radiances values measured in the visible range by satellite over a specific time period for each image pixel. The major key to obtain reliable CCI values is to correctly characterize clear skies and overcast skies from satellite images. This may be a complex and uncertain task in some circumstances. The importance of CCI becomes evident when it is used as input data to map surface solar irradiation over large continental areas such as over the Brazilian territory, with a wide range of climatic environments. Brazilian Northeast area presents a low annual precipitation (less than 700mm) and large insolation (about 120 clear sky days/year). In contrast, precipitation is high in the Amazonian region and it may occur long time periods (more than 30 days) with the sky cloudy at a specific daytime during the wet season (from November to April). The majority of the established methodologies to obtain CCI values from satellite images fail under any of these circumstances. Besides that, the comparison of CCI values obtained from satellite images with ground data is unfeasible in face of the different fields of view, and the subjectivity associated with observer in ground measurements, besides the lack of information on cloud optical thickness in ground data. This work describes two techniques to obtain CCI information using visible (0.52-0.75mm) and infrared (10.2-11.2mm) data from GOES satellite in order to maximize the reliability of CCI input data to BRASIL-SR radiative transfer model. The new techniques are based on statistical and geometry analyses for each pixel of satellite data. The BRASIL-SR model is a radiative transfer model that evaluates surface solar irradiation over Brazilian territory using

  20. Understanding the Impacts of Climate and Hydrologic Extremes on Diarrheal Diseases in Southwestern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, P. A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial diarrheal diseases have a high incidence rate during and after flooding episodes. In the Brazilian Amazon, flood extreme events have become more frequent, leading to high incidence rates for infant diarrhea. In this study we aimed to find a statistical association between rainfall, river levels and diarrheal diseases in children under 5, in the river Acre basin, in the State of Acre (Brazil). We also aimed to identify the time-lag and annual season of extreme rainfall and flooding in different cities in the water basin. The results using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite rainfall data show robustness of these estimates against observational stations on-ground. The Pearson coefficient correlation results (highest 0.35) indicate a time-lag, up to 4 days in three of the cities in the water-basin. In addition, a correlation was also tested between monthly accumulated rainfall and the diarrheal incidence during the rainy season (DJF). Correlation results were higher, especially in Acrelândia (0.7) and Brasiléia and Epitaciolândia (0.5). The correlation between water level monthly averages and diarrheal diseases incidence was 0.3 and 0.5 in Brasiléia and Epitaciolândia. The time-lag evidence found in this paper is critical to inform stakeholders, local populations and civil defense authorities about the time available for preventive and adaptation measures between extreme rainfall and flooding events in vulnerable cities. This study was part of a pilot application in the state of Acre of the PULSE-Brazil project (http://www.pulse-brasil.org/tool/), an interface of climate, environmental and health data to support climate adaptation. The next step of this research is to expand the analysis to other climate variables on diarrheal diseases across the whole Brazilian Amazon Basin and estimate the relative risk (RR) of a child getting sick. A statistical model will estimate RR based on the observed values and seasonal forecasts (higher

  1. Effectiveness of prediction equations in estimating energy expenditure sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight.

    PubMed

    Lopes Rosado, Eliane; Santiago de Brito, Roberta; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez Hernández, José Alfredo

    2014-03-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la adecuación de las ecuaciones de predicción para la estimación del gasto energético (GE), en comparación con el GE medido por calorimetría indirecta en una muestra de mujeres brasileñas y españolas con exceso de peso corporal. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal con 92 mujeres adultas obesas [26 brasileñas —G1— y 66 españolas —G2— (20-50 años)]. Se evaluó el peso y la talla durante el ayuno para el cálculo del índice de masa corporal y las ecuaciones de predicción. Se evaluó el GE usando la calorimetría indirecta de circuito abierto con campana respiratoria. Resultados: En G1 y G2, se encontró que las estimaciones obtenidas por Harris-Benedict, Shofield, FAO/OMS/ ONU y Henry y Rees no difieren del GE estimado por calorimetría indirecta, la cual presentó valores más altos que las ecuaciones propuestas por Owen Mifflin -St Jeor y Oxford. Para G1 y G2 la ecuación predictiva que presentó valores más cercanos al valor obtenido por la calorimetría indirecta fue la FAO/OMS/ONU (7,9% y 0,46% subestimación, respectivamente), seguido por Harris-Benedict (8,6% y 1,5% subestimación, respectivamente). Conclusión: Las ecuaciones propuestas por la FAO/ OMS/ONU, Harris-Benedict, Shofield y Henry & Rees fueron adecuadas para estimar el GE en una muestra de mujeres brasileñas y españolas con exceso de peso corporal. Las otras ecuaciones subestimaron el GE.

  2. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Petter da Silva, Fhaira; Beatriz Dallepiane, Loiva; Ramos Kirsten, Vanessa; Maria Kirchner, Rosane

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: la esperanza de vida está aumentando y convirtiéndose en un fenómeno característico de los países desarrollados y, cada vez más, de los países en desarrollo, como Brasil. El proceso de envejecimiento produce cambios en algunas funciones fisiológicas, como la pérdida del olfato o gusto o pérdida de apetito, entre otros, que terminan alterando la ingesta de alimentos de estos individuos.Objetivos: este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el consumo de alimentos de los ancianos y de los ancianos más longevos en una ciudad del sur de Brasil.Métodos: un estudio transversal realizado mediante visitas a domicilio en Palmeira das Missões - RS, Brasil. Los datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos y dietéticos fueron recogidos a través de cuestionarios y recordatorio de 24 horas. La adecuación de nutrientes se evaluó de acuerdo con las ingestas de referencia en la dieta. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el software SPSS 18.0.Resultados: el estudio incluyó a 424 adultos mayores, el 84.4% (n = 358) de ellos menores de 80 años y el 15.6% (n = 66) con más de 80 años. La ingesta de energía y proteínas fue insuficiente tanto para jóvenes adultos como para los más ancianos. El consumo de vitaminas y minerales ha sido insuficiente en todos los adultos mayores a excepción del hierro, que presentaba una ingesta excesiva. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre las personas de edad y mayores sólo en cuanto al consumo de lípidos y vitamina B12. Conclusión: la mayoría de los estudios con personas mayores corrobora los resultados obtenidos en este artículo. Una ingesta inadecuada de nutrientes puede dar lugar a deficiencias nutricionales y, por lo tanto, a cambios fisiológicos y patológicos que pondrían en peligro la capacidad funcional de los ancianos. El consumo de energía y de macronutrientes resultó insuficiente tanto para los ancianos como para los ancianos más longevos. Además, el consumo de vitaminas y

  3. Policies for control and prevention of infections related to healthcare assistance in Brazil: a conceptual analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon de; Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    This article is a theoretical-reflexive study that aims to discuss the development and changes in the quality of healthcare assistance to the patient over the years in Brazil, in light of the policies of control and prevention of Healthcare-associated Infection (HAI). Aspects of HAI and the process of change in health policy in Brazil, as well as the quality of assistance associated with its control, are approached in relation to policies of patient safety. There are various new theoretical and practical proposals created in Brazil. In spite of the difficulty of measuring patient safety, directed to the prevention and control of HAI, we emphasize that to only create policies and establish norms, guidelines, and indicators is not sufficient. If no structural support or conditions exist for interventions in the practices of healthcare professionals, aiming at results in acceptable levels, the control of HAI will not be achieved. Resumo Trata-se um estudo teórico-reflexivo, que objetiva discutir a evolução e as mudanças na qualidade da assistência ao paciente, ao longo dos anos no Brasil, à luz das políticas de controle e prevenção da Infecção Relacionada à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS). Aspectos sobre IRAS e o processo de mudança nas políticas de saúde no Brasil, bem como a qualidade da assistência associada ao seu controle, são abordados em relação às políticas de segurança do paciente. Há novas e várias propostas teóricas e práticas criadas no Brasil. Apesar da dificuldade de medir a segurança do paciente, direcionada à prevenção e controle das IRAS, enfatiza-se que somente criar políticas, estabelecer normas, diretrizes e indicadores não são suficientes. Se não houver suporte de estrutura e condições para as intervenções nas práticas dos profissionais na assistência prestada ao paciente, visando resultados em níveis aceitáveis, o controle das IRAS não será alcançado.

  4. Leaf Fluctuating Asymmetry and Herbivory of Tibouchina heteromalla in Restored and Natural Environments.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, G W; De Oliveira, S C S; Campos, I R; Barbosa, M; Soares, L A; Cuevas-Reyes, P

    2016-02-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is a parameter to measure developmental stability in plants, which can be altered by disturbances, pollution, and biotic factors such as herbivory. We evaluated the effects of environmental stress and herbivory on the FA levels in individuals of Tibouchina heteromalla (Melastomataceae) that occur in natural and undergoing restoration areas in rupestrian grasslands at Serra do Cipó, Brasil. Individuals were collected and measured in seven restored and five natural areas, totalizing 240 individuals. We found that individuals in restored areas had greater leaf area, higher levels of insect herbivory and FA compared to individuals that occurred in natural areas. In both environments, the proportion of individuals with leaf damage caused by herbivory was higher than the proportion of undamaged individuals. In addition, FA was positively correlated with herbivory and total leaf area in both restored and natural areas. These results suggest that more favorable conditions in the restored areas enhanced leaf growth, resulting in higher FA.

  5. ["For a history of vaccination in Brazil": an unpublished manuscript by Norberto and Macedo].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Myriam Bahia; Polito, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The manuscript "Para uma história da vacina no Brasil" [For a history of vaccination in Brazil] was unearthed in the archives of Instituto Histórico Geográfico Brasileiro (IHGB) along with other texts by Joaquim Manoel de Macedo. It was written in partnership with Joaquim Norberto in 1859 in response to a request by the Emperor to the institute. Its characteristics mark it out as a founding text: its arguments are designed to establish who really introduced the smallpox vaccine to Brazil and to resolve the controversy between the Marquis of Barbacena and a surgeon, Francisco Mendes Ribeiro de Vasconcellos. It analyzes the documents that provide the basis for both versions and consolidates the beginning of the history of vaccination in Brazilian territory in 1878, which was subsequently recognized by IHGB.

  6. [The contribution of Carlos Chagas Filho to the institutionalization of scientific research in Brazilian universities].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Darcy Fontoura de

    2012-06-01

    This paper studies the period considered the 'prehistory' of the Instituto de Biofísica, namely between November 1937 and October 1945, during which Carlos Chagas Filho championed the inclusion of scientific research at Universidade do Brasil (UB), despite facing multiple and complex obstacles. The lack of successful precedents at UB isolated him to one inexpressive chair. The equipment available was inadequate for his purposes; there were no official sources and forms of access to funding for science or trained personnel for research activities. On the other hand, Chagas Filho won over allies due both to the political and social clout of his name and his marriage, and to his scientific influence ensuing from his success in attaining the goals he fought for.

  7. [Science as a profession: an interview with Carlos Chagas Filho].

    PubMed

    Chagas Filho, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    The editing of this interview focuses on aspects of the extensive professional career of Carlos Chagas Filho, who was the founder of the Instituto de Biofísica of the Universidade do Brasil, currently the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. It highlights the scientific and political role he played in Brazilian science and on the international scene. His memoirs include his experience at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, where he began his scientific training; the efforts to create the Laboratório de Física Biológica, succeeded by the Instituto de Biofísica; his work on the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas and the Academia Brasileira de Ciências; the part he played at the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; his time as president of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences of the Vatican, which led him to ponder questions about the relationship between science and religion.

  8. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  9. First record of Segonalia Young (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) from Brazil including the description of S. machadoi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Cavichioli, Rodney R; Takiya, Daniela M

    2016-02-09

    Segonalia, a previously monotypic genus known from Bolivia, is newly recorded from Brazil and Paraguay based on specimens of S. steinbachi Young, 1977 from Minas Gerais State, Brazil and Paraguay and a new species from Piauí and Pará States, Brazil. Segonalia machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CZMA: Brasil, Piauí State, Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades, 04˚5'57"S, 41˚42'34"W 193 m a.s.l., 12.II.2013, D.M. Takiya leg.) can be distinguished from the type species by its body length and shape of the male pygofer apex and aedeagus. A diagnosis of Segonalia and comparative notes and illustrations of the type species are given.

  10. Establishment, Implementation, and Consolidation of Clinical Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacies: Perceptions of a Group of Pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Dosea, Aline S; Brito, Giselle C; Santos, Lincoln M C; Marques, Tatiane C; Balisa-Rocha, Blície; Pimentel, Deborah; Bueno, Denise; Lyra, Divaldo P

    2015-12-10

    When pharmacists incorporate clinical practice into their routine, barriers and facilitators influence the implementation of patient care services. Three focus groups were conducted with 11 pharmacists who were working for the Farmácia Popular do Brasil program on the establishment, implementation, and consolidation of clinical pharmacy services. The perception of the pharmacists in Brazil about the program was that it facilitated access to health care and medication. The distance between neighboring cities made it difficult for patients to return for services. Lack of staff training created a lack of communication skills and knowledge. The pharmacists wanted to have increased technical support, skill development opportunities, and monitoring of researchers who assessed progress of the service. Pharmacists overcame many of their insecurities and felt more proactive and committed to quality service. Positive experiences in service implementations have shown that it is possible to develop a model of clinical services in community pharmacies.

  11. Situated modelling in the drawing workshop for bobbin lace.

    PubMed

    Saldanhar, Maria Christine Werba; de Almeida, Juliana Donato

    2012-01-01

    The current article presents the process of situated modeling in the drawing workshop for bobbin lace developed and implemented in the Núcleo de Produção Artesanal Rendeiras da Vila, in Ponta Negra, Natal-Brasil. The workshop aimed to rescue the domain over the product in the production of bobbin lace through capacitation of both experienced and novice craftswomen. The modeling of the drawing workshop was grounded on the sociotechnical construction and in the concepts of anthropotechnology and also social technology. The modelling required an intense process of social construction involving the members of GREPE-UFRN (Group of extension and Research in Ergonomics) and the lacemakers od the community. The domain of drawing the lace has enabled the expression of the craftswomen creativity, increasing the amount of works and the sustainable development,thus reducing the risks of extinction of such art in the Village of Ponta Negra.

  12. General circulation of the South Atlantic between 5 deg N and 35 deg S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollitrault, Michel; Mercier, H.; Blanc, F.; Letraon, L. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter will provide the temporal mean seal level. So, secondly, we propose to compute the difference between these two surfaces (mean sea level minus general circulation dynamic topography). The result will be an estimate of the marine geoid, which is time invariant for the 5-year period under consideration. If this geoid is precise enough, it will permit a description of seasonal variability of the large-scale surface circulation. If there happens to be enough float data, it may be possible to infer the first vertical modes of this variability. Thus the main goal of our investigation is to determine the 3-D general circulation of the South Atlantic and the large-scale seasonal fluctuations. This last objective, however, may be restricted to the western part of the South Atlantic because float deployments have been scheduled only in the Brasil basin.

  13. Speckle Interferometry at SOAR in 2012 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.

    2014-05-01

    We report the results of speckle runs at the 4.1 m Southern Astronomical Research telescope in 2012 and 2013. A total of 586 objects were observed. We give 699 measurements of 487 resolved binaries and upper detection limits for 112 unresolved stars. Eleven pairs (including one triple) were resolved for the first time. Orbital elements have been determined for the first time for 13 pairs; orbits of another 45 binaries are revised or updated. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  14. [The Southern Cone Sub-Regional Project on Cystic Echinococcosis Control and Surveillance].

    PubMed

    Irabedra, Pilar; Salvatella, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Southern Cone Sub-Regional Project on Cystic Echinococcosis Control and Surveillance: Argentina, Brasil, Chile and Uruguay, is a joint and collaborative tool with the aim of promoting the implementation or the strengthening of programs for disease control. The paper describes the background, the institutional aspects that regulates the structure and functions, as well as the guidelines defined in the technical and operational project. The article emphasize the achievements through Projects of Technical Cooperation among Countries, and the development of integrated and innovative approaches for prevention and control of the disease and training of human resources of the control programs. Some of the challenges are: to achieve the sustainability of the project, implementation of technical groups for analysis and assessment at request of the countries, improvement of the regional information systems, to continue training human resources of the control programs and to expand and strengthen the technical cooperation among countries.

  15. Cetacean diversity on the Parnaiba Delta, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, F A; Tosi, C H; Garri, R G; Chellappa, S; Silva, F L

    2008-08-01

    The increase in the research of cetacean surveys on the Brazilian coast has brought new data on the distribution of species never reported before. The present work reviews the current knowledge on cetaceans species and extends this knowledge with an analysis of cetaceans stranded in the Parnaiba Delta, on the coast of Maranhão State, Brazil. The studies on cetacean diversity on the coast of the Parnaíba Delta were made from August 2004 to August 2006. Fourteen strandings were reported, representing six distinct species, such as the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera edeni), dwarf minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), pigmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) and two specimens which have not yet been identified. The significant degree of cetacean diversity in the region shows that the Parnaíba Delta is, possibly, of an important area for cetacean studies in Brasil.

  16. LATINMAG: A Latin-American Collaborative Network in Paleo, Geo, Rock and Environmental Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constanzo, V.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Rapalini, A.; Trindade, R.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years research in paleo, geo, rock and environmental magnetism has experienced significant development in Latin-America with new research groups being settled in several countries including Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela and Uruguay (among others). The LATINMAG network, established in May 2007, follows previous attempts to congregate ancient and newborn Latin-American research groups. It was conceived as a forum for scientific discussion and regional collaboration of these groups, including scientific meetings and interchange programs for students and researchers. Its first bi-annual meeting is going to be held in November 2008 in Caracas, Venezuela. More information is available at http://www.geofisica.unam.mx/LIMNO/LATINMAG.

  17. Digestive, hepatic, and nutritional manifestations in Latin American children with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Benítez, Carlos Alberto

    2008-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS infection is increasing in Latin America and the Caribbean regions, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In Latin America, most cases are in Brasil, Mexico, and Colombia. Some causes of the HIV/AIDS infection in Latin America are poverty, limitations on the access to antiretroviral drugs, poor response from governmental and health authorities, migration, and scantiness of research resources. In the pediatric population, perinatal transmission is the main contact mechanism. Several digestive, hepatic, and nutritional manifestations allow the classification of HIV infection in children, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Improvement in knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, physiopathology; and management of HIV enteropathy and on nutritional care practices of infected HIV children is recommended.

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electrical impedance tomography and Calderón's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlmann, G.

    2009-12-01

    We survey mathematical developments in the inverse method of electrical impedance tomography which consists in determining the electrical properties of a medium by making voltage and current measurements at the boundary of the medium. In the mathematical literature, this is also known as Calderón's problem from Calderón's pioneer contribution (Calderón 1980 Seminar on Numerical Analysis and its Applications to Continuum Physics (Río de Janeiro, 1980) p 65 (Soc. Brasil. Mat.)). We concentrate this review around the topic of complex geometrical optics solutions that have led to many advances in the field. In the last section, we review some counterexamples to Calderón's problems that have attracted a lot of interest because of connections with cloaking and invisibility.

  19. Development and testing of a rural credit supervision system at the level of counties and rural properties utilizing remote sensing techniqes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, G. T. (Principal Investigator); Delima, A. M.; Tardin, A. T.; Rudorff, B. F. T.; Mendonca, F. J.; Dosanjosferreirapinto, S.; Chen, S. C.; Duarte, V.

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques for supporting the rural credit supervision system were developed and tested. The test area comprised the counties of Aracatuba and Guararapes, located in the State of Sao Paulo. Aerial photography, LANDSAT images and topographic charts were used. Aerial photographs were extremely useful for the out lining of properties boundaries with financing of sugarcane plantations by the Banco do Brasil S.A.. The percentage of correctly interpreted sugarcane on LANDSAT images, considering the 85 analyzed properties, was of 63.12%. The occurrence of atypical conditions such as excessive raining, sugarcane in bloom, and wind damaged sugarcane and sugarcane not harvested due to planning failures verified during the period the images were obtained, were some of the contributing factors associated with a low interpretation performance. An alternative approach was developed using several LANDSAT overpasses and auxiliary field data, which resulted in 91.77 percent correct.

  20. [Chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil: priorities for disease management and research].

    PubMed

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Chor, Dóra; Aquino, Estela M L; Bensenor, Isabela M; Mill, José Geraldo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Vigo, Alvaro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-12-01

    Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases are the main source of disease burden in Brazil. In 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health launched the Strategic Plan of Action for Management of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases focusing on population-based interventions to manage cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases mainly through fighting tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and the harmful use of alcohol. Although a significant number of scientific studies on chronic diseases and their risk factors have been undertaken in Brazil, few are of cohort design. In this context, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort study of 15,105 Brazilian public servants reflects the reality of high prevalences of diabetes, hypertension and the main chronic diseases risk factors. The diversity of information that the Study will produce can provide important input to better understand the causes of chronic diseases and to support public policies for fighting them.

  1. A study of gamma ray radiation at energies over 4 MeV by means of a large surface spark chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, J.-M.

    The experimental design, apparatus, and results obtained with a 1 sq m sensing surface spark chamber for detecting gamma rays from the Agathe balloon payload are described. The sensing range of 4-100 MeV was attained with 15 1 sq m laminated 20-microns thick Ta plates. A mirror system provided a stereoscopic view of events and a means to photograph plate triggering along with the time of event. Photomultiplier tubes also monitored the scintillator plates. The instrument was placed in a polyamide enclosure and the interior pressure was lowered to 1 bar. The experiment was flown from Brasil in 1976 and 1977. The arrangement of the scintillators permitted differentiating between atmospheric and extra-atmospheric photons. The instrument was focused on the central galactic plane, and gamma ray photons detected were attributed to braking and the inverse Compton effect. The sources of the radiation are discussed with reference to simultaneously-acquired Cos B satellite data.

  2. [From the old headquarters of the Diretoria Geral de Saúde Pública (DGSP) to the Instituto Nacional do Câncer (Inca)].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Tadeu Benedito

    2007-01-01

    The old headquarters of the Diretoria Geral de Saúde Pública (DGSP), located on Rua do Resende #128, and the Conjunto Arquitetônico Histórico de Manguinhos da Fiocruz (Manguinhos-Fiocruz Historical Architectural Complex) are contemporary buildings built by the initiative of Oswaldo Cruz and projects by Luiz Moraes Júnior. The old DGSP is as important as the so-called Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC) then, now Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz) for the introduction and institucionalization of public health policies in Brasil. We describe the building project of the DGSP facilities, its evolution, transformations, and the process of becoming part of the Historic Heritage.

  3. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morcelle, V.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Guimarães, V.; Pires, K. C. C.; Lubian, J.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; de Faria, P. N.; Kolata, J. J.; Becchetti, F. D.; Jiang, H.; Aguilera, E. F.; Lizcano, D.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Garcia, H.

    2017-01-01

    We present 8B 27Al elastic scattering angular distributions for the proton-halo nucleus 8B at two energies above the Coulomb barrier, namely Elab=15.3 and 21.7 MeV. The experiments were performed in the Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil facility (RIBRAS) in São Paulo, and in the TwinSol facility at the University of Notre Dame, USA. The angular distributions were measured in the angular range of 15-80 degrees. Optical model and continuum discretized coupled channels calculations were performed, and the total reaction cross sections were derived. A comparison of the 8B+27Al total reaction cross sections with similar systems including exotic, weakly bound, and tightly bound projectiles impinging on the same target is presented.

  4. [Acceptance of handmade products containing nuts and fructooligosaccharides].

    PubMed

    de Freitas Folly, Gilce Andrezza; Neiva da Silva, Ester; Vieira Verner, Fabiana; Dos Santos Silva, Fernanda Cacilda; Pinheiro Volp, Ana Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Los prebióticos y alimentos con propiedades funcionales proporcionan beneficios para la salud de los consumidores a través de la prevención de muchas enfermedades. Objetivo: Verificar la aceptación de productos artesanales (chocolate en barra, dulce de soja y pan dulce) formulados con nueces (linaza, maní y nueces de Brasil) y, o fructooligosacáridos (FOS). Métodos: Cuatro muestras de cada producto fueron preparados con adición de diferentes concentraciones de nueces y FOS. La evaluación sensorial se realizó mediante una muestra de 373 consumidores, con 126, 121 y 126 probadores para muestras de chocolate en barra, dulce de soja y pan dulce, respectivamente, utilizándose la escala hedónica de nueve puntos. Los resultados fueron sometidos a Análisis de Varianza (ANOVA) y el test de Tukey. Resultados y Discusión: Observándose las medias de los juzgamientos, se infiere que las muestras con mayor aceptación han sido de pan dulce con nueces de Brasil y, o FOS. Sin embargo, todas las muestras son buenas alternativas de mercado y se lo mostró un promedio de entre 6 y 9 puntos, más un aumento de ácidos grasos omega 3 y 6, proteínas, fibras, vitaminas, antioxidantes y minerales, así como fitoquímicos, los cuales desempeñan un papel importante en la promoción de la salud. Conclusión: Los productos artesanales formulados con oleaginosas y, o FOS tuvieron una buena aceptabilidad y pueden mejorar los hábitos alimentarios de los consumidores. Pero para probar la funcionalidad de estos productos, se necesitan nuevos estudios.

  5. The cloud cover fraction obtained from a ground CCD camera and its effect on a radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, M. P.; Pereira, E. B.; Martins, F. R.; Chagas, R. C.; Freitas, W. S., Jr.

    2003-04-01

    Clouds are the major factor that rules the solar irradiance over Earth's surface. They interact with solar radiation in the shortwave spectra and with terrestrial radiation emitted by Earth's surface in the longwave range. Information about cloud cover is a very important input data for radiative transfer models and great effort is being made to improve methods to get this information. This paper reports the effects on a radiative transfer model by using the simple cloud fraction obtained by a ground set CCD camera instead of the satellite derived cloud index. The BRASIL-SR model is a radiative transfer model that calculates surface solar irradiance, using a normalized cloud index determined by statistical analyses of satellites images and from climatological values of temperature and albedo. Cloud fraction was obtained from digital images collected by a ground set CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera, in the visible range (0.4mm - 0.7mm) as RGB (Red - Green - Blue) compositions. The method initially transforms the image attributes from the RGB space to the IHS (Intensity - Hue - Saturation) space. The algorithm defines threshold values for the saturation component of the IHS system to classify a pixel as cloudy or clear sky. Clear skies are identified by high values of saturation in the visible range while cloudy condition presents a mixture of several wavelengths and consequently lower saturation values. Results from the CCD camera and from the satellite were compared with the Kt and Kd from pyranometer data obtained from a local BSRN radiation station at Florianópolis (27º 28'S, 48º 29'W) and show that cloud fraction is only a poor information about the cloud sky status since it does not bear any information on the cloud optical depth which is needed in most radiative transfer models such as the one used in this paper (the BRASIL-SR).

  6. Inclusion of Astronomy Themes in an Inovative Approach of Informal Physics Teaching for High School Students. (Spanish Title: Inclusión de Temas Astronómicos en Uma Abordaje Innovadora de la Enseñanza Informal de Física Para Estudiantes de Secumdaria.) Inclusão de Temas Astronômicos Numa Abordagem Inovadora do Ensino Informal de Física Para Estudantes do Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiara Mota, Aline; de Morais Bonomini, Iracema Ariel; Meloni Martins Rosado, Ricardo

    2009-12-01

    The current work reports on an experience on Astronomy education at the Federal University of Itajubá through an extra-curricular course offered for High School students. This initiative was motivated by the low attention paid to the Astronomy subjects at this stage of the Brazilian Formal Education, in spite that the National Curricular Parameters (PCN and PCN+, in Brazil) point out the importance of their inclusion Este artículo relata una experiencia en la enseñanza de la astronomía efectuada en la Universidad Federal de Itajubá en la forma de un curso de extensión orientado para los estudiantes del colegio secundario. Esta iniciativa surgió de constatar la poca atención dada a la Astronomía en esta etapa de la Educación formal brasileña, a pesar que los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales (PCN y PCN+, en Brasil) destacan la importancia de su inclusión. Este artigo relata uma experiência em ensino de Astronomia realizada na Universidade Federal de Itajubá na forma de um curso de extensão voltado para alunos do Ensino Médio. Esta iniciativa surgiu da pouca atenção que se dá à Astronomia nesta etapa da Educação embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN e PCN+) apontem a importância de sua inclusão.

  7. Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in the Brazilian Western Amazon before and after the Interoceanic highway paving: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of undernutrition, overweight and associated factors, before and after the implementation of the Interoceanic Highway. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study on children under 5 years of age was conducted in the municipality of Assis Brasil, AC, Brazil, in 2003 and 2010. Prevalence of undernutrition was observed by using height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) and adopting a cut-off point equal to or lower than a -2 Z-score. Overweight prevalence was defined by a cut-off point equal to or greater than a +2 Z-score of the WHZ index. Z-scores were calculated relative to WHO 2006 reference data. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied to the children’s guardians, investigating family socio-economic and demographic characteristics, morbidities, access to services and child care. Associated factors were identified by hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of low HAZ (undernutrition) was 7.0% in 2003 and 12.2% in 2010. The prevalence of high WHZ (overweight) was 1.0% and 6.6% for 2003 and 2010, respectively. It was not possible to adjust the multiple model for the year 2003. The factors associated with low HAZ in 2010 were: wealth index, the situation of living with biological parents, maternal height and presence of open sewage, whereas the factors associated with a high WHZ in the same year were: child’s age, mother’s time of residence in the location, mother’s body mass index. Conclusions Overweight increase within this undernutrition scenario reveals that the process of nutritional transition began in this Amazonian city only in the last decade, and therefore, it is delayed when compared to overweight in other parts of Brazil. Such nutritional transition in Assis Brasil may have been facilitated by the construction of the Interoceanic Highway. PMID:24283293

  8. [RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PATTERNS OF BREASTFEEDING AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN BRAZILIAN AND SPANISH SCHOOLCHILDREN].

    PubMed

    Mora Urda, Ana Isabel; Pereira da Silva, Raiane; Bisi Molina, María del Carmen; Bresciani Salaroli, Luciane; Montero López, María del Pilar

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: la relación entre alimentación temprana y presión arterial en etapas posteriores de la vida todavía se muestra incierta y, a veces, contradictoria. Algunas investigaciones apuntan hacia el efecto protector de la lactancia materna sobre la enfermedad cardiovascular, mientras que otras no obtienen resultados concluyentes. Objetivos: el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la relación entre patrones de lactancia durante los primeros meses de vida y tensión arterial en la infancia, en dos muestras de niños y niñas procedentes de dos poblaciones con características socioculturales diferentes, controlando el efecto de la calidad de la alimentación en la infancia. Métodos: el estudio, de diseño transversal y retrospectivo, se realizó con 492 escolares de edades comprendidas entre los 8 y los 10 años, y se compone de dos muestras, ambas recogidas en colegios públicos, una en Madrid (España) y otra en Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brasil). Resultados: el 90% de la muestra fue amamantado en algún momento, 196 (44,2%) en Madrid y 247 (55,7%) en Vitória/ES. La duración media de la lactancia materna exclusiva (LME) en Madrid fue de 12,89 semanas (std=9,6) y en Vitória/ES de 22,00 semanas (std= 13,4), siendo estas diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Los valores medios de presión arterial sistólica, diastólica y media fueron significativamente superiores en la muestra brasileña. La prevalencia de hipertensión limítrofe y de hipertensión también fue mayor en la muestra brasileña que en la española, 68% vs 32% y 60% vs 40%, respectivamente. En las dos muestras se observó asociación entre una duración más corta de LME y mayor prevalencia de hipertensión en la infancia. Con respecto a la asociación entre calidad de la alimentación y valores de presión arterial, esta fue solo significativa en la muestra brasileña, pero no en la española. Discusión: en ambas muestras se observa un efecto protector de la LM sobre la presi

  9. Detection and Intervention Strategies by Primary Health Care Professionals in Suspected Elder Abuse.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Mafalda; dos Santos, César Lares; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Os profissionais dos cuidados de saúde primários encontram-se numa posição privilegiada para identificarem e orientarem casos de maus-tratos de idosos. Este estudo investigou o enquadramento destes profissionais nesta matéria. Material e Métodos: Elaborou-se um questionário posteriormente aplicado a Médicos e enfermeiros de 12 Unidades de Saúde de Coimbra. Estudaram-se par'metros relacionados com aspetos demográficos, perceção do abuso e estratégias de atuação, experiência pessoal e formação nesta área. Resultados: A taxa global de resposta foi de 67,9% com 127 questionários validados. Dos resultados obtidos destacam-se seguintes: verificou-se um contacto substancial entre os profissionais e a população idosa; a maioria dos profissionais (64,6%) consideram o abuso mais prevalente em contexto familiar e 32,3% indicaram a negligência como a forma mais frequente; 97,6% dos profissionais considera que tem um papel importante na deteção de casos de abuso; a incerteza no diagnóstico foi um dos principais fatores limitadores da denúncia; verificou-se incerteza a obrigatoriedade de reportar os casos às autoridades judiciais. Ainda se constatou que 87,4% destes profissionais se sentiriam mais confortáveis com protocolos de atuação e que esta problemática não havia sido abordada na sua formação básica em 70,9% dos casos. Discussão: O contato significativo entre a população idosa e os profissionais de saúde propicia o diagnóstico e intervenção precoces. Os profissionais revelaram conhecimentos sobre o tema em linha com os indicados por alguns estudos, nomeadamente, sobre o contexto e prevalência do abuso. A subsistência de dúvidas relativamente à melhor forma para gerir estes casos e conciliar as diferentes perspetivas poderia ser colmatado, na opinião veiculada pelos próprios, pela definição de protocolos de atuação e a formação específica deverá ser considerada como um dos pilares fundamentais para

  10. Data Democratization - Promoting Real-Time Data Sharing and Use throughout the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoksas, T. C.

    2006-05-01

    The Unidata Program Center (Unidata) of the University Corporation of Atmospheric Research (UCAR) is actively involved in international collaborations whose goals are real-time sharing of hydro-meteorological data by institutions of higher education throughout the Americas; in the distribution of analysis and visualization tools for those data; and in the establishment of server sites that provide easy-to-use, programmatic remote- access to a wide variety of datasets. Data sharing capabilities are being provided by Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, a community-based effort that has been the primary source of real-time meteorological data for approximately 150 US universities for over a decade. A collaboration among Unidata, Brazil's Centro de PreviSão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC), the Universidad Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de São Paulo (USP) has resulted in the creation of a Brazilian peer of the North American IDD, the IDD-Brasil. Collaboration among Unidata, the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), and the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM) seeks to extend IDD data sharing throughout Central America and the Caribbean in an IDD-Caribe. Collaboration between Unidata and the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH), a World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Regional Meteorological Training Center (RMTC) based in Barbados, has been launched to investigate the possibility of expansion of IDD data sharing throughout Caribbean RMTC member countries. Most recently, efforts aimed at creating a data sharing network for researchers on the Antarctic continent have resulted in the establishment of the Antarctic-IDD. Data analysis and visualization capabilities are being provided by Unidata through a suite of freely-available applications: the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) GEneral Meteorology PAcKage (GEMPAK); the Unidata Integrated Data Viewer (IDV); and University of

  11. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, the association with socioeconomic variables in adolescents from low-income region.

    PubMed

    Nascimento-Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius; De Moraes, Augusto Cesar F; Carvalho, Heraclito B; Moreno, Luis A; Gomes Carneiro, André Luiz; dos Reis, Victor Manuel M; Torres-Leal, Francisco Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de obesidad y sobrepeso, obesidad abdominal y hipertensión arterial en una muestra de adolescentes pertenecientes a una ciudad de baja renta en Brasil y su relación con el nivel socioeconómico, nivel educativo de lo responsable de la familia y tipo de escuela. Métodos: Estudio transversal con una muestra de 1014 adolescentes (54,8% chicas), con edades entre 14-19 años, estudiantes de las escuelas de la ciudad de Imperatriz (Brasil), seleccionadas por un muestreo aleatorio. Las variables dependientes evaluadas son: obesidad general y sobrepeso, obesidad abdominal, y tensión arterial alta (sistólica y/o diastólica). Las variables independientes son: nivel socioeconómico de la familia (NSO), el nivel de educación de lo responsable de la familia (NERF) y tipo de escuela. Las variables de confusión son: sexo, edad y nivel de actividad física. La prevalencia fue estimada, y la asociación entre las variables dependientes y las variables independientes se analizaron mediante razón de prevalencia (RP), con intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95%, estimado por la regresión de Poisson. Resultados: La prevalencia de la obesidad general fue de 3,8%, sobrepeso 13,1%, obesidad abdominal 22,7% y la tesión arterial alta 21,3%. Las análisis ajustadas indicaron que las chicas con NSO alto tienen mayor probabilidad de tener sobrepeso (RP=1,71 [IC95%: 1,13 a 2,87]), y chicos de las escuelas privadas tienen más probabilidad de tener obesidad (RP=1,79 [IC95%: 1.04- 3,08]) y obesidad abdominal (RP=1,64 [IC95%: 1,06 a 2,54]). Conclusión: La prevalencia de los FRC es alta en adolescentes de una región de baja renta. Los chicos de las escuelas privadas son más propensos a tener obesi dad y obesidad abdominal, y las chicas con NSO alto son más propensas a tener sobrepeso.

  12. Revista de Saúde Pública: 50 years disseminating the knowledge in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Sichieri, Rosely; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2016-12-22

    This work describes and comments on articles in the area of Public Health Nutrition published in Revista de Saúde Pública (RSP - Public Health Journal) from 1967 to 2016. We searched in the PubMed database restricted to the periodical "Revista de Saúde Pública" and using terms related to key topics in the area of Public Health Nutrition. We retrieved 742 articles and, after exclusion of duplicates and articles unrelated to the subject, we analyzed 441 articles, grouped according to subject: dental caries, anemia, hypovitaminosis A, macro/micronutrients, malnutrition, nutritional assessment, overweight/obesity, food consumption, low birthweight, and breastfeeding. We observed significant increase in the number of articles published and diversification of subjects addressed over the 50 years, representing the consistent development of the scientific field of Nutrition in Brazil. Since its inception, RSP has played an important role in the dissemination of knowledge about the main nutritional issues in Brazil. RESUMO Este trabalho descreve e comenta os artigos na área de Nutrição em Saúde Pública, publicados na Revista de Saúde Pública (RSP) de 1967 a 2016. Foi realizada busca na base de dados PubMed restrita ao periódico "Revista de Saúde Pública" e utilizando termos relacionados com temáticas chaves da área de Nutrição em Saúde Pública. Foram recuperados 742 artigos e, após as exclusões dos artigos repetidos e daqueles não relacionados com a temática, foram analisados 441 artigos, agrupados segundo o tema: cárie dental, anemia, hipovitaminose A, macro/micronutrientes, desnutrição, avaliação do estado nutricional, sobrepeso/obesidade, consumo de alimentos, baixo peso ao nascer, e aleitamento materno. Observou-se incremento significativo no número de artigos publicados e a diversificação dos temas tratados ao longo destes 50 anos, retratando o consistente desenvolvimento do campo científico da Nutrição no Brasil. Desde seu início, a

  13. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among adolescents in public schools students in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mônica L P; Silva, Rita de Cássia R; Assis, Ana M O; Raich, Rosa M; Machado, Maria Ester P C; de J Pinto, Elizabete; de Moraes, Lia T L P; Ribeiro Júnior, Hugo da C

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia de insatisfacción corporal y factores asociados entre estudiantes de Salvador en Brasil. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado en una muestra aleatoria de 1494 adolescentes (852 niñas y 642 niños) de entre 11 y 17 años de edad estudiantes de escuelas públicas en Salvador (Brasil). Los participantes completaron los cuestionarios: Cuestionario de La Figura Corporal y el Inventario de Actitudes Alimentarias. La imagen corporal pudo ser considerada satisfactoria o insatisfactoria. Se obtuvieron datos demográficos, antropométricos y económicos e información sobre la etapa de maduración sexual, la auto-percepción del peso corporal y el consumo de bebidas azucaradas y gaseosas. Para identificar los factores asociados se utilizó el análisis de regresión de Poisson. Resultados: La insatisfacción corporal estuvo presente en el 19,5% de los/as adolescentes, con una prevalencia del 26,6% entre las chicas y el 10% entre los chicos. Independientemente del sexo, la prevalencia de la insatisfacción corporal fue superior entre los/as adolescentes con sobrepeso u obesos (en las niñas, PR: 1,38, IC: 1,09-1,73 y en los niños, PR: 2,26, IC: 1,08-4,75), mayor entre los/as que percibían a sí mismos como “gordos” (en las niñas, PR: 2,85, IC: 2,07-3,93 y en los niños, PR: 3,17, IC: 1,39- 7,23), y entre los/as que tenían actitudes alimentarias negativas (en las niñas, PR: 2,42, IC: 1,91-3,08 y en los niños, PR: 4,67, IC: 2,85-7,63). Una reducción en la insatisfacción corporal se identificó sólo entre las niñas con bajo peso (RP: 0,12, IC: 0,03-0.49).Conclusiones: Se observó una alta ocurrencia de la insatisfacción corporal entre los adolescentes, y que factores biológicos y del comportamiento se asocian con dicha insatisfacción.

  14. [Prediction equations for fat percentage from body circumferences in prepubescent children].

    PubMed

    Gómez Campos, Rossana; De Marco, Ademir; de Arruda, Miguel; Martínez Salazar, Cristian; Margarita Salazar, Ciria; Valgas, Carmen; Fuentes, José Damián; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Introdución: El análisis de la composición corporal a través de métodos directos e indirectos permite el estudio de los distintos componentes del cuerpo humano, constituyéndose en el eje central para valorar el estado nutricional. Objetivo: Desarrollar ecuaciones de predicción del % de grasa corporal a partir de circunferenciales corporales del brazo, cintura y pantorrilla y proponer percentiles para diagnosticar el estado nutricional de niños escolares de ambos sexos de 4-10 años. Métodos: Fueron seleccionados de forma intencional (noprobabilística) 515 niños, siendo 261 niños y 254 niñas pertenecientes al Programa de interacción y desarrollo del niño y del adolescente de la Universidad Estatal de Campinas (Sao Paulo, Brasil). Se evaluó las variables antropométricas de peso, estatura, pliegues cutáneos tricipital y subescapular y las circunferencias corporales del brazo, cintura y pantorrilla. Se determino el % de grasa a través de la ecuación propuesta por Boileau, Lohman y Slaughter (1985). A través del método de regresión se generaron 2 ecuaciones para predecir el porcentaje de grasa a partir de las circunferencias corporales; las ecuaciones 1 y 2 fueron validadas a través del método de validación cruzada. Resultados: Las ecuaciones obtenidas mostraron altos valores predictivos, oscilando con un R2 = 64-69%. En la validación cruzada entre el criterio y las ecuaciones de regresión propuestas no hubo diferencias significativas (p < 0,05) y se observó un alto grado de concordancia a un CI 95%. Conclusión: Las ecuaciones son validadas y son una alternativa para evaluar el porcentaje de grasa en niños escolares de ambos sexos de 4-10 años del Programa de interacción y desarrollo del niño y del adolescente de la Universidad Estatal de Campinas (Sao Paulo, Brasil).

  15. Healthcare systems, the State, and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Ignacio José Godinho

    2016-11-03

    This article discusses the relations between healthcare systems and the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on state support for pharmaceutical innovation. The study highlights the experiences of the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany, developed countries and paradigms of modern health systems (liberal, universal, and corporatist), in addition to Japan, a case of successful catching up. The study also emphasizes the experiences of China, India, and Brazil, large developing countries that have tried different catching up strategies, with diverse histories and profiles in their healthcare systems and pharmaceutical industries. Finally, with a focus on state forms of support for health research, the article addresses the mechanisms for linkage between health systems and the pharmaceutical industry, evaluating the possibilities of Brazil strengthening a virtuous interaction, favoring the expansion and consolidation of the Brazilian health system - universal but segmented ‒ and the affirmation of the innovative national pharmaceutical industry. Resumo: O artigo discute as relações entre os sistemas de saúde e a indústria farmacêutica, concentrando-se no apoio do Estado à inovação farmacêutica. Salienta as trajetórias dos Estados Unidos, Reino Unido e Alemanha, países desenvolvidos, paradigmáticos dos modernos sistemas de saúde (liberais, universais e corporativos), além do Japão, um caso de emparelhamento bem-sucedido. Também enfatiza as trajetórias de China, Índia e Brasil, países em desenvolvimento, extensos, que experimentaram diferentes estratégias de emparelhamento, dispondo de sistemas de saúde e indústrias farmacêuticas com trajetórias e perfis diversos. Finalmente, com foco nas formas estatais de apoio à pesquisa em saúde, considera os mecanismos de conexão entre os sistemas de saúde e a indústria farmacêutica, avaliando as possibilidades, no Brasil, de fortalecer uma interação virtuosa que favoreça a expansão e

  16. Path of infectious diseases in Brazil in the last 50 years: an ongoing challenge.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Eliseu Alves; Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri

    2016-12-22

    In this article, we comment on the main features of infectious diseases in Brazil in the last 50 years, highlighting how much of this path Revista de Saúde Pública could portray. From 1967 to 2016, 1,335 articles focusing on infectious diseases were published in Revista de Saúde Pública. Although the proportion of articles on the topic have decreased from about 50.0% to 15.0%, its notability remained and reflected the growing complexity of the research required for its control. It is noteworthy that studies design and analysis strategies progressively became more sophisticated, following the great development of epidemiology in Brazil in the recent decades. Thus, the journal has followed the success of public health interventions that permitted to control or eliminate numerous infectious diseases - which were responsible, in the past, for high rates of morbidity and mortality -, and also followed the reemergence of diseases already controlled and the emergence of until then unknown diseases, with a strong impact on the Brazilian population, establishing a little predictable and very challenging path. RESUMO Neste artigo, comentamos as principais características das doenças infecciosas no Brasil, nos últimos 50 anos, destacando o quanto a Revista de Saúde Pública conseguiu capturar essa trajetória. De 1967 a 2016, foram publicados 1.335 artigos na Revista de Saúde Pública com foco em doenças infecciosas. Ainda que a proporção de artigos sobre esse tema tenha declinado de cerca de 50,0% para 15,0%, seu destaque se manteve e refletiu a crescente complexidade das pesquisas necessárias para o seu controle. Nota-se que os desenhos dos estudos e as estratégias de análise ganharam progressivamente maior sofisticação, acompanhando o grande desenvolvimento da epidemiologia no Brasil, nas últimas décadas. Assim, foi registrado não apenas o sucesso de intervenções de saúde pública que permitiram o controle ou a eliminação de inúmeras doen

  17. Design of quality indicators for oral nutritional therapy.

    PubMed

    Gimenez Verotti, Cristiane Comeron; de Miranda Torrinhas, Raquel Susana Matos; Pires Corona, Ligiana; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2015-06-01

    Objetivo: los indicadores de calidad en la terapia nutricional han sido propuestos como herramientas útiles para mejorar la terapia nutricional (TN). Este estudio pretende diseñar indicadores de calidad de terapia nutricional oral (ICTNO) factibles en el control de calidad de TN oral. Métodos: el diseño de ICTNO fue realizado por una comisión de nutrición clínica compuesta por brasileños expertos en TN del International Life Science Institute (ILSI). Más tarde, la aprobación de estos ICTNO fue valorada con análisis psicométricos recogiendo las opiniones de otros brasileños dedicados independientemente a la TN (n = 40) vía SurveyMonkey (encuesta por internet). Esta consistió en cuatro atributos valorando cada ICTNO (simplicidad, utilidad, objetividad y bajo precio) seguida de una escala Likert con cinco puntos. Resultados: los expertos en TN de ILSI proporcionaron el diseño de 12 QIONT, que fueron todos consistentemente (Alfa de Cronbach = 0,84) clasificados como válidos por expertos independientes en NT. Por orden de relevancia, los nuevos ICTNO valoraron: la frecuencia de screening nutricional, la prescripción de suplementos de nutrición oral para pacientes desnutridos que ya reciben dieta oral, la prescripción de suplementos de nutrición oral para pacientes con bajo riesgo nutricional que ya reciben dieta oral, el consejo nutricional, la adhesión al suplemento nutricional oral, los pacientes hospitalizados con dieta oral insuficiente y prescripción de suplementos nutricionales orales, los pacientes de UCI con dieta oral insuficiente y prescripción de suplementos nutricionales orales, el consejo de nutrición oral en pacientes de UCI, el consejo de nutrición oral en pacientes en planta, la intolerancia al volumen de suplemento oral debido a dosificación inadecuada, la intolerancia al sabor del suplemento oral y la intolerancia al volumen de suplemento oral. Conclusión: según la opinión experta, 12 potenciales y factibles nuevos ICTNO

  18. The intake of yam (Dioscorea bulbifera Linn) attenuated the hyperglycemia and the bone fragility in female diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rêgo, Thaís de Salgado; Ash, Louise da Silva; Pessoa, Letícia; Feijó, Márcia Barreto da Silva; Leite, Juliana; dos Santos, Aline de Sousa; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: Los pacientes diabéticos tienen un mayor riesgo de fracturas osteoporóticas. Los alimentos, como el ñame, para oponerse a la hiperglucemia, se ha utilizado para el tratamiento de la diabetes. Objetivos: El objetivo era evaluar el papel de ñame brasileño (Dioscorea bulbifera) sobre la glucemia y el hueso parámetros de ratas diabéticas hembra. Métodos: Ratas Wistar hembra con 3 meses de edad fueron asignados en tres grupos. El grupo de control (C, n = 6), tratados con dieta normal de la grasa. Las ratas diabéticas tratadas con dieta alta en grasas y sin (DM, n = 8) y con (DMY, n = 8) harina de ñame liofilizado. Después se cuantificaron 5 semanas del experimento, la glucosa y la insulina en suero, la masa páncreas, el número y el área de islotes del páncreas. Y los parámetros de fémur fueron analizados por absorciometría de rayos X de energía dual (DXA) y la tomografía computarizada (CT). Resultados: Las diferencias se consideraron significativas si P < 0,05. Grupos diabéticos mostraron menor (P < 0,05): el fémur y la masa páncreas, el área de los islotes pancreáticos y la insulina. Sin embargo, DMY mostró inferior (-10%, P < 0,05) concentraciones de glucosa al grupo DM. Fémur, por DXA, mostró menor densidad mineral ósea, el contenido y el área en el grupo de DM. Mientras que el grupo DMY mostró mayor (27%, P < 0,05) radiodensidad de la cabeza femoral en comparación con el grupo de DM. Discusión: Suplemento de harina de ñame brasileña no fijó un defecto, pero alivia las consecuencias de la enfermedad diabética experimental. Se mostró resultados para controlar el aumento de los niveles de glucosa en sangre en ratas diabéticas, lo que sugiere la protección en agentes oxidantes y posponer daño en el hueso. Conclusión: Teniendo en cuenta todos los resultados de este estudio, nuestros resultados sugieren que la harina de ñame actúa de producir beneficios en la diabetes experimental.

  19. Dietary patterns of young adolescents in urban areas of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Célia Márcia Medeiros; Pinheiro, Liana Galvão Bacurau; Lima, Severina Carla Vieira Cunha; Lyra, Clelia Oliveira; de Sena Evangelista, Karine Cavalcanti Mauricio; Lima, Kenio Costa; Pedrosa, Lucia Fatima Campos

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Estudios nacionales de evolución temporal encuentran que la tendencia del consumo alimentario se asocia con aumento de la prevalencia de las enfermedades crónicas. Objetivos: Caracterizar los hábitos alimentarios de los adolescentes en un área urbana del Noreste de Brasil, relacionándolos con los marcadores dietéticos saludables. Métodos: Estudio transversal con adolescentes (n=430) de las escuelas públicas de Natal-RN, Brasil. El consumo alimentario se evaluó mediante dos recordatorios 24h. La técnica de Análisis de Componentes Principales fue utilizada para derivar patrones dietéticos, de acuerdo con: alimentos en gramos (g), la energía en Kcal y la fibra en gramos, lo que resulta, respectivamente, en 3 componentes principales distintos: 7, 8 y 4 (varianza acumulada >70%; cargas factoriales >0,4). La asociación entre las variables independientes y los escores de los factores de todos los componentes obtenidos, se determinó por la razón de prevalencia (IC 95%). Resultados: Los patrones dietéticos fueron: el (1) Sistema Alimentario Tradicional puro representó el primero componente de los modelos; el (2) Sistema Alimentario Combinado y de riesgo reveló marcadores de alimentación no saludables, debido a la alta frecuencia de azucares refinados, grasas saturadas y sal; y el (3) Sistema Alimentario Modificado fue identificado en el modelo de las fibras, el patrón 1 de nuevo fue observado en este patrón. Las asociaciones observadas, en particular del patrón SATm, distinguen por sexo, edad y estado nutricional. Conclusiones: Los patrones dietéticos 1 y 3 se caracterizaron por la preservación de las prácticas regionales de alimentos, muy saludables, desde el punto de vista de la prevención de las enfermedades crónicas, mientras que el 2 representó alerta y riesgo para la salud. Los hallazgos pueden subvencionar Políticas de Atención a la Salud para infancia y adolescencia en carácter intersectorial.

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF LETTUCE SALADS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS SPP.

    PubMed

    Guimarães César, Josi; Madruga Peres, Andriele; Pereira das Neves, Caroline; Tupiniquim Freitas de Abreu, Érica; Fagundes de Mello, Jozi; Nunes Moreira, Ângela; Lameiro Rodrigues, Kelly

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la procura por estabelecimientos que ofrecen alimentos prontos para consumo ha aumentado, sin embrago, los alimentos disponibles en estos locales pueden estar contaminados con microorganismos patogénicos, pudiendo causar enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos. Objetivos: evaluar la calidad microbiológica de las ensaladas de lechuga en los restaurantes de Pelotas RS Brasil, a través de los recuentos de coliformes termotolerantes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp. y la detección de Salmonella spp. Resistencia a los antimicrobianos de Staphylococcus spp. también se evalúan. Métodos: fueron colectadas 36 muestras de ensaladas de lechuga en nueve restaurantes y realizada la cuantificación de coliformes termotolerantes, Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus spp. e investigación de Salmonella spp., siguiendo la metodología del Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Los aislados de Staphylococcus spp. fueron sometidos al examen de resistencia a antimicrobianos por el método de difusión con discos. Resultados y discusión: de las 36 muestras de ensalada de lechuga, 61,1% presentaron cuantificación de coliformes termotolerantes superiores a lo permitido por la legislación brasileña, y hubo confirmación de E. coli en 5,6% de las muestras. La cuantificación de Staphylococcus coagulasa positiva representó 5,6% de los aislados y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa representó 77,8%. Todas las muestras presentaron ausencia de Salmonella spp. De los 30 aislados de Staphylococcus spp. examinados, 56,7% fueron resistentes a penicilina, 46,7% a oxacilina, 26,7% a eritromicina y 23,3% fueron multirresistentes. Conclusión: la calidad microbiológica de las ensaladas de lechuga se mostró inadecuada debido a la presencia de microorganismos patogénicos, y los aislados de Staphylococcus spp. presentaron elevado porcentaje de resistencia antimicrobiana.

  1. Crustal thinning and tectonic geomorphology: redefining the passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, T.; Osmundsen, P. T.

    2012-04-01

    We describe Scandinavia's passive margin in terms of a hyper-extended distal margin, a variably tapered proximal margin that includes the outer onshore areas, and an upwarped, unstretched, continent-sloping hinterland that terminates against the "undeformed" cratonic interior. Two benchmark locations, defined as the taper break (TB) and the Hinterland Break in Slope (HBSL), occur at the inner boundary of the distal margin and at the transition from the continent-sloping hinterland and craton, respectively. The elevation of the seaward-facing escarpment is directly scaled to the distance between the taper break and the Hinterland Break in Slope. Scaling relationships between the taper of the crystalline crust in the direction of the distal margin and the length/dip of the hinterland backslope follow directly. The shape factors of major catchments are directly scaled to the taper of the proximal margin and drainage azimuths are parallel to the mean transport lineation recorded from a distinct population of range-bounding normal faults. Topographic expressions of the footwalls and offsets in apatite fission-track age-patterns indicate that fault movement controlled topography, locally and regionally inboard of sharp crustal tapers long after the main phase of crustal thinning. We extend our definition of the passive margin to other post-breakup margins. One particularly fine example is SE Brasil. New data (Zalan et al., 2011) suggest the direct correlation of SE Brasil's Taper Break with its escarpment elevation in a manner consistent with our Scandinavian and global observations. The Taper Hypothesis appears to hold across old and young, glaciated, and unglaciated margins. Following the stretching, thinning, and exhumation phase, an "accommodation phase" is warranted. During accommodation, the initially elevated escarpments can be eroded to very low base levels and subsequently undergo inboard rejuvenation by footwall uplift, in response to tensile stresses

  2. [The functional planning of a enteral nutrition unit for home care at a hospital in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro Salomon, Ana Lúcia; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Con el objeto de garantizar la calidad del producto ofrecido a los clientes en sus domicilios, las unidades hospitalarias necesitan adecuar sus áreas físicas para poder desarrollar todas las actividades especializadas que conlleva la nutrición enteral. Objetivo: Proporcionar una planificación funcional y las herramientas para la reorganización del espacio físico de una unidad de nutrición enteral, describiendo el proceso de preparación, la descripción de sus características y funciones laborales. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y documental, proporcionando las herramientas para la planificación funcional y de gestión de calidad en una unidad de preparación de la nutrición enteral en un hospital público del Distrito Federal, Brasil. Los datos fueron recolectados en el período comprendido entre los años 2000 y 2010. Resultados. A través de la creación de un programa de nutrición enteral en el Departamento de Salud Pública del Distrito Federal y según lo dispuesto por la legislación nacional, se efectuó un plan de alta complejidad respecto de la nutrición enteral en atención al perfil demográfico y epidemiológico de la población. Este trabajo consiste en una propuesta de implementación de terapia nutricional dentro de un plan de alta complejidad, y de acuerdo a lo prescrito por la legislación del Ministerio de Salud Brasileño. El número de pacientes atendidos por esta modalidad terapéutica se ha ido incrementando, por consiguiente se hace necesario garantizar la calidad del servicio, por medio de la organización de los espacios funcionales. Conclusión. Por medio de la planificación funcional de un Laboratorio de Nutrición Enteral, se puede garantizar la asistencia nutricional especializada y de calidad, a la población hospitalaria o domiciliaria, tomando las precauciones necesarias en la manipulación de las fórmulas enterales.

  3. ANTHROPOMETRIC PROFILE AND NUTRITIONAL INTAKE IN PATIENTS WITH EPILEPSY.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Fernandez, Rochelly; Corrêa, Camila; Muxfeld Bianchim, Marino; Schweigert Perry, Ingrid D

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: la calidad de vida alterada es común en los pacientes con epilepsia, especialmente debido a las comorbilidades cardiovasculares, el sobrepeso y la obesidad. Objetivos: evaluar el estado nutricional de los pacientes con epilepsia en base a mediciones antropométricas y la ingesta alimentaria. Métodos: este estudio transversal involucró a 72 pacientes reclutados por conveniencia en la Clínica de Epilepsia del Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brasil. La muestra consistió en pacientes de ambos sexos, mayores de 18 años, que habían sido diagnosticados de epilepsia durante al menos un año. Variables investigadas: medidas antropométricas (peso y talla para la evaluación del estado nutricional y el IMC, circunferencia de la cintura para la evaluación del riesgo cardiovascular); la ingesta nutricional en base a un cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos; nivel socioeconómico basado en los Criterios de Clasificación Económica del Brasil. Resultados: la prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad fue del 66,7%, y el 85,4% de las mujeres tenían un alto riesgo cardiovascular. Los pacientes presentaron una baja frecuencia de control de las crisis (41,7%), alta ingesta de carbohidratos y proteínas, así como baja ingesta de ácidos grasos mono y poliinsaturados (incluyendo ácidos grasos omega 3 y 6). No se observaron diferencias en el estado nutricional ni el consumo entre los pacientes con convulsiones controlados o no controlados. Conclusiones: los pacientes con epilepsia tienen riesgos de comorbilidades, como se evidencia por su tendencia al sobrepeso/obesidad y obesidad abdominal. Aunque el control de las crisis no parece estar relacionado con el estado nutricional y la ingesta, la presencia de tales comorbilidades apunta la necesidad de vigilancia nutricional e intervención en estos pacientes, con un enfoque especial en la redistribución de macronutrientes y en los niveles de ácidos grasos en la dieta.

  4. A taxonomic revision of small neotropical saurian Malarias allied to Plasmodium minasense.

    PubMed

    Telford, S R

    1979-01-01

    Saurian malaria species which produce schizonts smaller than normal erythrocyte nuclei, with 4-8 merozoietes and gametocytes equal to or smaller than erythrocyte nuclei in size, parasitizing hosts of the lizard families Scincidae, Iguanidae and Teiidae in the Neotropics are considered to be Plasmodium minasense Carini and Rudolph, 1912. Subspecific designations are given to distinctive populations parasitizing different host species: P. minasense minasense is recognized from the type host, Mabuya mabouya of Brasil; P. minasense carinii Leger and Mouzels, 1917 from Iguana iguana of coastal South America; P. minasense anolisi subsp. nov. from Anolis limifrons of Panama; P. minasense capitoi subsp. nov. from Anolis capito of Panama; P. minasense plicae subsp. nov. from Plica umbra of Guyana; P. minasense tegui subsp. nov. from Tupinambis teguixin of Venezuela; and P. minasense diminutivum Telford, 1973, new combination, from Ameiva ameiva of Panama. Plasmodium rhadinurum Thompson and Huff, 1944 is recognized as a distinct species at present on the basis of possessing schizonts of different shape, asexual stages with filamentous projections in most portions of its range, and larger gametocytes, as well as apparent sympatry with P. minasense carinii in some areas.

  5. Coliforms and Salmonella in seawater near to domestic sewage sources in Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Melo, M T; Vieira, R H; Saker-Sampaio, S; Hofer, E

    1997-12-01

    The bacteriological conditions of the coastal region of Fortaleza (Ceará, Brasil), including the coastal zones of the Ceará and Cocó rivers, were examined. The study was conducted during June, September and December 1993, and March 1994. The region was divided into two areas: (i) Direct Influence Area (DIA), consisting of 20 sampling stations located near to discharge zones of the submarine pipeline system, where collections were carried out at the surface, and (ii) Indirect Influence Area (IIA), located near to the coastal zone, including Barra do Ceará, Kartódromo, Volta de Jurema, Mucuripe, Farol and Caça e Pesca beaches, totalling 26 sampling stations. The most probable number (MPN) of both total and fecal coliforms in DIA was positive only in station number 6, near to the sewage discharge exit. The following bacteria were identified: Citrobacter sp., Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli. Kartódromo beach was contaminated throughout the sampling period. Results of total fecal MPN was essentially lower than 3.0 x 10(2) coliforms/100 ml at Caça e Pesca beach. In December, at both DIA and IIA, Salmonella was identified in several samples. In DIA, the spatial distribution for Salmonella suggests that there should be a coastal sea current from east to west along the coastline. In IIA, Salmonella was identified at Kartódromo and Farol beaches throughout the sampling period.

  6. Evaluation of polymerization shrinkage of dental composites by an optical method.

    PubMed

    Weig, K M; Magalhães Filho, T R; Costa Neto, C A; Costa, M F

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes an alternative methodology for evaluating polymerization shrinkage of dental composites using an advanced video extensometer (AVE) system. This equipment measures the displacement between two points drawn on a tooth's wall without requiring physical contact with the tooth. By doing so, the polymerization process was monitored by the cusp deflection. This technique was used in human and bovine teeth, where the cavities were prepared under controlled conditions so that the volume of the composite used was the same in both types of teeth. After the cavity preparation, the specimens were acid etched, washed and dried, and then the adhesive was applied and polymerized. The composite was then inserted into the cavity. Polymerization was performed with two different light polymerizing units (LD Max and Optilight Max - Gnatus do Brasil), and the displacement curve of the tooth cusp was recorded for a period of 400 s. After a statistical analysis, it was concluded that the technique was capable of evaluating shrinkage by the deflection from the cusps and that the human and bovine teeth do not react in a similar manner towards the polymerization shrinkage of composites.

  7. Amphibians of Serra Bonita, southern Bahia: a new hotpoint within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

    PubMed

    Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco

    2014-01-01

    We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km(2) with steep altitudinal gradients (200-950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.

  8. Critical notes on stigma and medicalization according to the psycological and athropological view.

    PubMed

    Viégas, Lygia de Sousa; Harayama, Rui Massato; de Souza, Marilene Proença Rebello

    2015-09-01

    This article aims to reflect on ethical aspects involved in the social sciences and humanities researches conducted in the educational context. In this debate, which goes beyond the limits of Resolution 466/2012 and the Plataforma Brasil bureaucracies, we refer to Psychology and Anthropology critical readings in order to emphasize the ethical risks in the medicalized view of education and human development, which has contributed to the production of stigmas that reinforces school exclusion. As central elements of this questioning, we highlight: the debate about the illusion that research in humanities and social sciences do not imply ethical risks and the false dichotomy of biomedical sciences x social and human sciences within the research in psychology and anthropology in education. Attesting to the importance of such problems we referred to researches of national and international authors in the field of school /educational psychology and neuroscience. Through these considerations, the article concludes for the importance of ethical rigor in humanities and social sciences researches, focusing not only in the construction of the project and the methodological procedures of data collection, but also in the research results interpretations and in the publication of reports and scientific articles.

  9. The Challenge of Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes to Public Health: A Study Based on Qualitative Systemic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Chor, Dóra; Pinheiro, Rejane Sobrino; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes; de Sá Carvalho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The most common modeling approaches to understanding incidence, prevalence and control of chronic diseases in populations, such as statistical regression models, are limited when it comes to dealing with the complexity of those problems. Those complex adaptive systems have characteristics such as emerging properties, self-organization and feedbacks, which structure the system stability and resistance to changes. Recently, system science approaches have been proposed to deal with the range, complexity, and multifactor nature of those public health problems. In this paper we applied a multilevel systemic approach to create an integrated, coherent, and increasingly precise conceptual framework, capable of aggregating different partial or specialized studies, based on the challenges of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health – ELSA-Brasil. The failure to control blood pressure found in several of the study's subjects was discussed, based on the proposed model, analyzing different loops, time lags, and feedback that influence this outcome in a population with high educational level, with reasonably good health services access. We were able to identify the internal circularities and cycles that generate the system’s resistance to change. We believe that this study can contribute to propose some new possibilities of the research agenda and to the discussion of integrated actions in the field of public health. PMID:26171854

  10. O que bilíngues bimodais têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue?

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Ronice Müller; Lillo-Martin, Diane; Pichler, Deborah Chen

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar o que as pesquisas que estamos desenvolvendo com crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, adquirindo Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras) e Português e Língua de Sinais Americana (ASL) e Inglês (Lillo-Martin et al. 2010) têm a nos dizer sobre desenvolvimento bilíngue. Os dados deste estudo fazem parte de um banco de dados de interações espontâneas coletadas longitudinalmente, alternando contextos de aquisição da Libras e do português como língua alvo, no Brasil e dados coletados longitudinalmente. nos mesmos contextos, de crianças adquirindo ASL e inglês1. Além disso, há também dados do estudo experimental com testes aplicados nos dois pares de línguas que se agregam ao presente estudo. Uma visão geral dos estudos desenvolvidos sobre a aquisição bilíngue bimodal por crianças ouvintes, filhas de pais surdos, será apresentada e, então, serão expostos alguns aspectos linguísticos deste tipo de aquisição, considerando as discussões sobre aquisição bilíngue a partir da pesquisa realizada. PMID:24431480

  11. [Adult HTLV-I positive leukemia-lymphoma in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Gioseffi, O N; Nucifora, E; Fantl, D; Dufour, C; Milone, J; Di Paolo, H

    1995-10-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is associated with adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP/HAM) in endemic and non-endemic areas. Serological studies have shown that HTLV-I is prevalent in some Latin American countries such as Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Perú and Uruguay. We describe here the clinical and laboratory features of five cases of ATLL diagnosed in Argentina. All patients (4 males, 1 female; median age 48.2 years) were of caucasian origin; 4 born in Argentina and 1 in Chile. High risk factors for HTLV-I infection were not apparent in Argentina patients, whereas the Chilean resident, who was a promiscuous heterosexual, travelled through Chile frequently. Positive results for antibodies to HTLV-I were detected in all five cases and in some of their relatives. This report suggests that HTLV-I infection may be endemic in, Argentina where TSP has also been described.

  12. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. III. The spectroscopic transit of CoRoT-Exo-2b with SOPHIE and HARPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchy, F.; Queloz, D.; Deleuil, M.; Loeillet, B.; Hatzes, A. P.; Aigrain, S.; Alonso, R.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Benz, W.; Bordé, P.; Deeg, H. J.; de La Reza, R.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Fridlund, M.; Gondoin, P.; Guillot, T.; Hébrard, G.; Jorda, L.; Lammer, H.; Léger, A.; Llebaria, A.; Magain, P.; Mayor, M.; Moutou, C.; Ollivier, M.; Pätzold, M.; Pepe, F.; Pont, F.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Schneider, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Wuchterl, G.

    2008-05-01

    We report on the spectroscopic transit of the massive hot-Jupiter CoRoT-Exo-2b observed with the high-precision spectrographs SOPHIE and HARPS. By modeling the radial velocity anomaly occurring during the transit due to the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect, we determine the sky-projected angle between the stellar spin and the planetary orbital axis to be close to zero λ = 7.2 ± 4.5 deg, and we secure the planetary nature of CoRoT-Exo-2b. We discuss the influence of the stellar activity on the RM modeling. Spectral analysis of the parent star from HARPS spectra are presented. Observations made with SOPHIE spectrograph at Observatoire de Haute Provence, France (PNP.07A.MOUT) and HARPS spectrograph at ESO La Silla Observatory (079.C-0127(F)). The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27th 2006, has been developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brasil, ESA, Germany, and Spain.

  13. [Standardization of serological tests for Chagas disease: an immunoenzymatic test for blood donors triage].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A W; Belem, Z R; Moura, M E; Camargo, M E

    1991-01-01

    In the serological diagnosis of Chagas disease large divergences may be found even between laboratories with experience, as a consequence of different criteria for the standardization of the tests. To standardize a immunoenzymatic test developed primarily for screening blood donors, serum panels were carefully chosen so as to best represent chagasic and non-chagasic populations. Produced for the highest sensibility and stability, the new reagent (bioELISA cruzi, Biolab Diagnóstica S/A, Brasil), was tested in serum from 1648 patients 219 with Chagas disease and 104 with other diseases, plus a comparison with well standardized immunofluorescence and hemagglutination tests in 1325 sera. In the immunoenzymatic assays, the cut off was indicated by the absorbance value of a chagasic serum showing a minimal reactivity. ELISA sensibility was 0.9954 and specificity 0.9969, as co-negativity. False positive results were absent with sera from syphilis, toxoplasmosis, mononucleosis and high titered sera for antistreptolysin 0 antibodies. However they were seen in 5 to 15 cases of tegumentar leishmaniasis, 1 of 12 Kala-azar 1 of 15 rheumatoid arthritis and 1 of 12 systemic lupus erythematosus. The high sensibility in chagasics and high specificity in the general population indicate the confiability of the immunoenzymatic assay for screening blood donors and even to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Chagas' disease.

  14. Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradstein, Felix M.; Hammer, Oyvind; Brunstad, Harald; Charnock, Mike; Hellem, Terje; Sigve Lervik, Kjell; Anthonissen, Erik

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Offshore Stratigraphic Lexicon (NORLEX) provides a relational stratigraphic database for the North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Barents Sea and Svalbard. Both regional lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy are being substantially updated, following guidelines laid out in the International Stratigraphic Guide. The main body of information developed is available as a petroleum consortium (oracle-style) database, and the new lithostratigraphic definitions as a public domain (paper) document. NORLEX is presented as a browsing website via the internet at http://www.nhm.uio.no/norlex. Seismic cross-sections, core photographs, well logs, field outcrops, microfossil occurrences and other vital attributes are relationally cross-linked. In addition, there are menus for instantly finding updated formation and member tops or microfossil events in all wells, plus a map contouring routine for unit thicknesses and depths. Several new initiatives will expand data and user coverage: 1. Overhaul of Mesozoic stratigraphy, especially Triassic and Cretaceous, in the Barents Sea. 2. Coverage of East Greenland 3. Linkage to UK and Belgium and The Netherlands surface and subsurface stratigraphy 4. Creation of a Sequence Stratigraphic Framework for specific regions. 5. A national microfossil atlas to support zonations 6. Tight linkage to the basin datapacks in TimeScaleCreator Pro, as developed for Australia, New Zealand, Brasil, Gulf of Mexico, Canada and Russia. NORLEX may thus evolve to become STRATLEX, covering many basin regions.

  15. Tinea capitis: study of asymptomatic carriers and sick adolescents, adults and elderly who live with children with the disease.

    PubMed

    Bergson, C L; Fernandes, N C

    2001-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection that occurs mainly in childhood; there are few reports, in Brazil, in adolescents and adults. The detection of asymptomatic carriers is of great importance in the disease control. From February 1998 to February 1999, a study was performed at the outpatient Dermatologic Unit of Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) to verify the frequency of asymptomatic carriers and tinea capitis between 79 adolescents, adults and elderly who lived in the same household of 56 children (0-12 years) with tinea capitis. Of these, one female and one male adults (2.5%) were asymptomatic carriers and the cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis respectively. One female adolescent and two female adults (3.8%) had tinea capitis and all cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans. The study has shown that adolescents and adults who live in the same household of children with tinea capitis may be sick or asymptomatic carriers.

  16. Vitamin d deficiency is associated with insulin resistance independent of intracellular calcium, dietary calcium and serum levels of parathormone, calcitriol and calcium in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Thaís da Silva; Rocha, Tatiana Martins; Klein, Márcia Regina Simas Torres; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: Hay evidencias de que la deficiencia de vitamina D se asocia con mayor riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular. Sin embargo, no se sabe si esta asociación es independiente de calcio en la dieta, el calcio intracelular y los niveles séricos de hormona paratiroidea, calcitriol y calcio. Objetivos: investigar la relación independiente de la deficiencia de vitamina D con resistencia a la insulina, el perfil lipídico, el estado inflamatorio, la presión arterial y la función endotelial. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado con 73 mujeres pre menopáusicas sanas brasileñas con edad 18-50 años. Todos los participantes fueron evaluados para: niveles séricos de 25 hidroxivitamina D, parámetros antropométricos, la composición corporal, metabolismo del calcio, resistencia a la insulina, el perfil de lipoproteínas, estado inflamatorio, la presión arterial y la función endotelial. La función endotelial fue evaluada por el índice de hiperemia reactiva mediante el uso de Endo-PAT 2000®. Las mujeres fueron estratificados en dos grupos: con deficiencia de vitamina D (25 hidroxivitamina D.

  17. Conversations with Marcgrave: the Origin of Modern Astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere (Spanish Title: Conversando con Marcgrave: El Origen de la Astronomía Moderna en el Hemisferio Sur) Conversando Com Marcgrave: a Origem da Moderna Astronomia no Hemisfério Sul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Alexandre; Araújo, Fábio

    2005-12-01

    The year 2004 signals the 400th anniversary of the birth of count Mauricio of Nassau, an important character in the history of Brazil. The present text is related to the period of Dutch domination in Pernambuco. The article attempts to rescue the beginnings of Astronomy study in the South hemisphere. Therefore, we idealized a dramatization of a fictitious interview with German astronomer Georg Marcgrave, who was the constructor of the first astronomical observatory in this hemisphere and the author of the first systematic astronomical observations using telescopes in this side of the world. Our "conversation" with Marcgrave is idealized in the old Recife scenario, a place where he lived in Mauricio of Nassau's period and gathers some fellow teachers who love the teaching of Astronomy. The story, this way, is reported in a possibly light and funny atmosphere. Nevertheless, the conceptual and historical framework presented is based on reliable bibliographical sources pointed out at the end of the text. The sources range from the original book of that scientist, in which a solar eclipse is reported, passing through some other classical texts, such as that of Professor Juliano Moreira, up to more recent sources such as the very influential work of professor John North. Other influential texts about the Dutch period in Brazil, such as the classical works of Charles Boxer, Bouman and Boogaart, among others, are also used in the construction of this pedagogical dramatization, which involves an interesting chapter of the history of Astronomy. El año 2004 marca los 400 años del nacimineto del conde Mauricio de Nassau, un importante personaje de la historia del Brasil. El presente texto está relacionado con el período del dominio holandés en Pernambuco. El artículo intenta rescatar los comienzos del estudio de la Astronomía en el hemisferio Sur. Para esto, ideamos una dramatización de una entrevista ficticia con el astrónomo alemán Georg Marcgrave, constructor del

  18. [Comparison between nutritional status of school children of low socioeconomic level from Santiago, Chile and Sao Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Amigo, H; Leone, C; Bustos, P; Gallo, P

    1995-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the anthropometric profiles of schoolchildren from low income household from Santiago, Chile and Sao Paulo, Brasil. A total of 1779 children from Santiago and 2210 from Sao Paulo were evaluated. Z-score distribution of the height/age (H/A), weight/age (W/A) and weight/height (W/H) indicators were utilized to assess the children. As a reference, the pattern recommended by WHO was used. The distribution of the H/A curves from both cities were deviated to the left. This deviation was more evident in Santiago. This situation points out the existence of a greater prevalence of growth retardation of the children from this city. In relation to the W/A indicator, both groups showed a similar distribution curves, Sao Paulo group however, had an increment of cases in the left extreme of the curve, under -2 . According to the W/H indicator the profile of both groups are different; one-Santiago-is deviated to the excess and Sao Paulo to the deficit. The differences observed in both groups of children studied indicated higher deficit of height, but lower current undernutrition in Santiago and increased wasting with conservated height in Sao Paulo. The observed situation suggests that the distinct patterns are consequences of socioeconomic factors at different stages of the growing process of the children and/or etnic differences of the population.

  19. Environmental Defects And Economic Impact On Global Market Of Rare Earth Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampides, G.; Vatalis, K.; Karayannis, V.; Baklavaridis, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rare earth elements include the 14 lanthanides as well as lanthanium and often yttrium. Actually, most of them are not very rare and occur widely dispersed in a variety of rocks. Rare earth metals are vital to some of the world's faster growing industries: catalysts, Nd-magnets, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, battery alloys, electronics and phosphors. Worldwide, the main countries for distribution of rare earths deposits include China, USA, Russia, Brasil, India, Australia, Greenland and Malaysia. The mining and processing of rare earth metals usually result in significant environmental defects. Many deposits are associated with high concentrations of radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium, which requires separate treatment and disposal. The accumulation of rare earth elements in soils has occurred due to pollution caused by the exploitation of rare earth resources and the wide use of rare earths as fertilizers in agriculture. This accumulation has a toxic effect on the soil microfauna community. However, there are large differences in market prices due to the degree of purity determined by the specifications in the applications. The main focus of this article is to overview Rare Earth Metals’ overall impact on global economy and their environmental defects on soils during processing techniques and as they are used as fertilizers.

  20. An Adaptive Web-Based Learning Environment for the Application of Remote Sensing in Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, N.; Fuchsgruber, V.; Riembauer, G.; Siegmund, A.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite images have great educational potential for teaching on environmental issues and can promote the motivation of young people to enter careers in natural science and technology. Due to the importance and ubiquity of remote sensing in science, industry and the public, the use of satellite imagery has been included into many school curricular in Germany. However, its implementation into school practice is still hesitant, mainly due to lack of teachers' know-how and education materials that align with the curricula. In the project "Space4Geography" a web-based learning platform is developed with the aim to facilitate the application of satellite imagery in secondary school teaching and to foster effective student learning experiences in geography and other related subjects in an interdisciplinary way. The platform features ten learning modules demonstrating the exemplary application of original high spatial resolution remote sensing data (RapidEye and TerraSAR-X) to examine current environmental issues such as droughts, deforestation and urban sprawl. In this way, students will be introduced into the versatile applications of spaceborne earth observation and geospatial technologies. The integrated web-based remote sensing software "BLIF" equips the students with a toolset to explore, process and analyze the satellite images, thereby fostering the competence of students to work on geographical and environmental questions without requiring prior knowledge of remote sensing. This contribution presents the educational concept of the learning environment and its realization by the example of the learning module "Deforestation of the rainforest in Brasil".

  1. Speckle Interferometry at SOAR in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Mendez, Rene A.; Horch, Elliott P.

    2015-08-01

    The results of speckle interferometric observations at the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) telescope in 2014 are given. A total of 1641 observations were taken, yielding 1636 measurements of 1218 resolved binary and multiple stars and 577 non-resolutions of 441 targets. We resolved for the first time 56 pairs, including some nearby astrometric or spectroscopic binaries and ten new subsystems in previously known visual binaries. The calibration of the data is checked by linear fits to the positions of 41 wide binaries observed at SOAR over several seasons. The typical calibration accuracy is 0.°1 in angle and 0.3% in pixel scale, while the measurement errors are on the order of 3 mas. The new data are used here to compute 194 binary star orbits, 148 of which are improvements on previous orbital solutions and 46 are first-time orbits. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  2. No Evidence for Multiple Stellar Populations in the Low-mass Galactic Globular Cluster E 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Ricardo; Strader, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M˜ 1.4× {10}4 {M}⊙ ) globular cluster E3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue cyanogen (CN) absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multistellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  3. Imaging Survey of Subsystems in Secondary Components to Nearby Southern Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2014-10-01

    To improve the statistics of hierarchical multiplicity, secondary components of wide nearby binaries with solar-type primaries were surveyed at the SOAR telescope for evaluating the frequency of subsystems. Images of 17 faint secondaries were obtained with the SOAR Adaptive Module that improved the seeing; one new 0.''2 binary was detected. For all targets, photometry in the g', i', z' bands is given. Another 46 secondaries were observed by speckle interferometry, resolving 7 close subsystems. Adding literature data, the binarity of 95 secondary components is evaluated. We found that the detection-corrected frequency of secondary subsystems with periods in the well-surveyed range from 103 to 105 days is 0.21 ± 0.06—same as the normal frequency of such binaries among solar-type stars, 0.18. This indicates that wide binaries are unlikely to be produced by dynamical evolution of N-body systems, but are rather formed by fragmentation. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Michigan State University.

  4. Spitzer SAGE-Spec: Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Dust Shells, and Cool Envelopes in Extreme Large Magellanic Cloud Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, R. D.; Srinivasan, S.; Kemper, F.; Ling, B.; Volk, K.

    2014-11-01

    K-band spectra are presented for a sample of 39 Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) SAGE-Spec sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra exhibit characteristics in very good agreement with their positions in the near-infrared—Spitzer color-magnitude diagrams and their properties as deduced from the Spitzer IRS spectra. Specifically, the near-infrared spectra show strong atomic and molecular features representative of oxygen-rich and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch stars, respectively. A small subset of stars was chosen from the luminous and red extreme ``tip" of the color-magnitude diagram. These objects have properties consistent with dusty envelopes but also cool, carbon-rich ``stellar" cores. Modest amounts of dust mass loss combine with the stellar spectral energy distribution to make these objects appear extreme in their near-infrared and mid-infrared colors. One object in our sample, HV 915, a known post-asymptotic giant branch star of the RV Tau type, exhibits CO 2.3 μm band head emission consistent with previous work that demonstrates that the object has a circumstellar disk. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  5. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  6. Carbon emissions in energy production and use in the tropical region: The case of the state of Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, M.A.V. de; Porto, R.M.G. Jr.; Peres, F.M. Jr.; Cecchi, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    The Brasil is one of the most important region in the tropics. An efficient management in energy use and production in this state of Rio de Janeiro could be an excellent model to others development regions in the tropics. In 1994, the State of the Rio de Janeiro represented around 13 millions of inhabitants, an economy of 42 billions US$ (gross national products), the biggest brazilian producer in petroleum and natural gas and a large market to energy products (electric power and fossil fuels). This state was responsible for 8.6 millions tonnes of carbon in CO2 emissions in 1994, issue to combustion of petroleum products (65.9%), coal (27.8%), natural gas (3.7%), charcoal and fuelwood (2.6%). The principals responsibles to these carbon emissions are the industrial activities (40%), the transport (35.7%) and energy production (12%). The main objectives of this work are analyze the carbon emissions in energy production and use in Rio de Janeiro between 1980 and 1994, the possibilities to reduction this amount and the perspectives to renewable energy.

  7. Identification of phases in the interaction layer between U-Mo-Zr/Al and U-Mo-Zr/Al-Si

    SciTech Connect

    Varela, C.L. Komar; Arico, S.F.; Mirandou, M.; Balart, S.N.; Gribaudo, L.M.

    2008-07-15

    Out-of-pile diffusion experiments were performed between U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr and Al or Al A356 (7,1wt.% Si) at 550 deg. C. In this work morphological characterization and phase identification on both interaction layer are presented. They were carried out by the use of different techniques: optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and WDS microanalysis. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al, the phases UAl{sub 3}, UAl{sub 4}, Al{sub 20}Mo{sub 2}U and Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}U{sub 6} were identified. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al A356, the phases U(Al, Si) with 25at.% Si and Si{sub 5}U{sub 3} were identified. This last phase, with a higher Si concentration, was identified with XRD Synchrotron radiation performed at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, Brasil. (author)

  8. A halo event created at 200 m above the Chacaltaya emulsion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amato, N. M.; Arata, N.; Maldonado, R. H. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of analysis on a cosmic-ray induced nuclear event with the total visible energy approx. = 1300 TeV which is characterized by the central (halo) part of a strong energy concentration and the outer part of a large lateral spread are presented. The event (named as P06) was detected in the 18th two-storied emulsion chamber exposed at Chacaltaya by Brasil-Japan Collaboration. As the nuclear emulsion plates were inserted at every layer of the concerned blocks in the upper and the lower chambers together with RR- and N-type X-ray films, it is possible to study the details of the event. Some results on P06 have already been reported 1 based on the general measurement of opacity on N-type X-ray films: (1) the total energy of halo is approx. = 1000 TeV; (2) the shower transition reaches its maximum at approx. 16 cu; and (3) the radius of halo is 6.5 mm (at the level of 10 to the 6th power electrons/sq.cm.). The results in more details will be described.

  9. SOAR Adaptive Optics Observations of the Globular Cluster NGC 6496

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Luciano; Kunder, Andrea; Tokovinin, Andrei

    2013-06-01

    We present high-quality BVRI photometric data in the field of globular cluster NGC 6496 obtained with the SOAR Telescope Adaptive Module (SAM). Our observations were collected as part of the ongoing SAM commissioning. The distance modulus and cluster color excess as found from the red clump are (m - M) V = 15.71 ± 0.02 mag and E(V - I) = 0.28 ± 0.02 mag. An age of 10.5 ± 0.5 Gyr is determined from the difference in magnitude between the red clump and the subgiant branch. These parameters are in excellent agreement with the values derived from isochrone fitting. From the color-magnitude diagram we find a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.65 dex and hence support a disk classification for NGC 6496. The complete BVRI data set for NGC 6469 is made available in the electronic edition of the Journal. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  10. Periodic Variations in the O - C Diagrams of Five Pulsation Frequencies of the DB White Dwarf EC 20058-5234

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalessio, J.; Sullivan, D. J.; Provencal, J. L.; Shipman, H. L.; Sullivan, T.; Kilkenny, D.; Fraga, L.; Sefako, R.

    2013-03-01

    Variations in the pulsation arrival time of five independent pulsation frequencies of the DB white dwarf EC 20058-5234 individually imitate the effects of reflex motion induced by a planet or companion but are inconsistent when considered in unison. The pulsation frequencies vary periodically in a 12.9 year cycle and undergo secular changes that are inconsistent with simple neutrino plus photon-cooling models. The magnitude of the periodic and secular variations increases with the period of the pulsations, possibly hinting that the corresponding physical mechanism is located near the surface of the star. The phase of the periodic variations appears coupled to the sign of the secular variations. The standards for pulsation-timing-based detection of planetary companions around pulsating white dwarfs, and possibly other variables such as subdwarf B stars, should be re-evaluated. The physical mechanism responsible for this surprising result may involve a redistribution of angular momentum or a magnetic cycle. Additionally, variations in a supposed combination frequency are shown to match the sum of the variations of the parent frequencies to remarkable precision, an expected but unprecedented confirmation of theoretical predictions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  11. Variable Stars in Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters. III. Reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Dame, Kyra; Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Márcio; Jeon, Young-Beom; Nemec, James M.; Walker, Alistair R.; Kunder, Andrea; Pritzl, Barton J.; De Lee, Nathan; Borissova, Jura

    2013-06-01

    This is the third in a series of papers studying the variable stars in old globular clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The primary goal of this series is to look at how the characteristics and behavior of RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to those of their counterparts in Oosterhoff-I/II systems. In this paper we present the results of our new time-series BVI photometric study of the globular cluster Reticulum. We found a total of 32 variables stars (22 RRab, 4 RRc, and 6 RRd stars) in our field of view. We present photometric parameters and light curves for these stars. We also present physical properties, derived from Fourier analysis of light curves, for some of the RR Lyrae stars. We discuss the Oosterhoff classification of Reticulum and use our results to re-derive the distance modulus and age of the cluster. Based on observations taken with the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope operated by the SMARTS Consortium and observations taken at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  12. The Nucleus of Main-belt Comet 259P/Garradd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLennan, Eric M.; Hsieh, Henry H.

    2012-10-01

    We present observations of the main-belt comet 259P/Garradd, previously known as P/2008 R1 (Garradd), obtained in 2011 and 2012 using the Gemini North Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii and the SOAR telescope at Cerro Pachon in Chile, with the goal of computing the object's phase function and nucleus size. We find an absolute magnitude of HR = 19.71 ± 0.05 mag and slope parameter of GR = -0.08 ± 0.05 for the inactive nucleus, corresponding to an effective nucleus radius of re = 0.30 ± 0.02 km, assuming an R-band albedo of pR = 0.05. We also revisit observations reported for 259P while it was active in 2008 to quantify the dust mass loss and compare the object with other known main-belt comets. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  13. A Astronomia no Ensino Superior Brasileiro entre 1808 e 1889

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo S.; Videira, Antonio A. P.

    2003-05-01

    Este artigo apresenta os principais eventos ocorridos na história do ensino de astronomia nos cursos superiores que existiram no Brasil desde a chegada da Família Real portuguesa em 1808 até o final do período monárquico. Para compor esse esboço histórico, utilizamos, principalmente, livros didáticos, regulamentos, decretos e leis responsáveis pelas organizações dos conteúdos oferecidos e das carreiras dos responsáveis pela disciplina. Na análise do material empregado, investigamos a presença de concepções filosóficas e científicas, que podem ter norteado os conteúdos disciplinares. Não realizamos nenhuma comparação com o ensino de astronomia em outros países. Concluímos mostrando que o estudo de astronomia, durante o período monárquico, foi mais direcionado para a formação d engenheiros do que astrônomos. Gostaríamos de observar que o presente artigo não tem a pretensão de abordar o assunto de maneira completa e detalhada.

  14. [Evaluation of the quality of propranolol and enalapril tablets supplied in the public health system in a southern Brazilian city].

    PubMed

    Bianchin, Mariana Domingues; Blatt, Carine Raquel; Soares, Alessandra de Sá; Külkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes

    2012-02-01

    The acquisition of medication by the Brazilian public health service through bidding processes based on the lowest price criterion is a source of concern with respect to the quality of the products offered to the population. The scope of this work was to evaluate the quality of Enalapril 10 mg and Propranolol 40 mg tablets bought via the bidding process and supplied by the public health system in a city in the state of Santa Catarina, Brasil, over the course of a year. The visual aspect, weight variation, friability, drug content and dissolving time were analyzed. Out of seven lots, five presented quality deviation. Irregularities were found in the visual aspect, weight variation, friability and active ingredient. The evaluation of the quality of medication, besides ensuring the quality of the products supplied by the health system and safe usage by patients, is also a tool to evaluate medical supply companies and ensure the enhancement of the bidding process. The implementation of a management system that includes the evaluation of medical supply companies, improvement of the bidding process with clear specifications about the quality of the medicines bought are all recommended to ensure product safety.

  15. In-vitro corneal transparency measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Liliane; da Costa Vieira, Marcelo A.; Isaac, Flavio; Chiaradia, Caio; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.

    2001-06-01

    A system for measuring the average corneal transparency of preserved corneas has been developed in order to provide a more accurate and standard report of the corneal tissue. The donated cornea transparency is one of the features to be analyzed previously to its indication for the transplant. The small portable system consists of two main parts: the optical and the electronic parts. The optical system consists of a white light, lenses and pin-holes that collimate white light beams that illuminates the cornea in its preservative medium. The light that passes through the cornea is detected by a resistive detector and the average corneal transparency is shown in a display. In order to obtain just the tissue transparency, the electronic circuit was built in a way that there is a baseline input of the preservative medium, previous to the measurement of the corneal transparency. Manipulating the system consists of three steps: (1) Adjusting the zero percentage in the absence of light (at this time the detectors in the dark); (2) Placing the preservative medium in the system and adjusting the 100% value (this is the baseline input); (3) Preserving the cornea and placing it in the system. The system provides the tissue transparency. The system is connected to an endothelium evaluation system for Slit Lamp, that we have developed, and statistics about the relationship of the corneal transparency and density of the endothelial cells will be provided in the next years. The system is being used in a public Eye Bank in Brasil.

  16. Radon as a natural tracer for gas transport within uranium waste rock piles.

    PubMed

    Silva, N C; Chagas, E G L; Abreu, C B; Dias, D C S; Lopez, D; Guerreiro, E T Z; Alberti, H L C; Braz, M L; Branco, O; Fleming, P

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) has been identified as the main cause for outflow of acid water and radioactive/non-radioactive contaminants. AMD encompasses pyrites oxidation when water and oxygen are available. AMD was identified in uranium waste rock piles (WRPs) of Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil-Caldas facility (Brazilian uranium mine), resulting in high costs for water treatment. AMD reduction is the main challenge, and scientific investigation has been conducted to understand oxygen and water transportation within WRPs, where 222Rn is used as natural tracer for oxygen transportation. The study consists of soil radon gas mapping in the top layer of WRP4 using active soil gas pumping, radon adsorption in active charcoal and 222Rn determination using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. A sampling network of 71 points was built where samples were collected at a depth of 40 cm. Soil radon gas concentration ranged from 33.7 to 1484.2 kBq m(-3) with mean concentration of 320.7±263.3 kBq m(-3).

  17. Evidence of turbulence-like universality in the formation of galaxy-sized dark matter haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, C. A.; Rosa, R. R.; de Campos Velho, H. F.; Ramos, F. M.; Makler, M.

    2008-08-01

    Context: Although the theoretical understanding of nonlinear gravitational clustering has greatly advanced in the last decades, in particular by improvements in numerical N-body simulations, the physics behind this process is not fully elucidated. Aims: The main goal of this work is the study of the possibility of a turbulent-like physical process in the formation of structures, galaxies and clusters of galaxies, by the action of gravity alone. Methods: We use simulation data from the Virgo Consortium, in ten redshift snapshots (from 0 to 10). From this we identify galaxy-sized and cluster-sized dark matter haloes, by using a FoF algorithm and applying a boundedness criterion, and study the gravitational potential energy spectra. Results: We find that the galaxy-sized halo energy spectrum follows closely a Kolmogorov power law, similar to the behaviour of dynamically turbulent processes in fluids. Conclusions: This means that the gravitational clustering of dark matter may admit a turbulent-like representation. Part of the calculations made use of the NEC SX4/8A supercomputer at the CeNaPAD Ambiental, CPTEC/INPE, Brasil.

  18. Multi-technical analysis as a tool to investigate structural species in the "replica" of First Mass in Brazil painting by Sebastião Vieira Fernandes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Thiago G.; Ritcher, Fabio A.; de M. Correia, Marcelino D.; Escorteganha, Márcia R.; Santiago, Alina G.; Gonçalves, Samantha; Spudeit, Daniel A.; Micke, Gustavo A.; Miranda, Fábio S.

    2016-09-01

    Constituent materials of the painting "Primeira Missa no Brasil" by Sebastião Vieira Fernandes, which belongs to the Historical Museum of Santa Catarina, were analyzed by using imaging through UV-induced visible luminescence, FTIR, μ-FTIR, EDX and GC-MS with the aim of characterizing the materials and correlating them with Victor Meirelles' pigment elemental analysis reported in the literature. The images obtained under ultraviolet light showed alterations in the painting's aging process and instances of possible repainting confirmed by μ-FTIR, where characteristic bands of barium sulfate were identified. EDS analyses showed that there is a correlation between the elemental composition of pigments used by Meirelles and Fernandes, especially for lead, associated with lead white and proven by FTIR, used for giving a light tone to the paint, and found in all the analyzed samples. The GC-MS results revealed the presence of the mixture of linseed and animal oil as the main binding components with the predominance of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linolenic acids.

  19. Epidemiology and neurological complications of infection by the Zika virus: a new emerging neurotropic virus.

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, Francisco J

    2016-04-01

    Introduccion. El actual brote epidemico por virus Zika se inicio en 2015 y en la actualidad afecta a 31 paises y territorios en America. Se revisan los aspectos epidemiologicos y clinicos asociados con la infeccion por virus Zika. Desarrollo. Desde 2007, 55 paises de America, Asia, Africa y Oceania han detectado transmision local del virus. La actual epidemia ha afectado a casi 1,5 millones de personas en Brasil. El 80% de los casos son asintomaticos. La enfermedad por virus Zika cursa con fiebre, exantema maculopapular, artralgias y conjuntivitis no purulenta. Los sintomas suelen ser autolimitados y duran una semana. Se ha descrito un aumento de la incidencia de los casos de microcefalia, lesiones retinianas y sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociados con el virus Zika. El sindrome de Guillain-Barre asociado al Zika en la Polinesia es una variante axonal motora pura. El ARN del virus Zika se ha identificado en muestras de tejido cerebral, placenta y liquido amniotico de niños con microcefalia y en perdidas fetales de mujeres infectadas por Zika durante el embarazo. Se recomienda realizar la prueba de reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa mediante transcriptasa inversa para detectar ARN virico y pruebas serologicas (IgM ELISA y anticuerpos neutralizantes) para confirmar una infeccion por Zika. El diagnostico diferencial incluye la infeccion por virus dengue y chikungunya. Conclusiones. Existe un conocimiento limitado sobre los mecanismos patogenicos implicados y las consecuencias a largo plazo de la infeccion por virus Zika en adultos y recien nacidos.

  20. Pharmacogenetics in Latin American populations: regulatory aspects, application to herbal medicine, cardiovascular and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Rodeiro, Idania; Remírez-Figueredo, Diadelis; García-Mesa, Milagros; Dorado, Pedro; LLerena, Adrián

    2012-01-01

    Meeting report of the "Second Symposium on Pharmacology of Cytochrome P450 and Transporters" organized by the Cuban Society of Pharmacology in collaboration with the European Society of Pharmacogenetics and Theranostics (ESPT) and the Ibero-American Network of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics (www.ribef.com). The Symposium covered different topics on pharmacogenetics and its clinical implications, focusing on Latin-American populations. The activities of the ESPT were also presented and discussed. The topics addressed were regulatory aspects, the use of pharmacogenetics in pre-clinical research, herbal medicine, and natural products, ending with a discussion about translation into clinical practice, specifically for cardiovascular disorders and psychiatry. Finally, the implication for population diversity in Latin America was also discussed. The RIBEF initiative represents a promising step towards the inclusion of Latin American populations among those to benefit from the implementation of pharmacogenetics in clinical practice. Among current RIBEF activities, the CEIBA.FP Consortium aims to study the variability of pheno- and genotypes in Hispanics that are relevant to pharmacogenetics. For this purpose, populations from Mexico, Cuba, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Colombia, Brasil, Perú, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina, Portugal, and Spain are currently being studied. The meeting's main conclusion was that population pharmacogenetic studies as well as academic clinical trials might need to be conducted in the different geographic locations/countries. This is important in order to improve drug safety, dosage recommendations, and pharmacovigilance programs, because environmental and ethnic factors vary across locations.

  1. A correlação índice espectral vs. luminosidade em QSOs e suas implicações

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Rissmann, A.

    2003-08-01

    Estudos de variabilidade de núcleos ativos já demonstraram ser comum o fato de seu contínuo óptico/UV tornar-se mais "duro" à medida que a luminosidade aumenta. Essa tendência ocorre tanto de forma individual quanto global, e pode ter implicações importantes (1) para estudos fotométricos de variabilidade conduzidos numa banda fixa no referencial do observador, comparando objetos a diferentes redshifts, e (2) no cálculo da correção K, com consequente impacto na determinação de massas de buracos negros e bojos de galáxias hospedeiras (através da relação de Magorrian). Confirmo aqui as correlações positivas entre o índice espectral e a luminosidade óptica, utilizando dados espectroscópicos de 11 QSOs monitorados no Brasil e no Chile, durante ~2 anos. O estudo é complementado com parâmetros extraídos de espectros e de dados fotométricos públicos de quasares. Destaco ainda as diferenças observadas em tais correlações para objetos do tipo radio-loud e radio-quiet. Este projeto é financiado pelo I. Milênio/CNPq.

  2. Phlebotomine sandfly (Diptera: Psychodidae) diversity and their Leishmania DNA in a hot spot of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis human cases along the Brazilian border with Peru and Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; dos Santos, Ana Paula de Azevedo; Freitas, Rui Alves; de Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner; Rodrigues, Moreno Souza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we identified the phlebotomine sandfly vectors involved in the transmission of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil, which is located on the Brazil-Peru-Bolivia frontier. The genotyping of Leishmania in phlebotomines was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. A total of 6,850 sandflies comprising 67 species were captured by using CDC light traps in rural areas of the municipality. Three sandfly species were found in the state of Acre for the first time: Lutzomyia georgii, Lu. complexa and Lu. evangelistai. The predominant species was Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi and Lu. davisi (total 59.27%). 32 of 368 pools were positive for the presence of Leishmania DNA (16 pools corresponding to Lu. davisi, and 16 corresponding to Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi), with a minimal infection prevalence of 1.85% in Lu. davisi and 2.05% in Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi. The Leishmania species found showed maximum identity with L. (Viannia) guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis in both phlebotomine species. Based on these results and similar scenarios previously described along the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia tri-border, the studied area must take into consideration the possibility of Lu. davisi and Lu. auraensis/Lu. ruifreitasi as probable vectors of ACL in this municipality. PMID:27304023

  3. [The registered nurse and the battle against tuberculosis in Brazil: 1961-1966].

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Hercília Regina do Amaral; de Almeida Filho, Antonio José; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Lourenço, Lucia Helena Silva Corrêa

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the circumstances that promoted the implementation of the new Program for Action Against Tuberculosis in Brazil (Programa de Ação na Luta contra a Tuberculose no Brasil) and discuss the strategies used by registered nurses from the Santa Maria State Hospital, Guanabara State, to adjust nursing care to the new program against tuberculosis. This was performed through document research, interviews, and statements from nurses working at the time of the reorganization. Documents were analyzed based on the concepts of habitus, field, and symbolic power by Pierre Bourdieu, and included written and oral documents as well as secondary sources. The reorganization of the nursing service was performed under the leadership of a nurse whose symbolic capital assigned power and prestige to implement the necessary changes. It is concluded that the work of that nurse made it possible to implement the new program and contributed to establishing the position and importance of the registered nurse in providing care to individuals with tuberculosis, for prevention and cure.

  4. Behavior and identification of ephemeral sand dunes at the backshore zone using video images.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Pedro V; Pereira, Pedro S; Calliari, Lauro J; Ellis, Jean T

    2016-09-01

    The backshore zone is transitional environment strongly affected by ocean, air and sand movements. On dissipative beaches, the formation of ephemeral dunes over the backshore zone plays significant contribution in the beach morphodynamics and sediment budget. The aim of this work is to describe a novel method to identify ephemeral dunes in the backshore region and to discuss their morphodynamic behavior. The beach morphology is identified using Argus video imagery, which reveals the behavior of morphologies at Cassino Beach, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Daily images from 2005 to 2007, topographic profiles, meteorological data, and sedimentological parameters were used to determine the frequency and pervasiveness of these features on the backshore. Results indicated that coastline orientation relative to the dominant NE and E winds and the dissipative morphological beach state favored aeolian sand transport towards the backshore. Prevailing NE winds increase sand transportation to the backshore, resulting in the formation of barchans, transverse, and barchanoid-linguiod dunes. Precipitation inhibits aeolian transport and ephemeral dune formation and maintains the existing morphologies during strong SE and SW winds, provided the storm surge is not too high.

  5. [Preliminary study on the presence of arbovirus in the populations of Corrientes and Misiones].

    PubMed

    Hodara, V L; Jozan, M; Martínez, H; Work, T H; Juan, N J; Weissenbacher, M

    1991-01-01

    Human seroprevalence of Flavivirus was determined by hemagglutination inhibition tests on 479 sera from Misiones and 49 from Corrientes provinces. Paraná and Uruguay river bank communities from Argentina and neighbouring countries carry out frequent traffic across the rivers. With the aim of searching for a possible introduction of Dengue virus from Brasil or/and Paraguay, reactivity among people from Paraná and Uruguay river communities was compared with those from mountain communities. Two sera from Ituzaingó (Corrientes Province) were positive for Dengue 2. In Misiones, 3 sera from Oberá and 2 from Montecarlo were reactive for Dengue 2 and 1 serum from Puerto Iguazú was reactive for Dengue 1. Seroprevalence among the river population was significatively higher than among the mountain population. Likewise, populations on Paraná river showed more positive sera than those on Uruguay river; 54% of the samples possessed titers for SLE virus higher than for Dengue or Yellow fever. Anti-alphavirus (EEE and WEE) antibodies tested in sera from Misiones people showed a complementary distribution pattern to flavivirus. Seroprevalence of anti-alphavirus antibodies was higher in the mountain than in the river populations.

  6. Dataset on daytime outdoor thermal comfort for Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Simone Queiroz da Silveira; Assis, Eleonora Sad de; Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2016-12-01

    This dataset describe microclimatic parameters of two urban open public spaces in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil; physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index values and the related subjective responses of interviewees regarding thermal sensation perception and preference and thermal comfort evaluation. Individuals and behavioral characteristics of respondents were also presented. Data were collected at daytime, in summer and winter, 2013. Statistical treatment of this data was firstly presented in a PhD Thesis ("Percepção sonora e térmica e avaliação de conforto em espaços urbanos abertos do município de Belo Horizonte - MG, Brasil" (Hirashima, 2014) [1]), providing relevant information on thermal conditions in these locations and on thermal comfort assessment. Up to now, this data was also explored in the article "Daytime Thermal Comfort in Urban Spaces: A Field Study in Brazil" (Hirashima et al., in press) [2]. These references are recommended for further interpretation and discussion.

  7. Serum and liver lipids distributions in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat treated with diet containing yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) flour.

    PubMed

    Rozeno Pessoa, Letícia; Rêgo, Thaís de Salgado; Asht, Louise da Silva; Monteiro, Igor Cabral Coutinho do Rêgo; Fortunato, Rodrigo Soares; Feijó, Márcia Barreto da Silva; Correia-Santos, André Manoel; da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Boaventura, Gilson Teles

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: La enfermedad hepática como una de las principales causas de mortalidad en los pacientes con diabetes mellitus. Hay un interés para investigar las propiedades hipolipemiantes de ñame. El objetivo era evaluar el papel de ñame brasileña (Dioscorea bulbifera) en suero y los niveles hepáticos de triglicéridos y colesterol, en las ratas diabéticas . Métodos: Las ratas se dividieron en tres grupos: control (C), diabéticos (DM); Diabetic ñame (DMA), se trata con dieta que contenía 25 g / 100 g de harina de ñame. Después de 5 semanas de experimento, la glucosa, la insulina, la grasa gonadal y la masa del hígado fueron evaluados. Se cuantificaron las concentraciones de suero e hígado de los triglicéridos y las concentraciones de colesterol. Se determinaron los tioles totales de hígado. Resultados: Después de las 5 semanas, experimental ducha grupos (p.

  8. LOW BACK PAIN IN SCHOOLCHILDREN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN A WESTERN CITY OF SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Júlio Alberto Agante; Genebra, Caio Vitor dos Santos; Maciel, Nicoly Machado; Fiorelli, Alexandre; de Conti, Marta Helena Souza; De Vitta, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of low back pain in children and its relationship with gender, age, exercise practice and sedentary activities (time on TV and on computer and/or video game). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 1,461 students, being 754 males and 707 females enrolled in the 5th to 8th grades of all five local elementary schools of urban Ourinhos, SP, Brasil, aged 10-14 years old, from whom sociodemographic data, time spent on sedentary activities such as TV and computer and/or video game were collected. We conducted a descriptive, bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. Results: The results showed that the prevalence of low back pain in the sample was 18.5%, being 15.5% in boys and 21.6% in girls. Low back pain was associated to the female gender, age range between 12-14 years and the habit of watching TV more than three times a week and over 3 hours per day. Conclusion: The students analyzed showed high prevalence of low back pain related to gender, age and habit of watching TV. Appropriate interventions should be implemented to reduce the occurrences of back pain in schoolchildren. Level of Evidence III, Cross Sectioning. PMID:26981028

  9. Educational pathways of Black women physicists: Stories of experiencing and overcoming obstacles in life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Katemari

    2017-01-01

    This talk presents an empirical study on the underrepresentation of people of color in scientific careers. Grounded in Critical Race Theory, the presentation examines the lived experiences of six Black women physicists in the United States, addresses obstacles faced in their career paths, and strategies used to overcome these obstacles. Data for this study were collected through semi-structured interviews and coded for emergent themes, which are invitation to engage in science, communities of science practices, and isolation in the academy. The findings reveal that college recruitment and funding were fundamental for these women to choose Physics over other STEM fields. The analysis shows Physics can be a hostile environment for these women. In addition, Black women experience unique challenges of socialization in Physics, particularly by exclusion of study groups. In this talk, suggestions will be presented to make Physics departments a more inclusive space to support Black women in science. This presentation is based on work supported by the Brazilian government through CAPES (BEX1907-07-7), the Fulbright Program, Comissño Fulbright Brasil, and the Office of Diversity at Teachers College, Columbia University.

  10. PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, Y Paul

    2008-01-01

    El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami.Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina.

  11. Actitudes Éticas de los estudiantes y egresados en carrera de medicina con metodologías activas

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Stepke, Fernando Lolas; Silveira, Carla Cristina Costa; Komatsu, Ricardo Shoiti; Trindade, Eliane Mendonça Vilar; Guiotti, Murilo Galvão

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio tiene por objeto desarrollar un diagnostico de la inserción integrada de la ética en la carrera de medicina brasileña con una metodología de aprendizaje basada en problemas y describir las percepciones de actitudes éticas de los estudiantes y egresados. El diseño metodológico es un estudio de caso, descriptivo y documental, con abordaje cualitativo y cuantitativo. La muestra de esta investigación ha sido constituida por 120 estudiantes y 40 egresados de dos promociones del Curso de Medicina de la ESCS. Este proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación - SES/DF. Los estudiantes y egresados de la ESCS demostraron un buen manejo en el abordaje de los conflictos éticos y respeto a los pacientes. Sin embargo, el análisis de sensibilidad ética mostró una fragilidad en las percepciones y aptitudes inapropiadas de los estudiantes de la carrera de medicina, identificada básicamente en los años iniciales, que necesitan más discusiones sistematizadas sobre los aspectos éticos y bioéticos integrados a las actividades prácticas para estimular y fortalecer la reflexión ética de los estudiantes. PMID:20981242

  12. Correlation between the expression of vegf and survival in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, André Mathias; Camargo, André Ferrari De França; Filippi, Renée Zon; Oliveira, Cláudia Regina Gomes Cardim Mendes De; Azevedo, Raymundo Soares De; Camargo, Olavo Pires De

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present a series of 50 consecutive patients with non-metastatic extremity osteosarcoma, and attempt to correlate expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein in biopsy tissue to their prognosis regarding overall survival, disease-free survival and local recurrence. Methods: Fifty cases of non-metastatic osteosarcoma of the extremities treated between 1986 and 2006 at Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil, were evaluated regarding expression of the VEGF protein. There were 19 females and 31 males. The mean age was 16 years old (range 5-28 years old) and the mean follow-up was 60.6 months (range 25-167 months). The variables studied were age, gender, anatomic location, type of surgery, surgical margins, tumor size, post chemotherapy necrosis, local recurrence, pulmonary metastasis and death. Results: Thirty-six patients showed VEGF expression on 30% or less cells (low), and the remaining 14 cases had VEGF expression above 30% (high). Among the 36 patients with low VEGF expression, nine developed pulmonary metastasis and four died (11.1%). Among the 14 patients with high VEGF expression, six developed pulmonary metastasis and three died (21.4%). Conclusion: There was no statistically significant correlation between the expression of VEGF and any of the variables studied. Level of Evidence IV, Therapeutic Study. PMID:25328432

  13. Modeling pollution potential input from the drainage basin into Barra Bonita reservoir, São Paulo - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prado, R B; Novo, E M L M

    2015-05-01

    In this study multi-criteria modeling tools are applied to map the spatial distribution of drainage basin potential to pollute Barra Bonita Reservoir, São Paulo State, Brasil. Barra Bonita Reservoir Basin had undergone intense land use/land cover changes in the last decades, including the fast conversion from pasture into sugarcane. In this respect, this study answers to the lack of information about the variables (criteria) which affect the pollution potential of the drainage basin by building a Geographic Information System which provides their spatial distribution at sub-basin level. The GIS was fed by several data (geomorphology, pedology, geology, drainage network and rainfall) provided by public agencies. Landsat satellite images provided land use/land cover map for 2002. Ratings and weights of each criterion defined by specialists supported the modeling process. The results showed a wide variability in the pollution potential of different sub-basins according to the application of different criterion. If only land use is analyzed, for instance, less than 50% of the basin is classified as highly threatening to water quality and include sub basins located near the reservoir, indicating the importance of protection areas at the margins. Despite the subjectivity involved in the weighing processes, the multi-criteria analysis model allowed the simulation of scenarios which support rational land use polices at sub-basin level regarding the protection of water resources.

  14. EL PROGRAMA CITI: UNA ALTERNATIVA PARA LA CAPACITACIÓN EN ÉTICA DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN EN AMÉRICA LATINA

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, y Paul

    2011-01-01

    El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami. Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina PMID:21687817

  15. Impact of the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program in reducing physician shortage in Brazilian Primary Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Sábado Nicolau; Stralen, Ana Cristina de Sousa van; Cella, Joana Natalia; Wan Der Maas, Lucas; Carvalho, Cristiana Leite; Faria, Erick de Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    The Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program (PMM) was put in place in Brazil aiming to reduce inequalities in access to Primary Healthcare. Based on diverse evidence that pointed to a scenario of profound shortage of doctors in the country, one of its central thrusts was emergency provision of these professionals in vulnerable areas, referred to as the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors for Brazil) Project. The article analyses the impact of the PMM in reducing shortage of physicians in Brazilian municipalities. To do this, it uses the Primary Healthcare Physicians Shortage Index, which identifies and measures the shortage in the periods of March 2003 and September 2015, before and after implementation of the program. The results show that there was a substantial increase in the supply of physicians in primary healthcare in the period, which helped reduce the number of municipalities with shortage from 1,200 to 777. This impact also helped reduce inequalities between municipalities, but the inequities in distribution persisted. It was also found that there was a reduction in the regular supply of doctors made by municipalities, suggesting that these were being simply substituted by the supply coming from the program. Thus, an overall situation of insecurity in care persists, reflecting the dependence of municipalities on the physician supply from the federal government.

  16. Coleoptera associated with macrophytes of the genus Salvinia in four oxbow lakes in two river basins in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A

    2015-11-01

    Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.

  17. Comparison of Uniform and Non-uniform Water Flux Density Approaches Applied on a Mathematical Model of Heat Transfer and Solidification for a Continuous Casting of Round Billets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assuncao, Charles Sostenes; Tavares, Roberto Parreiras; Oliveira, Guilherme; Pereira, Luiz Carlos

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, the water flux densities of nozzles with flat jet and full cone jet were experimentally measured using an apparatus in industrial scale that reproduces the secondary cooling of the continuous casting of round billets of Vallourec Tubos do Brasil. A mathematical function was defined to express the water flux density in both longitudinal and angular directions of the strand. A mathematical model for heat transfer and solidification for the continuous casting of round billets was developed applying the experimental water flux density profile, establishing a non-uniform water distribution approach. The mathematical model was validated by experimental measurements of the billet superficial temperature, performed at the industrial plant. The results of the mathematical model using both uniform and non-uniform water flux density approaches were compared. The non-uniform water distribution approach enabled to identify important variations of the heat transfer coefficients and the billet temperatures, especially in the first cooling zones where the steel temperature is higher, and to assess more accurately the local effects of the water distribution on the thermal behavior of the strand. The non-uniform water flux density approach applied to the mathematical model was a useful and more accurate tool to improve the comprehension of the thermal behavior of the steel along the secondary cooling.

  18. Role of Brazilian zoos in ex situ bird conservation: from 1981 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Cristiano S; Young, Robert J; Rodrigues, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Zoos may play an important role in conservation when they maintain and breed large numbers of animals that are threatened with extinction. Bird conservation is in a privileged situation owing to the extensive biological information available about this class. Annual inventories produced by the "Sociedade de Zoológicos do Brasil" in the years 1981, 1990, 2000, and 2005 were analyzed. Variables, such as the number of zoos per geographic region; number of birds held; number of bird species in each IUCN threat category; number of exotic and native bird species; number of potentially breeding bird species; number of bird species in each order; and number of threatened bird species breeding, were analyzed. Brazilian zoos kept more than 350 bird species. The number of bird species and specimens held by the Brazilian Zoos increased from 1981 to 2000, but decreased in 2005. The same pattern was observed for the number of species in each IUCN threat category. Results showed that the potential of the Brazilian zoos in bird conservation needs to be enhanced because they maintain threatened species but do not implement systematic genetic, reproductive, or behavioral management protocols for most species.

  19. Metazoan parasite species richness in Neotropical fishes: hotspots and the geography of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Luque, J L; Poulin, R

    2007-06-01

    Although research on parasite biodiversity has intensified recently, there are signs that parasites remain an underestimated component of total biodiversity in many regions of the planet. To identify geographical hotspots of parasite diversity, we performed qualitative and quantitative analyses of the parasite-host associations in fishes from Latin America and the Caribbean, a region that includes known hotspots of plant and animal biodiversity. The database included 10,904 metazoan parasite-host associations involving 1660 fish species. The number of host species with at least 1 parasite record was less than 10% of the total known fish species in the majority of countries. Associations involving adult endoparasites in actinopterygian fish hosts dominated the database. Across the whole region, no significant difference in parasite species richness was detected between marine and freshwater fishes. As a rule, host body size and study effort (number of studies per fish species) were good predictors of parasite species richness. Some interesting patterns emerged when we included only the regions with highest fish species biodiversity and study effort (Brazil, Mexico and the Caribbean Islands). Independently of differences in study effort or host body sizes, Mexico stands out as a hotspot of parasite diversity for freshwater fishes, as does Brasil for marine fishes. However, among 57 marine fish species common to all 3 regions, populations from the Caribbean consistently harboured more parasite species. These differences may reflect true biological patterns, or regional discrepancies in study effort and local priorities for fish parasitology research.

  20. [Cloning: necessary reflections on the imaginary].

    PubMed

    Minahim, María Auxiliadora

    2009-01-01

    The article covers the innumerable reasons given for using cloning for therapeutic and reproductive purposes. The most commonly used argument in favour of the procedure has been that of preserving human dignity, which would include the wide exercising of personal autonomy without restrictions of an ethical nature. This view is countered by questions relating to the use of the technique, namely self-determination and the loss of the integrity of the species, which would include the transformation of a generation through the production of human beings and tissues. It must also be made clear that therapeutic cloning (which is carried out through the use of stem cells) is not yet a reality in the scientific world, with the result that the procedure that is supposedly necessary, which argues in favour of the destruction of the young embryo is misleading, as are also certain discourses used to refer to the theme and the science. Criminal law, on prohibiting this practice is anticipating it becoming a reality, protecting legal rights that affect supra-individual interests, such as the destruction of the young embryo, one of the issues of concern to ADIN (Acción Directa de Inconstitucionalidad en Brasil - Direct Action on Unconstitutionality in Brazil) 3510-0.

  1. Profile of the Brazilian scientific production in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Araujo, C R; Moreira, M A; Lana-Peixoto, M A

    2006-09-01

    This paper analyzes the profile of the Brazilian output in the field of multiple sclerosis from 1981 to 2004. The search was conducted through the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "multiple sclerosis" was defined as the main topic and "Brazil" or "Brasil" as others. The data were analyzed regarding the themes, the state in Brazil and institution where the papers were produced, the journals where the papers were published, journal's impact factor, and language. The search disclosed 141 documents (91 from MEDLINE and LILACS, and 50 from LILACS only) published in 44 different journals (23 of them MEDLINE-indexed). A total of 111 documents were produced by 17 public universities, 29 by 3 private medical schools and 1 by a non-governmental organization. There were 65 original contributions, 37 case reports, 20 reviews, 6 PhD dissertations, 5 guidelines, 2 validation studies, 2 clinical trials, 2 chapters in textbooks, 1 Master of Science thesis, and 1 patient education handout. The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0217 to 6.039 (median 3.03). Of 91 papers from MEDLINE, 65 were published by Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. More than 90% of the papers were written in Portuguese. São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, followed by Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Paraná. Eighty-two percent of the Brazilian output came from the Southeastern region.

  2. Impact of South Atlantic Anomaly on the SPOT and Envisat DORIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, Petr; Dousa, Jan; Filler, Vratislav; Hugentobler, Urs

    2010-05-01

    The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) refers to the area where the Earth's inner Van Allen radiation belt comes closest to the Earth's surface, leading to increased levels of cosmic radiation at lower altitudes than elsewhere over the surface. A strong effect of the SAA on the quality of Jason-1 DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) observations is well known and several relevant analyses has been published. However, the significant effect of SAA on the other DORIS satellites has not been known. The goal of the paper is to bring a detail analyses of possible SAA effect on the SPOT -2,4,5 and the Envisat DORIS observations. The resulted zenithal total delay (ZTD), oscillator frequency offset and station coordinates, estimated using single-satellite data processing, are presented and discussed. A DORIS-GNSS ZTD comparison is done in addition. A significant bias was detected when processing SPOT-5 data for South American stations Santiago in Chille, Cachoeira Paulista in Brasil and Arequipa in Peru. Even if the detected bias is much lower than in case of Jason-1 and doesn't degrade the DORIS observation so strongly, possible future approach of the SPOT-5 SAA effect elimination (model of oscillator behavior or exclusion of the most corrupted observations) could improve the DORIS solutions. A comparable level of SAA-related effect was not detected for any other of the analyzed satellites.

  3. Different approaches how to deal with the South Atlantic Anomaly effect on the SPOT-5 DORIS measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Filler, V.; Dousa, J.; Rodriguez Solano, C.; Hugentobler, U.

    2012-04-01

    The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) refers to the area where the Earth's inner Van Allen radiation belt comes closest to the Earth's surface, leading to increased levels of cosmic radiation at lower altitudes than elsewhere over the surface. A strong effect of the SAA on the quality of Jason-1 DORIS observations is well known and documented. However, the significant effect of SAA on the SPOT-5 DORIS observations has been observed as well by recent DORIS data analyses. The SAA affects the frequency of onboard oscillator and consequently estimated values of the parameters as the beacon frequency offset, the station height and the troposphere zenithal delay. The SAA effects mainly the SPOT-5 observations of the three stations in South America, i.e., Cachoeira Paulista (Brasil), Arequipa (Peru) and Santiago (Chile). The offset of the estimated station height achieves 27 cm for the SPOT-5 individual solution and the most biased station Cachoeira Paulista. Since the general quality of the SPOT-5 measurements is very good, the complete exclusion of the satellite from the combination is not kind of a rational approach. One possibility how to handle the problem is to exclude the regional stations from the solutions. There are two different ways, total elimination or using these data for orbit determination but not for the multi-satellite coordinate estimation. Another possibility is based on the application of the data corrective model. A simple empirical data corrective model has been developed, based on statistical analyses of the post-fit residuals.

  4. [Rabies control in Brazil from 1980 to 1990].

    PubMed

    Schneider, M C; de Almeida, G A; Souza, L M; de Morares, N B; Diaz, R C

    1996-04-01

    The epidemiological situation of rabies in Brazil at the period of 1980 to 1990, when the National Program for Rabies Prevention was implemented on a national scale, and which yielded positive results, is presented. The main controlling actions carried out in order to achieve these results are also described. Rabies in Brasil registered a considerable decrease in human and canine cases (78% and 90%, respectively), half way through the series of analyses undertaken for this study. Towards the end of the decade, the disease began to recrudesce, several cases occurring in some parts of the country, mainly in the northeastern region, where 70% of the total number of infections for 1990 was recorded. Moreover, human rabies transmitted by bats experienced a considerable increase, accounting for 15.1% of the total. The Program, which is implemented by State and Municipal authorities. Covers the 350,000 people who are attacked by animals, and vaccinates approximately 9,000,000 animals every annually year. Epidemiological control is considered to be of basic importance, so that indicators for the definition of the areas of risk have been developed.

  5. Off-label and unlicensed utilization of drugs in a Brazilian pediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Pereira Gomes, Vanessa; Melo da Silva, Kédma; Oliveira Chagas, Suely; dos Santos Magalhães, Igor Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Describir los patrones de utilizacion de medicamentos off-label y sin licencia en un hospital pediatrico de Brasil. Métodos: La investigacion consistio en un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y de corte transversal. Resultados: Un total de 1.158 medicamentos fueron prescritos para 320 pacientes, que representan 65 farmacos diferentes. En cuanto a la clasificacion de la utilizacion de medicamentos, la mayoria de los medicamentos fueron prescritos como en la ficha tecnica (57,2%), seguido off-label (36,4%) y por sin licencia (6,3%). Las prevalencias de uso sin licencia y off-label de drogas en la poblacion estudiada fueron 20,9 y 77,8%, respectivamente. La polifarmacia fue muy asociada a ambos off-label y el regimen sin licencia (OR 12,9; IC del 95%: 3,07 a 54,2 y OR 3,68; IC del 95%: 2,02 a 6,69, respectivamente), mientras que los ninos en edad preescolar fueron menos propensos a prescripcion sin licencia (OR 0,39; 95% CI 0,19-,79). El sexo y la duracion de la hospitalizacion no estaban relacionadas con estos resultados. Conclusiones: Son necesarios mas estudios para verificar el impacto de este patron en la ocurrencia de eventos adversos en los medicamentos.

  6. Biochemical and genetic polymorphisms for carboxylesterase and acetylesterase in grape clones of Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Orasmo, Gleice Ribeiro; Oliveira-Collet, Sandra A; Lapenta, Ana Sílvia; de Fátima P S Machado, Maria

    2007-10-01

    Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was employed to show the highest number of esterase loci and to detect alpha- and beta-esterase polymorphisms in leaf buds of Vitis vinifera cultivars. A total of 16 esterase isozymes were detected in leaf buds from 235 plants including Italia, Rubi, Benitaka, and Brasil cultivars. Biochemical characterization of the grape esterases using ester substrates revealed alpha-, beta-, and alpha/beta-esterases with inhibitor tests distinguishing both carboxylesterases (EST-2, EST-3, EST-5, EST-6, EST-7, EST-8, EST-9, EST-10, and EST-16 isozymes) and acetylesterases (EST-4, EST-11, EST-12, EST-13, EST-14, EST-15 isozymes). No allele variation for alpha-, beta-, and alpha/beta-esterases was detected; however, EST-3 alpha-carboxylesterase was absent in 61.7% of vines, and EST-4 alpha/beta-acetylesterase was absent in one vine of Rubi cv. Null EST-3 carboxylesterase phenotype (61.7%) cannot be explained in this article, but the high genetic polymorphism in four V. vinifera clones is a positive aspect for genetic selection and development of new clones with different characteristics.

  7. La enumeración de la soltería femenina en los censos de población: sesgo y propuesta de corrección

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert; Esteve, Albert; Garcia, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación tiene como objetivo investigar el efecto que la disolución de las uniones consensuales tiene en los niveles de soltería que proporciona el Censo de Población, niveles derivados de la variable estado civil. Para ello comparamos los datos censales con los de la Encuestas de Demografía y Salud (de ahora en adelante DHS) en aquellos países y años para los que disponemos de ambas fuentes en el mismo año o años adyacentes (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia y Perú). Los resultados muestran claramente que las proporciones de nunca unidas derivadas de la variable censal ’Estado civil’ son sistemáticamente más elevadas que las estimadas a partir de las DHS. La razón de esta sobreestimación obedece al hecho de que personas que estuvieron en unión libre en el pasado se declaran solteras en el momento del Censo. La elevada proporción de mujeres solteras que tienen hijos según el Censo es una prueba de ello y a su vez una solución efectiva para corregir el sesgo. PMID:25593515

  8. The Optical Depth Sensor (ODS) for Mars atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, D.; Rannou, P.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Sarkissian, A.; Foujols, T.

    2015-10-01

    A small and sophisticated optical depth sensor (ODS) has been designed to work in both Martian and Earth environments. The principal goal of ODS is to carry out the opacity due to the Martian dust as well as to characterize the high altitude clouds at twilight, crucial parameters in understanding of Martian meteorology. The instrument was initially designed for the failed MARS96 Russian mission, and also was included in the payload of several other missions [1]. Until recently, it was selected (NASA/ESA AO) in the payload of the atmospheric package DREAMS onboard the MARS 2016 mission. But following a decision of the CNES, it is no more included in the payload. In order to study the performance of ODS under a wide range of conditions as well as its capable to provide daily measurements of both dust optical thickness and high altitude clouds properties, the instrument has participated in different terrestrial campaigns. A good performance of ODS prototype (Figure 1) on cirrus clouds detection and in dust opacity estimation was previously archived in Africa during 2004-2005 and in Brasil from 2012 to nowadays. Moreover, a campaign in the arctic is expected before 2016 where fifteen ODSs will be part of an integrated observing system over the Arctic Ocean, allowing test the ODS performance in extreme conditions. In this presentation we present main principle of the retrieval, the instrumental concept, the result of the tests performed and the principal objectives of ODS in Mars.

  9. Data Democratization - Promoting Real-Time Data Sharing and Use Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoksas, T. C.; Almeida, W. G.; Leon, V. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Unidata Program Center (Unidata) of the University Corporation of Atmospheric Research (UCAR) is actively involved in international collaborations whose goals are the free-and-open sharing of hydro-meteorological data; the distribution of analysis and visualization tools for those data; the establishment of server technologies that provide easy-to-use, programmatic remote-access to a wide variety of datasets, and in the building of a community where data, tools, and best practices in education and research are shared. The tools and services provided by Unidata are available to the research and education community free-of-charge. Data sharing capabilities are being provided by Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, a community-based effort that has been the primary source of real-time meteorological data in the US university community for over a decade. A collaboration among Unidata, Brazil's Centro de Previso de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos (CPTEC), the Universidad Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP) has resulted in the creation of a Brazilian peer of the North American IDD, the IDD-Brasil. Collaboration between Unidata and the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR) seeks to extend IDD data sharing throughout Central America and the Caribbean in an IDD-Caribe. Efforts aimed at creating a data sharing network for researchers on the Antarctic continent have resulted in the establishment of the Antarctic-IDD. Most recently, explorations of data sharing between UCAR and select countries in Africa have begun. Data analysis and visualization capabilities are available through Unidata in a suite of freely-available applications: the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) GEneral Meteorology PAcKage (GEMPAK); the Unidata Integrated Data Viewer (IDV); and University of Wisconsin, Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) Man-computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS). Remote data access capabilities are

  10. Inclusion of Visually Impaired in the School Programme Scheduled Visit of the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST). (Breton Title: Inclusão de Deficientes Visuais no Programa de Visita Escolar Programada do Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST).) Inclusión de Discapacitados Visuales en el Programa Escolar Programado del Museo de Astronomía y Ciencias Afines (MAST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Gonçalves, Carla; da Conceição Barbosa-Lima, Maria

    2013-07-01

    Inclusive Education in Brazil, contemplated in the 1988 Constitution and in the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education (9.394/96) highlights the importance and urgency of promoting inclusive education as a formative element of nationality. Inclusive Education refers to all people who are struggling in school. Inclusion should be in all educational institutions (formal and informal). Our goal in the graduation final task was to report the experience of mediation to visually impaired students of the Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) at the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), and also suggest some modifications and present new proposals for the School Visit Program (VEP) through a specially constructed apparatus, where the sky can be sensed near the latitude of Rio de Janeiro. A educação inclusiva no Brasil, contemplada na Constituição de 1988 e a Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional (9.394/96), destaca a importância e urgência de se promover a inclusão escolar como elemento formador da nacionalidade. A educação inclusiva diz respeito a todas as pessoas que enfrentam dificuldades na escola. A inclusão deve estar em todas as instituições educacionais (formais e não formais). Nosso objetivo, no trabalho de final de curso de licenciatura, foi apresentar o relato de experiência de mediação aos alunos deficientes visuais do Instituto Benjamin Constant (IBC) no Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins (MAST), as modificações e novas propostas para o Programa de Visita Escolar Programada (VEP) através de um aparelho especialmente construído onde se pode perceber o céu na latitude próxima a do Rio de Janeiro. La educación inclusiva en el Brasil, contemplada en la Constitución de 1988 y en la Ley de Directrices y Bases de la Educación Nacional (9.394/96), destaca la importancia y la urgencia de promover la inclusión escolar como elemento formador de la nacionalidad. La educación inclusiva se refiere a todas las personas

  11. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF A PROGRAMME PROMOTING ADEQUATE AND HEALTHY EATING ON ADOLESCENT HEALTH MARKERS: AN INTERVENTIONAL STUDY.

    PubMed

    Brito Beck da Silva, Karine; Leovigildo Fiaccone, Rosemeire; Couto, Ricardo David; Ribeiro-Silva, Rita de Cássia

    2015-10-01

    Objetivo: evaluar las repercusiones de un protocolo de promoción de una alimentación adecuada y saludable en los parámetros de salud de adolescentes. Métodos: se trata de un estudio de intervención, controlado, con una duración de nueve meses, en el cual participaron estudiantes, con una edad entre 10 y 17 años, matriculados en dos escuelas (intervención/ control) situadas en un barrio pobre del municipio de Salvador (Bahia), Brasil. Fueron previstas para la escuela bajo intervención acciones de promoción de una alimentación adecuada y saludable, con base en el Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira (Guía Alimentaria para la Población Brasileña). Con el propósito de evaluar el efecto de tales acciones, todos los alumnos fueron sometidos a los exámenes bioquímicos, de maduración y antropométricos al principio y al final de los nueve meses. Además, contestaron a un cuestionario sobre consumo alimentario, actividad física y comportamiento sedentario. También se consiguió información sobre las condiciones socioeconómicas de la familia. La opción fue el análisis de Ecuaciones de Estimaciones Generalizadas (GEE) para evaluar las asociaciones de interés. Resultados: se verificó que los estudiantes bajo intervención presentaron una disminución de 7,64 mg/dL en la media del colesterol total (p = 0,009), de 7,77 mg/dL en la media del LDLc (p = 0,003), un incremento del 18% en el consumo de legumbres (OR = 1,18; 95%IC 1,03-1,37) y del 17% en el consumo de verduras (OR = 1,17; 95%IC 1,01-1,35), comparados con aquellos que no fueron sometidos a la intervención. No hubo diferencias en los parámetros antropométricos estudiados. Conclusión: los resultados apuntaron un efecto positivo de las acciones de promoción de la alimentación adecuada y saludable en la reducción del colesterol total, LDL-c, en el aumento del consumo de vegetales y legumbres, evidenciando una vez más que el modelo de intervención fue capaz de prever y/o tratar

  12. Reviving Erathostenes. (Breton Title: Revivendo Eratóstenes.) Reviviendo a Eratóstenes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo Cesar R.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the commemorations of the International Year of the Physics and having as its main objective to introduce students to the scientific method, the Rio de Janeiro Planetarium Foundation, in partnership with many institutions of Brazil and Europe, coordinated the activity "Reviving Eratosthenes" whose objective was the determination of the Earth's circumference. We used the famous procedure adopted by Eratosthenes more than 2000 years ago, with some adaptations. This work considers and analyzes the method used by us, aiming the application in schools. The use of places in different meridians allows a better understanding of the abstract concepts such as geographic coordinate and time zones. We obtained reasonably precise results, which improve for pairs of distant cities. Finally, one of the most important conclusions achieved by the students involved is the importance of the cooperation (international in this case) to solve problems. Fazendo parte das comemorações do Ano Internacional da Física e tendo como principal objetivo introduzir estudantes do ensino médio ao método científico, a Fundação Planetário da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, em parceria com diversas instituições do Brasil e da Europa, coordenou a atividade "Revivendo Eratóstenes" cujo objetivo foi a determinação da circunferência da Terra. Para isso, utilizou-se um procedimento semelhante ao empregado pelo sábio Eratóstenes há mais de 2.000 anos, com algumas adaptações. Este trabalho propõe e analisa o método que empregamos, visando a aplicação em escolas. A possibilidade de se trabalhar com locais em diferentes meridianos permite uma melhor compreensão dos conceitos mas abstratos, como coordenadas e fusos horários. A precisão dos resultados é bastante razoável, melhorando para cidades bem afastadas. Finalmente, uma das conclusões mais importantes é a percepção, por parte dos estudantes, da importância da colaboração (neste caso, internacional) para resolver

  13. Astronomy in High School: Using a Mini-Planetarium to Understand Details of the Apparent Movement of Stars. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Escuela Secundaria: Comprendiendo los Detalles del Movimiento Aparente de Las Estrellas con un Miniplanetario.) Astronomia no Ensino Médio: Compreendendo Detalhes do Movimento Aparente das Estrelas com um Miniplanetário

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos Leão, Demetrius

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this article is to present part of the results obtained by the intervention made from the author's Master degree project, which consisted in the development of a set of Astronomy classes for first year of High School students from a private school in the "Distrito Federal", Brasilia, Brazil, making use of a didactical material called mini-planetarium (MP) as the main resource. Using Paulo Freire's contextualization and dialogicity ideas as a theoretical framework guided by these lessons, it was proposed to the students the assembly and application of that resource in a planetarium session. During the project, some subjects such as the apparent trajectory of stars through Brasilia's sky, the location of the cardinal points beginning from the Southern Cross constellation, the color of stars and the stars being seen from a particular place were emphasized. It was found that the students showed an improvement of their understanding about these subjects, as well as a significant excitement with the developed methodology. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar algunos de los resultados obtenidos en el proyecto de la tesis de maestría del autor, que incluyó el desarrollo de algunas clases de Astronomía, con estudiantes del primer año del bachillerato de una escuela privada del Distrito Federal (Brasilia, Brasil), utilizando como materia prima didáctica el recurso llamado miniplanetario (MP). Utilizando como base teórica orientadora de esas clases las ideas de contextualización y dialógica de Paulo Freire, fue propuesto a los estudiantes el montaje y la utilización de este recurso en una función de planetario. Durante el proyecto, se enfatizaron asuntos tales como la trayectoria aparente de las estrellas del cielo de Brasilia, la ubicación de los puntos cardinales a partir de la constelación de la Cruz del Sur, los colores de las estrellas y las estrellas vistas desde una localidad determinada. Se constató que los estudiantes mostraron una mejora

  14. Birds and people in semiarid northeastern Brazil: symbolic and medicinal relationships

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background At least 511 species of birds occur in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil and many of them interact with human populations in a number of different ways, including their use in zootherapeutics and their links with local beliefs. Objective The present work examined these types of birds/human interactions (use in zootherapeutics and their links with local beliefs) in the semiarid region of Rio Grande do Norte State in northeastern Brazil. Methods Information was obtained through semi-structured interviews with 120 local residents. Results A total of 16 wild bird species distributed among 11 families were found to interact directly with humans, with Columbidae being the best represented family. Seven species were identified in the medicinal category, five were related to symbolic aspects, while four species were identified as being related to both categories (medicinal and symbolic). Conclusion The accumulated folk knowledge, beliefs, and practices involving the avifauna in the semiarid region of Brazil, whether symbolic or medicinal, demonstrated the cultural importance of this vertebrate group to local human populations and revealed a belief system intrinsically related to cynegetic practices in the region. Portuguese abstract Introdução No semiárido do Brasil ocorrem 511 espécies de aves, algumas das quais interagem frequentemente com as populações humanas locais de diferentes formas, incluindo o uso como zooterápico e a inserção em crenças. Objetivo Esta pesquisa registrou as aves diretamente associadas a essas formas de interação (o uso como zooterápico e a inserção em crenças) na região semiárida do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil. Métodos As informações foram obtidas através de entrevistas semiestruturadas aplicadas a 120 moradores locais. Resultados Foram registradas 16 espécies de aves silvestres distribuídas em 11 famílias, sendo Columbidae a que apresentou o maior número de

  15. The Seismicity of Two Hyperextended Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, Tim; Terje Osmundsen, Per

    2013-04-01

    , loads generated by escarpment erosion, offshore sedimentary deposition, and post-glacial rebound have been periodically superimposed throughout the Neogene. Their vertical stress patterns are mutually-reinforcing during deglaciation. However, compared to the post-glacial dome the pattern of maximum uplift/unloading generated by escarpment erosion will be longer, more linear, and located atop the emergent proximal margin. The pattern of offshore maximum deposition/loading will be similar. This may help explain the asymmetric expenditure of Fennoscandia's annual seismic energy budget. It may also help explain the obvious Conundrum: if stress generated by erosion and deposition is sufficiently great, fault reactivation and consequent seismicity can occur at any hyperextended passive margin sector regardless of its glacial history. Onshore Scandinavia, episodic footwall uplift and escarpment rejuvenation may have been driven by just such a mechanism throughout much of the later Cretaceous and Cenozoic. SE Brasil offers a glimpse of how Norway's hyperextended margin might manifest itself seismically in the absence of post-glacial rebound. Compilations suggest two seismic belts may exist. One, offshore, follows the thinned crust of the ultra-deep, hyperextended Campos and Santos basins. Onshore, earthquakes occur more commonly in the elevated highlands of the escarpments, and track especially the long, linear ranges such as the Serra de Mantiquiera and Serra do Espinhaço. Seismicity is more rare in the coastal lowlands, and largely absent in the Brasilian hinterland. Although never glaciated since the time of hyperextension and characterized by significantly fewer earthquakes in toto, SE Brasil's pattern of seismicity closely mimics Scandinavia. Commencing after perhaps just a few tens of millions of years of 'sag' basin infill, accommodation phase fault reactivation and footwall uplift at passive margins is the inexorable product of hyperextension. CITATIONS Redfield, T

  16. 30 years later: Social Representations about AIDS and sexual practices of rural towns residents.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Francisca Marina de Souza Freire; Santos, José Anderson Galdino; Loredanna, Stedile; Araújo, Eunice; Saldanha, Ana Alayde Werba; Silva, Josevânia da

    2016-06-01

    In the 30 years of the AIDS pandemic in Brazil, it is recognized the HIV virus internalization of the phenomenon as a challenge to care and current health policies. In this sense, it aimed to verify sex practices and social representations that rural towns residents have about the disease. Attended by 789 people, men and women, between 18 and 90 years old, residents in 41 towns with fewer than 11,000 inhabitants in the state of Paraiba / Brazil. Data were collected by a questionnaire and the free association of words test. The results showed low concern about disease, perception of invulnerability to HIV infection and not using condoms during sexual intercourse, and confidence in the major reason related partner. Also showed endure derogatory and stereotypical representations, revealing that still persist in rural areas, beliefs and representations concerning the beginning of the epidemic. From these findings, it is possible to point out deficiencies in the care provided by the health services in these localities, which may result in increased vulnerability of this population to diseases, so there is the need to intensify information campaigns and intervention. The results reveal the existence of three different types of modes of learning health literacy skills in informal context: : i) learning that takes place in action, in achieving daily tasks; ii) learning processes that result from problem solving; iii) learning that occurs in an unplanned manner, resulting from accidental circumstances and, in some cases, devoid of intentionality. Nos 30 anos da pandemia da Aids no Brasil, reconhece-se o fenômeno da interiorização do vírus HIV como um desafio ao cuidado e às politicas de saúde atuais. Neste sentido, objetivou-se conhecer práticas sexuais e as representações sociais que residentes de cidades rurais têm acerca da doença. Participaram 789 pessoas, homens e mulheres, entre 18 e 90 anos de idade, residentes em 41 cidades com menos de 11.000 habitantes

  17. Solid speciation and availability of nickel and chromium in Ni mining spoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raous, Sophie; Garnier, Jérémie; Sterckeman, Thibaul; Echevarria, Guillaume; Becquer, Thierry; Thomas, Fabien

    2010-05-01

    Nickel mining of ultramafic laterites generates different types of wastes, topsoils and ores that are too poor in Ni to be currently processed. These are mixed and stored on heaps which could be a potential source of Ni and Cr pollution. Chemical reactivity of the main metal bearing phases present in the mining spoils of Goiás (Brasil) was investigated. Principally a silicated 'saprolite' material and a Fe-oxide rich limonitic material were isolated from the wastes. Their total Ni and Cr content are high, respectively for Ni and Cr : 7,170 and 54,970 mg kg-1 in limonite and 12,200 and 12,650 mg kg-1 in saprolite. The main metal-bearing minerals, identified and localized using XRD, TEM-EDX, Raman spectroscopy and Mossbaüer spectrometry are well-crystallized minerals: goethite (75%), hematite (13%) and chromite in limonite and ferruginous smectite, talc and chromite in saprolite. Single and sequential extractions showed that the amounts of 1M KCl exchangeable Ni and Cr reached respectively 7.1% and 0.03% of total contents in saprolite. Moreover, Cr(VI) extraction by KH2PO4 showed that more than 2% (980 mg kg-1) of total Cr was under this labile toxic form in limonite. This study allowed us to determine the main reactions controlling the Ni and Cr mobility in the spoils i.e. Ni2+ cationic exchange in saprolitic spoil and CrO32- surface complexation in limonitic spoil. This study allowed us to demonstrate the need of chemical rehabilitation of mining wastes in order to avoid the dispersion of the high contents of Ni and Cr available. It constitutes the system definition needed to predict the Cr and Ni mobility in ultramafic mining spoils.

  18. [Lipid composition of marine shellfish berbigão Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791) raw and cooked].

    PubMed

    Aveiro, Mariana Vincenzi; Barrera-Arellano, Daniel; Tramonte, Vera Lúcia Cardoso Garcia

    2009-09-01

    The berbigão Anomalocardia brasiliana is a marine shellfish which is commoning consumed in the coastal region of Santa Catarina. However, there are limited available data on the composition of their fatty acids and sterols. The objetive of this study was to determine the lipid composition of the berbigão from Reserva Extrativista Marinha de Pirajubaé (REMAPI), Florianópolis/SC, Brasil, during the autumn and spring. The total lipid content was 1.21g% and 0.72g% in the autumn and spring, respectively. Several fatty acids were identified and quantified, including 20 fatty acids, 6 saturated (14:0, 15:0, 16:0, 17:0, 18:0, 20:0), 4 monounsaturated (16:1, 17:1, 18:1, 20:1) and 10 polyunsaturated (18:2, 18:3, 18:4, 20:2, 20:3, 20:4, 20:5, 22:4, 22:5, 22:6). There was a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids in total than saturated and monounsaturated, regardless of season: 40.7% of polyunsaturated, 30.8% of saturated, 17.2% of monounsaturated in the autumn and 39.7% of polyunsaturated, 27.7% of saturated, 13.7% of monounsaturated in the spring. The cholesterol corresponded to a value of 94.38 mg% in the autumn and 76.75 mg% in the spring. Among the sterols were found campesterol, estigmasterol and beta-sitosterol, but in lower quantities than cholesterol. These results showed that the berbigão was not a significant source of lipids, revealing low levels of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. Berbigão is recommended for daily consumption as part of a healthy diet due to it is safe levels of fats and cholesterol.

  19. Tv food advertising geared to children in Latin-American countries and Hispanics in the USA: a review.

    PubMed

    Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: El propósito de esta revisión fue analizar los estudios sobre anuncios de alimentos en la TV en Latinoamérica y en los EEUU dirigidos a Hispanos. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda electrónica de trabajos publicados de 1986 a 2015, en las bases de datos de MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, SCIELO, y CINAHL, en internet de acceso abierto, sobre anuncios de alimentos en la televisión dirigidos a niños en países latinoamericanos y a Hispanos que viven en los Estados Unidos. Resultados: La búsqueda dio como resultado veinticuatro estudios, seis realizados en Chile, cinco en México, cuatro en Brasil, tres en Hispanos de EEUU, y uno en cada uno de los siguientes países: Argentina, Perú, Colombia, Honduras y Venezuela. Una gran proporción de anuncios sobre alimentos en la TV están dirigidos a los niños y a sus familias. Esta exposición ha sido asociada a la preferencia y solicitud de compra de estos alimentos por los niños y con un aumento del IMC, sobrepeso y obesidad en niños y adultos. Conclusión: Se observa una alarmante alta exposición de anuncios de alimentos en la TV dirigida a niños, lo que demanda políticas regulatorias, supervisión, y rendimiento de cuentas eficaces.

  20. Eating habits, nutritional status and quality of life of patients in late postoperative gastric bypass Roux-Y.

    PubMed

    Prazeres de Assis, Priscila; Alves da Silva, Silvia; Sousa Vieira de Melo, Camila Yandara; de Arruda Moreira, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Caracterizar los hábitos alimenticios, el estado nutricional y la calidad de vida de pacientes en el periodo posoperatorio de la cirugía bariátrica de Fobi-Capella. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico transversal en 66 pacientes sometidos a cirugía bariátrica y monitorizados por el personal del Hospital Universitario Oswaldo Cruz (HUOC), en el noreste de Brasil. Se aplicó un cuestionario que contemplaba características sociodemográficas e información demográfica relativa a los hábitos alimenticios, y también se evaluaba la calidad de vida por el método BAROS. Resultados: En la tolerancia a los alimentos, en la categoría de «difícil de comer» se notificaron alimentos tales como carne, pollo, arroz, ensalada cruda y maíz y en la «no ingeridos» estaban maíz, seguido de caramelos, carne y pollo. Hubo una reducción del peso corporal total y del IMC y, en consecuencia, un aumento del PEP% con el tiempo. Con respecto a la calidad de vida, se pudo observar que la mayor parte de los pacientes la clasificaron como «buena» en ambos grupos de 6-18 meses y de > 18 meses. Conclusiones: Nuestro resultados demuestran que la cirugía bariátrica produjo unos efectos satisfactorios en esta población; sin embargo, existe la necesidad de una educación nutricional continuada, especialmente en el grupo de más de 18 meses tras la cirugía.

  1. VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

  2. Characterization of the volatile pattern and antioxidant capacity of essential oils from different species of the genus Ocimum.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Vasconcelos Silva, Maria Goretti; Pfundstein, Beate; Spiegelhalder, Bertold; Owen, Robert Wyn

    2006-06-14

    The antioxidant capacity of essential oils obtained by steam hydrodistillation from five species of the genus Ocimum, namely Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens, Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum gratissimum, Ocimum micranthum, and Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. O. sanctum), were evaluated using a high-performance liquid chromatography-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase and the DPPH assays. The yield of oils from the leaves of the five species was variable with the greater amount obtained from Ocimum gratissimum (3.5%) and the least from Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens (0.5%). In the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay, strong antioxidant capacity was evident in all the oils but the greater was shown by that obtained from Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. O. sanctum) (IC50 = 0.46 microL/mL) compared to Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens (IC50 = 1.84 microL/mL). Antioxidant capacity was positively correlated (r = 0.92, p < 0.05) with a high proportion of compounds possessing a phenolic ring such as eugenol, while a strong negative correlation (r = -0.77, p > 0.1) with other major volatiles was observed. These correlations were confirmed to a large extent in the DPPH assay. The results of a 24 h experiment with Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. O. sanctum) shows that the antioxidant capacity factor (amount of essential oil obtained x free radical scavenging capacity; mg x %/100) reaches a threshold between 10 and 12.00 h, corresponding to maximum sunlight intensity in Brasil and furthermore exhibits a clear diurnal variation. The data generated with Ocimum species indicates that essential oils obtained from various herbs and spices may have an important role to play in cancer chemoprevention, functional foods, and in the preservation of pharmacologic products.

  3. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. VII. The ``hot-Jupiter''-type planet CoRoT-5b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauer, H.; Queloz, D.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Deleuil, M.; Alonso, R.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J. M.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Bruntt, H.; Cabrera, J.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; de La Reza, R.; Deeg, H. J.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Fridlund, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Gillon, M.; Guillot, T.; Guenther, E.; Hatzes, A.; Hébrard, G.; Kabath, P.; Jorda, L.; Lammer, H.; Léger, A.; Llebaria, A.; Magain, P.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Ollivier, M.; Pätzold, M.; Pont, F.; Rabus, M.; Renner, S.; Rouan, D.; Shporer, A.; Samuel, B.; Schneider, J.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Wuchterl, G.

    2009-10-01

    Aims: The CoRoT space mission continues to photometrically monitor about 12 000 stars in its field-of-view for a series of target fields to search for transiting extrasolar planets ever since 2007. Deep transit signals can be detected quickly in the “alarm-mode” in parallel to the ongoing target field monitoring. CoRoT's first planets have been detected in this mode. Methods: The CoRoT raw lightcurves are filtered for orbital residuals, outliers, and low-frequency stellar signals. The phase folded lightcurve is used to fit the transit signal and derive the main planetary parameters. Radial velocity follow-up observations were initiated to secure the detection and to derive the planet mass. Results: We report the detection of CoRoT-5b, detected during observations of the LRa01 field, the first long-duration field in the galactic anti-center direction. CoRoT-5b is a “hot Jupiter-type” planet with a radius of 1.388+0.046-0.047 R_Jup, a mass of 0.467+0.047-0.024 M_Jup, and therefore, a mean density of 0.217+0.031-0.025 g cm-3. The planet orbits an F9V star of 14.0 mag in 4.0378962 ± 0.0000019 days at an orbital distance of 0.04947+0.00026-0.00029 AU. Observations made with SOPHIE spectrograph at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (07B.PNP.MOUT), France, and HARPS spectrograph at ESO La Silla Observatory (072.C-0488(E), 082.C-0312(A)), and partly based on observations made at the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27, 2006, was developed and is operated by CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brasil, ESA, Germany, and Spain.

  4. Recent transmission of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a prison population in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, Ana Julia; David, Simone Maria Martini de; Nunes, Luciana de Souza; Valim, Andreia Rosane de Moura; Possuelo, Lia Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study, characterized by classical and molecular epidemiology, involving M. tuberculosis isolates from a regional prison in southern Brazil. Between January of 2011 and August of 2014, 379 prisoners underwent sputum smear microscopy and culture; 53 (13.9%) were diagnosed with active tuberculosis. Of those, 8 (22.9%) presented with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis. Strain genotyping was carried out by 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis; 68.6% of the patients were distributed into five clusters, and 87.5% of the resistant cases were in the same cluster. The frequency of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases and the rate of recent transmission were high. Our data suggest the need to implement an effective tuberculosis control program within the prison system. RESUMO Estudo transversal, retrospectivo, com isolados de M. tuberculosis de pacientes de um presídio regional no sul do Brasil, caracterizado através de epidemiologia clássica e molecular. Entre janeiro de 2011 e agosto de 2014, 379 detentos foram submetidos a baciloscopia e cultura, sendo 53 (13,9%) diagnosticados com tuberculose ativa. Desses, 8 (22,9%) apresentavam tuberculose resistente a isoniazida. A genotipagem das cepas foi realizada por 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeat analysis; 68,6% dos pacientes estavam distribuídos em cinco clusters, e 87,5% dos casos resistentes estavam em um mesmo cluster. Verificou-se uma frequência elevada de casos de resistência e alta taxa de transmissão recente. Estes dados sugerem a necessidade da implantação de um programa efetivo de controle da tuberculose no sistema prisional.

  5. Availability of food stores and consumption of fruit, legumes and vegetables in a Brazilian urban area.

    PubMed

    Cristine Pessoa, Milene; Loures Mendes, Larissa; Teixeira Caiaffa, Waleska; Carvalho Malta, Deborah; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo

    2014-12-17

    Antecedentes: El ambiente alimentar puede tener una influencia importante en la disponibilidad y el acceso a ellos, éste desempeña un papel importante en la salud de las poblaciones. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar el consumo de frutas, legumbres y hortalizas (FLV) de adultos y la disponibilidad de las tiendas de alimentos en el contexto del espacio socioeconómico y geográfico en el territorio de las unidades básicas de salud en una capital brasileña. Métodos: El estudio se desarrolló a partir de la información obtenida a través de la Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo para Enfermedades no Transmisibles Prevención de Encuesta Telefónica (VIGITEL), utilizando muestras de la ciudad de Belo Horizonte en los años de 2008 a 2010. Un total de 5.611 registros fueron geo-codificados usando el código postal. Una puntuación fue creada en base a la frecuencia semanal y diario del consumo de FLV . El área de las unidades básicas de salud se utilizó como unidad vecinal. Se utilizaron los datos geo-referenciados de los comercios de venta de comida en la ciudad y el barrio. Resultados: A medida que aumentaba la renta del barrio, hubo un aumento en la distribución de los establecimientos de comida e bebidas para todas las categorías estudiadas. Se observaron las puntuaciones más altas de consumo FLV en zonas con niveles de ingresos más altos. Conclusión: La mayor concentración de tiendas de alimentos e bebidas e mayor puntuación de consumo, independientemente da calidad de los productos ofrecidos, fue observado en las áreas geográficas con mayor poder adquisitivo.

  6. Long periods (1 -10 mHz) geomagnetic pulsations variation with solar cycle in South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigon Silva, Willian; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Guimarães Dutra, Severino Luiz; Babulal Trivedi, Nalin; Claudir da Silva, Andirlei; Souza Savian, Fernando; Ronan Coelho Stekel, Tardelli; de Siqueira, Josemar; Espindola Antunes, Cassio

    The occurrence and intensity of the geomagnetic pulsations Pc-5 (2-7 mHz) and its relationship with the solar cycle in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly -SAMA is presented. The study of geomagnetic pulsations is important to help the understanding of the physical processes that occurs in the magnetosphere region and help to predict geomagnetic storms. The fluxgate mag-netometers H, D and Z, three axis geomagnetic field data from the Southern Space Observatory -SSO/CRS/INPE -MCT, São Martinho da Serra (29.42° S, 53.87° W, 480m a.s.l.), RS, Brasil, a were analyzed and correlated with the solar wind parameters (speed, density and temperature) from the ACE and SOHO satellites. A digital filtering to enhance the 2-7 mHz geomagnetic pulsations was used. Five quiet days and five perturbed days in the solar minimum and in the solar maximum were selected for this analysis. The days were chosen based on the IAGA definition and on the Bartels Musical Diagrams (Kp index) for 2001 (solar maximum) and 2008 (solar minimum). The biggest Pc-5 amplitude averages differences between the H-component is 78,35 nT for the perturbed days and 1,60nT for the quiet days during the solar maximum. For perturbed days the average amplitude during the solar minimum is 8,32 nT, confirming a direct solar cycle influence in the geomagnetic pulsations intensity for long periods.

  7. International Outreach in Africa - Complementary Efforts Using Common Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoksas, T.; Almeida, W. G.; Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Herrmann, S.; Hoswell, E.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Traore, A.; Spangler, T.; Warner, T.; Weingroff, M.; Ribeiro, N. A.; Soares, E.; Nascimento, A.; Lona, J.; Real, J. C.

    2008-05-01

    For the past few years, the U.S. Unidata Program Center (Unidata, a program in UCAR) and Brazil's Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC, a division of INPE) have collaborated in outreach efforts where free-and-open exchange of hydro-meteorological data and the provision of free analysis/visualization tools are helping to build a hemispheric community where data, tools, and best practices in education and research are shared. Data sharing capabilities are being provided by Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, a community-based effort that has been the primary source of real-time meteorological data in the U.S. university community for over a decade. Unidata-CPTEC efforts have resulted in the creation of the Brazilian peer of the North American IDD, the IDD-Brasil, a data sharing network that has extended access to real-time data to over 15 institutions in South America and most recently countries in West Africa and the African Sahel. UCAR and CPTEC are involved in separate, but philosophically-related and complementary outreach efforts in Africa: UCAR has embarked on an effort, The UCAR Africa Initiative, whose goal is assisting in building sustainable atmospheric-sciences capacity in Africa. CPTEC is collaborating with national weather services in three West African countries, universities in Brazil and Portugal, and one private Portuguese company in SICLIMAD, a project aimed at contributing to sustainable development in West Africa. This presentation will provide an overview of the efforts being undertaken as part of The UCAR Africa Initiative; an overview and update on CPTEC's efforts in SICLIMAD; and explore avenues for greater collaboration on African issues and endeavors.

  8. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    van Nieukerken, Erik J; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nishida, Kenji; Snyers, Chris

    2016-01-01

    After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new genera and nine new species are here described from the Neotropics: Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. reared from galls on Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae) in Costa Rica, representing the first example of a gall making Stigmella; Stigmella schinivora van Nieukerken, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae) in Argentina, Misiones; Stigmella costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. and Stigmella intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. each from a single specimen collected the same night in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Chirripó; Stigmella molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Salix humboldtiana, Peru, Lima, the first Neotropical species of the Stigmella salicis group sensu stricto; Ozadelpha van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Ozadelpha conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n., reared from leafmines on Conostegia oerstediana (Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica; Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Neotrifurcula gielisorum van Nieukerken, sp. n. from Chile; Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, gen. n.. with type species Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000; Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, sp. n., reared from an unidentified Myrtaceae, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guanacaste. Five new combinations are made: Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n. and Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n., Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n., Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877), comb. n. and Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n. Three

  9. Seroepidemiological Survey of Canine Leishmania Infections from Peripheral Areas in Natal, Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Isabelle Ribeiro; Carlota, Francisco Canindé; de Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Human visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Natal, northeast of Brazil, where the domestic dog is an important parasite reservoir in the infectious cycle of Leishmania spp. In this study, was evaluated the antileishmanial IgG antibody and epidemiological factors related to canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Methods: Sera samples obtained by venipuncture of 1,426 dogs living in areas of human visceral leishmaniasis occurrence were tested for detection of IgG anti-leishmania antibodies with Immunofluorescence Antibody Assay (IFA) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Chi-square (x2) and Odds Ratio (OR) were calculated. Differences were considered statistically significant at p≤0.05. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence was 10.30% (147/1,426); prevalence increased when the samples were found to be positive at least for one technique ([417/1,426] 29.3%). The high percentage of seroprevalence was observed in Nova República (15.35%), Nova Natal I (12.7%) and Lagoa Azul (11.4%) neighborhoods. In the Planalto, Soledade and Brasil Novo, the infection rates ranged from 7.5 at 8.06%. (p=0.00051). There was neither statistically significant difference between leishmanial infection nor clinical signs of disease (p=0.84; OR=1.0 [0.41; 2.3]), sex (p=0.78, OR=0.94 [0.66; 1.28]); and breed (p=0.92; OR=1.0 [0.65; 1.54]) were observed. Conclusion: The RESULTS suggest that CVL is widely distributed in Natal, may be increasingly urbanizing and will spread through neighborhoods but not endemic, resulting in a serious public health problem, emphasizing the need for epidemiological studies to a greater understanding of the distribution of canine leishmaniasis in these specific areas and contribute proactively to the public health policies. PMID:26668661

  10. Location accuracy evaluation of lightning location systems using natural lightning flashes recorded by a network of high-speed cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, J.; Saraiva, A. C. V.; Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Antunes, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work presents a method for the evaluation of location accuracy of all Lightning Location System (LLS) in operation in southeastern Brazil, using natural cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes. This can be done through a multiple high-speed cameras network (RAMMER network) installed in the Paraiba Valley region - SP - Brazil. The RAMMER network (Automated Multi-camera Network for Monitoring and Study of Lightning) is composed by four high-speed cameras operating at 2,500 frames per second. Three stationary black-and-white (B&W) cameras were situated in the cities of São José dos Campos and Caçapava. A fourth color camera was mobile (installed in a car), but operated in a fixed location during the observation period, within the city of São José dos Campos. The average distance among cameras was 13 kilometers. Each RAMMER sensor position was determined so that the network can observe the same lightning flash from different angles and all recorded videos were GPS (Global Position System) time stamped, allowing comparisons of events between cameras and the LLS. The RAMMER sensor is basically composed by a computer, a Phantom high-speed camera version 9.1 and a GPS unit. The lightning cases analyzed in the present work were observed by at least two cameras, their position was visually triangulated and the results compared with BrasilDAT network, during the summer seasons of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013. The visual triangulation method is presented in details. The calibration procedure showed an accuracy of 9 meters between the accurate GPS position of the object triangulated and the result from the visual triangulation method. Lightning return stroke positions, estimated with the visual triangulation method, were compared with LLS locations. Differences between solutions were not greater than 1.8 km.

  11. Complete genome sequence of Planctomyces brasiliensis type strain (DSM 5305(T)), phylogenomic analysis and reclassification of Planctomycetes including the descriptions of Gimesia gen. nov., Planctopirus gen. nov. and Rubinisphaera gen. nov. and emended descriptions of the order Planctomycetales and the family Planctomycetaceae.

    PubMed

    Scheuner, Carmen; Tindall, Brian J; Lu, Megan; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Huntemann, Marcel; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Jeffries, Cynthia D; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Mwirichia, Romano; Rohde, Manfred; Abt, Birte; Detter, John C; Woyke, Tanja; Eisen, Jonathan A; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Göker, Markus; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    Planctomyces brasiliensis Schlesner 1990 belongs to the order Planctomycetales, which differs from other bacterial taxa by several distinctive features such as internal cell compartmentalization, multiplication by forming buds directly from the spherical, ovoid or pear-shaped mother cell and a cell wall consisting of a proteinaceous layer rather than a peptidoglycan layer. The first strains of P. brasiliensis, including the type strain IFAM 1448(T), were isolated from a water sample of Lagoa Vermelha, a salt pit near Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. This is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Planctomyces to be published and the sixth type strain genome sequence from the family Planctomycetaceae. The 6,006,602 bp long genome with its 4,811 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that the classification within the Planctomycetaceae is partially in conflict with its evolutionary history, as the positioning of Schlesneria renders the genus Planctomyces paraphyletic. A re-analysis of published fatty-acid measurements also does not support the current arrangement of the two genera. A quantitative comparison of phylogenetic and phenotypic aspects indicates that the three Planctomyces species with type strains available in public culture collections should be placed in separate genera. Thus the genera Gimesia, Planctopirus and Rubinisphaera are proposed to accommodate P. maris, P. limnophilus and P. brasiliensis, respectively. Pronounced differences between the reported G + C content of Gemmata obscuriglobus, Singulisphaera acidiphila and Zavarzinella formosa and G + C content calculated from their genome sequences call for emendation of their species descriptions. In addition to other features, the range of G + C values reported for the genera within the Planctomycetaceae indicates that the descriptions of the family and the order should be

  12. Fotometria WHBY |o lll|/HB de Regiones H 11 Y la HISTORIA de la Formacion ESTELAR Reciente EN la PEQUENA NUBE de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copetti, M. V. F.; Dottori, H. A.

    1987-05-01

    El ancho equivalente WHβ de la linea de Hβ en emisión y la razón [0 III]/Hβ del par λλ4959, 50 7 A del [0111], fueron medidos en 23 regiones HII de la Peque˜a Nube de Magallanes, por medio de la fotometría fotoeléctrica a través de un sistema de tres filtros interferenciales: dos Hβ , con bandas pasantes de 100 y 30 A, y un [0111] centrado en 5000 A y con banda pasante de 50 A. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con los telescopios de 1.60-m y 0.60-m del Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasópolis, Brasil. Fueron escogidos diafragmas suficientemente grandes para captar la radiación integrada de cada región HII. Las medidas fueron calibradas por comparación a un conjunto de nebulosas planetarias con flujos absolutos bien definidos. A través de la comparación entre los datos observacionales y modelos evolutivos de WHβ y [0 III] /Hβ (Copetti et al.1986', Astr. and Ap., 156, 111), las edades de las regiones HIl fueron estimadas. Basada en la distribución espacial de las edades de regiones HIl, la historia de la formación estelar reciente en la Pequeña Nube de Magallanes es analizada. La similitud de las medidas de WH&beta y [OIII]/WHβ entre las regiones H II observadas sugiere que hubo una explosión de formación estelar a 4±1 x106 años en la Pequeña Nube de Magallanes. (Parcialmente financiado por CNPq).

  13. ASSOCIATION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION WITH NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND FOOD INTAKE.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Daianne Cristina; Sampaio, Helena Alves de Carvalho; de Oliveira Lima, José Wellington; Carioca, Antônio Augusto Ferreira; Posso Lima, Gláucia; Ribeiro de Oliveira, Ticihana; Araújo Chagas Vergara, Clarice Maria; Sousa Nunes Pinheiro, Diana Célia; Lima Herculano Júnior, José Ruver; de Pontes Ellery, Thais Helena

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: la infección por H. pylori afecta a más de la mitad de la humanidad, siendo un problema de salud pública. Su prevalencia es significativamente mayor en los países en desarrollo, como Brasil. Se ha sugerido que la infección por H. pylori puede influir en la ingesta y la homeostasis calórica. Propósito: comparar el estado nutricional y la ingesta de alimentos de los pacientes incluidos en el Sistema Nacional de Salud, con y sin infección por H. pylori. Métodos: se evaluarón 140 pacientes. Realizaron la endoscopia digestiva alta para investigar la presencia de H. pylori. Se midieron el peso corporal y la altura de los pacientes. La ingesta de alimentos se investigó a través de dos recordatorios de 24 horas, con los dados transformados en gramos y analizados en el software DietWin Professional 2.0. Los resultados se compararon mediante la prueba de chi-cuadrado o la prueba t de Student. Se adoptó de p < 0,05 como nivel de significación. Resultados: hubo predominio de pacientes con exceso de peso tanto para Hp - (60,3%) como Hp + (67,7%), sin diferencias entre ellos. La ingesta de alimentos de los grupos evaluados fue similar. Conclusiones: no hubo diferencias en el estado nutricional y la ingesta de alimentos entre los dos grupos.

  14. Sex-specific associations of low birth weight with adult-onset diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T; Duncan, Bruce B; Chor, Dóra; Bensenor, Isabela M; Griep, Rosane H; Appel, Lawrence J; Barreto, Sandhi M; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests sex differences in the early origins of adult metabolic disease, but this has been little investigated in developing countries. We investigated sex-specific associations between low birth weight (LBW; <2.5 kg) and adult-onset diabetes in 12,525 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Diabetes was defined by self-reported information and laboratory measurements. In confounder-adjusted analyses, LBW (vs. 2.5–4 kg) was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes in women (Prevalence Ratio (PR) 1.54, 95% CI: 1.32–1.79), not in men (PR 1.06, 95% CI: 0.91–1.25; Pheterogeneity = 0.003). The association was stronger among participants with maternal diabetes (PR 1.60, 95% CI: 1.35–1.91), than those without (PR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.99–1.32; Pheterogeneity = 0.03). When jointly stratified by sex and maternal diabetes, the association was observed for women with (PR 1.77, 95% CI: 1.37–2.29) and without (PR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.20–1.75) maternal diabetes. In contrast, in men, LBW was associated with diabetes in participants with maternal diabetes (PR 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15–1.83), but not in those without (PR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.74–1.14). These sex-specific findings extended to continuous measures of glucose homeostasis. LBW was associated with higher diabetes prevalence in Brazilian women, and in men with maternal diabetes, suggesting sex-specific intrauterine effects on adult metabolic health. PMID:27845438

  15. An AO-assisted Variability Study of Four Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, R.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Strader, J.; Hakala, P.; Catelan, M.; Peacock, M. B.; Simunovic, M.

    2016-09-01

    The image-subtraction technique applied to study variable stars in globular clusters represented a leap in the number of new detections, with the drawback that many of these new light curves could not be transformed to magnitudes due to severe crowding. In this paper, we present observations of four Galactic globular clusters, M 2 (NGC 7089), M 10 (NGC 6254), M 80 (NGC 6093), and NGC 1261, taken with the ground-layer adaptive optics module at the SOAR Telescope, SAM. We show that the higher image quality provided by SAM allows for the calibration of the light curves of the great majority of the variables near the cores of these clusters as well as the detection of new variables, even in clusters where image-subtraction searches were already conducted. We report the discovery of 15 new variables in M 2 (12 RR Lyrae stars and 3 SX Phe stars), 12 new variables in M 10 (11 SX Phe and 1 long-period variable), and 1 new W UMa-type variable in NGC 1261. No new detections are found in M 80, but previous uncertain detections are confirmed and the corresponding light curves are calibrated into magnitudes. Additionally, based on the number of detected variables and new Hubble Space Telescope/UVIS photometry, we revisit a previous suggestion that M 80 may be the globular cluster with the richest population of blue stragglers in our Galaxy. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  16. Optical Spectroscopic Observations of γ-Ray Blazar Candidates. III. The 2013/2014 Campaign in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landoni, M.; Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; D'Abrusco, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Masetti, N.; Smith, H. A.; Tosti, G.; Chomiuk, L.; Strader, J.; Cheung, C. C.

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of our exploratory program carried out with the southern Astrophysical Research telescope aimed at associating counterparts and establishing the nature of the Fermi Unidentified γ-ray Sources (UGSs). We selected the optical counterparts of six UGSs from the Fermi catalog on the basis of our recently discovered tight connection between infrared and γ-ray emission found for the γ-ray blazars detected by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer in its all-sky survey. We perform for the first time a spectroscopic study of the low-energy counterparts of the Fermi UGSs, in the optical band, confirming the blazar-like nature of the whole sample. We also present new spectroscopic observations of six active galaxies of uncertain type associated with Fermi sources which appear to be BL Lac objects. Finally, we report the spectra collected for six known γ-ray blazars belonging to the Roma BZCAT that were obtained to establish their nature or better estimate their redshifts. Two interesting cases of high redshift and extremely luminous BL Lac objects (z ≥ 1.18 and z ≥ 1.02, based on the detection of Mg ii intervening systems) are also discussed. Based on observations obtained at the southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  17. Development policy for the Brazilian health industry and qualification of national public laboratories.

    PubMed

    Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila; Silva, Hudson Pacifico da; Ibañez, Nelson; Iozzi, Fabíola Lana

    2016-11-03

    Technological innovations play a decisive role in societies' development by contributing to economic growth and the population's welfare. The state has a key role in this process by inducing innovative behavior, strategies, and decisions. This study addresses Brazil's current policy for development of the health industry and its effects on qualification of national public laboratories by contextualizing different cycles of interaction between health policy and the industrial base, discussing the government's development strategy and the transfer and absorption of health technology (through Industrial Development Partnerships), and presenting two current partnerships involving public laboratories in the production of medicines and vaccines. Resumo: As inovações tecnológicas jogam papel decisivo no processo de desenvolvimento das sociedades, visto que contribuem para gerar crescimento econômico e bem-estar da população. O Estado possui grande importância e centralidade nesse processo, pois pode induzir fortemente o comportamento, as estratégias e as decisões relativas à inovação. O presente artigo tem por objetivo investigar a atual política de desenvolvimento produtivo em saúde no Brasil e seus reflexos sobre a capacitação dos laboratórios públicos nacionais. Para essa finalidade, contextualiza os diferentes ciclos de interação entre a política de saúde e a sua base produtiva, discute a estratégia do governo brasileiro para o desenvolvimento, a transferência e a absorção de tecnologia na área da saúde (as parcerias para o desenvolvimento produtivo) e apresenta duas parcerias vigentes envolvendo laboratórios públicos para a produção de medicamentos e vacinas.

  18. Nebular phase observations of the Type-Ib supernova iPTF13bvn favour a binary progenitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncarayakti, H.; Maeda, K.; Bersten, M. C.; Folatelli, G.; Morrell, N.; Hsiao, E. Y.; González-Gaitán, S.; Anderson, J. P.; Hamuy, M.; de Jaeger, T.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Kawabata, K. S.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: We present and analyse late-time observations of the Type-Ib supernova with possible pre-supernova progenitor detection, iPTF13bvn, which were done ~300 days after the explosion. We discuss them in the context of constraints on the supernova's progenitor. Previous studies have proposed two possible natures for the progenitor of the supernova, i.e. a massive Wolf-Rayet star or a lower-mass star in a close binary system. Methods: Our observations show that the supernova has entered the nebular phase, with the spectrum dominated by Mg I]λλ4571, [O I]λλ6300, 6364, and [Ca II]λλ7291, 7324 emission lines. We measured the emission line fluxes to estimate the core oxygen mass and compared the [O I]/[Ca II] line ratio with other supernovae. Results.The core oxygen mass of the supernova progenitor was estimated to be ≲0.7 M⊙, which implies initial progenitor mass that does not exceed ~15-17 M⊙.Since the derived mass is too low for a single star to become a Wolf-Rayet star, this result lends more support to the binary nature of the progenitor star of iPTF13bvn. The comparison of [O I]/[Ca II] line ratio with other supernovae also shows that iPTF13bvn appears to be in close association with the lower mass progenitors of stripped-envelope and Type-II supernovae. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU); Chilean Telescope Time Allocation Committee proposal CN2014A-91.

  19. An infrared diagnostic for magnetism in hot stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksala, M. E.; Grunhut, J. H.; Kraus, M.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Neiner, C.; Condori, C. A. H.; Campagnolo, J. C. N.; Souza, T. B.

    2015-06-01

    Magnetospheric observational proxies are used for indirect detection of magnetic fields in hot stars in the X-ray, UV, optical, and radio wavelength ranges. To determine the viability of infrared (IR) hydrogen recombination lines as a magnetic diagnostic for these stars, we have obtained low-resolution (R~ 1200), near-IR spectra of the known magnetic B2V stars HR 5907 and HR 7355, taken with the Ohio State Infrared Imager/Spectrometer (OSIRIS) attached to the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope. Both stars show definite variable emission features in IR hydrogen lines of the Brackett series, with similar properties as those found in optical spectra, including the derived location of the detected magnetospheric plasma. These features also have the added advantage of a lowered contribution of stellar flux at these wavelengths, making circumstellar material more easily detectable. IR diagnostics will be useful for the future study of magnetic hot stars, to detect and analyze lower-density environments, and to detect magnetic candidates in areas obscured from UV and optical observations, increasing the number of known magnetic stars to determine basic formation properties and investigate the origin of their magnetic fields. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  20. South Atlantic sag basins: new petroleum system components

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, S.G. Mohriak, W.U.; Mello, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    Newly discovered pre-salt source rocks, reservoirs and seals need to be included as components to the petroleum systems of both sides of the South Atlantic. These new components lie between the pre-salt rift strata and the Aptian salt layers, forming large, post-rift, thermal subsidence sag basins. These are differentiated from the older rift basins by the lack of syn-rift faulting and a reflector geometry that is parallel to the base salt regional unconformity rather than to the Precambrian basement. These basins are observed in deep water regions overlying areas where both the mantle and the crust have been involved in the extension. This mantle involvement creates post-rift subsiding depocenters in which deposition is continuous while proximal rift-phase troughs with little or no mantle involvement are bypassed and failed to accumulate potential source rocks during anoxic times. These features have been recognized in both West African Kwanza Basin and in the East Brasil Rift systems. The pre-salt source rocks that are in the West African sag basins were deposited in lacustrine brackish to saline water environment and are geochemically distinct from the older, syn-rift fresh to brackish water lakes, as well as from younger, post-salt marine anoxic environments of the drift phase. Geochemical analyses of the source rocks and their oils have shown a developing source rock system evolving from isolated deep rift lakes to shallow saline lakes, and culminating with the infill of the sag basin by large saline lakes to a marginally marine restricted gulf. Sag basin source rocks may be important in the South Atlantic petroleum system by charging deep-water prospects where syn-rift source rocks are overmature and the post-salt sequences are immature.

  1. Empirical Determination of Convection Parameters in White Dwarfs. I. Whole Earth Telescope Observations of EC14012-1446

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencal, J. L.; Montgomery, M. H.; Kanaan, A.; Thompson, S. E.; Dalessio, J.; Shipman, H. L.; Childers, D.; Clemens, J. C.; Rosen, R.; Henrique, P.; Bischoff-Kim, A.; Strickland, W.; Chandler, D.; Walter, B.; Watson, T. K.; Castanheira, B.; Wang, S.; Handler, G.; Wood, M.; Vennes, S.; Nemeth, P.; Kepler, S. O.; Reed, M.; Nitta, A.; Kleinman, S. J.; Brown, T.; Kim, S.-L.; Sullivan, D.; Chen, W. P.; Yang, M.; Shih, C. Y.; Jiang, X. J.; Sergeev, A. V.; Maksim, A.; Janulis, R.; Baliyan, K. S.; Vats, H. O.; Zola, S.; Baran, A.; Winiarski, M.; Ogloza, W.; Paparo, M.; Bognar, Z.; Papics, P.; Kilkenny, D.; Sefako, R.; Buckley, D.; Loaring, N.; Kniazev, A.; Silvotti, R.; Galleti, S.; Nagel, T.; Vauclair, G.; Dolez, N.; Fremy, J. R.; Perez, J.; Almenara, J. M.; Fraga, L.

    2012-06-01

    We report on an analysis of 308.3 hr of high-speed photometry targeting the pulsating DA white dwarf EC14012-1446. The data were acquired with the Whole Earth Telescope during the 2008 international observing run XCOV26. The Fourier transform of the light curve contains 19 independent frequencies and numerous combination frequencies. The dominant peaks are 1633.907, 1887.404, and 2504.897 μHz. Our analysis of the combination amplitudes reveals that the parent frequencies are consistent with modes of spherical degree l = 1. The combination amplitudes also provide m identifications for the largest amplitude parent frequencies. Our seismology analysis, which includes 2004-2007 archival data, confirms these identifications, provides constraints on additional frequencies, and finds an average period spacing of 41 s. Building on this foundation, we present nonlinear fits to high signal-to-noise light curves from the SOAR 4.1 m, McDonald 2.1 m, and KPNO 2 m telescopes. The fits indicate a time-averaged convective response timescale of τ0 = 99.4 ± 17 s, a temperature exponent N = 85 ± 6.2, and an inclination angle of θ i = 32fdg9 ± 3fdg2. We present our current empirical map of the convective response timescale across the DA instability strip. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  2. Anti-botulism single-shot vaccine using chitosan for protein encapsulation by simple coacervation.

    PubMed

    Sari, Roger S; de Almeida, Anna Christina; Cangussu, Alex S R; Jorge, Edson V; Mozzer, Otto D; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; Quintilio, Wagner; Brandi, Igor Viana; Andrade, Viviane Aguiar; Miguel, Angelo Samir M; Sobrinho Santos, Eliane M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the potency and safety of vaccines against Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum) type C and D formulated with chitosan as controlled release matrix and vaccines formulated in conventional manner using aluminum hydroxide. Parameters were established for the development of chitosan microspheres, using simple coacervation to standardize the use of this polymer in protein encapsulation for vaccine formulation. To formulate a single shot vaccine inactivated antigens of C. botulinum type C and D were used with original toxin titles equal to 5.2 and 6.2 log LD50/ml, respectively. For each antigen a chitosan based solution of 50 mL was prepared. Control vaccines were formulated by mixing toxoid type C and D with aluminum hydroxide [25% Al(OH)3, pH 6.3]. The toxoid sterility, innocuity and potency of vaccines were evaluated as stipulated by MAPA-BRASIL according to ministerial directive no. 23. Encapsulation efficiency of BSA in chitosan was 32.5-40.37%, while that the encapsulation efficiency to toxoid type C was 41,03% (1.94 mg/mL) and of the toxoid type D was 32.30% (1.82 mg/mL). The single shot vaccine formulated using chitosan for protein encapsulation through simple coacervation showed potency and safety similar to conventional vaccine currently used in Brazilian livestock (10 and 2 IU/mL against C. botulinum type C and D, respectively). The present work suggests that our single shot vaccine would be a good option as a cattle vaccine against these C. botulinum type C and D.

  3. The Distance to the Massive Galactic Cluster Westerlund 2 from a Spectroscopic and HST Photometric Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Álvarez, Carlos A.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Bradley, David R.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Norris, Mark A.; Cool, Richard J.; Miller, Brendan P.

    2013-05-01

    We present a spectroscopic and photometric determination of the distance to the young Galactic open cluster Westerlund 2 using WFPC2 imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based optical spectroscopy. HST imaging in the F336W, F439W, F555W, and F814W filters resolved many sources previously undetected in ground-based observations and yielded photometry for 1136 stars. We identified 15 new O-type stars, along with two probable binary systems, including MSP 188 (O3 + O5.5). We fit reddened spectral energy distributions based on the Padova isochrones to the photometric data to determine individual reddening parameters RV and AV for O-type stars in Wd2. We find average values langRV rang = 3.77 ± 0.09 and langAV rang = 6.51 ± 0.38 mag, which result in a smaller distance than most other spectroscopic and photometric studies. After a statistical distance correction accounting for close unresolved binaries (factor of 1.08), our spectroscopic and photometric data on 29 O-type stars yield that Westerlund 2 has a distance langdrang = 4.16 ± 0.07 (random) +0.26 (systematic) kpc. The cluster's age remains poorly constrained, with an upper limit of 3 Myr. Finally, we report evidence of a faint mid-IR polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring surrounding the well-known binary candidate MSP 18, which appears to lie at the center of a secondary stellar grouping within Westerlund 2. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  4. Variable Stars in Large Magellanic Cloud Globular Clusters. II. NGC 1786

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Smith, Horace A.; Catelan, Márcio; Pritzl, Barton J.; De Lee, Nathan; Borissova, Jura

    2012-12-01

    This is the second in a series of papers studying the variable stars in Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters. The primary goal of this series is to study how RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to their counterparts in Oosterhoff I/II systems. In this paper, we present the results of our new time-series B-V photometric study of the globular cluster NGC 1786. A total of 65 variable stars were identified in our field of view. These variables include 53 RR Lyraes (27 RRab, 18 RRc, and 8 RRd), 3 classical Cepheids, 1 Type II Cepheid, 1 Anomalous Cepheid, 2 eclipsing binaries, 3 Delta Scuti/SX Phoenicis variables, and 2 variables of undetermined type. Photometric parameters for these variables are presented. We present physical properties for some of the RR Lyrae stars, derived from Fourier analysis of their light curves. We discuss several different indicators of Oosterhoff type which indicate that the Oosterhoff classification of NGC 1786 is not as clear cut as what is seen in most globular clusters. Based on observations taken with the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope operated by the SMARTS Consortium and observations taken at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  5. Metal-poor Stars Observed with the Magellan Telescope. II. Discovery of Four Stars with [Fe/H] <= -3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Frebel, Anna; Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert; Lee, Young Sun; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Rossi, Silvia; Santucci, Rafael M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the discovery of seven low-metallicity stars selected from the Hamburg/ESO Survey, six of which are extremely metal-poor (EMP, [Fe/H] <= -3.0), with four having [Fe/H] <= -3.5. Chemical abundances or upper limits are derived for these stars based on high-resolution (R ~ 35,000) Magellan/MIKE spectroscopy, and are in general agreement with those of other very and extremely metal-poor stars reported in the literature. Accurate metallicities and abundance patterns for stars in this metallicity range are of particular importance for studies of the shape of the metallicity distribution function of the Milky Way's halo system, in particular for probing the nature of its low-metallicity tail. In addition, taking into account suggested evolutionary mixing effects, we find that six of the program stars (with [Fe/H] <= -3.35) possess atmospheres that were likely originally enriched in carbon, relative to iron, during their main-sequence phases. These stars do not exhibit overabundances of their s-process elements, and hence may be, within the error bars, additional examples of the so-called CEMP-no class of objects. Based on observations gathered with: The 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope (SO2011B-002), which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU); and the New Technology Telescope (NTT) of the European Southern Observatory (088.D-0344A), La Silla, Chile.

  6. New taxa, including three new genera show uniqueness of Neotropical Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nishida, Kenji; Snyers, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After finding distinct clades in a molecular phylogeny for Nepticulidae that could not be placed in any known genera and discovering clear apomorphic characters that define these clades, as well as a number of Neotropical species that could be placed in known genera but were undescribed, three new genera and nine new species are here described from the Neotropics: Stigmella gallicola van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. reared from galls on Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae) in Costa Rica, representing the first example of a gall making Stigmella; Stigmella schinivora van Nieukerken, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Schinus terebinthifolia (Anacardiaceae) in Argentina, Misiones; Stigmella costaricensis van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. and Stigmella intronia van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. each from a single specimen collected the same night in Costa Rica, Parque Nacional Chirripó; Stigmella molinensis van Nieukerken & Snyers, sp. n. reared from leafmines on Salix humboldtiana, Peru, Lima, the first Neotropical species of the Stigmella salicis group sensu stricto; Ozadelpha van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Ozadelpha conostegiae van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n., reared from leafmines on Conostegia oerstediana (Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica; Neotrifurcula van Nieukerken, gen. n. with type species Neotrifurcula gielisorum van Nieukerken, sp. n. from Chile; Hesperolyra van Nieukerken, gen. n.. with type species Fomoria diskusi Puplesis & Robinson, 2000; Hesperolyra saopaulensis van Nieukerken, sp. n., reared from an unidentified Myrtaceae, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Acalyptris janzeni van Nieukerken & Nishida, sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guanacaste. Five new combinations are made: Ozadelpha ovata (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n. and Ozadelpha guajavae (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n., Hesperolyra diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson, 2000), comb. n., Hesperolyra molybditis (Zeller, 1877), comb. n. and Hesperolyra repanda (Puplesis & Diškus, 2002), comb. n

  7. Complete genome sequence of Planctomyces brasiliensis type strain (DSM 5305T), phylogenomic analysis and reclassification of Planctomycetes including the descriptions of Gimesia gen. nov., Planctopirus gen. nov. and Rubinisphaera gen. nov. and emended descriptions of the order Planctomycetales and the family Planctomycetaceae

    DOE PAGES

    Scheuner, Carmen; Tindall, Brian J.; Lu, Megan; ...

    2014-12-08

    Planctomyces brasiliensis Schlesner 1990 belongs to the order Planctomycetales, which differs from other bacterial taxa by several distinctive features such as internal cell compartmentalization, multiplication by forming buds directly from the spherical, ovoid or pear-shaped mother cell and a cell wall consisting of a proteinaceous layer rather than a peptidoglycan layer. The first strains of P. brasiliensis, including the type strain IFAM 1448 T, were isolated from a water sample of Lagoa Vermelha, a salt pit near Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. This is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Planctomyces to be published andmore » the sixth type strain genome sequence from the family Planctomycetaceae. The 6,006,602 bp long genome with its 4,811 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. We study phylogenomic analyses that indicate that the classification within the Planctomycetaceae is partially in conflict with its evolutionary history, as the positioning of Schlesneria renders the genus Planctomyces paraphyletic. A re-analysis of published fatty-acid measurements also does not support the current arrangement of the two genera. A quantitative comparison of phylogenetic and phenotypic aspects indicates that the three Planctomyces species with type strains available in public culture collections should be placed in separate genera. Thus the genera Gimesia, Planctopirus and Rubinisphaera are proposed to accommodate P. maris, P. limnophilus and P. brasiliensis, respectively. Pronounced differences between the reported G + C content of Gemmata obscuriglobus, Singulisphaera acidiphila and Zavarzinella formosa and G + C content calculated from their genome sequences call for emendation of their species descriptions. Lastly, in addition to other features, the range of G + C values reported for the genera within the Planctomycetaceae indicates that the descriptions of the family and the

  8. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis: report of two cases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Paula Silva; Shiang, Christina; Szarf, Gilberto; Coletta, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro

    2017-01-23

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a rare lung disease. It can be idiopathic or associated with any one of various conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of two cases of PPFE in Brazil. Our first patient presented with pleural and subpleural fibrosis in the upper lobes; a spiculated nodule in the left upper lobe; and a mild reticular pattern in the lower lobes. Surgical lung biopsy revealed PPFE in the upper lobes, including the nodule, and unclassified interstitial pneumonia in the left lower lobe. Our second patient had a history of exposure to domestic birds, indicating a risk of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and presented with advanced lung disease, predominantly in the upper lobes, together with subpleural fibrosis.That patient underwent lung transplantation. In the explant specimen, PPFE and granulomas were identified, suggesting hypersensitivity pneumonitis as an associated cause. RESUMO A fibroelastose pleuroparenquimatosa (FEPP) é uma doença pulmonar rara, podendo ser idiopática ou associada a diversas condições. Pelo que sabemos, este é o primeiro relato de dois casos de FEPP no Brasil. Nosso primeiro paciente apresentava fibrose pleural e subpleural nos lobos superiores, um nódulo espiculado no lobo superior esquerdo e um padrão reticular discreto nos lobos inferiores. A biópsia pulmonar cirúrgica demonstrou FEPP nos lobos superiores, incluindo no nódulo, e pneumonia intersticial não classificada no lobo inferior esquerdo. Nosso segundo paciente tinha história de exposição a aves domésticas, indicando um risco de pneumonite de hipersensibilidade, e doença pulmonar avançada predominando em lobos superiores, com fibrose subpleural. Esse paciente foi submetido a transplante pulmonar. No espécime do explante, FEPP e granulomas foram identificados, sugerindo pneumonite de hipersensibilidade como causa associada.

  9. Improvement Science: conceptual and theoretical foundations for its application to healthcare quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Lima, Sheyla Maria Lemos; Martins, Mônica; Travassos, Claudia

    2016-11-03

    The development and study of healthcare quality improvement interventions have been reshaped, moving from more intuitive approaches, dominated by biomedical vision and premised on easy transferability, to gradually acknowledge the need for more planning and systematization, with greater incorporation of the social sciences and enhancement of the role of context. Improvement Science has been established, with a conceptual and methodological framework for such studies. Considering the incipient of the debate and scientific production on Improvement Science in Brazil, this article aims to expound its principal conceptual and theoretical fundamentals, focusing on three central themes: the linkage of different disciplines; recognition of the role of context; and the theoretical basis for the design, implementation, and evaluation of interventions. Resumo: O desenvolvimento e estudo de intervenções para a melhoria do cuidado de saúde tem ganhado novo contorno, movendo-se das abordagens mais intuitivas, com domínio da visão biomédica e assentadas no pressuposto de fácil transferibilidade, para gradativamente reconhecer a necessidade de mais planejamento e sistematização, com maior incorporação das ciências sociais e valorização do papel do contexto. A Ciência da Melhoria do Cuidado de Saúde vem se estabelecendo, propiciando referencial conceitual e metodológico para tais estudos. Considerando a incipiência do debate e produção sobre Ciência da Melhoria do Cuidado de Saúde no Brasil, este artigo objetiva discorrer sobre as principais bases conceituais e teóricas que a sustentam, com foco em três temas centrais: a articulação de diferentes disciplinas; o reconhecimento do papel do contexto; e o embasamento teórico para o desenho, implementação e avaliação das intervenções.

  10. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  11. Teaching of Astronomy at Teresa Martin College. (Breton Title: Ensino de Astronomia Nas Faculdades Teresa Martin.) Enseñanza de la Astronomia en la Facultad Teresa Martin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2005-12-01

    Courses with exclusive Astronomy contents did not exist at (FATEMA) Teresa Martin College's program until the end of 2002. In 2001, a series of educational experiments started in courses and classes of Astronomy at Mathematics and Geography departments. This actions culminated with the insertion of Teaching of Astronomy as a study theme in the course of Independent Studies for Mathematics professors in 2005. Até o final de 2002 inexistiam na grade curricular das Faculdades Integradas Teresa Martin (FATEMA) cadeiras com conteúdos exclusivos de Astronomia. A partir do ano de 2001 iniciou-se uma série de experiências educacionais através de modelos de cursos e de aulas de Astronomia nos Departamentos de Matemática e de Geografia, o que culminou com a inserção do Ensino de Astronomia como temática da disciplina de Estudos Independentes para o curso de Licenciatura em Matemática, em 2005. Hasta el final de 2002 no había en el currículo dela Facultad TeresaMartín (FATEMA) en San Pablo - SP, Brasil, disciplinas con contenidos exclusivos de Astronomía. A partir del año 2001 comenzó una secuencia de experimentos educacionales de carrera y de clases de Astronomía en los Departamentos de Matemática y Geografía, culminando en la implantación de clases de Enseñanza dela Astronomíaenla Licenciaturaen Matemática, en el año de 2003, y de la cátedra de extensión en Cosmografía parala Licenciaturaen Geografía.

  12. Experimental study of a single channel alluvial fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, Pauline; Devauchelle, Olivier; Barrier, Laurie; Métivier, François

    2016-04-01

    At the outlet of mountain ranges, rivers reach a flat plain and start to depose their sediment load into a conical sedimentary structure called alluvial fan. To decipher these sedimentary records, we need to understand the dynamics of their growth. Most natural fans are built by braided streams. However, to avoid the complexity of braided rivers, we develop a small-scale experiment in which an alluvial fan is formed by a single channel. We use a mixture of water and glycerol to produce a laminar river. The fluid is mixed with corindon sand (~ 300 μm) in a tilted channel and left free to form a fan around its outlet. The sediment and water discharges are constant during an experimental run. We record the fan progradation and the channel morphology with top-view pictures. We also generate an elevation map with an optical method based on the deformation of a moiré pattern. We observe that, to leading order, the fan remains self-affine as it grows, with a constant slope. We compare two recent studies about the formation of one-dimensionnal fan [Guerit et al. 2014] and threshold rivers [Seizilles et al. 2013] to our experimental findings. In particular, we propose a theory witch relates the fan morphology to the control parameters (fluid and sediment discharges, grain size). Our observations accord with the predictions, suggesting that the fan is built near the threshold of sediment motion. At the first order, the fan profile is linear and control by the water discharge. The downstream decrease in sediment discharge add a curvature to this profile. Finally, we intend to expand our interpretation to alluvial fans build by single-thread channels ( Okavango, Bostwana; Taquari and Paraguay, Brasil).

  13. [Efficacy of zinc on lineal growth on Latin American children younger than 5; systematic review].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Morán, Elsa; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: En la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos existe una deficiencia de micronutrientes, retraso en el crecimiento, y altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad infantil. En la actualidad se ha asociado la deficiencia de zinc con el retraso del crecimiento infantil. El propósito de esta revisión, fue analizar artículos sobre estudios aleatorizados que evaluaron el efecto de la suplementación con zinc y el crecimiento infantil. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda electrónica de la literatura en la base de datos de PubMed con las palabras claves “Micronutrient supplementation and growth”, publicados de enero de 2005 a abril de 2013. Se identificaron 34 estudios aleatorizados controlados (EAC) realizados en Latinoamérica, de los cuales cinco reunieron los criterios de inclusión. Se añadió un estudio referido por otros autores. Resultados: Los estudios se realizaron en Brasil, Cuba, Perú, Ecuador, y Guatemala. En ningún estudio se observó el efecto positivo del zinc sobre el crecimiento lineal. Conclusión: La revisión realizada sugiere que la suplementación con zinc no tiene un efecto significativo sobre el crecimiento lineal; sin embargo, podría tener beneficios sobre el crecimiento en niños con deficiencia de zinc si se añaden otros nutrientes en deficiencia.

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF AN EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION TO REDUCE THE CONSUMPTION OF HIGH-CALORIE FOODS IN PUBLIC SCHOOL CHILDREN IN TERESINA, PIAUÍ (BRAZIL).

    PubMed

    Melo dos Santos, Marize; Passos Oliveira, Vanessa; Teixeira Lima, Sueli Maria; Clímaco Cruz, Kyria Jayanne; Soares de Oliveira, Ana Raquel; Soares Severo, Juliana

    2015-08-01

    Introdución: existe una alta prevalencia de sobrepeso y hábitos alimentarios pobres entre los adolescentes, y estos factores contribuyen al desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas. Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la efectividad de una intervención educativa diseñada para reducir el consumo de alimentos con alto contenido calórico en los niños de las escuelas públicas en Teresina, Piauí (Brasil). Material y métodos: estudio cuasi-experimental, aleatorizados y de intervención cuantitativo realizado con adolescentes (n = 126), con edades comprendidas entre 10 y 14 años, de ambos sexos. La intervención educativa se desarrolló durante nueve semanas, con reuniones semanales. Se realizó una encuesta previa y posterior a la intervención. Las asociaciones entre las variables fueron examinadas usando una prueba de chi-cuadrado (x2). Resultados: se observó una reducción significativa en el consumo de refrescos y jugos procesados posterior a la intervención educativa (p = 0,007). Tiene una mayor reducción en el consumo semanal de alimentos embutidos (p = 0,072). El consumo semanal de los adolescentes de alimentos fritos y patatas fritas también se redujo significativamente después de la intervención educativa (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: el programa educativo de alimentación y nutrición fue eficaz en la reducción de la ingesta de alimentos altos en calorías y bebidas de los adolescentes, lo cual contribuyó a una mejora en la calidad de los alimentos consumidos por los niños de las escuelas evaluadas.

  15. Estructuras circumnucleares en la galaxia Seyfert interactuante NGC 1241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. J.; Carranza, G.; Dottori, H.

    We have studied the rotation curve and morphology of the central 10 kiloparsecs (~40'') of NGC 1241 obtaining 50 radial velocity measurements in three different position angles. These observations indicate a large velocity gradient of 70 km/sec/('') in the central 5''. The fitting of different density distribution laws to the derived rotation curve indicates a mass of ~ 9 E9 Msolar in the inner kpc. HST-NICMOS images show the presence of a circumnuclear star formation ring at radius ~ 2.8'' (720 pc). This ring is more defined than most of the known cases and harbours a mini-bar and nuclear spiral arms with a sense of rotation opposite than the main spiral arms. This morphological evidence suggest the presence of a dynamically decoupled system inside the circumnuclear ring. As in other cases studied by us, the ring seems to be inside an Inner Lindblad Resonance and the Lindblad curve ω-κ/2 for this object begins to drop for Rmax = 400 pc (~1.5''), but the limited spatial resolution does not allow us to find out a definitive evidence for the existence of a second ILR inside at inner radii. Up to date there is no published morphological or kinematical evidence for the presence of a second ILR at such small radii, a necessary ingredient for the presence of circumnuclear ring of star formation, considering the results of recent hydrodynamic simulations. We have proposed the observation of NGC 1241 with better instruments in order to extend the rotation curve to the central 2'', unveil the presence of a second inner resonance, study in detail the structural properties of the nuclear counterrotating arms and establish accurate models of mass distribution in galaxies with circumnuclear rings. This program has been awarded with Band 1 observing time at the Gemini North Telescope Quick Start Stage (Brasil and Argentina).

  16. Uncomplicated malaria among pregnant women in the Brazilian Amazon: local barriers to prompt and effective case management.

    PubMed

    Luz, Tatiana Chama Borges; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecília; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Moritz, Angela Fernandes Esher; Freitas, Letícia Figueira; Brasil, Juliana de Castro; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2013-02-01

    Malaria in pregnancy is associated with increased risks of maternal anemia, spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, premature delivery and other adverse effects on health. In Brazil, disease transmission is highly concentrated in the multi-state region that constitutes the Brazilian Amazon (more than 99% of all cases). This study, conducted between the first bimesters of 2007 and 2008, aims to identify the local barriers to prompt and effective case management of malaria in pregnancy and was carried out in health facilities located in three endemic municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon (Manaus, Presidente Figueiredo and Porto Velho). The study design combined both qualitative and quantitative descriptive methods. The qualitative design involved semi-structured interviews with health personnel who routinely deal with malaria care. The quantitative design involved a review of medical records of pregnant women in the visited health facilities. Additionally, data were abstracted from SIVEP-Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance Information System (Brasil, 2007) and Primary Care Information System (SIAB) databases. Flaws were detected in diagnosis (only 6.8% of women tested for malaria) and treatment (for Plasmodium falciparum infections, only 44.8% of patients received recommended first-line therapy; 10.2% of prescription presented treatments were not found in national guideline and 7.3% of the prescriptions for Plasmodium vivax and 17.9% of the prescriptions for P. falciparum were not sanctioned by the official guidelines). Training (only 37.3% had had some training), knowledge and counseling were also sub-optimal. These results indicated the need to improve the health-worker performance through training. Close supervision and feedback on the health-worker performance are also needed. These findings also highlighted the need to put into practice a series of government recommendations that encourage close collaboration between the National Malaria Control Program and

  17. Exploratory Spectroscopy of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables Candidates and Other Variable Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Cieslinski, D.; Jablonski, F. J.; Silva, K. M. G.; Almeida, L. A.; Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Palhares, M. S.

    2017-04-01

    The increasing number of synoptic surveys made by small robotic telescopes, such as the photometric Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS), provides a unique opportunity to discover variable sources and improves the statistical samples of such classes of objects. Our goal is the discovery of magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (mCVs). These are rare objects that probe interesting accretion scenarios controlled by the white-dwarf magnetic field. In particular, improved statistics of mCVs would help to address open questions on their formation and evolution. We performed an optical spectroscopy survey to search for signatures of magnetic accretion in 45 variable objects selected mostly from the CRTS. In this sample, we found 32 CVs, 22 being mCV candidates, 13 of which were previously unreported as such. If the proposed classifications are confirmed, it would represent an increase of 4% in the number of known polars and 12% in the number of known IPs. A fraction of our initial sample was classified as extragalactic sources or other types of variable stars by the inspection of the identification spectra. Despite the inherent complexity in identifying a source as an mCV, variability-based selection, followed by spectroscopic snapshot observations, has proved to be an efficient strategy for their discoveries, being a relatively inexpensive approach in terms of telescope time. Based on observations obtained at the Observatório do Pico dos Dias/LNA, and at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  18. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  19. Heart rate variability is a trait marker of major depressive disorder: evidence from the sertraline vs. electric current therapy to treat depression clinical study.

    PubMed

    Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; Kemp, Andrew H; Dantas, Eduardo M; Goulart, Alessandra C; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Boggio, Paulo S; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Fregni, Felipe; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2013-10-01

    Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is a cardiovascular predictor of mortality. Recent debate has focused on whether reductions in HRV in major depressive disorder (MDD) are a consequence of the disorder or a consequence of pharmacotherapy. Here we report on the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-pharmacological intervention, vs. sertraline to further investigate this issue. The employed design was a double-blind, randomized, factorial, placebo-controlled trial. One hundred and eighteen moderate-to-severe, medication-free, low-cardiovascular risk depressed patients were recruited for this study and allocated to either active/sham tDCS (10 consecutive sessions plus two extra sessions every other week) or placebo/sertraline (50 mg/d) for 6 wk. Patients were age and gender-matched to healthy controls from a concurrent cohort study [the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)]. The impact of disorder, treatment and clinical response on HRV (root mean square of successive differences and high frequency) was examined. Our findings confirmed that patients displayed decreased HRV relative to controls. Furthermore, HRV scores did not change following treatment with either a non-pharmacological (tDCS) or pharmacological (sertraline) intervention, nor did HRV increase with clinical response to treatment. Based on these findings, we discuss whether reduced HRV is a trait-marker for MDD, which may predispose patients to a host of conditions and disease even after response to treatment. Our findings have important implications for our understanding of depression pathophysiology and the relationship between MDD, cardiovascular disorders and mortality.

  20. An ergonomic study on the biomechanical consequences in children, generated by the use of computers at school.

    PubMed

    Paraizo, Claudia; de Moraes, Anamaria

    2012-01-01

    This research deals with the influence of the computer use in schools related to the children posture, in an ergonomic point of view. The research tries to identify probable causes for the children early postural constraints, relating it to the sedentary behavior and the lack of an ergonomic project in schools. The survey involved 186 children, between 8 and 12 years old, students of a private school in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil. An historical and theoretical school furniture research was conducted as well as a survey with the students and teachers, computer postural evaluation, ergonomic evaluation (RULA method), and observations in the computer classroom. The research dealt with the student's perception with respect to the furniture utilized by him in the classroom during the use of the computer, his body complaint, the time he spent working on the school computer and the possibility of the existence of sedentariness. Also deals with the teachers' perception and knowledge regarding ergonomics with reference to schoolroom furniture and its Regulatory Norms (RN). The purpose of the research work is to highlight the importance of this knowledge, having in view the possibility of the teachers' collaboration in the ergonomic adaptation of the classroom environment and in their conscientious opinion during the purchasing of this furniture. A questionnaire was utilized and its results showed some discontent on the part of the teachers with relation to the schoolroom furniture as well as the teachers' scant knowledge of Ergonomics.We conclude with a survey that despite the children had constraints in postural assessments and school furniture needs a major ergonomic action, the time that children use the computer at school is small compared with the time of use at home and therefore insufficient to be the main cause of quantified commitments, thus the study of computer use at home as a development and continuity of this research.

  1. An Amazon basin-wide intercomparison of ecosystem land surface models and flux observations: Results from the LBA-MIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, B. J.; Araujo, A.; Baker, I. T.; Costa, M. H.; Goncalves, L.; Imbuzeiro, H.; Kruijt, B.; Manzi, A.; Poulter, B.; von Randow, C.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Da Rocha, H. R.; Saleska, S. R.

    2009-12-01

    Amazon forests play an important and complex role in the global cycles of water and carbon, and important advances have been made in understanding Amazon processes in recent years. However, reconciling modeled mechanisms with observations across scales remains a challenge. To better address this challenge, we initiated a Model Intercomparison Project for the ‘Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia’ (LBA-MIP) to integrate modeling and observational studies for improved understanding of Amazon basin water and carbon cycling. Here, we report on expanded analysis from this project, which used the network of meteorological data from Amazon tower sites (the BrasilFlux network) in forest and converted lands to drive a suite of land surface ecosystem models that simulate energy, water and CO2 fluxes. We focus here on controls on gross primary photosynthesis (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET), and in particular on how well models capture the observed diurnal and seasonal cycles across sites. We intercompare stomatal (via available soil moisture), phenological, and available energy controls on GPP and ET across models and observations. We found that available energy is the dominant control on ET across the Amazon basin, and in assessing mechanisms responsible for differences in model performance with respect to ET, we found that soil moisture storage capacity was an important factor in ability of models to match observed seasonal cycles. We evaluated model performance with respect to GPP in terms of light use efficiency as well as leaf phenology, where observations were available. Finally, we discuss important ancillary measurements at flux tower sites (e.g., deep soil moisture profiles, LAI, and litterfall) necessary to improve our ability to empirically discriminate among different model mechanisms used to match observed seasonal patterns.

  2. Nighttime thermospheric-ionospheric coupling during geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagundes, P. R.; Muella, M. T. A. H.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Sahai, Y.; Lima, W. L. C.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Pillat, V. G.

    The electrodynamics of the ionosphere in the tropical region presents various scientific aspects which remain subject of intensive investigations and debates by the scientific community During the year 2002 in a joint project between Universidade do Vale do Para i ba UNIVAP and Universidade Luterana do Brasil ULBRA a chain of three Canadian Digital Ionosondes CADIs was established nearly along the geomagnetic meridian direction for tropical ionospheric studies such as the generation and dynamics of ionospheric irregularities changes and response due to geomagnetic disturbances and thermosphere-ionosphere coupling in the Brazilian sector The locations of the three ionosonde stations are S a o Jos e dos Campos 23 2 o S 45 9 o W dip latitude 17 6 o S - under the Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly Palmas 10 2 o S 48 2 o W dip latitude 5 5 o S -- near the magnetic equator and Manaus 2 9 o S 60 0 o W dip latitude 6 4 o N -- near the magnetic equator It should be pointed out that Palmas and Manaus are located on opposite side of the magnetic equator but both are south of the geographic equator The three CADIs work in time-synchronized mode and obtain ionograms every 5 minutes This unique configuration of the ionospheric sounding stations allowed us to study the F-region dynamics during disturbed periods in the months of August and September 2002 Then an extension of the servo model was used to infer the magnetic meridional component of the thermospheric neutral winds over the low latitude

  3. Evaluation of Three Commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Diagnosis of Chagas’ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Oelemann, Walter M. R.; Teixeira, Maria Da Glória M.; Veríssimo Da Costa, Giovani C.; Borges-Pereira, José; De Castro, José Adail F.; Coura, José Rodrigues; Peralta, José Mauro

    1998-01-01

    Chagas’ disease is a common cause of morbidity in Latin American countries. In Brazil, naturally occurring transmission of its etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, has been almost completely abolished through effective control programs aimed at the triatomid insect vector. Thus, transfusion of blood from infected donors has become the major route for contracting Chagas’ disease due to the socioeconomically motivated migration of residents from areas where the disease is endemic to the larger urban centers. Therefore, the employment of screening tests is mandatory for all blood banks throughout the country. We compared the diagnostic performances of three commercially available screening assays used in routine testing in Brazilian blood banks: the Abbott Chagas antibody enzyme immunoassay (Abbott Laboratórios do Brasil, São Paulo), the BIOELISACRUZI kit (Biolab-Mérieux, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), and the BIOZIMA Chagas kit (Polychaco S.A.I.C., Buenos Aires, Argentina). The evaluation was performed with sera obtained from chagasic patients and healthy residents of four different areas in Brazil where Chagas’ disease is either endemic or emergent and where clinical manifestations of the disease and circulating parasite strains vary. The results obtained with each kit were compared to matched in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence assay data obtained for each sample. Depending on the area under investigation, the three commercial kits produced specificity values between 93.3 and 100.0%, sensitivity values between 97.7 and 100%, and accuracies ranging from 93.6 to 100.0%. PMID:9705367

  4. Comparison between users of a new methodology for heart sound auscultation.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ana; Gomes, Pedro; Mattos, Sandra S; Coimbra, Miguel T

    2016-08-01

    Auscultation is a routine exam and the first line of screening in heart pathologies. The objective of this study was to assess if using a new data collection system, the DigiScope Collector, with a guided and automatic annotation of heart auscultation, different levels of expertise/experience users could collect similar digital auscultations. Data were collected within the Heart Caravan Initiative (Paraíba, Brasil). Patients were divided into two study groups: Group 1 evaluated by a third year medical student (User 1), and an experienced nurse (User 2); Group 2 evaluated by User 2 and an Information Technology professional (User 3). Patients were auscultated sequentially by the two users, according to the randomization. Features extracted from each data set included the length (HR) of the audio files, the number of repetitions per auscultation area, heart rate, first (S1) and second (S2) heart sound amplitudes, S2/S1, and aortic (A2) and pulmonary (P2) components of the second heart sound and relative amplitudes (P2/A2). Features extracted were compared between users using paired-sample test Wilcoxon test, and Spearman correlations (P<;0.05 considered significant). Twenty-seven patients were included in the study (13 Group 1, and 14 Group 2). No statistical significant differences were found between groups, except in the time of auscultation (User 2 consistently presented longer auscultation time). Correlation analysis showed significant correlations between extracted features from both groups: S2/S1 in Group 1, and S1, S2, A2, P2, P2/A2 amplitudes, and HR in Group 2. Using the DigiScope Collector, we were able to collect similar digital auscultations, according to the features evaluated. This may indicate that in sites with limited access to specialized clinical care, auscultation files may be acquired and used in telemedicine for an expert evaluation.

  5. Acute and Chronic Toxicities of an Annonin-Based Commercial Bioinsecticide and a Joint Mixture with a Limonoid-Based Formulation to the Fall Armyworm.

    PubMed

    Ansante, T F; Ribeiro, L P; Vendramim, J D

    2017-04-01

    The bioactivity of a newly registered annonin-based formulation (Anosom® 1 EC) was investigated for use against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), both singly and mixed with a limonoid-based formulation (Azamax® 1.2 EC) using dietary exposure bioassays. Anosom® 1 EC caused significant mortality in S. frugiperda larvae exposed to treated artificial media, with the activity level dependent on both the concentration and the exposure time. In addition to exhibiting acute toxicity, this formulation (tested at LC50) also caused growth inhibition of S. frugiperda, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in pupal weight and viable larval and pupal phases and an increase in the duration of the larval stage. Moreover, the bioinsecticide caused an increase in the proportion of deformed or defective pupae; these were characterized by the retention of exuvia from the last larval instar. The bioinsecticide (at the previously estimated LC90) was, in a time-dependent manner, equally as toxic as the limonoid-based biopesticide (Azamax® 1.2 EC), which was tested at concentrations recommended for the management of S. frugiperda in Brasil. Moreover, the binary mixture (1/2 LC90 of Anosom® 1 EC + 1/2 the recommended rate of Azamax® 1.2 EC) of both bioinsecticides caused a similar level of mortality compared to the bioinsecticides tested individually (full concentration), demonstrating an additive effect of these commercial bioinsecticides. In light of these findings, this standardized formulation based on extract of Annona squamosa can constitute a useful component in the framework of S. frugiperda management, mainly in organic food production systems.

  6. Ecological Adaptation of Wild Peach Palm, Its In Situ Conservation and Deforestation-Mediated Extinction in Southern Brazilian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Charles R.; Santos, Ronaldo P.; Desmouliere, Sylvain J. M.; Ferreira, Evandro J. L.; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    Background The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Methodology/Principal Findings Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Conclusions/Significance Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources. PMID:19238213

  7. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Marques, Cibele Dantas; Ribeiro Silva, Rita de Cássia; Machado, Maria Ester C; Portela de Santana, Mônica Leila; Castro de Andrade Cairo, Romilda; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Oliveira Reis Maciel, Leonardo; Rodrigues Silva, Luciana

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Un estudio transversal se llevó a cabo con 1477 estudiantes de primaria matriculados en las escuelas públicas de Salvador, Bahía, Brasil, para evaluar la prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad. Métodos: La muestra se determinó por la técnica de muestreo por conglomerados en dos etapas para la selección de escuelas y clases. Más tarde, posteriori error se calculó. Los estudiantes fueron clasificados como sobrepeso u obesos de acuerdo con la clasificación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, 2007. Ellos también fueron clasificados de acuerdo a la edad, la etapa de maduración sexual, y la presencia de obesidad abdominal. Resultados: En general, el 9,3% de los estudiantes tenían sobrepeso y el 6,4% eran obesos, por lo tanto, el 15,7% de los alumnos se considera que tienen exceso de peso (sobrepeso + obesidad), con un intervalo de confianza del 95%. De la población total estudiada el 12,9% presentaron obesidad abdominal, esta condición se observa en el 13% de su peso normal. Se encontró asociación entre el sobrepeso y la edad < 14 AÑOs (p = 0,030) y obesidad abdominal (p = 0,001). Conclusiones: Los programas de intervención deben ser implementados para prevenir y tratar la obesidad en la infancia y la adolescencia. Además, los profesionales que trabajan con las personas en este grupo de edad deben ser sensibles a este problema. La necesidad de estandarizar los indicadores antropométricos utilizados en los diferentes estudios se enfatiza también.

  8. Oral health promotion through an online training program for medical students.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Eskenazi, Ednalva; de Arruda Martins, Mílton; Ferreira, Mario

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the impact on knowledge and counseling skills of face-to-face and Internet-based oral health training programs on medical students. Participants consisted of 148 (82 percent) of the 180 invited students attending their fifth academic year at the Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brasil, in 2007. The interventions took place during a three-month training period in the clinical Center for Health Promotion, which comprised part of a clerkship in Internal Medicine. The students were divided into four groups: 1) Control Group (Control), with basic intervention; 2) Brochure Group (Br), with basic intervention plus complete brochure with oral health themes; 3) Cybertutor Group (Cy), with basic intervention plus access to an Internet-based training program about oral health themes; and 4) Cybertutor + Contact Group (Cy+C), the same as Cy plus brief proactive contact with a tutor. The impact of these interventions on student knowledge was measured with pre- and post assessments, and student skills in asking and counseling about oral health were assessed with an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to identify the odds ratios of scoring above Control's medians on the final assessment and the OSCE. In the results, Cy+C performed significantly better than Control on both the final assessment (OR 9.4; 95% CI 2.7-32.8) and the OSCE (OR 5.6; 95% CI 1.9-16.3) and outperformed all the other groups. The Cy+C group showed the most significant increase in knowledge and the best skills in asking and counseling about oral health.

  9. Alternatives across Latin America: catalysing change in the curriculum.

    PubMed

    Jukes, Nick

    2009-01-01

    A 6-week series of seminars addressing replacement of harmful animal use in education and training was held across Latin America in March-April 2008. Organised by InterNICHE and partner organisations in Bolivia, Peru, Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, the events built on the experience of previous major outreach in Russia and India. Up to 6 full-day seminars were held at universities and independent venues in each country. Smaller meetings with campaigners, teachers and professional bodies complemented the large presentations. All events included spoken presentations, demonstrations and free trials of a wide range of alternatives. Speakers included InterNICHE experts and those from the host countries who are involved in replacement work. Partner organisations were empowered through the process of planning and execution of the seminars, and the tour helped to identify and provide support to others who are progressing humane education initiatives. Further collaboration is now planned. Information on the current situation concerning animal use and alternatives, including laws and regulations, was also gathered from each country. The tour succeeded in raising awareness and generating interest in replacement alternatives, also by national-level interviews and media coverage. Information and freeware alternatives were widely distributed, and further translations of material into Spanish and Portuguese are in progress. To continue the hands-on access to alternatives provided at the seminars, a Mexican / Central American Alternatives Loan System has been established, and others are being built in Peru and Brasil. The donation of computers and alternatives to selected universities is also being planned in order to establish multimedia laboratories that will promote alternatives through example.

  10. Dust in the wind: Soiling of solar devices : Is there a Holy Grail solution? (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence; Costa, Suellen C.; Machado, Marcelo; Diniz, Antonia Sonia A. C.

    2016-09-01

    Soiling, the sedimentation of particulate matter (on the size scale of 1/10 the diameter of a human hair) on the exposed surfaces of solar collectors, is a growing area of concern for solar-system performance, reliability, maintenance, and cost. In the case of photovoltaics (PV), the condition of this first-surface of interaction of the incident photons is critical for ensuring that the maximum-possible light reaches the conversion devices. This paper begins with a more than seven-decade historical look at the research invested into this problem, highlighting the motivation and milestones; the researchers and the progress. The current growing terrestrial markets for solar have brought a new focus on soiling and dust issues. That is because many of these new markets in the solar-rich geographic regions of our world are ironically also in the most dust-rich and soiling-prone ones as well. This paper continues to provide an overview of the status of current research efforts toward understanding the basic soiling mechanisms, the relationships to the PV technology approaches, the geographical differences (highlighting Brasil, India, and the MENA region) in the severity of the problem, the dust physics and chemistry—all relating to the current and future mitigation approaches. Included are some fundamental microscale through nanoscale examinations at how individual dust particles adhere to module glass surfaces—as well as how the particles might stick to each other under certain environmental conditions. These observations are used to show how fundamental science may lead to the macroscale engineering solutions of these soiling problems. This presentation is designed to both overview the soiling area and highlight some of the current and future research directions, speculate on short-term approaches preventing solar showstoppers, and speculate on some "holy-grail" schemes that might lead to the final solutions.

  11. Anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for seven consecutive days (100 µg/kg/day), against nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Buzulini, Carolina; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo A; Dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate ivermectin and abamectin, both administered orally in naturally infected domestic swine, as well as analysing if the EPG (eggs per gram of faeces) values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. The animals were randomly selected based on the average of three consecutive EPG counts of Strongylida, Ascaris suum and Trichuris for experiment I, and of Strongylida and Trichuris for experiment II. After the random draw, eight animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day ivermectin (Ivermectina® premix, Ouro Fino Agronegócios), eight other animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day abamectin (Virbamax® premix - Virbac do Brasil Indústria e Comércio Ltda.), and eight pigs were kept as controls. EPG counts were performed for each individual animal at 14th day post-treatment (DPT). All animals (control and treatment) were necropsied at the 14th DPT. The results from both experiments demonstrate that both ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for a continuous period of seven days, at a daily dosage of 100 µg/kg, were highly effective (>95%) against Hyostrongylus rubidus, Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus salmi. Against Oesophagostomum dentatum, abamectin presented over 95% efficacy against both evaluated strains, while ivermectin reached other strain as resistant. Regarding T. suis, both ivermectin and abamectin were effective (efficacies >90%) against one of the tested strains, while the other one was classified as resistant. Furthermore, the EPG values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies.

  12. The Inflammatory-Nutritional Index; assessing nutritional status and prognosis in gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Carla Alberici; Orlandi, Silvana Paiva; Gonzalez, Maria Cristina

    2014-03-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la capacidad pronostica del Índice Inflamatorio-Nutricional (INI) en pacientes con cáncer del tracto gastrointestinal y pulmón. Métodos: Estudio longitudinal, con pacientes de un servicio de quimioterapia en Brasil, entre Julio de 2008 y Mayo de 2010. INI (Albúmina/CRP) y el estadio nutricional (Valoración Global Subjetiva-SGA) fueran evaluados. INI de riesgo fue definido como menor que 0.35. El tiempo medio de acompañamiento fue 1.6 año. Analices estadísticas fueran realizadas con el programa Stata 11.1™. Resultados: Fueron evaluados 74 pacientes, con edad media de 63.4 años, la mayoría hombres (58%) e con cáncer gastrointestinal (71%). Desnutrición fue identificada en 87% de los pacientes (22% con desnutrición grave). El INI medio fue 2.67 y 54% de los individuos presentaban INI de riesgo. Durante el acompañamiento hubieran 49 óbitos (66%). El tiempo mediano de sobrevida de los pacientes con INI de riesgo fue significantemente más corto que de los pacientes con INI normal (p = 0.002). El grupo con INI de riesgo llevó 0.78 año para decaer 50%, en cuanto el grupo con INI normal llevó 2.78 año (p = 0.001). INI de riesgo y desnutrición grave fueron factores independientes de peor sobrevida. Conclusión: El INI demostró capacidad pronostica en esta amuestra y puede ser una herramienta útil, basada testes rutineros y disponibles, para evaluar pacientes con cáncer.

  13. The worldwide prevalence of insufficient physical activity in adolescents; a systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Guerra, Paulo Henrique; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sistemática de los estudios transversales sobre la prevalencia de actividad física insuficiente (IPA) sobre la de base a un punto de corte definido por la OMS (< 60 min/d de actividad física moderada y vigorosa). Métodos: La búsqueda se llevó a cabo utilizando bases de datos en línea (BioMed Central, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, Medline PubMed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus), e incluyó artículos publicados desde el inicio de las bases de datos hasta 18 de febrero de 2012, así como las referencias citadas por los artículos recuperados y la información proporcionada por los autores. Sólo artículos originales que evaluaban el nivel de actividad física mediante cuestionarios fueron considerados. Resultados: De los 2.384 artículos recuperados inicialmente, quince estudios cumplieron los criterios de inclusión, de los cuales siete fueron llevados a cabo en Brasil. La prevalencia de la IPA varió de 18,7% a 90,6%, con una mediana de 79,7%. En todas las encuestas, la prevalencia fue mayor en las niñas que en los niños y y los países en desarrollo presentaron una mayor prevalencia. Conclusiones: Se concluye que la prevalencia de la IPA es alta entre los adolescentes y que la definición adoptada en este estudio se utiliza raramente en la literatura. Estos resultados sugieren que es necesario el desarrollo de intervenciones para aumentar los niveles de actividad física entre los adolescentes.

  14. Protótipo do primeiro interferômetro brasileiro - BDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Neri, J. A. C. F.; Bethi, N.; Felipini, N. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.; Andrade, M. C.; Soares, A. C.; Alonso, E. M. B., Sawant, H. S.

    2004-04-01

    A interferometria é uma poderosa ferramenta usada para investigar estruturas espaciais de fontes astrofísicas fornecendo uma riqueza de detalhes inatingível pelas técnicas convencionais de imageamento. Em particular, a interferometria com ondas de rádio abre o horizonte de conhecimento do Universo nesta ampla banda do espectro eletromagnético, que vai de cerca de 20 kHz até centenas de GHz já próximo ao infravermelho, e que está acessível a partir de instrumentos instalados em solo. Neste trabalho, apresentamos o interferômetro designado por Arranjo Decimétrico Brasileiro (BDA). Trata-se do primeiro interferômetro a ser desenvolvido no Brasil e América Latina que já está em operação na fase de protótipo. Apresentamos o desenvolvimento realizado até o momento, o sítio de instalação do instrumento, o protótipo e os principais resultados dos testes de sua operação, as perspectivas futuras e a ciência a ser desenvolvida com o instrumento nas fases II e III. Neste trabalho é dada ênfase ao desenvolvimento, testes de operação e principais resultados do protótipo. É discutida brevemente a ciência que pode ser feita com o instrumento. Tanto os detalhes técnicos quanto os principais parâmetros estimados para o instrumento nas próximas fases de desenvolvimento e o desempenho do protótipo serão publicados em breve.

  15. Expansion Of Sugarcane Production In São Paulo, Brazil: Implications For Fire Occurrence And Respiratory Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uriarte, M.

    2008-12-01

    Recent increases in the price of oil have generated much interest in biofuel development. Despite the increasing demand, the social and environmental impacts of large scale adoption of biofuels at both regional and national scales remain understudied, especially in developing economies. Here we use municipality-level data for the state of São Paulo in Brasil to explore the effects of fires associated with sugarcane cultivation on respiratory health of elderly and children. We examined the effects of fires occurring in the same year in which respiratory cases were reported as well as chronic effects associated with long-term cultivation of sugarcane. Across the state, respiratory morbidity attributable to fires accounted for 113 elderly and 317 child cases, approximately 1.8% of total cases in each group. Although no chronic effects of fire were detected for the elderly group, an additional 650 child cases can be attributed to the long term cultivation of sugar cane increasing to 5.4% the percent of children cases that can be attributed to fire. For municipalities with greater than 50% of the land in sugarcane the percentage increased to 15% and 12 % respectively for elderly and children. An additional 209 child cases could also be attributed to past exposure to fires associated with sugarcane, suggesting that in total 38% of children respiratory cases could be attributed to current or chronic exposure to fires in these municipalities. The harmful effects of cane- associated fires on health are not only a burden for the public health system but also for household economies. This type of information should be incorporated into land use decisions and discussions of biofuel sustainability.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Planctomyces brasiliensis type strain (DSM 5305T), phylogenomic analysis and reclassification of Planctomycetes including the descriptions of Gimesia gen. nov., Planctopirus gen. nov. and Rubinisphaera gen. nov. and emended descriptions of the order Planctomycetales and the family Planctomycetaceae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Planctomyces brasiliensis Schlesner 1990 belongs to the order Planctomycetales, which differs from other bacterial taxa by several distinctive features such as internal cell compartmentalization, multiplication by forming buds directly from the spherical, ovoid or pear-shaped mother cell and a cell wall consisting of a proteinaceous layer rather than a peptidoglycan layer. The first strains of P. brasiliensis, including the type strain IFAM 1448T, were isolated from a water sample of Lagoa Vermelha, a salt pit near Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. This is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Planctomyces to be published and the sixth type strain genome sequence from the family Planctomycetaceae. The 6,006,602 bp long genome with its 4,811 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that the classification within the Planctomycetaceae is partially in conflict with its evolutionary history, as the positioning of Schlesneria renders the genus Planctomyces paraphyletic. A re-analysis of published fatty-acid measurements also does not support the current arrangement of the two genera. A quantitative comparison of phylogenetic and phenotypic aspects indicates that the three Planctomyces species with type strains available in public culture collections should be placed in separate genera. Thus the genera Gimesia, Planctopirus and Rubinisphaera are proposed to accommodate P. maris, P. limnophilus and P. brasiliensis, respectively. Pronounced differences between the reported G + C content of Gemmata obscuriglobus, Singulisphaera acidiphila and Zavarzinella formosa and G + C content calculated from their genome sequences call for emendation of their species descriptions. In addition to other features, the range of G + C values reported for the genera within the Planctomycetaceae indicates that the descriptions of the family and the order should be

  17. Heritage and Observatories in Brazil at the Turn of the Twentieth Century: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granato, Marcus

    The first systematic asronomical observations in the southern hemisphere were in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil, in the short period of Dutch rule in the region (1637-1644). Later, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, there were three observatories on Brazilian soil: Imperial Observatório do Rio de Janeiro, Observatório da Escola Politecnica, both in Rio de Janeiro and Observatório Central, in the southern city of Porto Alegre. The first was created by Imperial decree by D. Pedro I, on 15 October 1827, while the second, linked to Universidade do Brasil, was established on 5 July 1881. The third was planned in 1889, but only inaugurated on 24 January 1908 as part of the Escola de Engenharia. All three institutions exist to this day, and their scientific instruments of historical value are included in cultural heritage preservation projects. The largest collection of this kind of objects is at Museu de Astronomia e Ciéncias Afins (MAST), most of whose 2000 artefacts come from the Imperial Observatory (today the National Observatory). Many of them were produced in Germany by manufacturers such as Gustav Heyde, Carl Zeiss, Askania-Werke, Carl Bamberg and Max Kohl. The buildings of the Observatório Central (1921) and Observatório Nacional (1921) are listed by federal and state heritage protection agencies, particularly because they were purpose built for astronomical research and have architectural features typical of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that have not been altered over the years.

  18. Upward Lightning in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, C.; Saba, M. M.; Alves, J.; Warner, T. A.; Albrecht, R. I.; Bie, L. L.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of upward lightning from tall objects have been reported since 1939. Interest in this subject has grown recently, some of it because of the rapid expansion of wind power generation. Also, with the increasing number of tall buildings and towers, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of upward lightning flashes from these structures. Reports from recent field observations are beginning to address the nature of upward lightning initiation, but much still needs to be learned. Examples are studies of upward lightning from towers in winter thunderstorms in Japan (Wang and Takagi, 2010; and Lu et al., 2009) and summer thunderstorms in Europe (Miki et al., 2005; Flache et al., 2008; and Diendorfer et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2011) and in North America (Mazur and Ruhnke, 2011; Hussein et al., 2011; Warner, 2011, and Warner et al., 2011). Up to January 2012, no upward flash had ever been registered in Brazil. With the help of some video cameras, we recorded 15 upward lightning which started from one of the towers located on Peak Jaraguá in the city of São Paulo. This paper describes the first results of this field campaign. A combination of high-speed video and standard definition video were used to record upward lightning flashes from multiple towers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a city located in southeastern Brazil with a population over 10 million people, an average elevation of around 800 meters above sea level, and a flash density of 15 flashes/km2/year. Observations of 15 upward flashes made with these assets were analyzed along with BrasilDAT Lightning Detection Network and a lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field sensors.

  19. U-Pb geochronology of the Lagoa Real uranium district, Brazil: Implications for the age of the uranium mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Lydia Maria; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Cruz, Simone C. P.; Machado, Nuno; Noce, Carlos Maurício; Alkmim, Fernando Flecha

    2015-03-01

    The Lagoa Real uranium district in Bahia, northeastern Brazil, is the most important uranium province in the country and presently produces this metal in an open-pit mine operated by Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil. Uranium-rich zones are associated with plagioclase (dominantly albite ± oligoclase) -rich rocks, albitites and metasomatized granitic-gneisses, distributed along NNW/SSE striking shear zones. We have used the ID-TIMS U-Pb method to date zircon and titanite grains from the São Timóteo granitoid, and albite-rich rocks from the Lagoa Real district in order to assess the age of granite emplacement, deformation/metamorphism and uranium mineralization. The isotopic data support the following sequence of events (i) 1746 ± 5 Ma - emplacement of the São Timóteo granitoid (U-Pb zircon age) in an extensional setting, coeval with the beginning of the sedimentation of the Espinhaço Supergroup; (ii) 956 ± 59 Ma hydrothermal alteration of the São Timóteo granitoid and emplacement of the uranium mineralization (U-Pb titanite age on an albite-rich sample); (iii) 480 Ma metamorphism, remobilization and Pb loss (U-Pb titanite age for the gneiss sample), during the nucleation of shear zones related to the collision between the São Francisco-Congo and Amazonia paleoplates. The 956 ± 59-Ma mineralization age is apparently associated with the evolution of the Macaúbas-Santo Onofre rift. This age bracket may bear an important exploration implication, and should be included in the diverse age scenario of uranium deposits worldwide.

  20. A proposed contents astronomy for basic education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    A Astronomia é um tema que sempre exerceu fascínio sobre as pessoas de um modo geral. Conhecer e estudar o que há nos “céus”, além de nossos olhos, continua sendo instigador e de grande interesse. Baseado nestas justificativas desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa de Doutorado, na qual, o objetivo principal foi investigar sobre a presença dos conteúdos de Astronomia nas Propostas Curriculares da região Sul do Brasil, a saber, os estados de Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul e Santa Catarina e, posterior comparação com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN) que trazem propostas de conteúdos para toda a Educação Básica brasileira. Tal investigação pautou-se na abordagem de caráter qualitativo e utilizouse para tal da Análise de Conteúdos (Bardin, 2011), que possibilitou a construção de quatro categorias, nas quais os conteúdos astronômicos foram agrupados: Terra, Sistema Solar, Via Láctea e Universo. Após a leitura, coleta de dados, construção de categorias, observou-se a dicotomia na apresentação destes conteúdos. As propostas curriculares analisadas foram as de Geografia, Ciências e Física dos estados do Paraná (2008), Rio Grande do Sul (2009) e de Santa Catarina (1998), responsáveis pelo trabalho com Astronomia nestes estados. No Ensino Fundamental, a proposta curricular do estado do Paraná apresenta conteúdos ligados à Astronomia desde o sexto ano até o nono ano, como conteúdo do primeiro bimestre, o que também é apresentado na proposta curricular do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, porém, este, não divide os conteúdos por bimestre e nem por ano, mas por ciclos, sexto e sétimo anos como primeiro ciclo e oitavo e nono anos como segundo ciclo, deixando livre para o professor estruturar sua sequência de conteúdos. A proposta curricular de Santa Catarina não apresenta estes conteúdos de maneira explícita, não divide dos conteúdos nem por ano, nem por série, traz uma sequência de conteúdos para serem trabalhados ao longo dos

  1. Mercury in estuarine sediments of the Manguaba and Botafogo River : A background and baseline values proposition in comparison to relatively well preserved and polluted aquatic systems under tropical countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Marta

    2013-04-01

    Mercury in estuarine sediments of the Manguaba and Botafogo River : A background and baseline values proposition in comparison to relatively well preserved and polluted aquatic systems under tropical countries Lima, Marta1; Menor, Eldemar2; Lima, Enjolras3; Neumann, Virginio4 1MFGTransportes, Brazil; 2Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil 3Servico Geologico do Brasil-CPRM, Brazil 4Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil Heavy metal (HM) concentrations in estuarine sediments of the Botafogo and Manguaba river, North-eastern Brazil were investigated on basis of samples from a bottom core drill performed 4km from the mouth of the rivers. Total sediments (TS) of the sliced profiles (62 cm, Botafogo river and 87 cm, Manguaba river ) were submitted to chemical analysis (51 elements), mineralogical analysis (XRD) and statistical study, followed by stoichiometric calculations. Geochronologic determinations of 210Pb allowed studying the evolution of the contamination level approximately 150 year-old interval in the Botafogo river. Mercury (Hg) and Arsenic (As) are emphasized because of a chlorine-soda industry that dumps its effluents about 15 km upstream of the estuary and extensive cultivation of sugarcane existent in this watershed. Hg background in pelitic total sediments (PTS) was certain established considering the Hg content (126 ppb) in sedimentary intervals previous to 1910. The production of chlorine-soda (since 1963) coincides with a drastic increase of the Hg concentrations and contemporary values around 6.000 ppb, without interruption in the pollutant process. The conclusions found that the Hg was the main indicator of anthropogenic contribution in the sediments of the Botafogo river. On the other hand, an increase in the Hg-As concentrations has been observed at the last decades due to an increase of the clay mineral fraction in TS of the Manguaga river. This scenario indicates that the accumulation of HM has been constant since the last decades, under a

  2. IMPACT OF TRMM PRECIPITATION ON CPTEC’S RPSAS ANALYSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdies, D. L.; Bastarz, C. F.; Fernandez, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    In this work a data assimilation study was performed to assess the impact of estimated precipitation from TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) on the CPTEC (Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos at Brasil) RPSAS (Regional Physical-space Statistical Analysis System) analyses and the Eta model forecast over the region of La Plata Basin, during a case o MCC (Mesoscale Convective Complex) occurred between 22th and 23th January 2003. The data assimilation system RPSAS and the mesoscale regional Eta model (both with 20km of spatial resolution) were run together with and without the TRMM precipitation. Is this study the assimilation of precipitation is basically a nudging process and is performed during the first guess stage by the Eta model, like in the NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) EDAS (Eta Data Assimilation System) precipitation data assimilation. During this process the model adjusts the precipitation by comparing, at which grid point and at which time step, the model precipitation against the TRMM precipitation. Doing this some adjustments are made on the latent heat vertical profile, water vapor mixing ratio and relative humidity, by considering the Betts-Miller-Janjic convective parameterization. On the next step, the RPSAS produces an analysis which covers most of the South America and the adjacent oceans. From this analysis the Eta model produces 6h, 12h, 18h and 24h forecast. Data collected from the SALLJEX (South America Low Level Jet EXperiment) was used to compare the forecasts of the model and the CPTEC 40km Regional Reanalysis was used to compare with the RPSAS analyses. Some preliminary results show that the precipitation assimilation improves the first hours of the forecast (typically 6h). The variables verified were the zonal and meridional wind, geopotential height and the precipitation. The convective precipitation fields were improved, mainly over the 6h forecast. This is an important improvement because the

  3. Metabolic syndrome components can predict C reactive protein concentration in adolescents.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Larissa Leandro; Cardoso, Luciane Daniele; Pala, Daniela; de Paula, Heberth; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Volp, Ana Carolina Pinheiro; de Freitas, Renata Nascimento

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: El síndrome metabólico (SM) se sugiere que está asociada con un estado de inflamación crónica de bajo grado, pero la relación entre biomarcadores de inflamación crónica de bajo grado, pero la relación entre biomarcadores de inflamación y los componentes del síndrome metabólico en adolescentes son escasos. Objetivo: Investigar la asociación entre las concentraciones séricas de proteína C reactiva (CRP) y los componentes del síndrome metabólico en adolescentes. Metodología: Hemos realizado una población basada en estudio de corte transversal. Los datos antropométricos, bioquímicos y clínicos se obtuvieron de 524 adolescentes (11-15 años de edad) seleccionados al azar de la población escolar de la ciudad Alegre, Espírito Santo, Brasil. Los datos fueron analizados por STATA versión 9.0. Resultados: Los adolescentes, con valores más altos de IMC (p = 0,001) y mayor porcentaje de grasa corporal (p = 0,003) tuvieron mayores concentraciones de PCR que aquellos con menor IMC y porcentaje de grasa corporal. Las concentraciones de PCR se correlacionó directamente con el IMC (r = 0,17, p = 0,0001), la circunferencia de la cintura (r = 0,15, p = 0,0005), HDL-c (r = 0,13, p = 0,003), la insulina en ayunas (r = 0,12, p = 0,009) y la presión arterial sistólica (r = 0,11, p = a 0,01). En el análisis de regresión lineal múltiple IMC (r = 0,05, p = 0,002), la glucosa en ayunas (r = -0,01, p = 0,003) y HDL-c (r = 0,017, p < 0,001) se asociaron a las concentraciones de PCR después de ajustar por los otros componentes de SM. Conclusión: La asociación encontrada entre los componentes individuales de SM y las concentraciones de PCR sugiere que la inflamación podría ser un evento temprano en el desarrollo de trastornos metabólicos en los adolescentes.

  4. Adverse events in the intensive care unit: impact on mortality and length of stay in a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Roque, Keroulay Estebanez; Tonini, Teresa; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates

    2016-10-20

    This study sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse events and their impacts on length of stay and mortality in an intensive care unit (ICU). This is a prospective study carried out in a teaching hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The cohort included 355 patients over 18 years of age admitted to the ICU between August 1, 2011 and July 31, 2012. The process we used to identify adverse events was adapted from the method proposed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. We used a logistical regression to analyze the association between adverse event occurrence and death, adjusted by case severity. We confirmed 324 adverse events in 115 patients admitted over the year we followed. The incidence rate was 9.3 adverse events per 100 patients-day and adverse event occurrence impacted on an increase in length of stay (19 days) and in mortality (OR = 2.047; 95%CI: 1.172-3.570). This study highlights the serious problem of adverse events in intensive care and the risk factors associated with adverse event incidence. Resumo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência de eventos adversos e o impacto deles sobre o tempo de permanência e a mortalidade na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI). Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo desenvolvido em um hospital de ensino do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A coorte foi formada por 355 pacientes maiores de 18 anos, admitidos na UTI, no período de 1º de agosto de 2011 a 31 de julho de 2012. O processo de identificação de eventos adversos baseou-se em uma adaptação do método proposto pelo Institute for Healthcare Improvement. A regressão logística foi utilizada para analisar a associação entre a ocorrência de evento adverso e o óbito, ajustado pela gravidade do paciente. Confirmados 324 eventos adversos em 115 pacientes internados ao longo de um ano de seguimento. A taxa de incidência foi de 9,3 eventos adversos por 100 pacientes-dia, e a ocorrência de evento adverso impactou no aumento do tempo de internação (19

  5. Health Policy on the pages of Revista de Saúde Pública.

    PubMed

    Bousquat, Aylene; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi

    2016-11-10

    consolidação da área no Brasil.

  6. Parameterization of biomass burning aerosolsin the BRAZIL-SR radiative transfer model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F. R.; Pereira, E. B.; Stuhlmann, R.

    2003-04-01

    This work describes the impact of the aerosols that are generated during biomass burning events in the solar irradiation, and presents a parameterization technique to improve the model estimations of the surface incident solar irradiation obtained by the BRASIL-SR radiative transfer model. It was verified that the mean systematic deviation error (MBE) of model estimates grows about 3 times and the value of root mean squared error (RMSE) duplicates in clear sky days for stations close to burned sites in central region of Brazil. The proximity of burned sites produces an increment of the same order of that produced by the presence of clouds in MBE. The parameterization technique of the biomass burning aerosols uses optical properties provided by "Global Aerosol Data Set" (GADS) and it is in accordance with measurements values obtained in two field missions: TRACE-A (1992) and SCAR-B (1995). Three different compositions were used in this study and the difference among them is the ratio of black carbon present in the aerosols: 5%, 7.8% and 10% of black carbon. These values are within the range of measured values observed in the field missions: from 4% to 12%. The aerosol profile and spatial distribution was obtained from a transport model for estimation of tracers spreading from biomass burning areas developed at INPE-CPTEC. The surface incident solar irradiation estimates, obtained with new aerosol parameterization, presented smaller systematic deviations in all the stations used in the validation process. The correlation among estimated and measured values for surface incident solar radiation grew about 2,5 times by adopting a composition with 5% of elementary carbon. The validation procedure showed that the improvements in aerosol parameterization allowed for better estimates by the model. However, the improvements are still masked by limitation imposed by the availability of only tri-hourly image schedules for the GOES-8 satellite in Southern Hemisphere

  7. The Universe in a Box: Introduction to the Study of Astronomy in the Initial Formation of Physics Teachers. (Spanish Title: El Universo Representado en Una Caja: Introducción al Estudio de la Astronomía en la Formación Inicial de Profesores de Física.) O Universo Representado em Uma Caixa: Introdução ao Estudo da Astronomia NA Formação Inicial de Professores de Física

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel

    2009-07-01

    This is a report of an activity of introduction to the study of Astronomy developed with a group of future Physics teachers at a Brazilian public university. Such activity had the goal of giving privileged emphasis to notions of spatiality, alternative conceptions of the participants and the process of interaction among peers, and consisted of the representation, in a three dimensional space, of the models of the universe that the participants had. The results, which were categorized as miscellaneous, geocentric, heliocentric and acentric models of the universe, were qualitatively analyzed. Analyses of the activity in the perspective of the participants are indicated and additional considerations are made regarding its use as a resource for teaching Astronomy and for teacher training. Este es el informe de una actividad para presentar un estudio introductorio de la Astronomía, desarrollado con una clase de futuros profesores de física en una universidad pública brasileña. Esta actividad tuvo como objetivo centrar las nociones de espacialidad, las concepciones alternativas de los participantes y el proceso de interacción entre pares, y consistió en la representación en un espacio tridimensional, de los modelos del universo que los participantes habían. Los resultados, que se clasificaron en universo miscelania, geocéntrico, heliocéntrico y acentrico, se analizaron cualitativamente. Son identificadas análisis de la actividad por los participantes, e hizo observaciones sobre su uso como recurso para la enseñanza de la astronomía y la formación de docentes. Trata-se do relato de uma atividade de introdução ao estudo da Astronomia, desenvolvida com uma turma de futuros professores de Física, em uma universidade pública brasileira. Tal atividade teve como meta privilegiar noções de espacialidade, as concepções alternativas dos participantes e o processo de interação entre pares e constou da representação, em um espaço tridimensional, dos

  8. Complete genome sequence of Planctomyces brasiliensis type strain (DSM 5305T), phylogenomic analysis and reclassification of Planctomycetes including the descriptions of Gimesia gen. nov., Planctopirus gen. nov. and Rubinisphaera gen. nov. and emended descriptions of the order Planctomycetales and the family Planctomycetaceae

    SciTech Connect

    Scheuner, Carmen; Tindall, Brian J.; Lu, Megan; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Huntemann, Marcel; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Jeffries, Cynthia D.; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L.; Mwirichia, Romano; Rohde, Manfred; Abt, Birte; Detter, John Chris; Woyke, Tanja; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Goker, Markus; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2014-12-08

    Planctomyces brasiliensis Schlesner 1990 belongs to the order Planctomycetales, which differs from other bacterial taxa by several distinctive features such as internal cell compartmentalization, multiplication by forming buds directly from the spherical, ovoid or pear-shaped mother cell and a cell wall consisting of a proteinaceous layer rather than a peptidoglycan layer. The first strains of P. brasiliensis, including the type strain IFAM 1448 T, were isolated from a water sample of Lagoa Vermelha, a salt pit near Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. This is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Planctomyces to be published and the sixth type strain genome sequence from the family Planctomycetaceae. The 6,006,602 bp long genome with its 4,811 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. We study phylogenomic analyses that indicate that the classification within the Planctomycetaceae is partially in conflict with its evolutionary history, as the positioning of Schlesneria renders the genus Planctomyces paraphyletic. A re-analysis of published fatty-acid measurements also does not support the current arrangement of the two genera. A quantitative comparison of phylogenetic and phenotypic aspects indicates that the three Planctomyces species with type strains available in public culture collections should be placed in separate genera. Thus the genera Gimesia, Planctopirus and Rubinisphaera are proposed to accommodate P. maris, P. limnophilus and P. brasiliensis, respectively. Pronounced differences between the reported G + C content of Gemmata obscuriglobus, Singulisphaera acidiphila and Zavarzinella formosa and G + C content calculated from their genome sequences call for emendation of their species descriptions. Lastly, in addition to other features, the range of G + C values reported for

  9. PREVALENCE OF FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO METABOLIC SYNDROME IN A COHORT OF CHILDREN IN SOUTH BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Borges Pretto, Alessandra Doumid; Correa Kaufmann, Cristina; Ferreira Dutra, Gisele; Pinto Albernaz, Elaine

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: el síndrome metabólico es un grupo de enfermedades que ha ido ganando importancia debido a la asociación con el desarrollo posterior de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Objetivo: verificar la prevalencia de factores de riesgo asociados con el síndrome metabólico en niños de una cohorte del sur de Brasil. Métodos: estudio de cohorte prospectivo con el hospital de todos los nacimientos (2.741) que tuvieron lugar en el mes de septiembre/2002 a mayo/2003 y seguimiento de una muestra aleatoria de 30,0% con uno, tres y seis meses y ocho años de edad. En una visita a los ocho años de edad se utilizó un cuestionario con preguntas relacionadas con la nutrición, la actividad física y la historia familiar de enfermedades crónicas, y se midieron peso, talla y circunferencia de la cintura. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y bivariados entre las variables independientes y los resultados obtenidos. Resultados y discusión: de 616 niños estudiados, el 51,3% fueron varones, el 70,3% blancos, cerca de la mitad pertenecían a la clase económica C, el 20,6% tenían sobrepeso y el 17,0% eran obesos. Mostró una alta prevalencia de historia familiar de hipertensión arterial (81,5%), y se observó que el 20,7% de los niños eutróficos tenían una circunferencia de cintura elevada. Conclusión: la alta prevalencia de factores de riesgo para el síndrome metabólico en los niños estudiados refuerza la importancia de una adecuada anamnesis: historia familiar. Se sugiere medir la circunferencia de la cintura en la rutina de cuidados pediátricos.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF GOOD PRACTICES IN HOSPITAL FOOD SERVICE BY COMPARING EVALUATION TOOLS.

    PubMed

    Macedo Gonçalves, Juliana; Lameiro Rodrigues, Kelly; Santiago Almeida, Ângela Teresinha; Pereira, Giselda Maria; Duarte Buchweitz, Márcia Rúbia

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: por ser un adyuvante al tratamiento médico, la alimentación hospitalaria debe ser producida en adecuadas condiciones higiénicas y sanitarias, considerando qué enfermedades transmitidas por los alimentos afectan con mayor severidad a pacientes hospitalizados e inmunodeprimidos. Objetivos: evaluar la adopción de buenas prácticas en los servicios de alimentación hospitalarios, comparando instrumentos de evaluación. Métodos: la evaluación de las buenas prácticas fue realizada utilizando una lista de verificación conforme la Resolución de Directora Colegiada – RDC n.º 216 de la Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria. Para la interpretación de los ítems listados fueron utilizados los parámetros de la RDC n.º 216 y de la Asociación Brasileña de Empresas de Comidas Colectivas (ABERC). Se aplicó el test exacto de Ficher para analizar si existían diferencias estadísticamente significativas y también fue realizado un análisis de agrupamiento de los datos per el método Unweighted Pair-group using Arithmetic Averages y un estudio de la correlación entre las matrices de disimilitud, objetivando verificar la concordancia entre los dos métodos de diagnóstico. Resultados y discusión: las buenas prácticas fueron clasificadas con valores medios totales superiores al 75% de adecuación, en los dos instrumentos utilizados. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los servicios y la alimentación evaluados por el instrumento de la ABERC. Los servicios de alimentación hospitalarios, de modo general, presentaron condiciones de buenas prácticas aceptables. Conclusión: la comparación de los instrumentos de interpretación basados en la RDC n.º 216 y ABERC mostró resultados semejantes en ambas clasificaciones.

  11. Telemedicine: challenges to dissemination in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Jose Manuel Santos de Varge; Marques, Alexandre Barbosa; Cruz, Antonio

    2016-11-03

    Telemedicine has been seen as an important tool for facing the challenges of universal health systems. The goal of this article is to discuss the main challenges to its full dissemination in Brazil. Being a somewhat new area, there are not many scientific papers that systematize it. This article is an exploratory paper, as it aims to provide an overall perspective on the subject. From an economic point of view, telemedicine is a strategic area due to its an intrinsic potential of being a source for generating innovation, for requiring and incorporating technological breakthroughs from other areas, and for its interdisciplinary nature and dynamic inter-relations that drive different industries. From the social perspective, it has the potential to make access to health services democratic, by connecting remote regions with health services located in hospitals and centers of reference for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Resumo: A telemedicina está sendo vista como uma ferramenta importante para enfrentar os desafios dos sistemas de saúde universais. O objetivo deste artigo foi discutir os principais desafios para a sua plena disseminação no Brasil. Em função do caráter relativamente emergente desta área, existe uma escassez relativa de trabalhos científicos que a sistematizem. Por isso, este artigo se enquadra na categoria de trabalho exploratório, já que tem por objetivo proporcionar uma visão geral sobre o tema. Destaca-se, que do ponto de vista econômico, a telemedicina se constitui em uma área estratégica por seu potencial intrínseco de ser fonte geradora de inovações, por demandar e incorporar avanços tecnológicos oriundos de outras áreas e, em função da sua natureza interdisciplinar e de suas inter-relações dinâmicas, pela possibilidade de impulsionar diferentes indústrias. Do ponto de vista social, tem o potencial de democratizar o acesso aos serviços de saúde, integrando regiões remotas com serviços de saúde localizados em

  12. Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XI. CoRoT-8b: a hot and dense sub-Saturn around a K1 dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordé, P.; Bouchy, F.; Deleuil, M.; Cabrera, J.; Jorda, L.; Lovis, C.; Csizmadia, S.; Aigrain, S.; Almenara, J. M.; Alonso, R.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Barge, P.; Benz, W.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bruntt, H.; Carone, L.; Carpano, S.; Deeg, H.; Dvorak, R.; Erikson, A.; Ferraz-Mello, S.; Fridlund, M.; Gandolfi, D.; Gazzano, J.-C.; Gillon, M.; Guenther, E.; Guillot, T.; Guterman, P.; Hatzes, A.; Havel, M.; Hébrard, G.; Lammer, H.; Léger, A.; Mayor, M.; Mazeh, T.; Moutou, C.; Pätzold, M.; Pepe, F.; Ollivier, M.; Queloz, D.; Rauer, H.; Rouan, D.; Samuel, B.; Santerne, A.; Schneider, J.; Tingley, B.; Udry, S.; Weingrill, J.; Wuchterl, G.

    2010-09-01

    Aims: We report the discovery of CoRoT-8b, a dense small Saturn-class exoplanet that orbits a K1 dwarf in 6.2 days, and we derive its orbital parameters, mass, and radius. Methods: We analyzed two complementary data sets: the photometric transit curve of CoRoT-8b as measured by CoRoT and the radial velocity curve of CoRoT-8 as measured by the HARPS spectrometer. Results: We find that CoRoT-8b is on a circular orbit with a semi-major axis of 0.063 ± 0.001 AU. It has a radius of 0.57 ± 0.02 RJ, a mass of 0.22 ± 0.03 MJ, and therefore a mean density of 1.6 ± 0.1 g cm-3. Conclusions: With 67% of the size of Saturn and 72% of its mass, CoRoT-8b has a density comparable to that of Neptune (1.76 g cm-3). We estimate its content in heavy elements to be 47-63 {M}_⊕, and the mass of its hydrogen-helium envelope to be 7-23 {M}_⊕. At 0.063 AU, the thermal loss of hydrogen of CoRoT-8b should be no more than 0.1% over an assumed integrated lifetime of 3 Ga. Observations made with SOPHIE spectrograph at Observatoire de Haute Provence, France (PNP.07B.MOUT), and the HARPS spectrograph at ESO La Silla Observatory (081.C-0388 and 083.C-0186). The CoRoT space mission, launched on December 27, 2006, has been developed and is operated by the CNES with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brasil, ESA, Germany, and Spain.Both data sets are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/520/A66

  13. LIPID PROFILE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE, ATTENDED AT THE FAMILY HEALTH STRATEGY, VIÇOSA/MG.

    PubMed

    Danésio de Souza, Jacqueline; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia; Oliveira Martinho, Karina; Silva Franco, Fernanda; Vidal Martins, Marcos; Gonçalves Rodrigues, Meirele; Wick, Jeannette Y; Araújo Tinôco, Adelson Luiz

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: el envejecimiento de la población ha ido acompañado de cambios epidemiológicos de la población brasileña, destacando el crecimiento continuo de la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, especialmente cardiovasculares o de la arteria coronaria, como resultado de los cambios en el perfil lipídico de las personas mayores. Objetivo: describir las variables antropométricas, estilo de vida y composición corporal como factores de comportamiento y su asociación con los cambios en el perfil lipídico de las personas de edad avanzada. Metodología: la muestra incluyó a 402 participantes que asistieron a la Estrategia Salud de la Familia, Viçosa (MG), a los que se aplicó un cuestionario con información socio-demográfica, de comportamiento y de estilo de vida. Se recogió una muestra de sangre para obtener las fracciones de lípidos, y se midió el porcentaje de peso, talla, circunferencia de la cintura y grasa corporal. La regresión lineal múltiple se realizó para identificar factores independientemente asociados con los cambios en cada una de las fracciones de lípidos seleccionados. Resultado: los factores asociados de forma independiente con un aumento de los niveles de colesterol total fueron la presencia de conducta sedentaria, un porcentaje de grasa corporal alto, mayor altura de la cintura y una mayor circunferencia de la cintura. El consumo de bebidas alcohólicas y una proporción cintura-cadera más alta se mantuvo asociado de forma independiente con la disminución de los niveles de lipoproteínas de alta densidad. El aumento de la circunferencia de la cintura se asoció de forma independiente con valores bajos de los niveles de lipoproteínas de baja densidad. El valor del aumento de triglicéridos se asocia de forma independiente con una mayor relación cintura-cadera, un mayor índice de masa corporal y tabaquismo. Conclusión: los factores de riesgo modificables asociados con un perfil lipídico cambiado deben

  14. Macronutrients and energy content of oral hospital diet prescribed to chronic kidney disease patients on conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    David Silva, Janiara; Louvera Silva, Karine A; Baggio, Sueli R; Morgano, Marcelo A; Aguiar Nemer, Aline S; Quintaes, Késia D

    2014-11-01

    Introducción: La contribución de la dieta y planificación del tratamiento en el tratamiento de la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) ha sido reconocida por tener un impacto clínico significativo si introducida tempranamente. Objetivo: determinar los niveles de hidratos de carbono, proteínas, lípidos, energía y densidad de energía (DE) en una dieta hospitalaria oral recetada para los pacientes con ERC, y evaluar la adecuación de esta dieta con respecto a las recomendaciones dietéticas. Métodos: Las dietas fueron recogidas en un hospital público brasileño en dos días no consecutivos de seis semanas diferentes. Los contenidos de los hidratos de carbono, proteínas, y lípidos (totales, saturadas, monoinsaturadas, poliinsaturadas, ácidos grasos linoleico, linolénico y trans) fueran determinados en un laboratorio. La cantidad de energía y la DE de las dietas se calcularon utilizando el factor de corrección de Atware, dividiendo la energía total de la dieta en peso, respectivamente. Resultados y Discusión: Fueran analizadas cerca de 14.3% de las dietas producidas y servidas a los pacientes con ERC. La densidad media de las di etas fue baja (0,7 kcal/g). Fue encontrada inadecuación nutricional para el contenido medio en lípidos (15%) y contenido de ácido graso linolénico (0,4%) y de energía (23,4 kcal/kg/día). El contenido de carbohidratos (63,5%) y el contenido de proteínas (1,0 g/kg/día) superaron los niveles de recomendaciones. Conclusiones: La dieta hospitalaria oral preparada para los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica se muestra desequilibrada y desfavorable para el tratamiento clínico de los pacientes.

  15. Scientific and technological capabilities in health-related areas: opportunities, challenges, and interactions with the industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Marco Antonio; Britto, Jorge

    2016-11-03

    Characterization of the scientific and technological infrastructure in health and its interactions with the industrial sector provides key elements for understanding the dynamics of innovation in health. This study conducts an exploratory analysis of the potentialities and limitations associated with scientific and technological capabilities in the health area in Brazil and the different links between the scientific and industrial sectors in health. The analysis points to important growth in internationally indexed research output, especially in certain areas such as pharmaceutics, public health, genetics, morphology, physiology, and microbiology. There has also been important growth in research groups that interact with the industrial sector in selected areas of health. The study highlights the importance of building more solid and permanent bridges between companies, research institutions, and the health system, linking the knowledge developed in research institutions to the dynamics of the industrial sector in health. Resumo: A caracterização da infraestrutura científica e tecnológica na área da saúde e das suas formas de articulação com a base produtiva representam elementos centrais na compreensão da dinâmica de inovação em saúde. Este estudo faz uma análise exploratória sobre as potencialidades e limitações associadas às capacitações científicas e tecnológicas na área da saúde no Brasil e as formas de articulação entre a base científica e a base produtiva em saúde. A análise aponta para o crescimento expressivo da produção bibliográfica com circulação internacional no campo da saúde, particularmente em determinadas áreas como farmácia, saúde coletiva, genética, morfologia, fisiologia e microbiologia. Além disso, observa-se um crescimento expressivo dos grupos de pesquisa com relacionamentos com o setor produtivo em áreas selecionadas da saúde. Destaca-se a importância da construção de pontes mais sólidas e

  16. Lifestyle, quality of life, nutritional status and headache in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Rockett, Fernanda C; Billo, Maira; Oliveira, Gabriela T; Klein, Luciana S; Parizotti, Cristiane S; Perla, Alexandre S; Perry, Ingrid D S

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Dolor de cabeza se ha descrito como un factor con impacto negativo significativo en la calidad de vida de los niños en edad escolar, con alto riesgo de desarrollar la forma crónica y persistente en la edad adulta. Entre otros factores desencadenantes o agravantes asociados, se ha investigado el estilo de vida y la obesidad, pero los resultados siguen siendo contradictorios. Objetivo: Evaluar la prevalencia de dolor de cabeza en niños en edad escolar y su relación con las características antropométricas, estilo de vida y calidad de vida. Métodos: Un estudio transversal se llevó a cabo en seis escuelas ubicadas en dos ciudades del sur de Brasil, con la participación de 750 estudiantes de 7 a 14 años. Se obtuvo información sobre características sociodemográficas, variables clínicas (presencia de dolor de cabeza y la menarquia), datos antropométricos, estilo de vida y calidad de vida. Resultados: Un total de 185 (24,7%) estudiantes reportaron tener crisis de dolor de cabeza en los últimos 3 meses. Entre los estudiantes de 10 a 14 años, presencia de dolor de cabeza se asoció con el sexo femenino, que afecta a un 32,2% de niñas frente a un 23,3% de los varones (p = 0,042, chi-cuadrado). Parámetros antropométricos (datos de sobrepeso/ obesidad) fueron consistentes con las tasas nacionales de prevalencia, y no hubo asociación entre el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) y dolor de cabeza. En cuanto a estilo de vida, 2,0% de los estudiantes reportaron fumar y un 1,6% el consumo de alcohol de vez en cuando, y no se asoció con dolor de cabeza. La calidad de vida, especialmente los aspectos de la vida social, parece estar afectada por la presencia de dolor de cabeza. Conclusión: Este estudio encontró una alta prevalencia de dolor de cabeza en niños en edad escolar, que se asoció con estudiantes de 10-14 años y la calidad de vida.

  17. [Dengue fever in Portuguese speaking countries: which epidemiological links may we set?].

    PubMed

    Silvano, José; Abreu, Cândida

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: A ocorrência recente de um conjunto de surtos de dengue em países da lusofonia previamente livres de doença, despertou- nos curiosidade quanto aos fatores concorrentes para o fenómeno e a necessidade de aprofundar conhecimentos quanto à patologia. Revemos a situação relativa à dengue nos países da lusofonia, relacionando os diferentes surtos e procurando contribuir para um melhor conhecimento do fenómeno. Material e Métodos: Revisão da literatura relativa ao tema e informação relevante obtida de comunicações orais. Resultados: Os surtos ocorridos entre os anos de 2009 e 2013 em Cabo Verde, Madeira e Angola (para lá da doença endémica no Brasil) partilham o mesmo vetor Aedes aegypti, mas são devidos a serotipos víricos com diferentes proveniências, como constatado em estudos genotípicos. A forte sub-notificação da doença em África e as dificuldades no diagnóstico e terapêutica são obstáculos ao real conhecimento da situação. Discussão: A hipótese de ligação entre alguns dos surtos não está completamente afastada. Pela elevada mobilidade de pessoas entre estas zonas e pelas alterações climáticas em curso, o território de Portugal expõe-se ao risco de introdução de dengue. A luta principal, a despeito de ferramentas emergentes ainda utópicas, é sem dúvida o controlo vetorial. Conclusão: Não foi possível provar qualquer ligação entre os diferentes surtos, mas é necessária preparação local dos profissionais de saúde, bem como o estabelecimento de estratégias de saúde pública e manutenção de redes de vigilância. Mais estudos epidemiológicos e entomológicos são necessários para caracterizar a verdadeira incidência de doença nos países lusófonos.

  18. WEIGHT LOSS AND METABOLIC OUTCOMES 12 MONTHS AFTER ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS IN A POPULATION OF SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Pinhel, Marcela A S; Nicoletti, Carolina F; de Oliveira, Bruno A P; Chaves, Raoana Cássia Paixão; Parreiras, Luciana Tabajara; Sivieri, Thiago; Vulcano, Vinicius M C; Luz, Gabriela R L; Annunciato, Danielle R; Morgado, Luiza M A; Marcatto, Gustavo; Salgado Junior, Wilson; Souza, Dorotéia R S; Nonino, Carla Barbosa

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: la investigación de los resultados previa en cirugía bariátrica tiene que documentar los cambios positivos en las comorbilidades asociadas a la obesidad. Objetivo: el objetivo del estudio fue informar de una descripción de los efectos de la cirugía bariátrica sobre la pérdida de peso y en la resolución de enfermedades asociadas con la obesidad en pacientes seguidos durante 12 meses en el servicio de salud pública de São Paulo/Brasil. Métodos: el estudio se realizó con los datos de 598 pacientes seleccionados con obesidad grado III sometidos a bypass gástrico en Y de Roux evaluados antes y 6 y 12 meses después de la cirugía. En cada momento se determinaron la antropometría, los datos demográficos y bioquímicos y la historia personal. La glucosa sérica, el colesterol total, el colesterol LDL, el colesterol HDL y los triglicéridos fueron determinados en la evaluación bioquímica. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente por el test de Chi-cuadrado, por ANOVA seguido por el post-test de Bonferroni y por la prueba t de Student para datos independientes; significación fijada en p < 0,05. Resultados: se observó pérdida de peso de 45,5 ± 13,7 kg (33,5%) durante el primer año después de la cirugía. Glucosa sérica, colesterol total y colesterol LDL se redujeron durante los primeros seis meses después de la cirugía y los valores se mantuvieron hasta los 12 meses, mientras que el peso y los triglicéridos se redujeron en todo el período de estudio. Se observó una prevalencia reducida de diabetes mellitus y dislipidemia después de la cirugía (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: el bypass gástrico en Y de Roux es un procedimiento importante para la pérdida de peso y el control de las comorbilidades como la diabetes y la dislipidemia, al menos durante el primer año postoperatorio.

  19. EFFECT OF HYPOENERGETIC DIET COMBINED WITH CONSUMPTION OF COCONUT FLOUR IN OVERWEIGHT WOMEN.

    PubMed

    de Paula Franco, Elizabeth; Moraes de Oliveira, Gláucia Maria; Raggio Luiz, Ronir; Rosa, Glorimar

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la prevalencia de la obesidad ha aumentado, sobre todo entre las mujeres. Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de una dieta hipoenergética combinada con harina de coco en los datos antropométricos y bioquímicos y, así como la calidad de la dieta. Métodos: se realizó un ensayo clínico cruzado que incluyó un paso solo con dieta hipoenergética y otro con la dieta asociada con el consumo de harina de coco (26 g) a lo largo de nueve meses. Los voluntarios fueron reclutados de la ciudad de São Gonçalo de Río de Janeiro. Antropométrica, datos bioquímicos y dietéticos fueron recolectados mensualmente. Fueron evaluados el índice de calidad de la dieta revisado para la población brasileña (ICD-R) y el consumo de alimentos y aditivos ultraprocesados. Se realizaron las pruebas de Wilcoxon y Mann-Whitney, con p < 0,05, considerado estadísticamente significativo. Resultados: participaron cuarenta y dos mujeres con un promedio de 47,5 ± 9,5 años de edad. La dieta hipoenergética promovió una disminución de la grasa corporal, el índice de masa corporal, la circunferencia de la cintura, la relación cintura-talla, el índice de adiposidad visceral, la presión arterial diastólica, los triglicéridos y VLDL. El consumo de harina de coco promovió una caída en los niveles de colesterol y glucosa totales al complementar la dieta hipoenergética. La mejora de la calidad de la dieta puede observarse en la disminución del consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados como el aceite vegetal, el chocolate y los refrescos. Conclusión: la dieta hipoenergética promovió una disminución en los parámetros antropométricos, la presión arterial y los triglicéridos. El consumo de harina de coco favoreció una disminución de los niveles de colesterol y de glucosa totales cuando se complementa la dieta hipoenergética. La calidad de la dieta mejorada se puede ver en la disminución del consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados.

  20. Do dynamic global vegetation models capture the seasonality of carbon fluxes in the Amazon basin? A data-model intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Levine, Naomi M.; Christoffersen, Bradley O.; Albert, Loren P.; Wu, Jin; Costa, Marcos H.; Galbraith, David; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley; Martins, Giordane; da Araujo, Alessandro C.; Malhi, Yadvinder S.; Zeng, Xubin; Moorcroft, Paul; Saleska, Scott R.

    2016-08-29

    To predict forest response to long-term climate change with high confidence requires that dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) be successfully tested against ecosystem response to short-term variations in environmental drivers, including regular seasonal patterns. Here, we used an integrated dataset from four forests in the Brasil flux network, spanning a range of dry-season intensities and lengths, to determine how well four state-of-the-art models (IBIS, ED2, JULES, and CLM3.5) simulated the seasonality of carbon exchanges in Amazonian tropical forests. We found that most DGVMs poorly represented the annual cycle of gross primary productivity (GPP), of photosynthetic capacity (Pc), and of other fluxes and pools. Models simulated consistent dry-season declines in GPP in the equatorial Amazon (Manaus K34, Santarem K67, and Caxiuanã CAX); a contrast to observed GPP increases. Model simulated dry-season GPP reductions were driven by an external environmental factor, ‘soil water stress’ and consequently by a constant or decreasing photosynthetic infrastructure (Pc), while observed dry-season GPP resulted from a combination of internal biological (leaf-flush and abscission and increased Pc) and environmental (incoming radiation) causes. Moreover, we found models generally overestimated observed seasonal net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and respiration (Re) at equatorial locations. In contrast, a southern Amazon forest (Jarú RJA) exhibited dry-season declines in GPP and Re consistent with most DGVMs simulations. While water limitation was represented in models and the primary driver of seasonal photosynthesis in southern Amazonia, changes in internal biophysical processes, light-harvesting adaptations (e.g., variations in leaf area index (LAI) and increasing leaf-level assimilation rate related to leaf demography), and allocation lags between leaf and wood, dominated equatorial Amazon carbon flux dynamics and were deficient or absent from current model

  1. Do dynamic global vegetation models capture the seasonality of carbon fluxes in the Amazon basin? A data-model intercomparison

    DOE PAGES

    Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Levine, Naomi M.; Christoffersen, Bradley O.; ...

    2016-08-29

    To predict forest response to long-term climate change with high confidence requires that dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) be successfully tested against ecosystem response to short-term variations in environmental drivers, including regular seasonal patterns. Here, we used an integrated dataset from four forests in the Brasil flux network, spanning a range of dry-season intensities and lengths, to determine how well four state-of-the-art models (IBIS, ED2, JULES, and CLM3.5) simulated the seasonality of carbon exchanges in Amazonian tropical forests. We found that most DGVMs poorly represented the annual cycle of gross primary productivity (GPP), of photosynthetic capacity (Pc), and of othermore » fluxes and pools. Models simulated consistent dry-season declines in GPP in the equatorial Amazon (Manaus K34, Santarem K67, and Caxiuanã CAX); a contrast to observed GPP increases. Model simulated dry-season GPP reductions were driven by an external environmental factor, ‘soil water stress’ and consequently by a constant or decreasing photosynthetic infrastructure (Pc), while observed dry-season GPP resulted from a combination of internal biological (leaf-flush and abscission and increased Pc) and environmental (incoming radiation) causes. Moreover, we found models generally overestimated observed seasonal net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and respiration (Re) at equatorial locations. In contrast, a southern Amazon forest (Jarú RJA) exhibited dry-season declines in GPP and Re consistent with most DGVMs simulations. While water limitation was represented in models and the primary driver of seasonal photosynthesis in southern Amazonia, changes in internal biophysical processes, light-harvesting adaptations (e.g., variations in leaf area index (LAI) and increasing leaf-level assimilation rate related to leaf demography), and allocation lags between leaf and wood, dominated equatorial Amazon carbon flux dynamics and were deficient or absent from current model

  2. Photometric and Spectroscopic Survey of the Cluster [DBS2003] 156 Associated with the H II Region G331.1-0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, M. C.; Ortiz, R.; Abraham, Z.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2016-05-01

    ência, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI) of the República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) and the Michigan State University (MSU).

  3. Star Formation Activity in CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogarty, Kevin; Postman, Marc; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Moustakas, John

    2015-11-01

    The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains 10 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant (>5σ) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and Hα+[N ii] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR ≳ 100 M⊙ yr-1. These measurements are supplemented with [O ii], [O iii], and Hβ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to ˜350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on ˜0.5-1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger (≲100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the active galactic nucleus. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding intracluster medium gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel

  4. The young stellar cluster [DBS2003] 157 associated with the H II region GAL 331.31-00.34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, M. C.; Abraham, Z.; Copetti, M. V. F.; Ortiz, R.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D. A.; Roman-Lopes, A.

    2012-07-01

    We report a study of the stellar content of the near-infrared (NIR) cluster [DBS2003] 157 embedded in the extended H II region GAL 331.31-00.34, which is associated with the IRAS source 16085-5138. JHK photometry was carried out in order to identify potential ionizing candidates, and the follow-up NIR spectroscopy allowed the spectral classification of some sources, including two O-type stars. A combination of NIR photometry and spectroscopy data was used to obtain the distance of these two stars, with the method of spectroscopic parallax: IRS 298 (O6 V, 3.35 ± 0.61 kpc) and IRS 339 (O9 V, 3.24 ± 0.56 kpc). Adopting the average distance of 3.29 ± 0.58 kpc and comparing the Lyman continuum luminosity of these stars with that required to account for the radio continuum flux of the H II region, we conclude that these two stars are the ionizing sources of GAL 331.31-00.34. Young stellar objects (YSOs) were searched by using our NIR photometry and mid-infrared (MIR) data from the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) survey. The analysis of NIR and MIR colour-colour diagrams resulted in 47 YSO candidates. The GLIMPSE counterpart of IRAS 16085-5138, which presents IRAS colour indices compatible with an ultracompact H II region, has been identified. The analysis of its spectral energy distribution between 2 and ?m revealed that this source shows a spectral index α= 3.6 between 2 and ?m, which is typical of a YSO immersed in a protostellar envelope. Lower limits to the bolometric luminosity and the mass of the embedded protostar have been estimated as L= 7.7 × 103 L⊙ and M= 10 M⊙, respectively, which correspond to a B0-B1 V zero-age main sequence star. Based on observations carried at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) observatory, a joint project of the Ministério de Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI) of the República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the

  5. Parallaxes of Southern Extremely Cool Objects (PARSEC). II. Spectroscopic Follow-up and Parallaxes of 52 Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocco, F.; Andrei, A. H.; Smart, R. L.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pinfield, D. J.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Clarke, J. R. A.; Sozzetti, A.; Lucas, P. W.; Bucciarelli, B.; Penna, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy for 52 ultracool dwarfs, including two newly discovered late-M dwarfs, one new late-M subdwarf candidate, three new L, and four new T dwarfs. We also present parallaxes and proper motions for 21 of them. Four of the targets presented here have previous parallax measurements, while all the others are new values. This allow us to populate further the spectral sequence at early types (L0-L4). Combining the astrometric parameters with the new near-infrared spectroscopy presented here, we are able to investigate further the nature of some of the objects. In particular, we find that the peculiar blue L1 dwarf SDSS J133148.92-011651.4 is a metal-poor object, likely a member of the galactic thick disk. We discover a new M subdwarf candidate, 2MASS J20115649-6201127. We confirm the low-gravity nature of EROS-MP J0032-4405, DENIS-P J035726.9-441730, and 2MASS J22134491-2136079. We present two new metal-poor dwarfs: the L4pec 2MASS J19285196-4356256 and the M7pec SIPS2346-5928. We also determine the effective temperature and bolometric luminosity of the 21 targets with astrometric measurements, and we obtain a new polynomial relation between effective temperature and near-infrared spectral type. The new fit suggests a flattening of the sequence at the transition between M and L spectral types. This could be an effect of dust formation, which causes a more rapid evolution of the spectral features as a function of the effective temperature. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  6. Self-consistent physical parameters for five intermediate-age SMC stellar clusters from CMD modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, B.; Kerber, L. O.; Barbuy, B.; Santiago, B.; Ortolani, S.; Balbinot, E.

    2014-01-01

    is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe tables of photometry are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A106

  7. Main-belt Comet P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Kaluna, Heather M.; Novaković, Bojan; Yang, Bin; Haghighipour, Nader; Micheli, Marco; Denneau, Larry; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Jedicke, Robert; Kleyna, Jan; Vereš, Peter; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Ansdell, Megan; Elliott, Garrett T.; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Meech, Karen J.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.; Riesen, Timm E.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Sonnett, Sarah; Tholen, David J.; Urban, Laurie; Kaiser, Nick; Chambers, K. C.; Burgett, William S.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Price, Paul A.

    2013-07-01

    ção (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  8. Usual dietary glycemic load is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in physically active Brazilian middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Cocate, Paula G; Natali, Antônio J; de Oliveira, Alessandro; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G; Longo, Giana Z; Buthers, Jéssica M; dos Santos, Eliziária C; de Oliveira, Leandro L; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia G

    2014-02-01

    Introducción: Los efectos de la carga glucémica (CG) de la dieta sobre los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en sujetos físicamente activos no están establecidos por completo. Objetivo: Este estudio transversal evaluó la asociación entre la CG de la dieta habitual y los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en hombres brasileños de mediana edad físicamente activos. Métodos: Ciento setenta y seis sujetos (índice de masa corporal: 25,5 ± 3,6 kg/m2; edad: 50,6 ± 5,0 años) fueron evaluados. Antropometría, características del estilo de vida, la resistencia a la insulina, biomarcadores del estrés oxidativo (8-iso-prostaglandina F2, 8-iso-PGF2y 8 hidroxideoxiguanosina, 8-OHdG) y el perfil lipídico fueron evaluados. La ingesta dietética se estimó por medio de un cuestionario cuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo. Resultados: La CG de la dieta se asoció positivamente con las concentraciones de ácidos grasos libres (= 0,311, r2 = 0,13, P = 0,034) y la razón triglicéridos/colesterol HDL (= 0,598, r2 = 0,19, P = 0,028), independientemente de los factores de confusión (obesidad central, consumo de carne roja, edad e ingesta calórica). El biomarcador del estrés oxidativo, 8-OHdG, también se asoció con CG de la dieta habitual (= 0,432, r2 = 0,11, P = 0,004), independientemente de los factores de confusión anteriores más el consumo excesivo de alcohol, la ingesta de hierro y tabaquismo actual. Conclusiones: La CG de la dieta se asoció positivamente con el perfil lipídico (concentraciones de ácidos grasos libres y razón triglicéridos/HDL colesterol) y el biomarcador de estrés oxidativo 8-OHdG. Estos resultados indican el potencial de nocividad de una dieta con mayor CG respecto a los factores de riesgo cardiometabólico en hombres de mediana edad, incluso en aquellos físicamente activos.

  9. Innovation in healthcare services: notes on the limits of field research.

    PubMed

    Costa, Laís Silveira

    2016-11-03

    teórico maduro tem impactos deletérios para a formulação dessas políticas, quadro agravado no Brasil, onde são observadas diferenças crescentes na qualidade e disponibilidade de acesso entre os segmentos populacionais dependentes dos sistemas públicos e privados.

  10. PREFACE: 8th Ibero-American Congress on Sensors (IBERSENSOR 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Idalia; Santiago-Avilés, Jorge J.

    2013-03-01

    The 8th Ibero-American Congress on Sensors (IBERSENSOR 2012) was held in Carolina, Puerto Rico on 16-19 October 2012. IBERSENSOR is a forum of the Spanish and Portuguese speaking scientific community, working in the fields of sensors of every possible kind and their applications. Previous conferences in the series were successfully carried out in La Habana, Cuba (1998); Buenos Aires, Argentina (2000); Lima, Perú (2002); Puebla, México (2004); Montevideo, Uruguay (2006); Sao Paulo, Brasil (2008) and Lisboa, Portugal (2010). IBERSENSOR 2012 participants included researchers from eleven countries in the Americas and Europe, in particular young men and women. The conference was organized and sponsored by the Partnership for Research and Education in Materials (NSF-DMR-0934195) a collaborative program between the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao (UPRH) and the University of Pennsylvania (PENN) Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, sponsored by the USA National Science Foundation (NSF). Other sponsors included the Center for Advanced Nanoscale Materials of the University of Puerto Rico at Río Piedras and the Nano/Bio Interface Center (NBIC) at PENN. The Proceedings of IBERSENSOR 2012 include a selection of 21 research papers in the areas of Materials and Processes for Sensor Development, Nano-Sensors, Chemical Sensors, Mechanical Sensors, Optical Sensors, Wireless Sensors, Sensor signal conditioning and Instrumentation, Microfluidic Devices, and Biomedical and Environmental Applications. Editors Idalia Ramos University of Puerto Rico at Humacao, Puerto Rico Jorge J Santiago-Avilés University of Pennsylvania, USA Group photograph Logos Ibero-American Congress on Sensors Ibero-American Congress on Sensors (Ibersensor) Main Sponsors PENN-UPRH-PREM Partnership for Research and Education in Materials (PENN-UPRH-PREM) University of Puerto Rico at Humacao USA National Science Foundation USA National Science Foundation Other Sponsors Center for Advanced

  11. Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Patrícia; Pereira, José P; Moreira, M Elisabeth; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita M; Damasceno, Luana; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Rabello, Renata S; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Salles, Tania S; Zin, Andrea A; Horovitz, Dafne; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Pilotto, José H; Medialdea-Carrera, Raquel; Cotrim da Cunha, Denise; Abreu de Carvalho, Liege M; Pone, Marcos; Machado Siqueira, André; Calvet, Guilherme A; Rodrigues Baião, Ana E; Neves, Elizabeth S; Nassar de Carvalho, Paulo R; Hasue, Renata H; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Janzen, Carla; Cherry, James D; Bispo de Filippis, Ana M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2016-12-15

    ). Conclusions Despite mild clinical symptoms in the mother, ZIKV infection during pregnancy is deleterious to the fetus and is associated with fetal death, fetal growth restriction, and a spectrum of central nervous system abnormalities. (Funded by Ministério da Saúde do Brasil and others.).

  12. PNAUM: integrated approach to Pharmaceutical Services, Science, Technology and Innovation.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Nascimento, José Miguel do; Soeiro, Orlando Mário; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Motta, Márcia Luz da; Carvalho, Antônio Carlos Campos de

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the development process of the Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines) based on an integrated approach to pharmaceutical services, science, technology and innovation. It starts by contextualizing health and development in Brazil and features elements of the National Policy for Science, Technology and Innovation in Health in Brazil and the National Policy for Pharmaceutical Services. On presenting pharmaceutical policy guidelines, it stresses the lack of nationwide data. This survey, commissioned by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, has two components: household survey and evaluation of pharmaceutical services in primary care. The findings point to perspectives that represent, besides the enhancement of public policy for pharmaceutical services and public health, results of government action aimed at developing the economic and industrial health care complex to improve the health conditions of the Brazilian population. RESUMO O artigo apresenta o processo de construção da Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamento a partir de uma concepção integradora da Assistência Farmacêutica, Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação. Inicia-se contextualizando a saúde e o desenvolvimento no País e apresenta elementos da Política Nacional de Ciência Tecnologia e Inovação em Saúde no Brasil e da Política Nacional de Assistência Farmacêutica. Ao apresentar as diretrizes das Políticas Farmacêuticas, destaca-se a carência de dados de abrangência nacional. A presente pesquisa, encomendada pelo Ministério da Saúde, foi estruturada em dois componentes: inquérito domiciliar e avaliação dos serviços de assistência farmacêutica na atenção básica. As perspectivas dos resultados representam, além do incremento das políticas públicas farmacêuticas e de saúde p

  13. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Rossi, Luciana; Tirapegui, Julio

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: Brasil es el segundo país del mundo con el mayor número de gimnasios y actualmente representa aproximadamente 30 mil unidades. Cada vez hay más evidencias de que una parte significativa de los practicantes de actividad física desarrollan un compromiso exagerado con esta actividad, que incluso pueden generar dependencia patológica. Objetivo: determinar la asociación entre la práctica exagerada de ejercicio físico (ED) y el consumo de suplementos entre los practicantes. Método: se utilizó la escala de adicción al ejercicio en practicantes mayores de 19 años, de ambos sexos. Fue realizada una entrevista individual para determinar históricamente el consumo de suplementos; también se evaluaron los resultados de antropometría y la frecuencia departicipación en el gimnasio. Resultados: la frecuencia de la práctica en el gimnasio fue del 66,5% y la prevalencia de la suplementación fue de 51,5%, la posibilidades de un adicto al ejercicio ser un consumidor de suplemento se estima en 4,53. Conclusión: la relación entre la adicción al ejercicio y el consumo de suplemento fue comprobada, constituyendo una alerta para los profesionales de la salud, que deben tener en cuenta los factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de los signos más graves y síntomas, incluyendo el control de peso obsesivo por medio de la práctica intensa de ejercicios físicos, consumo de dietas inadecuadas y uso de suplementos nutricionales. Se recomienda que la evaluación nutricional se complemente de otras determinaciones para detectar la adicción al ejercicio y el uso de suplementación nutricional. Si es necesario, se pueden promover campañas para avalar las dietas consumidas, la composición corporal ideal y detectarlos cambios drásticos en la alimentación, así como otras cuestiones relacionadas con el cuidado nutricional en general.

  14. Modelisation of Circulation On The French Guiana Continental Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, C.; Dekeyser, I.; Ramamonjiarisoa, A.; Baklouti, M.; van Nieuwerberg, V.

    salinity at the bottom is about 36. The North-eastward trade-wind homogenises the superficial layer and lets down the halocline. The results are in good agreement with the data of Sabord 0 and pre-Chico cruises which were carried out on the shelf, respectively in May 1996 and April 1999 which correspond to the rainny season with North-East trade-wind and no retroflection of the North Brasil Current.

  15. SN 2011A: A Low-luminosity Interacting Transient with a Double Plateau and Strong Sodium Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jaeger, T.; Anderson, J. P.; Pignata, G.; Hamuy, M.; Kankare, E.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Benetti, S.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Folatelli, G.; Förster, F.; González-Gaitán, S.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Inserra, C.; Kotak, R.; Lira, P.; Morrell, N.; Taddia, F.; Tomasella, L.

    2015-07-01

    Facility under allocations 184.D-1151 and 184.D-1140 (PI: S. Benetti), at the Centro Astronmico Hispano Alemn (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofsica de Andaluca (CSIC), on observations collected at Asiago Observatory and the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  16. Water-related absorption in fibrous diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zedgenizov, D. A.; Shiryaev, A. A.; Kagi, H.; Navon, O.

    2003-04-01

    Cubic and coated diamonds from several localities (Brasil, Canada, Yakutia) were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. Special emphasis was put on investigation of water-related features of transmission Infra-red and Raman spectra. Presence of molecular water is inferred from broad absorption bands in IR at 3420 and 1640 cm-1. These bands were observed in many of the investigated samples. It is likely that molecular water is present in microinclusions in liquid state, since no clear indications of solid H_2O (ice VI-VII, Kagi et al., 2000) were found. Comparison of absorption by HOH and OH vibrations shows that diamonds can be separated into two principal groups: those containing liquid water (direct proportionality of OH and HOH absorption) and those with stronger absorption by OH group. Fraction of diamonds in every group depends on their provenance. There might be positive correlation between internal pressure in microinclusions (determined using quartz barometer, Navon et al., 1988) and affiliation with diamonds containing liquid water. In many cases absorption by HOH vibration is considerably lower than absorption by hydroxyl (OH) group. This may be explained if OH groups are partially present in mineral and/or melt inclusions. This hypothesis is supported by following fact: in diamonds with strong absorption by silicates and other minerals shape and position of the OH band differs from that in diamonds with low absorption by minerals. Moreover, in Raman spectra of individual inclusions sometimes the broad band at 3100 cm-1 is observed. This band is OH-related. In some samples water distribution is not homogeneous. Central part of the diamond usually contains more water than outer parts, but this is not a general rule for all the samples. Water absorption usually correlated with absorption of other components (carbonates, silicates and others). At that fibrous diamonds with relatively high content of silicates are characterized by molecular water. OH

  17. EFFECT OF SELENIUM SUPPLEMENTATION VIA BRAZIL NUT (BERTHOLLETIA EXCELSA, HBK) ON THYROID HORMONES LEVELS IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS: A PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Barcza Stockler-Pinto, Milena; Carrero, Juan Jesús; De Carvalho Cardoso Weide, Luciene; Franciscato Cozzolino, Silvia Maria; Mafra, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: la funcion tiroidea depende de minerales traza de selenio (Se), que esta en el centro activo de la deiodinasa yodotironina, que cataliza la conversion de la tiroxina (T4) a la forma activa de la hormona tiroidea, triyodotironina (T3). Hemodialisis (HD) de los pacientes ha reducido los niveles de T3 de los pacientes, debido en parte a la conversion hormonal alterada que puede estar relacionada con la deficiencia de Se, una caracteristica comun en estos pacientes. Este estudio evaluo el efecto de las nueces de Brasil (la mas rica fuente de Se) en los niveles de hormonas tiroideas en pacientes en HD. Métodos: se realizo una intervencion no controlada con 40 pacientes en HD (53,3 } 16,1 anos, dialisis vendimia 62,0 (8,0 - 207,0 meses)), que recibieron una nuez (≈ 5, promedio 58,1 mg Se/g) por dia durante tres meses. Determinaron los niveles plasmaticos de Se por espectrofotometria de absorcion atomica con generacion de hidruros y los niveles de T3, T4 libre (FT4), TSH en suero, asi como la actividad de la glutation peroxidasa (GPx) por ELISA. Resultados: todos los pacientes tenian niveles bajos de Se y T3 al inicio del estudio. Despues de la intervencion, los niveles plasmaticos de Se (de 17,6 } 11,6 a 153,4 } 86,1 mg/L), actividad GPx (de 33,7 } 5,9 a 41,4 } 11,2 nmol/min/ml), T3 (de 27,3 } 8,8 a 50,2 } 4,8 ng/dL) y T4L (0,87 } 0,2 a 0,98 } 0,4 ng/dL) se incrementaron significativamente (p < 0,05), mientras que los niveles de TSH se redujeron (de 2,17 } 1,3 a 1,96 } 1,1 IUU/ml), pero no de forma significativa. Conclusión: en conclusion, el aumento de los niveles de Se via suplementacion con nuez brasilena se asocia con una mejoria en los niveles de hormonas tiroideas en pacientes en HD, aunque la cantidad de Se dada no fue capaz de restablecer la T3 a los niveles normales.

  18. Astronomy in Science Textbooks: An Analysis of Pnld 2008. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en los Libros de Ciencia: un Análisis del Pnld 2008.) Astronomia Nos Livros Didáticos de Ciências: Uma Análise do Pnld 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Patrícia; Quintanilha Vaz de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The importance of the textbooks in classrooms is revealed when studies are pointing that these pedagogical sources are, most of the times, the only source used by the elementary school teachers when preparing their Science lessons. When we analyzed the Astronomy contents in the textbooks approved by the Brazilian Textbook Program 2008 and which, in theory, are the best available in the Brazilian editorial market, we examined some categories in the 2008 Textbook Guide. This research characterizes the frequency of Astronomical contents appearing in the texts, in the pictures, and in the hands-on activities. Additionally, it describes some misconceptions and presents additional information on the collections. La importancia de los libros de texto en las aulas se pone de manifiesto cuando los estudios indican que este recurso educativo es a menudo la única fuente de consulta utilizada por el profesor de ciencias de la escuela primaria para preparar sus lecciones. Cuando analizamos el contenido presente en los libros de texto de astronomía aprobados por el Programa Nacional de Libros de Texto de 2008 y que, en teoría, son los mejores libros disponibles en el mercado editorial brasileño, buscamos examinar algunas categorías que figuran en los libros de texto de la Guía de Libros Didácticos de 2008. El estudio caracteriza la frecuencia del contenido de Astronomía en el texto, en las figuras, y en las actividades de experimentación. También describe algunos errores conceptuales y presenta un conjunto de información adicional sobre las colecciones. A importância dos livros didáticos nas salas de aula revela-se quando estudos apontam que este recurso pedagógico é, muitas vezes, a única fonte de consulta utilizada pelo professor de Ciências do ensino fundamental para a preparação de suas aulas. Quando analisamos os conteúdos de Astronomia presentes nos livros didáticos aprovados no Programa Nacional do Livro Didático de 2008 e que, teoricamente, são os

  19. Dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients; comparing adults and older adults.

    PubMed

    Gómez Valiente da Silva, Henyse; Fonseca de Andrade, Camila; Bello Moreira, Annie Seixas

    2014-04-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la ingesta de nutrientes y el estado nutricional de los alimentos en pacientes con cáncer ingresados en un hospital universitario, comparando por categoría de edad entre adulto y adulto mayor. Métodos: Estudio transversal. Este estudio incluía pacientes cancerosos ingresados en un hospital en 2010. Se recogieron los hábitos dietéticos mediante un cuestionario brasileño de frecuencia de alimentos. Se dividieron los participantes en dos grupos: adultos y adultos mayores y en 4 categorías de cáncer: hematológico, pulmonar, gastrointestinal y otros. El estado nutricional se evaluó con el índice de masa corporal. Resultados: Se evaluó a un total de 86 pacientes con una edad promedio de 56,5 años, siendo el 55 % varones y el 42 % adultos mayores. La categoría de adultos mayores tenía con mayor frecuencia peso bajo (24,4 % frente a 16,3 %, p < 0,01) y una menor frecuencia de sobrepeso (7 % frente a 15,1 %, p < 0,01) que los adultos. En ambos grupos había una frecuencia elevada de fumadores, consumo de alcohol e inactividad física. Los adultos mayores tenían un menor consumo de calorías, ingesta de hierro y ácido fólico. Se observó una ingesta inadecuada de vitaminas en ambos grupos; respectivamente, 52 %, 43 %, 95 %, 76 % y 88 % para las vitaminas A, C, D, E y el ácido fólico. Los adultos mayores tenían más ingesta inadecuada de ácido fólico y calcio que los adultos (97 % frente a 82 %, p < 0,01; 88 % frente a 72 %, p < 0,01). No hubo una asociación entre la ingesta de micronutrientes con el cáncer ni con el estado nutritivo. Conclusión: La ingesta de alimentos y de macro y micronutrientes es insuficiente en los individuos con cáncer. La ingesta de alimentos en adultos mayores fue menor en comparación con los adultos. Hubo una prevalencia elevada de IMC excesivo en el grupo de adultos y un peor estado nutricional en la categoría de adultos mayores.

  20. Cholesterol and prevention of atherosclerotic events: limits of a new frontier.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Luís Eduardo Teixeira de; E, Faerstein

    2017-01-12

    Control of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease - a highly prevalent condition and one of the main causes of mortality in Brazil and worldwide - is a recurrent subject of great interest for public health. Recently, three new guidelines on dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis prevention have been published. The close release of these important publications is a good opportunity for comparison: the Brazilian model has greater sensitivity, the English model does not work with risk stratification, and the American model may be overestimating the risk. This will allow reflection on current progress and identification of controversial aspects which still require further research and debate. It is also an opportunity to discuss issues related to early diagnosis and its efficiency as a preventive strategy for atherosclerotic disease: the transformation of risk into disease, the gradual reduction of cut-off points, the limitations of the screening strategy, and the problem of overdiagnosis. RESUMO O controle da doença cardiovascular aterosclerótica - morbidade de alta prevalência e uma das principais causas de mortalidade no Brasil e no mundo - continua sendo tema de grande interesse para a Saúde Pública. Recentemente, três novas diretrizes sobre dislipidemia e prevenção da aterosclerose foram divulgadas. A convergência no tempo dessas importantes publicações constitui boa oportunidade para sua comparação: o modelo brasileiro tem maior sensibilidade, o inglês não trabalha com risco estratificado e o norte-americano parece estar superestimando o risco.Isso permitirá reflexões acerca dos avanços que já foram alcançados e identificação de aspectos ainda controversos, que seguem exigindo novas pesquisas e debates. É também uma oportunidade para discutir questões relacionadas ao diagnóstico precoce e sua eficiência como estratégia preventiva da doença aterosclerótica: as transformações do risco em doença, a diminuição progressiva de pontos de

  1. Underreporting of Congenital Syphilis as a Cause of Fetal and Infant Deaths in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Ana Rita Paulo; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Andrade, Roumayne Fernandes Vieira; Saraceni, Valéria; Miranda, Angelica E.; Dourado, Maria Inês Costa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Of all syphilis-related pregnancy outcomes, fetal death is certainly the most common one, being directly related to the availability, accessibility and quality of prenatal care. The present study aimed to analyze the underreporting of fetal and infant deaths and other maternal factors associated with congenital syphilis (CS) death. Methods This cross-sectional study integrated data of infants that were diagnosed and/or died of CS from the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação–Sinan (Notifiable Diseases Information System) and the Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade–SIM (Mortality Information System) in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brasil to identify unreported cases of congenital syphilis. We assessed data during the period from 2007 to 2013. Results The underreporting of CS as a cause of fetal or infant death increased from 41 to 415 cases (90.1%) during 2007–2013. Exactly 3,209 cases of CS were identified in Sinan and 6,578 deaths in SIM. After database linkage, we identified 382 cases that were reported in the SIM and SINAN databases consisting of 309 fetal deaths and 73 infant deaths related to CS. From the children notified at Sinan that born alive, 3.0% (78/2,542) died; Out of these, 39 (50.0%) were early and 25 (32.1%) were late neonatal deaths. The proportion of death by CS increased from 0.62 to 5.8 from 2007 to 2013. At logistic regression, the variable that maintained statistical significance with fetal and infant death outcomes was the presence of CS signs and/or symptoms at birth (OR = 3.20; IC 95% 1.54–6.62; p = 0.002). Conclusions Neonatal and Infant deaths following CS-associated live births are underreported in Northeastern Brazil. Data base linkage identified unreported fetal and neonatal deaths due to CS leading to an increased awareness of fetal/infant mortality due to this infection. PMID:27941983

  2. [Latin American malacology. Freshwater mollusks from Argentina].

    PubMed

    Rumi, Alejandra; Gregoric, Diego E Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Darrigran, Gustavo A

    2008-03-01

    A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of Argentina which covers an area of 2 777 815 km2 is presented. Distributions of Gastropoda and Bivalvia families, endemic, exotic, invasive as well as entities of sanitary importance are also studied and recommendations on their conservation are provided. Molluscs related to the Del Plata Basin have been thoroughly studied in comparison to others areas of the country. This fauna exhibits relatively the biggest specific richness and keeps its affinity with the fauna of other regions of the basin in areas of Paraguay and Brasil. The 4 500 records of molluscs considered in this paper arise from the study of the collections of Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires; Museo de La Plata, La Plata and Fundación "Miguel Lillo", Tucumán. These institutions keep very important collections of molluscs in southern South America. Field information has recently been obtained and localities cited by other authors are also included in the data base. Until today, 166 species have been described, 101 belonging to 10 families of Gastropoda and 65 to 7 of Bivalvia. Families with highest specific richness are Lithoglyphidae (22) and Sphaeriidae (25), respectively. The number of endemic species (those present only in Argentina) by family is: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1), Cochliopidae (10), Lithoglyphidae (11), Thiariidae (3), Chilinidae (11), Lymnaeidae (2) and Physidae (2?); Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?); Etheriidae (1?) and Sphaeriidae (10). Families with a distribution that comprise almost the whole country are: the Sphaeriidae and the gastropods Cochliopidae, Chilinidae and Lymnaeidae. Families Erodonidae and Solecurtidae (Bivalvia) were registered in mixohaline environments from Buenos Aires province. Gastropod families Thiaridae and Glacidorbiidae show a very restricted distribution. The rest of the families are present mainly in the center and north of the country

  3. Ground-based transit observations of the super-Earth GJ 1214 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cáceres, C.; Kabath, P.; Hoyer, S.; Ivanov, V. D.; Rojo, P.; Girard, J. H.; Miller-Ricci Kempton, E.; Fortney, J. J.; Minniti, D.

    2014-05-01

    Context. GJ 1214 b is one of the few known transiting super-Earth-sized exoplanets with a measured mass and radius. It orbits an M-dwarf, only 14.55 pc away, making it a favorable candidate for follow-up studies. However, the composition of GJ 1214 b's mysterious atmosphere has yet to be fully unveiled. Aims: Our goal is to distinguish between the various proposed atmospheric models to explain the properties of GJ 1214 b: hydrogen-rich or hydrogen-He mix, or a heavy molecular weight atmosphere with reflecting high clouds, as latest studies have suggested. Methods: Wavelength-dependent planetary radii measurements from the transit depths in the optical/NIR are the best tool to investigate the atmosphere of GJ 1214 b. We present here (i) photometric transit observations with a narrow-band filter centered on 2.14 μm and a broad-band I-Bessel filter centered on 0.8665 μm, and (ii) transmission spectroscopy in the H and K atmospheric windows that cover three transits. The photometric and spectrophotometric time series obtained were analyzed with MCMC simulations to measure the planetary radii as a function of wavelength. We determined radii ratios of 0.1173-0.0024+0.0022 for I-Bessel and 0.11735-0.00076+0.00072 at 2.14 μm. Results: Our measurements indicate a flat transmission spectrum, in agreement with the last atmospheric models that favor featureless spectra with clouds and high molecular weight compositions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU). SofI results are based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 087.C-0509.Tables of the lightcurve data are only available at the CDS via anonymous

  4. Determinants of postpartum weight variation in a cohort of adult women; a hierarchical approach.

    PubMed

    Monteiro da Silva, Maria da Conceição; Marlúcia Oliveira, Ana; Pereira Magalhães de Oliveira, Lucivalda; Silva dos Santos Fonseca, Dra Nedja; Portela de Santana, Mônica Leila; de Araújo Góes Neto, Edgar; Rodrigues Porto da Cruz, Thomaz

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La retención del aumento de peso durante el embarazo y el aumento de peso después del parto se ha asociado a una mayor prevalencia de la obesidad en las mujeres en edad fértil. Objetivo: Identificar los factores determinantes de la variación del peso en los 24 meses posparto, en mujeres adultas en dos municipios de Bahía/Brasil. Métodos: En una cohorte dinámica se incluyeron 325 mujeres, acompañadas durante 24 meses. La variación del peso a los 24 meses después del parto se consideró variable de respuesta y los factores socioeconómicos, demográficos, reproductivos, de la estilo de vida y factores relacionados con el niño, son las variables de exposición. En el análisis de datos se construyeron modelos de regresión lineal de efectos mixtos con un enfoque jerárquico para identificar los determinantes de la variación del peso posparto. Resultados: Han contribuido al aumento de peso en el nivel distal, inadecuadas condiciones sanitarias de la vivienda (2,175 kg, p = 0,001) y la participación en los programas sociales de transferencia de ingresos (1.300 kg; p = 0,018). En el nivel intermedio, el exceso de peso antes del embarazo aumentó el peso después del parto en una media de 3,380 kg (p < 0,001), mientras que el parto por cesárea contribuyó a la pérdida de 2,451 kg (p < 0,001). A nivel proximal, el aumento de un punto en la puntuación de la lactancia materna contribuyo con la pérdida de 70 g (p = 0,002) en la media del peso posparto. Conclusiones: Estos resultados indican a la necesidad de las acciones de salud dirigidas a controlar el peso durante el embarazo y después del parto incluyendo la promoción de la lactancia materna durante largos períodos y la mejora de las condiciones de vida, que implica acciones intersectoriales.

  5. Association between work shift and the practice of physical activity among workers of a poultry processing plant in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Garcez, Anderson; Canuto, Raquel; Vieira Paniz, Vera Maria; Anselmo Olinto, Beatriz; Macagnan, Jamile; Liane Henn, Ruth; Pascoal Pattussi, Marcos; Anselmo Olinto, Maria Teresa

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: La práctica regular de actividad física (AF) se ha asociado con una mejor salud. Además, las características del trabajo se pueden determinar las conductas de la AF de los trabajadores, incluyendo el turno de trabajo. Sin embargo, relativamente pocos estudios han examinado el comportamiento AF entre los trabajadores por turnos. Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la asociación entre turno de trabajo y la práctica de la AF entre los trabajadores de una planta de procesamiento de aves en el sur de Brasil. Métodos: Un estudio transversal se llevó a cabo con 1.206 trabajadores (786 mujeres), con edades entre 18 a 50 años, trabajando en turnos de una línea de producción que funciona las 24 horas/día. Los trabajadores que han participado en más de 150 minutos/semana de AF se consideraron activos. Se realizó un análisis multivariante mediante regresión de Poisson y todos los análisis se estratificó por sexo. Resultados: De los participantes en el estudio, el 36% (IC del 95%: 33-39) se consideraron activas y las características sociodemográficas asociadas con AF difirieron entre machos y hembras. En cuanto a los turnos de trabajo, los trabajadores del turno de noche tenían mayor prevalencia de la AF. Sin embargo, el aumento de la AF se asoció significativamente con el trabajo por turnos sobre todo entre las mujeres. Después de ajustar por factores de confusión, las mujeres que trabajaban en el turno de la noche fueron aproximadamente un 30% más activos que los que han trabajado durante el día (PR[razón de prevalencia]=1,32;IC del 95%: 1,07-1,62;p=0,010). Conclusiones: Este estudio encontró una baja prevalencia de PA entre los trabajadores e indicó una asociación significativa entre el trabajo por turnos y AF. Trabajar de noche se asoció positivamente con la AF regular, especialmente entre las mujeres. Estos resultados contribuyen a las iniciativas para aumentar la AF entre los trabajadores, teniendo en cuenta

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity in children under five in Alagoas, Northeast of Brazil; a population-based study.

    PubMed

    De Arruda Moreira, Marcella; Coelho Cabral, Poliana; Da Silva Ferreira, Haroldo; Cabral de Lira, Pedro Israel

    2014-06-01

    Objetivo: Investigar la prevalencia y los factores asociados con el sobrepeso y la obesidad en niños menores de 5 años en el estado de Alagoas, al noreste de Brasil. Diseño: Estudio poblacional transversal. El estudio se basó en 1.115 niños con una edad promedio de 24,7 meses (DE ± 16,8), de los que el 51,7% eran niñas. El estado nutricional se clasificó según el IMC / edad. El score > + 1 and ≤+2 z identificaba a los niños con sobrepeso y aquellos con un score > + 2 z a aquellos con obesidad, en función de la referencia estándar de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Para identificar las variables asociadas con el sobrepeso y la obesidad se realizó un análisis de regresión de Poisson. Resultados: La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad fue del 23,9% y del 7,8%, respectivamente, del 33,8% en las niñas y del 29,4% en los niños. Tras el ajuste, la renta per cápita igual o superior a 2,5 veces el salario mínimo, la edad de 6 a 23 meses y el sobrepeso y la obesidad maternos seguían asociándose positivamente con el sobrepeso/obesidad. Por otro lado, se observó una asociación negativa entre el peso al nacimiento bajo o insuficiente con el sobrepeso/ obesidad infantil. Conclusiones: Los resultados muestran una prevalencia similar de sobrepeso y obesidad a la de otros estudios en este país para los niños menores de 5 años, alertando de una posible alteración del crecimiento y desarrollo del niño.

  7. HIGH BODY MASS INDEX AMONG PATIENTS UNDERGOING HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION: RESULTS OF A CROSS-SECTIONAL EVALUATION OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN A PRIVATE HOSPITAL.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Andrea Z; Victor, Elivane S; Vidal Campregher, Paulo; Piovacari, Silvia M F; Bernardo Barban, Juliana S; Pedreira, Wilson L; Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: el estado nutricional previo al trasplante de células madre hematopoyéticas (HSCT) afecta al pronóstico: los pacientes con una mejor nutrición necesitan un menor tiempo de injerto, mientras que una nutrición pobre estaría asociada a un aumento de la tasa de mortalidad, complicaciones, costes médicos, mala calidad de vida y hospitalización. Además, los pacientes con bajo peso presentan un mayor riesgo de muerte al principio del periodo post-HSCT, y la tasa de mortalidad sin recaída es mayor en aquellos con bajo peso extremo, sobrepeso y obesidad. La obesidad está relacionada con una toxicidad asociada al tratamiento, una incidencia más alta de enfermedad de injerto-huésped de grado II-IV (GVHD), infecciones y mortalidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el estado nutricional de pacientes que se sometieron a HSCT entre 2007 y 2013 en un hospital privado, calculando el índice de masa corporal (IMC), para comprobar la prevalencia de posibles desajustes nutricionales, especialmente obesidad. Métodos: en este estudio retrospectivo, basado en informes médicos, analizamos datos de todos los pacientes con enfermedades tumorales y no tumorales que se sometieron a HSCT desde enero de 2007 hasta febrero de 2014 en el Centro de hematología-oncología y trasplante de médula ósea en un gran centro de especialidades médicas en Brasil. Resultados: en el periodo se trató y analizó un total de 257 casos, de los cuales el 79% tenían edades de hasta 65 años. Entre estos, el 56% tenían sobrepeso u obesidad. Observamos una mayor prevalencia de obesidad en pacientes ancianos (P < 0,001). El IMC medio de la muestra total fue 26,4 kg/m2. El IMC fue significativamente diferente entre géneros, con una prevalencia mayor de sobrepeso entre los hombres (P < 0,001). Conclusión: a diferencia de otros estudios, nuestra investigación ha mostrado bajas tasas de tasas de bajo peso y altas tasas de sobrepeso y de obesidad en los hombres y pacientes

  8. Glycemic control and lipid profile of children and adolescents undergoing two different dietetic treatments for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Haline; Saunders, Cláudia; Padilha, Patrícia de C; Luescher, Jorge Luiz; Szundy Berardo, Renata; Accioly, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Objetivo: Comparar el control glucémico y el perfil lipídico de niños y adolescentes sometidos a dos tratamientos dietéticos distintos para la diabetes mellitus tipo 1 atendidos en el Centro de Salud para Niños y Adolescentes con Diabetes Mellitus-UFRJ. Métodos: Estudio longitudinal retrospectivo realizado entre 2002 y 2006. Evaluamos a los mismos individuos en dos momentos distintos: tras un año en tratamiento para diabetes (TD) y posteriormente tras un año con conteo de hidratos de carbono (CHC). La evolución del estado nutricional durante los tratamientos dietéticos se evaluó empleando el índice de masa corporal (IMC) para la edad. El panel de lípidos se evaluó de acuerdo con la 1ª Guía para la prevención de la aterosclerosis en la infancia y adolescencia, empleada en Brasil, y el control glucémico se evaluó midiendo la hemoglobina glucosilada (HbA1c). Resultados: Evaluamos a 93 individuos, 38,7 % niños y 61,3 % adolescentes. La edad promedio en el momento de entrada en el estudio fue de 11,1 (± 2,66) años y la el promedio de duración de la enfermedad fue de 6,1 (± 3,2) años. Se encontró una diferencia significativa en el porcentaje de adecuación de la HbA1c (p = 0,000) y en los valores del colesterol plasmático total (p = 0,043) tras un año de dieta con CHC, lo cual no ocurrió durante el periodo de observación de TD. La evolución del estado nutricional antropométrico no mostró diferencias significativas entre el inicio y el final de ninguno de los tratamientos dietéticos. Conclusión: Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que un programa de orientación alimentaria más flexible puede contribuir a la mejora de la glucemia sin producir un deterioro del perfil lipídico en comparación con el TD.

  9. Cesarean section and increased body mass index in school children: two cohort studies from distinct socioeconomic background areas in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have raised controversy regarding the association between cesarean section and later obesity in the offspring. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of cesarean section with increased body mass index (BMI) and obesity in school children from two Brazilian cities with distinct socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods Two birth cohorts respectively born in 1994 in Ribeirao Preto, a wealthy city in Southeast, and in 1997/98 in Sao Luis, a less wealthy city in Northeast of Brasil, were evaluated. After birth, 2,846 pairs of mothers-newborns were evaluated in Ribeirao Preto and 2,542 in Sao Luis. In 2004/05, 790 children aged 10/11 years were randomly reassessed in Ribeirao Preto and 673 at 7/9 years in Sao Luis. Information on type of delivery, maternal and child characteristics, socioeconomic position and anthropometric measurements were collected after birth and at school age. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 95th percentile at school age. Results Obesity rate was 13.0% in Ribeirao Preto and 2.1% in Sao Luis. Cesarean section was associated with obesity and remained significant after adjustment only in Ribeirao Preto [OR = 1.74 (95% CI: 1.04; 2.92)]. The association between cesarean section and BMI remained significant after adjustment for maternal schooling, maternal smoking during pregnancy, duration of breastfeeding, gender, birth weight and gestational age, type of school and, only in Sao Luis, pre-pregnancy maternal weight. In Ribeirao Preto children born by cesarean section had BMI 0.31 kg/m2 (95%CI: 0.11; 0.51) higher than those born by vaginal delivery. In Sao Luis BMI of children born by cesarean section was 0.28 kg/m2 higher (95%CI: 0.08; 0.49) than those born by vaginal delivery. Conclusion A positive association between cesarean section and increased BMI z-score was demonstrated in areas with different socioeconomic status in a middle-income country. PMID:23886115

  10. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Almeida Dos Santos, Alyne Dayana; Sabino Pinho, Cláudia Porto; Santos do Nascimento, Alexsandra Camila; Oliveira Costa, Ana Carolina

    2016-03-25

    Introducción: la sarcopenia se define como un síndrome geriátrico, multifactorial, caracterizado por la pérdida progresiva de masa muscular esquelética, asociada a consecuencias graves, tales como comorbideces, mala calidad de vida y mortandad. Objetivo: identificar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a la sarcopenia en ancianos atendidos ambulatoriamente. Métodos: estudio transversal y observacional realizado con pacientes ancianos de ambos sexos atendidos en ambulatorio geriátrico, entre junio y diciembre de 2014, en un hospital universitario ubicado en el nordeste brasileño. Se determinó la sarcopenia a través de la masa muscular (circunferencia de la pantorrilla < 31 cm), fuerza muscular (evaluada por la fuerza de prensión palmar < 30 kg para hombres y < 20 kg para mujeres) y velocidad de marcha (< 0,8 metros/segundo). Entre las variables de asociación, se consideraron aspectos socioeconómicos y demográficos, variables clínicas, estilo de vida y antropometría. La tabulación y análisis de los datos se realizaron por medio del paquete estadístico SPSS versión 13.0. Resultados: la muestra se compuso de 50 pacientes, con promedio de edad de 73,9 (± 7,4) años, en la que se verificó una prevalencia de sarcopenia del 18%. La sarcopenia fue más prevalente en individuos con edad ≥ 80 años (p = 0,012), en los ancianos con bajo peso según el IMC (p < 0,001), con desnutrición de acuerdo con la CB (p = 0,004) y en los pacientes sin hipertensión arterial (p = 0,027), no encontrándose asociación con variables socioeconómicas, clínicas y del estilo de vida. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de la sarcopenia fue significativa y semejante a la descrita por otros autores, encontrándose asociación con la edad avanzada, desnutrición y ausencia de hipertensión.

  11. Emerging arboviruses and public health challenges in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes

    2016-06-27

    Environmental modification by anthropogenic actions, disordered urban growth, globalization of international exchange and climate change are some factors that help the emergence and dissemination of human infectious diseases transmitted by vectors. This review discusses the recent entry of three arboviruses in Brazil: Chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus, focusing on the challenges for the Country's public health. The Brazilian population is exposed to infections caused by these three arboviruses widely distributed on the national territory and associated with humans. Without effective vaccine and specific treatment, the maintainance and integration of a continuos entomological and epidemiological surveillance are important so we can set methods to control and prevent these arboviruses in the Country. RESUMO A modificação do ambiente por ações antrópicas, o crescimento urbano desordenado, o processo de globalização do intercâmbio internacional e as mudanças climáticas são alguns fatores que vêm facilitando a emergência e disseminação de doenças infecciosas humanas transmitidas por vetores. Este comentário aborda a recente entrada de três arbovírus no Brasil, Chikungunya (CHIKV), West Nile (WNV) e Zika (ZIKV), com enfoque nos desafios para a Saúde Pública do País. Transmitidos por mosquitos vetores amplamente distribuídos no território nacional e associados ao homem, a população brasileira encontra-se exposta à infecção por esses três arbovírus. Na ausência de vacina eficaz e tratamento específico, são importantes a manutenção e integração de uma vigilância entomológica e epidemiológica contínua, a fim de direcionarmos métodos de controle e prevenção contra essas arboviroses no País.

  12. [PRESSURE ULCER: INCIDENCE AND DEMOGRAPHIC, CLINICAL AND NUTRITION FACTORS ASSOCIATED IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Oliveira Costa, Ana Carolina; Sabino Pinho, Cláudia Porto; Almeida dos Santos, Alyne Dayana; Santos do Nascimento, Alexsandra Camila

    2015-11-01

    La úlcera por presión (UP) es una lesión localizada en la piel y/o tejido subyacente, generalmente sobre prominencias óseas, provocada por la presión y/o asociada a cizallamiento. Aunque evitable, todavía es muy prevalente, siendo destacable que en su etiología están involucrados múltiples factores. Objetivo: identificar la incidencia de úlceras por presión y los factores demográficos, clínicos y nutricionales asociados en pacientes internados en la UCI de un hospital universitario. Métodos: estudio prospectivo, observacional, con pacientes internados en una UCI de un hospital universitario ubicado en el nordeste brasileño, durante el periodo de junio a noviembre de 2014. Se determinó la UP a través de la inspección corporal tres veces a la semana durante el baño matinal, con base en las características establecidas por la National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2014. Se recolectaron datos demográficos, clínicos, bioquímicos y nutricionales. Se utilizó la escala de Braden para verificar a los individuos con riesgo de desarrollo de UP. Resultados: la muestra se compuso de 51 pacientes, con un promedio de edad de 57,7(± 16,4) años. Se verificó una incidencia de UP del 52,9%, y los factores asociados a su desarrollo fueron: uso de droga vasoactiva (p = 0,029), tiempo de hospitalización > 10 días (p ≤ 0,001) y ausencia de anemia (p = 0,011). Conclusión: la elevada incidencia de UP resalta la vulnerabilidad de los pacientes en cuidados intensivos. A pesar de caracterizarse por ser una condición multifactorial, solo el uso de drogas vasoactivas, el tiempo de hospitalización y la ausencia de anemia se asociaron a la aparición de UP. Factores nutricionales y clínicos frecuentemente relacionados a las lesiones se asociaron con su desarrollo.

  13. [OVERWEIGHT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PRACTICE ASSOCIATED WITH EATING BEHAVIOR OF BRAZILIAN COLLEGE STUDENTS].

    PubMed

    da Silva Gasparotto, Guilherme; Pereira da Silva, Michael; Miranda Medeiros Cruz, Raphael; de Campos, Wagner

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: la ingestión inadecuada de alimentos puede comprometer la salud cardiovascular de la persona, lo que aumenta las posibilidades de desarrollar una serie de enfermedades. La relación entre la ingesta dietética inadecuada y ciertos factores de riesgo cardiovascular en poblaciones de adultos jóvenes no está clara. Objetivos: el objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la asociación entre los hábitos alimentarios de los estudiantes universitarios, el exceso de peso corporal, la presión arterial alta y la actividad física regular. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio de corte transversal analítico en estudiantes de una universidad federal brasileña. Se incluyeron 1.599 estudiantes de entre 18 y 25 años. Se aplicó una encuesta tipo entrevista que incluía variables sociodemográficas y el Cuestionario Internacional de Actividad Física (IPAQ). Posteriormente, se realizó la valoración de la composición corporal (talla, peso, índice de masa corporal (IMC), circunferencia de la cintura (CC)). Los hábitos alimentarios y las conductas de riesgo cardiovascular se evaluaron mediante el cuestionario YRBSS-C (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance). Resultados: utilizando la prueba de chi-cuadrado, se encontró una asociación entre el consumo excesivo de alcohol, el consumo de frutas y el consumo de ensaladas/ verduras con actividad física regular. También se observó la asociación entre el consumo de dulces y salados, con el IMC y la circunferencia de la cintura alta. La regresión logística mostró asociación entre la ingesta de dulces (odds = 1,34) y salados (odds = 1,39) con el IMC alto. También mostró asociación con la circunferencia de la cintura, el consumo de dulces (odds = 1,33) y salados (odds = 1,74). La AFMV estaba relacionada con el consumo excesivo de alcohol (odds = 1,23), el consumo de frutas (1,46) y el consumo de ensaladas/verduras (odds = 1,49). De este modo, se comprobó la asociación entre la conducta alimentaria de

  14. Prevalence of factors related to the bone mass formation of children from a cohort in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Doumid Borges Pretto, Alessandra; Correa Kaufmann, Cristina; Ferreira Dutra, Gisele; Pinto Albernaz, Elaine

    2014-12-17

    Introducción: La cantidad de masa ósea adquirida en las primeras etapas de la vida es un importante factor determinante de su pico y el riesgo futuro de osteoporosis y fracturas. Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de factores que contribuye a la formación de la masa ósea en niños de una cohorte del sur de Brasil. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva con el hospital de todos los nacimientos (2741) se produjo en septiembre / 2002 a mayo / 2003 y el seguimiento de una muestra aleatoria de un 30,0% de los mismos (uno, tres y seis meses y ocho años de edad). En una visita a los ocho años de edad, aplicó un cuestionario con preguntas relacionadas con la alimentación y la actividad física. Resultados y Discusión: De los 616 niños, el 51,3% eran hombres, el 70,3% de raza caucásica, cerca de la mitad pertenecían a la clase económica C, 20,5% tenían sobrepeso, el 16,9% eran obesos y 71,2% sedentarios. La ingesta de alimentos es bajo consumo de frutas, verduras, productos lácteos, carne, los cereales y los tubérculos. La administración de vitamina D en los primeros seis meses de vida fue seguido por 14,1% de los prematuros, el 16,1% de los recién nacidos con bajo peso al nacer, el 24,2% de destete en el primer mes y sólo el 16,4% a los tres meses. Conclusión: Los niños evaluados tienen un bajo consumo de nutrientes, entre ellos el calcio, deficiente administración de vitamina D en el primer semestre de vida, poco actividad física regular y la alta prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad son factores que pueden afectar a la formación de masa ósea.

  15. Stature estimation using the knee height measurement amongst Brazilian elderly.

    PubMed

    Fogal, Aline Siqueira; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi M; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz

    2014-10-16

    Introducción: La estatura es una variable importante en varios índices del estado nutricional que son aplicables a las personas mayores. Sin embargo, la estatura es difícil o imposible de medir en la edad avanzada, ya que a menudo son incapaces de mantener la posición de pie. Una alternativa es el uso de altura estimada a partir de mediciones de medida de altura de la rodilla. Objetivos: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la exactitud de la fórmula propuesta por Chumlea et al. (1985), basado en la altura de la rodilla de una población caucásica para estimar la altura y su aplicación en el cálculo del índice de masa corporal en las personas mayores residentes en la comunidad de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: La muestra incluyó a 621 adultos mayores de 60 anõs y más, que viven en la comunidad. Se tomaron medidas de peso, talla y altura de la rodilla (AR) y el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC) se calculó con el peso medido y estimado. Se utilize la prueba T del estudiante para la comparación de las mediciones de altura entre los géneros. Para la comparación de los valores estimados y medidos se utilizó la prueba T pareada y también la metodología propuesta por Bland y Altman para comparar la diferencia entre las mediciones. Para evaluar el acuerdo entre las clasificaciones para el IMC se utilizó el Kappa de Cohen. Resultados: Los valores medios obtenidos a partir de AR fueron más altos que los medidos en la muestra completa y mujeres. Hay subestimación de IMC en mujeres y también en el conjunto. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que la ecuación Chumlea no era adecuado para estimar la altura de la muestra en cuestión, especialmente para las mujeres.

  16. Association between an inflammatory-nutritional index and nutritional status in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Alberici Pastore, Carla; Paiva Orlandi, Silvana; González, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La caquexia es un síndrome multifactorial caracterizada por la pérdida de peso corporal, grasa y músculo, el aumento de la morbilidad y la mortalidad. El uso de un índice de la contabilidad para los dos niveles de albúmina sérica y la proteína C reactiva podría hacer que la identificación temprana de la caquexia más fácil. Objetivo: Evaluar la variación de una índice inflamatorio- nutricional en relación con el estado nutricional en pacientes con cáncer. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo incluyendo pacientes con cáncer gastrointestinal y los pulmones de un servicio de la quimioterapia pública en Brasil. La albumina y la proteína C reactiva fueron medidos y el estado nutricional se definió por la Evaluación Global Subjetiva. Los análisis estadísticos se realizaron utilizando Stata 9.2(TM). Resultados: Un total de 74 pacientes fueron evaluados, el 58,1% de ellos fueron hombres y el promedio de 63,4 ± 11,9 2013s de edad. Cáncer gastrointestinal era el tipo más frecuente (71,6%). Sólo el 13,7% de los pacientes estaban bien nutridos y el 21,9% estaban gravemente desnutridos. Proteína C reactiva aumentaron significativamente de acuerdo a la declinación del estado nutricional (p=0,03). Cuando la albúmina de los pacientes con inflamación sistémica se evaluó, no hubo variación significativa en relación al estado nutricional (p=0,06). El índice inflamatorio-nutricional varió significativamente en relación al estado nutricional independiente de la inflamación sistémica (p=0,02). Conclusiones: El índice inflamatorio-nutricional puede ser una manera adyuvante para la evaluación nutricional bioquímica y seguimiento en los pacientes con cáncer y la inflamación sistémica.

  17. 42 Years of Continuous Observations of the Solar Diameter - 1974 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberto Andrei, Alexandre; Calderari Boscardin, Sergio; Lousada Penna, Jucira; Vani Leister, Nelson

    2015-08-01

    We present an analysis of 42 years of continuous measurements of the photospheric solar diameter, taken at major national observatories, using the same fundamental method, and similar apparatus. Such a series overlap observations from the Calern Observatory/France (Solar Astrolabe in 1975-2003 to 253 obs/year lead by F. Laclare and C. Delmas; Doraysol in 2000-2005 to 3,070 obs/year lead by C. Delmas and V. Sinceac), from the IAG/USP/Brazil (Solar Astrolabe in 1974-1994 to 95 obs/year lead by N. VaniLeister, P. Benevides and M. Emilio), from the Antalya Observatory/Turkey (CCD Astrolabe in 2000-2007 to 400 obs/year lead by F. Chollet and OI. Golbasi), from the San Fernando Observatory/Spain (Solar Astrolabe in 1972-1975 to 133 obs/year lead by J. Muiños), from Observatório Nacional/Brasil (CCD Astrolabe in 1998-2009 to 1,820 obs/year lead by J. Penna, E. Reis Neto and A.H. Andrei; Heliometer 2010-2015 to 8,509 obs/year lead by S.C. Boscardin, J.L. Penna and A.H. Andrei). The Heliometer is fully automatized in its observations and continues in regular operation with no plan of stopping; it shares with the former instruments the physical/mathematical definition of the limb, and the instruments aperture and focal length. We perform a reconciliation of all these series, using the common stretches. A modulation with the 11 years cycle of solar activity is evident. However when such modulation is removed, both from the solar diameter compound series and from the solar activity series (given by the sunspots count), a very strong anti-correlation surfaces. This suggests a smaller diameter for the forthcoming cycles, in a behavior similar to that on the Minima of Dalton and Maunder. This study stresses the importance of keeping and make available such long, continuous, and uniform series of solar diameter measurements. Maybe even the more by the controversy about its magnitude and origin. This presentation is dedicated to all the teams that developed and sustained the

  18. FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS DURING PREGNANCY: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY IN A REGION OF THE NORTH EAST OF BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Da Mota Santana, Jerusa; Alves de Oliveira Queiroz, Valterlinda; Monteiro Brito, Sheila; Barbosa Dos Santos, Djanilson; Marlucia Oliveira Assis, Ana

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: las perspectivas de crecimiento en Brasil indican que los patrones dietéticos de la población se caracterizan por el aumento del consumo de grasas saturadas y trans, sodio, azúcares y refrescos. Este punto de vista epidemiológico y nutricional refleja el cambio en el patrón de la enfermedad y la muerte. Objetivo: este estudio tiene como objetivo identificar los patrones de consumo de alimentos y los cambios en la dieta en el primer y tercer trimestres del embarazo. Metodología: se trata de un estudio de cohorte prospectivo de 185 mujeres embarazadas del Estado de Bahía, a partir de 2012 a 2013. Se utilizó el cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos para evaluar la ingesta alimentaria. Para identificar la norma alimentaria se adoptó el análisis factorial de componentes principales. Se utilizó la prueba de correlación de Pearson para identificar la correlación entre los patrones extraídos en cada trimestre. Resultados: se identificaron cuatro patrones de consumo de alimentos durante el embarazo. Hemos observado cambios en los patrones de alimentación durante los trimestres evaluados, especialmente para los grupos de frutas, café, grasas, frituras, azúcar y dulces. Discusión: estos cambios en la dieta durante el embarazo acompañan a los cambios fisiológicos de cada embarazo. En el primer trimestre son síntomas comunes las náuseas y los vómitos; por otro lado, también se manifiesta antojos en el mismo periodo, lo cual puede justificar el consumo de mayor cantidad de alimentos considerados saludables. Conclusión: se observaron cambios en el patrón alimentario a lo largo de los diversos trimestres del embarazo examinados, especialmente para los grupos de frutas, café, grasas, frituras, azúcar y dulces.

  19. Nutritional status of patients with gastrointestinal cancer receiving care in a public hospital; 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Dias do Prado, Corina; Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar el estado nutricional de los pacientes con cáncer gastrointestinal y verificar su asociación con características demográficas y clínicas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal, con un diseño de muestreo no probabilístico. Los participantes fueron 143 pacientes adultos con cáncer gastrointestinal, que reciben atención en el Hospital Amaral Carvalho (Jaú-SP, Brasil) entre noviembre de 2010 y octubre de 2011. Se realizó una encuesta para recoger información con el fin de caracterización demográfica y clínica. Para identificar el estado nutricional se aplico la Valoración Subjetiva Global - Generada por el Paciente Score (VSGGP score). La razón de prevalencia (RP) fue estimada. El nivel de significancia adoptado fue de 5%. Resultados: La edad media de los pacientes fue de 57,45 (DE = 9,62) AÑOs, con los estadíos III y IV de la enfermedad es la más frecuente (39,2% y 35,0%). Había 44,8% de prevalencia de la malnutrición. La persona desnutrida tenía problemas más frecuentes para comer. La estadística descriptiva y la prueba de Chi-cuadrado (< 0,001), presentaron menor deseo de comer (p < 0,001), más náuseas (p = 0,001), vómitos (p = 0,006), estreñimiento (p < 0,001) y dolor (p < 0,001) que los pacientes eutróficos y se declararon enfermos por el olor de los alimentos (p = 0,012), dificultad para tragar (p = 0,002) y la saciedad precoz (p = 0,020) com más frecuencia. En cuanto a la proporción de prevalencia, se observó una probabilidad mayor de individuos desnutridos expuestos a una porción más grande de los síntomas relacionados en la puntuación VSG-GP score. Conclusión: La alta prevalencia de desnutrición se observó en pacientes con cáncer gastrointestinal, con asociación significativa con los síntomas clínicos directamente relacionados con el proceso de alimentación.

  20. Do dynamic global vegetation models capture the seasonality of carbon fluxes in the Amazon basin? A data-model intercomparison.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Levine, Naomi M; Christoffersen, Bradley O; Albert, Loren P; Wu, Jin; Costa, Marcos H; Galbraith, David; Imbuzeiro, Hewlley; Martins, Giordane; da Araujo, Alessandro C; Malhi, Yadvinder S; Zeng, Xubin; Moorcroft, Paul; Saleska, Scott R

    2017-01-01

    To predict forest response to long-term climate change with high confidence requires that dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) be successfully tested against ecosystem response to short-term variations in environmental drivers, including regular seasonal patterns. Here, we used an integrated dataset from four forests in the Brasil flux network, spanning a range of dry-season intensities and lengths, to determine how well four state-of-the-art models (IBIS, ED2, JULES, and CLM3.5) simulated the seasonality of carbon exchanges in Amazonian tropical forests. We found that most DGVMs poorly represented the annual cycle of gross primary productivity (GPP), of photosynthetic capacity (Pc), and of other fluxes and pools. Models simulated consistent dry-season declines in GPP in the equatorial Amazon (Manaus K34, Santarem K67, and Caxiuanã CAX); a contrast to observed GPP increases. Model simulated dry-season GPP reductions were driven by an external environmental factor, 'soil water stress' and consequently by a constant or decreasing photosynthetic infrastructure (Pc), while observed dry-season GPP resulted from a combination of internal biological (leaf-flush and abscission and increased Pc) and environmental (incoming radiation) causes. Moreover, we found models generally overestimated observed seasonal net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and respiration (Re ) at equatorial locations. In contrast, a southern Amazon forest (Jarú RJA) exhibited dry-season declines in GPP and Re consistent with most DGVMs simulations. While water limitation was represented in models and the primary driver of seasonal photosynthesis in southern Amazonia, changes in internal biophysical processes, light-harvesting adaptations (e.g., variations in leaf area index (LAI) and increasing leaf-level assimilation rate related to leaf demography), and allocation lags between leaf and wood, dominated equatorial Amazon carbon flux dynamics and were deficient or absent from current model

  1. Nevirapine quantification in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Application to bioequivalence study.

    PubMed

    Laurito, Tiago L; Santagada, Vincenzo; Caliendo, Giuseppe; Oliveira, Celso H; Barrientos-Astigarraga, Rafael E; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2002-04-01

    A rapid, sensitive and specific method to quantify nevirapine in human plasma using dibenzepine as the internal standard (IS) was developed and validated. The method employed a liquid-liquid extraction. The analyte and the IS were chromatographed on a C(18) analytical column, (150 x 4.6 mm i.d. 4 microm) and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method had a chromatographic run time of 5.0 min and a linear calibration curve over the range 10-5000 ng ml(-1) (r(2) > 0.9970). The between-run precision, based on the relative standard deviation for replicate quality controls was 1.3% (30 ng ml(-1)), 2.8% (300 ng ml(-1)) and 3.6% (3000 ng ml(-1)). The between-run accuracy was 4.0, 7.0 and 6.2% for the above-mentioned concentrations, respectively. This method was employed in a bioequivalence study of two nevirapine tablet formulations (Nevirapina from Far-Manguinhos, Brazil, as a test formulation, and Viramune from Boehringer Ingelheim do Brasil Química e Farmacêutica, as a reference formulation) in 25 healthy volunteers of both sexes who received a single 200 mg dose of each formulation. The study was conducted using an open, randomized, two-period crossover design with a 3 week washout interval. The 90% confidence interval (CI) of the individual ratio geometric mean for Nevirapina/Viramune was 96.4-104.5% for AUC((0-last)), 91.4-105.1% for AUC((0-infinity)) and 95.3-111.6% for C(max) (AUC = area under the curve; C(max) = peak plasma concentration). Since both 90% CI for AUC((0-last)) and AUC((0-infinity)) and C(max) were included in the 80-125% interval proposed by the US Food and Drug Administration, Nevirapina was considered bioequivalent to Viramune according to both the rate and extent of absorption.

  2. From health plan companies to international insurance companies: changes in the accumulation regime and repercussions on the healthcare system in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bahia, Ligia; Scheffer, Mario; Tavares, Leandro Reis; Braga, Iale Falleiros

    2016-11-03

    The concentration and internationalization of health plan companies in Brazil gave them a clearly financial face. Based on the need to understand the health care industry's capital accumulation patterns, the current study examines health plan companies' expansion strategies through the classification of their supply and demand characteristics by recent historical periods and an analysis of recent shareholding trends in one of the leading corporations in the Brazilian health care industry. The 1960s to 2000s witnessed changes in the scale of demands for health plans and adherence by companies to long-term accumulation strategies. Beginning in the early 21st century, changes in the shareholding structures of the largest Brazilian company, consistent with the financialization of its accumulation regime, resulted in the rapid multiplication of its capital. Deepening segmentation of the health care system in a context marked by the downturn in the national economy challenges the preservation of public subsidies for private health plans. Resumo: A concentração e internacionalização de empresas de planos de saúde no Brasil conferiram-lhes feição financeira. Considerando a necessidade de compreender os padrões de acumulação desse setor, o trabalho examina estratégias de expansão das empresas de planos de saúde por meio da periodização de atributos da oferta e demanda e exame da trajetória patrimonial recente de um dos grandes grupos do setor. Entre os anos 1960 e 2000, ocorreram alterações na escala das demandas por planos de saúde e adesão das empresas a estratégias de acumulação de longo prazo. A partir do século XXI, as alterações nas estruturas societárias da maior empresa brasileira, compatíveis com o regime de acumulação financeirizada, resultaram na multiplicação de seu capital em um curto intervalo de tempo. O aprofundamento da segmentação do sistema de saúde, em um contexto marcado pela desaceleração da economia, questiona a

  3. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Deutrich Aydos, Maria Eugenia; Alves Fernandes, Sabrina; Feijó Nunes, Flávia; Bassani, Lílian; Rigon Leonhardt, Lara; Lazzarotto Harter, Daniele; Pivato, Bianca; Miranda, Daniella; Augusto Marroni, Cláudio

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: la elección del método para la evaluación nutricional es fundamental para el correcto seguimiento del estado nutricional de los pacientes sometidos al trasplante de hígado.Objetivos: evaluar y comparar el estado nutricional de los pacientes antes y después del trasplante de hígado por el tiempo de un año para los diferentes métodos de evaluación nutricional.Métodos: se evaluaron los pacientes que se sometieron a un trasplante de hígado en diferentes momentos: pretrasplante, 1, 3, 6 y 12 meses después del procedimiento, en la Hermandad de la Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. Los métodos utilizados fueron la antropometría, la fuerza de apretón de manos por la fuerza de agarre no dominante (FAM), el espesor del músculo aductor del pulgar y el ángulo de fase (AF) por bioimpedancia eléctrica (BIA). En todas las evaluaciones se tomaron las mismas medidas.Resultados: las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo en 22 pacientes. Los métodos que mostraron mayor prevalencia de pacientes desnutridos antes del trasplante fueron la FA por BIA (25%), la circunferencia muscular del brazo (CMB) (21,9%) y la circunferencia del brazo (CB) (18,8%). Al comparar el estado nutricional de los pacientes durante el seguimiento, hubo diferencia significativa en los métodos de evaluación de CB, espesor del pliegue cutáneo triciptal y AF por la BIA. Al final del seguimiento, los métodos de evaluación nutricional fueron nuevamente comparados y mostraron de diferencias significativas, siendo la FAM el método de mayor detección de desnutrición.Conclusiones: se sugiere que podría intensificarse el uso del método AF por la BIA en esta población, ya que los resultados están en consonancia con los encontrados en la literatura, siendo significativos, fiables y reproducibles.

  4. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    Based on the readings of articles related to Astronomy Education published in Brazil, it was noticed a lack of research on previous knowledge of students about the physical characteristics of stars, a fact that motivated us to develop this study. Previous knowledge of 125 students (approximated 15 years old) constituted the study sample; data was collected through written questionnaires (Appendix A) for analysis. From the content analysis of these responses it was possible to achieve some inferences as, for example, many students have some difficult to develop an explanatory model on the functioning of a star; there are few who say that the stars have a certain length of existence; some students have said that stars have tips; few recognize that a star is formed by a mass of gas; some previous knowledge come from purely visual aspects; furthermore, some students do not have the habit of observing nature in detail. We see this research as a reference in which science teachers can recognize the importance of previous knowledge for practice teaching and acquire resources for planning their lessons. De la lectura de artículos relacionados con la Educación en Astronomía publicados en el Brasil, se encuentra una falta de investigaciones acerca del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes sobre las características físicas de las estrellas, hecho que nos motivó a desarrollar este estudio. Los datos analizados se obtuvieron al aplicar un cuestionario a 125 estudiantes de secundaria, para posteriormente realizar un análisis de contenido, tal cuestionario se presenta en el Anexo A. Al realizar el análisis de contenido de las respuestas obtenidas, fue posible hacer algunas inferencias, como por ejemplo; muchos estudiantes tienen dificultades para desarrollar un modelo explicativo acerca del funcionamiento de una estrella; pocos estudiantes dicen que las estrellas tienen un cierto tiempo de vida; algunos estudiantes imaginan que las estrellas tienen puntas; pocos

  5. Different Cultures in Astronomy Education and Their Meanings in the Classroom. (Spanish Title: Las Diferentes Culturas en la Educación en Astronomía y Sus Significados EN EL Aula. ) As Diferentes Culturas na Educação em Astronomia E Seus Significados em Sala de Aula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira de Barros, Vicente; Bovolenta Ovigli, Daniel Fernando

    2014-12-01

    This paper is a reflection about the use of History of Science in the curriculum of formal education, through the discussion concerning cultural elements of several ethnic groups in Brazil, in actions related to astronomy education. The work was developed in the framework of an extension course and the analysis undertaken here refers to a meeting that discussed didactic sequences relating to that theme, based on the Brazilian law 11.645/2008, which states the obligation to present the subject "African-brazilian and indigenous History and Culture" in the official curriculum. The extension action was developed with teachers who teach Natural Sciences, in São Paulo state, discussing issues related to the use of History of Science and the relationship with cosmogonies from Iorubá and Tupi peoples, highlighting how they can enhance the work with Astronomy(ies) in the classroom. It was observed that the participants had not yet presented these themes in their classes and also did not participate in training courses that discussed these subjects. Este artículo presenta una reflexión sobre el uso de la historia de la ciencia en el currículo de la educación formal, a través de la discusión sobre el uso de los elementos culturales de los grupos étnicos en Brasil, en acciones relacionadas con la educación en astronomía. El trabajo se desarrolló en el marco de un curso de extensión y el análisis realizado aquí se refiere a un encuentro en el cual se abordaron secuencias didácticas relacionadas con ese tema, sobre la base de la ley brasilera 11.645/2008 que dispone la obligatoriedad del tema "Historia y Cultura africana e indígena en el Brasil" en el currículo oficial. La acción de extensión se desarrolló con los profesores de ciencias naturales en el interior del estado de São Paulo, discutiendo temas relacionados con el uso de la historia de la ciencia y la relación con las cosmogonías de los pueblos Iorubá y Tupi, que muestra cómo se puede mejorar

  6. Teaching astronomy mediated by information and communication technologies: a preliminary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. H. L.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    como, visita a planetários e a observatórios. Os estudantes ficaram muito sensibilizados pela possibilidade de percepção do céu em tempo real e à luz do dia dentro da sala de aula no contexto escolar. Os resultados deste levantamento preliminar indicam que os níveis de ensino fundamental e médio não foram capazes de internalizar conhecimentos básicos de astronomia, a despeito das orientações específicas contidas nos documentos oficiais da educação básica brasileira (Brasil, 1997 e 2000). Os estudantes pesquisados apresentaram conhecimentos e concepções rudimentares sobre o tema astronomia básica, indicando a ausência de abordagem do tema astronomia, tampouco de observação direta do céu em trabalhos de campo escolares na educação básica. Finalmente, esta abordagem didática suscitou nos estudantes grande interesse para futuros trabalhos de observação de campo. D.P. Ausubel; J.D. Novak; H. Hanesian. Psicología Educativa: un punto de vista cognoscitivo. México: Trillas, 1983. BRASIL. Secretaria de Educação Básica. Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais: Ensino Fundamental (PCN), 1997, e Ensino Médio (PCNEM), 2000. Brasília. MEC/SEB.

  7. Progression of Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Hypertensive Patients in a Reference Center.

    PubMed

    Guimarães Filho, Gilberto Campos; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Thiago de Souza Veiga; Souza, Weimar Sebba Barroso; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga

    2015-02-03

    Background: Hypertension is a public health problem, considering its high prevalence, low control rate and cardiovascular complications. Objective: Evaluate the control of blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular outcomes in patients enrolled at the Reference Center for Hypertension and Diabetes, located in a medium-sized city in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Methods: Population-based study comparing patients enrolled in the service at the time of their admission and after an average follow-up of five years. Participants were aged ≥18 years and were regularly monitored at the Center up to 6 months before data collection. We assessed demographic variables, BP, body mass index, risk factors, and cardiovascular outcomes. Results: We studied 1,298 individuals, predominantly women (60.9%), and with mean age of 56.7±13.1 years. Over time, there was a significant increase in physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and excessive weight. As for cardiovascular outcomes, we observed an increase in stroke and myocardial revascularization, and a lower frequency of chronic renal failure. During follow-up, there was significant improvement in the rate of BP control (from 29.6% to 39.6%; p = 0.001) and 72 deaths, 91.7% of which were due to cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion: Despite considerable improvements in the rate of BP control during follow-up, risk factors worsened and cardiovascular outcomes increased.Fundamento: A hipertensão arterial é um problema de saúde pública devido à sua elevada prevalência, baixa taxa de controle e complicações cardiovasculares. Objetivo: Avaliar o controle da pressão arterial (PA) e desfechos cardiovasculares em pacientes atendidos no Centro de Referência em Hipertensão e Diabetes, localizado em uma cidade de médio porte da Região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Métodos: Estudo de base populacional, que comparou pacientes matriculados no serviço no momento de sua admissão e após seguimento por período m

  8. Smoking control: challenges and achievements.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa da; Araújo, Alberto José de; Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias de; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases. RESUMO O tabagismo é o fator de risco mais prevenível e controlável em saúde e, por isso, precisa ter a máxima atenção e ser muito mais enfocado por todos os profissionais da saúde. O tabaco é um produto de alta rentabilidade pela sua grande produção e pelo elevado número de consumidores. As políticas de controle e os recursos terapêuticos para o tabagismo avançaram muito nos últimos anos e têm mostrado resultados altamente satisfatórios, particularmente no Brasil. Entretanto, ainda resta um longo caminho a ser percorrido para que se possa considerar o tabagismo como uma doença controlada sob o ponto de vista da saúde pública. Já se observam modificações do comportamento da sociedade com relação ao tabagismo, mas ainda em escala muito lenta, de modo que os pneumologistas têm nesse setor um campo

  9. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Braga, Patrícia Seixas da Costa

    2016-11-03

    úde (SUS). Investiga as relações entre saúde, inovação e desenvolvimento, buscando mostrar e atualizar os determinantes políticos, econômicos e sociais da experiência brasileira recente relacionada ao Complexo Econômico-Industrial da Saúde (CEIS). Mostra como a agenda da inovação e da produção nacional em saúde ganhou centralidade no projeto de construção do SUS. O artigo procura, assim, articular questões inerentes à agenda do desenvolvimento, da produção e da inovação com a política social em saúde, tal como observado nos últimos anos e, valendo-se de sua análise, aponta desafios políticos e conceituais para a efetivação do SUS, em especial no que se refere ao fortalecimento de sua base tecnológica e produtiva. Como desdobramento, desenvolve um enfoque analítico e factual que relaciona a consolidação do CEIS no Brasil tanto como um vetor dinâmico do desenvolvimento industrial, gerando investimento, renda, emprego e inovações, quanto como elemento decisivo para a redução da vulnerabilidade e da dependência estrutural em saúde. Procura mostrar que seu fortalecimento e direcionamento para as necessidades sociais é parte essencial da construção de um Estado de Bem-Estar Social no Brasi.

  10. High-pressure thermal aureoles around two Neoproterozoic synorogenic magmatic epidote-bearing granitoids, Northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caby, Renaud; Sial, Alcides N.; Ferreira, Valderez P.

    2009-02-01

    Unusual high-pressure inner thermal aureoles are described from the Minador and Angico Torto epidote-bearing tonalitic plutons that emplaced into greenschist-facies metasedimentary rocks of the Neoproterozoic Cachoeirinha-Salgueiro belt, northeastern Brazil. The foliated pelitic hornfelses display the mineral assemblage garnet, kyanite, staurolite, muscovite, biotite, plagioclase ± quartz. Rare fibrolite is only found very close to the contacts. Hornfelses display steep mineral lineations and steeply-dipping foliations concordant with magmatic contacts. Leucocratic veinlets containing quartz, oligoclase, garnet, kyanite, staurolite, rutile and ilmenite suggest that limited melting conditions were reached very close to magmatic contacts ( T ⩾ 650 °C, P around 8 kbar). These high-pressure hornfelses form a few meters thick, rigid envelopes around the two plutons. Contrary to known examples of kyanite-bearing hornfelses that recorded high-temperature decompression, the nearly isobaric cooling down to ca. 450 °C is constrained by 3.20-3.30 Si contents of retrogressive phengites from both inner hornfelses and ductilely-deformed tonalite at the pluton margins. Isograds and bathograds are, therefore, apparently telescoped due to HP/LT shearing, possibly caused by subsequent differential vertical movements affecting these two solidified plutons. The unusual depth of emplacement of these syn-kinematic calc-alkaline plutons is expl