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Sample records for idosos hipertensos brasil

  1. IDD-BRASIL: Implementation and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagas, G. O.; Almeida, W. G.; Yoksas, T.; Cutrim, E. M.; Garrana, D.

    2007-05-01

    In response to the academic meteorological community's demand for real-time weather data, and access to datasets not readily available, the Unidata Program of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) developed the Internet Data Distribution, IDD system. With a modest beginning in the early 1990's, IDD has grown to become the leading Internet2 advanced-application by delivering over 20 terabytes of data per week to over 160 institutions in the US and around the world. Meteorological and related real-time data, model output, and a vast amount of experimental products are delivered at no cost to the Unidata participating institutions. In 2004, through a collaboration among three leading universities and research centers in Brazil, the Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC/INPE), the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de São Paulo (USP), the Unidata IDD has expanded into Brazil creating a data sharing peer, the IDD-Brasil. Throughout a series of outreach initiatives, the IDD-Brasil is extending its reach, providing data to universities in Argentina, Chile, Africa and Portugal. By lowering the barrier between distant institutions, participants are now cooperating and sharing many datasets that were not generally available outside their organizations. Future plans include the deployment of a new data-relay node in cooperation with Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal in order to provide a local source of data for institutions in Portugal and Africa, and the distribution of products derived from the GOES-10 satellite, which covers mainly South America, through IDD in real-time. Jointly, the IDD and IDD-Brasil are fostering new collaborations among universities, WMO Regional Meteorological Training Centers, and national meteorological agencies, empowering the Atmospheric Sciences across several countries.

  2. [Constructivist evaluation, under an integrating and intersectoral approach, of actions of the Disque Idoso Project in Sobral (CE, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cibelly Aliny Siqueira Lima; Teófilo, Tiago José Silveira

    2010-09-01

    The population aging in Brazil and in the world is a reason for an epidemic inquietude. So, the violence against senior people has been considered a problem of public health. This study takes as context the health need of seniors that suffer of violence, aiming to evaluate in a constructive way the Disque Idoso Project in Sobral (Ceará, Brazil). We used Furtado's Constructivist Method of Evaluation, which provides practices of participative evaluation. Trying to reach such perspective, we are guided by paths of the integrative approach (inter, multi and transdisciplinary) and intersectoral. We accomplished the focal groups with representatives of the sections of health, social assistance, justice and senior, the benefited by the project as well as others that contribute to its development. When interacting with the professionals that act in the project headquarters we understood that there is a fear in publishing their work, because there is not structure to enlarge the attendance. The group believes that the efficiency of its actions is limited due to the lack of transport and other professionals. For the professionals of the support social networks, the project should look for intersectoral performance, once it intends to reach a complete attendance. For the seniors, the project is quite valid and needs to be consolidated in the district.

  3. [Medical assessments and measurements in ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Mill, Jose Geraldo; Pinto, Karina; Griep, Rosane Härter; Goulart, Alessandra; Foppa, Murilo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Maestri, Marcelo K; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Andreão, Rodrigo Varejão; Dantas, Eduardo Miranda; Oliveira, Ilka; Fuchs, Sandra C; Cunha, Roberto de Sá; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The article describes assessments and measurements performed in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Some assessments including anthropometric assessment, casual blood pressure measurement, and ankle-brachial index have an established clinical application while others including pulse wave velocity, heart rate variability, and carotid intima-media thickness have no established application and do not have reference values for healthy Brazilian population but may be important predictors of cardiovascular outcomes. Blood pressure measurement following postural change maneuver was included in the ELSA-Brasil because it has not been much tested in epidemiological studies. Innovative approaches were developed for assessing the ankle-brachial index using an automatic device instead of the mercury column to measure blood pressure and for assessing the anterior-posterior diameter of the right lobe of the liver by ultrasound for quantitative assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. All ELSA-Brasil subjects were younger (35 years or more) than those included in other cohorts studying subclinical atherosclerosis. The inclusion of younger individuals and a variety of assessments make the ELSA-Brasil a relevant epidemiology study nationwide and worldwide.

  4. [ELSA-Brasil strategies for outcome identification, investigation and ascertainment].

    PubMed

    Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Bastos, Maria do Socorro Castelo Branco de Oliveira; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Jesus, Elcimara Amorim de; Kelles, Silvana Márcia Bruschi; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Oliveira, Elizabete Regina Araújo de

    2013-06-01

    The article describes the strategies adopted by the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) for participation and retention of subjects. This is key to ensure internal validity of longitudinal studies, and to identify, investigate, and ascertain outcomes of interest. The follow-up strategies include annual telephone contacts with new assessments and interviews every three to four years this approach aims to identify transient outcomes (reversible or not), permanent outcomes as well as complications related to the progression of major diseases--cardiovascular diseases and diabetes--to be studied. Telephone interviews are designed to monitor subjects' health status and to identify potential health-related events such as hospital admissions, medical visits or pre-selected medical procedures. Subjects are also encouraged to report to the ELSA-Brasil team any new health-related events. When a potential event is identified, a thorough investigation is carried out to collect relevant information about that event from medical records. All data are blinded and reviewed and analyzed by a medical expert committee. Incident outcome ascertainment follows well-established international criteria to ensure data comparability and avoid misclassification. In addition to these strategies, the occurrence of health-related events is also investigated through linkage of secondary databases, such as national mortality and hospital admission databases. Accurate identification of outcomes will allow to estimating their incidence in the study cohort and to investigate the effect of the exposures studied in the ELSA-Brasil at baseline and at its subsequent waves.

  5. Physical activity in Brazil: lessons from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review.

    PubMed

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Almeida, Maria Conceição Chagas; Queiroz, Ciro Oliveira; Aquino, Estela Maria Leão de; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) was conducted among civil servants at six higher education institutions located in six Brazilian state capitals. The objective of this review was to identify the publications produced within the scope of ELSA-Brasil that analyzed the participants' physical activity. Review study using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil. Narrative review of Brazilian studies on physical activity produced using data from ELSA-Brasil participants. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among ELSA-Brasil participants was low (44.1% among men and 33.8% among women). The main factors associated were social (higher schooling and family income), environmental (living in places with conditions and opportunities for physical activity) and individual (not being obese, being retired, not smoking and positive perception of body image). The perception of facilities for walking in the neighborhood was positively associated with both LTPA and commuting-related physical activity. An active lifestyle was a protective factor against several cardiometa-bolic variables (hypertension, diabetes, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular risk over the next 10 years). Comparison between LTPA and commuting-related physical activity showed that only LTPA had a protective effect against arterial hypertension. The prevalence of physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants was low. The main determinants were social, environmental and personal. LTPA had a greater protective efect on cardio-metabolic outcomes than did commuting-related physical activity.

  6. [Alimentary, nutritional and health aspects of elderly women in attendance at the Núcleo de Atenção ao Idoso, Recife/2005].

    PubMed

    Amado, Tânia Campos Fell; Arruda, Ilma Kruze Grande de; Ferreira, Rogério Anderson Rodrigues

    2007-12-01

    Aging has become a worldwide problem. In order to identify food, nutritional and health aspects of elderly women, a across-sectional study was carried out in 2005 with 106 women over 60 years of age cared for at Núcleo de Atenção ao idoso-NAI at Federal University of Pernambuco. Clinical and social-demographic variables, along with the nutritional status by BMI (OMS and Lipschtz) were assessed, and the frequency of food intake according to food groups. The results disclosed that 38% of the elderly were pre-obese (WHO) and 47.2% were overweight (Lipschitz). As for blood pressure (BP) 69% was found to be hypertensive and 31% normotensive. The BMI mean of hypertensive and normal elderly women was statistically significant (p=0.027). Cereal and bread groups were reported to have been the highest consumption on a daily basis by the elderly women, 89% and 82% respectively. Legumes were present in 53% of the women's meals followed by vegetables with 61% and fruits with 66%. Concerning water intake, 51.9% stated to have ingested one to four glasses of water daily. There was a positive correlation between BMI and systolic (SP) and diastolic pressure (DP) (p<0.001). SP and DP levels showed no correlation with the food intake studied. The results are indicative of an overweight and not conscientious population as regards adequate food intake and point to the necessity of more effective actions in control and/or prevention, particularly for those still young.

  7. Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

  8. [Design and implementation of the ELSA-Brasil biobank: a prospective study in a Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M; Fedeli, Ligia M; Castilhos, Cristina; Vidigal, Pedro G; Maniero, Viviane; Leite, Claudia M; Pimentel, Robercia A; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2013-06-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a multicenter prospective cohort of civil servants designed to assess the determinants of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The present article describes the main design and implementation points of the ELSA-Brasil biobank project. Economic, political, logistical and technological aspects of this study are characterized. Additionally, it discusses the final biorepository protocol and the facilities implemented to achieve this objective. The design and implementation process of the ELSA-Brasil biobank took three years to be performed. Both the central and local biobanks were built according to the best biorepository techniques, using different technological solutions for the distinct needs expected in this study.

  9. Substitution for petroleum products in Brasil: Urgent issues

    SciTech Connect

    de Araujo, J.L.; Ghirardi, A.

    1986-06-01

    Brazililan energy policy during the last decade has focused on the replacement of imported petroleum with domestic energy sources, combined with efforts at conservation. The substitution results, however, have been more spectacular by far. The strategy of replacement is based on two elements. first, to increase domestic petroleum exploration and production. Second, to promote non-petroleum fuels as alternatives to the industrial and transportation sectors, for the substitution of fuel oil and gasoline, respectively. A combination of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of the substitution strategy, the country's petroleum refining structure, and the composition of demand, has resulted in large surpluses of both gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel has become the most used among petroleum products. The surpluses are not easily exportable because there is ample availability of fuel oil in the world market, and because the low octane number of the gasoline produced in Brasil is not compatible with the engines of cars elsewhere in the region and in the world. Furthermore, although gasoline might be upgraded, the question remains that prospects for the world market are not encouraging, and an export-based strategy does not seem justified in view of the growing surpluses. The objective of this analysis is to review the mechanisms of themajor petroleum-substitution programs currently in existence, identifying their past impact on the energy market and the possible consequences of changes in the goals and operating conditions of these programs, in the light of the new prospects for increased domestic oil production and self-sufficiency. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Seismic waether over Brasil during the Chile earthquake/tsunami of September 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kherani, Esfhan; Klausner, Virginia

    2016-07-01

    During an earthquake and tsunami, the Earth's atmosphere and ionosphere hosts varieities of disturbances. We refer, this phenomena, as seismic weather, drawing anology from the space weather. In this work, we study the seismic weather over Brasil, associated with the September Chile eqarthquake/tsunami. We aim to simulate this seismic weather for which the seismogenic magnetic and airglow disturbances over Brasil are already reported. We employ the Seismic-Atmsopheric-Ionospheric coupling model (SAI) developed by us, to study this seismic weather. The Earth's surface displacement obtained from seismometer is consisdered as an input to the model which them trigger the Acoustic-Gravity waves (AGWs) in the atmosphere and subsequent magnetic and airglow disturbances in the atmosphere-ionosphere coupled system. The results provide better understanding of coupling arising from the Rayleigh wave forcing.

  11. [Routines of organization of clinical tests and interviews in the ELSA-Brasil investigation center].

    PubMed

    Bensenor, Isabela M; Griep, Rosane H; Pinto, Karina Araújo; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana; Caetano, Edna I; Albuquerque, Liliane da Silva; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA-Brasil (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a prospective cohort study with extensive assessments throughout time. This article describes the routine of clinical tests and interviews performed with participants and the structuring of the Research Center physical space and teams. The ELSA-Brasil assumes that participants will be present at the Research Center to have the tests and interviews performed, according to standard protocols developed by this study. Considering the multiplicity of activities involved, each with specific needs for standardization, several predetermined orders of clinical tests and interviews were created. This ensured a high standard of quality in data collection without harm to participants' comfort. Each participant was previously assigned to a specific sequence of clinical tests and interviews with a predefined arrival time, mean length of stay of five to six hours and departure time.

  12. Fixed-flexion knee radiography using a new positioning device produced highly repeatable measurements of joint space width: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK).

    PubMed

    Telles, Rosa Weiss; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Machado, Luciana A C; Reis, Rodrigo Citton Padilha Dos; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    To describe the performance of a non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion PA radiographic protocol with a new positioning device, developed for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK). A test-retest design including 19 adults (38 knee images) was conducted. Feasibility of the radiographic protocol was assessed by image quality parameters and presence of radioanatomic alignment according to intermargin distance (IMD) values. Repeatability was assessed for IMD and joint space width (JSW) measured at three different locations. Approximately 90% of knee images presented excellent quality. Frequencies of nearly perfect radioanatomic alignment (IMD ≤1mm) ranged from 29% to 50%, and satisfactory alignment was found in up to 71% and 76% of the images (IMD ≤1.5mm and ≤1.7mm, respectively). Repeatability analyses yielded the following results: IMD [SD of mean difference=1.08; coefficient of variation (%CV)=54.68%; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (95%CI)=0.59 (0.34-0.77)]; JSW [SD of mean difference=0.34-0.61; %CV=4.48%-9.80%; ICC (95%CI)=0.74 (0.55-0.85)-0.94 (0.87-0.97)]. Adequately reproducible measurements of IMD and JSW were found in 68% and 87% of the images, respectively. Despite the difficulty in achieving consistent radioanatomic alignment between subsequent radiographs in terms of IMD, the protocol produced highly repeatable JSW measurements when these were taken at midpoint and 10mm from the medial extremity of the medial tibial plateau. Therefore, measurements of JSW at these locations can be considered adequate for the assessment of knee OA in ELSA-Brasil MSK. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  13. Fixed-flexion knee radiography using a new positioning device produced highly repeatable measurements of joint space width: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK).

    PubMed

    Telles, Rosa Weiss; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Machado, Luciana A C; Reis, Rodrigo Citton Padilha Dos; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-11-26

    To describe the performance of a non-fluoroscopic fixed-flexion PA radiographic protocol with a new positioning device, developed for the assessment of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in ELSA-Brasil MSK. A test-retest design including 19 adults (38 knee images) was conducted. Feasibility of the radiographic protocol was assessed by image quality parameters and presence of radioanatomic alignment according to intermargin distance (IMD) values. Repeatability was assessed for IMD and joint space width (JSW) measured at three different locations. Approximately 90% of knee images presented excellent quality. Frequencies of nearly perfect radioanatomic alignment (IMD ≤1mm) ranged from 29% to 50%, and satisfactory alignment was found in up to 71% and 76% of the images (IMD ≤1.5mm and ≤1.7mm, respectively). Repeatability analyses yielded the following results: IMD [SD of mean difference=1.08; coefficient of variation (%CV)=54.68%; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (95%CI)=0.59 (0.34-0.77)]; JSW [SD of mean difference=0.34 - 0.61; %CV=4.48% - 9.80%; ICC (95%CI)=0.74 (0.55-0.85) - 0.94 (0.87-0.97)]. Adequately reproducible measurements of IMD and JSW were found in 68% and 87% of the images, respectively. Despite the difficulty in achieving consistent radioanatomic alignment between subsequent radiographs in terms of IMD, the protocol produced highly repeatable JSW measurements when these were taken at midpoint and 10mm from the medial extremity of the medial tibial plateu. Therefore, measurements of JSW at these locations can be considered adequate for the assessment of knee OA in ELSA-Brasil MSK. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  14. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  15. Avança Brasil: environmental and social consequences of Brazil's planned infrastructure in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2002-12-01

    "Avança Brasil" (Forward Brazil) is a package of 338 projects throughout Brazil; the portion of the plan to be carried out in Brazil's Legal Amazon region totals US$43 billion over 8 years, US$20 billion of which would be for infrastructure causing environmental damage. Brazil's environmental impact assessment system is not yet capable of coping with the challenge presented by Avança Brasil. Generic problems with the licensing process include stimulation of a lobby in favor of construction before decisions are made on the advisability of the projects, the "dragging effect" of third parties, whereby economic activity is attracted to the infrastructure but escapes the environmental impact assessment system, a tendency for consulting firms to produce favorable reports, a bureaucratic emphasis on the existence of steps without regard to the content of what is said, and the inability to take account of the chain of events unleashed when a given project is undertaken. The environmental and social costs of forest loss are high; among them is loss of opportunities for sustainable use of the forest, including loss of environmental services such as biodiversity maintenance, water cycling, and carbon storage. The benefits of export infrastructure are meager, especially from the point of view of generating employment. Much of the transportation infrastructure is for soybeans, while the hydroelectric dams contribute to processing aluminum. The example of Avança Brasil makes clear the need to rethink how major development decisions are made and to reconsider a number of the plan's component projects.

  16. Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): objectives and design.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Estela M L; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Bensenor, Isabela M; Carvalho, Marilia S; Chor, Dóra; Duncan, Bruce B; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Mota, Eduardo L A; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Szklo, Moyses

    2012-02-15

    Although low- and middle-income countries still bear the burden of major infectious diseases, chronic noncommunicable diseases are becoming increasingly common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. However, information is generally scant in these countries regarding chronic disease incidence, social determinants, and risk factors. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information with respect to the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In this report, the authors delineate the study's objectives, principal methodological features, and timeline. At baseline, ELSA-Brasil enrolled 15,105 civil servants from 5 universities and 1 research institute. The baseline examination (2008-2010) included detailed interviews, clinical and anthropometric examinations, an oral glucose tolerance test, overnight urine collection, a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram, measurement of carotid intima-media thickness, echocardiography, measurement of pulse wave velocity, hepatic ultrasonography, retinal fundus photography, and an analysis of heart rate variability. Long-term biologic sample storage will allow investigation of biomarkers that may predict cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Annual telephone surveillance, initiated in 2009, will continue for the duration of the study. A follow-up examination is scheduled for 2012-2013.

  17. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa.

    PubMed

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ivia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2008-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas.

  18. Migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between migraine and coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the association of subclinical atherosclerosis and migraine with or without aura compared to a non-migraine subgroup (reference) in a large Brazilian multicentric cohort study, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Migraine diagnostic was based on International Headache Society criteria, and aura symptoms were validated by a medical doctor in a sub-sample of the ELSA-Brasil, who also underwent coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) evaluations. Subclinical atherosclerosis indexes (CAC and C-IMT) were analyzed as dependent variables and migraine (all, with aura, without aura) as an independent variable in the linear and multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for possible confounders. Of 3217 ELSA participants free from CVD at baseline, we found a migraine frequency of 11.9% (5.1% with aura and 6.8% without aura). Overall, migraineurs were mostly women, younger and had lower frequency of CV risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and low HDL-cholesterol, compared to non-migraineurs. The strongest inverse correlation between migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis was verified with CAC score. However, all associations lost their significance after multivariate adjustment. In this cross-sectional evaluation of the ELSA study, migraine was not associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, regardless of aura symptoms. © International Headache Society 2015.

  19. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  20. [The teaching of history at the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia of the Universidade do Brasil].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marieta de Moraes

    2012-06-01

    This work analyzes the trajectory of the history course at the Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia of the Universidade do Brasil between 1939 and 1964/1965. Special emphasis is placed on the period between 1955 and 1965, when there was the separation of the history and geography courses, through to the onset of the reorganization of the schools and institutes of the university. The Faculdade Nacional de Filosofia was a benchmark for the other schools of philosophy in the country, as well as being a reference in the development of the history of education in Brazil. The approach adopted is geared to the field of the history of the historiography, with a focus on the study of the trajectories, institutions and relationship networks.

  1. Eating patterns in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Melere, Cristiane; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim de; Benseñor, Isabela M; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Griep, Rosane Harter; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    The food consumption of 15,071 public employees was analyzed in six Brazilian cities participating in the baseline for Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil, 2008-2010) with the aim of identifying eating patterns and their relationship to socio-demographic variables. Multiple correspondence and cluster analysis were applied. Four patterns were identified, with their respective frequencies: "traditional" (48%); "fruits and vegetables" (25%); "pastry shop" (24%); and "diet/light" (5%) The "traditional" and "pastry shop" patterns were more frequent among men, younger individuals, and those with less schooling. "Fruits and vegetables" and "diet/light" were more frequent in women, older individuals, and those with more schooling. Our findings show the inclusion of new items in the "traditional" pattern and the appearance of the "low sugar/low fat" pattern among the eating habits of Brazilian workers, and signal socio-demographic and regional differences.

  2. Results of Ponseti Brasil Program: Multicentric Study in 1621 Feet: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Monica P; Queiroz, Ana C D B F; Melanda, Alessandro G; Tedesco, Ana P; Brandão, Antonio L G; Beling, Claudio; Violante, Francisco H; Brandão, Gilberto F; Ferreira, Laura F A; Brambila, Leandro S; Leite, Leopoldina M; Zabeu, Jose L; Kim, Jung H; Fernandes, Kalyana E; Arima, Marcia A S; Aguilar, Maria D P Q; Farias Filho, Orlando C D; Oliveira Filho, Oscar B D A; Pinho, Solange D S; Moulin, Paulo; Volpi, Reinaldo; Fox, Mark; Greenwald, Miles F; Lyle, Brandon; Morcuende, Jose A

    The Ponseti method has been shown to be the most effective treatment for congenital clubfoot. The current challenge is to establish sustainable national clubfoot treatment programs that utilize the Ponseti method and integrate it within a nation's governmental health system. The Brazilian Ponseti Program (Programa Ponseti Brasil) has increased awareness of the utility of the Ponseti method and has trained >500 Brazilian orthopaedic surgeons in it. A group of 18 of those surgeons had been able to reproduce the Ponseti clubfoot treatment, and compiled their initial results through structured spreadsheet. The study compiled 1040 patients for a total of 1621 feet. The average follow-up time was 2.3 years with an average correction time of approximately 3 months. Patients required an average of 6.40 casts to achieve correction. This study demonstrates that good initial correction rates are reproducible after training; from 1040 patients only 1.4% required a posteromedial release. Level IV.

  3. Reproducibility of Left Ventricular Mass by Echocardiogram in the ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Alexandre Pereira; Foppa, Murilo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Lotufo, Paulo; El Aouar, Lilia Maria Mameri; Fernandes, Luciana Pereira; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-01-01

    Background Echocardiography, though non-invasive and having relatively low-cost, presents issues of variability which can limit its use in epidemiological studies. Objective To evaluate left ventricular mass reproducibility when assessed at acquisition (online) compared to when assessed at a reading center after electronic transmission (offline) and also when assessed by different readers at the reading center. Methods Echocardiographers from the 6 ELSA-Brasil study investigation centers measured the left ventricular mass online during the acquisition from 124 studies before transmitting to the reading center, where studies were read according to the study protocol. Half of these studies were blindly read by a second reader in the reading center. Results From the 124 echocardiograms, 5 (4%) were considered not measurable. Among the remaining 119, 72 (61%) were women, mean age was 50.2 ± 7.0 years and 2 had structural myocardial abnormalities. Images were considered to be optimal/ good by the reading center for 110 (92.4%) cases. No significant difference existed between online and offline measurements (1,29 g, CI 95% −3.60-6.19), and the intraclass correlation coefficient between them was 0.79 (CI 95% 0.71-0.85). For images read by two readers, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.86 (CI 95% 0.78-0.91). Conclusion There were no significant drifts between online and offline left ventricular mass measurements, and reproducibility was similar to that described in previous studies. Central quantitative assessment of echocardiographic studies in reading centers, as performed in the ELSA-Brasil study, is feasible and useful in clinical and epidemiological studies performed in our setting. PMID:25424165

  4. [Experience of importation of equipment for research in the ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristiana Paula Matos de; Aquino, Estela M L; Mota, Eduardo L A; Mota, Fábio Batista; Braga, Valéria Cerqueira Campos; Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Silva, Gabriela Feiden; Souza, Angelita Gomes de; Oliveira, Rosalba

    2013-06-01

    Policies that promote research in health were established in the last decade, developing the Brazilian scientific production. This development has not been accompanied by an improvement in the legal-institutional framework, thus hindering the development of research projects, including equipment importation activities. The present study aimed to analyze the equipment importation process for the Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). A case study was performed with data collected from internal ELSA-Brasil documents in five Investigation Centers and their respective supporting foundations. The following importation documents were analyzed: pulse wave velocity, bioimaging and retinography. Additionally, non-structured interviews with researchers and key informers were conducted in the foundations. Data were treated and organized into three stages: administrative-operational, exchange rate, and fiscal. Lengths of duration of these stages were calculated comparatively among centers. The need to standardize equipment in a multicenter study required a joint action of implementing institutions and foundations. Of all pieces of equipment analyzed, the first stage was administrative-operational, with a varying duration (minimum of eight, maximum of 101, and mean of 55 days) which was longer when legal opinions were included. The second stage was the exchange rate, which was longer than the former and did not pose any obstacles to the process (minimum of 11, maximum of 381, and mean of 196 days). The third stage was fiscal, which was the longest one (minimum of 43, maximum of 388, and mean of 215.5 days), due to the release of equipment without registration into the country. There were other factors that posed obstacles: inexperience of investigation centers and institutions in networking; inadequacy of the national legislation on scientific research particularities; and the lack of specialized professionals in scientific project management. The results

  5. [Reproducibility of arterial pressure measured in the ELSA-Brasil with 24-hour pressure monitoring].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Larissa Rangel; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi; Faria, Carolina Perim; Cunha, Roberto de Sá; Mill, José Geraldo

    2013-06-01

    To determine the reproducibility of casual arterial pressure measurement and to confirm pressure diagnosis by monitoring of participants in the ELSA-Brasil (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health). Casual blood pressure was measured with an oscilometric device. A sub-sample of participants (N = 255) from Espírito Santo state (Southeastern Brazil) was reevaluated using the same methodology following one to ten weeks and, in addition, underwent arterial blood pressure monitoring. Diagnosis of hypertension used cut off points of 140/90 mmHg for casual pressure and 130/80 mmHg for arterial blood pressure monitoring. White coat hypertension was defined as the presence of hypertension in casual blood pressure and normal arterial blood pressure monitoring, and converse findings characterized masked hypertension. Data are from 230 participants that on the two occasions were free from antihypertensive medication (N1 = 153) or under the same antihypertensive regimen (N2 = 77). Normotension was confirmed by arterial blood pressure monitoring in 120 out of 134 participants of the N1 group. In N2, blood pressure control was confirmed by arterial blood pressure monitoring in 43 of 54 participants with controlled hypertension per casual blood pressure. Overall diagnostic concordance between casual blood pressure and arterial blood pressure monitoring was 78% (kappa = 0.44). In the N1 group, six subjects (4%) presented white coat hypertension, and 23 subjects (25%) presented with masked hypertension. Diagnostic concordance between casual blood pressure and arterial blood pressure monitoring was moderate. The rigorous standardization of casual blood pressure measurement adopted in the ELSA-Brasil study was able to reduce white coat hypertension. The high frequency of masked hypertension may suggest that pressure values obtained by arterial blood pressure monitoring indicate an elevated degree of stress at work.

  6. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Ladwig, R.; Vigo, A.; Fedeli, L.M.G.; Chambless, L.E.; Bensenor, I.; Schmidt, M.I.; Vidigal, P.G.; Castilhos, C.D.; Duncan, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008–2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31–0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60–0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements. PMID:27533768

  7. Reproductive biology of the characid dourado Salminus franciscanus from the São Francisco River, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leonardo J A; Prado, Paula S; Arantes, Fabio P; Santiago, Kleber B; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo; Rizzo, Elizete

    2013-06-01

    The neotropical characid Salminus franciscanus is an economically valuable migratory fish whose populations have been drastically reduced in recent decades due to industrial and economic development in Brasil. To study its reproduction, a total of 283 adult specimens were captured in the Upper São Francisco River, downstream from the Três Marias dam, Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brasil, from August 2009 to July 2010. The gonadal maturity stages were determined from histological features of the gonads and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Gametogenesis was assessed by light and electron microscopy. For analysis of the oocyte's surface and fecundity, mature females were subjected to hormonal induction and oocyte stripping. Fish in resting (Stage 1) were common in all samplings, ripening/ripe and spawning (Stages 2 and 3) were predominant in October-November and December-January and post-spawning (Stage 4) occurred from December-January extending until April-May. The GSI followed the morphological changes of gonadal maturation, with a peak in October-November, when maximum GSI (7.08 in females and 3.46 in males) was achieved. From scanning electron microscopy, stripped oocytes showed a funnel-shaped micropyle and a simple oocyte surface arrangement, which is typical for non-adhesive eggs. Fecundity ranged from 160 to 440×10(3) oocytes per female and 129 to 175×10(3)oocytes/kg. The results of this study indicate that S. franciscanus reproduces in the Upper São Francisco River from October to January, exhibiting a total spawning pattern, non-adhesive eggs and high fecundity, providing support for aquaculture and conservation biology of this important neotropical characid fish.

  8. Variability in baseline laboratory measurements of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Ladwig, R; Vigo, A; Fedeli, L M G; Chambless, L E; Bensenor, I; Schmidt, M I; Vidigal, P G; Castilhos, C D; Duncan, B B

    2016-08-01

    Multi-center epidemiological studies must ascertain that their measurements are accurate and reliable. For laboratory measurements, reliability can be assessed through investigation of reproducibility of measurements in the same individual. In this paper, we present results from the quality control analysis of the baseline laboratory measurements from the ELSA-Brasil study. The study enrolled 15,105 civil servants at 6 research centers in 3 regions of Brazil between 2008-2010, with multiple biochemical analytes being measured at a central laboratory. Quality control was ascertained through standard laboratory evaluation of intra- and inter-assay variability and test-retest analysis in a subset of randomly chosen participants. An additional sample of urine or blood was collected from these participants, and these samples were handled in the same manner as the original ones, locally and at the central laboratory. Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), estimated through a random effects model. Coefficients of variation (CV) and Bland-Altman plots were additionally used to assess measurement variability. Laboratory intra and inter-assay CVs varied from 0.86% to 7.77%. From test-retest analyses, the ICCs were high for the majority of the analytes. Notably lower ICCs were observed for serum sodium (ICC=0.50; 95%CI=0.31-0.65) and serum potassium (ICC=0.73; 95%CI=0.60-0.83), due to the small biological range of these analytes. The CVs ranged from 1 to 14%. The Bland-Altman plots confirmed these results. The quality control analyses showed that the collection, processing and measurement protocols utilized in the ELSA-Brasil produced reliable biochemical measurements.

  9. Reproducibility of left ventricular mass by echocardiogram in the ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Tognon, Alexandre Pereira; Foppa, Murilo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Lotufo, Paulo; El Aouar, Lilia Maria Mameri; Fernandes, Luciana Pereira; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2015-02-01

    Echocardiography, though non-invasive and having relatively low-cost, presents issues of variability which can limit its use in epidemiological studies. To evaluate left ventricular mass reproducibility when assessed at acquisition (online) compared to when assessed at a reading center after electronic transmission (offline) and also when assessed by different readers at the reading center. Echocardiographers from the 6 ELSA-Brasil study investigation centers measured the left ventricular mass online during the acquisition from 124 studies before transmitting to the reading center, where studies were read according to the study protocol. Half of these studies were blindly read by a second reader in the reading center. From the 124 echocardiograms, 5 (4%) were considered not measurable. Among the remaining 119, 72 (61%) were women, mean age was 50.2 ± 7.0 years and 2 had structural myocardial abnormalities. Images were considered to be optimal/ good by the reading center for 110 (92.4%) cases. No significant difference existed between online and offline measurements (1,29 g, CI 95% -3.60-6.19), and the intraclass correlation coefficient between them was 0.79 (CI 95% 0.71-0.85). For images read by two readers, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.86 (CI 95% 0.78-0.91). There were no significant drifts between online and offline left ventricular mass measurements, and reproducibility was similar to that described in previous studies. Central quantitative assessment of echocardiographic studies in reading centers, as performed in the ELSA-Brasil study, is feasible and useful in clinical and epidemiological studies performed in our setting.

  10. Electrocardiographic Findings in Brazilian Adults without Heart Disease: ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marcelo Martins; Brant, Luisa C C; Padilha-da-Silva, José Luiz; Foppa, Murilo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José Geraldo; Vasconcelo-Silva, Paulo R; Almeida, Maria da Conceição C; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz Pinho

    2017-10-02

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is widely used in population-based studies. However, there are few studies on electrocardiographic findings in Latin America and in Brazil. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) comprised 15,105 participants (35-74 years) from six Brazilian capitals. To describe electrocardiographic findings in Brazilian adults without heart disease, stratified by sex, age and race/skin color. Cross-sectional study with baseline data of 11,094 adults (44.5% men) without heart disease from ELSA-Brasil. The ECGs were recorded with the Burdick Atria 6100 machine and stored at the Pyramis System. ECG analysis was automatically performed using the Glasgow University software. A descriptive analysis of heart rate (HR), P, QRS and T waves' duration, PR and QT intervals, and P, R and T axes was performed. After stratification by sex, race/color and age, the groups were compared by the Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the behavior of electrocardiographic parameters over age. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities defined by the Minnesota code were manually revised. Medians values of the electrocardiographic parameters were different between men and women: HR 63 vs. 66 bpm, PR 164 vs.158 ms, QT corrected 410 vs. 421 ms, QRS duration 92 vs. 86 ms, P-wave duration 112 vs. 108 ms, P-wave axis 54 vs. 57 degrees, R-wave axis 35 vs. 39 degrees, T-wave axis 39 vs. 45 degrees (p < 0.001 for all). The 2nd and the 98th percentiles of each variable were also obtained, and graphs were constructed to illustrate the behavior of the electrocardiographic findings over age of participants stratified by sex and race/skin color. The values for the electrocardiographic measurements herein described can be used as reference for Brazilian adults free of heart disease, stratified by sex. Our results suggest that self-reported race/skin color have no significant influence on

  11. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  12. Assimilation of Aerosols from Biomass Burning by the Radiative Transfer Model Brasil-Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, R. S.; Gonçalves, A. R.; Souza, J. G.; Martins, F. R.; Pereira, E. B.

    2015-12-01

    The radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR is the main tool used by the Earth System Science Centre from the National Institute for Space Research (CCST / INPE) for solar energy resource assessment. Due to large and frequent events of burning biomass in Brazil there is a need to improve the aerosol representation in this model, mainly during the dry season (September - November) in Northern and Central Brazil. The standard aerosol representation in this model is inadequate to capture these events. It is based on the mean monthly climatological horizontal visibility with latitudinal values based on coarse global observation data. To improve the aerosol representation, climatological data of daily horizontal visibility from National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) was used to generate monthly averages from 1999 to 2012. To do a better representation of aerosols from burning biomass events, from megacities aerosol generation, and from transport processes, horizontal visibility estimates performed using aerosol optical thickness at 550 nm data from MACC Project Reanalysis model were used to adjust the aerosol representation in regions were the simple horizontal visibility fails. A methodology to generate these new visibility data from the Reanalysis was made and the resulting data was compared with the average horizontal visibility to implement a new corrected database. The solar irradiation simulated by the model using this new aerosol representation proved to be better than the previous version of the model in all regions with high aerosol loading.

  13. Improvements in the detection efficiency model for the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naccarato, K. P.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2009-02-01

    The detection efficiency (DE) is the most important performance gauge of a lightning detection network (LDN). Moreover, the main motivation for evaluating the DE of a LDN is to separate the geographical variations of the CG lightning parameters from the variations regarding the network performance. A review of previous relative DE techniques and simple methods to correct the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash density maps is presented. In addition, recent improvements in the flash DE model for the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT) are discussed. The DE estimated values are based on the sensor individual DE probability functions, which are derived from a large amount of CG stroke data provided by the network considering different distances from the sensor and specific peak current ranges. The new approach provides better results when compared with the previous developments, since the calculation of the sensor DE probability functions neglects the lightning data provided by the minimum number of reporting sensors. Hence it is possible to minimize the unrealistic enhancement of the DE closer to the network boundaries ("border effect") without affecting significantly the performance inside the network. The main result is a more realistic correction of the CG flash density maps, particularly at the outermost network areas, leading to an improvement in the model sensitivity.

  14. Factors associated with leisure time physical activity among ELSA-Brasil participants: Ecological model.

    PubMed

    Pitanga, Francisco José Gondim; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-09-01

    The main objective of the study was identify the prevalence and factors associated with leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in adult participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The LTPA was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), long version. A hierarchical ecological model was built with the possible factors associated with LTPA distributed across blocks. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using logistic regression. In men, being more educated, having a high family income, living in environments with conditions and opportunities for PA, being retired and being overweight were positively associated, while current smoking, obesity and abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. Among women, being over 60years old, being more educated, having a high family income, living in an environment with conditions and opportunities for PA practice and being retired were positively associated, while being overweight, obese and having abdominal obesity were associated negatively with the LTPA. The proposed ecological model explains the LTPA through the social, physical and personal environment and highlights gender differences in physical activity.

  15. "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program: characterization and evolution between 2004 and 2012.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rondineli Mendes; Caetano, Rosangela

    2015-10-01

    The "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program (PFPB) aims to improve access to medicines, offering subsidized products. It is structured in an arrangement involving public and private sectors. The paper described the organization and expansion of the PFPB and examined the reference price (RP) of the medicines paid by the government, between 2004 and 2012. It is an exploratory study of quantitative and qualitative approach, developed from the literature review and analysis of public documents. Quantitative data were collected from the Ministry of Health and Electronic System of Citizens Information Services. The PFPB is organized in two delivery models: public owned facilities (Rede Própria) and accredited private retail pharmacies (Aqui Tem Farmácia Popular-ATFP). The ATFP has allowed its own expansion, from 2006. Antihypertensives, antidiabetics and antiasthmatics were exempt from copayment, since 2011. The expansion of the ATFP Program was significant, for facilities and covered municipalities, 750% and 528%, respectively. The RP was reduced by 33.6% on average (ranging from 23-52%) for medicines available since the beginning of the ATFP. The expansion was performed with the actions hitherto unprecedented, as copayment and accreditation of private retail pharmacies.

  16. Relation of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms to Coronary Artery Calcium (from the ELSA-Brasil Baseline Data).

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Rocco, Priscila T; Pereira, Alexandre C; Barreto, Sandhi M; Brunoni, André R; Goulart, Alessandra C; Blaha, Michael J; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2016-07-15

    Previous studies of the association between symptoms of anxiety or depression and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have produced heterogeneous results. Our aim was to investigate whether psychopathological symptoms were associated with CAC in a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 4,279 ELSA-Brasil subjects (aged 35 to 74 years) from the São Paulo site without previous cardiovascular disease who underwent CAC score assessment at baseline. Prevalent CAC was defined as a CAC score >0. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). We built binary logistic regression models to determine whether CIS-R scores, anxiety, or depression were associated with prevalent CAC. Prevalent CAC was found in 1,211 subjects (28.3%). After adjustment for age and gender, a direct association between CIS-R scores and prevalent CAC was revealed (odds ratio for 1-SD increase: 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.22). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio for 1-SD increase 1.11; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20). No independent associations were found for specific diagnoses of anxiety or depression and prevalent CAC. In post hoc models, a significant interaction term (p = 0.019) suggested a stronger association in older subjects. In conclusion, psychopathological symptoms were directly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in the ELSA-Brasil baseline in adjusted models, and this association seems to be stronger in older subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Reproductive cycle of the mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae (Bivalvia: Ostreidae) in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Lenz, Tiago; Boehs, Guisla

    2011-03-01

    The mangrove oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is important fishery resource along the entire Brasilian coast with excellent potential for marine culture. The purpose of this paper was to examine the reproductive characteristics of the oyster of the Maraú river estuary in Camamu Bay, Bahia, Brasil. The samples were collected monthly, from September 2006 to August 2007, at two points (I and II) in Camamu Bay. At each site 20 oysters were collected for histological analysis, fixed in Davidson's solution, embedded in paraffin, dehydrated in an ethanol series, sectioned (7 microm thick) and stained with Harris hematoxylin and Eosin (HE). Additionally, 30 oysters were sampled, at each point, for a condition index analysis. The water temperature ranged from 23.5 degrees C to 30 degrees C and the salinity from 15 to 25 ups at Point I (Maraú) and from 25 to 35 at Point II (Tanque Island). The oyster's height ranged from 30 to 92 mm at Point I and from 27 to 102 mm at Point II, with an average of 49.0 mm +/- 9.1 (n = 230) and 49.9 mm +/- 9.9 (n = 237), respectively. Among the sampled oysters at Point I, 59.1% were females, 31.3% males, 1.3% hermaphrodites and 8.2% of the oysters of undetermined sex. At Point II, 66.2% were females, 30.4% males, 0.8% hermaphrodites and 2.5% (n = 237) of undetermined sex. The gonadic stage analysis indicated that the reproduction period of the C. rhizophorae in the Maraú Peninsula was continuous all year, without any regressive phase. The condition index (R) ranged from 8.0% to 17.7%. The peak periods of R coincided with the expressive oyster's percentage in the maturation and liberation gametic stages. The results of these findings will contribute information for the oyster spat collection and to the process installation of the oyster culture in Camamu Bay.

  18. Physical Activity and Lipid Profile in the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Raquel Caroline; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Alvim, Sheila; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Fedeli, Ligia Maria Giongo; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity (PA) induces desirable changes in plasma levels of high- and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively) and triglycerides (TG), important risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. However, doubts whether intensity and duration have equivalent benefits remain. Objective To assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG levels. Methods Cross-sectional study with 12,688 participants from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline, who were not on lipid-lowering medication. After adjustment for important covariates, multiple linear regression was used to assess the association of PA intensity and duration with HDL, LDL and TG (natural logarithm) levels. Results Both moderate and vigorous PA and PA practice ≥ 150 min/week were significantly associated with higher HDL and lower TG levels. Vigorous PA was associated with lower LDL only on univariate analysis. After adjustments, moderate and vigorous PA increased mean HDL level by 0.89 mg/dL and 1.71 mg/dL, respectively, and reduced TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL and 0.93 mg/dL, respectively. PA practice ≥ 150 min/week increased mean HDL level by 1.05 mg/dL, and decreased TG geometric mean by 0.98 mg/dL. Conclusion Our findings reinforce the benefits of both PA parameters studied on HDL and TG levels, with a slight advantage for vigorous PA as compared to the recommendation based only on PA duration. PMID:27355470

  19. Common mental disorders and sociodemographic characteristics: baseline findings of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Nunes, Maria A; Pinheiro, Andréa P; Bessel, Marina; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Benseñor, Isabela M; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi; Schmidt, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and the association of CMD with sociodemographic characteristics in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. We analyzed data from the cross-sectional baseline assessment of the ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of 15,105 civil servants from six Brazilian cities. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) was used to investigate the presence of CMD, with a score ≥ 12 indicating a current CMD (last week). Specific diagnostic algorithms for each disorder were based on the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Prevalence ratios (PR) of the association between CMD and sociodemographic characteristics were estimated by Poisson regression. CMD (CIS-R score ≥ 12) was found in 26.8% (95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 26.1-27.5). The highest burden occurred among women (PR 1.9; 95%CI 1.8-2.0), the youngest (PR 1.7; 95%CI 1.5-1.9), non-white individuals, and those without a university degree. The most frequent diagnostic category was anxiety disorders (16.2%), followed by depressive episodes (4.2%). The burden of CMD was high, particularly among the more socially vulnerable groups. These findings highlight the need to strengthen public policies aimed to address health inequities related to mental disorders.

  20. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and psychiatric disorders: cross-sectional results from the Brazilian Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Benseñor, Isabela M; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Sander Diniz, Maria de Fátima; Santos, Itamar S; Brunoni, André R; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2015-01-12

    To evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and psychiatric disorders using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional study. The study included 12 437 participants from the ELSA-Brasil with normal thyroid function (92·8%), 193 (1·4%) with subclinical hyperthyroidism and 784 (5·8%) with subclinical hypothyroidism, totalling 13 414 participants (50·6% of women). The mental health diagnoses of participants were assessed by trained raters using the Clinical Interview Schedule - Revised (CIS-R) and grouped according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10). Thyroid dysfunction was assessed using TSH and FT4 as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Logistic models were presented using psychiatric disorders as the dependent variable and subclinical thyroid disorders as the independent variable. All logistic models were corrected for multiple comparisons using Bonferroni correction. After multivariate adjustment for possible confounders, we found a direct association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and panic disorder odds ratio [OR], 2·55; 95% confidence Interval (95% CI), 1·09-5·94; and an inverse association between subclinical hypothyroidism and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 0·75; 95% CI, 0·59-0·96). However, both lost significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was positively associated with panic disorder and negatively associated with anxiety disorder, although not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35–74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61–0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11–1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29–1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol—metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference—wine or beer—appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations

  2. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  3. Maternal education, anthropometric markers of malnutrition and cognitive function (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The early exposure to poor social and nutritional conditions may influence cognitive function during adult age. However, the relative impact of these factors has not yet been established and they can vary during the course of life. Methods Analysis of data from 12,997 participants (35-64 years) of the baseline exams (2008-2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort of Brazilian civil servants. Four cognitive tests were applied: learning, recall and word recognition; semantic and phonemic verbal fluency; trail-making test version B. The markers of early nutritional and social conditions were maternal educational level, birth weight, and length of trunk and leg. The presence of independent association between every early marker and the poor performance in each cognitive test was investigated by multiple logistic regression, after mutual adjustment and considering the effects of gender, age and participant’s schooling level. The cut off for poor performance was the worst age-specific percentile of the final score distribution for each test. Results After full adjustments, lower maternal education increased the chances of poor performance in all cognitive tests, with a dose-response gradient; low birth-weight was related to poor performance in the trail-making test B (OR = 1.63, 95% IC = 1.29-2.06); and greater trunk length decreased the chances of poor performance in the semantic and phonemic verbal fluency (OR = 0.96, 95% IC = 0.94-0.97) and in the trail-making test B (OR = 0.94, 95% IC = 0.92-0.95). Leg length was not associated with any of the tests examined. The associations found were not modified by the educational attainment of the participants. Conclusions Early exposure to adverse social and nutritional conditions appear detrimental to semantic memory, learning, concentration, executive control and language among adults, independent of adulthood educational achievement. PMID:24989981

  4. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  5. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  6. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    PubMed

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics.

  7. Subjective social status, self-rated health and tobacco smoking: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane do V; Giatti, Luana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2014-11-01

    Using baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (N = 15,105), we investigated whether subjective social status, measured using three 10-rung "ladders," is associated with self-rated health and smoking, independently of objective indicators of social position and depression symptoms. Additionally, we explored whether the magnitude of these associations varies according to the reference group. Subjective social status was independently associated with poor self-rated health and weakly associated with former smoking. The references used for social comparison did not change these associations significantly. Subjective social status, education, and income represent distinct aspects of social inequities, and the impact of each of these indicators on health is different. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Carotid intima-media thickness value distributions in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Oliveira, Ilka R S; Souza, Angelita G; Meireles, Danilo P; Rundek, Tatjana; Foppa, Murilo; Bezerra, Daniel C; Freire, Cláudia M V; Roelke, Leonard H; Carrilho, Sayonara; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2014-11-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is a noninvasive measurement of early atherosclerosis. Most IMT studies have involved populations with low rates of racial blending. The aim of the present article is to describe IMT value distributions and analyze the influence of sex and race on IMT values in a large Brazilian sample, a setting with a high rate of racial admixture. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a multicenter cohort of 15,105 adult (aged 35-74 years) civil servants in six Brazilian cities. Baseline assessment included IMT measurements in both common carotid arteries. Race was self-reported. We studied the association between sex and race with IMT values using multiple linear regression models. We conducted analyses in all and low-risk individuals, defined as those without classical cardiovascular risk factors. We analyzed complete IMT data from 10,405 ELSA-Brasil participants. We present nomograms by age for all and low-risk individuals, stratified by sex and race. We found that men had significantly higher maximal IMT values compared with women (β = 0.058; P < 0.001). This association remained for low-risk individuals (β = 0.027; P = 0.001). In addition, Brown and White individuals had lower maximal IMT values compared with Black individuals for all (β = -0.034 and β = -0.054, respectively; P < 0.001) and low-risk individuals (β = -0.027; P = 0.013 and β = -0.035; P < 0.001, respectively). We found significantly higher IMT values in men. We found significantly higher IMT values in Black individuals than White and Brown individuals. These results persisted when analyses were restricted to low-risk individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of machine-learning algorithms to build a predictive model for detecting undiagnosed diabetes - ELSA-Brasil: accuracy study.

    PubMed

    Olivera, André Rodrigues; Roesler, Valter; Iochpe, Cirano; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Vigo, Álvaro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease associated with a wide range of serious health complications that have a major impact on overall health. The aims here were to develop and validate predictive models for detecting undiagnosed diabetes using data from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) and to compare the performance of different machine-learning algorithms in this task. Comparison of machine-learning algorithms to develop predictive models using data from ELSA-Brasil. After selecting a subset of 27 candidate variables from the literature, models were built and validated in four sequential steps: (i) parameter tuning with tenfold cross-validation, repeated three times; (ii) automatic variable selection using forward selection, a wrapper strategy with four different machine-learning algorithms and tenfold cross-validation (repeated three times), to evaluate each subset of variables; (iii) error estimation of model parameters with tenfold cross-validation, repeated ten times; and (iv) generalization testing on an independent dataset. The models were created with the following machine-learning algorithms: logistic regression, artificial neural network, naïve Bayes, K-nearest neighbor and random forest. The best models were created using artificial neural networks and logistic regression. -These achieved mean areas under the curve of, respectively, 75.24% and 74.98% in the error estimation step and 74.17% and 74.41% in the generalization testing step. Most of the predictive models produced similar results, and demonstrated the feasibility of identifying individuals with highest probability of having undiagnosed diabetes, through easily-obtained clinical data.

  10. Job stress is associated with migraine in current workers: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Santos, I S; Griep, R H; Alves, M G M; Goulart, A C; Lotufo, P A; Barreto, S M; Chor, D; Benseñor, I M

    2014-10-01

    Migraine is an important source of social burden and work-related costs. Studies addressing the association of migraine with job stress are rare. The aim of this paper was to study the association of job stress components and migraine using structured, validated questionnaires that were part of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ELSA-Brasil is a multicentre cohort of 15,105 civil servants (12,096 current workers) in Brazil. Job strain was assessed using the 17-item Brazilian version of the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Headache episodes in the preceding 12 months were assessed using a questionnaire based on the International Headache Society criteria. We analysed the association between job stress domains and migraine in men and women using adjusted logistic regression and interaction models. We included 3113 individuals without headache and 3259 migraineurs. Low job control [odds ratio (OR) 1.30; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.53], high job demands (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.18-1.59) and low social support (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.29-1.71) were associated with migraine. Job control was more strongly associated with migraine in women (p for interaction = 0.02). High-strain (high demand and low control) jobs were associated with migraine in both men (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.11-1.97) and women (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.17-1.95). We observed a strong association between high-strain jobs and migraine. Job control was a stronger migraine-related factor for women. Low social support was associated with migraine in both sexes. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  11. Standardization and reference intervals of platelet volume indices: Insight from the Brazilian longitudinal study of adult health (ELSA-BRASIL).

    PubMed

    Maluf, Chams B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Vidigal, Pedro G

    2015-01-01

    Platelet volume indices (PVI) are associated with hematological and non-hematological diseases, notably cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The establishment of PVI reference intervals (RIs) are essential to evaluate whether these indices are useful in clinical practice. Healthy-associated RIs have not yet been established for the Brazilian population. Here, we determined RIs of PVI for a health adult population, participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health ELSA-Brasil. A total of 580 individuals out of an initial sample of 3115 subjects constituted the healthy reference sample. To be part of the study, individuals had to fulfill the following criteria: blood count within 2 hours of collection, no use of continuous medication, self-rated health as good or very good, no reported diagnosis of diabetes and/or arterial hypertension, not smoking, lack of metabolic syndrome, body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m(2), and platelet, hemoglobin, and creatinine beyond reference values. The RIs are mean platelet volume (MPV): 8.9-11.8 fL, platelet distribution width (PDW): 9.6-15.3 fL, platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR): 15.6-39.5%. These parameters were not significantly affected by age, gender, smoking, obesity, and alcohol abuse. However, significant differences were found among self-rated race/color groups. Standardization of measurement procedures and the establishment of healthy-associated PVI RIs are essential to be able to support clinical decision-making from laboratorial test results. This study at the baseline of the ELSA Brasil reported herein may contribute to future efforts aiming to evaluate whether PVI values are associated with clinical conditions in the Brazilian population.

  12. Association Between Short-Term Systolic Blood Pressure Variability and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in ELSA-Brasil Baseline.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Adèle H; Lotufo, Paulo A; Fujita, André; Goulart, Alessandra C; Chor, Dora; Mill, José G; Bensenor, Isabela M; Santos, Itamar S

    2017-10-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), but few studies have explored the association between BP variability and CIMT. We aimed to investigate this association in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We analyzed data from 7,215 participants (56.0% women) without overt cardiovascular disease (CVD) or antihypertensive use. We included 10 BP readings in varying positions during a 6-hour visit. We defined BP variability as the SD of these readings. We performed a 2-step analysis. We first linearly regressed the CIMT values on main and all-order interaction effects of the variables age, sex, body mass index, race, diabetes diagnosis, dyslipidemia diagnosis, family history of premature CVD, smoking status, and ELSA-Brasil site, and calculated the residuals (residual CIMT). We used partial least square path analysis to investigate whether residual CIMT was associated with BP central tendency and BP variability. Systolic BP (SBP) variability was significantly associated with residual CIMT in models including the entire sample (path coefficient [PC]: 0.046; P < 0.001), and in women (PC: 0.046; P = 0.007) but not in men (PC: 0.037; P = 0.09). This loss of significance was probably due to the smaller subsample size, as PCs were not significantly different according to sex. We found a small but significant association between SBP variability and CIMT values. This was additive to the association between SBP central tendency and CIMT values, supporting a role for high short-term SBP variability in atherosclerosis.

  13. Time From Smoking Cessation and Inflammatory Markers: New Evidence From a Cross-Sectional Analysis of ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Flávia Soares; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Camelo, Lidyane V; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Giatti, Luana

    2017-07-01

    The time for inflammatory markers of former smokers to revert to never smoker levels is still controversial, ranging from 5 to 20 years. We aimed to determine the time from smoking cessation for white blood cell (WBC) count and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels to return to those of never-smokers, after adjusting for confounding factors and for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline participants of ELSA-Brasil. We used linear regression analysis and generalized linear models with gamma distribution and logarithmic link function to estimate the association of WBC count and CRP levels with time from smoking cessation. The following confounding factors were considered: sex, age, education, SHS, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, BMI, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Results: After all adjustments, time from smoking cessation <10 years remained associated with higher WBC count (eg, time from smoking cessation ≥ 5 and <10 years: β: 167.92; 95%CI: 23.52 312.31), while only time from smoking cessation <1 year remained associated with higher arithmetic mean of CRP (AMR: 1.26, 95%CI: 1.03‒1.54). Levels of inflammatory markers were similar to those of never-smokers 1 year after smoking cessation for CRP and 10 years after for WBC. The results may add to the arsenal health professionals have to encourage their patients to quit smoking, as some harms from smoking appear to revert to never-smokers' level sooner than previously reported. Longitudinal studies should confirm our findings.

  14. Stromatolite laminae (Lagoa Vermelha, Brasil) as archives for reservoir age changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggmann, Sylvie; Vasconcelos, Crisogono; Hajdas, Irka

    2016-04-01

    As laminated biogenic or abiogenic sedimentary structures [1], stromatolites record environmental changes along growth profiles, revealing possible changes in reservoir ages due to input of older carbon. A modern stromatolite sample was collected in Lagoa Vermelha (100 km east of Rio de Janeiro, Brasil) an area known for upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW). 34 samples from a transect cutting the lamination were collected with a hand-driller for standard geochemistry and 14C AMS analyses. Shells collected in 2015 were analysed for estimation of the present-day reservoir age. 14C ages of laminae and the reservoir age were used to apply the age-depth model to the stromatolite transect with the OxCal depositional model (Marine13 calibration curve; [2]). Small-scale changes in the composition of laminae report environmental changes, e.g. upwelling. The well-laminated middle part (laminated boundstone; ca. 4cm) of the stromatolite transect was found to have grown in a short time period of less than 100 years (1163-1210 14C y BP), with four excursions towards older 14C ages (ca. 1200 14C y BP). To detect possible changes of marine 14C, calendar years assuming a stable modern reservoir age were used to simulate atmospheric 14C ages with the southern hemisphere IntCal13 atmospheric calibration curve [3]. The offset between the measured and simulated 14C ages indicates a variability of the reservoir age between -99 and 268 14C y with highest reservoir correction found for the layers with indication of environmental changes (e.g. upwelling). Thus, this simulation confirms the occurrence of older carbon and points out the sensitivity of stromatolites for changing reservoir ages. [1] M.A. Semikhatov, C.D. Gebelein, P. Cloud, S.M. Awramik, W.C. Benmore (1979). Stromatolite morphogenesis - progress and problems. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 19:992-1015. [2] P.J. Reimer, E. Bard, A. Bayliss, J. W. Beck, P. G. Blackwell, C. Bronk Ramsey, C. E. Buck, H. Cheng, R

  15. Gender and psychosocial factors associated with healthy lifestyle in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Patrão, Ana Luísa; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Chor, Dora; Aquino, Estela M L

    2017-08-28

    It has been estimated that over 50% of the premature deaths occurring in Western countries can be attributed to causes rooted in lifestyle. In turn, leading a healthy lifestyle has also been associated with a wide range of psychosocial factors. Today, it is known that these differ among men and women. The present article aimed to identify, from a gender-based perspective, the psychosocial factors associated with healthy lifestyles in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort, the largest study concerning adult health conducted in Latin America to date. This cross-sectional study was conducted using ELSA-Brasil baseline data, collected between 2008 and 2010. Six Brazilian public higher education and research institutions. The ELSA-Brasil cohort consists of approximately 15 000 employees (8218 women and 6887 men), both currently working and retired. The lifestyle indicator was constructed by summing the scores attributed to four different behaviours. The women of the ELSA-Brasil cohort have healthier lifestyles than men. In women, strong associations were found between a healthy lifestyle and age 60 years or older, Asian race and university level of education or higher. In men, being 60 years or older, of Asian or Caucasian race, having a high-school equivalent level of education or higher, being retired, having a housekeeper, having a good or very good self-perception of health and being satisfied with body image were the psychosocial factors associated with leading a healthy lifestyle. The factors that influenced healthy lifestyles were found to differ among men and women, a fact that must be addressed when developing programmes designed to promote health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Tendências De Teses e Dissertações Sobre Educação em Astronomia No Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo Sergio; Megid Neto, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia, com objetivo de identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: isntituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Pretende-se assim colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica na área. Ao mesmo tempo o estudo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as contribuições dessa produção para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  17. [The "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program and aspects of public provision of medicines in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos-Pinto, Cláudia Du Bocage; Costa, Nilson do Rosário; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2011-06-01

    In 2004, the Federal Government introduced the "Farmácia Popular do Brasil" Program, which was an example of policy innovation, establishing a co-payment scheme as a strategy for access to medication. The study analyzed the original model of the Program. Data were obtained from interviews with key stakeholders, program documents and user prescriptions and registers. The results showed widespread expansion of the PFPB network and in the number of people attended. Despite the ever-increasing number of people attended with prescriptions from the private sector, a large demand from public sector users, namely the original focus of the program, was observed. From the standpoint of the federative pact, the program reinstates the centralized model of essential medication distribution which, in the decentralized public system is under state and municipal responsibility. The results point to the difficulty in compliance by states and municipalities with medication distribution responsibilities, mainly in the North and Northeast regions of Brazil. The study concludes that the population has been consistently turning to the PFPB for essential medication it has not been able to access in the public sector.

  18. Major Electrocardiographic Abnormalities According to the Minnesota Coding System Among Brazilian Adults (from the ELSA-Brasil Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Pinto-Filho, Marcelo M; Brant, Luisa C C; Foppa, Murilo; Garcia-Silva, Kaiser B; Mendes de Oliveira, Rackel Aguiar; de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca, Maria; Alvim, Sheila; Lotufo, Paulo A; Mill, José G; Barreto, Sandhi M; Macfarlane, Peter W; Ribeiro, Antonio L P

    2017-06-15

    The electrocardiogram is a simple and useful clinical tool; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in the Latin American population. This study aims to evaluate the major electrocardiographic abnormalities according to the Minnesota coding system in Brazilian adults, stratified by gender, age, race, and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from 14,424 adults (45.8% men, age 35 to 74 years) were obtained at baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), according to standardized protocol. The electrocardiogram were obtained with the Burdick Atria 6100 machine, stored on Pyramis System, automatically coded according to the Minnesota coding system by the Glasgow University software and then manually revised. Major abnormalities were more prevalent in men than women (11.3% and 7.9%, p <0.001). These differences were consistent through the different age groups, race, and number of cardiovascular risk factors. Electrocardiographic major abnormalities were more prevalent in black participants for both men (black: 15.1%, mixed: 10.4%, white: 11.1%, p = 0.001) and women (black: 10%, mixed: 7.6%, white: 7.2%, p = 0.004). In conclusion, in this large sample of Brazilian adults, the prevalence of major electrocardiographic abnormalities was higher among men, the elderly, black, and among people with more cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE TRI‑BORDER AREA OF ASSIS BRASIL, ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TELES, Carolina Bioni Garcia; MEDEIROS, Jansen Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Ana Paula de Azevedo; de FREITAS, Luís Antônio Rodrigues; KATSURAGAWA, Tony Hiroshi; CANTANHÊDE, Lilian Motta; FERREIRA, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; CAMARG, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study, Leishmaniaspecies were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia triborder was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmaniawas detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawiand L. (L.) amazonensis in Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting. PMID:26422160

  20. Use of the Method of Triads in the Validation of Sodium and Potassium Intake in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Mill, José Geraldo; Sichieri, Rosely; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Biomarkers are a good choice to be used in the validation of food frequency questionnaire due to the independence of their random errors. Objective To assess the validity of the potassium and sodium intake estimated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil. Subjects/Methods A subsample of participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort was included in this study in 2009. Sodium and potassium intake were estimated using three methods: Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, 12-hour nocturnal urinary excretion and three 24-hour food records. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the methods, and the validity coefficient was calculated using the method of triads. The 95% confidence intervals for the validity coefficient were estimated using bootstrap sampling. Exact and adjacent agreement and disagreement of the estimated sodium and potassium intake quintiles were compared among three methods. Results The sample consisted of 246 participants, aged 53±8 years, 52% of women. Validity coefficient for sodium were considered weak (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.37 and рbiomarker actual intake = 0.21) and moderate (рfood records actual intake 0.56). The validity coefficient were higher for potassium (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.60; рbiomarker actual intake = 0.42; рfood records actual intake = 0.79). Conclusions: The Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil showed good validity in estimating potassium intake in epidemiological studies. For sodium validity was weak, likely due to the non-quantification of the added salt to prepared food. PMID:28030625

  1. Use of the Method of Triads in the Validation of Sodium and Potassium Intake in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Cade, Nágela Valadão; Mill, José Geraldo; Sichieri, Rosely; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers are a good choice to be used in the validation of food frequency questionnaire due to the independence of their random errors. To assess the validity of the potassium and sodium intake estimated using the Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil. A subsample of participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort was included in this study in 2009. Sodium and potassium intake were estimated using three methods: Semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, 12-hour nocturnal urinary excretion and three 24-hour food records. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the methods, and the validity coefficient was calculated using the method of triads. The 95% confidence intervals for the validity coefficient were estimated using bootstrap sampling. Exact and adjacent agreement and disagreement of the estimated sodium and potassium intake quintiles were compared among three methods. The sample consisted of 246 participants, aged 53±8 years, 52% of women. Validity coefficient for sodium were considered weak (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.37 and рbiomarker actual intake = 0.21) and moderate (рfood records actual intake 0.56). The validity coefficient were higher for potassium (рfood frequency questionnaire actual intake = 0.60; рbiomarker actual intake = 0.42; рfood records actual intake = 0.79). Conclusions: The Food Frequency Questionnaire ELSA-Brasil showed good validity in estimating potassium intake in epidemiological studies. For sodium validity was weak, likely due to the non-quantification of the added salt to prepared food.

  2. Epicardial fat thickness: distribution and association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Daniela Bertol; Foppa, Murilo; Pires, Julio Cesar Gall; Vigo, Alvaro; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-04-01

    Epicardial fat thickness (EFT) has emerged as a marker of cardiometabolic risk, but its clinical use warrants proper knowledge of its distribution and associations in populations. We aimed to describe the distribution of EFT, its demographic correlates and independent associations with diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome (MS) in free-living Brazilian adults. From the baseline echocardiography of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)-a cohort study of civil servants aged 35-74 years-EFT was measured from a randomly selected sample of 998 participants as the mean of two paraesternal windows obtained at end systole (EFTsyst) and end diastole (EFTdiast). From the 421 individuals free of diabetes, hypertension and MS, we defined EFT reference values and the EFTsyst 75th percentile cut-off. Median EFTsyst was 1.5 (IQR 0-2.6) mm; a large proportion (84 %) had EFTdiast = 0. EFT was higher in women and lower in blacks, and increased with age and BMI. Although EFT was higher in those with diabetes, hypertension, and MS, EFT associations were reduced when adjusted for age, sex and ethnicity, and were non-significant after adjusting for obesity measures. In conclusion, the amount of EFT in this large multiethnic population is smaller than reported in other populations. EFT reference values varied across demographic and clinical variables, EFT associations with cardiometabolic variables being largely explained by age, sex, ethnicity and central obesity. Although EFT can help identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, it will likely have a limited additional role compared to current risk stratification strategies.

  3. PREVALENCE AND FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY IN ELDERLY FROM VIÇOSA/MG, BRASIL.

    PubMed

    Oliveira Martinho, Karina; Luiz Araújo Tinôco, Adelson; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andréia

    2015-11-01

    La prevalencia de deficiencia nutricional de vitamina B12 aumenta con la edad y es especialmente común en la población mayor. El objetivo de este estudio consistió en determinar su prevalencia y los factores asociados a esta carencia en mayores no institucionalizados de Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos: estudio poblacional interseccional, realizado para identificar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a deficiencia de vitamina B12 entre la población de mayores en Viçosa (MG). Los datos fueron recopilados desde agosto de 2011 hasta junio de 2012 mediante una encuesta en los hogares y pruebas hematológicas y bioquímicas realizadas en 340 mayores. Resultados: la prevalencia de deficiencia de vitamina B12 en este grupo fue del 17,4% (95% CI, 13,4% - 21,4%). La deficiencia cognitiva se presenta como un factor importante relacionado con la deficiencia de vitamina B12. Conclusiones: el informe actual contribuye a los estudios que destacan ciertos factores que podrían afectar al rendimiento de las personas mayores en su proceso de envejecimiento natural, especialmente cuando estos factores están asociados con deficiencia cognitiva y dan lugar a una discapacidad significativa así como pérdida de calidad de vida. Así, los resultados aquí presentados han servido para aportar un conocimiento más comprensivo sobre la relación entre deficiencia de B12 y su impacto sobre este grupo de población. También han demostrado su relevancia de cara a la planificación de programas e iniciativas de salud pública centrados en este grupo de población.

  4. Factors associated with metabolically healthy status in obesity, overweight, and normal weight at baseline of ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Bensenor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40.8% (n = 5934) were overweight, and 37.5% (n = 5313) were of normal weight.Socio-demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors related to MHS were ascertained. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of associations. We used 4 different criteria separately and in combination to define MHS: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and comorbidities, and the agreement between them were evaluated by Cohen-kappa coefficient.MHS was present among 12.0% (n = 396) of obese, 25.5% (n = 1514) of overweight, and 48.6% (n = 2582) of normal weight participants according to the combination of the 4 criteria. The agreement between all the 4 MHS criteria was strong (kappa 0.73 P < 0.001). In final logistic models, MHS was associated with lower age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and weight change from age 20 within all BMI categories.This study showed that, despite differences in prevalence among the 4 criteria, MHS was associated with common characteristics at every BMI category.

  5. Factors associated with metabolically healthy status in obesity, overweight, and normal weight at baseline of ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Maria de Fátima Haueisen Sander; Beleigoli, Alline Maria Rezende; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz P.; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of this study was to evaluate metabolically healthy status (MHS) among participants in obesity, overweight, and normal weight groups and characteristics associated with this phenotype using baseline data of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The secondary aim was to investigate agreement among 4 different MHS criteria. This cross-sectional study included 14,545 participants aged 35 to 74 years with a small majority (54.1%) being women. Of all participants, 22.7% (n = 3298) were obese, 40.8% (n = 5934) were overweight, and 37.5% (n = 5313) were of normal weight. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and anthropometric factors related to MHS were ascertained. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of associations. We used 4 different criteria separately and in combination to define MHS: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and comorbidities, and the agreement between them were evaluated by Cohen-kappa coefficient. MHS was present among 12.0% (n = 396) of obese, 25.5% (n = 1514) of overweight, and 48.6% (n = 2582) of normal weight participants according to the combination of the 4 criteria. The agreement between all the 4 MHS criteria was strong (kappa 0.73 P < 0.001). In final logistic models, MHS was associated with lower age, female sex, lower body mass index (BMI), and weight change from age 20 within all BMI categories. This study showed that, despite differences in prevalence among the 4 criteria, MHS was associated with common characteristics at every BMI category. PMID:27399079

  6. Coffee Consumption and Heart Rate Variability: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rackel Aguiar Mendes; Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra C; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2017-07-13

    Studies have shown that acute coffee ingestion can affect cardiovascular autonomic activity, although the chronic effects on heart rate variability (HRV) remain controversial. A cross-sectional study with baseline data (2008-2010) from ELSA-Brasil cohort of 15,105 (aged 35-74), based in six Brazilian states. Coffee consumption in the previous 12 months was measured using the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and HRV was obtained through electrocardiographic tracings during 10 min at rest. Independent association between the frequency of coffee consumption "never or almost never", "≤1 cup/day", "2-3 cups/day", "≥3 cups/day", and HRV was estimated using generalized linear regression, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behavior, markers of abnormal metabolism, and the presence of coronary artery disease. Further, we applied Bonferroni correction in the full models. The mean age was 52 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), and 52% was female; 9.5% never/almost never consumed coffee. In univariate analysis, coffee consumers had reduced values of HRV indexes, but after full adjustments and correction for multiple comparisons, these associations disappeared. A trend of reduction in HRV vagal indexes was observed in those that consumed ≥3 cups of coffee/day. Most of the effects attributed to the chronic use of coffee on the HRV indexes is related to the higher prevalence of unhealthy habits in coffee users, such as smoking and alcohol use. Adjustment for confounding factors weaken this association, making it non-significant. The effect of higher daily doses of coffee on the autonomic system should be evaluated in further studies.

  7. Job strain and binge eating among Brazilian workers participating in the ELSA-Brasil study: does BMI matter?

    PubMed

    Pena Gralle, Ana Paula Bruno; Barbosa Moreno, Arlinda; Lopes Juvanhol, Leidjaira; Mendes da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus; Prates Melo, Enirtes Caetano; Antunes Nunes, Maria Angélica; Toivanen, Susanna; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2017-05-25

    To assess the association between job strain and binge eating as well as the effect-modifying influence of body mass index (BMI) on this association. A total of 11,951 active civil servants from the multicenter Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) was included in this cross-sectional analysis. Job strain was assessed using the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Binge eating was defined as eating a large amount of food with a sense of lack of control over what and how much is eaten in less than 2 hours at least twice a week. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the association between binge eating and job strain as well as its interaction with BMI. After adjustment, and using low-strain job as the reference category, binge eating was associated with high-strain job (high demand/low control: odds ratio [OR]=1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-1.98), active job (high demand/high control: OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.70), and passive job (low demand/low control: OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). Psychological job demands were positively associated with binge eating (OR=1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), while greater job control and social support at work were each inversely associated with binge eating (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.97 and OR=0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98, respectively). BMI modified the association between job strain and binge eating: Heavier psychological job demands were associated with higher odds of binge eating among obese participants, while a stronger inverse association between job control and binge eating was seen among slimmer participants. Job strain increases the odds of binge eating and this association is modified by BMI.

  8. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  9. Gender aspects of the relationship between migraine and cardiovascular risk factors: A cross-sectional evaluation in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and migraine is controversial and might be different in both genders. These associations were evaluated in Brazilian middle-aged men and women from the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The cross-sectional relationship between our main outcome, which was migraine headache (definite, probable and overall), and CVRF was evaluated in the total sample and according to gender. We calculated frequencies and odds ratios (95% CI) for this relationship using binary and multinomial logistic regression analyses in crude, age-adjusted and multivariable models adjusted by potential confounders. Of 14,953 individuals who completed the data about headache and CVRF, the frequency of one-year migraine was of 29.5% (22.5% in women and 7.0% in men). In the multivariable-adjusted regression analyses, an inverse association between hypertension (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.36-0.79), metabolic syndrome (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43-0.99) and definite migraine were confirmed for men, but not for women. In the opposite direction, a positive association between migraine headaches (definite, probable and overall) and dyslipidemia (overall migraine OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13-1.38) was observed only for women, but not for men. A gender influence on the relationship between migraine and CVRF was verified in the ELSA-Brasil. © International Headache Society 2015.

  10. Diabetes mellitus and sensorineural hearing loss: is there an association? Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Samelli, Alessandra G; Santos, Itamar S; Moreira, Renata R; Rabelo, Camila M; Rolim, Laurie P; Bensenõr, Isabela J; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2017-01-01

    Although several studies have investigated the effects of diabetes on hearing loss, the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Some studies have suggested that diabetes may cause sensorineural hearing loss, whereas others have failed to find an association. The biggest challenge in investigating the association between diabetes and hearing loss is the presence of confounding variables and the complexity of the auditory system. Our study investigated the association between diabetes and sensorineural hearing loss. We evaluated the influence of time from diabetes diagnosis on this association after controlling for age, gender, and hypertension diagnosis and excluding those subjects with exposure to noise. This cross-sectional study evaluated 901 adult and elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) participants from São Paulo, Brazil who underwent audiometry testing as part of ELSA-Brasil's baseline assessment. Hearing thresholds and speech test results were significantly worse in the group with diabetes than in the group without diabetes. However, no significant differences were found between participants with and without diabetes after adjusting for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. Hearing thresholds were not affected by occupational noise exposure in the groups with and without diabetes. In addition, no association between the duration of diabetes and hearing thresholds was observed after adjusting for age, gender, and hypertension. We found no association between the duration of diabetes and worse hearing thresholds after models were adjusted for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension.

  11. Associations of Cigarette Smoking With Subclinical Inflammation and Atherosclerosis: ELSA-Brasil (The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health).

    PubMed

    Kianoush, Sina; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Al-Rifai, Mahmoud; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Duncan, Bruce B; Bensenor, Isabela M; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Lotufo, Paulo A; Blaha, Michael J

    2017-06-24

    There is a need to identify sensitive biomarkers of early tobacco-related cardiovascular disease. We examined the association of smoking status, burden, time since quitting, and intensity, with markers of inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis. We studied 14 103 participants without clinical cardiovascular disease in ELSA-Brasil (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health). We evaluated baseline cross-sectional associations between smoking parameters and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]) and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, and coronary artery calcium [CAC]). The cohort included 1844 current smokers, 4121 former smokers, and 8138 never smokers. Mean age was 51.7±8.9 years; 44.8% were male. After multivariable adjustment, compared with never smokers, current smokers had significantly higher levels of hsCRP (β=0.24, 0.19-0.29 mg/L; P<0.001) and carotid intima-media thickness (β=0.03, 0.02-0.04 mm; P<0.001) and odds of ankle-brachial index ≤1.0 (odds ratio: 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 2.06-3.08; P<0.001) and CAC >0 (odds ratio: 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.30; P<0.001). Among former and current smokers, pack-years of smoking (burden) were significantly associated with hsCRP (P<0.001 and P=0.006, respectively) and CAC (P<0.001 and P=0.002, respectively). Among former smokers, hsCRP and carotid intima-media thickness levels and odds of ankle-brachial index ≤1.0 and CAC >0 were lower with increasing time since quitting (P<0.01). Among current smokers, number of cigarettes per day (intensity) was positively associated with hsCRP (P<0.001) and CAC >0 (P=0.03) after adjusting for duration of smoking. Strong associations were observed between smoking status, burden, and intensity with inflammation (hsCRP) and subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, CAC). These markers of early cardiovascular disease injury may be

  12. Sweetened Soft Drinks Consumption Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome: Cross-sectional Analysis from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Benseñor, Isabela M; Cardoso, Leticia O; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M; Moreira, Alexandra D; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina S; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2017-02-01

    To estimate the association between regular consumption of sweetened soft drinks, natural fruit juice, and coconut water with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This was a cross-sectional study including men and women aged 35-74 years from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Study, excluding patients with type 2 diabetes. The main explanatory variables were beverage consumption and the outcome variable was metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III). After adjustments, a daily intake of 250 ml of soft drink increased the chance of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio [OR] = 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.38). There was no association between coconut water and MetS. Moderate consumption of fruit juices has low odds of MetS compared to no consumption. Our results add evidence to potential negative effects of sweetened soft drinks on cluster metabolic abnormalities in middle-income countries.

  13. Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness. Cross-sectional analysis from ELSA-Brasil baseline data.

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar S; Goulart, Alessandra C; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-06-01

    Studies focusing on the association between anxiety/depressive symptoms and accelerated subclinical atherosclerosis have yielded mixed results. Our aim is to examine associations between anxiety/depressive symptoms, common mental disorder (CMD), major depression disorder (MDD) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort baseline. The ELSA-Brasil baseline assessment included CIMT measurements and the Clinical Interview Schedule - Revised (CIS-R), a validated questionnaire for anxiety/depressive symptoms/diagnoses. We analyzed participants without previous coronary heart disease or stroke, and with high-quality CIMT images. We built regression models to determine whether the CIS-R score, CMD, MDD or GAD were associated with maximal CIMT levels. The study sample comprised 9744 participants. We found that individuals with higher CIS-R scores (Odds ratio for one standard deviation increase [OR]:1.12; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.06-1.19), CMD (OR:1.22; 95%CI:1.07-1.38) and GAD (OR:1.19; 95%CI:1.01-1.41) had significantly higher odds of being classified in the highest age, sex and race-specific CIMT quartile. In the linear models, after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, higher CIS-R scores (β:0.005; P = 0.010) and GAD (β:0.010; P = 0.049) were independently associated with CIMT values. Individuals with more symptoms of anxiety and/or depression, or diagnoses of CMD or GAD, had higher CIMT values, compared to peers of same age, sex and race. CIS-R scores and GAD were independently associated with higher CIMT values. These results suggest an association between anxiety/depressive symptoms (and, most notably, GAD) and accelerated subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender-specific association between night-work exposure and type-2 diabetes: results from longitudinal study of adult health, ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chor, Dora; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes is a multifactorial disease of increasing prevalence. The literature suggests an impact of night work on metabolic components, though the relationship with diabetes is unclear. Our aim was to investigate gender-specific associations between night work and type-2 diabetes (DM2) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) using baseline data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The cohort comprised 15 105 civil servants, aged 35-74 years. Baseline assessments (2008-2010) included clinical and laboratory measurements and interviews on sociodemographic, occupational, and health characteristics. In the baseline sample (N=14 427), 19.6% were classified as having DM2 and 20.5% as having IGT. Mean age was 52.1 (SD 9.1) years. A total of 2041 participants worked at night for 1-20 years and 687 for >20 years. Among women exposed to night work for >20 years compared with no night work after adjustments for potential confounders, including obesity, the odds ratios (OR) derived from multinomial logistic regression for DM2 and IGT were 1.42 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.39-1.45] and 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.99), respectively. Among men exposed to night work for >20 years compared with no night work, the OR for DM2 and IGT were 1.06 (95% CI 1.04-1.08) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.01), respectively. The association between years of night work and diabetes is stronger among women than men. Longitudinal studies from ELSA-Brasil will be able to corroborate or refute these findings.

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities are still a barrier to full child vaccine coverage in the Brazilian Amazon: a cross-sectional study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Codeço, Claudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2014-11-27

    Vaccines are very important to reduce morbidity and mortality by preventable infectious diseases, especially during childhood. Optimal coverage is not always achieved, for several reasons. Here we assessed vaccine coverage for the first 12 months of age in children between 12 and 59 months old, residing in the urban area of a small Amazonian city, and factors associated with incomplete vaccination. A census was performed in the urban area of Assis Brasil, in the Brazilian Amazon, in January 2010, with mothers of 282 children aged 12 to 59 months old, using structured interviews and data from vaccination cards. Mixed logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with incomplete vaccination schemes. Only 82.6% of all children had a completed the basic vaccine scheme for the first year of life. Vaccine coverage ranged from 52.7% coverage (oral rotavirus vaccine) to 99.7% coverage (for Bacille Calmette-Guérin). The major deficiencies occurred in doses administered after the first six months of life. Incomplete vaccination was associated with not having enough income to buy a house (aOR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.06-4.21), low maternal schooling (aOR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.28 - 5.29) , and time of residence of the child in the urban area of the city (aOR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.55 - 0.95). This study showed that vaccine coverage in the first twelve months of life in Assis Brasil is similar to other areas in the Amazon and it is below the coverage postulated by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Low vaccine coverage was associated with socioeconomic inequities that still prevail in the Brazilian Amazon. Short and long-term strategies must be taken to update child vaccines and increase vaccine coverage in the Amazon.

  16. Lack of association between depression and C-reactive protein level in the baseline of Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Sara Teles; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Nunes, Maria Angélica; M Benseñor, Isabela; Viana, Maria Carmen; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2017-01-15

    Depression has been linked to increased levels of inflammatory markers in clinical studies, but results from general population samples are inconsistent. We aimed to investigate whether depression was associated with serum CRP levels in a cross-sectional analysis of a large cohort from a middle-income country. We analyzed baseline data from 14,821 participants (35-74 years) of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Current depression (last 7 days) was assessed by the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R). Because individuals on antidepressants could be negative on CIS-R due to their therapeutic effect, the explanatory variable had three categories: (1) negative on CIS-R and not using antidepressant (reference); (2) negative on CIS-R but using antidepressant; (3) positive on CIS-R with/without antidepressant use. Associations with CRP were investigated by general linear model (GLM). After adjustments for confounders, neither current depression, nor antidepressant use was statistically associated with elevated CRP levels. Additionally, analyzes stratified by gender, type and severity of depression did not change the results. The reference group in our analysis might include participants with a lifetime history of depression. Additionally, the exclusion of questions on weight fluctuation and appetite from the CIS-R applied in ELSA-Brasil may have slightly underestimated the prevalence of depression, as well as limited our ability to assess the presence of somatic symptoms. This study found no association between current depression, use of antidepressants, and serum CRP levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Antonio G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M da; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G; Moreira, Rodrigo de C; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Friedman, Ruth K; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls-FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events.

  18. HIV Infection Is Not Associated with Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the INI/ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M.; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Mill, José G.; Moreira, Rodrigo de C.; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Chor, Dóra

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been used as an early marker of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Recently its role among HIV-infected patients has been questioned. To date, no Brazilian study has compared cIMT in respect to HIV status. Methods We compared data from 535 patients actively followed in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro (HIV group); 88 HIV-negative individuals who were nominated by patients (friend controls–FCs); and 10,943 participants of the ELSA-Brasil study. Linear regression models were used to study associations of the 3 groups and several covariables with cIMT. Propensity scores weighting (PSW) were also employed to balance data. Results Median thickness in mm (IQR) were 0.54 (0.49,0.62); 0.58 (0.52,0.68); and 0.57 (0.49,0.70), HIV, FCs and ELSA-Brasil groups, respectively (p-value<0.001). The best linear model chosen did not include the group variables, after adjusting for all the variables chosen, showing no difference of cIMT across groups. Similar results were obtained with PSW. Several traditional CVD risk factors were also significantly associated with cIMT: female gender, higher education and higher HDL were negatively associated while risk factors were older age, current/former smoker, AMI/stroke family history, CVD history, hypertension, DM, higher BMI and total cholesterol. Conclusions We show for the first time in a middle-income setting that cIMT, is not different in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro compared with 2 different groups of non-HIV-infected individuals. Traditional CVD risk factors are associated with this outcome. Our results point out that high standards of care and prevention for CVD risk factors should always be sought both in the HIV-infected and non-infected populations to prevent CVD-related events. PMID:27391355

  19. Brazilian dietary patterns and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet-relationship with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Drehmer, Michele; Odegaard, Andrew O; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Matos, Sheila M Alvim; Molina, Maria Del Carmen B; Barreto, Sandhi M; Pereira, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Studies evaluating dietary patterns, including the DASH diet, and their relationship with the metabolic syndrome and diabetes may help to understand the role of dairy products (low fat or full fat) in these conditions. Our aim is to identify dietary patterns in Brazilian adults and compare them with the (DASH) diet quality score in terms of their associations with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-the ELSA-Brasil study. The ELSA-Brasil is a multicenter cohort study comprising 15,105 civil servants, aged 35-74 years at baseline (2008-2010). Standardized interviews and exams were carried out, including an OGTT. We analyzed baseline data for 10,010 subjects. Dietary patterns were derived by principal component analysis. Multivariable logistic regression investigated associations of dietary patterns with metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes and multivariable linear regression with components of metabolic syndrome. After controlling for potential confounders, we observed that greater adherence to the Common Brazilian meal pattern (white rice, beans, beer, processed and fresh meats), was associated with higher frequencies of newly diagnosed diabetes, metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except HDL-C. Participants with greater intake of a Common Brazilian fast foods/full fat dairy/milk based desserts pattern presented less newly diagnosed diabetes. An inverse association was also seen between the DASH Diet pattern and the metabolic syndrome, blood pressure and waist circumference. Diet, light foods and beverages/low fat dairy pattern was associated with more prevalence of both outcomes, and higher fasting glucose, HDL-C, waist circumference (among men) and lower blood pressure. Vegetables/fruit dietary pattern did not protect against metabolic syndrome and newly diagnosed diabetes but was associated with lower waist circumference. The inverse associations found for the dietary pattern

  20. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness in cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Peixoto de Miranda, É J F; Bittencourt, M S; Pereira, A C; Goulart, A C; Santos, I S; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2016-10-01

    Although subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is associated with cardiovascular risk, there is scarce data about subclinical atherosclerosis in subjects with SCH. We aimed to analyze the association between SCH and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). We included subjects with normal thyroid function (TSH: 0.4-4.0 mIU/l, and normal free thyroxine (FT4): 0.8-1.9 ng/dl) and SCH (TSH ≥ 4.0 mIU/l and normal FT4) evaluated for IMT in a cross-sectional analysis. We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function and those with a history of cardiovascular disease. We performed logistic and linear regression models to evaluate the association with IMT (mean values and categorized at the 75th percentile) as a dependent variable and SCH as an independent variable, adjusted for other cardiovascular risk factors. From 8623 subjects (median age of 50 years; interquartile range: 44-57), 4624 (53.6%) were women, 8095 (93.9%) were euthyroid, and 528 (6.1%) had SCH. Groups varied in age, body mass index, Framingham risk score, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein, as well as, IMT, that were all higher in SCH compared to euthyroid participants. SCH is associated with IMT as a continuous variable (β = 0.010, P = 0.036) and IMT >75th percentile: OR = 1.30 (95% CI = 1.06-1.59) in logistic models. Individuals with SCH presented higher IMT compared with euthyroid subjects, even after adjustment for potential confounders. IMT was independently associated with SCH in the baseline of the ELSA-Brasil study. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Serum uric acid is associated with better executive function in men but not in women: Baseline assessment of the ELSA-Brasil study.

    PubMed

    Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Suemoto, Claudia Kimie; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Benseñor, Isabela

    2017-06-01

    Serum uric acid (SUA) may protect against free radical stress damage and was previously linked to cognitive impairment in older adults, but evidence in middle-aged adults is scarce. We sought to analyze whether SUA is associated with cognitive performance in apparently healthy middle-aged participants in the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. We excluded participants older than age 65, those taking allopurinol, benzbromarone, or medications that could impair cognitive performance, those with previous stroke, and those with incomplete data on cognitive tests or SUA. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Word List Memory Test (CERAD-WLMT), the Semantic Fluency Test (SFT), and the Trail Making Test version B (TMT) were used as dependent variables. Sex-specific linear regression models were used to assess the association between SUA and cognitive tests, adjusted by age, education, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, coronary heart disease, renal function, depression, aspirin use, thyroid function, and menopausal status (in women). We used the Bonferroni procedure to control for the false discovery rate associated with multiple comparisons. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 6751 women and 5464 men. Mean age and standard deviation (SD) of the sample was 49.6 (SD 7.4) years for men and 49.9 (SD 7.3) years for women. The majority of men (52%) and women (51%) were white. Mean SUA value was 4.75 (SD 1.16) mg/dL in women and 6.44 (SD 1.39) mg/dL in men. Multivariate linear models showed no association in women and a significant inverse association between SUA levels and TMT (β=-3.106, 95% CI=-4.594; -1.618, p=0.0004) in men. In a middle-aged subset population, SUA is associated with better performance on an executive function test in men, but not in women in the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Usefulness of circulating E-selectin to early detection of the atherosclerotic process in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Bittencourt, Marcio Sommer; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela; Ferreira, Sandra R G

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional analysis evaluated whether determination of E-selectin concentrations could identify deterioration of cardiometabolic risk profile or subclinical atherosclerosis in individuals at low-to-moderate risk included in The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-ELSA-Brasil. A sample of 984 individuals from ELSA-Brasil (35-54 years) without cardiovascular disease or diabetes was stratified according to E-selectin tertiles. Traditional risk factors, inflammatory markers and categories of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores were evaluated across the tertiles by ANOVA or Chi-squared test. In linear regression models, associations of E-selectin levels with insulin resistance index, adjusted for age, sex and adiposity were tested. The mean age of the participants was 45.8 (SD 4.9) years and 55 % were women. Mean values of age, anthropometric data, biochemical variables and inflammatory status increased across E-selectin tertiles. Also, a gradual deterioration of the cardiometabolic profile was reflected by increments in frequencies (95 % CI) of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) [53.7 % (48.5-58.8), 61.0 % (56.1-66.5) and 64.2 % (59.0-69.4), p = 0.019], hypertension [18.0 % (14.1-22.8), 19.8 % (15.4-24.6) and 24.8 % (20.4-29.9), p = 0.048], pre-diabetes [62.5 % (57.4-68.3), 63.1 % (58.4-69.6) and 73.8 % (68.8-78.3), p = 0.003] and hypertriglyceridemia [22.4 % (17.9-27.2), 27.3 % (22.5-32.8) and 33.4 % (28.3-38.5), p = 0.013]. Insulinemia and HOMA-IR were independently associated with E-selectin concentration. A greater proportion of individuals with CAC scores different from zero was found in the third tertile when compared with the first and second tertiles (16.1 versus 11 %, p = 0.04, respectively). Direct associations of E-selectin with traditional risk factors slightly above their normal ranges, components of the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and presence of CAC suggest that this biomarker may indicate an initial

  3. DEZ ANOS DE EXPERIÊNCIA DO COMITÊ DE ÉTICA EM PESQUISA DA SECRETARIA DE SAÚDE DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita C. G.; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo deste artigo é relatar a experiência do Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Secretaria de Estado de Saúde do Distrito Federal (CEP/SES/DF) Brasil, durante o período de 10 anos a partir de sua fundação. Trata-se de uma avaliação descritiva e documental, na modalidade estudo de caso, utilizando-se a totalidade de projetos protocolados no CEP/SES/DF (N° 052/08) nesse período. As pendências mais freqüentes dos projetos foram: termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido (30%), folha de rosto (25%), metodologia (20%), curriculum vitae (12%), planilha de orçamento (9%), outros (4%). O relato das atividades do CEP/SES/DF no período de 10 anos revelou, através de sua produtividade, a legitimidade do processo de análise ética dos protocolos visando à proteção dos participantes da pesquisa. PMID:19888441

  4. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  5. Association between maternal education and blood pressure: mediation evidence through height components in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez López, Santiago; Bensenor, Isabela M; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2017-05-01

    Maternal education influences skeletal growth and offspring adult blood pressure (BP). Height components are negatively associated with BP in high-income countries. To evaluate the association between maternal education and offspring adult systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DBP), assessing whether different height components might mediate such an association. Simple mediation modelling was used to evaluate the maternal education-offspring SBP/DBP association, estimating the contribution of offspring height components, in a cross-sectional sample of 13 571 Brazilians aged 34-75 from the ELSA-Brasil study. After full adjustment for confounders, and compared to participants whose mothers received low education, those whose mothers received high education had, on average, 0.2 mm Hg lower SBP (95% CI = -0.274, -0.132), as result of the link between maternal education and offspring adult height which, in turn, influenced SBP. Thus, 18-26% of the maternal education-SBP association occurred indirectly, through height, trunk and leg length, alternatively. Better maternal education might influence higher leg and trunk lengths in offspring, which, in turn, might contribute to prevent higher BP in adults. The negative height-BP association reported in high-income countries is also present in a middle-income country with more recent economic development.

  6. Economic evaluation of the Programs Rede Farmácia de Minas do SUS versus Farmácia Popular do Brasil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marina Morgado; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Acúrcio, Francisco de Assis

    2017-01-01

    We conducted an economic assessment of the Pharmaceutical Assistance - Rede Farmácia de Minas Gerais-RFMG and Farmácia Popular do Brasil-FPB to ascertain which of the two models stands out as the most efficient. To do this, a model, which consisted of a study of incurred costs in both programs, up to the dispensing of medicine to citizens, was developed. The uncertainties of the proposed model were tested using the Monte Carlo method. If the entire population initially estimated in the RFMG were attended in the FPB, there would be an additional cost of R$ 139,324,050.19. The sensitivity analysis appeared to be favorable to the RFMG. A total of 10000 simulations were carried out, resulting in a median value of R$ 114,053,709.99 for the RFMG and R$ 254,106,120.65 for the FPB. The current National Drug Policy emphasizes the need to strengthen pharmaceutical services beyond the mere acquisition and delivery of pharmaceutical products. The public healthcare service model, consistent with the principles and guidelines of the SUS, seems to be more appropriate in ensuring complete and universal quality healthcare services to the citizens. The economic study conducted reinforces this fact, as it appears to be a more efficient alternative of the direct use of resources in the public health network.

  7. Multinomial model and zero-inflated gamma model to study time spent on leisure time physical activity: an example of ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Aline Araújo; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Griep, Rosane Härter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Santos, Itamar de Souza; Chor, Dora

    2017-08-17

    To compare two methodological approaches: the multinomial model and the zero-inflated gamma model, evaluating the factors associated with the practice and amount of time spent on leisure time physical activity. Data collected from 14,823 baseline participants in the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil - Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto ) have been analysed. Regular leisure time physical activity has been measured using the leisure time physical activity module of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The explanatory variables considered were gender, age, education level, and annual per capita family income. The main advantage of the zero-inflated gamma model over the multinomial model is that it estimates mean time (minutes per week) spent on leisure time physical activity. For example, on average, men spent 28 minutes/week longer on leisure time physical activity than women did. The most sedentary groups were young women with low education level and income. The zero-inflated gamma model, which is rarely used in epidemiological studies, can give more appropriate answers in several situations. In our case, we have obtained important information on the main determinants of the duration of leisure time physical activity. This information can help guide efforts towards the most vulnerable groups since physical inactivity is associated with different diseases and even premature death.

  8. Participation of small municipalities in the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Program in the macro-region of Northern Paraná.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Fernanda de Freitas; Mattos, Luis Fernando Abucarub de; Oliveira, Emmeline Bernardes Duarte de; Domingos, Carolina Milena; Okamura, Carlos Takeo; Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Nunes, Elisabete de Fátima Polo de Almeida

    2016-09-01

    Doctor shortage is a constant problem in smaller cities and towns, which tend to be more vulnerable from a social and economic point of view, and located in geographically isolated areas. The goal of this study was to establish the share and characteristics of the small cities and towns in the macro-region of northern Paraná that subscribed to the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (PMMB) program. This is a quantitative study of 82 cities and towns using primary and secondary data. Results show that only a few of them (6.1%) had any adherence criteria, which was not an impediment for other cities and towns (75%) to adhere to the project. Cities and towns with over five thousand inhabitants, lower municipal HDI (Human Development Index), some adherence criteria and more geographically isolated, either from the main city in the region or the closest large or mid-sized city, tended to adhere to the PMMB. It is undeniable that the PMMB significantly reduced the uneven distribution of doctors in Brazil and the study region. However, the sustainability of this policy is linked to addressing other remaining challenges in the SUS system.

  9. Academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors to Brazil) Project in Santa Catarina: the ethical-political viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rita de Cássia Gabrielli Souza; Gripa, Denis William; Prospero, Elisete Navas Sanches; Ros, Marco Aurélio da

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to identify the fundamentals that drive the academic tutorship of the Mais Médicos para o Brasil (More Doctors for Brazil) project in Santa Catarina, based on the unit of analysis entitled values achieved. It is an exploratory and comprehensive study carried out in 2015, with tutors of the State of Santa Catarina, decentralized reference professionals of the Education and Health Ministries, and key reference professionals of the Education Ministry. Focus groups were used as the instrument for collection of data, through semi-structured interview. Based on the category Emergency care as a force of innovation in the Mais Médicos Program, the analysis was conducted from an ethical-political approach. Three fundamentals emerged: 'Putting out fires', 'Qualification of the Project', and 'the procedural point of view'. It was concluded that academic tutorship of the productive activities of doctors in emergency care is not an isolated pedagogical approach, since it is a part and a consequence of the historic development of the theory and of the practice. The activity corresponds, dialectically, to movements of rupture, resistance, emancipation and also requires collective reflection about the values chosen and achieved in the acts of decision.

  10. Diabetes mellitus and sensorineural hearing loss: is there an association? Baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Samelli, Alessandra G; Santos, Itamar S; Moreira, Renata R; Rabelo, Camila M; Rolim, Laurie P; Bensenõr, Isabela J; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have investigated the effects of diabetes on hearing loss, the relationship between these two conditions remains unclear. Some studies have suggested that diabetes may cause sensorineural hearing loss, whereas others have failed to find an association. The biggest challenge in investigating the association between diabetes and hearing loss is the presence of confounding variables and the complexity of the auditory system. Our study investigated the association between diabetes and sensorineural hearing loss. We evaluated the influence of time from diabetes diagnosis on this association after controlling for age, gender, and hypertension diagnosis and excluding those subjects with exposure to noise. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated 901 adult and elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) participants from São Paulo, Brazil who underwent audiometry testing as part of ELSA-Brasil’s baseline assessment. RESULTS: Hearing thresholds and speech test results were significantly worse in the group with diabetes than in the group without diabetes. However, no significant differences were found between participants with and without diabetes after adjusting for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. Hearing thresholds were not affected by occupational noise exposure in the groups with and without diabetes. In addition, no association between the duration of diabetes and hearing thresholds was observed after adjusting for age, gender, and hypertension. CONCLUSION: We found no association between the duration of diabetes and worse hearing thresholds after models were adjusted for age, gender, and the presence of hypertension. PMID:28226026

  11. Comparative study of satellite and ground techiniques for cloudcover determination and their effect over the radiative transfer model BRASIL-SR.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Souza, M.; Pereira, E.

    Information about cloud cover is a very important input data for radiative transfer models and great effort is being made to improve its measurements. The BRASIL- SR model is a radiative transfer model that evaluates surface solar irradiation from cloud cover coefficient and climatological values of temperature and albedo. The original algorithm to derive cloud cover coefficient is based on the fact that clouds presents a bigger reflectance than Earth surface. Then, cloud cover coefficient is obtained for each pixel from GOES 8 visible channel-1 (0.52-0.75μm) from a linear relation between the maximum and minimum values over a specific time period. To minimize systematic errors caused by permanent cloudy or clear sky conditions, or caused by electronic noise, Martins has proposed two new algorithms. The first one is based on the albedo variability of clouds and Earth surface over a time period. The algorithm calculates the mean value and standard deviation of five minor visible radiance values measured by GOES-8 for each pixel in a one-month period. Clouds present a larger variability and, therefore, the standard deviation will be also larger when cloud contamination is present. The mean value is assigned to clear sky condition if cloud contamination is absent. Overcast condition is associated with the maximum radiance value measured. The second algorithm uses the ratio between the infrared radiance (10.2-11.2μm) and the visible radiance to identify cloud contamination in a pixel. The clear sky condition is associated to high values of this ratio and the overcast condition is associated to low ratio values (if snow coverage is absent). A linear relation between the two conditions is employed to obtain the cloud cover coefficient in both algorithms. Souza has developed an algorithm to determine cloud cover coefficient from images obtained by a CCD sensor on a ground platform. The CCD sensor operates in the visible range (0.4-0.7μm) and is adapted to a fisheye

  12. Race and Resting-State Heart Rate Variability in Brazilian Civil Servants and the Mediating Effects of Discrimination: An ELSA-Brasil Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Andrew H; Koenig, Julian; Thayer, Julian F; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Pereira, Alexandre C; Santos, Itamar S; Dantas, Eduardo M; Mill, José G; Chor, Dora; Ribeiro, Antonio L P; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2016-10-01

    African Americans are characterized by higher heart rate variability (HRV), a finding ostensibly associated with beneficial health outcomes. However, these findings are at odds with other evidence that blacks have worse cardiovascular outcomes. Here, we examine associations in a large cohort from the ELSA-Brasil study and determined whether these effects are mediated by discrimination. Three groups were compared on the basis of self-declared race: "black" (n = 2,020), "brown" (n = 3,502), and "white" (n = 6,467). Perceived discrimination was measured using a modified version of the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Resting-state HRV was extracted from 10-minute resting-state electrocardiograms. Racial differences in HRV were determined by regression analyses weighted by propensity scores, which controlled for potentially confounding variables including age, sex, education, and other health-related information. Nonlinear mediation analysis quantified the average total effect, comprising direct (race-HRV) and indirect (race-discrimination-HRV) pathways. Black participants displayed higher HRV relative to brown (Cohen's d = 0.20) and white participants (Cohen's d = 0.31). Brown relative to white participants also displayed a small but significantly higher HRV (Cohen's d = 0.14). Discrimination indirectly contributed to the effects of race on HRV. This large cohort from the Brazilian population shows that HRV is greatest in black, followed by brown, relative to white participants. The presence of higher HRV in these groups may reflect a sustained compensatory psychophysiological response to the adverse effects of discrimination. Additional research is needed to determine the health consequences of these differences in HRV across racial and ethnic groups.

  13. Job Strain and Casual Blood Pressure Distribution: Looking beyond the Adjusted Mean and Taking Gender, Age, and Use of Antihypertensives into Account. Results from ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Chor, Dóra; Mill, José Geraldo; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2017-01-01

    Methodological issues are pointed to as the main sources of inconsistencies in studies about the association between job strain and blood pressure (BP)/hypertension. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between job strain and the whole BP distribution, as well as potential differences by gender, age, and use of antihypertensives. Additionally, we addressed issues relating to the operationalization of the exposure and outcome variables that influence the study of their inter-relations. We evaluated the baseline date of 12,038 participants enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) (2008–2010), a multicenter cohort study of 35–74-year-old civil servants. Job strain was assessed by the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. The distribution of casual BP by categories of job strain was compared by a combination of exploratory techniques. Participants were classified into three subgroups (normotensives, medicated hypertensives, and unmedicated hypertensives), and analyses were stratified by gender and age. The relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution. Hypertensive participants had greater differences in casual BP by job strain category, especially medicated hypertensives. Differences in casual BP were also greater for systolic than for diastolic BP and for older participants. No differences were encountered by gender. The exclusion of participants susceptible to misclassification for the exposure and outcome variables increased the differences observed between the categories of low and high job strain. In conclusion, the relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution and by use of antihypertensive drugs, age, and BP parameter evaluated. Misclassification for exposure and outcome variables should be considered in analyses of this topic. PMID:28441727

  14. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; de Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14–1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12–1.32) and ‘Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12–1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality—as measured by different indicators—are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access. PMID:26102079

  15. Leisure-time and commuting physical activity and high blood pressure: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Treff, C; Benseñor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the association between leisure-time physical activity and commuting-related physical activity and high blood pressure among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Physical activity was assessed through application of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, particularly the domains addressing leisure and transportation. We used the World Health Organization's definition (⩾150 min per week of moderate activities or 75 min per week of vigorous activities) to establish three categories: active, insufficiently active and inactive. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure of >140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive medications. From a universe of 15 105 participants, we analysed 13 857 subjects without previous cardiovascular diseases. The association between physical activity and hypertension was obtained using Poisson regression with adjustment for age, race, education, income, body mass index, diabetes and sodium and alcohol intake. Men who were active during leisure time had a multivariate prevalence ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.77-0.92) for hypertension compared with inactive men. For women, the prevalence ratio of active vs inactive during leisure time was 0.86 (0.79-0.95). However, this protective effect of leisure-time physical activity was not observed among men and women with diabetes or obese women. The association found between commuting-related physical activity and hypertension was not detected among men, and the prevalence ratio for women who were active during commuting time compared with inactive women was 1.11 (1.01-1.21). In conclusion, leisure-time physical activity was protective against hypertension, and commuting-related physical activity was associated with high blood pressure among women.

  16. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Influence of Socioeconomic Variables on Control of High Blood Pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Chor, Dóra; Pinho Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz; Sá Carvalho, Marilia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Andrade Lotufo, Paulo; Araújo Nobre, Aline; Aquino, Estela Mota Lima Leão de; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Griep, Rosane Härter; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Mill, José Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is the leading risk factor for years of life lost in Brazil. Factors associated with HBP awareness, treatment and control need to be understood better. Our aim is to estimate prevalence, awareness, and types of anti-hypertensive treatment and to investigate the association of HBP control with social position. Data of 15,103 (54% female) civil servants in six Brazilian state capitals collected at the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline (2008-2010) were used to estimate prevalence and cross-sectional association of HBP control with education, per capita family income and self-reported race, using multiple logistic regression. Blood pressure was measured by the oscillometric method. 35.8% were classified as presenting HBP; 76.8% of these used anti-hypertensive medication. Women were more aware than men (84.8% v. 75.8%) and more often using medication (83.1% v. 70.7%). Adjusted HBP prevalence was, in ascending order, Whites (30.3%), Browns (38.2%) and Blacks (49.3%). The therapeutic schemes most used were angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, in isolation (12.4%) or combined with diuretics (13.3%). Among those in drug treatment, controlled blood pressure was more likely in the (postgraduate) higher education group than among participants with less than secondary school education (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.14-1.28), and among Asian (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12-1.32) and 'Whites (PR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.12-1.26) compared to Blacks. Socioeconomic and racial inequality-as measured by different indicators-are strongly associated with HBP control, beyond the expected influence of health services access.

  17. Associations of life course socioeconomic position and job stress with carotid intima-media thickness. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Camelo, Lidyane V; Giatti, Luana; Chor, Dóra; Griep, Rosane Härter; Benseñor, Isabela M; Santos, Itamar S; Kawachi, Ichiro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-09-01

    The association between life course socioeconomic position (SEP) and subclinical atherosclerosis is not consistent across studies. Socioeconomic adversities early in life are related to an increased probability of a low occupational grade and more stressful jobs in adulthood. However, the role of job stress in explaining the life course social gradient in subclinical atherosclerosis is unknown. To examine whether life course SEP is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and to investigate whether this association is partially mediated by job stress. This study used baseline data (2008-2010) for 8806 current workers from ELSA-Brasil. Maternal education, social class of first occupation and social class of current occupation were used to evaluate childhood, youth and adulthood SEP, respectively. Accumulation of risk across the life course was also evaluated. Job stress was assessed by the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Directed acyclic graph and linear regression models were used. Low childhood SEP was associated with increased IMT only in women, but low youth and adulthood SEP were associated with higher IMT in both genders. The simultaneous adjustment for all SEP indicators showed that only adulthood SEP continued to be associated with IMT. However, higher IMT values were observed among men and women sequentially exposed to low SEP in more than one period of life. High-strain jobs and low job control were not associated with IMT independent of SEP. Our results support a model of the cumulative effects of exposures to SEP across the life span because the highest IMT values were observed in individuals sequentially exposed to low SEP in more than one period of life. We did not find that job stress explained the association between life course SEP and IMT, suggesting that strategies to address socioeconomic inequalities in CVD should target additional steps beyond reducing job stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender, race and socioeconomic influence on diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Olmos, R D; Figueiredo, R C de; Aquino, E M; Lotufo, P A; Bensenor, I M

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid diseases are common, and use of levothyroxine is increasing worldwide. We investigated the influence of gender, race and socioeconomic status on the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of civil servants (35-74 years of age) from six Brazilian cities. Diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction was by thyrotropin (TSH), and free thyroxine (FT4) if TSH was altered, and the use of specific medications. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed using overt hyperthyroidism/hypothyroidism and levothyroxine use as dependent variables and sociodemographic characteristics as independent variables. The frequencies of overt hyper- and hypothyroidism were 0.7 and 7.4%, respectively. Using whites as the reference ethnicity, brown, and black race were protective for overt hypothyroidism (OR=0.76, 95%CI=0.64-0.89, and OR=0.53, 95%CI=0.43-0.67, respectively, and black race was associated with overt hyperthyroidism (OR=1.82, 95%CI=1.06-3.11). Frequency of hypothyroidism treatment was higher in women, browns, highly educated participants and those with high net family incomes. After multivariate adjustment, levothyroxine use was associated with female gender (OR=6.06, 95%CI=3.19-11.49) and high net family income (OR=3.23, 95%CI=1.02-10.23). Frequency of hyperthyroidism treatment was higher in older than in younger individuals. Sociodemographic factors strongly influenced the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disorders, including the use of levothyroxine.

  19. Thyrotropin Levels, Insulin Resistance, and Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Benseñor, Isabela M; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; de Miranda, Érique José Peixoto; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have described an association with thyrotropin (TSH) levels, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. We performed a cross-sectional analysis to investigate the relationship between TSH levels, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Diabetics and individuals using medications that interfere in thyroid function were excluded, leaving 10,935 participants (54.3% women) for current analyses. Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) values above the 75th percentile was considered as indicative of presence of insulin resistance. Logistic regression models were built using HOMA-IR and metabolic syndrome as the dependent variable, and quintiles of TSH as the independent variable (first quintile as reference). Odds ratios (OR) were presented with multivariate adjustment for socioeconomic/cardiovascular risk factors for insulin resistance, and adjustment only for socioeconomic factors and smoking for metabolic syndrome. Age, body mass index, waist measurement, fasting glucose and fasting and post load insulin and HOMA-IR increased according to TSH quintiles. Subjects in the fifth TSH quintile presented an OR of association with insulin resistance of 1.86 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.26-2.75], regardless of gender. For the metabolic syndrome, subjects in the fifth quintile presented an OR of 1.21 (95% CI 1.01-1.45) and remained positive only for men (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.07-1.76). Restricting the analysis to quintiles of TSH in the normal range did not change the results. In this cross-sectional evaluation, high TSH quintiles were associated to insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome.

  20. Job Strain and Casual Blood Pressure Distribution: Looking beyond the Adjusted Mean and Taking Gender, Age, and Use of Antihypertensives into Account. Results from ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Chor, Dóra; Mill, José Geraldo; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2017-04-22

    Methodological issues are pointed to as the main sources of inconsistencies in studies about the association between job strain and blood pressure (BP)/hypertension. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between job strain and the whole BP distribution, as well as potential differences by gender, age, and use of antihypertensives. Additionally, we addressed issues relating to the operationalization of the exposure and outcome variables that influence the study of their inter-relations. We evaluated the baseline date of 12,038 participants enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) (2008-2010), a multicenter cohort study of 35-74-year-old civil servants. Job strain was assessed by the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. The distribution of casual BP by categories of job strain was compared by a combination of exploratory techniques. Participants were classified into three subgroups (normotensives, medicated hypertensives, and unmedicated hypertensives), and analyses were stratified by gender and age. The relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution. Hypertensive participants had greater differences in casual BP by job strain category, especially medicated hypertensives. Differences in casual BP were also greater for systolic than for diastolic BP and for older participants. No differences were encountered by gender. The exclusion of participants susceptible to misclassification for the exposure and outcome variables increased the differences observed between the categories of low and high job strain. In conclusion, the relationship between job strain and casual BP varied along the whole outcome distribution and by use of antihypertensive drugs, age, and BP parameter evaluated. Misclassification for exposure and outcome variables should be considered in analyses of this topic.

  1. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Miname, M; Bensenor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes.

  2. Thyrotropin levels are associated with chronic kidney disease among healthy subjects in cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Peixoto de Miranda, Érique José F; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; de Oliveira Titan, Silvia Maria; Ladeira, Roberto Marini; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins

    2017-03-27

    Few studies have evaluated a possible relationship between thyrotropin levels and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albumin/creatinine ratio in euthyroid subjects. We aimed to analyze this association using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectionally, we included subjects with normal thyroid function and with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function. Linear and logistic regression models evaluated GFR estimated by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-Epi) and albuminuria/creatinine ratio as dependent variables and thyrotropin quartiles in individuals with euthyroidism and SCH as independent variables, adjusted for demographical characteristics and diseases related to CKD. We included 13,193 subjects with a median age of 51 years [interquartile range, (IQR): 45-58], 6840 (51.8%) women, 12,416 (94.1%) euthyroid, and 777 (5.9%) with SCH. SCH subjects were characterized by higher age, triglycerides, frequency of white race, cardiovascular disease, CKD, and former smokers. In adjusted models, log-transformed TSH in euthyroid subjects was inversely and strongly associated with CKD (β = -2.181, 95% CI -2.714 to -1.648), P < 0.0001 for glomerular filtration rate and 4.528 (1.190-7.865) for albuminuria/creatinine ratio. Multivariate logistic models for euthyroid subjects showed an OR of 1.45 (95% CI 1.15-1.83) for GFR and of 1.95 (95% CI 1.08-3.54) for albuminuria/creatinine ratio in the fourth quartile of TSH using the first as the reference. Thyrotropin levels are independently associated with CKD in euthyroid subjects.

  3. Circulating early biomarkers of atherogenesis in participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Pititto, Bianca de; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Barreto, Sandhi; Duncan, Bruce B; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Ferreira, Sandra R G

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to describe the distribution of selected biomarkers according to age and sex, adjusted for HOMA-IR and adiposity, in a subset of middle-aged individuals of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-ELSA without diabetes mellitus or CVD. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 998 participants of the ELSA-Brasil without diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. In addition to the traditional risk factors, several biomarkers concentrations were compared according to sex, age groups (35-44; 45-54 yrs) and HOMA-IR tertiles. Linear regression was used to examine independent associations of sex and age with selected novel biomarkers, adjusted for body adiposity and HOMA-IR. Fifty-five percent were women. Men had higher mean values of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, worse lipid profile and higher E-selectin and lower leptin concentrations than women; while women had higher levels of HDL-cholesterol and leptin than men. Mean values of waist circumference, systolic BP, plasma glucose and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) increased with age in both sexes. Leptin and E-selectin concentrations increased across HOMA-IR tertiles. Independent associations of Apo B with age were found only in male sex, while of leptin with body mass index and HOMA-IR, and of E-selectin with HOMA-IR in both sexes. In conclusion, our data indicate age, sex, adiposity and, consequently, insulin resistance, influence circulating levels of Apo B, leptin and E-selectin, suggesting that those aspects should be taken into consideration when assessing these parameters for research or clinical purposes in individuals at relatively low cardiometabolic risk.

  4. Thyrotrophin levels and coronary artery calcification: Cross-sectional results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Peixoto de Miranda, Érique José F; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Staniak, Henrique Lane; Pereira, Alexandre C; Foppa, Murilo; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2017-06-13

    There is little information about the association between thyrotrophin (TSH) levels and coronary artery calcification (CAC). Our aim was to analyse the association between TSH quintiles and subclinical atherosclerosis measured by CAC, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional study. We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function and who self-reported cardiovascular disease. We included euthyroid subjects and individuals with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCHypo) and subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCHyper). Logistic regression models evaluated CAC >100 Agatston units as the dependent variable, and increasing quintiles of TSH as the independent variable, adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Our sample included 3836 subjects, mean age 49 years (interquartile range 44-56); 1999 (52.1%) were female, 3551 (92.6%) were euthyroid, 239 (6.2%) had SCHypo and 46 (1.2%) had SCHyper. The frequency of women, White people and never smokers as well as body mass index and insulin resistance increased according to quintiles. The 1st quintile for TSH (0-0.99 mIU/L) was associated with CAC >100, using the 3rd quintile (1.39-1.85 mIU/L) as reference (adjusted OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.35, P=.027), but no association was shown for the 5th quintile (2.68-35.5 mIU/L) compared to the 3rd. Restricting the analysis to euthyroid subjects did not change the results. For women, but not for men, we observed a U-shaped curve with 1st and 5th TSH quintiles associated with CAC>100. Low and low-normal (1st quintile) TSH levels were associated with CAC>100 Agatston units in a sample with subclinical thyroid disorders and euthyroid subjects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Age at first childbirth and newly diagnosed diabetes among postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Yarmolinsky, James; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Diniz, Maria de Fátima Sander; Chor, Dora; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that earlier age at first childbirth may increase the risk of adult-onset diabetes among postmenopausal women, a novel finding with important public health implications. To date, however, no known studies have attempted to replicate this finding. We aimed to test the hypothesis that age at first childbirth is associated with the risk of adult-onset diabetes among postmenopausal women. Cross-sectional analysis using baseline data from 2919 middle-aged and elderly postmenopausal women in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Age at first childbirth was determined from self-reporting and newly diagnosed diabetes through a 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and/or glycated hemoglobin. Logistic regression was performed to examine associations between age at first childbirth and newly diagnosed diabetes among postmenopausal women. We did not find any association between age at first childbirth and diabetes, either when minimally adjusted for age, race and study center (odds ratio, OR [95% confidence interval, CI]: ≤ 19 years: 1.15 [0.82-1.59], 20-24 years: 0.90 [0.66-1.23] and ≥ 30 years: 0.86 [0.63-1.17] versus 25-29 years; P = 0.36) or when fully adjusted for childhood and adult factors (OR [95% CI]: ≤ 19 years: 0.95 [0.67-1.34], 20-24 years: 0.78 [0.56-1.07] and ≥ 30 years: 0.84 [0.61-1.16] versus 25-29 years; P = 0.40). Our current analysis does not support the existence of an association between age at first childbirth and adult-onset diabetes among postmenopausal women, which had been reported previously.

  6. Insulin resistance is associated with carotid intima-media thickness in non-diabetic subjects. A cross-sectional analysis of the ELSA-Brasil cohort baseline.

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Goulart, Alessandra C; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Diniz, Maria de Fátima H S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have analyzed the association between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and insulin resistance, glucose levels or glycated hemoglobin with mixed results. We aimed to evaluate the association between CIMT and homeostasis model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting and post-load plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) baseline. We included 8028 participants (aged 35-74 years) without diabetes or overt cardiovascular disease who had complete CIMT data at baseline. We built crude and adjusted linear and binary logistic models to evaluate the association between CIMT and (a) HOMA-IR; (b) fasting plasma glucose; (c) post-load plasma glucose; and (d) glycated hemoglobin. We also built post-hoc models, stratified by sex. In the fully-adjusted linear models, only the association between CIMT (in mm) and HOMA-IR remained significant (β = 0.004; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]:0.001 to 0.006). Consistent with these results, only the association between the highest age- sex- and race-specific CIMT quartile and HOMA-IR was significant in the adjusted logistic model (odds ratio [OR]:1.10; 95% CI:1.04-1.17). The association between HOMA-IR and the highest CIMT quartile remained significant in sex-specific analyses (OR:1.10; 95% CI:1.02-1.20 for men and OR:1.10; 95% CI:1.02-1.20 for women). We did not find an independent association between CIMT and glucose or glycated hemoglobin. We found a direct association between HOMA-IR and CIMT in a large sample of non-diabetic participants. Mechanisms unrelated to glucose homeostasis, as a direct effect of insulin on atherosclerosis, or medial hypertrophy, may be involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  8. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Miname, M.; Bensenor, I.M.; Lotufo, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes. PMID:27901176

  9. Comparison of a short version of the Food Frequency Questionnaire with its long version--a cross-sectional analysis in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Mannato, Livia Welter; Pereira, Taisa Sabrina Silva; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Benseñor, Isabela Martins; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2015-01-01

    The food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is the preferred instrument for obtaining dietary information in epidemiological studies. A short form of the FFQ was compared with the original version that was used in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), and also with three 24-hour dietary recalls. Cross-sectional study carried out in six Brazilian state capitals. Multiple linear regression was used to reduce the original food and drink list of the FFQ, which had contained 114 food items. The frequency of consumption and nutritional composition of the foods were also taken into consideration. To assess the validity of the shortened FFQ, the energy and nutrients values of the 24-hour dietary recalls were deattenuated and log-transformed. The list of the FFQ of ELSA-Brasil was reduced to 76 food items. The intraclass correlation coefficients in the validation study ranged from 0.17 (selenium) to 0.66 (calcium). The number of items was reduced by 33%, while still maintaining relatively good capacity to measure energy and selected nutrients.

  10. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Bisi Molina, Maria del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. Methods We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and –2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. Results We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2–3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p<0.0001] but not with fasting glucose concentrations (p = 0.07). Coffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2–3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Conclusion Our present study provides

  11. Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Yarmolinsky, James; Mueller, Noel T; Duncan, Bruce B; Bisi Molina, Maria Del Carmen; Goulart, Alessandra C; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals. We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and -2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity. We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2-3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p<0.0001] but not with fasting glucose concentrations (p = 0.07). Coffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58). Our present study provides further evidence of a protective effect of

  12. Significance of the Nova Brasilândia metasedimentary belt in western Brazil: Redefining the Mesoproterozoic boundary of the Amazon craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, Eric; van der Pluijm, Ben; Mezger, Klaus; Essene, Eric; Scandolara, Jaime; Rizzotto, Gilmar

    2004-12-01

    The Nova Brasilândia metasedimentary belt (NBMB) of western Brazil marks a fundamental crustal boundary in the Amazon craton. The metasedimentary rocks of the NBMB (calc-silicates, metapelites, quartzites, metabasites) contrast strongly with the older, polycyclic granitoid rocks of the adjacent Amazon craton. Aeromagnetic anomalies indicate that the belt is continuous for at least 1000 km in an E-W direction, although the easternmost extent of the NBMB is covered by the Cretaceous sediments of the Parecis Formation. Additional geologic evidence suggests that the belt extends along an E-W trend for ~2000 km. The northern portion of the NBMB preserves vestiges of an early high pressure-temperature (P-T) assemblage (kyanite + staurolite) overprinted by sillimanite during prograde metamorphism. A higher metamorphic grade is observed in the southern portion of the belt, with peak conditions calculated to be 800 MPa and 800°C for granulitic assemblages. The combined P-T path demonstrates that the competing processes of imbrication (northern domain) and magma generation (southern domain) are responsible for regional metamorphism and crustal thickening. Cooling from peak metamorphic conditions is recorded by U-Pb monazite ages of 1090 Ma and titanite ages of ~1060 Ma. Integrated cooling rates of 2°-3°C/Myr from regional metamorphism are calculated from these U/Pb ages combined with 40Ar/39Ar ages of hornblende (~970 Ma) and biotite (~910 Ma). The NBMB marks the Mesoproterozoic limit of the SW Amazon craton. The discordance of the NBMB to the NNW structural trend of the younger Aguapeí belt (200 km SE of NBMB), together with marked differences between the two belts in sedimentary environment, metamorphic grade, and timing of deformation, signify that these two belts are not geologically continuous. The ``Grenvillian'' deformation recorded by the NBMB belt marks the final docking of the Amazon craton and Paragua craton within the Rodinia framework. The Aguapeí belt, in

  13. Association between carotid intima-media thickness and adiponectin in participants without diabetes or cardiovascular disease of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Ferreira, Sandra Rg

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study assessed the association of adiponectin concentration with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in middle-aged participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Design Cross-sectional analyses. Methods A sample of 687 individuals (35-54 years old) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease was stratified into two categories according to CIMT (< or ≥ 75th percentile). Traditional risk factors, C-reactive protein and adiponectin values were compared between categories by Student's t-test and frequencies by chi-square test. In linear regression models, associations of CIMT with adiponectin, adjusted for adiposity, blood pressure, C-reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were tested. Mean CIMT values were compared across quartiles of adiponectin concentrations using analysis of variance. Results Three hundred and forty-one individuals (49.6%) were women and 130 (19.0%) had three traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Those with elevated CIMT (21.8%) had greater mean values of body mass index (26.2(3.8) vs. 27.7(4.0)kg/m(2), p < 0.001), waist circumference (86.9(10.1) vs. 90.1(10.8) cm, p = 0.001), systolic blood pressure (116.2(13.6) vs.121.2(16.1) mmHg, p < 0.001), homeostasis model assessment index (1.4(0.9-2.4) vs. 1.8(1.1-2.9), p = 0.011), C-reactive protein (1.2 (0.6-2.6) vs. 1.4(0.8-3.2) mg/l, p = 0.054) and adiponectin (9.9 (6.0-14.7) vs. 8.9 (5.3-13.8) µg/ml, p = 0.002) levels than the counterpart, while plasma glucose and lipids were not different between groups. In the adjusted model, blood pressure (directly) and adiponectin (inversely) persisted associated with high CIMT. Mean CIMT was greater in the first quartile of adiponectin when compared with the other three quartiles ( p = 0.019). Conclusions Lower adiponectin levels together with higher blood pressure were independently associated with

  14. Efectos combinados de la ampliación de la atención primaria de salud y de las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo sobre la mortalidad infantil en Brasil, 1998–2010*

    PubMed Central

    Guanais, Frederico C.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Examiné los efectos combinados del acceso a la atención primaria mediante el Programa de Salud Familiar (PSF) y las transferencias condicionadas de dinero en efectivo del Programa Bolsa Familia (PBF) sobre la mortalidad infantil posneonatal (MIPN) en Brasil. Métodos. Empleé un análisis ecológico longitudinal usando datos en panel de 4 583 municipios brasileños de 1998 al 2010, con 54 253 observaciones en total. Estimé modelos de regresión de efectos fijos por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios, con la tasa de MIPN como la variable dependiente y el PSF, el PBF y sus interacciones como las principales variables independientes de interés. Resultados. La asociación de una mayor cobertura del PSF con una menor tasa de MIPN se volvió más fuerte conforme aumentaba la cobertura del PBF. En los promedios de todas las demás variables, cuando la cobertura de PBF era 25%, la MIPN predicha fue 5,24 (intervalo de confianza [IC] de 95% = 4,95, 5,53) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 3,54 (IC de 95% = 2,77, 4,31) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Cuando la cobertura del PBF era de 60%, la MIPN predicha fue 4,65 (IC de 95% = 4,36, 4,94) para una cobertura del PSF de 0%, y de 1,38 (IC de 95% = 0,88, 1,89) para una cobertura del PSF de 100%. Conclusiones. El efecto del PSF depende de la ampliación del PBF. Para las poblaciones empobrecidas y subatendidas, la combinación de intervenciones tanto del lado de la oferta como del lado de la demanda podría ser necesaria para mejorar los resultados en salud.

  15. Presentation of the Multimédia Game "Geolover" Concept, to Educational Enchancement of the Geolocical Heritage of the Following Regions: "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal (Portugal) and Açores (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, João; Gomes, Ana; Alfama, Vera; Oliveira, Sirlene; Pinharandas, Carlos; Fonseca, Pedro; Campos, José; Nobre, José

    2013-04-01

    "Geolover" - Presentation of the multimédia game concept, to educational enchancement of the geolocical heritage of the following regions: : "Ilha do Fogo" (Cabo-Verde), Seridó (Brasil), Sabugal and Açores (Portugal). "Geolover" is a multitouch game, played by four players simultaneously, identified by 4 mascots and using as sceneries, the four regions landscapes, aimed to the young people with ages between 8 and 12 years old. The main objective is value the geological heritage of the Ilha do Fogo (Cabo Verde), Seridó in State of Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil) , Sabugal in Beira Alta province (Portugal) and Arquipélago dos Açores (Portuguese autonomous region). These regions have a great geological heritage like volcanology, plutonic rocks, sedimentar formations, metamorphic, paleontologic, mineralogic, geomorphologic, hydric and mining resources. Such heritage is being used in the different regions has base of studies to senior scientists and were used to great scientific researches. The diversified and distinguished cultural heritage of these four regions is referenced and it's a value to the union of the students from these three continents, with the Portuguese language as communication tool. The variety of the geological wealth and cultural of these regions, results in the common objective of their valuing like Geoparks. His creation on these three regions is a strategy with a great relevance to the socio-economic development. With the creation of this game, we promote the union of these 3 countries from these three continents, the universal values of the heritage richness that are offered by our planet.

  16. Social mobility and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle-income country: Association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Joanna M N; Clarke, Philippa; Tate, Denise; Coeli, Claudia Medina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Fonseca, Maria de Jesus Mendes da; Santos, Itamar S; Melo, Enirtes Caetano Prates; Chor, Dora

    2016-11-01

    Over the past half century Brazil has undergone a process of dramatic industrialization and urbanization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have become common due to rapid demographic, epidemiologic, and nutritional transitions. The association of social mobility with subclinical CVD has been rarely explored, particularly in developing societies. We investigated the association of intra- and inter-generational social mobility with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), a marker of subclinical or asymptomatic atherosclerosis, in a large Brazilian sample (ELSA-Brasil). We used baseline data (2008-2010) for 7343 participants from ELSA-Brasil. Intra-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class between participants' first occupation and current occupation. Inter-generational social mobility was defined as the change in occupational social class of the head of the household when the participant started working and participants' current occupation. Social mobility groups were classified as: stable high (reference), upward, downward and stable low. Linear regression models were used to examine the associations between type of social mobility and IMT. Compared to those who experienced stable high occupational status across generations, downward inter-generational mobility was associated with greater IMT. Additionally, those who declined the most in occupational status had the highest values of IMT, even after adjustments for lifestyle and cardiovascular factors. For intra-generational mobility, stable low versus stable high social mobility was independently associated with higher IMT. Subclinical atherosclerosis is patterned by socioeconomic status both within and across generations, demonstrating an association even before symptoms of CVD appear. The health consequences of downward inter-generational social mobility were not fully explained by lifestyle and cardiovascular factors, whereas being consistently exposed to low occupational

  17. Work-family conflict, lack of time for personal care and leisure, and job strain in migraine: Results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Toivanen, Susanna; Santos, Itamar S; Rotenberg, Lucia; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Goulart, Alessandra C; Aquino, Estela M; Benseñor, Isabela

    2016-11-01

    Work-family conflict and time scarcity may affect health. We investigated the association between these issues and migraine, taking into account job strain. Baseline data from ELSA-Brasil (6,183 women; 5,664 men) included four indicators of work-family conflict: time- and strain-based interference of work with family (TB-WFC, SB-WFC), interference of family with work (FWC) and lack of time for personal care and leisure (LOT). Migraine was classified according to International Headache Society criteria. Among women, definite migraine was associated with SB-WFC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.55), FWC (OR = 1.32; 1.00-1.75), and LOT (OR = 1.30; 1.08-1.58). Probable migraine was associated with SB-WFC (OR = 1.17; 1.00-1.36). High psychological job demands and low social support interacted with LOT in association with definite migraine. Among men, probable migraine was associated with LOT (OR = 1.34; 1.09-1.64), and there were interactions between job strain and WFC for probable migraine. Balancing the demands of professional and domestic spheres could be highly relevant in the management of migraines. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:987-1000, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Frailty in the elderly: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Jair Almeida; Cardoso, Rafael Rodrigues; Durães, Meiriellen Silva; Guedes, Maria Clara Araújo; Santos, Frederico Leão; Costa, Fernanda Marques da; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2017-01-01

    to know the prevalence and factors associated with frailty in elderly assisted by the Centro Mais Vida de Referência em Assistência à Saúde do Idoso (Mais Vida Health Reference Center for the Elderly) in the North of Minas Gerais, Brazil. cross-sectional study, with sampling by convenience. Data collection occurred in 2015. Demographic and socioeconomic variables, morbidities, use of health services and the score of the Edmonton Frail Scale were analyzed. The adjusted prevalence ratios were obtained by multiple analysis of Poisson regression with robust variance. 360 elderly aged 65 or older were evaluated. Frailty prevalence was 47.2%. The variables associated with frailty were the following: advanced age elderly, who live without a partner, have a caregiver, present depressive symptoms, osteoarticular disease, as well as history of hospitalization and falls in the last twelve months. knowledge of factors associated with frailty allows development of health actions aimed at the elderly. conhecer a prevalência e fatores associados à fragilidade em idosos assistidos pelo Centro Mais Vida de Referência em Assistência à Saúde do Idoso ao norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil. estudo transversal, com amostragem por conveniência. A coleta de dados ocorreu em 2015. Analisaram-se variáveis demográficas e socioeconômicas, morbidades, utilização de serviços de saúde e o escore da Escala de Fragilidade de Edmonton. As razões de prevalências ajustadas foram obtidas por análise múltipla de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. foram avaliados 360 idosos com idade igual ou superior a 65 anos. A prevalência de fragilidade foi 47,2%. As variáveis associadas à fragilidade foram: idosos longevos, que vivem sem companheiro(a), possuem cuidador, apresentam sintomas depressivos, doença osteoarticular, bem como história de internação e de quedas nos últimos 12 meses. o conhecimento dos fatores associados à fragilidade permite que ações de sa

  19. Work-Family Conflict and Self-Rated Health: the Role of Gender and Educational Level. Baseline Data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Toivanen, Susanna; van Diepen, Cornelia; Guimarães, Joanna M N; Camelo, Lidyane V; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Aquino, Estela M; Chor, Dóra

    2016-06-01

    This study examined gender differences in the association between work-family conflict and self-rated health and evaluated the effect of educational attainment. We used baseline data from ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of civil servants from six Brazilian state capitals. Our samples included 12,017 active workers aged 34-72 years. Work-family conflict was measured by four indicators measuring effects of work on family, effects of family in work and lack of time for leisure and personal care. Women experienced more frequent work-family conflict, but in both genders, increased work-family conflict directly correlated with poorer self-rated health. Women's educational level interacted with three work-family conflict indicators. For time-based effects of work on family, highly educated women had higher odds of suboptimal self-rated health (OR = 1.54; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.99) than less educated women (OR = 1.14; 95 % CI = 0.92-1.42). For strain-based effects of work on family, women with higher and lower education levels had OR = 1.91 (95 % CI 1.48-2.47) and OR = 1.40 (95 % CI 1.12-1.75), respectively. For lack of time for leisure and personal care, women with higher and lower education levels had OR = 2.60 (95 % CI = 1.95-3.47) and OR = 1.11 (95 % CI = 0.90-1.38), respectively. Women's education level affects the relationship between work-family conflict and self-rated health. The results may contribute to prevention activities.

  20. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  1. High pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and early adherence among men who have sex with men and transgender women at risk for HIV Infection: the PrEP Brasil demonstration project

    PubMed Central

    Hoagland, Brenda; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; De Boni, Raquel B.; Kallas, Esper G.; Madruga, José Valdez; Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Goulart, Silvia; Torres, Thiago S.; Marins, Luana M. S.; Anderson, Peter L.; Luz, Paula M; da Costa Leite, Iuri; Liu, Albert Y.; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing sexual acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well established. Little is known about the feasibility of PrEP implementation in middle-income settings with concentrated epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). Methods: PrEP Brasil is a prospective, multicentre, open-label demonstration project assessing PrEP delivery in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. HIV-uninfected MSM and TGW in 3 referral centres in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo were evaluated for eligibility and offered 48 weeks of daily emtricitabine/tenofovir for PrEP. Concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate in dried blood spot samples (DBS) at week 4 after enrolment (early adherence) were measured. Predictors of drug levels were assessed using ordinal logistic regression models considering the DBS drug level as a 3 level variable (<350 fmol/punch, ≥350–699 fmol/punch and ≥700 fmol/punch). Results: 1,270 individuals were assessed for participation; n = 738 were potentially eligible and n = 450 were offered PrEP (PrEP uptake was 60.9%). Eligible but not enrolled individuals were younger, had lower HIV risk perception and had lower PrEP awareness. At week 4, 424 participants (of the 450 enrolled) had DBS TFV-DP concentrations, 94.1% in the protective range (≥350 fmol/punch, consistent with ≥2 pills per week), and 78% were in the highly protective range (≥700 fmol/punch, ≥4 pills per week). Participants with ≥12 years of schooling had 1.9 times the odds (95%CI 1.10–3.29) of a higher versus lower drug level than participants with <12 years of schooling. Condomless receptive anal intercourse in the prior 3 months was also associated with higher drug levels (adjusted OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.08–2.94). Conclusions: The high uptake and early adherence indicate that PrEP for high-risk MSM and TGW can be successfully delivered in the

  2. Association Between Smoking and Serum GlycA and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Kianoush, Sina; Bittencourt, Marcio; Lotufo, Paulo; Bensenor, Isabela; Jones, Steven R; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Toth, Peter; Otvos, James D; Tibuakuu, Martin; Hall, Michael E; Harada, Paulo H N; Blaha, Michael J

    2017-08-23

    Inflammation is suggested to be a central feature of atherosclerosis, particularly among smokers. We studied whether inflammatory biomarkers GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are associated with cigarette smoking. A total of 11 509 participants, 6774 from the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) and 4735 from ELSA-Brasil (The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health) were included. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between multiple measures of smoking behavior and the inflammatory biomarkers, GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, using regression models adjusted for demographic, anthropometric, and clinical characteristics. Participants were 57.7±11.1 years old and 46.4% were men. Never, former, and current smokers comprised 51.7%, 34.0%, and 14.3% of the population, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted mean absolute difference in GlycA levels (μmol/L) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were higher for former (4.1, 95% CI, 1.7-6.6 μmol/L) and current smokers (19.9, 95% CI, 16.6-23.2 μmol/L), compared with never smokers. Each 5-unit increase in pack-years of smoking was associated with higher GlycA levels among former (0.7, 95% CI, 0.3-1.1 μmol/L) and current smokers (1.6, 95% CI, 0.8-2.4 μmol/L). Among former smokers, each 5-year increase in time since quitting smoking was associated with lower GlycA levels (-1.6, 95% CI, -2.4 to -0.8 μmol/L) and each 10-unit increase in number of cigarettes/day was associated with higher GlycA among current smokers (2.8, 95% CI, 0.5-5.2 μmol/L). There were similar significant associations between all measures of smoking behavior, and both log-transformed GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Acute and chronic exposure to tobacco smoking is associated with inflammation, as quantified by both GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. These biomarkers may have utility for the study and regulation of novel and traditional tobacco products. © 2017 The Authors

  3. High pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and early adherence among men who have sex with men and transgender women at risk for HIV Infection: the PrEP Brasil demonstration project.

    PubMed

    Hoagland, Brenda; Moreira, Ronaldo I; De Boni, Raquel B; Kallas, Esper G; Madruga, José Valdez; Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Goulart, Silvia; Torres, Thiago S; Marins, Luana M S; Anderson, Peter L; Luz, Paula M; Costa Leite, Iuri da; Liu, Albert Y; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2017-04-06

    The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing sexual acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is well established. Little is known about the feasibility of PrEP implementation in middle-income settings with concentrated epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). PrEP Brasil is a prospective, multicentre, open-label demonstration project assessing PrEP delivery in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. HIV-uninfected MSM and TGW in 3 referral centres in Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo were evaluated for eligibility and offered 48 weeks of daily emtricitabine/tenofovir for PrEP. Concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate in dried blood spot samples (DBS) at week 4 after enrolment (early adherence) were measured. Predictors of drug levels were assessed using ordinal logistic regression models considering the DBS drug level as a 3 level variable (<350 fmol/punch, ≥350-699 fmol/punch and ≥700 fmol/punch). 1,270 individuals were assessed for participation; n = 738 were potentially eligible and n = 450 were offered PrEP (PrEP uptake was 60.9%). Eligible but not enrolled individuals were younger, had lower HIV risk perception and had lower PrEP awareness. At week 4, 424 participants (of the 450 enrolled) had DBS TFV-DP concentrations, 94.1% in the protective range (≥350 fmol/punch, consistent with ≥2 pills per week), and 78% were in the highly protective range (≥700 fmol/punch, ≥4 pills per week). Participants with ≥12 years of schooling had 1.9 times the odds (95%CI 1.10-3.29) of a higher versus lower drug level than participants with <12 years of schooling. Condomless receptive anal intercourse in the prior 3 months was also associated with higher drug levels (adjusted OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.08-2.94). The high uptake and early adherence indicate that PrEP for high-risk MSM and TGW can be successfully delivered in the context of the Brazilian Public Health System. Interventions to

  4. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  5. Micoinseticidas e Micoacaricidas no Brasil: Como estamos?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mycoinsecticides and mycoacaricides can be defined as biopesticide products based on living propagules of entomopathogenic fungi developed for inundative and inoculative biological control of insects and mites. Based on recently published data on global use of entomopathogenic fungi and a proposal f...

  6. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  7. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  8. Falls in institutionalized older adults: risks, consequences and antecedents.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Antonio Herculano de; Patrício, Anna Cláudia Freire de Araújo; Ferreira, Milenna Azevedo Minhaqui; Rodrigues, Brenda Feitosa Lopes; Santos, Thayná Dias Dos; Rodrigues, Thays Domingos de Brito; Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo da

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the occurrence of falls in institutionalized elderly addressing the risks, consequences and antecedents. Cross-sectional study carried out with 45 older adults in Long-Term Care Facilities for the Older adult in João Pessoa, Brazil, in June and July 2016. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Berg Balance Scale were applied, classifying as risk of fall scores lower than 45. Descriptive statistics and tests were conducted: independent t-test, Anova (Tukey), Chi-square, Mann Whitney. Statistically significance was p <0.05. Data were processed in SPSS version 19.0. A total of 66.7% (30) falls occurred, 20% (9) of them in the external area, with 66.7% (30) of the participants having hypertension as a previous disease and, as consequence, the fracture was highlighted with 11.2% (5). The Berg Scale had different scores when compared to the falls suffered by the elderly and previous diseases influenced the occurrence of falls (p <0.05). It is necessary to implement public financing policies or partnerships that allow environments adaptations aiming at reducing the risks of falls. Analisar a ocorrência de quedas em idosos institucionalizados quanto aos riscos, consequências e antecedentes. Estudo transversal, realizado com 45 idosos em Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos em João Pessoa/PB, Brasil, em junho e julho de 2016. Aplicou-se questionário sociodemográfico e Escala de Equilíbrio de Berg classificando risco de quedas quando escore inferior a 45. Realizou-se estatística descritiva e testes: t independente, Anova (Tukey), Qui-quadrado, Mann Whitney. Considerado significativamente estatístico p < 0,05 e processados no SPSS versão 19.0. As quedas ocorreram em 66,7% (30), sendo 20% (9) na área externa, 66,7% (30) com doença prévia hipertensão e como consequência destacou-se fratura com 11,2% (5). A Escala de Berg avaliou pontuações diferentes (p < 0,05) quando comparadas às quedas sofridas pelos idosos, e as doenças pr

  9. Prevalencia de fibrilación auricular y uso de fármacos antitrombóticos en el paciente hipertenso ≥ 65 años. El registro FAPRES.

    PubMed

    Morillas, Pedro; Pallarés, Vicente; Llisterri, José Luis; Sanchis, Carlos; Sánchez, Tomás; Fácila, Lorenzo; Pérez-Alonso, Manuel; Castillo, Jesús; Redón, Josep; Bertomeu, Vicente

    2010-08-01

    Age and arterial hypertension are two of the main factors associated with atrial fibrillation and an increased risk of embolism. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of atrial fibrillation and the extent of antithrombotic use in hypertensive patients aged ≥65 years in the Spanish region of Valencia. Each study investigator enrolled the first three hypertensive patients aged ≥65 years who came for a consultation on the first day of each week for 5 weeks. Each patient's risk factors, history of cardiovascular disease, CHADS(2) score and medical treatment were noted and an ECG was recorded. Data were analyzed centrally. A patient was regarded as having atrial fibrillation if it was observable on the ECG or reported in medical records. The study included 1,028 hypertensive patients with a mean age of 72.8 years. Overall, 10.3% had atrial fibrillation: in 6.7%, it was observable on the ECG while 3.6% were in sinus rhythm but had a history of the condition. Factors associated with atrial fibrillation were age, alcohol intake, structural heart disease and glomerular filtration rate. In total, 76.2% of patients with ECG evidence of atrial fibrillation and a CHADS(2) score >1 were taking anticoagulants compared with 41.7% of those who had a history of the condition but were currently in sinus rhythm. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation in our group of hypertensives was 10.3%; in 1.7%, it was previously undiagnosed. Antithrombotic use was high in patients with current atrial fibrillation, but lower in those who had experienced an episode previously. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Vulnerability of caregivers of the elderly with dementia: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Leite, Bruna Silva; Camacho, Alessandra Conceição Leite Funchal; Joaquim, Fabiana Lopes; Gurgel, Jonas Lírio; Lima, Thiago Rodrigues; Queiroz, Raquel Santos de

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate the sociodemographic and clinical profile of the caregivers and its relation with the overburden from the care of the elderly with dementia. a cross-sectional descriptive study; the sample was non-probabilistic, developed with caregivers of elderly people with dementia. The field of investigation was the Health Care Center of the Elderly and their Caregivers (CASIC), in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data collection took place from February to June 2016, with the following instruments: a sociodemographic questionnaire and Zarit scale. fifty percent of the caregivers presented moderate overburden; 38% presented little overburden; and 12% moderate/severe overburden. It was observed that the median of weekly care hours increases as the overburden increases. Caregivers with moderate to severe overburden, in the majority, do not share care. it is clear that the overburden of care places the caregiver in conditions of biological and psychological vulnerability. avaliar o perfil sociodemográfico e clínico dos cuidadores e sua relação com a sobrecarga proveniente do cuidado ao idoso com demência. estudo descritivo transversal, a amostra foi do tipo não probabilística, desenvolvida com os cuidadores de idosos com demência. O campo de investigação foi o Centro de Atenção à Saúde do Idoso e seus Cuidadores (CASIC), Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A coleta de dados ocorreu de fevereiro a junho de 2016, com os seguintes instrumentos: questionário sociodemográfico e escala de Zarit. 50% dos cuidadores apresentaram sobrecarga moderada, 38% apresentaram pouca sobrecarga e 12%, sobrecarga moderada/severa. Observou-se que a mediana das horas de cuidados semanais aumenta conforme a sobrecarga aumenta. Cuidadores com sobrecarga de moderada a severa, em caráter majoritário, não dividem o cuidado. Dessa forma, fica claro que a sobrecarga do cuidado coloca o cuidador em condições de vulnerabilidade biológica e psicológica.

  11. Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) sensu lato (Acari:Tenuipalpidae) no Brasil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Os ácaros tenuipalpídeos ou ácaros planos são importantes fitófagos constituintes do agroecossistema e florestas semitropical e tropical (JEPPSON et al., 1975; HOY, 2011), sendo que algumas espécies estão associadas à transmissão de fitovírus (CHAGAS et al., 2001 e 2003; CHILDERS et al., 2001; KITAJ...

  12. Dangerous Fog Analyses and Forecast in the Maceio Airport, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, N.; Silva, A.; Levit, V.; Santos, E.

    2010-07-01

    A small airplane fatal accident has occurred near Maceio Airport, on the coastal region on 26 July 2007. Low visibility in the intensive fog has provoked this accident. Weather forecast analysis, published in the local and central Brazilian newspapers during 2007, showed fog forecast absence during whole year. A study of the fog formation causes was elaborated using the high and low resolution satellite data, radar data, different products of NCEP reanalysis data and high resolution regional MM5 model simulation. The trade winds with a weak cyclonic curvature at the low levels have generated the humidity convergence at the superficial layers up to 850hPa on the coastal region. An anticyclonic circulation existence at the middle and higher levels and weak ascendant motion (by NCEP data) have support a weak convection development. The low levels clouds development on the continental region and convection development over ocean were confirmed by the radar and satellite data. A thermal inversion near surface level (up to 150m) and descendent movement at the middle and high levels were identified by MM5 model. Fog formation was simulated by PAFOG model. The conventional airport observations have shown the minimal visibility of 200m between 4 and 7a.m. Moreover visibility less than 1000m between 1 and 8a.m. with the minimal visibility of 213m was simulated by PAFOG model.

  13. The mineral economy of Brazil--Economia mineral do Brasil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurmendi, Alfredo C.; Barboza, Frederico Lopes; Thorman, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    This study depicts the Brazilian government structure, mineral legislation and investment policy, taxation, foreign investment policies, environmental laws and regulations, and conditions in which the mineral industry operates. The report underlines Brazil's large and diversified mineral endowment. A total of 37 mineral commodities, or groups of closely related commodities, is discussed. An overview of the geologic setting of the major mineral deposits is presented. This report is presented in English and Portuguese in pdf format.

  14. Resultados do desenvolvimento de um propulsor à plasma no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, I. S.; Ferreira, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    Uma das partes mais importantes de um satélite é o controle de atitude do mesmo. E se tratando de um satélite científico, a atenção para este sistema deve ser redobrada. Uma possibilidade atraente para executar esta tarefa é a propulsão elétrica. Aqui, mostraremos resultados obtidos pelo propulsor à plasma PHALL-01, desenvolvido na Universidade de Brasília entre 2000 e 2003. Este é derivado do propulsor russo SPT-100 (Stationary Plasma Thruster), mas com o emprego inovador de um arranjo de imãs permanentes como fonte do campo magnético, este último o agente da aceleração do plasma. Esta alteração foi motivada pelo objetivo de que o mesmo operasse com o mínimo de potência elétrica. A partir da formulação teórica do mecanismo de aceleração, tendo como base as equações da magnetohidrodinâmica, pode-se obter vínculos sob os quais o propulsor pudesse ser construído. O mais forte destes é o que dita a topologia do campo magnético. Sendo assim, foram realizadas simulações computacionais, que definiram a geometria do propulsor. Após construído, este foi diagnosticado usando-se sondas de Langmuir e analisadores de energia. Como resultados, obtivemos a distribuição espacial da temperatura, densidade e potencial do plasma, bem como a distribuição angular do feixe produzido pelo mesmo em vários regimes de operação. O espectro de energia do feixe de plasma também foi medido, indicando íons de até 560eV. Combinando estes resultados, calculou-se o empuxo do propulsor: 84mN; e o impulso específico: 1083s. Estes demonstram que o mesmo estará qualificado, num futuro próximo, para o emprego no controle de atitude de satélites científicos, ou até mesmo como parte do conjunto propulsor primário, responsáveis pela transferência de órbitas.

  15. Constraining depth of anisotropy in the Amazon region (Northern Brasil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Willy Corrêa Rosa, João; Bokelmann, Götz

    2014-05-01

    Seismic data recorded between November 2009 and September 2013, at the permanent station PTGA of the Brazilian seismic network were used to constrain the depth of anisotropy in the lithosphere beneath the station. 90 receiver functions (RF) have been computed, covering the backazimuthal directions from 0° to 180°. Both radial (R) and transverse (T) components of the RF contain useful information about the subsurface structure. The isotropic part of the seismic velocity profile at depth mainly affects the R-RF component, while anisotropy and dipping structures produce P-to-S conversion recorded on the T-RF component (Levin and Park, 1998; Savage, 1998). The incoming (radially polarized) S waves, when passing through an anisotropic crust, splits and part of it is projected onto the transverse component. The anisotropy symmetry orientations (Φ) can be estimated by the polarity change of the observed phases. The arrival times of the phases is related to the depth of the conversion. Depth and Φ are estimated by isolating phases at certain arrival times. SKS shear-wave splitting results from previous studies in this area (Krüger et al., 2002, Rosa et al., 2014), suggest the presence of anisotropy in the mantle with orientation of the fast splitting axis (about E-W) following major deep tectonic structures. The observed splitting orientation correlates well with the current South America plate motion (i.e. relative to mesosphere), and with observed aeromagnetic trends. This similarity leaves open the possibility of a linkage between the upper mantle fabric imaged by shear wave splitting analysis and the lower crustal structure imaged by aeromagnetometry. In this study we unravel, from RF data, two layers in which anisotropy concentrates, i.e. the lower crust and the upper mantle. Lower crustal and upper mantle anisotropy retrieved by RFs give some new hints in order to interpret the previously observed anisotropic orientations from SKS and the aeromagnetic anomalies.

  16. Curriculum Studies in Brasil: A Study of the Teaching Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcondes, Maria Ines; Tura, Maria de Lourdes Rangel; de Macedo, Elizabeth Fernandes

    This study analyzes how undergraduate university teachers are thinking in the classroom about the theoretical and practical contents related to the subject called "Curriculum Studies." The study focuses on the aspects of the theory-practice relationship, the idea of curriculum, and the theoretical references used by the undergraduate…

  17. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  18. The Scientific program with RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Hussein, M. S.; Barioni, A.; Condori, R. Pampa; Morais, M. C.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Otani, Y.; Leistenschneider, E.; Scarduelli, V.; Benjamim, E. A.; Arazi, A.; Assuncao, M.

    2009-06-03

    The Radioactive Ion Beams Facility (RIBRAS) is in operation since 2004 at the Pelletron Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo and consists of two superconducting solenoids capable of producing low energy secondary beams of light exotic nuclei. Measurements of the elastic scattering, breakup and transfer reactions with radioactive projectiles such as {sup 6}He,{sup 8}Li,{sup 7}Be on several targets have been performed. A review of the research program carried on along the last four years using the RIBRAS facility is presented.

  19. Disciplines and Professors of Astronomy in Undergraduate Physics Teachers Formation Courses in Brazilian Universities. (Spanish Title: Disciplinas y Profesores de Astronomia en los Cursos de Licenciatura en Física en Las Universidades Brasileñas.) Disciplinas e Professores de Astronomia Nos Cursos de Licenciatura em Física das Universidades Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberto, Artur Justiniano, Jr.; Reis, Thiago Henrique; dos Reis Germinaro, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    This article is the result of a research on basic training in Astronomy in physics degrees that performed the ENADE 2011 national examination. The objective was to identify whether there are disciplines of Astronomy in these courses, whether are mandatory or optional, its workload and when it is offered. The relationship between astronomers, physics degrees and disciplines of Astronomy was investigated. To perform this research we examined the results of ENADE 2011 and also the census of Brazilian Astronomical Society. As a result it is observed that in only 15% of the courses there is a mandatory subject of Astronomy, and therefore there is a high probability that 85% of physics teachers trained in 2011 have not had any discipline of Astronomy during their graduation. In addition, the data collected in this study shows a low number of members of SAB (Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira) among the surveyed courses. We have verified that the presence of astronomers in a given university does not imply to have a mandatory discipline of Astronomy in physics degrees at the same university. Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación sobre la formación básica en Astronomía en los cursos de Profesorado en Física que hicieron el examen nacional ENADE 2011. El objetivo del trabajo fue identificar se existen disciplinas de Astronomía en estos cursos, si son obligatorias u optativas, cuál es su carga horaria y el semestre en que son ofrecidas. Se investigó también la correlación entre astrónomos, los cursos de licenciatura en Física y las disciplinas de Astronomía. Para realizar esta investigación se utilizaron los datos del ENADE 2011 y también del censo de la Astronomía brasileña. Como resultado, se observó que en solo 15% de los cursos existe una disciplina obligatoria de Astronomía y que existe una grande probabilidad de que 85% de los profesores de Física formados en el año de 2011 no hayan cursado ninguna disciplina de Astronomía durante su

  20. Healthy aging profile in octogenarians in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, Ana Cristina Viana; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gonçalves, Lúcia Hisako Takase

    2016-08-29

    ês grupos com perfil de envelhecimento mais saudável: idosos com 80-84 anos (55,6%), idosos com 85 anos e mais, casados (64,9%) e idosos com 85 anos e mais, sem companheiro e também sem cuidador (54,2%). o perfil de envelhecimento saudável de octogenários pôde ser explicado pela faixa etária, estado civil e presença de cuidador. identificar el perfil de envejecimiento saludable de octogenarios brasileños. estudio epidemiológico de base poblacional que se llevó a cabo por medio de entrevistas domiciliarias en un municipio brasileño con una muestra de 335 octogenarios. Se utilizó un modelo de árbol de decisiones para analizar el perfil de envejecimiento saludable en relación a las características socioeconómicas evaluadas al inicio del estudio. Todos las pruebas consideraron un valor de p<0,05. entre los 335 adultos mayores participantes, la mayoría eran mujeres (62,1%), edades comprendidas entre 80 y 84 años (50,4%), viudos (53,4%), analfabetos (59,1 %), con ingreso mensual inferior del salario mínimo (59,1%), jubilados (85,7%), viviendo con el cónyuge (63,8%), sin cuidador (60,3%), con dos o más hijos (82,7%), y dos o más nietos (78,8%). Los resultados indican tres grupos de edad con perfil de envejecimiento más saludable: adultos mayores de 80-84 años (55,6%), adultos mayores con 85 años o más y casados (64,9%), y adultos mayores con 85 años o más sin pareja y ni cuidador (54,2%). el perfil de envejecimiento saludable de octogenarios se puede explicar por el grupo etario, el estado civil y la presencia de un cuidador.

  1. Polypharmacy and Polymorbidity in Older Adults in Brazil: a public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Arrais, Paulo Sérgio Dourado; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

    2016-12-01

    priority in the planning agenda of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). Analisar as variações da prevalência do uso crônico de medicamentos por idosos no Brasil segundo sua possível associação com as doenças crônicas mais prevalentes, fatores sociodemográficos e de saúde, e identificar fatores de risco para polifarmácia. Estudo com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos, de caráter transversal e amostra probabilística populacional em municípios brasileiros urbanos. A variável independente foi o número de medicamentos de uso crônico por idosos, vinculados às oito doenças crônicas investigadas. As variáveis intervenientes foram sexo, faixa etária, situação conjugal, escolaridade, nível socioeconômico, região do País, índice de massa corporal, hábito de fumar, percepção da própria saúde, internação no último ano e posse de plano de saúde privado, além das doenças crônicas referidas. Uma análise multivariável identificou os fatores de risco para polifarmácia. A prevalência de pelo menos um medicamento de uso crônico entre idosos foi de 93,0%. Do total de idosos, 18,0% utilizavam pelo menos cinco medicamentos (polifarmácia). A polifarmácia foi maior entre os mais idosos (20,0%), na região Sul (25,0%), nos que avaliaram a própria saúde como ruim (35,0%), nos obesos (26,0%), nos que referiram ter plano de saúde (23,0%) ou internação no último ano (31,0%) e entre os que referiram qualquer uma das doenças investigadas, particularmente diabetes (36,0%) e doenças cardíacas (43,0%). No modelo final de risco para polifarmácia permaneceram idade, região, percepção de saúde, posse de plano de saúde, internação no último ano e todas as doenças investigadas exceto acidente vascular cerebral. Idosos com doenças específicas têm fatores de risco para polifarmácia modificáveis por ações que visem o uso racional de medicamentos. Com o envelhecimento

  2. [Determinant factors for healthy aging among senior citizens in a large city: the Epidoso Project in São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Population aging leads to an increase in the prevalence of chronic and disabling diseases, as well as a change in the public health paradigm. Diseases diagnosed in the elderly are generally not curable; if not properly treated and monitored over time, they tend to generate complications and sequelae that impair patients' independence and autonomy. Health is no longer measured by the presence or absence of disease, but by the degree of preservation of functional capacity. Factors for healthy aging with good functional capacity and those which increase the risk of death and disability need to be identified by longitudinal surveys that include the elderly population living in the community. This article presents data from the first follow-up survey of senior citizens in Brasil, called the Epidoso Project (from "epi" as in "epidemiologic" and "idoso" or "elderly" in Portuguese) implemented since 1991 in the city of São Paulo. The socio-demographic, clinical, and functional characteristics of a cohort of elderly are discussed, with a risk analysis for death and disability, and the implications for health planning are considered.

  3. R&D Equipment Information Report. Fault Tolerant Weather Radar Processor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Control System. 6) Type RUN IDOSO (Return). IDOS-0 will initialize its own tables including the page map (see Section 5.2.2.1.3), and then load and...typing ’RUN IDOSO --. 4 5.2.1 IDOS-0 Operation All user programs in the Intecolor which use the TIC must run as tasks under IDOS-0. At initialization...DOINI IDOS-0 Initialization starts Interval timer interrupts, sets up tables, calls IUSER DOIDL IDOS-O Idle Loop Entered From Fatal Errors IDOSO

  4. Psychometric properties of Multidimensional Health Locus of Control - A and General Self-Efficacy Scale in civil servants: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK).

    PubMed

    Machado, Luciana A C; Telles, Rosa W; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2016-06-30

    Health-related control and self-efficacy beliefs can be assessed in the general population using Multidimensional Health Locus of Control-A subscales (MHLC-A) and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), respectively. To test construct validity, internal consistency, reliability (test-retest) and ceiling and floor effects of Portuguese-Brazil versions of MHLC-A and GSES. Civil servants (N=2901) enrolled in a large Brazilian cohort were included. A new version of the GSES was produced (GSES-Brazil). Procedures for cross-cultural adaptation and testing of psychometric properties followed well-accepted international guidelines. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded the following indices: MHLC-A (tridimensional model): χ2[df]=223.45[132], p-value <0.01; CFI=0.87; TLI=0.85; RMSEA=0.07 (0.07-0.08); WRMR=3.00. GSES-Brazil (unidimensional model): χ2[df]=788.60[35], p-value <0.01; CFI=0.95; TLI=0.94; RMSEA=0.09 (0.08-0.09); WRMR=2.50. Cronbach's alpha coefficients and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC2,1) ranged from 0.57 (0.54-0.59) and 0.57 (0.47-0.65) for MHLC-A internality to 0.80 (0.79-0.81) and 0.71 (0.66-0.77) for GSES-Brazil, respectively. There was no evidence of ceiling and floor effects. Convergent validity analyses provided further support for construct validity of both scales. These findings support the use of the newly developed version of GSES-Brazil for the assessment of general self-efficacy of adult Brazilians. Internal consistency was lower than ideal for MHLC-A, indicating these subscales may need further refinements to provide a more psychometrically sound measure of control beliefs.

  5. Psychometric properties of Multidimensional Health Locus of Control - A and General Self-Efficacy Scale in civil servants: ELSA-Brasil Musculoskeletal Study (ELSA-Brasil MSK)

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Luciana A. C.; Telles, Rosa W.; Costa-Silva, Luciana; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Health-related control and self-efficacy beliefs can be assessed in the general population using Multidimensional Health Locus of Control-A subscales (MHLC-A) and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), respectively. Objective To test construct validity, internal consistency, reliability (test-retest) and ceiling and floor effects of Portuguese-Brazil versions of MHLC-A and GSES. Method Civil servants (N=2901) enrolled in a large Brazilian cohort were included. A new version of the GSES was produced (GSES-Brazil). Procedures for cross-cultural adaptation and testing of psychometric properties followed well-accepted international guidelines. Results Confirmatory factor analyses yielded the following indices: MHLC-A (tridimensional model): χ2[df]=223.45[132], p-value <0.01; CFI=0.87; TLI=0.85; RMSEA=0.07 (0.07-0.08); WRMR=3.00. GSES-Brazil (unidimensional model): χ2[df]=788.60[35], p-value <0.01; CFI=0.95; TLI=0.94; RMSEA=0.09 (0.08-0.09); WRMR=2.50. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC2,1) ranged from 0.57 (0.54-0.59) and 0.57 (0.47-0.65) for MHLC-A internality to 0.80 (0.79-0.81) and 0.71 (0.66-0.77) for GSES-Brazil, respectively. There was no evidence of ceiling and floor effects. Convergent validity analyses provided further support for construct validity of both scales. Conclusion These findings support the use of the newly developed version of GSES-Brazil for the assessment of general self-efficacy of adult Brazilians. Internal consistency was lower than ideal for MHLC-A, indicating these subscales may need further refinements to provide a more psychometrically sound measure of control beliefs. PMID:27878226

  6. Psychometric properties of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale for screening abuse of older adults.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Raquel Batista; Oliveira, Graziella Lage; Silveira, Andréa Maria

    2017-04-10

    be a valid instrument with good psychometric capacity for screening domestic abuse against older adults in Brazil. Adaptar e avaliar as propriedades psicométricas da Escala Triagem de Vulnerabilidade ao Abuso (Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale - VASS) para identificar risco de violência doméstica contra idosos no Brasil. O instrumento foi adaptado e validado em uma amostra de 151 idosos de um centro de referência do idoso, do município de Belo Horizonte, MG, em 2014. Foram coletadas informações sociodemográficas, clínicas e relacionadas a abusos. A confiabilidade via reprodutibilidade foi verificada em uma amostra de 55 idosos, submetidos ao reteste do instrumento sete dias após a primeira aplicação. Foram realizadas análises descritivas e comparativas para todas as variáveis, com nível de significância de 5%. A validade de construto foi analisada pelo método de componentes principais com matriz de correlação tetracórica, a confiabilidade da escala pela estatística Kappa ponderado (Kp) e a consistência interna pelo estimador Kuder-Richardson fórmula 20 (KR-20). A idade média dos participantes foi 72,1 anos (DP = 6,96; IC95% 70,94-73,17), com máxima de 92 anos, e o sexo foi predominantemente feminino (76,2%; IC95% 69,82-83,03). Ao analisar a relação entre os escores da Escala Triagem de Vulnerabilidade ao Abuso, categorizados em presença (índice > 3) ou ausência (índice < 3) de vulnerabilidade para abuso, com condições clínicas e de saúde, encontramos diferenças estatisticamente significantes para autopercepção de saúde (p = 0,002), sintomas depressivos (p = 0,000) e presença de reumatismo (p = 0,003). Em relação ao sexo, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante. A Escala Triagem de Vulnerabilidade ao Abuso comportou-se de forma aceitável na avaliação da validade no processo de adaptação transcultural, demonstrando dimensionalidade coerente com a proposta original (quatro fatores). Na análise da consist

  7. Needs of family caregivers in home care for older adults.

    PubMed

    Bierhals, Carla Cristiane Becker Kottwitz; Santos, Naiana Oliveira Dos; Fengler, Fernanda Laís; Raubustt, Kamila Dellamora; Forbes, Dorothy Anne; Paskulin, Lisiane Manganelli Girardi

    2017-04-06

    to reveal the felt and normative needs of primary family caregivers when providing instrumental support to older adults enrolled in a Home Care Program in a Primary Health Service in the South of Brazil. using Bradshaw's taxonomy of needs to explore the caregiver's felt needs (stated needs) and normative needs (defined by professionals), a mixed exploratory study was conducted in three steps: Descriptive quantitative phase with 39 older adults and their caregiver, using a data sheet based on patient records; Qualitative exploratory phase that included 21 caregiver interviews, analyzed by content analysis; Systematic observation, using an observation guide with 16 caregivers, analyzed by descriptive statistics. the felt needs were related to information about instrumental support activities and subjective aspects of care. Caregivers presented more normative needs related to medications care. understanding caregivers' needs allows nurses to plan interventions based on their particularities. identificar as necessidades sentidas e normativas dos cuidadores familiares principais no apoio instrumental a idosos registrados em um Programa de Atenção Domiciliar em uma Unidade Básica de Saúde no Sul do Brasil. usando a Taxonomia de Necessidades de Bradshaw para explorar as necessidades sentidas (necessidades declaradas) e normativas (definidas por profissionais), desenvolveu-se um estudo exploratório misto em três etapas: Etapa descritiva quantitativa, envolvendo 39 idosos e seus cuidadores, com a ajuda de um folha de dados baseada no prontuário do paciente; Etapa exploratória qualitativa, baseada em entrevistas com 21 cuidadores, analisadas mediante a análise de conteúdo; Observação sistemática, aplicando um roteiro de observação a 16 cuidadores, com análise estatística descritiva. as necessidades sentidas estavam relacionadas a informações sobre atividades de apoio instrumental e aspectos subjetivos do cuidado. Os cuidadores apresentaram maior número de

  8. Community Health Workers perceptions in relation to speech and language disorders.

    PubMed

    Knochenhauer, Carla Cristina Lins Santos; Vianna, Karina Mary de Paiva

    2016-01-01

    To know the perception of the Community Health Workers (CHW) about the speech and language disorders. Cross-sectional study, which involved a questionnaire with questions related to the knowledge of CHW on speech and language disorders. The research was carried out with CHW allocated in the Centro Sanitary District of Florianópolis. We interviewed 35 CHW, being mostly (80%) female gender, with a average age of 47 years (standard deviation = 2.09 years). From the total number of interviewed professionals, 57% said that they knew the work of the speech therapist, 57% believe that there is no relationship between chronic diseases and speech therapy and 97% who think the participation of Speech, Hearing and Language Sciences is important in primary care. As for capacity development, 88% of CHW claim not to have had any training performed by a speech therapist, 75% of professionals stated they had done the training Estratégia Amamenta e Alimenta Brasil, 57% of the Programa Capital Criança and 41% of the Programa Capital Idoso. The knowledge of CHW about the work of a speech therapist is still limited, but the importance of speech and language disorders is recognized in primary care. The lack of knowledge, with regard to speech and language disorders, may be related to lack of qualification of the CHW in actions and/or continuing education courses that could clarify and educate these professionals to identify and better educate the population in their home visits. This study highlights the need for further research on training actions of these professionals.

  9. Analysis of geothermal temperatures for heat pumps application in Paraná (Brasil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Alexandre F.; de Souza, Heraldo J. L.; Cantao, Mauricio P.; Gaspar, Pedro D.

    2016-11-01

    Geothermal heat pumps are broadly used in developed countries but scarcely in Brazil, in part because there is a lack of Brazilian soil temperature data. The aims of this work are: to present soil temperature measurements and to compare geothermal heat pump system performances with conventional air conditioning systems. Geothermal temperature measurement results are shown for ten Paraná State cities, representing different soil and climate conditions. The measurements were made yearlong with calibrated equipment and digital data acquisition system in different measuring stations. Geothermal and ambient temperature data were used for simulations of the coeficient of performance (COP), by means of a working fluid pressure-enthalpy diagram based software for vapor-compression cycle. It was verified that geothermal temperature measured between January 13 to October 13, 2013, varied from 16 to 24 °C, while room temperature has varied between 2 and 35 °C. Average COP values for conventional system were 3.7 (cooling mode) and 5.0 kW/kW (heating mode), corresponding to 5.9 and 7.9 kW/kW for geothermal system. Hence it was verified an average eficiency gain of 59%with geothermal system utilization in comparison with conventional system.

  10. [Association between household solid waste disposal and health, Belo Horizonte (MG), Brasil].

    PubMed

    Catapreta, C A; Heller, L

    1999-02-01

    There are few published studies about the effects of inadequate solid waste collection on the health of the population exposed to this situation. The objective of the present work was to describe this association in a sample of children under 5 years of age living in seven low-income neighborhoods and favelas in the city of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We defined as "exposed" those children whose families were not served by waste collection; "not-exposed" were children who lived in areas with waste collection. The study employed data collected in 1994 and organized as a database by the municipal department of health. We employed a cross-sectional design, in which a "case" was defined as a child whose outpatient clinic record indicated a diagnosis of diarrheal, parasitic, or dermatological disease. Other diagnoses for the same age group composed the control group. Our epidemiological study revealed an association between the absence of domestic solid waste collection and public health. Our results suggest that the children exposed to the absence of solid waste collection have a 40% higher odds (OR = 1.40) of presenting diarrheal, parasitic, and dermatological diseases than not-exposed children. In addition, the calculation of attributable risk revealed that the presence of waste collection could prevent (based on the 1995 situation) 512 cases in the neighborhoods studied and (based on the 1994 conditions) 2316 cases among children in the entire city of Belo Horizonte.

  11. [Decline in homicide rates in São Paulo, Brasil: a descriptive analysis].

    PubMed

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    To describe homicide mortality in the municipality of São Paulo according to type of weapon, sex, race or skin color, age, and areas of socioeconomic inequalities, between 1996 and 2008. For this ecological time-series study, data about deaths in the municipality of São Paulo were collected from the municipal program for improvement of mortality information, using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) codes. Homicide mortality rates (HMR) were calculated for the overall population and specifically for each sex, race or skin color, age range, type of weapon, and occurrence in social deprivation/affluence areas. HMR were adjusted for age using the direct method. The percentage age of variation in HMR was calculated for the study period. For areas of socioeconomic inequalities, the relative risk of death from homicide was calculated. HMR fell 73.7% between 2001 and 2008. A reduction in HMR was observed in all groups, especially males (-74.5%), young men between 15 and 24 years of age (-78.0%), and residents in areas of extreme socioeconomic deprivation (-79.3%). The reduction occurred mostly in firearm homicide rates (-74.1%). The relative risk of death from homicide in areas of extreme socioeconomic deprivation, as compared to areas with some degree of socioeconomic deprivation, was 2.77 in 1996, 3.9 in 2001, and 2.13 in 2008. In areas of high socioeconomic deprivation, the relative risk was 2.07 in 1996 and 1.96 in 2008. To understand the reduction in homicide rates in the municipality of São Paulo, it is important to take into consideration macrodeterminants that affect the entire municipality and all population subgroups, as well as micro/local determinants that have special impact on homicides committed with firearms and on subgroups such as the young, males, and residents of areas of high socioeconomic deprivation.

  12. Characteristics of male and female injecting drug users of the AjUDE-Brasil II Project.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida

    2006-04-01

    The object of this study is to compare female and male injection drug users (IDUs) in terms of sociodemographic profile and aspects of their initiation to the use of injection drugs. It was a cross-sectional and multicentric study realized in 2000-2001 in six Brazilian syringe-exchange programs. 146 women and 709 men were interviewed, with average ages of 29.5 and 28.3 years, respectively. Both began injection drug use at similar ages, 18.6 and 19.3, for women and men, respectively, although women report more frequently than men that they were initiated by a sexual partner to acquiring drugs and syringes, and to the act of injection. Compared to men, women report significantly more regular sexual partners (83% versus 72%); fewer casual partners (39% versus 58%), more use of injection drugs with their partners, as well as more "exchange" of sex for drugs. Among HIV-seropositive individuals, women show less education, had more chance of their sexual partners participating in their initiation to injection drugs, and report sexual partners that used injection drugs more frequently. Female IDUs exhibit aspects of behavior indicating greater vulnerability to HIV infection than do males.

  13. Reactions with 8Li at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil): Astrophysical and nuclear structure applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, D. R., Jr.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Descouvemont, P.

    2012-02-01

    We present the results of the 8Li(p, α) 5He reaction of astrophysical interest, measured at the RIBRAS system. It was realized in inverse kinematics and using a thick CH2 polyethylene target. Using the thick target method the complete excitation function could be measured between Ecm = 0.2-2.5 MeV, which includes the Gamow peak energy region. The contribution of contaminating 12C(8Li,4He) 16N and 12C(7Li, 4He) 15N reactions is still under analysis. However, if the cross section is expected to be somewhat reduced, the subtraction of the contamination will not change the general feature of the excitation function.

  14. Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (Σ8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 μgC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

  15. Aspectos ecologicos, toxicologicos y agricolas de la hormiga brasileña Solenopsis invicta

    Treesearch

    J. A. Torres

    1990-01-01

    The fire ant Solenopsis invicta recently invaded in Puerto Rico. Its presence has created great alarm among farmers and the public. This work reviews the ecology of this ant in the United States, Brazil and Puerto Rico in order to clarify some misconceptions. Information is provided to separate Solenopsis invicta from S. geminata. Colony foundation, caste...

  16. Abandonment and accessibility in railway historical buildings: Central do Brasil and Leopoldina Railstation.

    PubMed

    Brasil, C C G; Costa, A M; Castañon, J A B

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the evolution of a study in the city of Juiz de Fora-MG, whose objective is the assessment of areas of train station in relation to the inclusion of people with disabilities and consequently promote the historical and cultural heritage of this city. The railway buildings are important landmarks in the history of the city and its surroundings was formed the first core of urban development. Because this building was of the early nineteenth century, these were not designed to assist people with disabilities, in effect, we observed that the buildings are being underutilized. The difficulty of insertion of incentive policies is therefore not due to the commitment by the majority, making the deployment of new access.

  17. Essentialism and the expression of social stereotypes: a comparative study of Spain, Brasil and England.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marcos Emanoel; Alvaro Estramiana, José Luis; Schweiger Gallo, Inge

    2010-11-01

    Over the past few years, one of the most productive directions in the study of the activation and application of stereotypes has been provided by the essentialist concept of categorization. The research presented here studied the impact of two dimensions of essentialist beliefs--naturalism and entitativity-by using data collected from Brazil, Spain and England. The aim was to test whether there was a greater degree of essentialization among the naturalizable categories (sex, age and race) than among the entitative categories (economic condition, religion, political orientation, nationality and social condition). The results not only showed that participants hold more essentialist beliefs with regard to naturalistic categories but also showed the differences in the degree of essentialization across the three cultures. A discussion is conducted on the implications of the present findings, and on the heuristic value of the theoretical model (of the bidimensional nature of essentialism) adopted by this research.

  18. Between control and hacker activism: the political actions of Anonymous Brasil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Murilo Bansi

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the political actions of Anonymous, the principal expression of current hacker activism, arguing that hacktivism is a form of political resistance in control societies. To this end, it focuses on studying the Brazilian, hacktivist facet of the collective. In order to stress its political character, it scrutinizes the principal expressions of hacking in the literature. It describes motivations, methods and the ethics of its political actions, based on a comparative analysis of two operations carried out by Brazilian Anonymous adherents in 2012: #OpWeeksPayment and #OpGlobo. And it finishes by identifying four of its main forms of political engagement: promotion of anonymity; "evangelization;" the formation of distributed networks; and the fact that the collective carries out and facilitates several types of political actions.

  19. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  20. Diversity of low chill peaches from Asia, Brasil, Europe and the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One hundred fifty-five peach (Prunus persica) cultivars, from Asia, Brazil, Europe, and the USA, were examined using eleven SSRs to study the genetic relationships among low chill as compared to high chill peach germplasm. Data was analyzed by NTSYSpc to form a similarity matrix using Nei and Li’s ...

  1. The Research Program at RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil)-III

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Assuncao, M.; Moro, A. M.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Arazi, A.

    2010-04-30

    A part of the research program developed in the RIBRAS facility over the last four years is presented. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light exotic nuclei such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed. Elastic angular distributions have been analysed by the Optical Model and four body Continuous Discretized Coupled Channels Calculations (4b-CDCC) and the total reaction cross sections have been obtained. A comparison between the reaction cross sections of {sup 6}He and other stable projectiles with medium-heavy targets was performed. Measurements of the proton transfer reaction {sup 12}C({sup 8}Li,{sup 9}Be){sup 11}B are also presented.

  2. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  3. Consideracoes Historicas sobre o Ensino Profissionalizante no Brasil (Historical Considerations about Professional Education in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barros, Marta Silene Ferreira

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the paths taken in professional education in Brazil from the colonial period until the formation of the republic. Refers to specialists as well as specific laws for each period described in the study. (BT)

  4. Ergonomics at Volkswagen Brasil. Multidisciplinary work to equalize health, productivity and quality.

    PubMed

    Filus, Rodrigo; Wruca, Rodrigo; Charleaux, Vanessa; Ortega, Auro; Ferreira, Claudio; Jesus, Leandro; Stramari, Anderson; Neufel, Michel; Maia, Uyara

    2012-01-01

    Following the technological developments and presented to the multidisciplinary processes as automakers, Volkswagen Brazil, represented by its ergonomists, through this paper, shows the importance of ergonomic efficiency of management applied to various levels of life of a product, since its creation to its final implementation on production lines.The preventive work of ergonomists during the processes leading to production of a vehicle is accomplished through assessments on a simulated system called the Digital Factory. Since the initial stages to final product delivery there is a need for a multidisciplinary aligning the concepts of ergonomics, productivity and quality of product. Industrial Engineering, Process Engineering, ergonomists and workers are involved in the analysis made through the Workshop's showing the importance of discussion between the various users of the systems. The processes of series are also equipped with a set of certifications flow of job and planned audits on items that describe processes and applied ergonomics.

  5. Indicators of health and safety among institutionalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante, Maria Lígia Silva Nunes; Borges, Cíntia Lira; Moura, Acácia Maria Figueiredo Torres de Melo; Carvalho, Rhanna Emanuela Fontenele Lima de

    2016-01-01

    To identify the incidence of mortality, diarrheal diseases, scabies and falls; and the prevalence of pressure ulcers - all of which are related to the safety ofinstitutionalized older adults. This was a documentary retrospective study developed in a long-term residential careinstitution for older adults in the Northeast region of Brazil. The data were gathered from records of health assessment indicators filed between January 2008 and December 2015. Analysis included absolute case frequency; the sum of monthly prevalence and incidence rates; mean values of cases; and mean annual incidence and prevalence rates. The incidence of mortality over these nine years ranged from 9% to 13%; of acute diarrheic disease from 13% to 45%; and scabies from 21% to 63%. The prevalence of pressure ulcers ranged from 8% to 23%. Between 2012 and 2015, the incidence rate of falls without injury varied from 38% to 83%, and with injury from12% to 20%. Analysis of the health indicators revealeda high incidence of scabies and falls and a high prevalence of pressure ulcers. The identification of less than optimal rates for performance indicators canhelp improve the quality of nursing care. Identificar a incidência de mortalidade, doenças diarreicas, escabiose e quedas, e a prevalência de lesões por pressão para a segurança do idoso institucionalizado. Estudo documental, retrospectivo desenvolvido em uma Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos, localizada no nordeste do Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio dos registros dos indicadores de avaliação de saúde, arquivados de janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2015. A análise incluiu a frequência absoluta dos casos; o somatório das taxas de prevalência e incidência mensais; a média de casos e das taxas de incidência e prevalência anuais. Observa-se que a incidência de óbitos nos nove anos considerados variou de 9 a 13%; de doenças diarreicas agudas, de 13 a 45%; e de escabiose, de 21 a 63%. A prevalência de lesão por

  6. [Logistics of collection and transportation of biological samples and the organization of the central laboratory in the ELSA-Brasil].

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Ligia G; Vidigal, Pedro G; Leite, Claudia Mendes; Castilhos, Cristina D; Pimentel, Robércia Anjos; Maniero, Viviane C; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a multicenter cohort study which aims at the identification of risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian population. The paper describes the strategies for the collection, processing, transportation, and quality control of blood and urine tests in the ELSA. The study decided to centralize the tests at one single laboratory. The processing of the samples was performed at the local laboratories, reducing the weight of the material to be transported, and diminishing the costs of transportation to the central laboratory at the Universidade de São Paulo Hospital. The study included tests for the evaluation of diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, electrolyte abnormalities, thyroid hormones, uric acid, hepatic enzyme abnormalities, inflammation, and total blood cell count. In addition, leukocyte DNA, urine, plasma and serum samples were stored. The central laboratory performed approximately 375,000 tests.

  7. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture).

  8. Queda dos homicídios em São Paulo, Brasil: uma análise descritiva

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Vicentin, Diego; Nery, Marcelo Batista; de Lima, Renato Sérgio; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, e Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo Descrever a evolução da mortalidade por homicídios no Município de São Paulo segundo tipo de arma, sexo, raça ou cor, idade e áreas de exclusão/inclusão social entre 1996 e 2008. Métodos Estudo ecológico de série temporal. Os dados sobre óbitos ocorridos no Município foram coletados da base de dados do Programa de Aprimoramento das Informações sobre Mortalidade, seguindo a Classificação Internacional de Doenças, Décima Revisão (CID-10). Foram calculadas as taxas de mortalidade por homicídio (TMH) para a população total, por sexo, raça ou cor, faixa etária, tipo de arma e área de exclusão/inclusão social. As TMH foram padronizadas por idade pelo método direto. Foram calculados os percentuais de variação no período estudado. Para as áreas de exclusão/inclusão social foram calculados os riscos relativos de morte por homicídio. Resultados As TMH apresentaram queda de 73,7% entre 2001 e 2008. Foi observada redução da TMH em todos os grupos analisados, mais pronunciada em homens (−74,5%), jovens de 15 a 24 anos (−78,0%) e moradores de áreas de exclusão social extrema (−79,3%). A redução ocorreu, sobretudo, nos homicídios cometidos com armas de fogo (−74,1%). O risco relativo de morte por homicídio nas áreas de exclusão extrema (tendo como referência áreas com algum grau de exclusão social) foi de 2,77 em 1996, 3,9 em 2001 e 2,13 em 2008. Nas áreas de alta exclusão social, o risco relativo foi de 2,07 em 1996 e 1,96 em 2008. Conclusões Para compreender a redução dos homicídios no Município, é importante considerar macrodeterminantes que atingem todo o Município e todos os subgrupos populacionais e microdeterminantes que atuam localmente, influenciando de forma diferenciada os homicídios com armas de fogo e os homicídios na população jovem, no sexo masculino e em residentes em áreas de alta exclusão social. PMID:21390415

  9. The Navy of Brazil: An Emerging Power at Sea (Marinha do Brasil: Um Poder Emergente no Mar),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    neighboring countries were solved through diplomacy. Second, the Brazilian economy remained essentially based on agricultural production, with little...emphasis on the industrialization process that took place in other parts of the world. As a result, the technological base gained by the war effort...industrial base , many problems were not solved and dependence on foreign support was almost absolute. These facts became more evident when Brazil, after having

  10. Lifestyle INtervention for Diabetes prevention After pregnancy (LINDA-Brasil): study protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Castilhos, Cristina; Wendland, Eliana Márcia; Hallal, Pedro C; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord; Drehmer, Michele; Costa e Forti, Adriana; Façanha, Cristina; Nunes, Maria Angélica

    2016-03-30

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a hyperglycemic state detected during pregnancy, is an established risk factor for diabetes. However, treatment during pregnancy in and of itself is not able to eliminate this risk, and a considerable fraction of women with GDM will develop frank diabetes in the decade following pregnancy. Our aim is to conduct a multicenter randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention program implemented after a pregnancy complicated by GDM in delaying or preventing the development of type 2 diabetes. Women aged 18 or older identified as having recent GDM are recruited and followed by telephone to assess eligibility for the trial. To be eligible, women must have used insulin during pregnancy or present intermediate hyperglycemia postpartum. Women are encouraged to enter the trial as early as 10 weeks, and are permitted to do so up to 2 years after a pregnancy with GDM. An estimated 740 women will be randomized to either conventional care or to coach-based interventions focused on breastfeeding, weight loss, healthy eating, and increased physical activity, and predominantly delivered by telephone. Women are followed annually to detect new onset diabetes, the primary outcome, and additional secondary outcomes which include reversion to normoglycemia, weight loss, physical activity and fitness, and insulin resistance. Though previous studies have demonstrated that type 2 diabetes can be delayed or prevented, no study has yet demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of similar interventions implemented in the postpartum period for women with recent GDM. If shown to be successful, this approach could become an important means of preventing diabetes in primary care settings. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02327286; Registered 23 December 2014.

  11. Postmenopausal hormone therapy in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil): who still uses it?

    PubMed

    Aquino, Estela M L; Almeida, Maria-da-Conceição C; Menezes, Greice M S; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Bensenor, Isabela M; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; da Fonseca, Maria de Jesus M; Gabrielli, Ligia

    2016-06-01

    We aim to investigate the patterns of hormone therapy (HT) use and associated factors in women participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health. This study included 3281 naturally menopausal women of 40 to 74 years of age at enrollment to the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health study, who answered questions regarding their use and discontinuation of HT. Prevalence rates of current and previous HT use were calculated, and a multinomial logistic regression model was constructed to simultaneously analyze the associated factors. The prevalence of HT use increased from 1995 onwards, peaking at 55.7% in 1997. A sharp decline occurred in the decade beginning in 2000, reaching 11.1% at the study baseline interview (2008-2010). Current use was associated with being ≥60 years of age (Relative Risk Ratio (RRR): 1.81; 95%CI: 1.10-2.96), divorced (RRR: 1.72; 95%CI: 1.14-2.60), or married (RRR: 2.09; 95%CI: 1.41-3.10); having a university education (RRR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.14-2.40) or postgraduate degree (RRR: 2.45; 95%CI: 1.80-3.35); and having private health insurance (RRR: 2.86; 95%CI: 2.00-4.09). Body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) was inversely associated with HT use (RRR: 0.37; 95%CI: 0.26-0.53) as was the presence of at least one contraindication to HT use (RRR: 0.63; 95%CI: 0.44-0.89). Of the current users ≥60 years of age, 79.1% had been using HT for at least 5 years, and 73.6% had been menopausal for at least 10 years. Although the use of HT has declined in Brazil, the women who continue using it are largely exceeding evidence-based limits of age, time since menopause, and time of use. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Relation of Fasting Triglyceride-Rich Lipoprotein Cholesterol to Coronary Artery Calcium Score (from the ELSA-Brasil Study).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Marcio S; Santos, Raul D; Staniak, Henrique; Sharovsky, Rodolfo; Kondapally, Rao; Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J; Ray, Kausik K; Bensenor, Isabela; Lotufo, Paulo

    2017-05-01

    Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is widely accepted as the principal lipid fraction associated with atherosclerosis, emerging evidence suggests a causal relation between lifelong elevations in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol (TRL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in genetic studies. To provide further evidence for the potential relevance of TRL-C and atherosclerosis, we have evaluated the relation between TRL-C and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. We included 3,845 subjects (49.9 ± 8.4 years, 54% women) who had no history of CVD, were not using lipid-lowering medications, and underwent CAC evaluation. We assessed the relation between increasing fasting TRL-C and the graded increase in CAC and to what extent TRL-C were independently associated with CAC over and above LDL-C using logistic regression models. Overall, 973 (25%) of the participants had a CAC >0 and 308 (8%) had a CAC >100. The median TRL-C level was 22 mg/dL (IQR 16 to 32). Subjects with CAC >0 had higher TRL-C levels than those with CAC = 0 (p <0.001). Similarly, subjects with CAC >0 had higher levels of LDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all p <0.001). After multivariate adjustment, log-transformed TRL-C remained associated with the presence and severity of CAC (all p <0.05). When TRL-C was added to models that contained demographic factors and conventional lipids, it significantly improved the model to predict the presence of CAC >0 (p = 0.01). In conclusion, in a large cohort of asymptomatic subjects, TRL-C was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis supporting a potentially causal role in CVD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Extremely elevated HDL-cholesterol levels are not associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness: data from ELSA Brasil.

    PubMed

    Laurinavicius, Antonio G; Santos, Itamar S; Santos, Raul D; Bensenor, Isabela M; Conceição, Raquel D; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that extremely elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), that is, hyperalphalipoproteinemia (HALP) may indicate dysfunctional HDL, conferring increased cardiovascular risk. We studied carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) a marker of subclinical vascular disease according to HDL-c distribution. cIMT was studied in subjects with "normal" HDL-c levels (HDL-c 40-50 mg/dL for men; 50-60 mg/dL for women, mean 49.6 ± 5.7 mg/dL, n = 3226); in those with HALP (HDL-c ≥90 mg/dL for both sexes, mean 101.2 ± 10 mg/dL, n = 264) and according to HDL-c quintile distribution (n = 9779). Multiple linear regression was used to test the association of HDL-c and cIMT. Subjects with HALP were older (54.5 ± 9.6 vs 51.1 ± 8.8 years, P < .001); more frequently females (86.4% vs 49%, P < .001); and presented a lower burden of risk factors: hypertension (24.6% vs 32.7%, P = .009), diabetes (10.2% vs 20.4%, P < .001), and obesity (18.6% vs 37.6%, P < .001). A similar profile was seen with higher HDL-c quintiles in the whole study population. When compared to normal HDL-c values, HALP was associated with lower maximal cIMT (0.779 ± 0.189 mm vs 0.818 ± 0.200 mm, P = .002), and there was a lower prevalence of individuals with cIMT ≥ 75(th) percentile for age and gender or high cIMT (17.5% vs 26.2%, P = .003). After multivariate analysis, no association was seen between HALP and increasing cIMT values, indeed the 5(th) HDL-c quintile was associated with lower risk of high cIMT (OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.68-0.95). HALP is associated with lower cIMT and does not indicate a pro-atherogenic phenotype. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Job Strain and Cardiovascular Health Score (from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health [ELSA-Brasil] Baseline).

    PubMed

    Rocco, Priscila T P; Bensenor, Isabela M; Griep, Rosane H; Moreno, Arlinda B; Alencar, Airlane P; Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Itamar S

    2017-07-15

    We aimed to study the association between the American Heart Association cardiovascular health (CVH) score and job strain in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health baseline. We analyzed data from 11,351 active workers (aged 35 to 74 years) without overt cardiovascular disease and who had complete data. Job strain was assessed using the 17-item Brazilian version of the Swedish Job Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Clinical (fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and blood pressure) and lifestyle (diet, physical activity, smoking, and body mass index) components of CVH score were assessed according to the American Heart Association criteria. We used quasi-Poisson and multinomial regression models, adjusted for age, gender, race, educational level and income, and positive relative predicted score differences (rPSDs) indicate greater predicted scores. Subjects with low skill discretion scores had lower global (rPSD: -1.8%; p = 0.021) and lifestyle (rPSD: -3.6%; p = 0.018) CVH scores. Participants with low decision authority (rPSD: -2.4%; p = 0.029) and low social support scores (rPSD: -3.3%; p = 0.001) also had lower lifestyle CVH scores. In conclusion, we found significant associations between job strain and CVH scores in this large multicenter sample. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of essential elements and chemical contaminants in thirteen fish species from the Bay Aratu, Bahia, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Silva, E; Viana, Z C V; Souza, N F A; Korn, M G A; Santos, V L C S

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of ten elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, V and Zn) were determinate in muscle tissues of 13 fish species from Aratu Bay, Bahia, Brazil by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The accuracy and precision of our results were checked by using two certified reference materials: BCR-422 cod muscle and SRM 1566b oyster tissue. The average trace element concentrations in the fish species varied in the following ranges, in μg g-1: 0.03-0.8 for Cr; 2.0-33.7 for Cu, 2.4-135.1 for Fe, 1.6-25.6 for Se; 1.6-35.1 for Sr; and 2.8-40.5 for Zn. The Diaptereus rhombeus (carapeba) specie presented the highest concentrations of Se, Cu and Fe. Chromium and Se were present at levels above the limit of tolerance allowed by the National Agency of Sanitary Vigilance (ANVISA). The results were also evaluated using the multivariate analysis techniques: principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA).

  16. Disseminated histoplasmosis in AIDS patients: an urban disease. Experience in a metropolis in the middle east of Brasil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Ferreira, Bianca; de Araújo Filho, Joâo Alves; Matos Pereira, Nayara; de Miranda Godoy, Lucas; Borges Lamounier, Bruna; Dias Nunes, Elizon; Espíndola Rosa, Lucas

    2017-09-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease commonly observed as an opportunistic disease in AIDS patients. It is a neglected disease in many countries, particularly Latin America, including Brazil. It is related with environmental factors, even in urban areas, where the incidence has increased. Implementing a descriptive ecological study, we performed a retrospective chart review for data collected between January 2003 and July 2014 for AIDS patients with histoplasmosis who lived in Goiania. The selected cases were georeferenced to analyse the incidence of histoplasmosis in AIDS patients in the metropolitan area of Goiania. In all, 166 patients (130 men) met the criteria for AIDS and histoplasmosis coinfection. Almost half of the patients (41%) had simultaneous histoplasmosis and AIDS diagnoses. The general mortality was 53% (88 patients). The main symptoms involved the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous systems. The distribution of cases included almost all regions of the urban areas, with some predominance in the eastern and western regions close to areas of environmental degradation, contaminated water sources and unplanned urbanisation. In conclusion, coinfection with HIV and disseminated histoplasmosis is common and associated with high mortality rates in our referral hospital for infectious diseases. Despite being considered as having a predominantly rural epidemiology, many patients reported living in urban areas such as Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia. Our findings suggest the need for environmental studies to evaluate environmental contamination and possible local risk factors for H. capsulatum infection in addition to serological surveys to determine the prevalence of this infection in the studied cities.

  17. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  18. Dogmatism and the "Knowledge Gap" among Users of the Mass Media of Communication: A Study in Brasilia, Brasil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Robert E.; Garda, Eduardo Carlos

    A study was conducted to discover whether (1) use of each of the print and broadcast media could be correlated with subjects' knowledge level, and (2) whether controlling for dogmatism would increase the proportion of media users, with higher levels of knowledge among those less dogmatic, and decrease the proportion among the more dogmatic.…

  19. Occurrence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in dogs from rural properties surrounding a biological reserve, Espirito Santo, Brasil.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Igor da Cunha Lima; Centoducatte, Luana D'Avila; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Marcili, Arlei; Gondim, Maria Fernanda Naegeli; Rossi, João Luiz; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in serum samples of 187 dogs from 30 rural properties surrounding Córrego do Veado Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The Reserve is one of the last lowland Atlantic Forest remnants of the region, surrounded by agriculture farms and cattle pastures. The presence of IgG antibodies was determined by the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test for T. gondii (cut-off 1:16) and N. caninum (cut-off 1:50). Positive samples were diluted 2-fold until the last positive dilution. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 77 (47.05%) dogs and antibodies to N. caninum in 22 dogs (11.76%) and one only dog was positive for both infections. No association between T. gondii and N. caninum infection and sex was observed (p>0.05). Control measures to prevent those infections in dogs that living surrounding the reserve and that had contact with wild animals are important to avoid the introduction of N. caninum in wild animals. This was the first study of frequency of occurrence of T. gondii and N. caninum in dogs from Espírito Santo, Brazil.

  20. Religiosity and spirituality as resilience strategies among long-living older adults in their daily lives.

    PubMed

    Reis, Luana Araújo Dos; Menezes, Tânia Maria de Oliva

    2017-01-01

    to investigate religiosity and spirituality as a resilience strategy for the long-living older adults in their daily lives. Qualitative research of phenomenological approach based on Martin Heidegger thoughts. Interviews were conducted with 14 older adults registered at a family health unit in the city of Jequié, BA, Brazil. The data were analyzed in the light of Being and Time. The results revealed that God occupies a central position in their lives, and the reading of the bible, praying the rosary and prayers are resilience strategies used for coping with unfavorable situations, recovery and/or maintenance of health, personal and family protection, and, above all, the experience of a satisfactory aging. Religiosity and spirituality were presented as an important resilience strategy in the existence of older adults, showing that through them it is possible to achieve well-being and cope with health and social problems. Desvelar a religiosidade e espiritualidade nas estratégias de resiliência do idoso longevo no cotidiano. Pesquisa qualitativa de abordagem fenomenológica fundamentada no pensamento de Martin Heidegger. Foram realizadas entrevistas com 14 pessoas idosas longevas cadastradas em uma unidade de saúde da família no município de Jequié, BA, Brasil. Os dados foram analisados à luz de Ser e Tempo. Desvelaram que Deus ocupa uma posição central em suas vidas, e a leitura da bíblia, a reza do terço e a oração são estratégias de resiliência utilizadas para o enfretamento de situações desfavoráveis, a recuperação e/ou manutenção da saúde, a proteção pessoal e familiar e, sobretudo, a vivência de uma velhice satisfatória. A religiosidade e espiritualidade foram desveladas como importante estratégia de resiliência no existir da pessoa idosa longeva, sinalizando que, por meio dela, é possível alcançar o bem-estar e enfrentar problemas de saúde e sociais.

  1. Is Brazil Actually Ready to be a World Economic Power? (CSL Issue Paper, Volume 13-11, July 2011)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Brazil, Porto Brasil : Economic Sectors, http://www.brasil.gov.br/sobre/economy/economy-sectors/agriculture-and-cattle- raising-agropecuaria (accessed...April 15, 2011); Federal Government of Brazil, “Porto Brasil : Federal Government Budget,” http://www.brasil.gov.br/sobre/ brazil/government/federal

  2. [Latin American contribution to the study of Helicobacter pylori].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Ramos, Alberto; Sánchez Sánchez, Rolando

    2009-09-01

    We have reviewed Lilacs, PubMed and Google searching for original articles related to Helicobacter pylori published by Latin American investigators from 2003 to 2008. Contributions in the following fields by countries are: Molecular biology: Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Peru y Venezuela. Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, Cuba, Peru y Venezuela. Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico, Peru y Venezuela. Helicobacter pylori and gastroduodenal diseases: Brasil, Cuba, Peru y Venezuela. Helicobacter pylori and extra digestive diseases: Brasil, Colombia and Venezuela. Pediatrics: Brasil, Cuba y Venezuela. Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru y Venezuela.

  3. Prevalence of hypoalbuminemia and nutritional issues in hospitalized elders.

    PubMed

    Brock, Felipe; Bettinelli, Luiz Antonio; Dobner, Taise; Stobbe, Júlio César; Pomatti, Gabriela; Telles, Cristina Trevizan

    2016-08-08

    to estimate the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia in hospitalized elders, related to socio-demographic variables, nutritional status and length of stay. crosscutting study with 200 patients hospitalized in a large hospital in the South of Brazil during three months. Evaluations, lab tests and interviews through questionnaires were performed. the average albuminemia was 2,9 ± 0,5g/dL. Hypoalbuminemia was diagnosed in 173 subjects (87%) and was absent in 27 (13%) that have normal albuminemia (p=0,000). After six days of hospitalization, the prevalence of low levels grew significantly to 90% (p=0,002), average 2,7 ± 0,5g/dL. Using the Mini Nutritional Assessment, it was observed that 41 patients were malnourished and from those, 40 had hypoalbuminemia. the prevalence of hypoalbuminemia proved to be high, in approx. nine in ten elders, and the nutritional status and the length of stay proved to be related to the decrease of serum albumin levels. Thus, it is suggested that monitoring albumin levels should be done to evaluate the risk that the patient has to develop malnutrition and other complications during hospital stays. estimar a prevalência de hipoalbuminemia em idosos hospitalizados, em relação às variáveis sociodemográficas, estado nutricional e tempo de internação. estudo transversal, com 200 pacientes internados em hospital de grande porte do sul do Brasil, durante o período de três meses. Foram realizadas avaliações, análise de exames laboratoriais e entrevista através de questionário. a média de albuminemia foi 2,9 ± 0,5g/dL. O diagnóstico de hipoalbuminemia, foi encontrado em 173 sujeitos (87%), e não revelado em 27 (13%), que apresentaram albuminemia normal (p=0,000). Constatou-se que após seis dias de internação a prevalência de níveis baixos aumentou significativamente para 90% (p=0,002), com média de 2,7 ± 0,5g/dL. Utilizando-se a Mini Avaliação Nutricional, observou-se que 41 pacientes estavam desnutridos, e que destes, 40

  4. [Prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance in hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto Francisco; Rodríguez-López, Leticia; Lozano-Nuevo, José Juan; Vargas-Ayala, German; Beltrán-Soto, José Martín; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat Berenice

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: la hipertensión arterial y la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tienden a coexistir en el mismo paciente. La hiperglucemia postprandial de dos horas es un predictor de enfermedad cardiovascular. Nuestro objetivo fue investigar la prevalencia de tolerancia a la glucosa alterada en sujetos hipertensos con glucosa de ayuno normal. Métodos: se incluyeron 65 pacientes hipertensos no diabéticos y con glucosa plasmática de ayuno < 100 mg/dL, en quienes se realizó una prueba de tolerancia a la glucosa. Resultados: encontramos tolerancia a la glucosa alterada en 32 pacientes (49.2 %), 29 en rango de intolerancia a la glucosa y tres casos en rango de diabetes mellitus. No hallamos relación entre glucosa postprandial con cifras de presión arterial ni con la edad, pero sí una correlación significativa entre intolerancia a la glucosa e índice de masa corporal > 32.6 (R = 0.59, p < 0.005, RR 4.2). Conclusión: nuestros resultados muestran que los pacientes hipertensos no diabéticos suelen cursar con tolerancia a la glucosa alterada, particularmente aquellos con índice de masa corporal aumentado, y que la glucosa de ayuno no es suficiente como prueba de monitoreo para diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en ese tipo de pacientes.

  5. Stress and optimism of elderlies who are caregivers for elderlies and live with children.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Nathalia Alves de; Souza, Érica Nestor; Luchesi, Bruna Moretti; Inouye, Keika; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate the relation between stress and optimism of elderlies who are informal caregivers for elderlies and live with children. cross-sectional study on 50 elderlies who provide care to elderlies, live with children, and are registered in the primary health care. The interviews occurred in the participant's residence and we evaluated characteristics of the care-dependent elderly and of the children, sociodemographic characteristics, stress through the Perceived Stress Scale and optimism through the Pinto and Pais-Ribeiro Spirituality Scale, in the elderly caregiver. For statistical analysis we used the Spearman correlation test. the mean level of stress was 23.9 points and of optimism was 3.3 points. Correlation analysis showed that the higher the level of optimism the significantly lower the level of perceived stress of elderlies who provided care to elderlies and lived with children. inversely proportional correlation was identified between stress and optimism. avaliar a relação entre estresse e otimismo de idosos cuidadores informais de idosos e que residem com crianças. Método: estudo transversal com 50 idosos cuidadores de idosos que residem com crianças e são cadastrados na atenção básica. As entrevistas ocorreram no domicílio do participante e foram avaliadas características do idoso dependente de cuidados e das crianças, características sociodemográficas, estresse por meio da Escala de Estresse Percebido e o otimismo por meio da Escala de Espiritualidade de Pinto e Pais-Ribeiro, no idoso cuidador. Para análise estatística foi utilizado o teste correlação de Spearman. o nível médio de estresse foi de 23,9 pontos e de otimismo foi de 3,3 pontos. A análise de correlação mostrou que quanto maior o nível de otimismo significativamente menor foi o nível de estresse percebido dos idosos cuidadores de idosos que residiam com crianças. foi identificada correlação inversamente proporcional entre estresse e otimismo.

  6. Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 (IVCF-20): rapid recognition of frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Edgar Nunes de; Carmo, Juliana Alves do; Moraes, Flávia Lanna de; Azevedo, Raquel Souza; Machado, Carla Jorge; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-12-22

    To evaluate the adequacy of the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20, a rapid triage instrument to test vulnerability in Brazilian older adults, for the use in primary health care. The study included convenience sample of 397 patients aged older than or equal to 60 years attended at Centro de Referência para o Idoso (Reference Center for Older Adults) and of 52 older adults the same age attended at the community. The results of the questionnaire, consisting of 20 questions, were compared with those of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, considered a reference for identifying frail older adults. Spearman's correlation was evaluated in the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 with the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment; the validity was verified by the area under the ROC curve; reliability was estimated by the percentage of agreement among evaluators and by the kappa coefficient, both with quadratic weighted. The cut-off point was obtained based on the higher accuracy criterion. Cronbach's alpha, a measure of internal consistency, was estimated. The Spearman's correlation coefficient was high and positive for both groups (0.792 for older adults attended at the Reference Center and 0.305 for older adults from the community [p < 0.001]). The area under the ROC curve for older adults attended at the Reference Center was substantial (0.903). The cut-off point obtained was six, and older adults with scores in Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 above that value had strong possibility of being frail. For older adults from the community, the quadratic weighted agreement among evaluators was 99.5%, and the global quadratic weighted kappa coefficient was 0.94. Cronbach's alpha was high for older adults attended at the Reference Center (0.861) and those attended at the community (0.740). The Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 questionnaire, in the sample examined, turned out to be positively correlated with the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment

  7. Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis (CPSA BRASIL 2015): on the way to innovation - pharmaceutical/analytical technology, regulation and knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Needham, Shane; Yates, Nathan; Barrientos, Rafael; Steel, Martin; Lee, Mike

    2015-12-01

    Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis, São Paulo, Brazil, 3-5 August 2015 The 2nd Annual Symposium on Clinical and Pharmaceutical Solutions through Analysis was held on 3-5 August 2015 at Club Transatlântico, São Paulo, Brazil. This annual meeting began in 2014 and was the first industry-led event in Brazil to focus on the specific needs of industry researchers while bringing together technology and regulators. The goal of CPSA is to provide an in-depth review of innovative technology and industry practices through open discussion of industry-related issues and needs. Education and specialized training are the foundation of all CPSA events. As the industry has evolved so has CPSA. The CPSA annual meeting thrived with high quality scientific content, open interaction from industry opinion leaders and a collegial environment.

  8. Utilização Do Sensor Airdas (Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment System) no monitoramento de desflorestamentos no norte do estado do mato grosso - Brasil

    Treesearch

    Geraldo José Lucatelli Dória de Araújo; João Antônio Raposo Pereira; Tânia Maria Vieira da Silva; Helvécio Mafra; James A. Brass; Robert N. Lockwood; Robert G. Higgins; Philip J. Riggan

    2008-01-01

    This study has as objective to assess AIRDAS (Airborne Infrared Disaster Assessment System) sensor for the monitoring of deforestation in the northern area of Mato Grosso State, between the latitudes 10° and 12° south and longitudes 54° and 56° west, within the area known as deforestation arch. The results show that the main advantage of...

  9. The Archean-Paleoproterozoic evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero (Brasil): Current models and open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, F.; Albert, C.; Martínez Dopico, C.; Aguilar Gil, C.; Moreira, H.; Hippertt, J. P.; Cutts, K.; Alkmim, F. F.; Lana, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Quadrilátero Ferrífero is a metallogenic district (Au, Fe, Mn) located at the southernmost end of the São Francisco craton in eastern Brazil. In this region, a supracrustal assemblage composed of Archean greenstone and overlying Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks occur in elongated keels bordering domal bodies of Archean gneisses and granites. The tectonomagmatic evolution of the Quadrilàtero Ferrífero began in the Paleoarchean with the formation of continental crust between 3500 and 3200 Ma. Although this crust is today poorly preserved, its existence is attested to by the occurrence of detrital zircon crystals with Paleoarchean age in the supracrustal rocks. Most of the crystalline basement, which is composed of banded gneisses intruded by leucogranitic dikes and weakly foliated granites, formed during three major magmatic events: Rio das Velhas I (2920-2850 Ma), Rio das Velhas II (2800-2760 Ma) and Mamona (2760-2680 Ma). The Rio das Velhas II and Mamona events represent a subduction-collision cycle, probably marking the appearance of a modern-style plate tectonic regime in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Granitic rocks emplaced during the Rio das Velhas I and II events formed by mixing between a magma generated by partial melting of metamafic rocks with an end member derived by recycling gneissic rocks of older continental crust. After deformation and regional metamorphism at ca. 2770 Ma, a change in the composition of the granitic magmas occurred and large volumes of high-K granitoids were generated. The ca. 6000 m-thick Minas Supergroup tracks the opening and closure of a basin during the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic, between 2600 and 2000 Ma. The basal sequence involves continental to marine sediments deposited in a passive margin basin and contain as a marker bed the Lake Superior-type Cauê Banded Iron Formation. The overlying sediments of the Sabará Group mark the inversion of the basin during the Rhyacian Minas accretionary orogeny. This orogeny results from the collision between the nuclei of the present-day São Francisco and Congo cratons, generated the fold-and thrust belt structure of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Afterwards, the post- orogenic collapse resulted in the deposition of the Itacolomi Group and in the genesis of the dome-and-keel structure. In this paper, we review current knowledge about the 1500 Ma long-lasting tectonomagmatic and structural evolution of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero identifying the most compelling open questions and future challenges.

  10. Inconsistency of Association between Coffee Consumption and Cognitive Function in Adults and Elderly in a Cross-Sectional Study (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; Giatti, Luana; dos Reis, Rodrigo C. Padilha; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B.; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and the effect on cognition appears to be task specific and vary by age. Method: In cohort of 14,563 public service workers (35–74 years old) we assessed coffee consumption habits and examined cognitive function using standardized neuropsychological test battery. By linear regression and generalize linear regression with logarithmic link and gamma distribution we investigated the relation of coffee consumption (never/almost never, ≤1 cup/day, 2–3 cups/day, ≥3 cups/day) in the last 12 months to performance on specific domains of cognition for adults and elderly separately. Results: Among elderly, after adjustments, coffee consumption was associated only with an increase in the mean words remembered on learning, recall, and word recognition tests when comparing the 2–3 cups/day to never/almost never category (arithmetic mean ratio (AMR): 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.07), and to an increase in the mean words pronounced in semantic verbal fluency test when comparing the ≥3 cups/day to never/almost never category (difference of the mean: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.16 to 2.29). However, coffee consumption was not associated with any cognitive function tests in adults and also was not associated with the phonemic verbal fluency test and trail-making test B in elderly. Conclusions: Results suggest that coffee consumption might be slightly beneficial to memory in elderly but lacks a dose response relationship. Longitudinal analyses are needed to investigate possible, even if subtle, positive effects of coffee drinking on specific cognitive domains in elderly. PMID:26610556

  11. Inconsistency of Association between Coffee Consumption and Cognitive Function in Adults and Elderly in a Cross-Sectional Study (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Araújo, Larissa Fortunato; Giatti, Luana; Reis, Rodrigo C Padilha Dos; Goulart, Alessandra C; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2015-11-19

    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide and the effect on cognition appears to be task specific and vary by age. In cohort of 14,563 public service workers (35-74 years old) we assessed coffee consumption habits and examined cognitive function using standardized neuropsychological test battery. By linear regression and generalize linear regression with logarithmic link and gamma distribution we investigated the relation of coffee consumption (never/almost never, ≤1 cup/day, 2-3 cups/day, ≥3 cups/day) in the last 12 months to performance on specific domains of cognition for adults and elderly separately. Among elderly, after adjustments, coffee consumption was associated only with an increase in the mean words remembered on learning, recall, and word recognition tests when comparing the 2-3 cups/day to never/almost never category (arithmetic mean ratio (AMR): 1.03; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.07), and to an increase in the mean words pronounced in semantic verbal fluency test when comparing the ≥3 cups/day to never/almost never category (difference of the mean: 1.23; 95% CI: 0.16 to 2.29). However, coffee consumption was not associated with any cognitive function tests in adults and also was not associated with the phonemic verbal fluency test and trail-making test B in elderly. RESULTS suggest that coffee consumption might be slightly beneficial to memory in elderly but lacks a dose response relationship. Longitudinal analyses are needed to investigate possible, even if subtle, positive effects of coffee drinking on specific cognitive domains in elderly.

  12. Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germano, Jose Willington

    1995-01-01

    Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social…

  13. Parasites of the squirrel Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae) from Amazonian Brasil, with particular reference to Eimeria damnosa n. sp. (Apicompiexa: Eimeriidae).

    PubMed

    Lainson, R; Brigido, M C O; Silveira, F T

    2005-12-01

    A description is given of the mature oocysts and endogenous stages of Eimeria damnosa n. sp. from the small intestine of the red squirrel, Sciurus spadiceus, from the State of Acre, north Brazil. Ten of 12 animals examined were infected. Oocysts ovoid to ellipsoidal, occasionally cylindrical but not with parallel sides, 30.2 x 20.0 microm (18.0 x 15.0-40.2 x 30.0), shape-index (ratio length/width) 1.5 (1.3-1.8), n = 40. Oocyst wall smooth, colourless, with no micropyle, apparently of a single layer measuring approximately 1.0-1.5 microm thick. No oocyst residuum, but approximately 50 % of the oocysts with a single spherical, ovoid or dumbbell-shaped polar body. Sporocysts pear-shaped, 15.0 x 8.0 microm (11.0 x 6.0-16.0 x 8.0), shape index 1.9 (1.8-2.0), n = 33. Stieda body, if it merits this name, appears only as a slight thickening of the sporocyst wall at the more pointed extremity. Endogenous stages intracytoplasmic in the epithelial cells of the duodenum and throughout the ileum, above the host cell nucleus. Sporulation frequently completed in the lumen of the intestine, but most oocysts mature outside the host at some time within 24 hours. Massive infections may result in extensive desquamation of the gut epithelium, and sometimes in the death of the animal. In addition to this coccidian, one squirrel showed abundant trophozoites of a Giardia sp., in the ileum. The liver of two others contained developing and mature meronts, producing large numbers of slender merozoites, and other cyst-like bodies containing a small number of large zoites (sporozoites?). No parasites were detected in the blood of any of the squirrels that could be associated with this unidentified protozoan. Histological sections of the ileum of one squirrel revealed a globidium-like parasite in the lamina propria: it contained a very large number of slender, curved zoites. Three animals were with a sheathed microfilaria in the peripheral blood and liver smears. Finally, a Trypanosoma cruzi-like trypanosome was isolated from the blood of one squirrel and a T. lewisi-like trypanosome from two others.

  14. Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil.

    PubMed

    d'Azevedo, P A; Secchi, C; Antunes, A L S; Sales, T; Silva, F M; Tranchesi, R; Pignatari, A C C

    2008-10-01

    In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant.

  15. Estimation of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters using broadband clear sky solar irradiance models in Rio de Janeiro-Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, José L.; Karam, Hugo A.; Marques Filho, Edson P.; Pereira Filho, Augusto J.

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of this paper is to estimate a set of optimal seasonal, daily, and hourly values of atmospheric turbidity and surface radiative parameters Ångström's turbidity coefficient ( β), Ångström's wavelength exponent ( α), aerosol single scattering albedo ( ω o ), forward scatterance ( F c ) and average surface albedo ( ρ g ), using the Brute Force multidimensional minimization method to minimize the difference between measured and simulated solar irradiance components, expressed as cost functions. In order to simulate the components of short-wave solar irradiance (direct, diffuse and global) for clear sky conditions, incidents on a horizontal surface in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ), Brazil (22° 51' 27″ S, 43° 13' 58″ W), we use two parameterized broadband solar irradiance models, called CPCR2 and Iqbal C, based on synoptic information. The meteorological variables such as precipitable water ( u w ) and ozone concentration ( u o ) required by the broadband solar models were obtained from moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor on Terra and Aqua NASA platforms. For the implementation and validation processes, we use global and diffuse solar irradiance data measured by the radiometric platform of LabMiM, located in the north area of the MARJ. The data were measured between the years 2010 and 2012 at 1-min intervals. The performance of solar irradiance models using optimal parameters was evaluated with several quantitative statistical indicators and a subset of measured solar irradiance data. Some daily results for Ångström's wavelength exponent α were compared with Ångström's parameter (440-870 nm) values obtained by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) for 11 days, showing an acceptable level of agreement. Results for Ångström's turbidity coefficient β, associated with the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere, show a seasonal pattern according with increased precipitation during summer months (December-February) in the MARJ.

  16. Impact of vinasse application in the C and N in the soils cultivaded with sugarcane in South Brasil, using Isotopic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossete, A. M.; Medeiros, G. G.; Adorno, F. C.; Possignolo, N. V.; Moreira, M. Z.; Camargo, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    The main anthropogenic sources in the environment are fertilizers, pesticides, biomass burning, vehicle emissions, and disposal of urban and industrial waste. Vinasse is characterized as a residual of sugarcane distillery effluent with high concentrations of potassium and organic matter. The environmental impact caused by its use in the vinasse is modification chemical and physical properties in the soil and water. For this, the isotopic technique can be a powerful tool to understand the biogeochemical cycling of light elements (C and N). Some environmental studies have been conducted involving isotopic characterization of Carbon and Nitrogen in soil. Several soils cultivated with sugarcane of different regions of São Paulo state, Brazil, were analyzed to perform the isotopic characterization. The study area was selected where soil management is by mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. The area was divided into three parts: control (without cultivation); after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane; after mechanical harvesting of sugarcane and vinasse application. Three days after the harvest of sugarcane the vinasse was applied and sampling of soil surface was carried out in two periods of 7 and 30 days after application of vinasse. The isotopic determination in the sample soil and concentration of C and N was by IRMS, Thermo Delta Plus, allowing simultaneous determination of 13C/12C isotope ratios (δ13C) and 15N/14N (δ15N). The results of the C and N concentration in the vinasse applied were average values 2.52% and 0.02% and isotopic values of 13C and 15N were -14.1‰ and 5.2‰. The results for the C concentration of the three areas in two periods showed values around 0.86 to 1.01%. The 13C isotopic values were -16.8 to -15.0‰, demonstrating the predominant cultivation in the region in relation to δ13C values of C4 plant (sugarcane). The results of N analysis were 0.08 to 0.10% and 15N isotope analysis, showing values ranging from 7.9 to 8.5‰. No significant variation in concentration of N and C in three study areas was observed. Considering 13C and 15N isotopic characterization independent of management, there was noted no isotopic fractionation by microbial activity. The results evidenced that the addition of vinasse in the soil did not increase the concentration of C and N does not represent a source of C and N. Furthermore, the isotopic technique can be applied in studies involving biogeochemical cycling, aiming to identify progress or setbacks in the quality of soil and possible impact in ecosystem.

  17. Dating human occupation at Toca do Serrote das Moendas, São Raimundo Nonato, Piauí-Brasil by electron spin resonance and optically stimulated luminescence.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Skinner, Anne R; Guidon, Niede; Ignacio, Elaine; Felice, Gisele Daltrini; Buco, Cristiane de A; Tatumi, Sonia; Yee, Márcio; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-12-01

    Excavation of Toca do Serrote das Moendas, in Piauí state, Brazil revealed a great quantity of fossil wild fauna associated with human remains. In particular, fossils of a cervid (Blastocerus dichotomus) were found, an animal frequently pictured in ancient rock wall paintings. In a well-defined stratum, two loose teeth of this species were found in close proximity to human bones. The teeth were independently dated by electron spin resonance (ESR) in two laboratories. The ages obtained for the teeth were 29 ± 3 ka (thousands of years) and 24 ± 1 ka. The concretion layer capping this stratum was dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of the quartz grains to 21 ± 3 ka. As these values were derived independently in three different laboratories, using different methods and equipment, these results are compelling evidence of early habitation in this area.

  18. Oxacilin-resistant Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) bacteremia in a general hospital at São Paulo city, Brasil

    PubMed Central

    d’Azevedo, P.A.; Secchi, C.; Antunes, A.L.S.; Sales, T.; Silva, F.M.; Tranchesi, R.; Pignatari, A.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decades, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), especially Staphylococcus epidermidis have become an important cause of bloodstream infections. In addition, rates of methicillin-resistance among CoNS have increased substantially, leading to the use of glicopeptides for therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate eleven consecutives clinically relevant cases of oxacillin-resistant CoNS bacteremia in a general hospital localized in São Paulo city, Brazil. Five different species were identified by different phenotypic methods, including S. epidermidis (5), S. haemolyticus (3), S. hominis (1), S. warneri (1) and S. cohnii subsp urealyticus (1). A variety of Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis profiles was observed by macrorestriction DNA analysis in S. epidermidis isolates, but two of three S. haemolyticus isolates presented the same profile. These data indicated the heterogeneity of the CoNS isolates, suggesting that horizontal dissemination of these microorganisms in the investigated hospital was not frequent. One S. epidermidis and one S. haemolyticus isolates were resistant to teicoplanin and susceptible to vancomycin. The selective pressure due to the use of teicoplanin in this hospital is relevant. PMID:24031279

  19. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  20. Resistant hypertension: risk factors, subclinical atherosclerosis, and comorbidities among adults-the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Vasconcellos, Paulo S; Santos, Itamar S; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of resistant hypertension-defined as blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg with proven use of three antihypertensive medications, or as the use of four antihypertensive drug classes regardless of BP-is unknown in low-middle-income countries. Using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health, a cohort of 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, the authors identified 4116 patients taking treatment for hypertension, 11% of who had resistant hypertension. These participants were more likely to be older, black, less educated, poorer, and obese. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) were diabetes, 1.44 (1.20-1.72); glomerular filtration rate (<60 mL/min/1.72 m(2) ), 1.95 (1.60-2.38); albumin-to-creatinine ratio (>300 mg/g), 2.43 (1.70-3.50); carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity, 1.07 m/s (1.03-1.11 m/s); common carotid intima-media thickness, 2.57 mm (1.64-4.00 mm); left ventricular hypertrophy, 2.08 (1.21-3.57); and atrial fibrillation, 3.55 (2.02-6.25). Thus, the prevalence of resistant hypertension in Brazil is high and associated with subclinical markers of end-organ cardiovascular damage.

  1. Simulated Extreme Prepitation Indices over Northeast Brasil in Current Climate and Future Scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wender Santiago Marinho, Marcos; Araújo Costa, Alexandre; Cassain Sales, Domingo; Oliveira Guimarães, Sullyandro; Mariano da Silva, Emerson; das Chagas Vasconcelos Júnior, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we analyzed extreme precipitation indices, for present and future modeled climates over Northeast of Brazil (NEB), from CORDEX simulations over the domain of Tropical Americas. The period for the model validation was from 1989-2007, using data from the European Center (ECWMF) Reanalysis, ERA-INTERIM, as input to drive the regional model (RAMS 6.0). Reanalysis data were assimilated via both lateral boundaries and the entire domain (a much weaker "central nudging"). Six indices of extreme precipitation were calculated over NEB: the average number of days above 10, 20 and 30 mm in one year (R10, R20, R30), the number of consecutive dry days (CDD), the number of consecutive wet days (CWD) and the maximum rainfall in five consecutive days (RX5). Those indices were compared against two independent databases: MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications) and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission). After validation, climate simulations were performed for the present climate (1985-2005) and short-term (2015-2035), mid-term (2045-2065) and long-term (2079 to 2099) future climates for two scenarios: RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, nesting RAMS into HadGEM2-ES global model (a participant of CMIP5). Along with the indices, we also calculated Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) to study the behavior of daily precipitation in the present and by the end of the 21st century (2079 to 2099) to assess possible changes under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5. The regional model is capable of representing relatively well the extreme precipitation indices for current climate, but there is some difficulties in performing a proper validation since the observed databases disagree significantly. Future projections show significant changes in most extreme indices. Rnn generally tend to increase, especially under RCP8.5. More significant changes are projected for the long-term period, under RCP8.5, which shows a pronounced R30 enhancement over northern states. CDD tends to decrease over most of NEB in the short but this trend is reverted toward the end of the century in both scenarios with a significant increase in the duration of the dry season over Northwestern and Eastern NEB (exceeding 50 days over certain areas), whereas projected CWD changes are smaller. Rx5 shows a general increasing trend especially in the long term period,under RCP8.5.

  2. A Educacao dos Portadores de Necessidades Especiais no Brasil no Periodo de 1910 a 1949 (Education of Those with Special Needs in Brazil from 1920 to 1949).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carlos Alberto; Santiago, Mylene Cristina; de Moura, Simone Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Examines education given to those with special needs in Brazil from 1910-1949. Shows the dichotomy of meanings in which the education of special needs persons during that period, besides being marked by concepts related to the exclusion paradigm, already indicated signs of respect for diversity and civil rights. (BT)

  3. O Direito Costumeiro na Legislacao e na Jurisprudencia do Brasil: A Desescravizacao (Common Law in Legislation and Jurisprudence in Brazil: Abolition of Slavery).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebara, Ademir

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that in Brazil, common law was an important component for development of the political project, elaborated with the objective of organizing and disciplining the formation of a market of free workers. Considers that the history of work relations originated in the Portuguese discovery of Brazil in the 16th century. (BT)

  4. A Ideia de Universidade no Brasil: Influencia do Movimento de Cordoba (The Idea of the University in Brazil: Influences of the Cordoba Movement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzilli, Sueli

    2000-01-01

    Examines influences of the Cordoba Movement in formulation of ideas concerning the inseparability among teaching, research, and extension--a new paradigm for the Brazilian university. Finds the formulation of this inseparability had its origins in the Brazilian student movement of the 1960s which included theses of the Cordoba Manifesto. (BT)

  5. O Direito Costumeiro na Legislacao e na Jurisprudencia do Brasil: A Desescravizacao (Common Law in Legislation and Jurisprudence in Brazil: Abolition of Slavery).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebara, Ademir

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that in Brazil, common law was an important component for development of the political project, elaborated with the objective of organizing and disciplining the formation of a market of free workers. Considers that the history of work relations originated in the Portuguese discovery of Brazil in the 16th century. (BT)

  6. A Educacao dos Portadores de Necessidades Especiais no Brasil no Periodo de 1910 a 1949 (Education of Those with Special Needs in Brazil from 1920 to 1949).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Carlos Alberto; Santiago, Mylene Cristina; de Moura, Simone Moreira

    2000-01-01

    Examines education given to those with special needs in Brazil from 1910-1949. Shows the dichotomy of meanings in which the education of special needs persons during that period, besides being marked by concepts related to the exclusion paradigm, already indicated signs of respect for diversity and civil rights. (BT)

  7. A Ideia de Universidade no Brasil: Influencia do Movimento de Cordoba (The Idea of the University in Brazil: Influences of the Cordoba Movement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzilli, Sueli

    2000-01-01

    Examines influences of the Cordoba Movement in formulation of ideas concerning the inseparability among teaching, research, and extension--a new paradigm for the Brazilian university. Finds the formulation of this inseparability had its origins in the Brazilian student movement of the 1960s which included theses of the Cordoba Manifesto. (BT)

  8. Cidadania Negada: A Educacao como Instrumento de Combate a Pobreza no Brasil (Denial of Citizenship: Education as a Way to Fight Poverty in Brazil).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germano, Jose Willington

    1995-01-01

    Compares two compensatory social/educational programs developed by the Brazilian government in the last 15 years. States that although one was formulated during the military regime and one during the present government, they both combat poverty and encourage privatization. Concludes that this promotes a process that sees education as social…

  9. Landslide Susceptibility Analysis by the comparison and integration of Random Forest and Logistic Regression methods; application to the disaster of Nova Friburgo - Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (January 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Carlo; Barra, Anna; Evans, Stephen G.; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele; Delaney, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The study of landslide susceptibility by multivariate statistical methods is based on finding a quantitative relationship between controlling factors and landslide occurrence. Such studies have become popular in the last few decades thanks to the development of geographic information systems (GIS) software and the related improved data management. In this work we applied a statistical approach to an area of high landslide susceptibility mainly due to its tropical climate and geological-geomorphological setting. The study area is located in the south-east region of Brazil that has frequently been affected by flood and landslide hazard, especially because of heavy rainfall events during the summer season. In this work we studied a disastrous event that occurred on January 11th and 12th of 2011, which involved Região Serrana (the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro State) and caused more than 5000 landslides and at least 904 deaths. In order to produce susceptibility maps, we focused our attention on an area of 93,6 km2 that includes Nova Friburgo city. We utilized two different multivariate statistic methods: Logistic Regression (LR), already widely used in applied geosciences, and Random Forest (RF), which has only recently been applied to landslide susceptibility analysis. With reference to each mapping unit, the first method (LR) results in a probability of landslide occurrence, while the second one (RF) gives a prediction in terms of % of area susceptible to slope failure. With this aim in mind, a landslide inventory map (related to the studied event) has been drawn up through analyses of high-resolution GeoEye satellite images, in a GIS environment. Data layers of 11 causative factors have been created and processed in order to be used as continuous numerical or discrete categorical variables in statistical analysis. In particular, the logistic regression method has frequent difficulties in managing numerical continuous and discrete categorical variables together; therefore in our work we tried different methods to process categorical variables , until we obtained a statistically significant model. The outcomes of the two statistical methods (RF and LR) have been tested with a spatial validation and gave us two susceptibility maps. The significance of the models is quantified in terms of Area Under ROC Curve (AUC resulted in 0.81 for RF model and in 0.72 for LR model). In the first instance, a graphical comparison of the two methods shows a good correspondence between them. Further, we integrated results in a unique susceptibility map which maintains both information of probability of occurrence and % of area of landslide detachment, resulting from LR and RF respectively. In fact, in view of a landslide susceptibility classification of the study area, the former is less accurate but gives easily classifiable results, while the latter is more accurate but the results can be only subjectively classified. The obtained "integrated" susceptibility map preserves information about the probability that a given % of area could fail for each mapping unit.

  10. Effects of depression, anxiety, comorbidity, and antidepressants on resting-state heart rate and its variability: an ELSA-Brasil cohort baseline study.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Andrew H; Brunoni, Andre R; Santos, Itamar S; Nunes, Maria A; Dantas, Eduardo M; Carvalho de Figueiredo, Roberta; Pereira, Alexandre C; Ribeiro, Antonio L P; Mill, José G; Andreão, Rodrigo V; Thayer, Julian F; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2014-12-01

    Increases in resting-state heart rate and decreases in its variability are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, yet contradictory findings have been reported for the effects of the mood and anxiety disorders and of antidepressants. The authors investigated heart rate and heart rate variability in a large cohort from Brazil, using propensity score weighting, a relatively novel method, to control for numerous potential confounders. A total of 15,105 participants were recruited in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health. Mood and anxiety disorders were ascertained using the Portuguese version of the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. Heart rate and its variability were extracted from 10-minute resting-state electrocardiograms. Regressions weighted by propensity scores were carried out to compare participants with and without depressive or anxiety disorders, as well as users and non-users of antidepressants, on heart rate and heart rate variability. Use of antidepressants was associated with increases in heart rate and decreases in its variability. Effects were most pronounced for the tricyclic antidepressants (Cohen's d, 0.72-0.81), followed by serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (Cohen's d, 0.42-0.95) and other antidepressants (Cohen's d, 0.37-0.40), relative to participants not on antidepressants. Only participants with generalized anxiety disorder showed robust, though small, increases in heart rate and decreases in its variability after propensity score weighting. The findings may, in part, underpin epidemiological findings of increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Many factors that have an adverse impact on cardiac activity were controlled for in this study, highlighting the importance of cardiovascular risk reduction strategies. Further study is needed to examine whether, how, and when such effects contribute to morbidity and mortality.

  11. 76 FR 36923 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    .... Under the Federal Reserve Bank of New York heading, the entry for Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil... Liberty Street, New York, New York 10045-0001: 1. Banco do Brasil S.A., Brasilia, Brazil, and Caixa de Previdencia dos Funcionarios do Banco do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; to become bank holding companies by...

  12. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Raul D; Sposito, Andrei C; Bertolami, Marcelo; Rocha-Faria, Jose; Izar, M Cristina; Szwarcwald, Celia; Prado, Rogério R; Stoppa, Sheila R; Malta, Deborah C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2017-05-01

    Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS) de 2013. Estudo descritivo que avaliou os dados da PNS de 2013, um inquérito epidemiológico de base domiciliar, representativo para o Brasil, com informações autorreferidas. A amostra compreendeu 60.202 indivíduos entrevistados com autorrelato de diagnóstico médico de colesterol. Calculou-se a prevalência de ponto e o intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%) para diagnóstico médico de colesterol/triglicerídeos alto(s) por sexo, idade, cor da pele, região geográfica, escolaridade. Foram calculadas as razões de chance ajustadas. Dos 60.202 participantes adultos, 14,3% (IC95%=13,7-14,8) nunca tiveram colesterol ou triglicerídeos dosados, sendo que um maior número de mulheres, idosos, indivíduos com instrução superior completa e de raça branca relatou aferição há menos de um ano. A prevalência de diagnóstico médico de colesterol alto foi de 12,5%, maior nas mulheres (15,1%) do que nos homens (9,7%). A frequência de diagnóstico médico de colesterol alto foi maior naqueles com idade até 59 anos, em brancos ou aqueles de origem asiática, em pessoas com maior escolaridade e entre os moradores das macrorregiões Sul e Sudeste do país. A importância do conhecimento da dislipidemia no atual contexto epidemiológico brasileiro deve ser ressaltada para orientar as ações de prevenção das doenças coronarianas, que representam a primeira causa de óbito no Brasil e no mundo.

  13. Adherence to a Physical Activity Program by Older Adults in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Doralice Lange; Vendruscolo, Rosecler

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a qualitative research project in which we investigated adherence factors to a physical activity (PA) program for older adults in Brazil named "Sem Fronteiras: Atividades Corporais Para Adultos Maduros e Idosos", which translated into English means "Without Borders: Physical Activities for Mature…

  14. Effects of hearing aids in the balance, quality of life and fear to fall in elderly people with sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Clara Fonseca; Silva, Luciana Oliveira E; de Tavares Canto, Roberto Sérgio; Cheik, Nadia Carla

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: O processo de envelhecimento provoca modificações estruturais e funcionais à saude, comprometendo o controle postural e processamento central. Estudos têm abordado a necessidade de identificar os fatores de risco prejudiciais à saúde auditiva e segurança em idosos acometidos por déficits auditivos e com alterações de equilíbrio.Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da prótese auditiva na qualidade de vida, no equilíbrio e no medo de queda em idosos com perda auditiva bilateral.Método: Estudo clínico e experimental realizado com 56 idosos com perda auditiva neurossensorial, submetidos ao uso da prótese auditiva de amplificação sonora individual (AASI). Os idosos responderam aos questionários de qualidade de vida Short Form Health Survery (SF-36), Falls Efficacy Scale- Internacional (FES-I) e o teste de Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Após 4 meses, os idosos que adaptaram ao uso da AASI foram reavaliados.Resultados: Houve 50% de adaptação dos idosos ao AASI. Foi observado que o sexo masculino teve maior dificuldade em adaptar ao aparelho auditivo e que as variáveis idade, grau de perda, presença de zumbido e vertigem não interferiram na adaptação à prótese auditiva. Houve melhora da qualidade de vida nos domínios Estado da Saúde Geral (EGS) e Capacidade Funcional (CF) e do zumbido, assim como o aumento da auto-confiança após adaptação da prótese auditiva.Conclusão: O uso de prótese auditiva propiciou a melhora dos domínios da qualidade de vida, o que refletiu em uma melhor auto-confiança e consequentemente a longo prazo na redução do medo de queda em idosos com perda auditiva neurossensorial.

  15. Access to medicines for chronic diseases in Brazil: a multidimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-12-01

    non-communicable diseases in Brazil is high and presents significant differences for age group, region of the country, number of non-communicable diseases, and for medicines prescribed and self-assessment of health. The major barriers to access to medicines were identified in the dimensions analyzed. Analisar o acesso a medicamentos para tratar doenças crônicas não transmissíveis no Brasil segundo fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos e de saúde, sob perspectiva multidimensional. Análise de dados da Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM), inquérito domiciliar, plano amostral por conglomerados com representatividade da população brasileira e grandes regiões do País, segundo domínios de sexo e idade. Dados coletados em 2013-2014 com amostra constituída por adultos (≥ 20 anos) que referiram ter doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e indicação médica para usar medicamentos (n = 12.725). Avaliou-se a prevalência de acesso aos medicamentos para doenças crônicas não transmissíveis autorreferidas, considerando quatro dimensões: disponibilidade, acessibilidade geográfica, aceitabilidade e capacidade aquisitiva. Aplicou-se teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson para avaliar a significância estatística das diferenças entre os estratos, considerando o nível de significância de 5%. Foram encontradas prevalências de 94,3%, 5,2% e 0,5% para acesso total, parcial e nulo, respectivamente. Maiores prevalências ocorreram entre os idosos, na região Sul comparada à região Nordeste; naqueles que referiram ter uma doença crônica não transmissível comparados aos que referiram ter duas ou mais; naqueles que precisavam de um medicamento comparados aos que precisavam de três ou mais; e naqueles que autoavaliaram sua saúde como boa ou muito boa. A acessibilidade geográfica foi semelhante no Sistema Único de Saúde e nas farmácias privadas (72,0%). A disponibilidade total de medicamentos foi de 45

  16. Food consumed outside the home in Brazil according to places of purchase.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Moreira, Tyciane Maria Vieira; Cavalcante, Jessica Brito; Souza, Amanda de Moura; Sichieri, Rosely

    2017-03-23

    e identificar os alimentos adquiridos por local de consumo no Brasil. Utilizaram-se dados da Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar 2008-2009 em uma amostra de 152.895 indivíduos acima de 10 anos. A aquisição de alimentos para consumo fora do lar foi coletada por registros de todos os gastos realizados no período de sete dias. Os locais de aquisição de alimentos foram agrupados de acordo com suas características: supermercado, padaria, comida de rua, restaurante, lanchonete, frutaria e outros. Os tipos de alimentos adquiridos foram alocados em nove categorias de alimentos, considerando os aspectos nutricionais e as características de comercialização do item. Estimou-se a frequência de aquisição de alimentos nos sete grupos de locais no Brasil e por sexo e o tipo de alimento adquirido por local. Calculou-se a média de idade, de renda e de anos de escolaridade, bem como da despesa per capita segundo locais de aquisição de alimentos consumidos fora do lar. A aquisição de alimentos fora do lar foi reportada por 41,2% dos indivíduos, sendo maior entre os homens do que nas mulheres (44% versus 38,5%). Os adultos apresentaram maior frequência de aquisição (46%) do que os adolescentes (37,7%) e os idosos (24,2%). Os locais com maiores frequências de consumo de alimentos fora do lar foram lanchonete (16,9%) e restaurante (16,4%), enquanto frutaria (1,2%) apresentou a menor frequência. Doces, salgadinhos e refrigerante foram os alimentos mais adquiridos na maioria dos locais. Os gastos médios com alimentos foram maiores para restaurante (R$33,20) e menores para frutaria (R$4,10) e comida de rua (R$5,00). O maior percentual de consumo de alimentos fora do lar é proveniente de lanchonete e restaurante, apontando importantes locais para o desenvolvimento de políticas públicas com foco na promoção da alimentação saudável.

  17. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale - Revised.

    PubMed

    Stacciarini, Thaís Santos Guerra; Pace, Ana Emilia

    2017-01-30

    to analyze the factor structure of the Appraisal of Self-Care Agency Scale-Revised (ASAS-R), adapted for Brazil. methodological study conducted with 150 individuals with diabetes mellitus cared for by the Family Health Strategy, most of whom are elderly with low educational levels. The test of the hypothesis concerning the confirmatory factor composition of the ASAS-R was performed using latent variables structural equations. the model's goodness-of-fit indexes were satisfactory (χ2 = 259.19; χ2/g.l = 2.97, p < 0.001; GFI = 0.85; RMR = 0.07; RMSEA = 0.09); the factor loads were greater than 0.40; and most item-to-factor-correlations presented moderate to strong magnitude (0.34 to 0.58); total alpha value was 0.74, while the alpha of the three factors were 0.69, 0.38 and 0.69, respectively. the scale's factor structure presented satisfactory validity and reliability results, with the exception of one factor. Application of this scale to samples of the general population is desirable in order to strengthen analyses of internal consistency and the dimensionality of the factor structure. This study is expected to contribute to further studies addressing the self-care agency construct and the development of the ASAS-R. analisar a estrutura fatorial da escala de avaliação da capacidade de autocuidado, Appraisal of Self Care Agency Scale-Revised (ASAS-R), adaptada no Brasil. estudo metodológico conduzido em 150 usuários com diabetes mellitus, maioria idosos e com baixa escolaridade, em seguimento na Estratégia Saúde da Família. O teste de hipótese da composição fatorial confirmatória da escala ASAS-R foi realizado via modelo de equações estruturais para variáveis latentes. os valores dos índices de ajuste do modelo foram satisfatórios (χ2 de 259,19; χ2/g.l de 2,97, p < 0,001; GFI = 0,85; RMR = 0,07; RMSEA = 0,09), as cargas fatoriais foram superiores a 0,40, maioria das correlações item e fator foi de moderada a forte magnitude (0,34 a 0,58) e os

  18. NUTRITIONAL STATUS, DIET AND NON-ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE IN ELDERS.

    PubMed

    de Melo Portela, Clarissa Lima; de Carvalho Sampaio, Helena Alves; Pereira de Melo, Maria Luísa; Ferreira Carioca, Antonio Augusto; Maia Pinto, Francisco José; Machado Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro

    2015-11-01

    Objetivo: evaluar las interrelaciones entre enfermedad grasa no alcohólica del hígado (HGNA) y factores dietéticos en una población de ancianos hipertensos. Métodos: 229 pacientes ancianos hipertensos fueron evaluados desde junio a diciembre del 2009. Todos los pacientes que aceptaron participar en el estudio firmaron un consentimiento libre e informado. Fueron realizadas evaluaciones antropométricas y de composición corporal. El diagnóstico de HGNA fue determinado por el American Guidelines. El consumo alimenticio regular fue estimado a través de una encuesta alimentaria de recordatorio de 24 horas. Resultados: el exceso de peso, ponderado por el índice de masa corporal y el exceso de grasa abdominal, fueron asociados con HGNA (p < 0,001). Un perfil inverso fue encontrado con las variables dietéticas. Conclusión: el grupo estudiado presentó una situación de riesgo para la salud, considerando los marcadores del estado nutricional. La dieta regular pareció ser inadecuada, mostrando exceso de sodio bajo consumo de fibras y vegetales.

  19. Effect of the exercise of walkers performed in public squares with spontaneous or prescribed intensity on post-exercise hypotension.

    PubMed

    Silva, Taís Feitosa da; Souza, Alesandra Araújo de; Lima, Fabiano Ferreira de; Suassuna, Jennifer Ariely Sales; Couto, Henrique Eduardo Paiva Lira do; Tenório, Gustavo Roque; Silva, Maria Irene de Andrade Gomes; Dias, Guilherme Leandebal Bonifácio; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2017-07-20

    To quantify the intensity adopted by walkers in public squares and check the occurrence and magnitude of post-exercise hypotension in the spontaneously adopted intensity and in a prescribed intensity. In 98 volunteers (38 of them being hypertensive), walkers in public squares of the city of João Pessoa, State of Paraíba, Brazil, we have identified the intensity of a usual training monitored by heart rate and we have investigated the occurrence and magnitude of post-exercise hypotension. Subsequently, participants were instructed to walk with moderate intensity. Blood pressure was measured after rest and during post-exercise recovery. Of the total participants, 41% of the hypertensive and 36% of the normotensive individuals walked with light intensity. With the prescription, intensity increased to 55% and 52%, for the hypertensive and normotensive individuals, respectively. In the usual and prescribed intensity, the hypertensive individuals had post-exercise hypotension of -3.7±11.6 mmHg and -4.72±12.8 mmHg, respectively. There was no correlation between post-exercise hypotension and the initial systolic component of the hypertensive individuals (r2 = 0.2; p < 0.002). Walkers in public squares choose light intensity for walking. When they exercise with the prescribed intensity, they increase the intensity, but the magnitude of the PEH is not increase with this guidance. Quantificar a intensidade adotada por caminhantes em praças públicas e verificar a ocorrência e a magnitude da hipotensão pós-exercício na intensidade espontaneamente adotada e em uma intensidade prescrita. Em 98 voluntários (38 hipertensos), caminhantes em praças públicas da cidade de João Pessoa, PB, identificamos a intensidade de um treino habitual monitorada por meio da frequência cardíaca e averiguamos a ocorrência e magnitude de hipotensão pós-exercício. Posteriormente, os participantes foram instruídos a caminhar com intensidade moderada. A pressão arterial foi aferida ap

  20. Request a Brown-Bag Check-Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... event when offered through your pharmacy, church or senior center. Resources Main Page ... | ISMP Brasil | International Group | Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite ...

  1. Formal caregivers of older adults: reflection about their practice

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Marina Picazzio Perez; Barros, Juliana de Oliveira; de Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani; Mângia, Elisabete Ferreira; Lancman, Selma

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults), Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers’ exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos. PMID:25372163

  2. A spatial approach for the epidemiology of antibiotic use and resistance in community-based studies: the emergence of urban clusters of Escherichia coli quinolone resistance in Sao Paulo, Brasil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Population antimicrobial use may influence resistance emergence. Resistance is an ecological phenomenon due to potential transmissibility. We investigated spatial and temporal patterns of ciprofloxacin (CIP) population consumption related to E. coli resistance emergence and dissemination in a major Brazilian city. A total of 4,372 urinary tract infection E. coli cases, with 723 CIP resistant, were identified in 2002 from two outpatient centres. Cases were address geocoded in a digital map. Raw CIP consumption data was transformed into usage density in DDDs by CIP selling points influence zones determination. A stochastic model coupled with a Geographical Information System was applied for relating resistance and usage density and for detecting city areas of high/low resistance risk. Results E. coli CIP resistant cluster emergence was detected and significantly related to usage density at a level of 5 to 9 CIP DDDs. There were clustered hot-spots and a significant global spatial variation in the residual resistance risk after allowing for usage density. Conclusions There were clustered hot-spots and a significant global spatial variation in the residual resistance risk after allowing for usage density. The usage density of 5-9 CIP DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants within the same influence zone was the resistance triggering level. This level led to E. coli resistance clustering, proving that individual resistance emergence and dissemination was affected by antimicrobial population consumption. PMID:21356088

  3. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  4. Policies for English Language Teacher Education in Brazil Today: Preliminary Remarks (Políticas para la formación de profesores de inglés en el Brasil de hoy: primeras aproximaciones)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gimenez, Telma; Ferreira, Aparecida de Jesus; Alves Basso, Rosângela Aparecida; Carvalho Cruvinel, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade Brazil has begun to tackle the educational challenges of a developing country with a young population. The scale of such a demand is a result of the social and cultural inequalities that have historically been existent. Recent official policies and programs have addressed this gap by promoting greater opportunities for teacher…

  5. Planificacion linguistica y constitucion de un bloque regional: El caso del Mercosur (Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uraguay) y de Chile (Language Planning and the Constitution of a Regional Bloc: The Case of Mercosur (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chareille, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    The common market of the South is a new linguistic and cultural area. The resurgence of innermost identities within member states proves that Mercosur identity can neither be universal nor specific. The outcome of this quest for identity will depend on the ability to carefully handle an area of cultural diversity and a place of common allegiance…

  6. Older adults abuse in three Brazilian cities.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Monteiro, Edilene Araújo; Santos, Ana Maria Ribeiro Dos; Pontes, Maria de Lourdes de Farias; Fhon, Jack Roberto Silva; Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Seredynskyj, Fernanda Laporti; Almeida, Vanessa Costa; Giacomini, Suelen Borelli Lima; Defina, Giovanna Partezani Cardoso; Silva, Luipa Michele

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence. Psychological abuse predominated and most cases occurred in the older adults own home. In the cities of Ribeirão Preto and João Pessoa, the older adults presented similar rates for both gender. Regarding the standardized rates, in João Pessoa, there was a rise of this type of abuse in the two first years, and later there was a certain stability. In the city of Teresina, there was an increase, also observed in the city of Ribeirão Preto in the three first years, followed by a decrease. Older adults abuse is a cultural phenomenon difficult to be reported by them, since it occurs in the family context. Analisar os boletins de ocorrência registrados por idosos que sofreram violência, a fim de identificar características sociodemográficas das vítimas e dos agressores, tipo de violência, local, bem como comparar as taxas em três municípios brasileiros no período de 2009 a 2013. Estudo ecológico, em que foram analisados 2.612 boletins de ocorrência registrados em Delegacias do Idoso. Utilizou-se um instrumento para obter dados da vítima, do agressor e tipo de violência. Predominou a violência psicológica, na maioria dos casos na própria residência do idoso. Em Ribeirão Preto e João Pessoa, os idosos mais jovens apresentaram taxas semelhantes entre ambos os sexos. Na comparação das taxas padronizadas, em João Pessoa, houve ascensão deste tipo de violência nos dois primeiros anos, e, posteriormente, certa estabilidade. Em Teresina, houve ascensão, também observada em Ribeirão Preto nos tr

  7. Nursing diagnosis in older adults with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Debone, Mayara Cristina; Pedruncci, Elisângela da Silva Nunes; Candido, Maristela do Carmo Peterossi; Marques, Sueli; Kusumota, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    To identify the main nursing diagnoses (NSs) in older adult patients under hemodialysis treatment. Exploratory research using case studies in data collection performed by interview and physical examination of older adults, in the first semester of 2016. Were included twenty-eight older adults undergoing chronic hemodialysis treatment who met the selection criteria. The analysis followed two steps (RISNER, 1990): Phase I - Data analysis and synthesis; and Phase II - Establishment of nursing diagnoses using the taxonomy of NANDA-I (2015). The total of NSs was 110, averaging 3.9 per patient. It was listed seven different NSs, and both the Risk of infection and the Volume of excessive liquids appeared on all patients (28; 100%), and risk of electrolyte imbalance, in 26 (96.8%) older adults, being considered as main NSs. Such results can help systematize the care of older people who are undergoing hemodialysis treatment. Identificar os principais diagnósticos de enfermagem (DEs) em pacientes idosos em tratamento hemodialítico. Pesquisa exploratória utilizando estudos de casos na coleta de dados realizada por entrevista e exame físico dos idosos, no primeiro semestre de 2016. Foram incluídos 28 idosos em tratamento crônico por hemodiálise que atenderam aos critérios de seleção. A análise seguiu duas etapas (RISNER, 1990): Fase I - Análise e síntese dos dados; e Fase II - Estabelecimento dos diagnósticos de enfermagem utilizando a taxonomia da NANDA-I (2015). O total de DEs foi de 110, com média de 3,9 por paciente. Foram elencados sete DEs diferentes, sendo que tanto o Risco de infecção quanto o Volume de líquidos excessivo apareceram em todos os pacientes (28; 100%), e Risco de desequilíbrio eletrolítico, em 26 (96,8%) idosos, sendo considerados como principais DEs. Tais resultados podem colaborar na sistematização da assistência do idoso em tratamento hemodialítico.

  8. Fear of falling in older adults living at home: associated factors.

    PubMed

    Vitorino, Luciano Magalhães; Teixeira, Carla Araujo Bastos; Boas, Eliandra Laís Vilas; Pereira, Rúbia Lopes; Santos, Naiana Oliveira Dos; Rozendo, Célia Alves

    2017-04-10

    To identify the factors associated with the fear of falling in the older adultliving at home. Cross-sectional study with probabilistic sampling of older adultenrolled in two Family Health Strategies (FHS). The fear of falling was measured by the Brazilian version of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International and by a household questionnairethat contained the explanatory variables. Multiple Linear Regression using the stepwise selection technique and the Generalized Linear Models were used in the statistical analyses. A total of170 older adultsparticipated in the research, 85 from each FHS. The majority (57.1%) aged between 60 and 69; 67.6% were female; 46.1% fell once in the last year. The majority of the older adults(66.5%) had highfear of falling. In the final multiple linear regression model, it was identified that a higher number of previous falls, female gender, older age, and worse health self-assessment explained 37% of the fear of falling among the older adult. The findings reinforce the need to assess the fear of falling among the older adultliving at home, in conjunction with the development and use ofstrategies based on modifiable factors by professionalsto reduce falls and improve health status, which may contribute to the reduction of the fear of falling among the older adult. Identificar os fatores associados ao medo de cair em idosos residentes no domicílio. Estudo transversal com amostragem probabilística de idosos cadastrados em duas Estratégias Saúde da Família (ESF). O medo de cair foi avaliado pela versão brasileira da escala Falls Efficacy Scale International e por um inquérito domiciliar que continha as variáveis explicativas.A Regressão Linear Múltipla por meio da técnica stepwise selectione osModelos Lineares Generalizados foram utilizados nas análises estatísticas. Participaram da pesquisa170 idosos, 85 de cada ESF. A maioria (57,1%) tinha entre 60 e 69 anos de idade; 67,6% eram do sexo feminino; 46,1% tiveram queda no último ano

  9. Potentially inappropriate medications among older adults in Pelotas, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Bárbara Heather; Miranda, Vanessa Irribarem Avena; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2017-06-22

    To assess the use of potentially inappropriate medications among older adults. This is a population-based cross-sectional study with 1,451 older individuals aged 60 years or more in the city of Pelotas, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2014. We have investigated the use of medications in the last 15 days. Using the Beers criteria (2012), we have verified the use of potentially inappropriate medications and their relationship with socioeconomic and demographic variables, polypharmacy, self-medication, and burden of disease. Among the 5,700 medications used, 5,651 could be assessed as to being inappropriate. Of these, 937 were potentially inappropriate for the older adults according to the 2012 Beers criteria (16.6%). Approximately 42.4% of the older adults studied used at least one medication considered as potentially inappropriate. The group of medications for the nervous system accounted for 48.9% of the total of the potentially inappropriate medications. In the adjusted analysis, the variables female, advanced age, white race, low educational level, polypharmacy, self-medication, and burden of disease were associated with the use of potentially inappropriate medications. It is important to known the possible consequences of the use of medication among older adults. Special attention should be given to the older adults who use polypharmacy. Specific lists should be created with more appropriate medications for the older population in the National Essential Medicine List. Avaliar o uso de medicamentos potencialmente inadequados entre idosos. Estudo transversal de base populacional com 1.451 idosos com 60 anos ou mais em Pelotas, RS, em 2014. Investigou-se o uso de medicamentos nos últimos 15 dias. Utilizando os critérios de Beers (2012), verificou-se a potencial inadequação dos medicamentos e sua relação com variáveis socioeconômicas e demográficas, polifarmácia, automedicação e carga de doença. Dentre os 5.700 medicamentos utilizados, 5

  10. [Achievement of physical activity healthy guidelines in hypertensive adults].

    PubMed

    Romero Blanco, Cristina; Villalvilla Soria, Diego José; Cabanillas Cruz, Esther; Laguna Nieto, María; Aznar Laín, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Parece necesario educar a los pacientes en la importancia de realizar AF para mejorar su salud, y específicamente, sobre las implicaciones que la intensidad de la AF tiene para la salud. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar si se cumplían las recomendaciones de actividad física (AF) para la salud en un grupo de pacientes hipertensos controlados de dos centros de atención primaria: La Estación y La Algodonera, situados en Talavera de la Reina (Toledo). Métodos: Diseño: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Emplazamiento: Centros de atención primaria “La Estación” y “La Algodonera”, situados en Talavera de la Reina. Participantes: Un total de 80 pacientes hipertensos controlados de 40 a 60 años que cumplían los criterios de inclusión, fueron invitados a formar parte en el estudio, de los cuales fueron analizados los resultados válidos de 52 pacientes. Mediciones principales: Se cuantificó la actividad física diaria con acelerometría, obteniéndose los minutos de AF a intensidad de moderada a vigorosa (AFMV) y de actividad ligera, y el número de pasos. Los datos se presentaron diferenciando los días laborables y los días festivos. Resultados: Sólo un 59,6 % de los sujetos de la muestra cumplía la recomendación de realizar un mínimo de 30 minutos de AF de intensidad de moderada a vigorosa al día para la mejora de la salud. Los hombres realizaron significativamente más minutos de AFMV en los días festivos que las mujeres, y solamente las mujeres, mostraron diferencias significativas en los minutos de AFMV entre en los días laborables respecto a los festivos. Conclusiones: El 59,6% de los pacientes hipertensos controlados de esta muestra cumplían con las recomendaciones mínimas de AF para la salud; el resto debería incrementar su AF para cumplir las recomendaciones y con ello mejorar sus niveles de tensión arterial.

  11. Association of systolic dysfunction with left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Piskorz, Daniel; Bongarzoni, Laureano; Citta, Luciano; Citta, Norberto; Citta, Paula; Keller, Luis; Tommasi, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    ntroducción: La presencia de disfunción sistólica no ha sido reconocida en pacientes (p) hipertensos. Objetivos: El objetivo del presente estudio es demostrar que los p hipertensos con hipertrofia ventricular izquierda (HVI) presentan disfunción sistólica, y que ella se incrementa cuando se asocia a disfunción diastólica (DD). Material y métodos: estudio observacional de corte transversal con la muestra recolectada en forma prospectiva de acuerdo a criterios de inclusión y exclusión preestablecidos. La función ventricular izquierda fue evaluada por ecocardiografía convencional, Doppler del orificio valvular mitral y Doppler tisular siguiendo las normativas internacionales. Los p fueron divididos en cuatro grupos de acuerdo a la presencia o ausencia de HVI y DD. Análisis estadístico: test t de students y test de ANOVA, significación estadística <0,05. Resultados: se incluyeron 292 p, 130 p (51 %) HVI- DD-; 36 p (5,9 %) HVI- DD+; 87 p (37,6 %) HVI+ DD-; y 39 p (5,5 %) HVI+ DD+. Los p con DD fueron de mayor edad, más frecuentemente mujeres, y su PA sistólica y presión aórtica central estaban más elevados. La velocidad de acortamiento longitudinal de las fibras miocárdicas, medida como onda s con Doppler tisular fue 6,3 +1,1 cm/seg en p HVI+ DD+, 7,2+1,3 cm/seg en p HVI+ DD-, 6,8+1,2 cm/seg en p HVI- DD+, y 7,8+0,6 cm/seg en p HVI- DD- (<0,005). Conclusiones: los p hipertensos presentan disfunción sistólica cuando la HVI está presente y es mayor cuando se asocia a DD.

  12. Chronic and asymptomatic diseases influence the control of hypertension treatment in primary care.

    PubMed

    Pierin, Angela Maria Geraldo; Silva, Stael Silvana Bagno Eleutério da; Colósimo, Flávia Cortez; Toma, Gabriela de Andrade; Serafim, Talita de Souza; Meneghin, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    To identify the association between blood pressure control and the following variables: a) bio-social and lifestyle characteristics of hypertensive patients; and b) factors related to the antihypertensive treatment. This is an exploratory study with 290 people with hypertension from primary care. We used a specific instrument, self-administered, with 21 questions on factors that can hinder treatment, divided into four dimensions: medication, socioeconomic, institutional and personal beliefs. We adopted a significance level of p <0.05. The control of blood pressure was associated (p <0.05) with female gender, Caucasian ethnicity, primary/secondary education, not drinking alcohol, higher income and regular physical activity. Regarding the factors that can hinder treatment, there was association of hypertension control with only two questions: "feel nothing" and "have to do treatment for life". Sociodemographic variables and beliefs concerning the absence of symptoms and chronicity of the disease influenced the control of hypertension and should be considered in the adherence process to the treatment. Identificar a associação entre o controle da pressão arterial e as seguintes variáveis: a) características biossociais e hábitos de vida dos hipertensos; e b) fatores relacionados ao tratamento anti-hipertensivo. Realizou-se estudo exploratório com 290 hipertensos da atenção primária. Utilizou-se de instrumento específico, autoaplicável, com 21 questões sobre fatores que podem dificultar o tratamento, divididas em quatro domínios: medicamentos, socioeconômico, institucional e crenças pessoais. Adotou-se nível de significância de p < 0,05. O controle da pressão arterial se associou (p < 0,05) com sexo feminino, etnia branca, ensino fundamental/médio, não ingerir bebida alcoólica, maior renda e atividade física regular. Quanto aos fatores que podem dificultar o tratamento, houve associação do controle com apenas duas questões: "não sentir nada" e

  13. [PRAdA intervention: effects on weight of dietary intervention among treated hypertensive Portuguese natives and African immigrants].

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Catarina; Carrilho, Gisela; Alarcão, Violeta; Guerra, Filipa; Simões, Rui; Fernandes, Milene; Nicola, Paulo; Guiomar, Sofia; Nogueira, Paulo; Rocha, Evangelista

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Perdas de peso melhoram o controlo da tensão arterial em indivíduos hipertensos. As intervenções comportamentais para a perda de peso parecem ser menos eficazes nos imigrantes de origem africana (IOA). Os principais objetivos foram avaliar os efeitos no peso de uma intervenção alimentar em hipertensos nativos de origem portugueses (NOP) e IOA; identificar fatores de sucesso na perda de peso; avaliar a evolução dos conhecimentos e adesão às recomendações alimentares. Material e Métodos: Foram selecionados aleatoriamente hipertensos medicados seguidos nos cuidados de saúde primários para um estudo de duas fases, observacional (15 meses) e de intervenção comportamental (seis meses). Os participantes foram divididos em dois grupos: IOA e NOP. Foram dadas recomendações alimentares e de estilos de vida em sessões individuais presenciais e telefónicas. Resultados: Dos 110 participantes, com IMC médio de 31,6 ± 3,7 kg/m2 e idade média 61,3 ± 10,0 anos, 60 eram imigrantes. Durante a intervenção os NOP perderam 1,4 ± 2,7% do peso e os IOA 0,8 ± 3,6%, sendo a perda superior comparativamente com a fase observacional. Ser do sexo masculino e consumir pelo menos duas porções de lacticínios magros por dia associou-se a maior perda de peso durante a intervenção, independentemente da idade e origem. Houve um aumento significativo no número de recomendações dietéticas conhecidas e cumpridas, com os NOP a cumprirem em média mais recomendações. Discussão: A intervenção foi bem sucedida relativamente à perda de peso, especialmente no grupo dos NOP, confirmando outros estudos. Conclusão: A intervenção aumentou os conhecimentos e adesão às recomendações, realçando a pertinência da educação alimentar, culturalmente adaptada, nos cuidados de saúde primários.

  14. Effect of alpha lipoic acid on the blood cell count and iron kinetics in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Paula Renata Florêncio; Félix, Danielle dos Santos; Silva, Paulo César Dantas da; Pereira, Guêdijany Henrique; Simões, Mônica Oliveira da Silva

    2014-11-03

    Introducción: El Ácido -Lipóico (ALA) ha sido utilizado como recurso terapéutico para reducir daño oxidativo en la Hipertensión Arterial Sistémica (HAS), pero aún no existen estudios in vivo que reporten sobre su mecanismo de acción en el metabolismo del hierro. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto antioxidante del ácido Alfa- Lipóico sobre el hemograma y metabolismo del hierro en individuos hipertensos con o sin anemia. Métodos: Estudio clínico doble-ciego, randomizado y controlado con placebo. La muestra fue constituida por 60 individuos hipertensos, distribuidos aleatoriamente en grupo tratamiento (n = 32), que recibió 600 mg/día del ALA por doce semanas y grupo control (n = 28), que recibió el placebo por el mismo período. Fueron analizados antes y después de la intervención, los parámetros del hemograma, Hierro Sérico, Ferritina, Capacidad Latente de Enlace del hierro, Capacidad Total de Enlace del Hierro, Índice de Saturación de la Transferrina (ISI) y Transferrina. Para evaluar las alteraciones entre los grupos, se utilizó el teste t de Student y el análisis de varianza ANOVA, adoptándose el nivel de significación de 5%. Resultados: Después de la intervención, el suplemento con el ALA demostró una asociación estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,05) con la reducción de los leucocitos totales, aumento del número de neutrófilos y reducciones en los niveles de Hierro Sérico e ISI. Conclusión: La administración oral del ALA como un adyuvante terapéutico, altera la respuesta hematológica del leucograma y reduce la absorción del hierro. Cabe senãlar que el mecanismo de quelación de metales por el ácido lipoico puede ser responsable de estos cambios y, en consecuencia, podría desencadenar una condicion de anemia ferropénica en individuos hipertensos.

  15. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-18

    2004. 23 Ricard Henriques, “ Desigualdade racial no Brasil,” Brasilia: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA), 2001. 24 “Economic Survey of...U.S. Policy, by Clare Ribando Seelke. 61 Ricard Henriques, “ Desigualdade racial no Brasil,” Brasilia: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA

  16. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-06

    Latin America Regional Report, December 21, 2004. 21 Ricard Henriques, “ Desigualdade racial no Brasil,” Brasilia: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica...Ricard Henriques, “ Desigualdade racial no Brasil,” Brasilia: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA), 2001 61 Livio Sansone, “Anti-Racism in Brazil

  17. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-05

    Land Report Dilemma,” Latin America Regional Report, December 21, 2004. 28 Ricardo Henriques, “ Desigualdade racial no Brasil,” Brasilia: Instituto...Clare Ribando Seelke and June S. Beittel. 106 Ricard Henriques, “ Desigualdade racial no Brasil,” Brasilia: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada

  18. Orbit Connections in a Parabolic Equation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    Departamento de Matematica , 13560, Slo Carlos, S.P. Brasil. This research has been supported in part by CAPES-qoordena~io de Aperfeiqoamento de Pessoal...de Nivel Superior , Brasilia, D.F., Brasil under contract Proc. #3056/78. 1k ORBIT CONNECTIONS IN A PARABOLIC EQUATION by Jack K. Hale and Arnaldo S

  19. Hypertension in patients admitted to clinical units at university hospital: post-discharge evaluation rated by telephone.

    PubMed

    Campos, Cássia Lima de; Pierin, Angela Maria Geraldo; Pinho, Natalia Alencar de

    2017-01-01

    To characterize hypertensive patients after admission to hospital considering the current status, compliance to treatment, habits and lifestyle, and knowledge and beliefs about the disease. This was an exploratory study with 265 hypertensive patients admitted to a medical inpatients unit of a university hospital. Data were collected in an interview over the telephone. The level of significance was set as p<0.05. It was found that 32% of hypertensive patients had died. One hundred patients were interviewed, mean age of 64.15 (13.2) years, 51% were women, 56% non-white, 51% with primary education, 52% were retired, 13% were smokers, 38% used alcohol, 80% did not perform physical exercise, and the mean body mass index was 35.9 (15.5) kg/m2. The comorbidities were heart problem (52%), diabetes (49%) and stroke (25%). As to antihypertensive treatment, 75% were on use, 17.3% stopped taking them and 21.3% missed visits. The treatment sites were the primary care unit (49%) and hospital (36%). As for knowledge and beliefs, 25% believed hypertension is curable, 77% that treatment should last for the rest of their lives, and hypertension brings complications (84%). A total of 46.7% were controlled. The lack of control was associated (p<0.05) with non-white ethnicity and absence of heart problems. There were significant deaths occurred after hospitalization and poor control of blood pressure, probably due to inadequate habits and lifestyles and non-compliance to antihypertensive treatment. Caracterizar hipertensos após internação quanto a condição atual, adesão ao tratamento, hábitos e estilos de vida, e conhecimento e crenças sobre a doença. Estudo exploratório, com 265 hipertensos, após internação em clínica médica de hospital universitário. Os dados foram coletados em entrevista por contato telefônico. O nível de significância foi de p<0,05. Verificou-se que 32% dos pacientes faleceram. Foram entrevistados 100 hipertensos, com média de idade de 64,15 (13

  20. Free access to medicines for the treatment of chronic diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Costa, Karen Sarmento; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2016-12-01

    considerable portion of the Brazilian population, especially for the poorest ones, indicating decreased socioeconomic inequalities, but with differences between regions and between some classes of medicines. Analisar o acesso gratuito ao tratamento medicamentoso para doenças crônicas na população brasileira, segundo fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos. Analisaram-se também os grupos farmacológicos mais utilizados, segundo fonte de financiamento: gratuito ou pago do próprio bolso. Análise de dados oriundos da Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM), inquérito domiciliar de base populacional, de delineamento transversal, baseado em amostra probabilística da população brasileira. O desfecho analisado foi a prevalência de acesso gratuito (sem pagamento) a todos os medicamentos para tratamento das doenças crônicas referidas, nos últimos 30 dias. As variáveis independentes investigadas foram: sexo, faixa etária, escolaridade em anos completos de estudo, classe econômica, plano de saúde e região geográfica de residência. Foram estimadas as prevalências e calculados intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%) e aplicado o teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson para avaliação das diferenças entre os grupos, considerando nível de significância de 5%. Cerca de metade dos adultos e idosos que tiveram acesso total ao tratamento de doenças crônicas no Brasil obtiveram todos os medicamentos que necessitavam gratuitamente (47,5%; IC95% 45,1-50,0). As prevalências de acesso gratuito foram maiores entre os homens (51,4%; IC95% 48,1-54,8), na faixa etária de 40-59 anos (51,1%; IC95% 48,1-54,2) e nas classes sociais mais pobres (53,9%; IC95% 50,2-57,7). Grande parte dos medicamentos que atuam no sistema cardiovascular, como os diuréticos (C03) (78,0%; IC95% 75,2-80,5), betabloqueadores (C07) (62,7%; IC95% 59,4-65,8) e os agentes que atuam no sistema renina-angiotensina (C09) (73,4%; IC95% 70,8-75,8) foram obtidos

  1. Applicability of the Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Patients with Diabetes in Brazilian elderly.

    PubMed

    Souza, Jonas Gordilho; Apolinario, Daniel; Farfel, José Marcelo; Jaluul, Omar; Magaldi, Regina Miksian; Busse, Alexandre Leopold; Campora, Flávia; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2016-01-01

    To translate, adapt and evaluate the properties of a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Patients with Diabetes, which is a questionnaire that evaluate diabetes knowledge. A cross-sectional study with type 2 diabetes patients aged ≥60 years, seen at a public healthcare organization in the city of Sao Paulo (SP). After the development of the Portuguese version, we evaluated the psychometrics properties and the association with sociodemographic and clinical variables. The regression models were adjusted for sociodemographic data, functional health literacy, duration of disease, use of insulin, and glycemic control. We evaluated 129 type 2 diabetic patients, with mean age of 75.9 (±6.2) years, mean scholling of 5.2 (±4.4) years, mean glycosylated hemoglobin of 7.2% (±1.4), and mean score on Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Patients with Diabetes of 42.1% (±25.8). In the regression model, the variables independently associated to Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Patients with Diabetes were schooling (B=0.193; p=0.003), use of insulin (B=1.326; p=0.004), duration of diabetes (B=0.053; p=0.022) and health literacy (B=0.108; p=0.021). The determination coefficient was 0.273. The Cronbach a was 0.75, demonstrating appropriate internal consistency. This translated version of the Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Patients with Diabetes showed to be adequate to evaluate diabetes knowledge in elderly patients with low schooling levels. It presented normal distribution, adequate internal consistency, with no ceiling or floor effect. The tool is easy to be used, can be quickly applied and does not depend on reading skills. Traduzir, adaptar e avaliar as propriedades de uma versão, em português do Brasil, do Spoken Knowledge in Low Literacy Patients with Diabetes, um questionário que avalia conhecimento em diabetes. Estudo transversal, em diabéticos tipo 2, com idade ≥60 anos de uma instituição pública de saúde, em São Paulo (SP

  2. Proportional Mortality due to Heart Failure and Ischemic Heart Diseases in the Brazilian Regions from 2004 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Gaui, Eduardo Nagib; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes de

    2016-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) and ischemic heart diseases (IHD) are important causes of death in Brazil. To assess proportional mortality (PM) due to HF and IHD as underlying causes stratified by sex and age groups in the Brazilian geoeconomic regions from 2004 to 2011. Data from death certificates were obtained in the DATASUS site under the following International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes, 10th Revision: 1) from chapter IX: I20 to I24 for acute IHD, I25 for chronic IHD, and I50 for HF; and 2) from chapter XVIII, for ill-defined causes (IDC). Proportional mortality due to HF increased with age in both sexes and all regions, the highest percentages being found among elderly women. Among men, the highest percentages were observed in the West-Central region up to the ninth decade, but, among the eldest individuals, the highest percentages were identified in the Southern region. Among women, the regions did not differ up to the age group of 70-79 years, although the West-Central region took the lead from 50 to 79 years; however, from the age of 80 years on, the Southern region showed the highest PM due to HF. Proportional mortality due to acute IHD in all Brazilian regions and in both sexes increased up to the age group of 60-69 years, from which it decreased. Among men, the Southeastern region had the highest percentages in the age group of 50-59 years, while women had lower PM due to acute IHD than men in all regions. In both sexes, PM due to chronic IHD increased with age in the Southern and Southeastern regions, which did not happen in the others, while the Southern region had the highest rate of all regions for all age groups. Regional differences were more prominent at more advanced ages, especially when deaths due to IDC were excluded. Insuficiência cardíaca (IC) e doenças isquêmicas do coração (DIC) são importantes causas de morte no Brasil. Avaliar a mortalidade proporcional (MP) por IC e DIC, como causas b

  3. Assessment of Carotid Intima-Media Thickness as an Early Marker Of Vascular Damage In Hypertensive Children.

    PubMed

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Baroncini, Camila Varotto; Pecoits, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    The increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) correlates with the presence of atherosclerosis in adults and describes vascular abnormalities in both hypertensive children and adolescents. To assess CIMT as an early marker of atherosclerosis and vascular damage in hypertensive children and adolescents compared with non-hypertensive controls and to evaluate the influence of gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) on CIMT on each group. Observational cohort study. A total of 133 hypertensive subjects (male, n = 69; mean age, 10.5 ± 4 years) underwent carotid ultrasound exam for assessment of CIMT. One hundred and twenty-one non-hypertensive subjects (male, n = 64; mean age, 9.8 ± 4.1 years) were selected as controls for gender, age (± 1 year), and BMI (± 10%). There were no significant difference regarding gender (p = 0.954) and age (p = 0.067) between groups. Hypertensive subjects had higher BMI when compared to control group (p = 0.004), although within the established range of 10%. Subjects in the hypertensive group had higher CIMT values when compared to control group (0.46 ± 0.05 versus 0.42 ± 0.05 mm, respectively, p < 0.001; one-way ANOVA). Carotid IMT values were not significantly influenced by gender, age, and BMI when analyzed in both groups separately (Student's t-test for independent samples). According to the adjusted determination coefficient (R²) only 11.7% of CIMT variations were accounted for by group variations, including age, gender, and BMI. Carotid intima-media thickness was higher in hypertensive children and adolescents when compared to the control group. The presence of hypertension increased CIMT regardless of age, gender, and BMI. O aumento da espessura médio-intimal carotídea (EMIC) correlaciona-se com a presença de aterosclerose em adultos e descreve anormalidades vasculares em crianças e adolescentes hipertensos. Avaliar a EMIC como marcador precoce de aterosclerose e dano vascular em crianças e adolescentes hipertensos em

  4. Health education with older adults: action research with primary care professionals.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Francielle Toniolo Nicodemos Furtado de; Santos, Álvaro da Silva; Buso, Ana Luisa Zanardo; Malaquias, Bruna Stephanie Sousa

    2017-01-01

    To assess the development and implementation of permanent education action. Quantitative-qualitative research based on action research in three phases (diagnosis of reality, implementation of activity and evaluation), performed with health professionals and managers of basic health units. The evaluation was on the perception of changes immediately following the activity and after 120 days. In the first phase, 110 professionals took part, 36.4% of whom indicated the existence of groups for older adults at work. In the second phase, 98 professionals participated, pointing out interferences of the group in the life of older adults, items of importance and facilitation in forming groups and developing reality-based activities. The third phase showed, in the quantitative analysis, positive impact of the training, and in the qualitative analysis, reassessment of groups, greater knowledge and confidence in managing groups and increased respect for older adults. Permanent education opens pathways for the construction of differentiated care for older adults based on respect and health promotion. Avaliar o desenvolvimento e implementação de uma ação de educação permanente. Pesquisa quantitativo-qualitativa baseada na pesquisa-ação em 3 fases (diagnóstico da realidade, implementação de atividade e avaliação), realizada com profissionais de saúde e gerentes de unidades básicas. A avaliação se deu pela percepção de mudanças imediatamente à atividade e após 120 dias. Na 1ª fase, participaram 110 profissionais, dos quais 36,4% apontaram a existência de grupos para idosos no trabalho. Na 2ª fase, participaram 98 profissionais, que apontaram interferências do grupo na vida do idoso, itens de importância e facilitação para construção de grupos e atividade baseada na realidade. A 3ª fase mostrou, na análise quantitativa, impacto positivo do treinamento; e, na qualitativa, releitura dos grupos e manejo com mais conhecimento, segurança e respeito ao

  5. Spiritual well-being and quality of life of older adults in hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Pilger, Calíope; Santos, Renata Ohana Pereira Dos; Lentsck, Maicon Henrique; Marques, Sueli; Kusumota, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between spiritual well-being, sociodemographic, economic, religious, and health variables and the quality of life of older adults undergoing hemodialysis. This was a cross-sectional and correlational study conducted with 169 older adults undergoing hemodialysis. The researchers conducted interviews to collect sociodemographic, economic, religious, and health data and applied the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS) and the WHO quality of life assessment (WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD). Most of the older adults attained a moderate level of total spiritual well-being (SWB). In terms of QOL, the psychological domain (66.8; sd=13.9) and social relationships domain (66.8; sd=15.1) presented the highest mean scores. The WHOQOL-BREF domains were positively correlated with the SWB scale, with statistical significance among all domains and subscales except the environmental domain. The QOL of older adults was associated with the construct of SWB, either positively or negatively. Analisar a relação entre o bem-estar espiritual, variáveis sociodemográficas, econômicas, religiosas e de saúde com a qualidade de vida de idosos em tratamento hemodialítico. Estudo transversal e correlacional feito com 169 idosos que realizavam hemodiálise. Foram realizadas entrevistas para caracterização sociodemográfica, econômica, religiosa e de saúde, além de aplicação da Escala de Bem-Estar Espiritual (EBE) e de Qualidade de vida (QV) (WHOQOL- bref e WHOQOL - Old). A maioria dos idosos possuía moderado bem-estar espiritual total (EBE). Com relação à QV, os domínios psicológico (66,8; dp=13,9) e relações sociais (66,8; dp=15,1) apresentaram os maiores escores médios. A correlação dos domínios do WHOQOL- bref com os escores da escala de EBE foi positiva, com significância estatística em todos os domínios e nas subescalas, exceto no domínio meio ambiente. A QV dos idosos está relacionada, seja de forma positiva ou negativa, com o constructo

  6. Deaths among the elderly with ICU infections.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Álvaro Francisco Lopes de; Queiroz, Artur Acelino Francisco Luz Nunes; Oliveira, Layze Braz de; Moura, Luana Kelle Batista; Andrade, Denise de; Watanabe, Evandro; Moura, Maria Eliete Batista

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate the clinical outcome of elderly patients admitted to intensive care units who had nosocomial infection, correlating the findings with sociodemographic and clinical variables. descriptive research, performed with 308 elderly patients. The collection was made from medical records and covers the years 2012 to 2015. Uni-/bivariate analyses were performed. a statistical association was found between the clinical outcome types and the variables age, length of stay, presence of previous comorbidities, main diagnosis, respiratory and urinary tract infections, use of central venous and indwelling urinary catheters, mechanical ventilation, and tracheostomy. The survival curve showed higher mortality among the elderly from the age of 80 on. the clinical outcome of the elderly who acquire infection in the intensive care unit is influenced by sociodemographic and clinical variables that increase mortality rates. avaliar o desfecho clínico de idosos que adquiriram infecção hospitalar hospitalizados em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva, correlacionando os achados com variáveis sociodemográficas e clinicas. pesquisa descritiva, realizada com 308 pacientes idosos. A coleta deu-se em prontuários e contempla os anos de 2012 a 2015. Realizaram-se análises uni-/bivariadas. registrou-se associação estatística entre os tipos de desfechos clínicos e as variáveis: faixa etária, tempo de internação, presença de comorbidades prévias, diagnóstico principal, infecção do trato respiratório e urinário, uso de cateteres vesical de demora e venoso central, ventilação mecânica e traqueostomia. A curva de sobrevivência evidenciou maior mortalidade entre idosos a partir de 80 anos. o desfecho clínico de idosos que adquirem infecção na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva é influenciado por variáveis sociodemográficas e clínicas, que incrementam as taxas de mortalidade.

  7. Elder-friendly emergency services in Brazil: necessary conditions for care.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mariana Timmers Dos; Lima, Maria Alice Dias da Silva; Zucatti, Paula Buchs

    2016-01-01

    To identify and analyze the aspects necessary to provide an elder-friendly emergency service (ES) from the perspective of nurses. This is a descriptive, quantitative study using the Delphi technique in three rounds. Nurses with professional experience in the ES and/or researchers with publications and/or conducting research in the study area were selected. The first round of the Delphi panel had 72 participants, the second 49, and the third 44. An online questionnaire was used based on a review of the scientific literature with questions organized into the central dimensions of elder-friendly hospitals. A five-point Likert scale was used for each question and a 70% consensus level was established. There were 38 aspects identified as necessary for elderly care that were organized into central dimensions. The study's results are consistent with the findings in scientific literature and suggest indicators for quality of care and training for an elder-friendly ES. Identificar e analisar aspectos necessários para um atendimento amigo do idoso nos serviços de emergência (SE), na perspectiva de enfermeiros. Estudo descritivo, quantitativo, com utilização da Técnica Delphi, em três rodadas. Foram selecionados enfermeiros com experiência profissional em SE e/ou pesquisadores com publicações e/ou desenvolvendo pesquisas na área de estudo. A primeira rodada do painel Delphi contou com 72 participantes, a segunda com 49 e a terceira com 44. Foi utilizado questionário on-line, baseado na revisão da literatura científica, com questões organizadas em dimensões centrais de hospitais amigos do idoso. Foi utilizada uma escala de Likert de 5 pontos para cada questão e estabelecido nível de consenso de 70%. Foram identificados 38 aspectos necessários para o atendimento ao idoso, organizados em dimensões centrais. Os resultados do estudo são consistentes com os achados na literatura científica e sugerem indicadores para qualidade do cuidado e para formação de SE

  8. La Leche League International

    MedlinePlus

    ... support: Choose a Country... Algeria (Arabic, French) Argentina (Spanish) Australia (English) Austria, La Leche Liga Österreich (German) ... Dutch) Belgium (French, German, English) Bermuda (English) Bolivia (Spanish) Brasil (English, Portuguese) Bulgaria (Bulgarian) Canada (English) Canada ( ...

  9. Brazilian Arms Production: Partial Dependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    supported by the government, which actively created state enterprises such as Banco do Brasil , Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (the state-owned steel...slate holding company Industria do Material Belico do Brasil (IMBEL) was formed to manage Brazil’s war materiel production factories and to formulate...34 Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS)-Latin America Daily Report (18 July 1988), 24. 12- Bernardini SA. Industria e Comercio , Brazil’s second

  10. Developing a Partnership with Brazil - An Emerging Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Cultura e Opulência do Brasil ” (1711) was one of those who set the path of national pride, emphasizing the nation’s natural majesty and greatness. After...December 2003. See also Andres Cisneros, “ Un paso adelante con la relacion con Brasil ,” La Nacion, 29 December 2003; available from <http...and actually produced some arbitration contrary to its interests. 56 Ibid., 91. 57 “ Comercio I: Miami Produce un ALCA “Flexible,” Informe

  11. Chemotherapeutic Studies on Schistosomiasis and Clinical, Epidemiological and Immunological Studies on Malaria in Amazonas, Brazil, along the Ituxi River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    enfermedades infecciosas en zonas colindantes con la Carretera Transamazonica en Brasil. II. Epidemiologia de las infecciones por arbovirus. Bol. Of...F.P. 1981. Programa multidisciplinario de vigilancia de las enfermedades , infecciosas en zonas colindantes con la Carretera Transamazonica en Brasil...enferme, ades infecciosas en zonas colindantes con la Carretera Transamazonica en Brazil. IV. Estudio entomologico. Bol. Of. Sanit. Panam. 91(5): 379-399

  12. Real Time Programming of a Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    results displayed on the screen. In despite o[ the manual reset of the integrators the test was a success, that is, the values of CS (analog double...Department ot Mechanical Engineering Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943 9. Cpt. Paulo Roberto de Souza 2 Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial - IAE - ESB...12225 - S. Jose dos Campos - SP - Brasil 10. Diretor do Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial 1 Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial 12225 - S. Jose dos Campos - SP - Brasil

  13. International Symposium on Polymer Electrolytes (3rd) Held in Annecy, France on June 17-21, 1991. Extended Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    Quimidca - Universidade. federal de. Sao Carlos - B~rasil. 2 - Instituto de Fisica e Quimica de Sao Carlos - BrasiL. SOLID STATE ELECTROCHROMIC DISPLAY...odense, Denaxk EFFECT OF PL4SrICIZERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF A NEW AMBIENT TEMPERATURE POLYMER ELECTROLYTE 4 page: 119 13 D. rDAmIL 1 ,. nGALTHIER2...and evaporating the solvents first at ambient temperature and finally under reduced pressure at 500 C for at least 48 hrs. The complexes were

  14. Brazilian Participation in World War II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-15

    Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial (Brazil in War World II): In order to have personnel to perform the jobs of company commanders, it was necessary to...Branco, 136. 18Octavio Costa, Trinta Anos Depois da Volta. O Brasil na Segunda Guerra Mundial (Rio de Janeiro: Bibliex, 1976), 30. 46 19McCann...na Segunda Guerra Mundial . Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do Exército Editora, 1976. Dulles, John W. F. Vargas of Brazil: A Political Biography. Austin

  15. Ruthenium Complex Improves the Endothelial Function in Aortic Rings From Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Vatanabe, Izabela Pereira; Rodrigues, Carla Nascimento Dos Santos; Buzinari, Tereza Cristina; Moraes, Thiago Francisco de; Silva, Roberto Santana da; Rodrigues, Gerson Jhonatan

    2017-06-29

    )] (PF6) 2 (BPY) melhora a função endotelial e a sensibilidade da condutância (aorta) e da resistência (coronária) ao relaxamento vascular induzido por BPY. Foram utilizados ratos Wistar normotensos (2K) e hipertensos (2K-1C). Para o estudo de reatividade vascular, as aortas torácicas foram isoladas, os anéis com endotélio intacto foram incubados com: BPY (0,01 a 10 µM) e se realizaram curvas de efeito de concentração para acetilcolina. Adicionalmente, foram feitas curvas de concentração cumulativas para BPY (1,0 nM a 0,1 µM) nos anéis aórticos e coronários, com endotélio intacto e nu. Na aorta de animais 2K-1C, o tratamento com BPY 0,1 µM aumentou a potência do relaxamento induzido pela acetilcolina e foi capaz de reverter a disfunção endotelial. A presença do endotélio não modificou o efeito da BPY na indução do relaxamento em aortas de ratos 2K e 2K-1C. Na coronária, o endotélio potencializou o efeito vasodilatador do BPY em vasos de ratos 2K e 2K-1C. Nossos resultados sugerem que 0,1 µM de BPY é capaz de normalizar o relaxamento dependente do endotélio em ratos hipertensos, e o composto BPY induz relaxamento na aorta de ratos normotensos e hipertensos com a mesma potência. O endotélio potencializa o efeito de relaxamento induzido pela BPY em coronárias de ratos normotensos e hipertensos, com menor efeito em coronárias de ratos hipertensos.

  16. MCP-1 Levels are Associated with Cardiac Remodeling but not with Resistant Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alessandra Mileni Versuti; Faria, Ana Paula Cabral de; Sabbatini, Andrea; Corrêa, Nathalia Batista; Brunelli, Veridiana; Modolo, Rodrigo; Moreno, Heitor

    2017-04-01

    ão arterial e complicações cardiovasculares; porém, os mecanismos envolvidos são complexos e ainda não foram inteiramente elucidados. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os níveis de MCP-1 em pacientes com hipertensão resistente (HR) versus pacientes com hipertensão de grau leve a moderado (HAS) e sua associação com a presença ou ausência de hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (HVE) em todos os indivíduos hipertensos. Foram incluídos 256 indivíduos hipertensos: 120 com HR e 136 com HAS. Foi investigada a relação entre os níveis circulantes de MCP-1 e pressão arterial, dados bioquímicos, perfil hematológico e dano cardíaco nos grupos HR e HAS. Os níveis plasmáticos de MCP-1 foram medidos por ELISA e a HVE foi avaliada por ecocardiografia. Não encontramos diferença nos níveis de MCP-1 entre indivíduos com HR e HAS. Por outro lado, encontramos níveis mais baixos de MCP-1 em pacientes com HVE (105 pg/mL [100 - 260 pg/mL] versus 136 pg/mL [100 - 200 pg/mL], respectivamente, p = 0,005] em comparação a pacientes sem HVE. Um modelo de regressão logística ajustado para o índice de massa corporal (IMC), idade, raça, níveis de aldosterona e presença de diabetes e HR mostrou que os níveis medianos de MCP-1 (2,55 pg/mL [1,22 - 5,2 pg/mL], p = 0,01) estiveram independentemente associados com HVE em toda a população de hipertensos. Como os níveis de MCP-1 foram semelhantes em indivíduos tanto com HR quanto HAS e estiveram diminuídos em pacientes hipertensos com HVE, nosso estudo sugere uma possível redução nos níveis de MCP-1 em indivíduos hipertensos com HVE, independe do grau da hipertensão.

  17. Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional…

  18. Parâmetros biológicos e de habitats físicos para avaliação de bacias no Sudeste do Brasil. Ação Ambiental of a protocol for evaluating land use, physical habitat structure, and fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages in Brazilian river basins”).

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: This article has no abstract, in keeping with the format of the Brazilian journal Ação Ambiental, an applied-science news journal aimed at environmental engineers and managers of water and fisheries resources. Here is a rough synopsis of the article in English: A p...

  19. Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional…

  20. Parâmetros biológicos e de habitats físicos para avaliação de bacias no Sudeste do Brasil. Ação Ambiental of a protocol for evaluating land use, physical habitat structure, and fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages in Brazilian river basins”).

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: This article has no abstract, in keeping with the format of the Brazilian journal Ação Ambiental, an applied-science news journal aimed at environmental engineers and managers of water and fisheries resources. Here is a rough synopsis of the article in English: A p...

  1. The Diterpene Sclareol Vascular Effect in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Campos, Debora Ribeiro; Celotto, Andrea Carla; Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite S; Ferreira, Luciana Garros; Monteiro, Ariadne Santana E Neves; Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa; Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa

    2017-06-29

    The diterpene Sclareol has antimicrobial action, cytotoxic and cytostatic effects and anti-tumor activities. However, researches on the cardiovascular system are scarce. This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the Sclareol cardiovascular effect in normotensive and hypertensive rats. The arterial hypertension was promoted using 2-kidneys 1-clip model in rats. The effect of sclareol on blood pressure was performed by using three dose (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg). Cumulative dose-response curves for Sclareol were determined for endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings in presence or absence of L-NAME and ODQ. The NOx levels were measure in the plasma sample. The Sclareol administration in vivo caused a significant reduction in blood pressure in both groups. In vitro the sclareol promoted relaxation in aorta, with endothelium, pre-contracted to Phe. The inhibitors of the nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase were as efficient as the removal of endothelium, in inhibiting the Sclareol-induced relaxation. Otherwise, it was no change of NOx. Also, for unknown reasons, the Sclareol is not selective for hypertensive animals. The diterpene Sclareol showed in vivo hypotensive and in-vitro vasodilator effects; The chemiluminescence plasmatic NO analysis showed no significant difference between groups and The Sclareol exhibit better effect on normotensive than hypertensive animals to reduce blood pressure. It is concluded that the diterpenes metabolites would be a promising source prototype for the development of new agents in the cardiovascular therapy. O diterpeno Esclareol tem ação antimicrobiana, efeitos citotóxicos e citostáticos e atividades antitumorais. No entanto, pesquisas sobre o sistema cardiovascular são escassas. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para investigar os mecanismos envolvidos no efeito cardiovascular de Esclareol em ratos normotensos e hipertensos. A hipertensão arterial foi promovida utilizando modelo de

  2. [HYPOTENSIVE EFFECT OF AN EXTRACT OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF OLIVE LEAVES: PRELIMINARY CLINICAL STUDY].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Rodríguez Martínez, Carlos; Fonollá-Joya, Juristo

    2015-07-01

    Objetivo: evaluar el posible efecto hipotensor en sujetos pre-hipertensos e hipertensos, de un extracto de hoja de olivo (EHO) estandarizado al 15% (m/m) en oleoeuropeína y con un contenido medio del 10% (m/m) en ácidos triterpénicos y del 1% (m/m) en hidroxitirosol. Asimismo, se ha valorado su acción sobre el estatus antioxidante y el perfil lipídico sanguíneos. Material y métodos: se ha llevado a cabo un ensayo de intervención en humanos con administración de 1.600 mg de extracto/día. Los parámetros evaluados han sido presión sistólica y diastólica, retardo de la oxidación del colesterol LDL (lag time) y niveles sanguíneos de óxido nítrico (NO), malondialdehído (MDA), capacidad antioxidante (CAO), perfil lipídico, glucosa, transaminasas y creatinina. Resultados: se observó en todos los sujetos una disminución estadísticamente significativa de la presión sistólica y diastólica, y un aumento de los niveles de NO (P < 0,050). En los sujetos con presión sistólica más elevada también se redujo significativamente su valor tras la intervención (P = 0,002). El “lag time” de las LDL aumentó significativamente (P = 0,047), y en todos los sujetos los niveles de colesterol (CHO) se redujeron significativamente. Los niveles de colesterol LDL, triglicéridos (TG) y del índice CHO/colesterol HDL disminuyeron con tendencia a la significancia (P = 0,076; P = 0,059; P = 0,056; respectivamente). Conclusión: este estudio, aunque preliminar, pone de relieve por primera vez la influencia positiva del EHO ensayado en la regulación de la hipertensión así como en la velocidad de oxidación de las LDL y en el perfil lipídico sanguíneo.

  3. [Morning rise in home blood pressure and target organ damage in hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Barochiner, Jessica; Aparicio, Lucas S; Cuffaro, Paula E; Rada, Marcelo A; Morales, Margarita S; Alfie, José; Marin, Marcos J; Galarza, Carlos R; Waisman, Gabriel D

    2014-01-01

    El incremento matutino de la presión arterial (IMPA) aumenta el riesgo cardiovascular. Los estudios que evalúan la asociación entre IMPA domiciliaria y daño de órgano blanco son escasos y casi exclusivamente basados en población asiática. Nuestro objetivo fue caracterizar a los pacientes hipertensos con IMPA domiciliaria y establecer una posible asociación con la presencia de hipertrofia ventricular izquierda (HVI). Métodos: se incluyeron hipertensos medicados ≥18 años que realizaron mediciones de PA domiciliaria (4 días de mediciones por duplicado, a la mañana, tarde y noche) y completaron un cuestionario acerca de sus factores de riesgo y antecedentes de enfermedad cardiovascular. Se revisaron las historias clínicas para extraer datos ecocardiográficos. Se definió como IMPA a una diferencia entre el promedio de PA sistólica domiciliaria matutina – vespertina ≥15 mmHg. Se consideró que los pacientes tenían HVI si el índice de masa ventricular era >95 g/m2 en mujeres y >115 g/m2 en varones. Las variables identificadas como predictores relevantes de IMPA fueron introducidos en un modelo multivariado de regresión logística. Resultados: se incluyeron 216 pacientes, con una edad media de 68 (+13,3) años, 69,4% mujeres y 99,1% caucásicos. La prevalencia de IMPA fue de 13,4% y las variables independientemente asociadas fueron HVI (OR 3,5; 95%CI 1,1-11,4), edad (OR 1,05; 95%CI 1,003-1,1) y antecedente de enfermedad cerebrovascular (OR 3,9; 95%CI 1,1-14,2). En conclusión, el IMPA evaluado por monitoreo domiciliario presenta asociación independiente con HVI, edad y antecedentes de enfermedad cerebrovascular, debiendo esclarecerse las implicancias terapéuticas de esta observación en estudios prospectivos a gran escala.

  4. [Abpm and duration of the antihypertensive effect: a study with a new formulation of sustained release losartan (CRONOS)].

    PubMed

    Bendersky, Mario; Juncos, Luis; Waisman, Gabriel Dario; Piskorz, Daniel; Lopez-Santi, Ricardo; Montaña, Oscar; Caruso, Gustavo; Kotetzky, Martin; Penna, Maria; Gomez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Antecedentes: una de las características relevantes de las drogas antihipertensivas es que su acción cubra 24 hs. Administrar una sola dosis diaria aumenta la adherencia al tratamiento, y redunda en mejorar el impacto sobre morbimortalidad, principal objetivo de todo tratamiento antihipertensivo. El MAPA permite valorar la duración del efecto. Losartán es un antagonista de receptores At1 de AII, de comprobada eficacia. Distintos estudios sugieren una cobertura antihipertensiva menor de 24 hs. La aparición de una nueva forma farmacéutica (Cronos) que libera 50 mg en forma regular y otros 50 mg en forma prolongada favorece una cobertura de 50 mg durante 24 hs. Objetivo: 1) Evaluar la eficacia de Losartán Cronos, en el control de 24 horas de la TA en hipertensos esenciales, utilizando MAPA. 2) Analizar tasa de respuesta ambulatoria, homogeneidad del efecto y rigidez arterial ambulatoria (AASI). Material y métodos: fueron incluidos 142 hipertensos esenciales de ambos sexos; Se trataron 105 pacientes con Losartán Cronos en monodosis matinal durante 8 semanas, momento del segundo MAPA. 97 pacientes con MAPAs válidos fueron evaluados. Resultados: se observó un descenso significativo tanto de TAS como TAD en todos los periodos evaluados: 24 hs, día, noche, y las últimas 4 hs interdosis. No hubo cambios significativos en la frecuencia cardíaca 24 hs. El ascenso matinal de la TA (mmHg/hora) descendió de 4.53 a 3,68 (p=0.03). La relación Valle:Pico fue 0.91 para TAS y 1.14 para TAD. El Índice de Alisado fue 2.86 para TAS y 3.17 para TAD. 19 pacientes tuvieron EA, todos fueron leves. Conclusión: Losartán Cronos mostró eficacia y seguridad. Desciende la TA sin efectos significativos sobre la FC, reduce la PP, y su efecto perdura 24 hs evaluado por relación Valle:Pico, por efecto de las ultimas 4 hs interdosis, y por descenso de la velocidad de ascenso matinal tensional, por lo que sugiere su administración en monodosis diaria.

  5. Validity of questions about activities of daily living to screen for dependency in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rebouças, Monica; Coelho-Filho, João Macedo; Veras, Renato Peixoto; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2017-09-04

    and, therefore, can help in the planning of health services aimed at them. Determinar a validade de critério das atividades de vida diária constantes em questionários de funcionalidade em idosos para inquéritos populacionais e identificar quais atividades são válidas para quantificar a necessidade real de ajuda diária dessa população. Amostra populacional de idosos estratificada por níveis de funcionalidade, segundo a autopercepção de dependência nas atividades de vida diária. Autopercepção foi comparada com o padrão ouro - observação direta no domicílio dos idosos nessas atividades por profissional treinado e cego para respostas no questionário. Na visita decidiu-se, para efeito da pesquisa, se o idoso precisava de ajuda para realizar alguma das atividades de vida diária. A sensibilidade de cada atividade de vida diária foi maior quando a autoavaliação de que não havia necessidade de ajuda coincidiu com a avaliação do profissional. A especificidade indica coincidência quanto à necessidade de ajuda na atividades de vida diária - coeficientes de sensibilidade e especificidade acima de 70% foram considerados indicativos de boa validade. As autoavaliações mostraram sensibilidade melhor que especificidade - idosos e observadores concordaram mais quanto à independência do que quanto à dependência cotidiana. Todas as atividades mostraram sensibilidade acima de 70%. Algumas atividades tiveram uma especificidade baixa (fazer compras: 55%) ou muito baixa (pentear os cabelos: 33%). As melhores especificidades foram tomar banho e vestir-se (95,8% ambas), entre as pessoais, e utilizar transporte e realizar movimento bancário (ambas com 78%), entre as instrumentais. Atividades de vida diária podem ser indicadores válidos de dependência funcional. Os melhores coeficientes de validade em geral foram obtidos pelas atividades pessoais. Destacam-se algumas atividades com boas sensibilidades e especificidades - andar 100 metros, tomar banho e

  6. Neuropsychiatric symptoms of the elderly with Alzheimer's disease and the family caregivers' distress.

    PubMed

    Storti, Luana Baldin; Quintino, Débora Teles; Silva, Natália Michelato; Kusumota, Luciana; Marques, Sueli

    2016-08-15

    to analyze the relationship between the distress of the family caregiver and the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease or mixed dementia. a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in the Geriatric and Dementias Clinic of a general tertiary hospital, with 96 elderly people with Alzheimer's disease or mixed dementia and their family caregivers. Questionnaires to characterize the elderly and caregivers, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory were used. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation test were performed. 68.7% of the elderly were women, average age 80.8 years, 56.2% had Alzheimer's disease and 43.7%, mixed dementia. Among caregivers, 90.6% were women, average age 56, 70.8% took care of parents and 64.6% lived with the elderly. There was a strong (r = 0.82) and significant (p <0.01) correlation between the total score on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the total score on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Distress and strong (r = 0.80) and significant (p <0 01) correlation between the total score on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Distress and the number of neuropsychiatric symptoms, i.e., the higher the number, frequency and severity of these symptoms in the elderly, the more intense is the caregiver distress. the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in the elderly was related to increased distress in caregivers. analisar a relação entre o desgaste do cuidador familiar e a presença de sintomas neuropsiquiátricos em idosos com doença de Alzheimer ou demência mista. estudo descritivo, transversal, realizado no Ambulatório de Geriatria e Demências de um Hospital Geral Terciário, com 96 idosos com doença de Alzheimer ou demência mista e seus cuidadores familiares. Foram utilizados o questionário para caracterização dos idosos e cuidadores e o Inventário Neuropsiquiátrico. Foram realizadas estatísticas descritivas e o teste de correlação de Pearson. 68,7% dos idosos eram mulheres, média de

  7. Validation of educational booklet for HIV/Aids prevention in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Luana Ibiapina; Lopes, Thais de Oliveira; Lira, Luciane Elise de Abreu; Feitoza, Sarah Maria de Sousa; Bessa, Maria Eliana Peixoto; Pereira, Maria Lúcia Duarte; Feitoza, Aline Rodrigues; Souza, Adriano Rodrigues de

    2017-01-01

    To describe the process of manufacturing and validation of an educational booklet for HIV/Aids prevention in older adults. Methodological study developed in two phases - manufacturing of the booklet and validation of the educational material by judges. The manufacturing process involved a situational diagnosis with older adults, and its result indicated gaps in the knowledge with respect to HIV/Aids. The validation process was performed by nine judges, selected by convenience. It was considered an agreement index of at least 0.80, analyzed through the content validity index. We opted for a dialogue between two older adults divided into three categories: myths and taboos; ignorance; and prevention and importance of diagnosis. The average of the items was 0.90. The suggestions made by the judges were observed and modified for the final version. The material had relevant content for the judges, in addition to being able to be used by health professionals in the education and clarification of issues on the subject. Descrever o processo de construção e validação de cartilha educativa para prevenção de HIV/Aids em idosos. Estudo metodológico desenvolvido em duas etapas - construção da cartilha e validação do material educativo por juízes. O processo de construção envolveu um diagnóstico situacional com idosos, cujo resultado apontou lacunas no conhecimento com relação ao HIV/Aids. Já o processo de validação foi realizado por nove juízes, selecionados por conveniência. Considerou-se uma concordância de no mínimo 0,80, analisado pelo índice de validade de conteúdo. Optou-se por um diálogo entre dois idosos dividido em três categorias: mitos e tabus; desconhecimento; e prevenção e importância do diagnóstico. A média dos itens foi de 0,90. As sugestões realizadas pelos juízes foram acatadas e modificadas para a versão final. O material apresentou conteúdo relevante para os juízes, além de poder ser utilizado pelos profissionais de sa

  8. Geriatric care: ways and means of providing comfort.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Patricia Cruz Pontifice Sousa Valente; Marques, Rita Margarida Dourado; Ribeiro, Marta Pontifice

    2017-01-01

    To know the ways and means of comfort perceived by the older adults hospitalized in a medical service. Ethnographic study with a qualitative approach. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 older adults and participant observation of care situations. The ways and means of providing comfort are centered on strategies for promoting care mobilized by nurses and recognized by patients(clarifying/informing, positive interaction/communication, music therapy, touch, smile, unconditional presence, empathy/proximity relationship, integrating the older adult or the family as partner in the care, relief of discomfort through massage/mobilization/therapy) and on particular moments of comfort (the first contact, the moment of personal hygiene, and the visit of the family), which constitute the foundation of care/comfort. Geriatric care is built on the relationship that is established and complete with meaning, and is based on the meeting/interaction between the actors under the influence of the context in which they are inserted. The different ways and means of providing comfort aim to facilitate/increase care, relieve discomfort and/or invest in potential comfort. Conhecer os modos e formas de confortar percecionadas pelos idosos hospitalizados num serviço de medicina. Estudo etnográfico com abordagem qualitativa. Realizamos entrevistas semiestruturadas com 22 doentes idosos e observação participante nas situações de cuidados. Os modos e formas de confortar centram-se em estratégias promotoras de conforto mobilizadas pelo enfermeiro e reconhecidas pelos doentes (informação/esclarecimento, interação/comunicação positiva, toque, sorriso, presença incondicional, integração do idoso/família nos cuidados e o alívio de desconfortos através da massagem/mobilização/terapêutica) e em momentos particulares de conforto (contato inaugural, visita da família., cuidados de higiene e arranjo pessoal), que se constituem como alicerces do cuidar

  9. Pain assessment in elderly with dementia: Brazilian validation of the PACSLAC scale.

    PubMed

    Thé, Karol Bezerra; Gazoni, Fernanda Martins; Cherpak, Guilherme Liausu; Lorenzet, Isabel Clasen; Santos, Luciana Alves Dos; Nardes, Edlene Maria; Santos, Fânia Cristina Dos

    2016-01-01

    To validate the Pain Assessment Checklist for Seniors with Limited Ability to Communicate - Portuguese in demented elderly and to analyze its measurement properties. We evaluated 50 elderly with dementia, residing in a nursing home and with limited communication ability, when exposed to potentially painful situations. The tool was applied at two different moments. First, two interviewers applied it simultaneously, and the intensity of pain was asked based on the caregiver's opinion. After 14 days, with no analgesic intervention, one of the interviewers applied it again. The sample comprised more females, aged over 80 years, with dementia due to Alzheimer, presenting musculoskeletal pain of moderate to severe intensity. The psychometric properties of the tool demonstrated appropriate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.827). The scale had excellent reproducibility, according to the intraclass correlation coefficient, and the tool has been duly validated. The Pain Assessment Checklist for Seniors with Limited Ability to Communicate - Portuguese had adequate measuring properties for use with elderly presenting limited communication. Validar o Pain Assessment Checklist for Seniors with Limited Ability to Communicate - Portuguese em idosos dementados e analisar as propriedades de suas medições. Foram avaliados 50 idosos dementados, residentes de uma casa de repouso e com capacidade de comunicação verbal limitada, quando expostos a situações potencialmente dolorosas. A ferramenta foi utilizada em dois momentos diferentes. Primeiro, foi aplicada por dois entrevistadores simultaneamente, e a intensidade da dor foi questionada com base na opinião do cuidador. Depois de 14 dias, sem intervenção de analgésico, a ferramenta foi aplicada novamente por um dos entrevistadores. A amostra teve predominância de mulheres, acima de 80 anos de idade, com demência de Alzheimer, apresentando dores musculoesqueléticas com intensidade moderada a grave. As

  10. Falls in long-term care institutions for elderly people: protocol validation.

    PubMed

    Baixinho, Cristina Rosa Soares Lavareda; Dixe, Maria Dos Anjos Coelho Rodrigues; Henriques, Maria Adriana Pereira

    2017-01-01

    To validate the content of a fall management risk protocol in long-term institutions for elderly people. Methodological, quanti-qualitative study using the Delphi technique. The tool, based on the literature, was sent electronically to obtain consensus among the 14 experts that meet the defined inclusion criteria. The 27 indicators of the protocol are organized in three dimensions: prepare for the institutionalization (IRA=.88); manage the risk of falls throughout the institutionalization (IRA=.9); and lead the communication and formation (IRA=1), with a CVI=.91. Two rounds were performed to get a consensus superior to 80% in every item. The values obtained in the reliability test (>0.8) show that the protocol can be used to meet the intended goal. The next step is the clinic validation of the protocol with residents of long-term care institutions for elderly people. Validar o conteúdo de um protocolo para a gestão do risco de queda em Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos. Estudo metodológico, de abordagem quantiqualitativa, utilizando a técnica de Delphi. O instrumento, construído com base na literatura, foi enviado por via electrónica, para obter consenso entre os 14 peritos que respeitam os critérios de inclusão definidos. Os 27 indicadores do protocolo estão organizados em três dimensões: Preparar a Institucionalização (IRA=,88); Gerir o Risco de Queda ao longo da Institucionalização (IRA=,9) e Liderar a comunicação e formação (IRA=1), com um CVI=,91. Foram efetuadas duas rodadas para se obter consenso superior a 80% em todos os itens. Os valores obtidos no teste de fidedignidade (>0,8) atestam que o protocolo pode ser utilizado para atingir o fim que se pretende. A próxima etapa é a validação clínica do protocolo com idosos residentes em Instituições de Longa Permanência para Idosos.

  11. Urinary tract infection: a cohort of older people with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Melo, Laís Samara de; Ercole, Flávia Falci; Oliveira, Danilo Ulisses de; Pinto, Tatiana Saraiva; Victoriano, Mariana Avendanha; Alcoforado, Carla Lúcia Goulart Constant

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate epidemiological aspects of urinary tract infection in older patients with urinary incontinence living in long-term care institutions in Belo Horizonte. Method: Concurrent cohort held from April 1st to October 1st, 2015. The study was conducted in two long-term care institutions in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, with 84 incontinent older people. Cumulative incidence of urinary tract infection was 19% (95% CI: 7.83-23.19) and the incidence density was 3.6 cases/100 people-month of follow-up period. The variables Bacteriuria and Institution presented statistical association with the occurrence of urinary tract infection. It is observed that the incidence of urinary tract infection in the study was smaller than in other similar international and national studies, however this is an important world health problem for the older population, with impact on mortality of these individuals. Avaliar aspectos epidemiológicos da infecção do trato urinário em pacientes idosos com incontinência urinária, residentes em instituições de longa permanência, de Belo Horizonte. Coorte concorrente realizada no período de 01 de abril a 01 de outubro de 2015. O estudo foi realizado em duas instituições de longa permanência, na cidade de Belo Horizonte, MG, com 84 idosos incontinentes. A incidência acumulada de infecção do trato urinário foi de 19% (IC 95%: 7,83-23,19) e a densidade de incidência foi de 3,6 casos/100 pessoas-mês de seguimento. As variáveis Bacteriúria e Instituição apresentaram associação estatística com a ocorrência de infecção do trato urinário. Observa-se que a incidência de infecção do trato urinário no estudo foi menor que em outros estudos nacionais e internacionais semelhantes, no entanto trata-se de um importante problema de saúde mundial para os idosos, com impacto na mortalidade desses indivíduos.

  12. Elderly who take care of elderly: a study on the Frailty Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Santos-Orlandi, Ariene Angelini Dos; Brito, Tábatta Renata Pereira de; Ottaviani, Ana Carolina; Rossetti, Estefani Serafim; Zazzetta, Marisa Silvana; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost

    2017-01-01

    Identifying prevalence of frailty in elderly caregivers inserted in a high social vulnerability context and its correlation with sociodemographic and health aspects. Descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional study. Forty elderly caregivers were evaluated with: questionnaire for caregiver characterization, Mini Mental State Examination, Katz Index, Lawton instrumental activities of daily living scale, Geriatric Depression Scale and the frailty phenotype proposed by Fried. Interviews were conducted at their residences and scheduled in advance. All ethical precautions were observed. Data were analyzed with the Stata statistical program version 11.0. 10% of elderly caregivers were frail. There was a significant correlation between frailty and sex, instrumental activities of daily living and cognition. Female caregivers, partially dependent individuals regarding instrumental activities of daily living and with worse cognitive state deserve a special attention from health services. Identificar a prevalência de fragilidade em cuidadores idosos inseridos em contexto de alta vulnerabilidade social e sua correlação com aspectos sociodemográficos e de saúde. Estudo descritivo, correlacional, transversal. Foram avaliados 40 cuidadores idosos utilizando-se: questionário para caracterização do cuidador, Mini Exame do Estado Mental, Índice de Katz, Escala de atividades instrumentais de vida diária de Lawton, Escala de Depressão Geriátrica e o fenótipo de fragilidade proposto por Fried. As entrevistas foram realizadas no domicílio, sendo previamente agendadas. Todos os cuidados éticos foram observados. Os dados foram analisados com apoio do pacote estatístico Stata versão 11.0. 10,0% dos cuidadores idosos eram frágeis. Houve correlação significativa entre fragilidade e: sexo, atividades instrumentais de vida diária e cognição. Conclusão: Cuidadoras do sexo feminino, indivíduos parcialmente dependentes em relação às atividades instrumentais de vida

  13. Prevalence of tinnitus in elderly individuals with and without history of occupational noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Melo, Juliana Jandre; Meneses, Caroline Luiz; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: A variedade de alterações metabólicas e circulatórias relacionadas com o ruído pode causar o aparecimento de inúmeros sintomas auditivos, incluindo, zumbido.Objetivo: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de queixa de zumbido, em idosos com e sem história de exposição ao ruído ocupacional.Método: Forma de estudo prospectivo foi realizado em uma amostra populacional com 502 indivíduos com idade superior a 60 anos, através de questionário padronizado e avaliação audiológica. As variáveis estudadas foram frequência de queixa de zumbido e de e história de ruído ocupacional. Foi usada regressão logística para controlar confusão ou modificação de efeito para as outras variáveis sobre as associações de interesse.Resultado e Discussão: A queixa de zumbido foi verificada em 50% dos idosos com história de exposição ao ruído ocupacional e em 40,43% dos idosos sem história de exposição ao ruído ocupacional. Uma alta frequência de queixa de zumbido foi detectada na população sob investigação, porém não houve significativa diferença estatística entre a queixa de zumbido e história de ruído ocupacional.Conclusão: O resultado desta pesquisa pode ter ocorrido devido à existência de outros fatores que podem ter contribuído para a presença de zumbido, como a própria idade, nos indivíduos sem história de exposição ao ruído ocupacional.

  14. Subset of nursing diagnoses for the elderly in Primary Health Care.

    PubMed

    Clares, Jorge Wilker Bezerra; Guedes, Maria Vilaní Cavalcante; Silva, Lúcia de Fátima da; Nóbrega, Maria Miriam Lima da; Freitas, Maria Célia de

    2016-04-01

    To develop a subset of nursing diagnoses for the elderly followed in primary health care based on the bank of terms for clinical nursing practice with the elderly, in the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP(r)) version 2013, and on the Model of Nursing Care. Descriptive study developed in sequential steps of construction and validation of the bank of terms, elaboration of the nursing diagnoses based on the guidelines of the International Council of Nurses and the bank of terms, and categorization of diagnostics according to the Care Model. The total of 127 nursing diagnoses were elaborated from 359 validated terms, distributed according to the basic human needs. It is expected that these diagnoses will form the basis for the planning of nursing care and use of a unified language for documentation of clinical nursing practice with the elderly in primary care. Desenvolver um subconjunto de diagnósticos de enfermagem para idosos acompanhados na Atenção Primária à Saúde, com base no banco de termos para a prática clínica de enfermagem com idosos, na Classificação Internacional para a Prática de Enfermagem (CIPE(r)) Versão 2013 e no Modelo de Cuidados de Enfermagem. Pesquisa descritiva, desenvolvida em etapas sequenciadas de construção e validação do banco de termos, elaboração dos enunciados de diagnósticos de enfermagem, com base nas diretrizes do Conselho Internacional de Enfermeiros e no banco de termos, e categorização dos diagnósticos segundo o Modelo de Cuidados. A partir de 359 termos validados foram elaborados 127 enunciados de diagnósticos de enfermagem, distribuídos segundo as necessidades humanas fundamentais. Acredita-se que esses enunciados servirão de base para o planejamento dos cuidados de enfermagem e utilização de uma linguagem unificada para a documentação da prática clínica de enfermagem com idosos na atenção primária.

  15. Family of older adults with mental disorder: perception of mental health professionals.

    PubMed

    Saidel, Maria Giovana Borges; Campos, Claudinei José Gomes

    2017-01-01

    to understand the perceptions of healthcare professionals of the Psychosocial Care Centers regarding the family of older adults with mental disorders. study of a Qualitative Case conducted with 12 healthcare professionals from a Psychosocial Care Center, with a convenient and exhaustive sample. Conducting semi-structured interviews to collect data, which were analyzed with the Content Analysis technique. the following categories stood out: "Family exhaustion and deterioration in the perception of the healthcare professional" and "The abandonment of older adults by family members and their distancing in the perception of the healthcare professional." culpability of older adults and penalization of the family were verified by healthcare professionals. To bring awareness about the difficulties faced in the attempt to bring the family closer to the healthcare service, it is necessary to analyze the care given to the older adult and to overcome challenges in the effective construction of the bond between family, healthcare user and mental health service. compreender as percepções dos profissionais do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial acerca da família do idoso em sofrimento psíquico. estudo de Caso Qualitativo conduzido com 12 profissionais de um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial com amostra composta por intencionalidade e fechada por exaustão. Realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas para coleta de dados, analisados por meio da técnica de Análise de Conteúdo. destacaram-se as categorias "O cansaço e o desgaste familiar na percepção do profissional" e "O abandono e o afastamento do idoso pela família na percepção do profissional". verificou-se a culpabilização do idoso e a penalização da família pelos profissionais. Visando à conscientização das dificuldades em aproximar a família, é necessária a criação de espaços reflexivos sobre o cuidado a essa população, bem como a superação dos desafios na construção efetiva do vínculo entre

  16. Social representations of older adults regarding quality of life.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marielle Cristina Gonçalves; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Silva, Rafael Celestino da; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção

    2017-01-01

    to identify the social representations of older adults regarding quality of life, and to analyze the care practices adopted to promote it. qualitative, exploratory, descriptive research, applying the Theory of Social Representations. Thirty older people from a Health Academy of Rio de Janeiro participated in the study. The software Alceste was used, and lexical analysis of data was performed. social representations of quality of life are based on the social determinants of health; they evidence knowledge and practices of care by valuing physical activities. The practices promoting quality of life comprise healthy eating habits, daily physical exercise, social participation, interaction and socialization, accomplishment of leisure activities and daily tasks with independence and autonomy, and support and family contact. the elderly have a global understanding of the concept of quality of life, coordinate knowledge built in daily life and knowledge coming from the technical-professional field, which evidences the multidimensionality of the concept. identificar as representações sociais de idosos sobre qualidade de vida e analisar as práticas de cuidado por eles adotadas para promovê-la. pesquisa qualitativa, exploratória, descritiva, com aplicação da Teoria das Representações Sociais. Participaram 30 idosos de uma Academia Carioca de Saúde. Utilizou-se o software Alceste e realizou-se análise lexical dos dados. As representações sociais de qualidade de vida sustentam-se nos determinantes sociais de saúde, evidenciam saberes e práticas de cuidado, com valorização de atividades físicas. As práticas promotoras de qualidade de vida congregam hábitos alimentares saudáveis, exercícios físicos diários, participação social, convívio e interação, realização de atividades de lazer e tarefas cotidianas com independência e autonomia, apoio e contato familiar. Os idosos têm uma compreensão global do conceito de qualidade de vida, articulam

  17. [Systolic pressure, abdominal obesity and body fat, metabolic syndrome predictors in Spanish preschoolers].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Hervás, Ana Isabel; Rizo Baeza, María Mercedes; Martínez Amorós, Natalia; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-05-01

    Se plantea como objetivo determinar la presencia de predictores de síndrome metabólico en niños de 2 a 7 años en relación a su estado nutricional. Método: Estudio descriptivo con análisis cuantitativo en 260 niños de 2-7 años (135 niñas y 125 niños), 66% del total censados. Se midieron parámetros antropométricos y tensión arterial y se calcularon IMC, grasa corporal según Hoffman e índice cintura-talla (ICT). Se realizaron subgrupos con Z-Score del IMC según edad y sexo (bajo peso, normopeso, sobrepeso y obesidad), según grasa corporal (normal y con exceso), ICT (normal y obesidad abdominal) y tensión sistólica (normotensos e hipertensos según edad y sexo). Se utilizó como variable principal la clasificación según Z-Score del IMC. Resultados: La prevalencia combinada de sobrepeso y obesidad fue del 27%, sin diferencias por sexo. El estado nutricional relacionó significativamente con tensión arterial, grasa corporal e índice cintura-talla. Mayor porcentaje de obesos con tensión arterial sistólica alta que de normonutridos (OR=4.1; IC95% 1.7-9.8; p.

  18. Mobile phones and elderly people: a noisy communication.

    PubMed

    Stamato, Cláudia; Moraes, Anamaria de

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the users is capital for building user-friendly digital interfaces. One way to think about the users is considering their familiarity with this technology. This article presents the results of twelve interviews with elderly people residing in the so-called South Zone of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) who have used mobile phones over at least one year. It is part of the Doctor's Thesis "Mobile phones for elderly people - usability for social integration" ("Celulares para idosos - usabilidade a serviço da integração social"), which is targeted at ascertaining if the current mobile phones are user-friendly for elderly people. Through the technique of Guided Interviews, we found usage time, criteria for choice of phones, reasons for changes, preferences, and manners of use. Preliminarily, we have noticed differences in the behavior of the participating users and performed a qualitative analysis according to groups of age and gender.

  19. Assessment of the responsiveness of a public health service from the perspective of older adults.

    PubMed

    Melo, Denise da Silva; Martins, René Duarte; Jesus, Renata Patrícia Freitas Soares de; Samico, Isabella Chagas; Santo, Antônio Carlos Gomes do Espírito

    2017-06-26

    To assess the quality of health care of older adults using as a parameter the assessment of the responsiveness of the service. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in a reference unit of the Brazilian Unified Health System at the outpatient level. The sample was probabilistic and had 385 older adults; data collection occurred in 2014. The domains assessed were: choice, autonomy, confidentiality, dignity, communication, physical facilities, and fast service. To this end, we used Pearson correlation test and Fisher's exact test. The domains of dignity, confidentiality, and communication reached the highest level of adequate responsiveness. On the other hand, freedom of choice and fast service received the worst assessments. Participation in decision-making regarding treatment was significantly lower among the older adults who had no education. In addition, the older adults that self-reported as black receive a lower quality of care regarding clear explanation and respected privacy in the appointment, when compared to users of any other race. Although most domains studied have receive a positive assessment, we have found a need for an equal care by the health professionals, regardless of race, education level, or any other adjective characteristic of older adults, users of public health services. Avaliar a qualidade da atenção à saúde da população idosa usando como parâmetro a avaliação da responsividade do serviço. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, de corte transversal, realizado em uma unidade de referência do Sistema Único de Saúde em nível ambulatorial. A amostra foi probabilística composta por 385 idosos e a coleta de dados ocorreu em 2014. Foram avaliados os domínios: escolha, autonomia, confidencialidade, dignidade, comunicação, instalações físicas e atendimento rápido. Para tanto, foram utilizados o teste de correlação de Pearson e o teste de Fisher. Os domínios dignidade, confidencialidade e comunicação atingiram o

  20. Viability of gait speed test in hospitalized elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Bruno Prata; Batista, Anne Karine Menezes Santos; Ramos, Isis Resende; Dantas, Júlio Cesar; Gomes, Isabela Barboza; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Camelier, Fernanda Rosa Warken; Camelier, Aquiles Assunção

    2016-01-01

    The gait speed test (GST) is a physical test that can predict falls and aid in the diagnosis of sarcopenia in the elderly. However, to our knowledge, there have been no studies evaluating its reproducibility in hospitalized elderly patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and reproducibility of the six-meter GST (6GST) in hospitalized elderly patients. This repeated measures study involved hospitalized elderly patients (≥ 60 years of age) who underwent the 6GST by the fifth day of hospitalization, were able to walk without assistance, and presented no signs of dyspnea or pain that would prevent them from performing the test. The 6GST was performed three times in sequence, with a rest period between each test, in a level corridor. Gait speed was measured in meters/second. Reproducibility was assessed by comparing the means, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. We evaluated 110 elderly patients in a total of 330 tests. All participants completed all of the tests. The comparisons between the speeds obtained during the three tests showed high ICCs and a low mean bias (Bland-Altman plots). The correlation and accuracy were greatest when the mean maximum speed was compared with that obtained in the third test (1.26 ± 0.44 m/s vs. 1.22 ± 0.44 m/s; ICC = 0.99; p = 0.001; mean bias = 0.04; and limits of agreement = -0.27 to 0.15). The 6GST was proven to be safe and to have good reproducibility in this sample of hospitalized elderly patients. The third measurement seems to correspond to the maximum speed, since the first two measurements underestimated the actual performance. O teste de velocidade de marcha (TVM) é um teste físico que pode predizer quedas e auxiliar no diagnóstico de sarcopenia em idosos da comunidade. Entretanto, pelo que sabemos, não há estudos que avaliaram sua reprodutibilidade em idosos hospitalizados. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a segurança e a reprodutibilidade do TVM de seis

  1. Living arrangements of the elderly and the sociodemographic and health determinants: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Tavares, Darlene Mara Dos Santos

    2016-08-08

    to describe the sociodemographic characteristics and the number of morbidities in the elderly, according to the dynamics of living arrangements and evaluate the sociodemographic and health determinants of the living arrangements. this is a household longitudinal survey (2005-2012), carried out with 623 elderly people. Descriptive statistical analysis and multinomial logistic regression were performed (p<0.05). there was predominance of elderly living alone, accompanied and with change in the living arrangements, females, age range between 60├ 70 years, 1├ 4 years of study and with income between 1├┤ 3 minimum wages. During the development of this research, it was identified an increase in the incidence of elderly with 1├┤3 minimum wages. The number of morbidities increased in the three groups throughout the study, with the highest rates observed among the elderly with change in the dynamics of living arrangements. It was found that elderly men showed less chance of living alone (p=0.007) and having change in the living arrangements compared to women (p = 0.005). Incomes less than a minimum wage decreased the chances of change in the living arrangements compared to incomes above three salaries (p=0.034). the determining factors of the living arrangements were sex and income, and the variables functional capacity and number of morbidities were not associated with the outcome analyzed. descrever as características sociodemográficas e o número de morbidades de idosos, segundo a dinâmica do arranjo domiciliar; e verificar os determinantes sociodemográficos e de saúde do arranjo domiciliar. trata-se de uma pesquisa domiciliar e longitudinal (2005-2012), conduzida com 623 idosos. Foi realizada análise estatística descritiva e regressão logística multinomial (p<0,05). predominaram, idosos que moram sozinhos, acompanhados e com mudança do arranjo domiciliar, do sexo feminino, faixa etária 60├ 70 anos, 1├ 4 anos de estudo e com renda entre 1

  2. Hospitalization in older adults: association with multimorbidity, primary health care and private health plan.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Soares, Mariangela Uhlmann; Wachs, Louriele Soares; Volz, Pâmela Moraes; Saes, Mirelle de Oliveira; Duro, Suele Manjourany Silva; Thumé, Elaine; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-05-04

    Evaluate the association of multimorbidity, primary health care model and possession of a private health plan with hospitalization. A population-based cross-sectional study with 1,593 elderly individuals (60 years old or older) living in the urban area of the city of Bagé, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The outcome was hospitalization in the year preceding the interview. The multimorbidity was evaluated through two cut-off points (≥ 2 and ≥ 3). The primary health care model was defined by residence in areas covered by traditional care or by Family Health Strategy. The older adults mentioned the possession of a private health plan. We performed a gross and adjusted analysis by Poisson regression using a hierarchical model. The adjustment included demographic, socioeconomic, functional capacity disability and health services variables. The occurrence of overall and non-surgical hospitalization was 17.7% (95%CI 15.8-19.6) and 10.6% (95%CI 9.1-12.1), respectively. Older adults with multimorbidity were admitted to hospitals more often when to older adults without multimorbidity, regardless of the exhibition' form of operation. Having a private health plan increased the hospitalization by 1.71 (95%CI 1.09-2.69) times among residents in the areas of the Family Health Strategy when compared to elderly residents in traditional areas without a private health plan. The multimorbidity increased the occurrence of hospitalizations, especially non-surgical ones. Hospitalization was more frequent in older adults with private health plan and those living in Family Health Strategy areas, regardless of the presence of multiple diseases. Avaliar a associação da multimorbidade, modelo de atenção básica e posse de plano de saúde com hospitalização. Estudo transversal de base populacional com 1.593 idosos (60 anos ou mais) residentes na zona urbana do município de Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul. O desfecho foi a hospitalização no ano anterior à entrevista. A

  3. Découverte d'une mégafaune holocène à la Toca do Serrote do Artur (aire archéologique de São Raimundo Nonato, Piauî, Brésil). A gruta do Serrote do Artur (área arqueológica de São Raimundo Nonato, Piaúi, Brasil): dataçoes holocênicas para megafáuna de mamíferos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Martine; Guérin, Claude; Parenti, Fabio

    1999-09-01

    The cave of Toca do Serrote do Artur (São Raimundo Nonato Archaeological Area, southeastern Piauí, Brazil) has yielded a Mammalian community constituted of Dasypus septemcinctus, Propraopus cf. sulcatus, Hoplophorus euphractus, Glyptodon clavipes, Conepatus sp., Panthera onca, Equus neogaeus, Dicotyles tajacu, Tayassu pecari, Palaeolama major, Mazama guazoubira, Mazama americana and a large Cervid. In comparison with the Mammalian fauna of the other sites from the same area, such a list shows a comparatively reduced biodiversity together with the presence of rare ( Hoplophorus, Conepatus) or unknown ( Propraopus, Palaeolama major) taxa. Explanation lies in the more recent age of the fossiliferous layers, probably Lower Holocene, as demonstrated by two 14C dating of 8 490 ± 120 BP and 6 890 ± 60 BP of the highest one. Moreover, that fauna shows the late survival of some genera ( Propraopus, Hoplophorus, Glyptodon, Equus, Palaeolama) together with climatic modifications related to the Pleistocene-Holocene transition.

  4. Bambuina bambui: a new genus and species of cave cricket from Brazil (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Phalangopsidae: Luzarinae).

    PubMed

    De Mello, Francisco De A G; Horta, Lília S; Bolfarini, Marcio P

    2013-01-03

    Bambuina bambui, um novo gênero e espécie de grilo falangopsídeo é descrito a partir de espécimes obtidos na Gruta do Centenário, uma caverna de quartzo localizada na Serra do Inficionado, um subconjunto de montanhas pertencentes ao complexo da Serra do Caraça no estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil.

  5. Communist Exploitation of Nationalism in Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-04-08

    the crowd and prolonged cheers at his closing phrases: "We are all Brazilians.’" (Somos todos Brasileiros) , "Long live Brazil."’ (Viva o Brasil ...Jornal do Comercio , 6 Jan. 1952, p. 3. 30FBIS No. 51, 12 Mar. 1952, ZYC9 Rio de Janeiro, 12 Mar. 1952. 31FBIS No. 194, 5 Oct. 1953, PRL7 Rio de

  6. 75 FR 68684 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box: 38/2, BRASIL... Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos--SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box: 38/2,...

  7. 76 FR 52220 - Airworthiness Directives; Embraer-Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Model EMB-500...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Empresa Brasileira de Aeron utica S.A., Phenom Maintenance Support, Av. Brig. Farina Lima, 2170, Sao Jose..., 2170, Sao Jose dos Campos-SP, CEP: 12227-901--P.O. Box: 36/2, BRASIL; telephone: ++55 12 3927-5383;...

  8. Confirmation of Anopheles (Anopheles) calderoni Wilkerson, 1991 (Diptera: Culicidae) in Colombia and Ecuador Through Molecular and Morphological Correlation with Topotypic Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    of the Entomology Museum of the Universidad del Valle, Colombia Department Municipality Locality Elevation (m) Collection date Collector Antioquia ...Gómez Plata El Brasil 244 10 May1984 SEM Puerto Nare El Pescado 270 4 Oct 1983 SEM Santafe de Antioquia Paso Real 666 17 Mar 1984 SEM Bolívar Achí

  9. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-03

    Desigualdade racial no Brasil,” Brasilia: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA), 2001. 30 “Economic Survey of Brazil 2005,” Organization...in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy, by Clare Ribando Seelke and June S. Beittel. 79 Ricard Henriques, “ Desigualdade racial no

  10. Brazil-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-21

    December 21, 2004. 29 Ricard Henriques, “ Desigualdade racial no Brasil,” Brasilia: Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (IPEA), 2001. 30 “Economic...Report RL32713, Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy, by Clare Ribando Seelke. 71 Ricard Henriques, “ Desigualdade racial

  11. Military Review: The Professional Journal of the U.S. Army. March-April 2001

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    Brazilian- Colombian operations conducted throughout 1991 were called �Traíra� and � Perro Loco.� 31. Silvio Ferraz, �O Brasil Mostra As Garras, . . . Reagem à...targeted areas, in- cluding subsequently Mexicali in Baja California opposite Calexico, California; Ciudad Juarez oppo- site El Paso, Texas; and Sinaloa

  12. Democratization of Intelligence: Melding Strategic Intelligence and National Discourse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    Strategies in Three Stages] (Brasil: Presidência da Republica , Núcleo de Assuntos Estratégicos, 2006). Ver en http://www.resdal.org/ultimos- documentos...surveillance by national intelligence orga- nizations, notwithstanding the revanchist complaints of principal civil liber- 39 Presidencia da Republica , Gabinete

  13. The Use of Seaplanes as an Advanced Weapon Systemxc

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    41 due to problems with the propellers and the Junkers Jumo 205C Diesel engines. For those not familiar with aircraft powerplants, it is worth relating...Biblioteca do ITA Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial 12 225 - Sao Jose dos Campos - SP, Brasil 14. Director da EMBRAER Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica Sao Jose

  14. Parameters, Journal of the US Army War College, Volume 14, Number 4, Winter 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Pa.: US Army War College, Strategic Studies In- 31. A Energia Nuclear no Brasil (Rio de Janeiro: stitute, 1979), p. 17. Biblioteca do Exercito Editors...security factors exist. These would be Monetary Fund officials. "Balance of Payments," in Annual US-Mexican relationships, moral renovation , demographic

  15. Brazilian National Assessment Data and Educational Policy: An Empirical Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Christine L.; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Martelli, Dale R.

    2016-01-01

    In concert with other Latin American countries, Brazil has developed and implemented its own national assessment system for the purpose of monitoring, evaluating and improving their educational system. Prova Brasil is a census-based bi-annual assessment of Portuguese and mathematics achievement of middle school students in Brazil accompanied by…

  16. Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Jose Agostinho G. de; Marcelino, Jose R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Monica G.

    2009-06-03

    Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

  17. Brazil’s National Defense Strategy: Prospects for the Twenty-First Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    also see Everardo Backheuser, Curso de Geopolitica Geral e do Brasil, (Rio de Janeiro: Biblioteca do ’Ex~rcito, 1952). 21 chance of dislocation of the... Biblioteca do Exdrcito, 1952). Bailey, Norman A., (ed.), Latin America: Politics, Economics, and Hemisphere Security, (New York: Praeger, 1965). Bonturi

  18. Emergence of a New Neotropical Malaria Vector Facilitated by Human Migration and Changes in Land Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    the abdomen was stored in 95% ethanol and used subsequently for molecular species identification, and the head/thorax was dried and stored for...Deane LM, Causey OR, Deane MP, 1948. Notas s6bre a distri- buigao e a biologia dos anofelinos das regi6es Nordestina e Amazonica do Brasil. Bras Rev

  19. Constitutions and Democratic Consolidation: Brazil in Comparative Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    Sistema Eleitoral no Brasil (Sao Paulo: Simbolo, 1980). A more recent analysis of this and broader themes of the parties is Glaucio Dillon Soares...assembly. On the flexibility of the parties see Bolivar Lamounier and Rachel Meneguello, " Partidos politicos e consolidacao democratica: 0 caso Brasileiro

  20. Speech-Language Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda; Amato, Cibelle A. H.; Defense-Netrval, Danielle A.; Molini-Avejonas, Daniela R.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil has more than 200 million inhabitants living in an area of more than 8.5 million km[superscript 2] (Ministério da Saúde, Brasil, 2013a,b). Granting access to health and educational services for populations in such different environments clearly demands different actions and resources. Official policies regarding rehabilitation services and…

  1. Computational Technique for Teaching Mathematics (CTTM): Visualizing the Polynomial's Resultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Francisco Regis Vieira

    2015-01-01

    We find several applications of the Dynamic System Geogebra--DSG related predominantly to the basic mathematical concepts at the context of the learning and teaching in Brasil. However, all these works were developed in the basic level of Mathematics. On the other hand, we discuss and explore, with DSG's help, some applications of the polynomial's…

  2. Photoproduction of charm particles at fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumalat, John P.

    1997-03-01

    A brief description of the Fermilab Photoproduction Experiment E831 or FOCUS is presented. The experiment concentrates on the reconstruction of charm particles. The FOCUS collaboration has participants from several Central American and Latin American institutions; CINVESTAV and Universidad Autonoma de Puebla from Mexico, University of Puerto Rico from the United States, and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas in Rio de Janeiro from Brasil.

  3. Educating and Training Undergraduate Applied Statisticians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peres, Clovis A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A course on Applied Statistics, offered since 1978 at the Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil, is designed to educate statisticians at the bachelor's level for jobs in government statistical offices, industry, and business. (Author/LMO)

  4. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-24

    LATIN AMERICA ARGENTINA Nuclear Reactor Reactivated After 17 Years ITELAM] ................................ 4 BRAZIL Nuclear Agency Restricts Nuclear ...to suspicions against its nuclear arms development the safety of the shipments. program-its 5 megawatt nuclear reactor , radiochemical laboratory... Nuclear Plant PY1007005292 Brasilia Voz do Brasil NetworkNuclear Reactor Reactivated After 17 Years in Portuguese 2200 GMT 9 Jul 92 PY1007012492

  5. Winning the Minds in ’Hearts and Minds’: A Systems Approach to Information Operations as Part of Counterinsurgency Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    combatant commander, a subunified commander, or an existing joint task force commander.” 25 Ludwig von Bertalanffy , General Systems Theory, (New York...interact.173 This is an important consideration in 169 Ludwig von Bertalanffy was a Hungarian...D.C.: Brassey’s Incorporated, 2004. Bertalanffy , Ludwig von . General Systems Theory. New York, NY; George Brasiller, 1969. Boot, Max. The Savage

  6. Speech-Language Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda; Amato, Cibelle A. H.; Defense-Netrval, Danielle A.; Molini-Avejonas, Daniela R.

    2014-01-01

    Brazil has more than 200 million inhabitants living in an area of more than 8.5 million km[superscript 2] (Ministério da Saúde, Brasil, 2013a,b). Granting access to health and educational services for populations in such different environments clearly demands different actions and resources. Official policies regarding rehabilitation services and…

  7. Summaries of Papers Presented at the High Resolution Spectroscopy Topical Meeting Held in Salt Lake City, Utah on 18-21 January 1993. Technical Digest Series. Volume 1. Postconference Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    to about J = 10 for CO, providing many energetically open channels. From this it is easy to conclude that ambient collisions between CO and He should...Fisica e Quimica de S. Carlos, USP, Caixa Postal 369, S. Carlos SP Brasil - 13560 2. On leave at the National Science Foundation, Physics Division, 1800 G

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy of mCVs and other variable objects (Oliveira+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Cieslinski, D.; Jablonski, F. J.; Silva, K. M. G.; Almeida, L. A.; Rodriguez-Ardila, A.; Palhares, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    This catalog contains the spectra of the 45 variable objects, which was observed with SOAR 4.1m telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, and the Perkin- Elmer 1.6m telescope at Observatorio do Pico dos Dias (OPD-LNA/MCTI), locate in Brazopolis-MG, Brasil. (3 data files).

  9. Energy Levels and Predicted Absorption Spectra of Rare-Earth Ions in Rare-Earth Arsenides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    2 copies) Departmento de Fisica Ames, IA 50011 Attn: A. da Gama Attn: G. F. de SA Argonne National Laboratory Attn: 0. L. Malta Attn: W. T. Carnall...da UFPE, Cidade Universitaria 9700 South Ca.s Avenue 50,000, Recife, Pe, Brasil Argonne, IL 60439 26 Distribution (cont’d) Howard University

  10. Future Expectations of Brasilian Street Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Future expectations of youth surviving on the streets of Porto Alegre, Brasil, were examined. The sample consisted of 35 boys and 34 girls aged 10-18 (M age 14.4) who participated in a sentence completion task and semi-structured interviews. Responses to two incomplete sentences regarding the future revealed a mismatch between hoped-for and…

  11. Brazilian National Assessment Data and Educational Policy: An Empirical Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Christine L.; Malmberg, Lars-Erik; Martelli, Dale R.

    2016-01-01

    In concert with other Latin American countries, Brazil has developed and implemented its own national assessment system for the purpose of monitoring, evaluating and improving their educational system. Prova Brasil is a census-based bi-annual assessment of Portuguese and mathematics achievement of middle school students in Brazil accompanied by…

  12. Exotic Nuclei in South America

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenthaeler, R.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Mendes, D. R. Jr; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Barioni, A.; Morais, M. C.; Pampa Condori, R.; Assuncao, M.; Moro, A. M.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Arazi, A.

    2010-08-04

    The Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil(RIBRAS) is described. Experiments using radioactive secondary beams of light rare isotopes such as {sup 6}He, {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}Li on several targets have been performed and the results are presented.

  13. Future Expectations of Brasilian Street Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    Future expectations of youth surviving on the streets of Porto Alegre, Brasil, were examined. The sample consisted of 35 boys and 34 girls aged 10-18 (M age 14.4) who participated in a sentence completion task and semi-structured interviews. Responses to two incomplete sentences regarding the future revealed a mismatch between hoped-for and…

  14. Photoproduction of charm particles at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Cumalat, John P.

    1997-03-15

    A brief description of the Fermilab Photoproduction Experiment E831 or FOCUS is presented. The experiment concentrates on the reconstruction of charm particles. The FOCUS collaboration has participants from several Central American and Latin American institutions; CINVESTAV and Universidad Autonoma de Puebla from Mexico, University of Puerto Rico from the United States, and Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas in Rio de Janeiro from Brasil.

  15. ARC-2011-ACD11-0012-012

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-26

    Technology Partnerships awards: Federal Laboratory Consortium Far West Region Award for Outstanding Technology Development for Multi-Aircraft Control System. In particular order are Connie Brasil, Todd Callantine, Al Globus, Jeff Homola, Rich Jacoby, George Lawton, Paul Lee, Matt Mainini, Joey Mercer, Ev Palmer, Tom Prevot, Nancy Smith, Easter Wang, James Wong.

  16. A Literature Survey on Inverse Scattering for Electron Density Profile Determination. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-24

    THE INVERSE SCATTERING PROBLEM4 FOR THE EQUAT ION Of ACOUSTIC$ AVILA, G.S.S. DEPT. DE MATEMATICA . INST. DE CIENCIAS EXATAS. UNIV. Of BRASILIA...of Colict support Portinari. Joao C. Departamento do Matematica . Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rio do Janeiro. Brasil J. Math

  17. On the Axiomatic Theory of Multistate Coherent Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    ONR Contract N00014-76-C-0839. * S On leave from the Institute de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil. 01 1882 017 ON...THE AXIOMATIC THEORY OF MULTISTATE COHERENT STRUCTURES Wagner de Souza Borges and Fl~vio Wagner Rodrigues Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica

  18. Educating and Training Undergraduate Applied Statisticians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peres, Clovis A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A course on Applied Statistics, offered since 1978 at the Instituto de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brasil, is designed to educate statisticians at the bachelor's level for jobs in government statistical offices, industry, and business. (Author/LMO)

  19. Aquatic Nuisance Sp[ecies Research Program. Ecological Impacts of Suckermouth Catfishes (Loricariidae) in North America: A Conceptual Model. Volume 14-1, March 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    cascudo Hypostomus commersonii Valeneciennes, 1840 (Osteichthys – Loricariidae) da represa Capivari-Cachoeira, Paraná, Brasil. Revista UNIMAR...Actinopterygii: Loricariidae) in the mouth of the Coahuayana River, Coahuayana, Michoacán, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 83: 294

  20. Debating Deindustrialization: A Comparative Analysis of Brazil and Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    75 Pierre Salama, “China-Brasil: Industrialización Y Desindustrialización Temprana,” Revista Cuadernos de Economía 31, no. 56...Desindustrialización Temprana”(China-Brazil: Early Industrialization and Deindustrialization). Revista Cuadernos de Economía 31, no. 56 (2012

  1. Blood Evaluation Of Cl and Na Concentration In Crioulo Breed Horses Using NAA: Comparison With Humans Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Tatyana S.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; de Medeiros, José Agostinho G.; Marcelino, José R.; Higashi, Hisako G.; Freitas, Mônica G.

    2009-06-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis was utilized for determining the concentration of chlorine and sodium in blood of Crioulo breed horses used for hyperimmune sera production (Bothrops, Diphtheria and Tetanus) at Butantan Institute (São Paulo city, Brasil). These data are an important support for a toxicological control of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune serum.

  2. [Results of PROMESA I study; efficacy and safety of a very low calorie diet application and following alimentary reeducation with the PronoKal® method in the treatment of excess of weight].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Riquelme, Amparo; Sajoux, Ignacio; Fondevila, Joan

    2014-02-01

    Introducción y Objetivos: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la eficacia en la reducción de peso con la utilización de dieta de muy bajo aporte calórico cetogénica y posterior reeducación alimentaria según el método PronoKal ® en pacientes con sobrepeso y obesidad, y la seguridad durante su aplicación. Métodos: Estudio multicéntrico observacional, retrospectivo en que se analizaron estadísticamente variables descriptivas de los pacientes, variables relacionadas con el cambio ponderal, circunferencia de cintura abdominal, y bioquímica general al final de cada una de las etapas de tratamiento, y los acontecimientos adversos referidos en cada visita a lo largo del tratamiento. Resultados: De los 426 casos evaluables, el 62,3% de los pacientes eran obesos. El 16,7% presentaba hiperlipemia, el 2,3% diabetes mellitus tipo 2, y el 4,8% hipertensión arterial. Al final del tratamiento la media de peso perdido fue de 17,1 ± 8,0 kg (p < 0,001), con una reducción del IMC de 6,2 ± 3,0 kg/m2. El 54,2% de pacientes alcanzó la situación de normopeso (35,9% de los obesos), siendo mayor en mujeres que en hombres (62,5% vs 28,2%, respectivamente; p < 0,001). El perímetro de la cintura se redujo en 17,3 ± 9,5 cm. Hubo mejora de todos los parámetros analíticos en los pacientes diabéticos, hipertensos y dislipémicos, alcanzándose la significación estadística (p < 0,05) en la disminución de glucosa (28,8%) en diabéticos, en la disminución de glucosa (12,7%) y colesterol (14,5%) en hipertensos, y en la disminución de glucosa (11,7%), colesterol total (11,9%), colesterol LDL (11,3%) y triglicéridos (37,9%) en dislipémicos. La aparición de acontecimientos adversos se refirió en el 23,7% de los pacientes, principalmente estreñimiento (23,9%). Conclusiones: El método PronoKal® es un método eficaz y seguro de abordaje del exceso de peso, cuando se realiza de forma completa y bajo estricto control clínico multidisciplinar, mejorando diferentes par

  3. Ferritin in hypertensive and diabetic women before and after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Marin, Flávia Andréia; Rasera Junior, Irineu; Leite, Celso Vieira De Souza; Oliveira, Maria Rita Marques de

    2014-10-16

    Además de importante marcador de las reservas de hierro, la ferritina sérica es un marcador de la inflamación sistémica, mientras que la obesidad se ha asociado con la inflamación crónica. Objetivo: Identificar, después de 6 meses, el efecto de la cirugía bariátrica sobre los niveles de ferritina sérica en hipertensos, diabéticos o sin estas comorbilidades preoperatorias mujeres. Pacientes y métodos: Los autores realizaron un estudio retrospectivo de 200 mujeres sometidas a bypass gástrico en Y de Roux (BGYR), con edades comprendidas entre 20 y 45 años, con un índice de masa corporal (IMC) superior a 35 kg/m2, con hipertensión arterial (HA, n = 70), la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2, n = 40) y sin comorbilidades (SC, n = 90) fueron evaluados antes y 6 meses después de BGYR. Antropométricas, de laboratorio (ferritina sérica y hemoglobina) y la información de comorbilidad se recogió de la historia clínica electrónica. Resultados: Antes de la cirugía, las mujeres con comorbilidades eran mayores, tenían mayores hipertensos IMC, niveles más altos de ferritina diabéticos en relación con el grupo SC. La resolución de las comorbilidades después de 6 meses de DGYR ocurrió en el 68 % de las mujeres con hipertensión y el 86 % de los diabéticos. 6 meses después de la cirugía, se observó una disminución de la ferritina sérica en mujeres con comorbilidades de 110,1 ± 86,3 a 88,7 ± 80,5 ng/dl en el grupo con hipertensión y 164,8 ± 133,4 a 101 2 ± 97,7 ng/dl en DM2 (p < 0,05) y la hemoglobina, excepto en los pacientes diabéticos (p > 0,05). Conclusión: El aumento de la ferritina en mujeres obesas en el periodo de premenopausia se relacionan con las principales comorbilidades de la obesidad, y la presencia de estas comorbilidades fue fundamental en la reducción de la ferritina sérica después de la cirugía bariátrica.

  4. Zarit Burden Interview Psychometric Indicators Applied in Older People Caregivers of Other Elderly.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Mariana; Flesch, Leticia Decimo; Alves, Erika Valeska da Costa; Batistoni, Samila Sathler Taveres; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2016-11-28

    to derive psychometric indicators of construct validity and internal consistence of the Zarit Burden Interview scale for caregivers, describing associations of the scale with metrics related to care demands, coping strategies and depression in aged caregivers. crosscutting descriptive and correlational study. The convenience sample was composed by a hundred and twenty one senior caregivers (Avg=70.5 ± 7.2 years, 73% women). They answered a questionnaire to check the physical and cognitive demands of care, the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), the California Inventory of Coping Strategies and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). ZBI showed good internal consistency and also for the three factors emerging from factor analysis, explaining 44% of variability. ZBI is positively related with objective care demands (p < 0.001), depression (p = 0.006) and use of dysfunctional coping strategies (p = 0.0007). ZBI is of interest to be applied to aged caregivers and the association of higher degrees of burden, dysfunctional coping and depression show a vulnerability scenario that may affect to older people taking care of other elderly. derivar indicadores psicométricos de validade de construto e consistência interna da escala de sobrecarga de cuidadores de Zarit Burden Interview e descrever associações desta com medidas referentes às demandas de cuidado, estratégias de enfrentamento e depressão em cuidadores idosos. estudo descritivo, transversal e correlacional. Cento e vinte e um cuidadores idosos (M= 70,5 ± 7,2 anos, 73% feminino) compuseram uma amostra de conveniência e responderam a um protocolo de pesquisa para levantamento de demandas de cuidado de natureza física e cognitiva, à Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), ao Inventário de Estratégias de Enfrentamento da Califórnia e à Escala de Depressão Geriátrica (GDS-15). a ZBI revelou bons índices de consistência interna e para os três fatores resultantes da análise fatorial, os quais explicaram 44% da

  5. Quality of life of elderly people with chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Roberta Maria de Pina; Batista, Marcelo Aparecido; Meira, Aline de Sousa; Oliveira, Marília Pilotto de; Kusumota, Luciana

    2017-01-01

    To describe the quality of life (QOL) of elderly people with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) in conservative treatment, correlating it with sociodemographic and health-related aspects. This is a quantitative, cross-sectional, and descriptive study that used: a previously validated instrument for data collection; the WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD QOL scales; and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Thirty-five elderly people (54.30% females), with mean age of 68.26 years, took part in the study. They reported, on average, 3.70 comorbidities and 5.60 complications related to CKD. Regarding QOL, the "psychological" domain (54.40±16.29) and the "death and dying" facet (37.32±23.79) were considered the most damaged ones; the most strengthened were "social relationships" (70.36±18.32) and "intimacy" (66.61±16.80). A positive correlation was verified between comorbidities and complications (p = 0.015), and an inverse correlation between the number of complications and QOL (p = 0.004). These results, if considered during the care planning, may help improving the quality of the care provided for elderly people with CKD. Descrever a qualidade de vida (QV) de idosos com Doença Renal Crônica (DRC) em tratamento conservador, correlacionando-a com aspectos sociodemográficos e de saúde. Pesquisa quantitativa, transversal e descritiva que utilizou: um instrumento pré-validado para coleta dos dados de caracterização; as escalas de QV WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-OLD; e o Mini Exame do Estado Mental. Participaram 35 idosos (54,30% mulheres) com média de 68,26 anos. Referiram em média 3,70 comorbidades e 5,60 complicações relacionadas à DRC. Na QV, demonstraram-se mais prejudicados o domínio "psicológico" (54,40±16,29) e a faceta "morte e morrer" (37,32±23,79); e mais fortalecidos o domínio "relações sociais" (70,36±18,32) e a faceta "intimidade" (66,61±16,80). Verificou-se correlação positiva entre número de comorbidades e de complicações (p = 0,015), e correla

  6. Content validity of the Geriatric Health Assessment Instrument.

    PubMed

    Pedreira, Rhaine Borges Santos; Rocha, Saulo Vasconcelos; Santos, Clarice Alves Dos; Vasconcelos, Lélia Renata Carneiro; Reis, Martha Cerqueira

    2016-01-01

    Assess the content validity of the Elderly Health Assessment Tool with low education. The data collection instrument/questionnaire was prepared and submitted to an expert panel comprising four healthcare professionals experienced in research on epidemiology of aging. The experts were allowed to suggest item inclusion/exclusion and were asked to rate the ability of individual items in questionnaire blocks to encompass target dimensions as "not valid", "somewhat valid" or "valid", using an interval scale. Percent agreement and the Content Validity Index were used as measurements of inter-rater agreement; the minimum acceptable inter-rater agreement was set at 80%. The mean instrument percent agreement rate was 86%, ranging from 63 to 99%, and from 50 to 100% between and within blocks respectively. The Mean Content Validity Index score was 93.47%, ranging from 50 to 100% between individual items. The instrument showed acceptable psychometric properties for application in geriatric populations with low levels of education. It enabled identifying diseases and assisted in choice of strategies related to health of the elderly. Avaliar a validade de conteúdo do Instrumento de Avaliação da Saúde do Idoso com baixa escolaridade. Após a elaboração do instrumento de coleta de dados, o questionário foi submetido à avaliação de um comitê de especialistas, formado por quatro profissionais da área da saúde com experiência em pesquisas da epidemiologia do envelhecimento. Os especialistas puderam sugerir questões a serem incluídas/excluídas do instrumento, e avaliar cada bloco do questionário, observando se as dimensões a serem avaliadas foram abrangidas pelos itens do instrumento, em escala intervalar, como "não válida", "pouco válida" e "válida". Como medidas para avaliar o grau de concordância do instrumento, foram utilizados o porcentual de concordância e o Índice de Validade de Conteúdo. Considerou-se uma taxa aceitável de concordância o valor de

  7. Informal and paid care for Brazilian older adults (National Health Survey, 2013).

    PubMed

    Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo

    2017-06-01

    To describe the prevalence and sociodemographic factors associated with informal and paid care for Brazilian older adults with functional limitations. Of the 23,815 participants of the National Health Survey aged 60 or older, 5,978 reported needing help to perform activities of daily living and were included in this analysis. The dependent variable was the source of care, categorized as exclusively informal (unpaid), exclusively formal (paid), mixed or none. The socio-demographic variables were age (60-64, 65-74, ≥ 75 years old), gender and number of residents in the household (1, 2, ≥ 3). The multivariate analysis was based on binomial and multinomial logistic regressions. Informal care predominated (81.8%), followed by paid (5.8%) or mixed (6.8%) and no care (5.7%). The receipt of care from any source increased gradually with the number of residents in a same household, regardless of age and gender (OR = 4.85 and 9.74 for 2 and ≥ 3, respectively). Age was positively associated with receiving any care while the male gender showed a negative association. The number of residents in the household showed the strongest association with informal care (OR = 10.94 for ≥ 3 residents), compared with paid (OR = 5.48) and mixed (OR = 4.16) care. Informal care is the main source of help for community-dwelling older adults with functional limitations. In a context of rapid population aging and decline in family size, the results reinforce the need for policies to support long-term care for older Brazilians. Descrever a prevalência e fatores sociodemográficos associados à ajuda informal e remunerada a idosos com limitações funcionais. Dos 23.815 participantes com 60 anos ou mais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, 5.978 declararam necessitar de ajuda para realizar atividades da vida diária e foram incluídos nesta análise. A variável dependente foi a fonte de ajuda, categorizada como exclusivamente informal (não remunerada), exclusivamente remunerada, mista ou

  8. Expectation as a factor of influence on the success of use of hearing aids in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Larissa Cristina; Costa, Maristela Julio; Menegotto, Isabela Hoffmeister

    2012-04-01

    Introdução: Próteses auditivas destacam-se em função das tecnologias que as tornam cada vez menores, mais potentes e eficientes. O marketing pode gerar expectativas irreais quanto aos resultados com o uso de amplificação, principalmente em indivíduos inexperientes.Objetivo: Verificar a relação entre expectativas e sucesso do processo de seleção e adaptação de próteses auditivas em idosos.Método: Estudo clínico e experimental, 16 indivíduos idosos, inexperientes com o uso de amplificação, foram avaliados 15 dias antes e após a seleção e adaptação de próteses auditivas. Utilizou-se “Questionário para avaliação das expectativas do indivíduo adulto/idoso, novo usuário de próteses auditivas”, Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly/Screening Version, para avaliação da percepção da restrição de participação e o Questionário Internacional - Aparelho de Amplificação Sonora Individual (QI-AASI), para verificar o benefício subjetivo com o uso das próteses auditivas. Determinou-se o Índice Percentual de Reconhecimento de Sentenças no Silêncio (IPRSS), por meio do teste Listas de Sentenças em Português para verificar o benefício objetivo da adaptação. Os dados foram analisados por meio de teste não-paramétrico, com nível de significância de 5%.Resultados: Toda a amostra apresentou expectativas positivas. Subjetivamente verificou-se benefício pela diminuição da percepção da restrição de participação e pela avaliação positiva da adaptação, evidenciada pelo QI-AASI. Objetivamente a melhora do IPRSS com o uso de próteses auditivas também evidenciou beneficio.Conclusão: a expectativa quanto aos resultados com o uso de amplificação, foi fator de influência negativa no sucesso do processo de seleção e adaptação de próteses auditivas, no âmbito subjetivo.

  9. Fall and its association with the frailty syndrome in the elderly: systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fhon, Jack Roberto Silva; Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Neira, Wilmer Fuentes; Huayta, Violeta Magdalena Rojas; Robazzi, Maria Lucia do Carmo Cruz

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of falls and frailty syndrome and the association between these two syndromes in the elderly population. Systematic review, without restriction of dates, in English, Portuguese and Spanish languages, in the databases PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS and in the SciElo virtual library. The association between both variables was extracted from the studies (Odds Ratio and 95% Confidence Intervals). The review included 19 studies published between 2001 and 2015. The prevalence of falls in the frail elderly population was between 6.7% and 44%; in the pre-frail, between 10.0% and 52.0%, and in the non-frail, between 7.6% and 90.4%. The association between both variables presented a value of OR 1.80 (95% CI 1.51-2.13). There is evidence that falls are associated to the frailty in the elderly. Other factors may influence this association, such as age, sex, data collection instrument of the studies, place where they live and the process of senescence. Analisar a prevalência de quedas e da síndrome da fragilidade e a associação entre essas duas síndromes na população idosa. Revisão sistemática, sem restrição de datas, nos idiomas inglês, português e espanhol, nas bases de dados PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS e na biblioteca virtual SciElo. A associação entre ambas as variáveis foi extraída dos próprios artigos (Odds Ratio e os Intervalos de Confiança de 95%). Foram incluídos na revisão 19 artigos publicados entre 2001 e 2015. A prevalência de queda no idoso frágil esteve entre 6,7% e 44%; nos pré-frágeis, entre 10,0% e 52,0%, e nos não frágeis, entre 7,6% e 90,4%. A associação entre ambas as variáveis apresentou o valor de OR 1,80 (IC 95% 1,51-2,13). Há evidências de que a queda está associada à fragilidade do idoso. Outros fatores podem influenciar essa associação, como idade, sexo, instrumento de coleta de dados dos estudos, local onde vive e o próprio processo de senescência.

  10. Evaluation of the safety of hospitalized older adults as for the risk of falls.

    PubMed

    Sarges, Nathalia de Araújo; Santos, Maria Izabel Penha de Oliveira; Chaves, Emanuele Cordeiro

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the safety of hospitalized older adults as for the risk of falls according to the parameters of the Morse Fall Scale. Epidemiological, cross-sectional, prospective and descriptive study with n=75. Average age of 71.3 years (SD±8.2); 58.7% male; 44% with low educational level; 38.7% hospitalized for cardiovascular diseases; average hospitalization of 10 days (SD±9.38); 78.7% with comorbidities; 61.3% with the calf circumference ≥ 31 cm; 62.7% were former smokers for more than 10 years; 65% did not drink alcohol; 100% did not have identification bracelet; 22.7% had similar names in the infirmary; 48% took up to five medicines; and 93.3% received some invasive procedure, especially the vessel puncture (65.3%). There was a high risk of falls in 52% of older adults. The results pointed to imminent risk of breach of patient safety, emphasizing the need for implementation of protocols and predictive scales such as the Morse scale. Avaliar a segurança do idoso hospitalizado quanto ao risco para quedas segundo os parâmetros da Morse Fall Scale. Estudo epidemiológico, transversal, prospectivo, descritivo com n = 75. Média de idade de 71,3 anos (DP±8,2); 58,7% do sexo masculino; 44% com baixa escolaridade; 38,7% internados por doenças cardiovasculares; média de internação de 10 dias (DP±9,38); 78,7% com comorbidades; 61,3% com a circunferência da panturrilha ≥ 31cm; 62,7% eram ex-fumantes havia mais de 10 anos; 65% não ingeriam bebida alcoólica; 100% não possuíam pulseira de identificação; 22,7% possuíam nomes similares na enfermaria; 48% ingeriam até cinco medicamentos; 93,3% receberam algum procedimento invasivo, principalmente a punção de vaso (65,3%). Houve risco elevado para quedas em 52% dos idosos. Os resultados apontaram risco iminente da quebra de segurança do paciente, ressaltando a necessidade de implementação de protocolos e escalas preditivas, como a escala de Morse.

  11. Effects of supportive telephone counseling in the metabolic control of elderly people with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Becker, Tânia Alves Canata; Teixeira, Carla Regina de Souza; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Pace, Ana Emília; Almeida, Fábio Araújo; Torquato, Maria Teresa da Costa Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of telephone-based support for the metabolic control of elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. a pragmatic study was conducted in two groups, called G1 (n=36) and G2 (n=27), at a health unit from the countryside of São Paulo state. Patients in G1 group received telephone support over four months, through 16 telephone contacts with educational material; for the G2 group the educational material was mailed. significant differences were found. The G1 group showed a reduction of the parameters of fasting glucose, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure. In G2 group a modest reduction was noted in some parameters, with no significant difference. telephone support was effective to deliver patient education to the diabetic elderly, leading to the reduction of fasting blood glucose. This, combined with other strategies, can contribute to reduce glycated hemoglobin (NCT 01972412). avaliar a efetividade do suporte telefônico no controle metabólico de idosos com diabetes mellitus. estudo pragmático com 63 participantes, alocados em dois grupos, denominados G1(n=36) e G2(n=27), em uma unidade de saúde do interior paulista. O suporte telefônico foi oferecido, durante quatro meses, para o G1, por meio de 16 ligações telefônicas com conteúdo educativo, e, para o G2, foram enviadas correspondências por via postal. no G1 houve significância estatística na redução dos parâmetros das variáveis glicemia de jejum, pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica. No G2, houve redução discreta de algumas variáveis, mas sem significância estatística. o suporte telefônico foi considerado uma estratégia educativa efetiva para idosos com diabetes mellitus e favoreceu a redução da glicemia de jejum e, em conjunto com outras estratégias, pode agregar valor na redução da hemoglobina glicada (NCT 01972412).

  12. Functional health literacy and adherence to the medication in older adults: integrative review.

    PubMed

    Martins, Nidia Farias Fernandes; Abreu, Daiane Porto Gautério; Silva, Bárbara Tarouco da; Semedo, Deisa Salyse Dos Reis Cabral; Pelzer, Marlene Teda; Ienczak, Fabiana Souza

    2017-01-01

    to characterize the national and international scientific production on the relationship of Functional Health Literacy and the adherence to the medication in older adults. integrative review of literature, searching the following online databases: Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO); Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS); Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE); and Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), in June 2016. We selected 7 articles that obeyed the inclusion criteria. all articles are from the USA. The inappropriate Functional Health Literacy affects the non-adherence to medication; however, there are several strategies and interventions that can be practiced to change this relationship. nursing needs to explorefurther this theme, since it can exert a differentiated care for adherence to medication in older adults, considering the literacy. caracterizar a produção científica nacional e internacional sobre a relação do Letramento Funcional em Saúde e a adesão à medicação em idosos. revisão integrativa da literatura, com busca nas bases de dados on-line: Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO); Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS); Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE); e Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), no mês de junho de 2016. Foram selecionados 7 artigos que obedeceram aos critérios de inclusão. todos os artigos são internacionais e originários dos EUA. O Letramento Funcional em Saúde inadequado influencia para a não adesão à medicação, porém há diversas estratégias e intervenções que podem ser realizadas na prática para modificar essa relação. a enfermagem precisa explorar mais essa temática, visto que pode exercer um cuidado diferenciado para a adesão à medicação em idosos, levando em conta o letramento.

  13. Vestibular system paresis due to emergency endovascular catheterization.

    PubMed

    Simoceli, Lucinda; Sguillar, Danilo Anunciatto; Santos, Henrique Mendes Paiva; Caputti, Camilla

    2012-04-01

    Objetivo: O objetivo deste relato de caso é descrever uma causa incomum de vestibulopatia periférica associada à perda auditiva unilateral em paciente idoso pós- cateterismo de urgência.Relato de caso: Paciente do gênero masculino, 82 anos, submetido à correção de aneurisma roto de aorta abdominal, no intra-operatório sofreu infarto agudo do miocárdio necessitando de angioplastia primária. Após alta hospitalar refere queixa de hipoacusia acentuada à direita e vertigem incapacitante, sem sinais neurológicos focais. Ao exame clínico otorrinolaringológico apresentava: Teste de Weber lateralizado para a esquerda, nistagmo espontâneo para a esquerda , marcha oscilante, leve disbasia e ataxia, índex-nariz e diadococinesia normais, Teste de Romberg com oscilação sem queda e Fukuda com desvio lateral para a direita. O exame audiométrico evidenciava anacusia à direita e perda neurossensorial à esquerda em agudos, arreflexia vestibular à direita na prova calórica e, na tomografia computadorizada dos ossos temporais e tronco-encefálico, presença de haste metálica atravessando o osso temporal direito, a partir da veia jugular interna e bulbo jugular, atravessando os canais semicirculares posterior, superior e vestíbulo, projetando-se em lobo temporal. O diagnóstico radiológico foi lesão traumática por guia endovascular metálico durante cateterismo de urgência e a conduta, considerando que o paciente não havia compensado o equilíbrio, foi reabilitação vestibular.Conclusão: Queixas de tontura no paciente idoso devem ser criteriosamente avaliadas diante do seu histórico clínico patológico pois os antecedentes de doenças e tratamentos prévios, em geral, direcionam as hipóteses diagnósticas porém podem trazer alterações inesperadas.

  14. Factors associated with the functional capacity of older adults with leprosy.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Paula Sacha Frota; Marques, Marilia Braga; Coutinho, Janaina Fonseca Victor; Maia, Juliana Cunha; Silva, Maria Josefina da; Moura, Escolástica Rejane Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    to investigate the association between socio-demographic and clinical factors and the functional capacity of older adults with leprosy. cross-sectional analytical study conducted in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, with 77 older adult patients with leprosy in a referral service, through interview, medical records and application of the Katz Index and the Lawton and Brody Scale. the mean age was 68.23 years, with prevalence of men, in stable union/married, with mean monthly family income of 2.04 minimum wages, positive bacillary index, clinical dimorphic form and grade zero disability. In the Lawton and Brody scale, independence (58.5%) was predominant and associated to the variables "living arrangement" and "educational attainment". Total independence (87.0%) was predominant in the Katz Index and statistically associated to the variable monthly family income. most of the participants were classified as independent in the instruments used. Furthermore, the instruments pointed to a greater number of associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors not related to leprosy. investigar a associação de fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos à capacidade funcional de idosos com hanseníase. estudo transversal, analítico realizado em Fortaleza, Ceará, com 77 idosos com hanseníase acompanhados em serviço de referência, através de entrevista, consulta ao prontuário e aplicação do Índice de Katz e Escala de Lawton e Brody. a média de idade foi de 68,23 anos, com prevalência de sexo masculino, união estável/casado, renda familiar mensal média de 2,04 salários mínimos, índice baciloscópico positivo, forma clínica dimorfa e Grau de Incapacidade Física zero. Na escala de Lawton e Brody prevaleceu a independência (58,5%) com associação às variáveis "com quem reside" e "escolaridade". Destacou-se a independência total (87,0%) no índice de Katz, associando-se estatisticamente a variável renda familiar mensal. a maioria dos participantes mostrou

  15. Therapeutic nursing care: transition in sexuality of the elderly caregiving spouse.

    PubMed

    Lima, Claudia Feio da Maia; Caldas, Célia Pereira; Santos, Iraci Dos; Trotte, Liana Amorim Correa; Silva, Bárbara Martins Corrêa da

    2017-01-01

    To understand the transitions experienced, and the conditions and expected response patterns to changes in sexuality of the spouse-caregiver of the elderly, during progression of the dementia process. A qualitative research study, conducted at the neurogeriatric clinic between May of 2014 and May of 2015. An intensive, individual interview was administered to 12 elderly caregivers. Thematic content analysis was applied, using the theoretical model of Transition Theory. Seven categories emerged, involving relationship and conjugal sexuality; disease repercussions; care and professional approach; attitudes, beliefs and social imagery of sexuality and care; family relationship and redefining of sexuality. Family development and marital life, the aspects of formation and development of sexuality, the specifics that involved living and caring for the other were understood, with successive events and changes influenced by old age, dementia, beliefs and social imagery. compreender as transições vivenciadas, suas condições e os padrões de resposta esperados a mudanças na sexualidade do cônjuge-cuidador do idoso em processo demencial. pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, realizada no ambulatório de neurogeriatria, entre maio de 2014 e maio de 2015. Aplicou-se a entrevista individual e intensiva a 12 cônjuges-cuidadores de idosos. Fez-se a análise de conteúdo temática, com aplicação do modelo teórico da Teoria das Transições. emergiram sete categorias, que envolveram relação e sexualidade conjugal; repercussões da doença; o cuidado e a abordagem profissional; atitudes, crenças e imaginário social de sexualidade e cuidado; relação familiar e ressignificação de sexualidade. compreendeu-se a construção de vida familiar e conjugal; os aspectos de formação e desenvolvimento da sexualidade; as especificidades que envolvem viver e cuidar do outro, com sucessivos acontecimentos e mudanças influenciados pela velhice, por processo demencial, crenças e

  16. FOREWORD International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, Mário Ernesto Giroldo; Jackson, R. A.

    2010-11-01

    applications will be presented alongside fundamental measurements and theories. The main scientific areas included: 1 Fundamental physical phenomena Point and extended defects in wide band-gap systems: oxides, fluorides, nitrides, alkali- and silver-halides, perovskites, minerals, ceramics, nano-structures, organic molecular crystals, glasses, high-k and low-k materials, photonic crystals. 2 Defects at surfaces and interfaces Thin films and low-dimensional systems. Colloids, nano-crystals, and aggregates. Defects and material preparation technology. Defects modelling and computational methods. Radiation effects, radiation induced defects, colour centres. Luminescence of excitons, impurities, and defects. Electronic excitations, excited state dynamics, radiative and non-radiative relaxations. Scintillation, energy transfer and storage, carrier trapping phenomena. Non-linear optical phenomena. Laser active centres. Phonons and defects, electron-phonon interactions. Defect diffusion, ionic relaxations, ionic transport. 3 Technological applications Radiologic imaging and detection, scintillators, and dosimeters. Optical devices and photonics, photorefractive electro-optics, optical fibres, lasers. Materials for micro-electronics. Solid electrolytes, fuel cells, electrochemical sensors, fast ionic conductors. Conference chairpersons: Mário E G Valerio (Conference Chairman), Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, SE, Brasil Robert A Jackson (Programme Chairman), School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, UK Conference committees: International Advisory Committee R Capelletti, Italy A V Chadwick, UK J Corish, Ireland J D Comins, South Africa H W den Hartog, The Netherlands K Funke, Germany Robert A Jackson, UK O Kanert, Germany A A Kaplyanskii, Russia A Lushchik, Estonia F Lüty, USA M Moreno, Spain P E Ngoepe, South Africa M Nikl, Czech Republic S V Nistor, Romania Ch Pedrini, France O F Schirmer, Germany J-M Spaeth, Germany A M Stoneham, UK

  17. C2 System Engineering for the Adversities of the Amazon Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Bloco G, 2º andar Setor Militar Urbano Brasília-DF-Brasil 70630-901 tel: +55-61-3415-6139 kohlbr@yahoo.com.br kohl@cds.eb.mil.br Marcelo...Integration. (pp. 14). Paper at 17 th ICCRTS [8] Guedes, A.R. & Leite, R.M.O, (2012) Estudo de Viabilidade Técnica e Econômica da Tecnologia HAP em

  18. Does the Dragon Soar Higher than the Eagle?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    P35271.xml&xsl=/bras il/tpl/p10f.xsl&base=/brasil/tpl/top-bottom.xsl, 3–5. Bhagwati , J. In Defense of Globalization. New York: Oxford University Press...Relationship. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 1999. Li, He. Sino-LATAMSino-LATAMn Economic Relations. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1991 ...The Quest for Development Since 1949. Cary: Oxford University Press, 1991 . Rochlin, James. Discovering the Americas: The Evolution of Canadian Foreign

  19. Civilian-Military Relations in Latin America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    exercise of human, political, and social rights by individuals and groups in a democracy. the combination of threats in contemporary Central...and the 39 percent concern level was the highest of any country in latin america regarding crime. in “the age of insecurity; violence and Social ...Brasil y Chile en la reconstruccion de Haiti: intereses y motivaciones en la participacion conjunta,” paper prepared for latin american Studies

  20. Experimental Investigations on Beamed Energy Aerospace Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    28th International Symposium on Shock Waves – ISSW 2011, Manchester, UK, July 2011. Minucci, M. A. S. and Toro, P. G. P. ―O Brasil e o Futuro do...Acesso ao Espaço,‖ IN Espaço Exterior: Ciência, Tecnologia , Ambiente e Sociedade, Ricco, M. F. F., Funari, P. A. and Carvalho, A. V., Editors, Editora

  1. Counterinsurgency in Brazil: Lessons of the Fighting from 1968 to 1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-12

    intelligence for the conduction of the government. "ABIN: 80 years of Intelligence Activity in Brazil," ABIN. Presidencia da Republica . Gabinete de...Oficial Biography (President Lula Official Biography)," Secretaria de lmprensa. Secretaria de Comunicacao Social. Presidencia da Republica . Brasilia D.F...2010). 59 Brasil, Presidencia da Republica . "Estrutura do Governo Federal (Structure of the Federal Government)," Ministerios online. http

  2. Counterinsurgency in Brazil: Lessons of the Fighting from 1968 to 1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    80 years of Intelligence Activity in Brazil,” ABIN. Presidencia da Republica . Gabinete de Seguranca Institucional. Agencia Brasileira de...Imprensa. Secretaria de Comunicacao Social. Presidencia da Republica . Brasilia D.F.: Press Office, 2010. http://www.info.planalto.gov.br/download...January 09, 2010). 59 Brasil, Presidencia da Republica . “Estrutura do Governo Federal (Structure of the Federal Government),” Ministerios online. http

  3. [Humanized support in emergency: a challenge for nursing].

    PubMed

    Dal Pai, Daiane; Lautert, Liana

    2005-01-01

    This experience report describes the humanized support given by the nurse in the attendance to patients in eminently critical health situation in the Emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre (Brasil). The proposal was based on Jean Watson theory. The experience gave moments for personal and professional self-knowledge, and thoughts concerning the possibilities of construction of interpersonal humanist process in the emergency environment as well. Yet, it was possible to identify some limitations of the theory options referent to its practical applicability.

  4. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) konderi Galvao and Damasceno: Neotype Designation and Resurrection from Synonymy with Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) oswaldoi (Peryassu) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-07

    AND RESURRECTION FROM SYNONYMY WITH ANOPHELES (NYSSORHYNCHUS) OSWALDOI (PERYASSU) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) CARMEN FLORES -MENDOZA, E. L. PEYTON, RICHARD C...Amazonas, Brazil, specimen 1629, 15-VIII-1998, C. Flores -Mendoza coil., deposited at Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC), Rio de Janeiro, Bra- zil...Hygiene, Monographic Series 18. 1948. Notas sobre a distribui•fio e a biologia dos anofelinos das Regi6es Nordestina e Amaz6n- ica do Brasil

  5. Coding Complete Genome for the Mogiana Tick Virus, a Jingmenvirus Isolated from Ticks in Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-04

    unsegmented viruses of the genus Flavivirus (1). Although the Jingmenvirus group has only recently been recognized, with the first virus descriptions...Coding Complete Genome for the Mogiana Tick virus , a Jingmenvirus isolated from ticks in Brazil Erika C Villaa, Sandra R Maruyamab, Isabel KF de...Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil Abstract Mogiana tick virus (MGTV) is a segmented Jingmenvirus isolated in 2011 from cattle ticks in Brazil. Here, we

  6. Coding Complete Genome for the Mogiana Tick Virus, a Jingmenvirus Isolated from Ticks in Brazil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-20

    unsegmented viruses of the genus Flavivirus (1). Although the Jingmenvirus group has only recently been recognized, with the first virus descriptions...Coding Complete Genome for the Mogiana Tick virus , a Jingmenvirus isolated from ticks in Brazil Erika C Villaa, Sandra R Maruyamab, Isabel KF de...Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil Abstract Mogiana tick virus (MGTV) is a segmented Jingmenvirus isolated in 2011 from cattle ticks in Brazil. Here, we

  7. Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Annual Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1981.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    COL Richard N. Miller, M.D. 266 3. "Outbreak of Norwalk-like Agent Gastroenteritis Among Residents and Staff of a Nursing Home in Frederick, Maryland...Hasanuddin University, Ujung Pandang, Indonesia, August 1981. 282 9. Echeverria, P.E. New Developments in Viral Gastroenteritis . Children’s Hospital...vigilancia de las enfermedades infecciosas en zonas colindantes con la Carretera Transamazonica en Brasil. I. Ecologia de la Region. Bulletin of the Pan

  8. Brazil and the Vital South Atlantic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Weekly, p. 42-45 London 7 April 1984 Dzidzienyo, Anani. Relaciones Africanas y Latino Americanos Contemnporaneas: Problemas y Perspectivas . Brown...Resources to Carry on a War, Officers Say " New York Times, p. 1. 14 May 1984 Hayes, Margaret D. Brazil y el Atlantico Sur: cambios en las perspectivas de...Alfredo. "Marinha de Brasil: Atnalidodes e Perspectivas ." (Lecture on the Brazilian Naval War College.) Rio de Janeiro, Braz~I. 31 Agosto 1984. Kelly

  9. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-18

    America- United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), by J. F. Hornbeck, CRS Report R40135, Mérida Initiative for Mexico and Central America: Funding and...January 27, 2009. 13 Ibid; Alberto Fajardo, “Funes quiere gobernar cerca Brasil y EEUU,” Reuters, March 16, 2009; “ Presidente electo El Salvador...for Mexico and Central America, by Colleen W. Cook and Clare Ribando Seelke. 26 It is unclear how much bilateral and Mérida Initiative assistance

  10. CEN A observation at MeV-energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballmoos, P. V.; Diehl, R.; Schoenfelder, V.

    1985-01-01

    During a balloon flight with the MPI Compton telescope from Uberaba/Brasil gamma-ray emission from the direction of Cen A was observed at MeV-energies. The observed flux connects to the X-ray spectrum of Cen A beyond 0.7 MeV and has a statistical significance of 4.1. The extension beyond 3 MeV has a significance of 3.8. Possible interpretations of the energy spectrum are discussed.

  11. [Microscopic examination of Guaraná powder--Paullinia cupana Kunth].

    PubMed

    Schäfer, A T

    1999-01-01

    Guaraná is a product from the seeds of the Amazonian liana Paullinia cupana that is also cultivated since a couple of years. It is rich in caffeine and serves in Brasil for the production of stimulants, soft drinks, and sweets. In the drug scene it is sometimes trafficked as natural stimulant or drug surrogate. Microscopic examination shows the presence of starch and tannins and provides a simple, quick and cheap method to distinguish guaraná from drugs of abuse.

  12. Mossbauer Characterization of Iron Oxide Nanoclusters Grown within Aluminosilicate Matrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    2Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas , Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. 3Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas , Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. ABSTRACT...nanoclusters. Zeolitic and sol-gel derived molecular sieves and a variety of cross-linked and block co-polymers have been used to this purpose [1-41. The...Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and the NSF: DMR 0074537 for support. Figures 1 and 2 ame reprinted with permission from reference [I]. Copyright 2001

  13. Computerized System to Aid Deaf Children in Speech Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    Nohama Programa de Pós-Graduação em Informática Aplicada/Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná Rua Imaculada Conceição 1155, 80215-901, Curitiba...de Pós-Graduação em Informática Aplicada/Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná Rua Imaculada Conceição 1155, 80215-901, Curitiba, PR, Brasil

  14. [Atypical presentation of cutaneous sporotrichosis in an alcoholic patient].

    PubMed

    Nassif, Priscila Wolf; Granado, Inandiara Rafaela Marco de Oliveira; Ferraz, Juliana Soares; Souza, Robson; Nassif, Aissar Eduardo

    2012-06-15

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis with a high prevalence in Brasil. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii, and may lead to different clinical presentations. The disseminated cutaneous form is uncommon and corresponds to 4 percent of the total number of cases. We report a case of atypical disseminated sporotrichosis in an alcoholic patient, whose culture for fungi revealed the presence of Sporothrix schenckii. The patient was treated with itraconazole 200 mg/day for 6 months with clinical clearing.

  15. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross section of {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, P. N. de; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Pires, K. C. C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Barioni, A.; Morcelle, V.; Morais, M. C.; Camargo, O. Jr.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Moro, A. M.; Arazi, A.; Rodriguez-Gallardo, M.; Assuncao, M.

    2010-04-15

    The elastic scattering of {sup 6}He on {sup 120}Sn has been measured at four energies above the Coulomb barrier using the {sup 6}He beam produced at the RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil) facility. The elastic angular distributions have been analyzed with the optical model and three- and four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations. The total reaction cross sections have been derived and compared with other systems of similar masses.

  16. New species of Triplocania Roesler with forewing M3 forked (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-07-16

    Four new Brazilian species of Triplocania with forewing M3 forked are described and illustrated based on male specimens, namely: Triplocania lamasi n.sp. (Mato Grosso: Brazil), Triplocania mariateresae n.sp. (Rio de Janeiro: Brazil), Triplocania newi n.sp. (Tocantins: Brazil) and Triplocania plaumanni n.sp. (Santa Catarina: Brasil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures.

  17. [Structure of hair on the head and other parts fo body in Latin Americans].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, Iu V

    2000-01-01

    The structure of hairs from the head, chest, armpits, and pubis of residents of Latin America (Bolivia, Salvador, Panama, Ecuador, Chile, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Peru, Brasil, and Mexico) has been studied. New data on macro- and microscopic characteristics of hairs of the population of the above countries were obtained (color, shape, length, thickness of hair; number of cuticle lines; characteristics of hair layers, shapes of transverse sections, etc.).

  18. Projected BCS-Tamm-Dancoff approximation with blocking effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, H.; Krmpotić, F.

    1982-05-01

    The blocking effect is introduced through a canonical transformation in the projected BCS-Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is suggested that the blocking effect may play an important role in the description of the low-lying states in odd-mass nuclei. Present address: Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. Member of Carrera de Investigador Científico, CONICET, Argentina. Sponsored by Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), Brasil.

  19. The Large Quasar Reference Frame (LQRF). An Optical Representation of the ICRS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    A&A 505, 385–404 (2009) DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912041 c© ESO 2009 Astronomy & Astrophysics The large quasar reference frame (LQRF) An optical...RJ, Brasil Received 12 March 2009 / Accepted 20 May 2009 ABSTRACT Context. The large number and all-sky distribution of quasars from different...surveys, along with their presence in large , deep astro- metric catalogs, enables us to build of an optical materialization of the International Celestial

  20. The War Against Generational Poverty: A Comparative Study of Conditional Cash Transfer Programs in Brazil, Chile, and Jamaica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Revista de Ciências Sociais, 47, no. 1 (2004): 155–56, http://www.scielo.br/pdf/dados/v47n1/a04v47n1. 39 Montero, Brazil: Reversal of Fortune...Kinzo. “Partidos, Políticos, Preferência Partidária e Decisão Eleitoral no Brasil (1989/2002).” DADOS - Revista de Ciências Sociais, 47, no. 1 (2004

  1. Redescription of the Monotypic Neotropical Genus Crepititermes Emerson (Termitidae: Termitinae).

    PubMed

    Rocha, M M; Cuezzo, C

    2015-10-01

    Based on a reexamination of specimens of Crepititermes Emerson deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil (MZUSP), we characterize the morphology and coiling in situ of the digestive tube of workers of Crepititermes verruculosus Emerson for the first time. We provide additional notes on the imago and soldier and present digital images and illustrations for all castes. We also update the currently known geographical distribution of C. verruculosus, adding some biological remarks.

  2. Brazil: Colossus of the Sun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    restaurants. Cariocas, as the residents of Rio are called, enjoy their passions: scenic beaches, notorious carnivals , and futebol (soccer). The popularity of...say: "It’s about the size of Germany, the capital is Rio de Janeiro, and they speak Spanish." Many are surprised to learn that Brazil is bigger than...Portuguese spelling of this country is "Brasil." However, sunny Rio was the capital from 1822 to 1960 and was actually the seat of the Portuguese

  3. Associations of Arbovirus Vectors with Gallery Forests and Domestic Environments in Southeastern Bolivia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    was to ectab!Ish four two-man teams of collectors and to make collections at one-hour intervals. Following this plan , one member of each team climbed...Shroyer. R. B. Tesh. J. E. 350 PAHO BULLETIN l vof. 18, no. 4, 1984 Frejer. and J. C. Lien. Transovarial transmission of Brasil: IV. Estudio ...3):689- 698. 1981. (10) Roberts. D. R.. A. L. Hoch. N. E. Peterson, and F. P. Pinheiro. Programa multidisciplinario de vigilancia de las

  4. The influence of cloud cover index on the accuracy of solar irradiance model estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F. R.; Silva, S. A. B.; Pereira, E. B.; Abreu, S. L.

    2008-04-01

    Cloud cover index ( CCI) obtained from satellite images contains information on cloud amount and their optical thickness. It is the chief climate data for the assessment of solar energy resources in most radiative transfer models, particularly for the model BRASIL-SR that is currently operational at CPTEC. The wide range of climate environments in Brazil turns CCI determination into a challenging activity and great effort has been directed to develop new methods and procedures to improve the accuracy of these estimations from satellite images (Martins 2001; Martins et al. 2003a; Ceballos et al. 2004). This work demonstrates the influence of CCI determination methods on estimates of surface solar irradiances obtained by the model BRASIL-SR comparing deviations among ground data and model results. Three techniques using visible and/or thermal infrared images of GOES-8 were employed to generate the CCI for input into the model BRASIL-SR. The ground-truth data was provided by the solar radiation station located at Caicó/PE, in Brazilian Northeast region, which is part of the UNEP/GEF project SWERA (Solar and Wind Energy Resources Assessment). Results have shown that the application of the bi-spectral techniques have reduced mean bias error up to 66% and root mean square error up to 50% when compared to the usual technique for CCI determination based on the straightforward determination of month-by-month extremes for maximum and minimum cloud states.

  5. [Factors that influence the sexuality of the elderly: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Alencar, Danielle Lopes de; Marques, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Leal, Márcia Carréra Campos; Vieira, Júlia de Cássia Miguel

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze the scientific evidence addressing the factors that influence the sexuality of the elderly. It involved an online search carried out in pairs, including original articles published between 2006 and October 2011 in Portuguese, English or Spanish, which fulfilled the requirements of the study. The MEDLINE, LILACS, CidSaúde and BDENF databases were used with the key words: sexualidade e idoso / sexuality and elderly / sexualidad y anciano. The articles selected were assessed for methodological quality using two instruments, namely CASP and the Hierarchical Classification of Evidence. After analysis, 15 articles were included in the review, which discuss the culture of asexuality of the elderly, whereby the experience of sexuality only prevails among younger people. The absence of the partner due to widowhood, attributing value to beauty standards of the young, the occurrence of disease, use of medication, and changes in sexual physiology were identified as important factors that influence the sexuality of the elderly. The conclusion drawn is that social and cultural factors, changes in body physiology, and the occurrence of disease interfere with the sexuality of the elderly, making it necessary for nursing professionals to be proactive in debunking myths and providing orientation.

  6. [Public policies for the elderly in Brazil: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luana Machado; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Pinheiro, Gleide Magali Lemos; Meira, Edmeia Campos; Lira, Lais Santana Santos Pereira

    2013-12-01

    This paper is an integrative review analyzing the scientific production and legal documents regarding public policies for the elderly in Brazil. Research was conducted in the Virtual Health Library and Scopus databases, examining publications since 2003. Data were collected from June to September of 2011 using the following key words: "elderly" (idosos), "public policies" (políticas públicas), "elderly person" (pessoa idosa), "aging" (envelhecimento) and "civic participation" (participação cidadã). The search resulted in the selection of 15 articles and six legal documents targeted at the elderly in Brazil that were submitted to content analysis by categorization. The results revealed that aging in Brazil has occurred in the midst of adaptations entrenched in cultural biases, social, economic and educational discrepancies and the implementation of public welfare policies. There were few studies that indicated the importance of strengthening social movements that elicit discussion related to the elderly in Brazil. The conclusion reached is that the study will provide material for reflection about the construction of a new reality about aging in Brazil.

  7. Changes in frailty conditions and phenotype components in elderly after hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Gianna Fiori; Tavares, Darlene Mara Dos Santos

    2017-07-10

    describing the changes in frailty conditions over the period of a year after hospital discharge, verifying predictive variables for changes in frailty conditions and frailty phenotype components according to worsening, improving and stable groups. a longitudinal survey carried out with 129 elderly. A structured form for socioeconomic and health data, scales (Geriatric Depression Scale - short form, Katz scale, Lawton and Brody scale) and frailty phenotype according to Fried were used. Descriptive analysis and multinomial logistic regression model (p<0.05) were performed. we found that 56.7% of older adults changed their condition from non-frail to pre-frail, with no changes from non-frail to frail. Deaths were found between frail and pre-frail elderly. In the worsening group, the increase in the number of morbidities was a predictor for exhaustion and/or fatigue, while in the improving group, increased dependence on instrumental activities of daily living was a predictor for weight loss, and reduced scores indicative of depression due to low level of physical activity. a greater percentage of changes from non-frail condition to pre-frail older adults were observed, and health variables were only predictive for frailty phenotype components. descrever as mudanças nas condições de fragilidade ao longo de um ano após a alta hospitalar, e verificar as variáveis preditoras da mudança das condições de fragilidade e dos componentes do fenótipo de fragilidade, segundo grupos de piora, melhora e estabilidade. inquérito longitudinal, realizado com 129 idosos. Utilizou-se formulário estruturado para dados socioeconômicos e saúde, escalas (Depressão Geriátrica Abreviada, Katz, Lawton e Brody) e fenótipo de fragilidade, segundo Fried. Procederam-se às análises descritiva e modelo de regressão logística multinomial (p<0,05). constatou-se que 56,7% dos idosos mudaram sua condição de não frágeis para pré-frágeis, não ocorrendo mudança dos não fr

  8. Quality of life and its association with work, the Internet, participation in groups and physical activity among the elderly from the EpiFloripa survey, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Larissa Pruner; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2016-12-22

    The study aimed to investigate the association between changes in social relations and physical activity on the quality of life of the elderly in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Data on 1,197 elderly from two waves of the population and household survey, EpiFloripa Idoso, were analyzed. Multiple linear regression was performed to estimate association of social change variables and lifestyle on quality of life score (QoL; measured by CASP-16 Brazil, score can range from 0, which represents no QoL to 48, total satisfaction in all domains of CASP). The average QoL score in the sample was 37.6 (95%CI: 37.2; 38.1). The social relations that were associated with positive QoL score were to start to work, to continue to use the Internet, to start participating in religious or lifestyle groups, to remain and to become physically active, and for those who were physically active, but became inactive in the second wave. To remain living with family had a negative effect on QoL score for the elderly. Some changes in social relations had a positive effect on QoL, and results reaffirmed the importance of physical activity to healthy aging, since to pursue it in some of the waves was better than to remain inactive.

  9. [Training professionals for delivering ingreated health care to the aged: the interdisciplinary experience of NAI - UNATI/UERJ].

    PubMed

    da Motta, Luciana Branco; Caldas, Célia Pereira; de Assis, Mônica

    2008-01-01

    The training of professionals in the field of healthcare for the aged is one of the priorities of the national policy for the aged in Brazil due to the accelerated aging of the population. The Núcleo de Atenção ao Idoso (NAI), a unit of the Open University of the Third Age/UERJ (UNATI/UERJ) develops an educational program in this field, based on practical care delivery with emphasis to inter-disciplinarity and teamwork. The program includes different training levels and modalities: Residency, Specialization, Professional Practice and Graduation. The program includes an introductory course in gerontology and geriatrics common to all areas, and specific theoretical-practical qualification coordinated by the professional staff from the respective areas. The practical activities occur in different sceneries: long term care institutions, health promotion educational settings, outpatient facilities and the university hospital. Interdisciplinary thinking and acting is a continuous exercise, and the team should be open to innovative strategies. The experience is a contribution to the increasing social demand for qualified professionals committed with the principles of the Unified Health System and integrated health care.

  10. Drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions in polypharmacy among older adults: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Maria Cristina Soares; Oliveira, Cesar de

    2016-09-01

    to identify and summarize studies examining both drug-drug interactions (DDI) and adverse drug reactions (ADR) in older adults polymedicated. an integrative review of studies published from January 2008 to December 2013, according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, in MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases were performed. forty-seven full-text studies including 14,624,492 older adults (≥ 60 years) were analyzed: 24 (51.1%) concerning ADR, 14 (29.8%) DDI, and 9 studies (19.1%) investigating both DDI and ADR. We found a variety of methodological designs. The reviewed studies reinforced that polypharmacy is a multifactorial process, and predictors and inappropriate prescribing are associated with negative health outcomes, as increasing the frequency and types of ADRs and DDIs involving different drug classes, moreover, some studies show the most successful interventions to optimize prescribing. DDI and ADR among older adults continue to be a significant issue in the worldwide. The findings from the studies included in this integrative review, added to the previous reviews, can contribute to the improvement of advanced practices in geriatric nursing, to promote the safety of older patients in polypharmacy. However, more research is needed to elucidate gaps. identificar e sintetizar estudos que examinam as interações medicamentosas (IM) e reações adversas a medicamentos (RAM) em idosos polimedicados. revisão integrativa de estudos publicados de janeiro de 2008 a dezembro de 2013, de acordo com critérios de inclusão e exclusão, nas bases de dados eletrônicas MEDLINE e EMBASE. foram analisados 47 estudos de texto completo, incluindo 14,624,492 idosos (≥ 60 anos): 24 (51,1%) sobre RAM, 14 (29,8%) sobre IM e 9 estudos (19,1%) que investigaram tanto IM como RAM. Encontramos uma variedade de desenhos metodológicos. Os estudos revisados reforçaram que a polifarmácia é um processo multifatorial, e os preditores e a prescrição inadequada estão associados a

  11. Quality of life evaluation of frail elderly in Campinas, São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Varela, Flávia Regina de Andrade; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita; Campolina, Alessandro Gonçalves; Soarez, Patricia Coelho de

    2015-01-01

    describe the quality of life of frail elderly assisted by the Centro de Referência à Saúde do Idoso (CRI), Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. the convenience sample included 122 frail elderly being treated from January 2010 to July 2011, out of a total of 668 frail elderly who were referred to the CRI after application of the brief evaluation form of the elderly, recommended by Ministry of Health, which identifies the elderly with some degree of frailty. Descriptive observational study collected data through sociodemographic questionnaire and quality of life questionnaires: WHOQOL-BREF, WHOQOLOLD and SF-36. the study included 122 frail elderly. Of these, 74.6% (91) were female, mean age 73 years, 46.7% (57) were married, 51.6% (63) had less than 3 years of schooling and 87.7% (107) reported income of one to four minimum wages. The mean total score of the WHOQOL-BREF was 56.6, the WHOQOL-OLD 57.6 and SF-36 Physical Component Summary 34.5 and Mental Component Summary 43.6. knowledge of the impairment profile of quality of life among frail elderly is, therefore, essential for planning health care to this population.

  12. Self-perception of oral health in older adults from an urban population in Lisbon, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Catarina; Manso, Ana Cristina; Escoval, Ana; Salvado, Francisco; Nunes, Carla

    2016-08-22

    To analyze if the self-perception of oral health in the urban context is associated with sociodemographic factors that interfere in the life quality of oral health. Cross-sectional study with convenience sample of older individuals (65 years old or more) enrolled in the Agrupamento de Centros de Saúde de Lisboa Norte (ACES Lisboa Norte - Health Centers Groupings North Lisbon). The self-perception of oral health and associated life quality was evaluated by the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index and the individuals were classified according to sociodemographic characteristics. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha (α). Later, we used binary logistic regression models to characterize the factors associated with the self-perception of oral health, considering the sociodemographic variables and the older adults' clinical conditions of oral health and establishing the crude and adjusted (to age) odds ratios and their 90% confidence intervals. A total of 369 older adults participated in this study, with an average age of 74.2 years (SD = 6.75); 62.9% were female. On average, the index was moderated, with tendency to be high: 32.9 (SD = 3.6; 12-36 interval). The Cronbach's alpha was high: 0.805. Age, marital status, and the last dental appointment were the factors significantly associated with self-perception of oral health. The study shows that these individuals have a moderate, with tendency to high, self-perception of oral health. The self-perception of oral health assessment allowed us to identify the main associated sociodemographic factors. This instrument can help guiding planning strategies and oral health promotion directed toward a better life quality for this population group. Analisar se a autopercepção de saúde bucal em contexto urbano está associada aos factores sociodemográficos que interferem na qualidade de vida da saúde bucal. Estudo transversal com amostra de conveniência de indivíduos idosos (65

  13. Using High-Speed Video Images to Obtain Peak Current Estimates from Natural CG Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraiva, A. C. V.; Antunes, L.; Campos, L. Z. D. S.; Pinto, O., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Using high-speed camera data from the RAMMER network, we were able to estimate image-based peak current of some strokes within selected CG flashes. The intent of this work was the establishment of a relationship between the luminosity of the bottom portion of the channel and peak current data from BrasilDAT lightning detection network. The high-speed camera dataset was obtained during the campaign of 2013, in São José dos Campos, Brazil. We choose the videos containing flash multiplicities greater than 10, with visible channel and unsaturated pixels at the return stroke moment. Although new channels were presented in most of the cases, we needed at least 10 strokes that hit the same ground contact point. We ended up with five flashes and 90 individual strokes that met the conditions established for this initial investigation. All five flashes had also, at least, five strokes detected by BrasilDAT, which allowed us to test our methodology. For all flashes we also acquired their waveforms recorded by individual and nearby sensors. The peak current estimates of BrasilDAT were recently compared with older LLS networks with positive results. Also, the waveforms recorded by BrasilDAT individual sensors proved to be useful in the determination of some characteristics of bipolar flashes recorded in the same region. The initial results indicate a positive linear trend between the integrated luminosity of the return strokes and the absolute of the peak current (and also the peak E-field), with R2 > 0.78 for three cases and 0,67 for another one. There was only one case where we didn't find any correlation at all. Since the return stroke intensities were close to the saturation of the CMOS sensor, that may have been the cause of the non-correlation. For each flash, a different linear fit was found. This was somewhat expected since all flashes had their strokes connected to the ground at different distances from the camera and the rain can also interfere with the measurements

  14. Reducing non-communicable disease via better detection of hypertension and alcohol problems in primary health care in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Gmel, Gerrit; Sierra, Cristina; Gual, Antoni

    2016-09-29

    With help of a simulation study, the potential effects of better detection of hypertension and improved screening for alcohol problems with subsequent interventions were estimated.  Results showed, that if 50% of Spanish men between 40 and 64 years of age currently not aware of their hypertension could be made aware of their condition and received usual interventions, and 50% among men with hypertension would be screened for alcohol and received interventions for hazardous drinking or treatment for alcohol use disorders, the percentage of uncontrolled hypertension among men with hypertension would decrease from 61.2% to 55.9%, i.e. by 8.6%.  Similarly, for women, these interventions would decrease the percentage of women in the same age group with uncontrolled hypertension by 7.4%.  The reduction of blood pressure in the population would lead to the avoidance of 412 premature CVD deaths (346 in men, 66 in women).  Better detection of hypertension and screening for alcohol with subsequent interventions would thus result in marked reductions of uncontrolled hypertension, and CVD mortality.Abstract in Spanish:Se estudian mediante un estudio de simulación los potenciales beneficios que puede comportar una mejora en la detección y tratamiento tanto de la hipertensión, como de los problemas relacionados con el alcohol. Los resultados muestran que si el 50% de los varones españoles entre 40 y 64 años que padecen hipertensión y no lo saben, fuesen detectados y recibiesen tratamiento; y si en el 50% de los varones hipertensos se realizase el cribado de consumo alcohólico y recibieran consejo para la reducción de consumos o tratamiento cuando procediera, el porcentaje de hipertensión no controlada descendería del 61,2% al 55,9% (disminuirá en un 8,6%). De forma similar, las mismas intervenciones en mujeres de los mismos grupos etarios implicarían una reducción del 7,4% de la hipertensión no controlada. La reducción de la presión arterial en la poblaci

  15. Perception of body image of adolescents and of their parents in relation to the nutritional status and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Silveira Vieira, Raquel; Dal Bosco, Simone Morelo; Grave, Magali Trezinha Quevedo; Adami, Fernanda Scherer

    2015-04-01

    La percepción de la imagen corporal de los adolescentes de un instrumento para la evaluación nutricional de las condiciones de salud. Objetivo: Verificar la percepción de la imagen corporal de los adolescentes y sus padres en relación con los niveles de estado y la presión arterial nutricionales. Métodos: Estudio poblacional, y el modelo de la sección transversal, realizada con los padres y adolescentes de 10 a 19 años de edad, en las zonas rurales y urbanas en las escuelas públicas. Se aplicó la Escala de siluetas de los padres acerca de la percepción de la imagen corporal descrita y una pregunta acerca de la preocupación de la situación nutricional de sus hijos. No se verificaron la circunferencia de la presión arterial, peso, altura y cintura, el IMC (kg / m²) cálculo de los adolescentes, y la imagen corporal de la percepción subjetiva. Los datos se expresaron como media ± desviación estándar y porcentajes. Resultados: La muestra estuvo constituida por 914 adolescentes con una edad media de 13,12 ± 2,17 años, 56,8% mujeres y 68,9% eran eutróficos. En cuanto a los niveles de presión arterial, el 17,6% fueron clasificados en pre-hipertensos, 18,8% en la etapa 1 de hipertensión y el 6% en la etapa 2. Sobre la percepción de sí mismo, el 68% se consideraban ser eutróficos y 64,75% de los padres a sus hijos como clasificado eutróficos. No se observó una correlación directa y significativa entre el índice de masa corporal, circunferencia de la cintura, el peso, la presión arterial sistémica y diastólica con la auto-percepción de los adolescentes y la percepción de imagen corporal de los padres (p.

  16. Quality of Life on Arterial Hypertension: Validity of Known Groups of MINICHAL.

    PubMed

    Soutello, Ana Lúcia Soares; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Jannuzzi, Fernanda Freire; São-João, Thaís Moreira; Martinix, Gabriela Giordano; Nadruz Jr, Wilson; Gallani, Maria-Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2015-02-27

    Introductions: In the care of hypertension, it is important that health professionals possess available tools that allow evaluating the impairment of the health-related quality of life, according to the severity of hypertension and the risk for cardiovascular events. Among the instruments developed for the assessment of health-related quality of life, there is the Mini-Cuestionario of Calidad de Vida en la Hipertensión Arterial (MINICHAL) recently adapted to the Brazilian culture. Objective: To estimate the validity of known groups of the Brazilian version of the MINICHAL regarding the classification of risk for cardiovascular events, symptoms, severity of dyspnea and target-organ damage. Methods: Data of 200 hypertensive outpatients concerning sociodemographic and clinical information and health-related quality of life were gathered by consulting the medical charts and the application of the Brazilian version of MINICHAL. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare health-related quality of life in relation to symptoms and target-organ damage. The Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA with ranks transformation were used to compare health-related quality of life in relation to the classification of risk for cardiovascular events and intensity of dyspnea, respectively. Results: The MINICHAL was able to discriminate health-related quality of life in relation to symptoms and kidney damage, but did not discriminate health-related quality of life in relation to the classification of risk for cardiovascular events. Conclusion: The Brazilian version of the MINICHAL is a questionnaire capable of discriminating differences on the health‑related quality of life regarding dyspnea, chest pain, palpitation, lipothymy, cephalea and renal damage.Fundamento: No cuidado ao hipertenso, é importante que o profissional de saúde disponha de ferramentas que possibilitem avaliar o comprometimento da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, de acordo com a gravidade da hipertensão e o risco

  17. The Effect of Physical Resistance Training on Baroreflex Sensitivity of Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Moisés Felipe Pereira; Borges, Mariana Eiras; Rossi, Vitor de Almeida; Moura, Elizabeth de Orleans C de; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Baroreceptors act as regulators of blood pressure (BP); however, its sensitivity is impaired in hypertensive patients. Among the recommendations for BP reduction, exercise training has become an important adjuvant therapy in this population. However, there are many doubts about the effects of resistance exercise training in this population. To evaluate the effect of resistance exercise training on BP and baroreceptor sensitivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Rats SHR (n = 16) and Wistar (n = 16) at 8 weeks of age, at the beginning of the experiment, were randomly divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (CS, n = 8); trained control (CT, n = 8); sedentary SHR (HS, n = 8) and trained SHR (HT, n = 8). Resistance exercise training was performed in a stairmaster-type equipment (1.1 × 0.18 m, 2 cm between the steps, 80° incline) with weights attached to their tails, (5 days/week, 8 weeks). Baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate (HR) was tested by loading/unloading of baroreceptors with phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Resistance exercise training increased the soleus muscle mass in SHR when compared to HS (HS 0.027 ± 0.002 g/mm and HT 0.056 ± 0.003 g/mm). Resistance exercise training did not alter BP. On the other hand, in relation to baroreflex sensitivity, bradycardic response was improved in the TH group when compared to HS (HS -1.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg and HT -2.6 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg) although tachycardia response was not altered by resistance exercise (CS -3.3 ± 0.2 bpm/mmHg, CT -3.3 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg, HS -1.47 ± 0.06 bpm/mmHg and HT -1.6 ± 0.1 bpm/mmHg). Resistance exercise training was able to promote improvements on baroreflex sensitivity of SHR rats, through the improvement of bradycardic response, despite not having reduced BP. Os barorreceptores atuam como reguladores da pressão arterial (PA); no entanto, sua sensibilidade encontra-se prejudicada em pacientes hipertensos. Dentre as recomendações para a redução da PA, o treinamento f

  18. Kinetics of Hypotension during 50 Sessions of Resistance and Aerobic Training in Hypertensive Patients: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Damorim, Igor Rodrigues; Santos, Tony Meireles; Barros, Gustavo Willames Pimentel; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Cavalcanti

    2017-04-01

    tempo e do tipo de treinamento em hipertensos. Foram recrutados 69 hipertensos com idade média de 63,4 ± 2,1 anos, randomizados em um grupo de treinamento de força (n = 32) e outro de treinamento aeróbio (n = 32). Foram realizadas medidas antropométricas e testes de uma repetição máxima (1RM). A pressão arterial (PA) foi medida antes de cada sessão de treinamento com um aparelho de pressão digital de braço. As 50 sessões de treinamento foram categorizadas em quintis. Para comparar o efeito da redução da PA entre os métodos de treinamentos (between), utilizamos análise de covariância (ANCOVA) bifatorial ajustada para os valores de PA pré-intervenção. As diferenças entre os momentos foram estabelecidas por análise de variância (ANOVA) unifatorial. As reduções na PA sistólica (PAS) e diastólica (PAD) foram de 6,9 mmHg e 5,3 mmHg, respectivamente, com o treinamento de força e 16,5 mmHg e 11,6 mmHg, respectivamente, com o treinamento aeróbio. A cinética hipotensiva da PAS apresentou reduções significativas até a 20ª sessão em ambos os grupos. Observou-se estabilização da PAD na 20ª sessão com o treinamento de força e na 10ª sessão com o aeróbio. São necessárias 20 sessões de treinamento de força ou aeróbio para alcance dos benefícios máximos de redução da PA. Os métodos investigados proporcionaram padrões cinéticos adaptativos distintos ao longo das 50 sessões.

  19. [Hypofractionation in locally advanced breast cancer: "flash" scheme].

    PubMed

    Padilha, Marisa; Gonçalves, Sara; Fardilha, Carlos; Melo, Gilberto; Miranda, Cristina; Alves, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: O carcinoma da mama é uma das principais causas de morte no nosso país. No Serviço de Radioterapia do Instituto Português de Oncologia de Coimbra de Coimbra utilizamos, desde há mais de 30 anos, um esquema de hipofraccionamento de radioterapia, denominado “Flash”, como opção terapêutica em doentes idosos ou com baixo Performance Status, portadores de carcinoma da mama localmente avançado ou com estádios IIb ou IV, com intenção neoadjuvante ou paliativa. Objectivos: Avaliar a resposta ao tratamento, nomeadamente sobrevivência global aos três anos, resposta local e toxicidades aguda e crónica, no grupo de doentes seleccionados submetidos a esquema de hipofraccionamento, em estudo retrospectivo. Metodologia: Entre Janeiro de 2006 e Dezembro de 2008, um total de 83 doentes com diagnóstico de Carcinoma da Mama Localmente Avançado ou com estádios IIb ou IV, foi submetido a “Flash” mamário. A dose de radioterapia prescrita foi de 13Gy / 2Fr / 3 dias (em 23 doentes - 27,7%) e 26Gy / 4Fr / 2,5 semanas (em 60 doentes - 72,3%), com fotões de 4 MV, sobre a mama afectada. Foi avaliada sobrevivência global segundo o método de Kaplan-Meier. A análise estatística foi efectuada através da aplicação SPSS, versão 17.0 e os testes estatísticos foram avaliados ao nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: 80 doentes (96,4%) que efectuaram “Flash” mamário eram do género feminino, com idades compreendidas entre os 59 e os 93 anos (idade média 80,72 + 5,87 anos) e Performance Status (Karnosfsky: 0 - 100) entre 90 e 50%. Em 72 doentes (86,7%) o diagnóstico histológico foi Carcinoma Ductal Invasivo. A cirurgia após a realização do “Flash” Mamário foi realizada em 44 doentes (53%) após evidência de resposta local à radioterapia, sendo a Mastectomia Radical Modificada a técnica cirúrgica mais frequente. Efectuou-se o diagnóstico de metastização óssea em 10 doentes (12%), sendo que a taxa de sobrevivência global foi

  20. Factors associated with the use of antihypertensives among seniors.

    PubMed

    Massa, Kaio Henrique Correa; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida Oliveira; Chiavegatto, Alexandre Dias Porto

    2016-12-22

    Analyze the use of antihypertensives among seniors and the association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. In this seriate cross-sectional study, we used data from the Saúde, Bem Estar e Envelhecimento study (SABE - Health, Well-being, and Aging), conducted in 2000, 2006, and 2010 in the city of São Paulo. Association between the use of antihypertensives and the demographic, behavioral, and socioeconomic characteristics and risk factors was analyzed by using multilevel logistic regression models. We observed increased proportion of use of antihypertensive, from 48.7% in 2000 to 61.3% in 2006, reaching 65.7% in 2010. Among the seniors who made use of this type of medicine, we also observed increased adoption of combined therapy in the period, from 69.9% to 82.6% from 2000 to 2006 and reaching 91.6% in 2010. Multilevel analysis indicated statistically significant increase in use of antihypertensives, even after control by socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, both in 2006 and in 2010 (OR = 1.90; 95%CI 1.60-2.24 and OR = 1.94; 95%CI 1.62-2.33, respectively). Use of antihypertensives showed positive association with females, higher age group, black skin color, overweight, and smoking history. High use of antihypertensives and its association with sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics can help guide the discussion of strategies to improve the epidemiological situation, the quality of life, and the distribution of medicines to the elderly population. Analisar o uso de medicamentos anti-hipertensivos em idosos e a associação com características socioeconômicas e comportamentais. Neste estudo transversal seriado, foram utilizados dados do estudo SABE (Saúde, Bem Estar e Envelhecimento), realizado em 2000, 2006 e 2010 no município de São Paulo. A associação entre o uso de medicamentos anti-hipertensivos e as características demográficas, socioeconômicas comportamentais e fatores de risco foi analisada por meio de modelos de

  1. Risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease after acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Benedito Jorge; Barreto, Silvana; Gentil, Thais; Assis, Larissa S; Soeiro, Emília Md; Castro, Isac de; Laranja, Sandra M

    2017-08-28

    The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing with the increasing age of the population and the increasing number of elderly survivors of acute kidney injury (AKI). The risk factors for the progression of CKD after AKI are unclear. To investigate the association between AKI and its progression to CKD and the risk factors involved. An observational, retrospective study of AKI patients followed from 2009 to 2012 was carried out. We evaluated the etiology of AKI, the use of vasoactive drugs and mechanical ventilation, the need for dialysis, the presence of comorbidities, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the length of stay and the progression of CKD. Statistical analyses, including the Chi-square test and Pearson's correlation, were performed using SPSS. The 207 patients analyzed had a mean age of 70.1 ± 13.1, and 84.6% of the male patients exhibited decreased renal function and CKD (vs. 60.4% of the female patients). The progression of AKI to CKD was more frequent in patients admitted to wards (63.8%), cancer patients (74.19%), patients with sepsis (67.18%) and patients with obstruction (91.66%). Dialyses were performed in 16.4% of the patients, but this was not correlated with the progression of CKD. Being an elderly male patient with AKI due to sepsis and obstruction was correlated with progression to CKD following discharge. A incidência da doença renal crônica (DRC) está aumentando com o aumento da idade da população e o número crescente de idosos sobreviventes da lesão renal aguda (LRA). Os fatores de risco para a progressão da DRC após a lesão renal aguda (LRA) não são claros. Investigar a associação entre a LRA e sua progressão para a DRC e os fatores de risco envolvidos. Foi realizado estudo observacional, retrospectivo de pacientes com LRA acompanhados de 2009 a 2012. Foram avaliados a etiologia da LRA, o uso de drogas vasoativas, ventilação mecânica, necessidade de diálise, presença de morbidades associadas, ritmo de

  2. Inauguração do Telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, João

    2004-04-01

    A comunidade astronômica brasileira de há muito almeja ter a sua disposição um instrumento científico com o qual possa fazer pesquisa de vanguarda e manter a competitividade científica a nível internacional. Hoje este sonho se torna uma realidade. O Brasil tem tido uma política de pesquisa e de pós-graduação bem sucedida. Estamos formando 7000 doutores por ano e produzimos 1,5% da ciência mundial. Nosso desafio, hoje, é associar a esta capacidade de gerar conhecimento também a capacidade de usar o conhecimento em beneficio da sociedade. A Astronomia não é exceção. Temos 7 programas de pós-graduação em nível de doutorado e 11 em nível de mestrado. O telescópio SOAR será o principal instrumento que sustentará estes programas nas próximas décadas. A inauguração do telescópio SOAR simboliza de forma concreta e decidida o apoio do MCT, do CNPq e da FAPESP para o financiamento à pesquisa básica em nosso país. O Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, criado a cerca de 20 anos pelo CNPq, a par do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, são até hoje, os únicos laboratórios nacionais do Brasil e ambos voltados basicamente ao avanço do conhecimento. Os vinte anos de existência do LNA foram decisivos para a estruturação da comunidade astronômica no Brasil e para a construção das parcerias como o SOAR.

  3. Prospective study of progression of kidney dysfunction in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Sesso, Ricardo; Prado, Fernando; Vicioso, Belinda; Ramos, Luiz R

    2008-04-01

    Few prospective studies have assessed renal dysfunction in older persons. We sought to define kidney dysfunction among a community-based cohort of elderly subjects and to determine the factors for its progression. The Epidemiologia do Idoso (EPIDOSO) Study is a prospective study of individuals > or =65 years old (mean 72.6 +/- 0.3), living in the community in the city of São Paulo. The creatinine clearance (CrCl) of 269 individuals of this cohort was estimated during 8 years of follow-up. The rate of decline in CrCl was calculated using linear regression analysis and dividing the group into tertiles of CrCl change. Overall mean change in CrCl was -2.37 +/- 0.23 mL/min per year. Mean age increased with the greatest degree of decline in renal function (71.1 +/- 0.59, 72.5 +/- 0.54 and 74.3 +/- 0.58, for the first, second and third CrCl change tertiles, respectively, P < 0.01). A higher value of baseline CrCl was associated with progressive decline in CrCl (P < 0.01). Diastolic BP was greater in the second versus the first estimated glomerular filtration rate tertile (83 +/- 1 vs 80 +/- 1 mmHg, P < 0.05). High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was inversely associated with CrCl decline (P < 0.05). Progression of kidney dysfunction occurs in most community-dwelling elderly. Strategies aimed at slowing the progression should be considered for possible risk factors of older age, baseline CrCl, BP and HDL.

  4. Frailty and cardiovascular risk in community-dwelling elderly: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; Pessoa, Germane Silva; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Dias, Rosangela Correa; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests a possible bidirectional connection between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the frailty syndrome in older people. Purpose To verify the relationship between CVD risk factors and the frailty syndrome in community-dwelling elderly. Methods This population-based study used data from the Fragilidade em Idosos Brasileiros (FIBRA) Network Study, a cross-sectional study designed to investigate frailty profiles among Brazilian older adults. Frailty status was defined as the presence of three or more out of five of the following criteria: unintentional weight loss, weakness, self-reported fatigue, slow walking speed, and low physical activity level. The ascertained CVD risk factors were self-reported and/or directly measured hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, waist circumference measurement, and smoking. Results Of the 761 participants, 9.7% were characterized as frail, 48.0% as pre-frail, and 42.3% as non-frail. The most prevalent CVD risk factor was hypertension (84.4%) and the lowest one was smoking (10.4%). It was observed that among those participants with four or five risk factors there was a higher proportion of frail and pre-frail compared with non-frail (Fisher’s exact test: P=0.005; P=0.021). Self-reported diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among frail and pre-frail participants when compared with non-frail participants (Fisher’s exact test: P≤0.001; P≤0.001). There was little agreement between self-reported hypertension and hypertension identified by blood pressure measurement. Conclusion Hypertension was highly prevalent among the total sample. In addition, frail and pre-frail older people corresponded to a substantial proportion of those with more CVD risk factors, especially diabetes mellitus, highlighting the need for preventive strategies in order to avoid the co-occurrence of CVD and frailty. PMID:25336932

  5. Comparison of Reference Values in Whole Blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J Mice Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Suzuki, M. F.; Júnior, C. R. B.; Sant'Anna, O. A.

    2011-08-01

    The Br, Ca, Cl, K, Na and S concentrations in whole blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J mice were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Reference values obtained from twenty one whole blood samples of these strains were analyzed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (São Paulo, Brasil). These data contribute for applications in veterinary medicine related to biochemistry analyses using whole blood as well as to evaluate the performance of treatments in muscular dystrophy.

  6. Description of Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Acre State, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi sp. n. is described as a new species of sand fly from the genus Trichophoromyia Barretto. This description is supported with illustrations and photographs that detail the morphological characteristics of male specimens collected in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, Brazilian Amazon. This species is similar to Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira), but the two species can be easily differentiated by the distribution of setae on their parameres, and by the presence of a dorsal lobe in the parameres of the new species. PMID:26487825

  7. Description of Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Acre State, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa

    2015-01-01

    Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi sp. n. is described as a new species of sand fly from the genus Trichophoromyia Barretto. This description is supported with illustrations and photographs that detail the morphological characteristics of male specimens collected in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, Brazilian Amazon. This species is similar to Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira), but the two species can be easily differentiated by the distribution of setae on their parameres, and by the presence of a dorsal lobe in the parameres of the new species.

  8. Intelligence Professionalism in the Americas (profesionalismo de inteligencia en las americas)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    permitir comprender mejor la realidad que a través de las leyes pretende modificar. El capítulo de mi compatriota Andrés Gómez de La Torre Rotta no sólo...campos de acción están clara y taxativamente especificadas en leyes y reglamentos. Un aspecto de inteligencia que se puede considerar muy adelantado...puede emerger de las “ leyes de inteligencia” nacionales, como las de Argentina y Brasil y la de próxima apareción en Chile.20 Sin embargo, aún las

  9. [Zika virus: a public health overview on epidemiology, clinical practice and prevention].

    PubMed

    D'Alò, Gian Loreto; Ciabattini, Marco; Zaratti, Laura; Franco, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is an arbovirus mainly transmitted by mosquitoes bites. During the last months, the attention of Public Health Institutions has been drawn by a significant increase of microcephaly cases in Brasil and analyses highlighted a connection between Zika virus infection in pregnant women and fetal microcephaly. Since 2015, many Zika virus outbreaks have been identified in South America and there is concern about the spread of the virus in areas where competent vectors are present. Nowadays, vaccination is not available and prevention is based on individual measures and on vectors control. This review of the most recent studies give an overview on the Zika problem.

  10. TRANSLATION AND VALIDATION OF THE FOOD NEOPHOBIA SCALE (FNS) TO THE BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro de Andrade Previato, Helena Dória; Herman Behrens, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: La Escala de Neofobia Alimentaria (ENA), desarrollada originalmente en lengua inglesa, ha sido ampliamente utilizada en diferentes estudios para evaluar el deseo individual de probar nuevos alimentos. Sin embargo, es necesario un proceso de traducción y adaptación cultural para permitir su uso en otros países. Objetivo: traducir y validar la ENA en portugués brasileño. Métodos: la escala fue traducida al portugués, de forma independiente, por tres profesores de inglés, siendo traducido al revés al inglés por otros tres profesionales del sector. Se entregaron estas traduciones a una muestra de 40 estudiantes de posgrado de la Universidad de Campinas, São Paulo (Brasil), entre septiembre y octubre de 2014. La reproducibilidad entre los instrumentos se evaluó por medio del coeficiente de correlación intraclase (CCI). La confiabilidad interna de la escala se evaluó por medio del coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. La puntuación total de la ENA varió 10-70 y los individuos fueron clasificados con neofilia alimentaria (≤ 16,4), neutralidad (16,5-38,5) y neofobia alimentaria (≥ 38,6). Resultados: el CCI entre los ítems de la versión original y traducida se situó entre 0,266 y 0,815 (p < 0,05) y la puntuación total de la ENA fue 0,903 (p < 0,001). El coeficiente alfa de Cronbach fue 0,916. La mayoría de los encuestados fueron clasificados como neutrales (72,5%), el otro 10% como neofilia y solo el 17,5% con neofobia alimentaria. Conclusiones: la versión brasileña de la ENA resultó ser una herramienta adecuada y confiable para medir la neofobia alimentaria. No obstante, se necesitan investigaciones futuras para evaluar la presencia de neofobia alimentaria en la población brasileña y para analizar su impacto en la conducta alimentaria.

  11. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, Quantum Biology Symposium No. 24. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Application of Fundamental Theory to Problems of Biology and Pharmacology, Held at Ponce de Leon Resort, St. Augustine, Florida on March 1-7, 1997. Volume 65, No. 6, 1997.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    Institute de Fisica CPX 66318 Säo Paulo 05315-970 Brazil Phone: 55-11-818-6983 Fax: 55-11-818-6831 EMail: canuto@if.usp.br CRISTIÄN CÄRDENAS... Fisica y Quimica Teorica Mexico, DF 04510 Mexico Phone: 52-5-622-3783 Fax: 52-5-616-2010 EMail: castro@papalotl.pquim.unam.mx CARY F. CHABALOWSKI...Universidad Estadual Paulista Dept. Fisica e Quimica Av. Brasil 56, P.O. Box 31 Ilha Solteira, SP 15378-000 Brazil Phone: 55-18-762-3850 Fax: 55-18

  12. Chemotherapeutic Studies on Schistosomiasis and Clinical, Epidemiological and Immunological Studies on Malaria in Amazonas, Brazil, along the Ituxi River. Report Number VII.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Avangos em Medicina Tropical", jointly sponsored by the University of Brasilia and the Ministry of Health, Brazil (Nov 79). 3. Roberts, D.R. 1979...de Medicina Tropical e Nutriqio, Universidade de Brasilia, Brazil (5 Dec 79). 4. Roberts, D.R., J.M. Heller, S.R. Ehrhardt and A.R. Prata. 1979. "DDT...Paulo, S~o Paulo, Brasil (6 Nov 79). 5. Papers presented at the XVI Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 5-8 Feb 1980, Natal, Rio

  13. Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae): a New Potential Pest of Eucalyptus and Species Used for Atlantic Rainforest Restoration.

    PubMed

    Mafia, R G; da Silva, J B; Ramos, J F; Mafia, G V; Rosado-Neto, G H; Ferronatto, E M O

    2015-02-01

    Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a new pest of forest species, including eucalyptus (hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis), Joannesia princeps, Mimosa artemisiana, Croton urucurana, Croton floribundus, and Senna multijuga is recorded. The insect attack in clonal eucalyptus plantations and in forest restoration areas between 2010 and 2013 in the states of Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brasil, was observed for the first time. The outbreaks generally occurred from September to March. This new potential pest can affect the growth, productivity, and quality of the trees. We recommended monitoring this leaf-eating beetle especially during the critical period of its occurrence.

  14. A new genus and species of micro bee flies from Brazil (Diptera: Mythicomyiidae: Psiloderoidinae).

    PubMed

    Lamas, Carlos J E; Falaschi, Rafaela L; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2015-05-05

    A new genus of Mythicomyiidae, Amydrostylus triadicophallus gen. nov. et sp. nov., is described from the Chaco of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The type-series was collected by Malaise traps during the development of the SISBIOTA-Brasil project. Amydrostylus is closely related to the genus Acridophagus Evenhuis in the subfamily Psiloderoidinae, but it is distinguished by the minute apical stylus and the same length of br and bm cells. The species is described and illustrated in detail, including the male terminalia and female spermathecae. This is the first record of the subfamily Psiloderoidinae in South America.

  15. [Triatoma delpontei Romaña & Abalos, 1947 (Hemiptera, Tratominae) in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul].

    PubMed

    Salvatella Agrelo, R; Basmadjian, Y; Rosa, R; Puime, A

    1993-01-01

    Triatoma delpontei (Romaña & Abalos, 1947) (Hemiptera, Triatominae) is an ornithophilic sylvatic with a particular association to the psittacid Myiopsitta monachus (Boaddert, 1783). It is found in the continental biogeographical province of the Chaco, where it inhabits the nests or M. monachus, in subtropical xerophytic forests. The authors report the first finding of T. delpontei in Brasil, in the "campanha" region of the State or Rio Grande do Sul (Barra do Quarai, Uruguaiana), on the right bank of the River Cuareim, not far from de Uruguayan border.

  16. Film Synthesis and New Superconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    use of atomic and molecular beam codeposition techniques. The pseudo-binary system Nb-Mo-Si has been investigated. The A15 phase has been extended...Istituto di Fisica Teorica and ICTP, Trieste, Italy "Plasmons and Charge Density Waves in 2H-TaSe 2 " January 26, 1978 10. Dr. J. M. Rowell, Bell...Associate Universidade Estadual 4/1/79 - 6/30/79 de Campinas Instituto De Fisica BRASIL Bormann, Rudiger Visiting Research Associate Institute fur

  17. The fitness of copings constructed over UCLA abutments and the implant, constructed by different techniques: casting and casting with laser welding.

    PubMed

    Costa, Elza Maria Valadares da; Hoçoya, Luciana Satie; Bottino, Marco Antônio

    2004-12-01

    The alternative for the reposition of a missing tooth is the osteointegrated implant being the passive adaptation between the prosthodontic structure and the implant a significant factor for the success of this experiment, a comparative study was done between the two methods for confectioning a single prosthodontic supported by an implant. To do so a screwed implant with a diameter of 3.75mm and a length of 10.0mm (3i Implant innovations, Brasil) was positioned in the middle of a resin block and over it we screwed 15 UCLA abutments shaped and anti-rotationable (137CNB, Conexão Sistemas de Próteses, Brasil) with a torque of 20N.cm without any laboratorial procedure (control group - CTRLG). From a silicon model 15 UCLA-type calcinatable compounds (56CNB, Conexão Sistemas de Próteses, Brasil) were screwed (20 N.cm), received a standard waxing (plain buccal surface) and were cast in titanium (casting group - CG) and other 15 compounds, UCLA - type shaped in titanium (137 CNB, Conexão Sistemas de Próteses, Brasil) received the same standard waxing. These last copings were cast in titanium separated from each other and were laser-welded to the respective abutments on their border (Laser-welding group - LWG). The border adaptation was observed in the implant/compound interface, under measurement microscope, on the y axis, in 4 vestibular, lingual, mesial and distal referential points previously marked on the block. The arithmetical means were obtained and an exploratory data analysis was performed to determine the most appropriate statistical test. Descriptive statistics data (µm) for Control (mean±standard deviation: 13.50 ± 21.80; median 0.00), for Casting (36.20±12.60; 37.00), for Laser (10.50 ±12.90; 3.00) were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, alpha = 5%. Results test showed that distorsion median values differ statistically (kw = 17.40; df =2; p = 0.001<0.05). Dunn's (5%) test show difference between Casting and the two others. on the y axis, the

  18. Biomass Burning Controlled Modulation of the Solar Radiation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, E. B.; Martins, F. R.; Abreu, S. L.; Couto, P.; Colle, S.; Stuhlmann, R.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric combustion products from forest fires in Brazil can affect routine satellite techniques for the assessment of solar energy resource information. The mean overestimation of solar irradiance by BRASIL-SR clear sky model was up to 2.5 times larger than that found outside the region of biomass burnings. Within the region of biomass burnings the overestimation was over 5 times larger at the peak of the burning season when compared to the rest of the year. A positive correlation between combustion products and the number of fire spots counted by satellite technique suggests a possible method for the parameterization of these effects in radiation transfer models

  19. The Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment /LACIE/ - A summary of three years' experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, R. B.; Moore, B. H.

    1979-01-01

    Aims, history and schedule of the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) conducted by NASA, USDA and NOAA from 1974-1977 are described. The LACIE experiment designed to research, develop, apply and evaluate a technology to monitor wheat production in important regions throughout the world (U.S., Canada, USSR, Brasil) utilized quantitative multispectral data collected by Landsat in concert with current weather data and historical information. The experiment successfully exploited computer data and mathematical models to extract timely corp information. A follow-on activities for the early 1980's is planned focusing especially on the early warning of changes affecting production and quality of renewable resources and commodity production forecast.

  20. Wheat yield estimation at the farm level using TM Landsat and agrometeorological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudorff, B. F. T.; Batista, G. T.

    1991-01-01

    A model for estimating wheat yields on the farm level was developed, that integrates the Landsat TM data and agrometeorological information. Results obtained for a test site in southern Brasil for years of 1986 and 1987 show that the vegetation index derived from Landsat TM could account for the 60 to 40 percent wheat-yield variability observed between the two crop years. Compared to results using either the Landsat TM vegetation index or the agrometeorological data alone, the joint use of both types of data in a single model yielded a significant improvement.

  1. Index of International Publications in Aerospace Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Force Base, Texas, USA. (ACTIVE). Revista de Aeronáutica y Astronáutica. Ministerio del Aire. Madrid, Spain. (ACTIVE). Revista de Sanidad de Aeronáutica...1948-1949. Secretaría de Aeronáutica. Buenos Aires, Argentina. (INACTIVE). Revista Médica da Aeronáutica. 1949-1970. Directoria de Saude da...Aeronáutica. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (INACTIVE). Revista Médica da Aeronáutica do Brasil. Diretoria de Saude da Força Aérea Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro

  2. Nonlinear Waves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-27

    con- €"" straints:’. *’Permanent address: Dipartimento di Fisica . Universita di Roma 1. 00185 u 11lia. tr(a U(x)) = 0. (7a. 2469 1. Math,. PyS. 26 (10...Tenenblat Universidade de Brasilia Departamento de Matematica Brasilia, Brasil September 1985 , - . Abstract The generalized wave equation and generalized...Permanent addrems: Dipartimento di Fisica . Universita di Roma t3 U, 0. Roma. Italy The linear limit of i3) provides the most general solution ot 2614 J. MatM

  3. Assessment of risk of falls in elderly living at home.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adriana de Azevedo; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel

    2017-04-06

    to assess the risk of falls in elderly, by comparing the sociodemographic and cognitive factors, history of falls and self-reported comorbidities. cross-sectional and quantitative study with 240 elderly. Data were collected based on the social profile, through the instrument of risk of falls and assessment of falls, by univariate analysis, bivariate and multiple logistic regression. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19 was used for statistical analysis. there was a significant association of the risk of falls, as measured by the Fall Risk Score, with sex (<0.001), age (0.054), cognitive status (<0.001) and history of falls (<0.001). All variables were statistically significant and contributed to the occurrence of falls. In logistic regression, the variables that showed association with risk of falls were: fall, with whom they live, hypertension and visual impairment. female gender, older elderly (over 80 years old), with low cognitive status and occurrence of previous falls in the last six months are factors that increase the prevalence of falls. In logistic regression, the variables that were associated with risk of falls were: fall, with whom they live, visual impairment and rheumatologic diseases. avaliar o risco de quedas em idosos, comparando com os fatores sóciodemográficos, cognitivos, presença de quedas e co-morbidades autorreferidas. Estudo transversal e quantitativo com 240 idosos. Os dados foram coletados a partir do perfil social, instrumento do risco de quedas e avaliação de quedas, utilizando análise univariada, bivariada e regressão logística múltipla. Para a análise estatística, utilizou-se o Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) versão 19. há associação entre o risco de quedas, mensurado pelo Fall Risk Score, com o sexo (<0,001), a faixa etária (0,054), o desempenho cognitivo (<0,001) e a presença de quedas (<0,001). Todas as variáveis apresentaram significância estatística e contribu

  4. Policy Implications of Achievement Testing Using Multilevel Models: The Case of Brazilian Elementary Schools.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Igor G; Duran, Victor R; Mendonça Filho, Euclides J; Veloso, Tainã J; Sarmento, Stella M S; Paget, Christine L; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale educational assessment has been established as source of descriptive, evaluative and interpretative information that influence educational policies worldwide throughout the last third of the twentieth century. In the 1990s the Brazilian Ministry of Education developed the National Basic Education Assessment System (SAEB) that regularly measures management, resource and contextual school features and academic achievement in public and private institutions. In 2005, after significant piloting and review of the SAEB, a new sampling strategy was taken and Prova Brasil became the new instrument used by the Ministry to assess skills in Portuguese (reading comprehension) and Mathematics (problem solving), as well as collecting contextual information concerning the school, principal, teacher, and the students. This study aims to identify which variables are predictors of academic achievement of fifth grade students on Prova Brasil. Across a large sample of students, multilevel models tested a large number of variables relevant to student achievement. This approach uncovered critical variables not commonly seen as significant in light of other achievement determinants, including student habits, teacher ethnicity, and school technological resources. As such, this approach demonstrates the value of MLM to appropriately nuanced educational policies that reflect critical influences on student achievement. Its implications for wider application for psychology studies that may have relevant impacts for policy are also discussed.

  5. Genetic diversity in somatic mutants of grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivar Italia based on random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    PubMed

    Maia, S H Z; Mangolin, C A; Collet, S A O; Machado, M F P S

    2009-01-13

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to detect polymorphism and to examine relationships among four table grape clones from northwestern Paraná, in southern Brazil. The 10 primers used for RAPD fingerprints generated 126 reproducible fragments, of which 63, 68, 76, and 72 were polymorphic in cultivars Italia, Rubi, Benitaka, and Brasil, respectively. Among the primers, OPP-08 generated the highest number of fragments, whereas OPE-15 was the most efficient for discriminating polymorphic fragments. The distribution of the clones by cluster analysis indicated that there were no differences in RAPD markers between the colored mutant and the original clone (cultivar Italia), supporting the hypothesis that the non-colored and the colored mutant are the same cultivar. However, we found high levels of polymorphism within and between the cultivars Italia, Rubi, Benitaka, and Brasil (65.1%), contrary to a previous hypothesis that the four clones are genetically uniform. This confirmed our expectation of genetic variation among the clones and within each clone. We conclude that the primers are useful for analyzing the development of the genetic diversity within each of these clones.

  6. Biblioteca Virtual de Salud Enfermería Regional: Trayectoria de Construcción, Fuentes de Información, Estrategias y Próximos Pasos.

    PubMed Central

    Lana, Francisco C. F.; Malvárez, Silvina

    2012-01-01

    Resumen La BVS Enfermeria constituye un nuevo paradigma en enfermería una vez que o modelo representa una expansión de la cooperación técnica y ha como objetivos centrales promover la ampliación del acceso la información sobre enfermería la través del acceso universal equitativo y construir un patrimonio informacional en enfermería, ayudando la mejorar la formación y práctica de enfermería a actuar con compromiso ético-social en el área de educación, investigación y atención a la salud. Como resultado del proceso de sensibilización, verifica-se la construcción de Bibliotecas Virtuales de Enfermería en varios países (Brasil, Argentina, Bolívia y Uruguay). La expectativa es que las BVS’s nacionais convergen a un gran portal que se está construyendo en una colaboración con BIREME/OPS/OMS, de la Asesoría Regional de Enfermería de la OPS-Washington y de Ministerio de Salud del Brasil, así como instituciones líderes en la producción del conocimiento en enfermería Iberoamérica. PMID:24199093

  7. An update on clinical oncology for the non-oncologist.

    PubMed

    Kaliks, Rafael Aliosha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTRecent advances in the understanding of tumor driver mutations, signaling pathways that lead to tumor progression, and the better understanding of the interaction between tumor cells and the immune system are revolutionizing cancer treatment. The pace at which new treatments are approved and the prices at which they are set have made it even more difficult to offer these treatments in countries like Brazil. In this review we present for the non-oncologist these new treatments and compare their availability in Brazilian public health system and private health system with that of developed countries.RESUMOAvanços recentes na compreensão de mutações promotoras de desenvolvimento do câncer, sinalização que leva à progressão de tumores, e o avanço no entendimento da interação entre as células tumorais e o sistema imunológico estão revolucionando o tratamento do câncer. A velocidade com que novos tratamentos são aprovados e o alto custo das medicações dificultam a disponibilização de terapêuticas em países como o Brasil. Nesta revisão, apresentamos ao não oncologista esses novos tratamentos e comparamos sua disponibilidade nos sistemas público e privado de saúde no Brasil com os países desenvolvidos.

  8. [Toxicological and immunological aspects of scorpion venom (Tytius pachyurus): neutralizing capacity of antivenoms produced in Latin America].

    PubMed

    Barona, Jacqueline; Otero, Rafael; Núñez, Vitelbina

    2004-03-01

    The toxicity and immunochemical properties of Tityus pachyurus Pocock scorpion venom was characterized, as well as the neutralization capacity against it by three anti-scorpion antivenoms (Alacramyn, Instituto Bioclón, México; Suero antiescorpiónico, Instituto Butantán, Sao Paulo, Brasil; and Suero antiescorpiónico, Centro de Biotecnología, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela). The venom yield, obtained by manual milking, 680+/-20 microg venom, a 50% lethal dose in mice was 4.8 microg/kg (90 microg for an 18-20 g mouse). The most common symptoms of venom poisoning in mice were sialorrhea, respiratory distress, profuse sweating, ataxia, behavior alterations (restlessness, somnolence) and hyperglycemia at 3 and 24 hours after subcutaneous venom injection (0.5 LD50). The neutralizing capacity of Bioclón (México City) and Butantán (Sao Paulo) antivenoms (for a 50% effective dose) was 330 and 292 microg venom/ml antivenom, respectively. The Biotecnología (Caracas) antivenom did not neutralize the lethal effect of venom. By electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was demonstrated that the venom contains proteins from less than 14 kd to 97 kd. The Western blots indicated immunological reactivity of the three antivenoms with most of venom components, including proteins of low molecular mass (<14 kd). The results allow to conclude that T. pachyurus venom is neutralized efficiently by anti-scorpion antivenoms produced in México and Brasil.

  9. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  10. Policy Implications of Achievement Testing Using Multilevel Models: The Case of Brazilian Elementary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Igor G.; Duran, Victor R.; Mendonça Filho, Euclides J.; Veloso, Tainã J.; Sarmento, Stella M. S.; Paget, Christine L.; Ruggeri, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale educational assessment has been established as source of descriptive, evaluative and interpretative information that influence educational policies worldwide throughout the last third of the twentieth century. In the 1990s the Brazilian Ministry of Education developed the National Basic Education Assessment System (SAEB) that regularly measures management, resource and contextual school features and academic achievement in public and private institutions. In 2005, after significant piloting and review of the SAEB, a new sampling strategy was taken and Prova Brasil became the new instrument used by the Ministry to assess skills in Portuguese (reading comprehension) and Mathematics (problem solving), as well as collecting contextual information concerning the school, principal, teacher, and the students. This study aims to identify which variables are predictors of academic achievement of fifth grade students on Prova Brasil. Across a large sample of students, multilevel models tested a large number of variables relevant to student achievement. This approach uncovered critical variables not commonly seen as significant in light of other achievement determinants, including student habits, teacher ethnicity, and school technological resources. As such, this approach demonstrates the value of MLM to appropriately nuanced educational policies that reflect critical influences on student achievement. Its implications for wider application for psychology studies that may have relevant impacts for policy are also discussed. PMID:27933004

  11. Leaiid conchostracans from the uppermost Permian strata of the Paraná Basin, Brazil: Chronostratigraphic and paleobiogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira-Oliveira, Luis Gustavo; Rohn, Rosemarie

    2010-03-01

    Conchostracan fossils are abundant and relatively diversified in the Rio do Rasto Formation (Passa Dois Group, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil), but leaiids (' Leaia pruvosti' [Reed, F.R.C., 1929. Novos Phyllopodos Fósseis do Brasil. Boletim do Serviço Geológico e Mineralógico do Brasil 34, 2-16]) were previously found at only one locality of the formation in the northern Santa Catarina State. New specimens of the Family Leaiidae, collected from two outcrops in central Paraná State near the top of the formation, stimulated a revision of related taxa. Both the new and the previously known leaiids are herein assigned to Hemicycloleaia mitchelli [Etheridge Jr., R., 1892. On Leaia mitchelli Etheridge. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 7, 307-310] based on the presence of three carinae and subovate shape. This species was originally recorded in the upper Tatarian (Wuchiapingian, Late Permian) of Sydney Basin, eastern Australia and therefore corroborates the interpretation that the leaiid bearing strata of the Rio do Rasto Formation cannot be younger than Permian. H. mitchelli possibly was one of the most widespread, eurytopic and conservative Late Paleozoic conchostracans of Gondwana (although records from Africa, India and Antarctica must still be confirmed) and it was also found in the Tatarian of Russia. The sudden disappearance of leaiids after their apparent success is consistent with the hypothesis about the biotic crisis around the Permo-Triassic boundary.

  12. Work-family conflict and time use: psychometric assessment of an instrument in ELSA-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Karina Araujo; Menezes, Greice Maria de Souza; Griep, Rosane Härter; Lima, Keury Thaisana Rodrigues Dos Santos; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Aquino, Estela M L

    2016-07-04

    In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the items to measure the work-family conflict and the time use for personal care and leisure, included in the baseline questionnaire of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brazil). We evaluated temporal stability (7-14 days) using kappa statistic and the validity of the construct by the correlation of Kendall's tau with other variables. Test-retest stability was discreet to moderate and the correlations were compatible with the underlying theory. Future studies in the context of ELSA-Brazil and in other populations will complement the assessment of its relevance. RESUMO Neste estudo, avaliamos as propriedades psicométricas dos itens para mensurar o conflito trabalho-família e o uso do tempo para cuidado pessoal e lazer, incluídos no questionário da linha de base do Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil). Foram avaliadas a estabilidade temporal (7-14 dias) utilizando estatística kappa e a validade do construto pela correlação tau de Kendall com outras variáveis. A estabilidade teste-reteste foi discreta a moderada e as correlações, compatíveis com a teoria subjacente. Estudos futuros no contexto do ELSA-Brasil e em outras populações complementarão a avaliação da sua pertinência.

  13. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Petter da Silva, Fhaira; Beatriz Dallepiane, Loiva; Ramos Kirsten, Vanessa; Maria Kirchner, Rosane

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: la esperanza de vida está aumentando y convirtiéndose en un fenómeno característico de los países desarrollados y, cada vez más, de los países en desarrollo, como Brasil. El proceso de envejecimiento produce cambios en algunas funciones fisiológicas, como la pérdida del olfato o gusto o pérdida de apetito, entre otros, que terminan alterando la ingesta de alimentos de estos individuos.Objetivos: este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el consumo de alimentos de los ancianos y de los ancianos más longevos en una ciudad del sur de Brasil.Métodos: un estudio transversal realizado mediante visitas a domicilio en Palmeira das Missões - RS, Brasil. Los datos sociodemográficos, antropométricos y dietéticos fueron recogidos a través de cuestionarios y recordatorio de 24 horas. La adecuación de nutrientes se evaluó de acuerdo con las ingestas de referencia en la dieta. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando el software SPSS 18.0.Resultados: el estudio incluyó a 424 adultos mayores, el 84.4% (n = 358) de ellos menores de 80 años y el 15.6% (n = 66) con más de 80 años. La ingesta de energía y proteínas fue insuficiente tanto para jóvenes adultos como para los más ancianos. El consumo de vitaminas y minerales ha sido insuficiente en todos los adultos mayores a excepción del hierro, que presentaba una ingesta excesiva. Hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre las personas de edad y mayores sólo en cuanto al consumo de lípidos y vitamina B12. Conclusión: la mayoría de los estudios con personas mayores corrobora los resultados obtenidos en este artículo. Una ingesta inadecuada de nutrientes puede dar lugar a deficiencias nutricionales y, por lo tanto, a cambios fisiológicos y patológicos que pondrían en peligro la capacidad funcional de los ancianos. El consumo de energía y de macronutrientes resultó insuficiente tanto para los ancianos como para los ancianos más longevos. Además, el consumo de vitaminas y

  14. Policies for control and prevention of infections related to healthcare assistance in Brazil: a conceptual analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon de; Silva, Cristiane Pavanello Rodrigues; Lacerda, Rúbia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    This article is a theoretical-reflexive study that aims to discuss the development and changes in the quality of healthcare assistance to the patient over the years in Brazil, in light of the policies of control and prevention of Healthcare-associated Infection (HAI). Aspects of HAI and the process of change in health policy in Brazil, as well as the quality of assistance associated with its control, are approached in relation to policies of patient safety. There are various new theoretical and practical proposals created in Brazil. In spite of the difficulty of measuring patient safety, directed to the prevention and control of HAI, we emphasize that to only create policies and establish norms, guidelines, and indicators is not sufficient. If no structural support or conditions exist for interventions in the practices of healthcare professionals, aiming at results in acceptable levels, the control of HAI will not be achieved. Resumo Trata-se um estudo teórico-reflexivo, que objetiva discutir a evolução e as mudanças na qualidade da assistência ao paciente, ao longo dos anos no Brasil, à luz das políticas de controle e prevenção da Infecção Relacionada à Assistência à Saúde (IRAS). Aspectos sobre IRAS e o processo de mudança nas políticas de saúde no Brasil, bem como a qualidade da assistência associada ao seu controle, são abordados em relação às políticas de segurança do paciente. Há novas e várias propostas teóricas e práticas criadas no Brasil. Apesar da dificuldade de medir a segurança do paciente, direcionada à prevenção e controle das IRAS, enfatiza-se que somente criar políticas, estabelecer normas, diretrizes e indicadores não são suficientes. Se não houver suporte de estrutura e condições para as intervenções nas práticas dos profissionais na assistência prestada ao paciente, visando resultados em níveis aceitáveis, o controle das IRAS não será alcançado.

  15. Early determinants of overweight and obesity at 5 years old in preschoolers from inner of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Luciana Neri; Silva, Kellen Cristine; de Castro Ferreira, Sofia Emanuelle; Lopes Moreira, Lidiane; Lessa, Angelina do Carmo; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Castro Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Brasil está experimentando una transición nutricional caracterizada por una reducción en la prevalencia de deficiencias nutricionales y un aumento del sobrepeso y la obesidad, no sólo en los adultos sino también en los niños y los adolescentes. Objetivos: Este estudio se diseñó para evaluar los factores asociados con el sobrepeso y la obesidad en preescolares brasileños de 5 años de edad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal de una cohorte de 232 preescolares nacidos en Diamantina/ Minas Gerais, Brasil. Los datos, que incluían situación socioeconómica, antropometría, dieta, antecedentes de los preescolares y familiares, se recogieron entre julio de 2009 y julio de 2010. Para identificar los factores asociados con sobrepeso y obesidad, se realizaron una regresión logística y un modelo jerárquico. Resultados: El sobrepeso y la obesidad ocurrieron en el 17,2 % de los preescolares. Tras ajustar para obesidad materna, la renta per cápita, la ingesta de alimentos, la ganancia de peso entre los 0-4 meses de edad y el tiempo dedicado al juego, los factores asociados con el sobrepeso y la obesidad que alcanzaban una significación estadística fueron la obesidad materna [OR = 3,12 (IC al 95 % 1,41- 6,91), P = 0,01], la ganancia de peso de más de 0,85 kg/mes en los primeros 4 meses de vida [OR = 2,16 (IC al 95 % 1,01-4,64), P = 0,04] y una menor renta per cápita [OR = 0,32 (IC al 95 % 0,13-0,79), P = 0,01]. Conclusión: Los resultados muestran que la mayor ganancia de peso durante los 4 primeros meses de vida y tener una madre obesa aumentan las probabilidades de sobrepeso/obesidad en los preescolares, mientras que una menor renta per cápita es un factor de protección.

  16. Understanding the Impacts of Climate and Hydrologic Extremes on Diarrheal Diseases in Southwestern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, P. A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial diarrheal diseases have a high incidence rate during and after flooding episodes. In the Brazilian Amazon, flood extreme events have become more frequent, leading to high incidence rates for infant diarrhea. In this study we aimed to find a statistical association between rainfall, river levels and diarrheal diseases in children under 5, in the river Acre basin, in the State of Acre (Brazil). We also aimed to identify the time-lag and annual season of extreme rainfall and flooding in different cities in the water basin. The results using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite rainfall data show robustness of these estimates against observational stations on-ground. The Pearson coefficient correlation results (highest 0.35) indicate a time-lag, up to 4 days in three of the cities in the water-basin. In addition, a correlation was also tested between monthly accumulated rainfall and the diarrheal incidence during the rainy season (DJF). Correlation results were higher, especially in Acrelândia (0.7) and Brasiléia and Epitaciolândia (0.5). The correlation between water level monthly averages and diarrheal diseases incidence was 0.3 and 0.5 in Brasiléia and Epitaciolândia. The time-lag evidence found in this paper is critical to inform stakeholders, local populations and civil defense authorities about the time available for preventive and adaptation measures between extreme rainfall and flooding events in vulnerable cities. This study was part of a pilot application in the state of Acre of the PULSE-Brazil project (http://www.pulse-brasil.org/tool/), an interface of climate, environmental and health data to support climate adaptation. The next step of this research is to expand the analysis to other climate variables on diarrheal diseases across the whole Brazilian Amazon Basin and estimate the relative risk (RR) of a child getting sick. A statistical model will estimate RR based on the observed values and seasonal forecasts (higher

  17. Cloud cover index obtained from satellite data and its role on reliability of surface solar radiation assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F. R.; Pereira, E. B.; Abreu, S. L.

    Cloud cover index (CCI) is a very important input data for radiative transfer models and great effort is being made to its determination from satellite images with high confidence. Cloud cover index is obtained from a linear relation between the clear and overcast radiances values measured in the visible range by satellite over a specific time period for each image pixel. The major key to obtain reliable CCI values is to correctly characterize clear skies and overcast skies from satellite images. This may be a complex and uncertain task in some circumstances. The importance of CCI becomes evident when it is used as input data to map surface solar irradiation over large continental areas such as over the Brazilian territory, with a wide range of climatic environments. Brazilian Northeast area presents a low annual precipitation (less than 700mm) and large insolation (about 120 clear sky days/year). In contrast, precipitation is high in the Amazonian region and it may occur long time periods (more than 30 days) with the sky cloudy at a specific daytime during the wet season (from November to April). The majority of the established methodologies to obtain CCI values from satellite images fail under any of these circumstances. Besides that, the comparison of CCI values obtained from satellite images with ground data is unfeasible in face of the different fields of view, and the subjectivity associated with observer in ground measurements, besides the lack of information on cloud optical thickness in ground data. This work describes two techniques to obtain CCI information using visible (0.52-0.75mm) and infrared (10.2-11.2mm) data from GOES satellite in order to maximize the reliability of CCI input data to BRASIL-SR radiative transfer model. The new techniques are based on statistical and geometry analyses for each pixel of satellite data. The BRASIL-SR model is a radiative transfer model that evaluates surface solar irradiation over Brazilian territory using

  18. Effectiveness of prediction equations in estimating energy expenditure sample of Brazilian and Spanish women with excess body weight.

    PubMed

    Lopes Rosado, Eliane; Santiago de Brito, Roberta; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez Hernández, José Alfredo

    2014-03-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la adecuación de las ecuaciones de predicción para la estimación del gasto energético (GE), en comparación con el GE medido por calorimetría indirecta en una muestra de mujeres brasileñas y españolas con exceso de peso corporal. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal con 92 mujeres adultas obesas [26 brasileñas —G1— y 66 españolas —G2— (20-50 años)]. Se evaluó el peso y la talla durante el ayuno para el cálculo del índice de masa corporal y las ecuaciones de predicción. Se evaluó el GE usando la calorimetría indirecta de circuito abierto con campana respiratoria. Resultados: En G1 y G2, se encontró que las estimaciones obtenidas por Harris-Benedict, Shofield, FAO/OMS/ ONU y Henry y Rees no difieren del GE estimado por calorimetría indirecta, la cual presentó valores más altos que las ecuaciones propuestas por Owen Mifflin -St Jeor y Oxford. Para G1 y G2 la ecuación predictiva que presentó valores más cercanos al valor obtenido por la calorimetría indirecta fue la FAO/OMS/ONU (7,9% y 0,46% subestimación, respectivamente), seguido por Harris-Benedict (8,6% y 1,5% subestimación, respectivamente). Conclusión: Las ecuaciones propuestas por la FAO/ OMS/ONU, Harris-Benedict, Shofield y Henry & Rees fueron adecuadas para estimar el GE en una muestra de mujeres brasileñas y españolas con exceso de peso corporal. Las otras ecuaciones subestimaron el GE.

  19. Understanding the curriculum the light of training guiding health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Bibiana Arantes; Costa, Nilce Maria da Silva

    2016-06-01

    To analyze Pedagogical Projects Courses (PPCs) from the healthcare field in light of the National Curriculum Standards (NCS) policies on healthcare training. Exploratory descriptive study of qualitative approach, in which were carried out analyzes of PPPs of Nursing, Pharmacy, Medicine, Nutrition and Dentistry of a federal university in the Midwest region of Brazil. As technical analysis of documentary sources, adopted the content analysis in the thematic mode. The analysis of PPC showed the general aspects of PPC as the course features the historical percursso and construction, professional skills and competences required for professional performance and the guiding principles of formation characterized by technical, professional practice, articulation theory/ practice, interdisciplinarity and ethical / social training. PPC presented is consistent with the proposals set out in DCN and carry training policies in health in Brazil, providing adequate training for health professionals, the demands of the population and the National Health System. Analisar os Projetos Pedagógicos de Cursos (PPC) da área da saúde à luz das Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais (DCN) e das políticas indutoras de formação em saúde do Brasil. Pesquisa descritiva exploratória de abordagem qualitativa, na qual foram realizadas análises dos PPC dos cursos de Enfermagem, Farmácia, Medicina, Nutrição e Odontologia de uma instituição federal de ensino superior da região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Como técnica de análises das fontes documentais, adotou-se a análise de conteúdo, na modalidade temática. As análises dos PPC evidenciaram os aspectos gerais dos PPC como as características do curso, o percursso histórico e sua construção, habilidades e competências profissionais requeridas para o desempenho profissional e os princípios norteadores da formação caracterizados pela técnica, prática profissional, articulação teoria/prática, interdisciplinaridade e formação

  20. [Hospital readmissions in Portugal over the last decade].

    PubMed

    Sousa-Pinto, Bernardo; Gomes, Ana Rita; Oliveira, Andreia; Ivo, Carlos; Costa, Gustavo; Ramos, João; Silva, Joel; Carneiro, Maria Carolina; Domingues, Maria João; Cunha, Maria João; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro Da; Freitas, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Os reinternamentos hospitalares estão associados a um incremento das despesas com a saúde e da mortalidade intrahospitalar. Neste trabalho, pretende-se caracterizar os reinternamentos hospitalares não-planeados, ocorridos num período de 30 dias após alta, de acordo com a sua Grande Categoria Diagnóstica, contexto hospitalar e características demográficas dos utentes, bem como estimar as taxas de mortalidade associadas. Pretende-se também estudar a evolução da taxa de reinternamentos na última década (2000-2008). Procurar-se-á ainda caracterizar os reinternamentos por insuficiência cardíaca.Material e Métodos: Procedeu-se à análise estatística da base de dados de internamentos hospitalares públicos fornecida pelaAutoridade Central do Sistema de Saúde. Recorreu-se aos testes do qui-quadrado e de tendência para comparação de taxas dereinternamentos.Resultados: Das 5 514 331 hospitalizações não-planeadas no período em estudo, 4,1% corresponderam a reinternamentos hospitalares. Entre 2000 e 2008, a taxa de reinternamentos hospitalares aumentou continuamente de 3,0% para 4,7%. A mortalidade hospitalar foi significativamente maior entre os episódios de reinternamento (9,5%) do que nos restantes episódios (5,6%), p < 0,001. A taxa de reinternamentos foi significativamente maior em homens (4,5% versus 3,9% nas mulheres, p < 0,001) e doentes mais velhos (2,6% nas crianças e 5,3% nos idosos), sendo menor na região de Lisboa (2,7%) e nos hospitais centrais (3,0%, p < 0,001). Para os episódios de insuficiência cardíaca, foi obtida uma taxa de reinternamentos de 6,7%.Discussão e Conclusão: Em termos gerais, as diferenças encontradas são similares às descritas noutros Países Ocidentais. Os episódios de reinternamento, cujas taxas têm vindo a aumentar em Portugal, estão associados a maior mortalidade intra-hospitalar.

  1. [Characterization and Evolution of Avoidable Admissions in Portugal: The Impact of Two Methodologic Approaches].

    PubMed

    Sarmento, João; Alves, Conceição; Oliveira, Paula; Sebastião, Rita; Santana, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: O objectivo deste estudo é avaliar a performance dos sistemas de saúde através dos internamentos evitáveis, dado que estes têm vindo a ganhar importância a nível internacional. Foram utilizadas duas metodologias distintas para a identificação dos internamentos por Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, fazendo uma descrição da realidade e a evolução destes em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Analisámos mais de 12 milhões de internamentos entre 2000 e 2012, utilizando as bases de dados de resumos de alta nacionais. Utilizaram-se duas metodologias de identificação das Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, determinando a sua concordância. Calculámos cenários de melhoria potencial. Resultados: Em 2012, 4,4% e 32,5% dos internamentos por causas médicas seriam evitáveis segundo a metodologia canadiana e espanhola respectivamente. Os internamentos são mais frequentes nas crianças e nos idosos, divergindo as suas causas de acordo com o grupo etário e a metodologia utilizada. A taxa de internamentos no período em análise diminuiu 20% segundo a metodologia canadiana e aumentou 16% segundo a espanhola. Existem agregados regionais de performance acima e abaixo da média nacional. A concord ncia entre as duas metodologias é baixa. Estimaram-se reduções potenciais entre 20,3% e 53,5% dos internamentos.Discussão: Os internamentos evitáveis assumem um volume considerável em Portugal. Apesar de em teoria serem evitáveis a sua eliminação por completo não é uma possibilidade prática, no entanto, o seu estudo possibilita a avaliação e monitorização de resultados e o estabelecimento de prioridades de intervenção. Conclusão: Para uma caracterização mais precisa dos internamentos evitáveis é necessário consensualizar em Portugal a metodologia para a sua identificação.

  2. Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 (IVCF-20): rapid recognition of frail older adults

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; do Carmo, Juliana Alves; de Moraes, Flávia Lanna; Azevedo, Raquel Souza; Machado, Carla Jorge; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the adequacy of the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20, a rapid triage instrument to test vulnerability in Brazilian older adults, for the use in primary health care. METHODS The study included convenience sample of 397 patients aged older than or equal to 60 years attended at Centro de Referência para o Idoso (Reference Center for Older Adults) and of 52 older adults the same age attended at the community. The results of the questionnaire, consisting of 20 questions, were compared with those of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment, considered a reference for identifying frail older adults. Spearman’s correlation was evaluated in the Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 with the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment; the validity was verified by the area under the ROC curve; reliability was estimated by the percentage of agreement among evaluators and by the kappa coefficient, both with quadratic weighted. The cut-off point was obtained based on the higher accuracy criterion. Cronbach’s alpha, a measure of internal consistency, was estimated. RESULTS The Spearman’s correlation coefficient was high and positive for both groups (0.792 for older adults attended at the Reference Center and 0.305 for older adults from the community [p < 0.001]). The area under the ROC curve for older adults attended at the Reference Center was substantial (0.903). The cut-off point obtained was six, and older adults with scores in Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 above that value had strong possibility of being frail. For older adults from the community, the quadratic weighted agreement among evaluators was 99.5%, and the global quadratic weighted kappa coefficient was 0.94. Cronbach’s alpha was high for older adults attended at the Reference Center (0.861) and those attended at the community (0.740). CONCLUSIONS The Clinical-Functional Vulnerability Index-20 questionnaire, in the sample examined, turned out to be positively

  3. Elderly with knee osteoarthritis should perform nutritional assessment: integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Souza, Isabelle Ferreira da Silva; Oliveira Neta, Rosa Sá de; Gazzola, Juliana Maria; Souza, Marcelo Cardoso de

    2017-01-01

    To review scientific literature to assess nutritional status of elderly patients with osteoarthritis in the last 16 years. This is an integrative literature review that included articles published in national and international journals indexed in PubMed, SciELO and BIREME. We selected 14 articles, and English language was predominant. The year of publication of articles ranged from 2006 to 2016, and most of papers were cross-sectional studies. To gather papers and for posterior evaluate, we used a validated data collection instrument and the included studies were critical analyzed by reading, gathering and analysis of articles. Studies suggested that there is a positive correlation between obesity and knee osteoarthritis. Obesity is one of the most important modifiable factors in worsening of osteoarthritis symptoms. RESUMO O objetivo da pesquisa foi revisar a produção científica referente à avaliação do estado nutricional de idosos com osteoartrite nos últimos 16 anos. Assim, o estudo foi uma revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada com a busca de artigos publicados em periódicos nacionais e internacionais indexados no PubMed, na SciELO e na BIREME. Foram selecionados 14 artigos, e o idioma inglês foi preponderante. O período de publicação dos artigos variou de 2006 a 2016, com predominância de estudos do tipo transversais. Para reunir os artigos e para posterior avaliação, foi utilizado um instrumento de coleta de dados validado, e as análises críticas dos estudos incluídos foram realizadas por meio da leitura, do agrupamento e da análise dos artigos. As pesquisas sugeriram que existe correlação positiva entre obesidade e osteoartrite de joelhos. Além disto, a obesidade é um dos fatores mais significativos e modificáveis no agravamento dos sintomas da osteoartrite.

  4. [From the old headquarters of the Diretoria Geral de Saúde Pública (DGSP) to the Instituto Nacional do Câncer (Inca)].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Tadeu Benedito

    2007-01-01

    The old headquarters of the Diretoria Geral de Saúde Pública (DGSP), located on Rua do Resende #128, and the Conjunto Arquitetônico Histórico de Manguinhos da Fiocruz (Manguinhos-Fiocruz Historical Architectural Complex) are contemporary buildings built by the initiative of Oswaldo Cruz and projects by Luiz Moraes Júnior. The old DGSP is as important as the so-called Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC) then, now Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz) for the introduction and institucionalization of public health policies in Brasil. We describe the building project of the DGSP facilities, its evolution, transformations, and the process of becoming part of the Historic Heritage.

  5. Leaf Fluctuating Asymmetry and Herbivory of Tibouchina heteromalla in Restored and Natural Environments.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, G W; De Oliveira, S C S; Campos, I R; Barbosa, M; Soares, L A; Cuevas-Reyes, P

    2016-02-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is a parameter to measure developmental stability in plants, which can be altered by disturbances, pollution, and biotic factors such as herbivory. We evaluated the effects of environmental stress and herbivory on the FA levels in individuals of Tibouchina heteromalla (Melastomataceae) that occur in natural and undergoing restoration areas in rupestrian grasslands at Serra do Cipó, Brasil. Individuals were collected and measured in seven restored and five natural areas, totalizing 240 individuals. We found that individuals in restored areas had greater leaf area, higher levels of insect herbivory and FA compared to individuals that occurred in natural areas. In both environments, the proportion of individuals with leaf damage caused by herbivory was higher than the proportion of undamaged individuals. In addition, FA was positively correlated with herbivory and total leaf area in both restored and natural areas. These results suggest that more favorable conditions in the restored areas enhanced leaf growth, resulting in higher FA.

  6. First Record of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) on the Trinational Frontier (Brazil-Peru-Bolivia) of South-Western Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Borges, Diones Antonio; Molina, Silvia Maria Guerra; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Cesario, Manuel; Ortiz, Dennys Ghenry Samillan

    2017-09-01

    In South America, the main sand fly species involved in the transmission of Leishmania infantum chagasi (Cunha & Chagas, 1937), etiological agent of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912). The species has been recorded in Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Brazil, where it is recorded in 24 of the 27 Brazilian states, except Acre, Amazonas, and Santa Catarina. Collections were carried out for one year (April 2013 to March 2014) using modified CDC light traps in different environments in Assis Brasil municipality, state of Acre. Two males of Lu. longipalpis were found in peridomiciliary location in a peri-urban area. This is the first record of the species in Acre. This finding may be considered by the health agencies located in the trinational frontier, and new collections are needed to evaluate the real distribution of the species.

  7. [Science as a profession: an interview with Carlos Chagas Filho].

    PubMed

    Chagas Filho, Carlos

    2012-06-01

    The editing of this interview focuses on aspects of the extensive professional career of Carlos Chagas Filho, who was the founder of the Instituto de Biofísica of the Universidade do Brasil, currently the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. It highlights the scientific and political role he played in Brazilian science and on the international scene. His memoirs include his experience at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, where he began his scientific training; the efforts to create the Laboratório de Física Biológica, succeeded by the Instituto de Biofísica; his work on the Conselho Nacional de Pesquisas and the Academia Brasileira de Ciências; the part he played at the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; his time as president of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences of the Vatican, which led him to ponder questions about the relationship between science and religion.

  8. Speckle Interferometry at SOAR in 2012 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.

    2014-05-01

    We report the results of speckle runs at the 4.1 m Southern Astronomical Research telescope in 2012 and 2013. A total of 586 objects were observed. We give 699 measurements of 487 resolved binaries and upper detection limits for 112 unresolved stars. Eleven pairs (including one triple) were resolved for the first time. Orbital elements have been determined for the first time for 13 pairs; orbits of another 45 binaries are revised or updated. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  9. Development and testing of a rural credit supervision system at the level of counties and rural properties utilizing remote sensing techniqes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, G. T. (Principal Investigator); Delima, A. M.; Tardin, A. T.; Rudorff, B. F. T.; Mendonca, F. J.; Dosanjosferreirapinto, S.; Chen, S. C.; Duarte, V.

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques for supporting the rural credit supervision system were developed and tested. The test area comprised the counties of Aracatuba and Guararapes, located in the State of Sao Paulo. Aerial photography, LANDSAT images and topographic charts were used. Aerial photographs were extremely useful for the out lining of properties boundaries with financing of sugarcane plantations by the Banco do Brasil S.A.. The percentage of correctly interpreted sugarcane on LANDSAT images, considering the 85 analyzed properties, was of 63.12%. The occurrence of atypical conditions such as excessive raining, sugarcane in bloom, and wind damaged sugarcane and sugarcane not harvested due to planning failures verified during the period the images were obtained, were some of the contributing factors associated with a low interpretation performance. An alternative approach was developed using several LANDSAT overpasses and auxiliary field data, which resulted in 91.77 percent correct.

  10. Validation of a computer-assisted system on classifying lower third molars.

    PubMed

    Cortell-Ballester, Isidoro; Almendros-Marqués, Nieves; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluates the reliability of the Radio Memory® software (Radio Memory; Belo Horizonte, Brasil.) on classifying lower third molars, analyzing intra- and interexaminer agreement of the results. An observational, descriptive study of 280 lower third molars was made. The corresponding orthopantomographs were analyzed by two examiners using the Radio Memory® software. The exam was repeated 30 days after the first observation by each examiner. Both intra- and interexaminer agreement were determined using the SPSS v 12.0 software package for Windows (SPSS; Chicago, USA). Intra- and interexaminer agreement was shown for both the Pell & Gregory and the Winter classifications, p<0.01, with 99% significant correlation between variables in all the cases. The use of Radio Memory® software for the classification of lower third molars is shown to be a valid alternative to the conventional method (direct evaluation on the orthopantomograph), for both clinical and investigational applications.

  11. Characterization of nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from field-grown barley, oat, and wheat.

    PubMed

    Venieraki, Anastasia; Dimou, Maria; Vezyri, Eleni; Kefalogianni, Io; Argyris, Nikolaos; Liara, Georgia; Pergalis, Panagiotis; Chatzipavlidis, Iordanis; Katinakis, Panagiotis

    2011-08-01

    Diazotrophic bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of field-grown Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, and Avena sativa grown in various regions of Greece. One isolate, with the highest nitrogen-fixation ability from each of the eleven rhizospheres, was selected for further characterisation. Diazotrophic strains were assessed for plant-growth-promoting traits such as indoleacetic acid production and phosphate solubilisation. The phylogenies of 16S rRNA gene of the selected isolates were compared with those based on dnaK and nifH genes. The constructed trees indicated that the isolates were members of the species Azospirillum brasilense, Azospirillum zeae, and Pseudomonas stutzeri. Furthermore, the ipdC gene was detected in all A. brasilence and one A. zeae isolates. The work presented here provides the first molecular genetic evidence for the presence of culturable nitrogen-fixing P. stutzeri and A. zeae associated with field-grown A. sativa and H. vulgare in Greece.

  12. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electrical impedance tomography and Calderón's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlmann, G.

    2009-12-01

    We survey mathematical developments in the inverse method of electrical impedance tomography which consists in determining the electrical properties of a medium by making voltage and current measurements at the boundary of the medium. In the mathematical literature, this is also known as Calderón's problem from Calderón's pioneer contribution (Calderón 1980 Seminar on Numerical Analysis and its Applications to Continuum Physics (Río de Janeiro, 1980) p 65 (Soc. Brasil. Mat.)). We concentrate this review around the topic of complex geometrical optics solutions that have led to many advances in the field. In the last section, we review some counterexamples to Calderón's problems that have attracted a lot of interest because of connections with cloaking and invisibility.

  13. LATINMAG: A Latin-American Collaborative Network in Paleo, Geo, Rock and Environmental Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constanzo, V.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Rapalini, A.; Trindade, R.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years research in paleo, geo, rock and environmental magnetism has experienced significant development in Latin-America with new research groups being settled in several countries including Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Venezuela and Uruguay (among others). The LATINMAG network, established in May 2007, follows previous attempts to congregate ancient and newborn Latin-American research groups. It was conceived as a forum for scientific discussion and regional collaboration of these groups, including scientific meetings and interchange programs for students and researchers. Its first bi-annual meeting is going to be held in November 2008 in Caracas, Venezuela. More information is available at http://www.geofisica.unam.mx/LIMNO/LATINMAG.

  14. NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morcelle, V.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Guimarães, V.; Pires, K. C. C.; Lubian, J.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; de Faria, P. N.; Kolata, J. J.; Becchetti, F. D.; Jiang, H.; Aguilera, E. F.; Lizcano, D.; Martinez-Quiroz, E.; Garcia, H.

    2017-01-01

    We present 8B 27Al elastic scattering angular distributions for the proton-halo nucleus 8B at two energies above the Coulomb barrier, namely Elab=15.3 and 21.7 MeV. The experiments were performed in the Radioactive Ion Beams in Brasil facility (RIBRAS) in São Paulo, and in the TwinSol facility at the University of Notre Dame, USA. The angular distributions were measured in the angular range of 15-80 degrees. Optical model and continuum discretized coupled channels calculations were performed, and the total reaction cross sections were derived. A comparison of the 8B+27Al total reaction cross sections with similar systems including exotic, weakly bound, and tightly bound projectiles impinging on the same target is presented.

  15. [Humanization and nursing assistance to normal childbirth].

    PubMed

    Moura, Fernanda Maria de Jesus S Pires; Crizostomo, Cilene Delgado; Nery, Inez Sampaio; Mendonça, Rita de Cássia Magalhães; de Araújo, Olívia Dias; da Rocha, Silvana Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Bibliographical study that sought to identify the scientific production about humanization and nursing assistance to normal childbirth. The sources were scientific articles from SCIELO-Brasil's database, from 2000 to 2007. We obtained 13 articles as result from the search, which were grouped in the following categories: childbirth medicalization, humanization of assistance to childbirth, companion during childbirth and performance of the obstetric nurse. The analysis pointed out that the current paradigm is centralized on childbirth intervention, despite of humanization movements defending the natural and physiological childbirth made by the nurse. We concluded that qualified and humanized assistance to childbirth and birth privileges women's respect, dignity and autonomy, regarding women's active role in the birth process.

  16. [The contribution of Carlos Chagas Filho to the institutionalization of scientific research in Brazilian universities].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Darcy Fontoura de

    2012-06-01

    This paper studies the period considered the 'prehistory' of the Instituto de Biofísica, namely between November 1937 and October 1945, during which Carlos Chagas Filho championed the inclusion of scientific research at Universidade do Brasil (UB), despite facing multiple and complex obstacles. The lack of successful precedents at UB isolated him to one inexpressive chair. The equipment available was inadequate for his purposes; there were no official sources and forms of access to funding for science or trained personnel for research activities. On the other hand, Chagas Filho won over allies due both to the political and social clout of his name and his marriage, and to his scientific influence ensuing from his success in attaining the goals he fought for.

  17. Increasing violent deaths and organ transplantation in Brazil: is there a parallel?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Juliana Gomes Ramalho de; Oliveira, Marcel Rodrigo Barros de; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Silva, Geraldo Bezerra da

    2016-01-01

    Mortality from violent causes has significantly increased in Brazil, as well as the number of deceased-donor organ transplantation. Although the increase in the number of transplants correlates with higher organ availability, through the increase in potential donors, this is not the unique aspect to be considered. The effective and articulated action of transplantation network seems to be decisive to this outcome. Resumo A mortalidade por causas violentas tem aumentado de modo significativo no Brasil, bem como o número de transplantes de órgãos com doador falecido. Apesar de o aumento do número de transplantes correlacionar-se com o aumento na disponibilidade de órgãos, por meio do aumento no número de potenciais doadores, este não é o único aspecto a ser considerado. A ação efetiva e articulada das centrais de transplante parece ser decisiva para estes resultados.

  18. [Information management in multicenter studies: the Brazilian longitudinal study for adult health].

    PubMed

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Vigo, Álvaro; Hernandez, Émerson; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Ahlert, Hubert; Bergmann, Kaiser; Mota, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Information management in large multicenter studies requires a specialized approach. The Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) has created a Datacenter to enter and manage its data system. The aim of this paper is to describe the steps involved, including the information entry, transmission and management methods. A web system was developed in order to allow, in a safe and confidential way, online data entry, checking and editing, as well as the incorporation of data collected on paper. Additionally, a Picture Archiving and Communication System was implemented and customized for echocardiography and retinography. It stores the images received from the Investigation Centers and makes them available at the Reading Centers. Finally, data extraction and cleaning processes were developed to create databases in formats that enable analyses in multiple statistical packages.

  19. [Chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil: priorities for disease management and research].

    PubMed

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Chor, Dóra; Aquino, Estela M L; Bensenor, Isabela M; Mill, José Geraldo; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Vigo, Alvaro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-12-01

    Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases are the main source of disease burden in Brazil. In 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health launched the Strategic Plan of Action for Management of Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases focusing on population-based interventions to manage cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases mainly through fighting tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and the harmful use of alcohol. Although a significant number of scientific studies on chronic diseases and their risk factors have been undertaken in Brazil, few are of cohort design. In this context, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a cohort study of 15,105 Brazilian public servants reflects the reality of high prevalences of diabetes, hypertension and the main chronic diseases risk factors. The diversity of information that the Study will produce can provide important input to better understand the causes of chronic diseases and to support public policies for fighting them.

  20. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  1. A study of gamma ray radiation at energies over 4 MeV by means of a large surface spark chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, J.-M.

    The experimental design, apparatus, and results obtained with a 1 sq m sensing surface spark chamber for detecting gamma rays from the Agathe balloon payload are described. The sensing range of 4-100 MeV was attained with 15 1 sq m laminated 20-microns thick Ta plates. A mirror system provided a stereoscopic view of events and a means to photograph plate triggering along with the time of event. Photomultiplier tubes also monitored the scintillator plates. The instrument was placed in a polyamide enclosure and the interior pressure was lowered to 1 bar. The experiment was flown from Brasil in 1976 and 1977. The arrangement of the scintillators permitted differentiating between atmospheric and extra-atmospheric photons. The instrument was focused on the central galactic plane, and gamma ray photons detected were attributed to braking and the inverse Compton effect. The sources of the radiation are discussed with reference to simultaneously-acquired Cos B satellite data.

  2. Situated modelling in the drawing workshop for bobbin lace.

    PubMed

    Saldanhar, Maria Christine Werba; de Almeida, Juliana Donato

    2012-01-01

    The current article presents the process of situated modeling in the drawing workshop for bobbin lace developed and implemented in the Núcleo de Produção Artesanal Rendeiras da Vila, in Ponta Negra, Natal-Brasil. The workshop aimed to rescue the domain over the product in the production of bobbin lace through capacitation of both experienced and novice craftswomen. The modeling of the drawing workshop was grounded on the sociotechnical construction and in the concepts of anthropotechnology and also social technology. The modelling required an intense process of social construction involving the members of GREPE-UFRN (Group of extension and Research in Ergonomics) and the lacemakers od the community. The domain of drawing the lace has enabled the expression of the craftswomen creativity, increasing the amount of works and the sustainable development,thus reducing the risks of extinction of such art in the Village of Ponta Negra.

  3. Establishment, Implementation, and Consolidation of Clinical Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacies: Perceptions of a Group of Pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Dosea, Aline S; Brito, Giselle C; Santos, Lincoln M C; Marques, Tatiane C; Balisa-Rocha, Blície; Pimentel, Deborah; Bueno, Denise; Lyra, Divaldo P

    2015-12-10

    When pharmacists incorporate clinical practice into their routine, barriers and facilitators influence the implementation of patient care services. Three focus groups were conducted with 11 pharmacists who were working for the Farmácia Popular do Brasil program on the establishment, implementation, and consolidation of clinical pharmacy services. The perception of the pharmacists in Brazil about the program was that it facilitated access to health care and medication. The distance between neighboring cities made it difficult for patients to return for services. Lack of staff training created a lack of communication skills and knowledge. The pharmacists wanted to have increased technical support, skill development opportunities, and monitoring of researchers who assessed progress of the service. Pharmacists overcame many of their insecurities and felt more proactive and committed to quality service. Positive experiences in service implementations have shown that it is possible to develop a model of clinical services in community pharmacies.

  4. First record of Segonalia Young (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) from Brazil including the description of S. machadoi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Cavichioli, Rodney R; Takiya, Daniela M

    2016-02-09

    Segonalia, a previously monotypic genus known from Bolivia, is newly recorded from Brazil and Paraguay based on specimens of S. steinbachi Young, 1977 from Minas Gerais State, Brazil and Paraguay and a new species from Piauí and Pará States, Brazil. Segonalia machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CZMA: Brasil, Piauí State, Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades, 04˚5'57"S, 41˚42'34"W 193 m a.s.l., 12.II.2013, D.M. Takiya leg.) can be distinguished from the type species by its body length and shape of the male pygofer apex and aedeagus. A diagnosis of Segonalia and comparative notes and illustrations of the type species are given.

  5. Cetacean diversity on the Parnaiba Delta, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, F A; Tosi, C H; Garri, R G; Chellappa, S; Silva, F L

    2008-08-01

    The increase in the research of cetacean surveys on the Brazilian coast has brought new data on the distribution of species never reported before. The present work reviews the current knowledge on cetaceans species and extends this knowledge with an analysis of cetaceans stranded in the Parnaiba Delta, on the coast of Maranhão State, Brazil. The studies on cetacean diversity on the coast of the Parnaíba Delta were made from August 2004 to August 2006. Fourteen strandings were reported, representing six distinct species, such as the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera edeni), dwarf minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), pigmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) and two specimens which have not yet been identified. The significant degree of cetacean diversity in the region shows that the Parnaíba Delta is, possibly, of an important area for cetacean studies in Brasil.

  6. General circulation of the South Atlantic between 5 deg N and 35 deg S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollitrault, Michel; Mercier, H.; Blanc, F.; Letraon, L. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter will provide the temporal mean seal level. So, secondly, we propose to compute the difference between these two surfaces (mean sea level minus general circulation dynamic topography). The result will be an estimate of the marine geoid, which is time invariant for the 5-year period under consideration. If this geoid is precise enough, it will permit a description of seasonal variability of the large-scale surface circulation. If there happens to be enough float data, it may be possible to infer the first vertical modes of this variability. Thus the main goal of our investigation is to determine the 3-D general circulation of the South Atlantic and the large-scale seasonal fluctuations. This last objective, however, may be restricted to the western part of the South Atlantic because float deployments have been scheduled only in the Brasil basin.

  7. The Optical Depth Sensor (ODS) in the DREAMS package onboard the Exomars Entry Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannou, P.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Sarkissian, A.; Foujols, T.

    2012-09-01

    The optical depth sensor (ODS) is designed to retrieve the optical depth of the dust layer and to characterize the high altitude clouds on Mars. It was developped initially for the mission MARS 96, and also was included in the payload of several other missions. The sensor was finally built and used for a field experiment in Africa in order to validate the concept and test the performance. In this work we present main principle of the retrieval, the instrumental concept and the result of the tests performed during the 2004-2005 winter field experiment. It is now included in the package DREAM, which is part of the payload of the EDM on Mars 2016 and associated to two terrestrial campaigns, in tropical environment (Brasil) and in the arctic environment.

  8. Analysis of the Economic Impact of Cardiovascular Diseases in the Last Five Years in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Alessandra de Sá Earp; Siqueira-Filho, Aristarco Gonçalves de; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot

    2017-07-01

    There is growing concern about the economic impact of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Brazil and worldwide. To estimate the economic impact of CVD in Brazil in the last five years. The information to estimate CVD costs was taken from national databases, adding the direct costs with hospitalizations, outpatient visits and benefits granted by social security. Indirect costs were added to the calculation, such as loss of income caused by CVD morbidity or mortality. CVD mortality accounts for 28% of all deaths in Brazil in the last five years and for 38% of deaths in the productive age range (18 to 65 years). The estimated costs of CVD were R$ 37.1 billion in 2015, a 17% increase in the period from 2010 to 2015. The estimated costs of premature death due to CVD represent 61% of the total cost of CVD, Direct costs with hospitalizations and consultations were 22%, and costs related to the loss of productivity related to the disease were 15% of the total. Health expenditures in Brazil are estimated at 9.5% of GDP and the average cost of CVD was estimated at 0.7% of GDP. CVD costs have increased significantly in the last five years. It is estimated that CVD costs increase as the Brazilian population ages and the prevalence of CVD increases. Existe uma preocupação crescente com o impacto econômico das doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) no Brasil e no mundo. Estimar o impacto econômico das DCV no Brasil nos últimos cinco anos. As informações para estimar os custos em DCV foram retiradas de bancos de dados nacionais, somando os custos diretos com hospitalizações, atendimentos ambulatoriais e benefícios concedidos pela previdência. Custos indiretos foram acrescidos ao cálculo, como a perda de renda causada pela morbidade ou pela mortalidade da DCV. A mortalidade por DCV representa 28% do total de óbitos ocorridos no Brasil nos últimos cinco anos e atinge 38% dos óbitos na faixa etária produtiva (18 a 65 anos). Os custos estimados por DCV foram de R$ 37,1 bilh

  9. Digestive, hepatic, and nutritional manifestations in Latin American children with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Benítez, Carlos Alberto

    2008-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS infection is increasing in Latin America and the Caribbean regions, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In Latin America, most cases are in Brasil, Mexico, and Colombia. Some causes of the HIV/AIDS infection in Latin America are poverty, limitations on the access to antiretroviral drugs, poor response from governmental and health authorities, migration, and scantiness of research resources. In the pediatric population, perinatal transmission is the main contact mechanism. Several digestive, hepatic, and nutritional manifestations allow the classification of HIV infection in children, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Improvement in knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, physiopathology; and management of HIV enteropathy and on nutritional care practices of infected HIV children is recommended.

  10. Antimicrobial compounds isolated from Haematoxylon brasiletto.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Cruz, J Fausto

    2008-09-02

    The decoction of the bark of Haematoxylon brasiletto Karst. (Leguminosae), commonly known as "Palo Brasil", is used in the Mexican traditional medicine to treat mouth and kidney infections, hypertension, stomach upsets, gastric ulcers and diabetes. The present study was performed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of the methanolic extract of the bark of Haematoxylon brasiletto. A panel of 12 bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans were used. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the standard broth microdilution method. The results indicate that the extract of Haematoxylon brasiletto inhibited the growth of eight of the tested microorganisms at a concentration limit of 128 microg/mL. For the tested compounds the MIC values ranged from 8.7 to 128 microg/mL. The overall results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of the extracts from Haematoxylon brasiletto as well as some of the isolated compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections.

  11. Mouth of the Amazon River as seen from STS-58

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-10-30

    STS058-107-083 (18 Oct.-1 Nov. 1993) --- A near-nadir view of the mouth of the Amazon River, that shows all signs of being a relatively healthy system, breathing and exhaling. The well-developed cumulus field over the forested areas on both the north and south sides of the river (the view is slightly to the west) shows that good evapotranspiration is underway. The change in the cloud field from the moisture influx from the Atlantic (the cloud fields over the ocean are parallel to the wind direction) to perpendicular cloud fields over the land surface are normal. This change in direction is caused by the increased surface roughness over the land area. The plume of the river, although turbid, is no more or less turbid than it has been reported since the Portuguese first rounded Brasil's coast at the end of the 15th Century.

  12. ["For a history of vaccination in Brazil": an unpublished manuscript by Norberto and Macedo].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Myriam Bahia; Polito, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    The manuscript "Para uma história da vacina no Brasil" [For a history of vaccination in Brazil] was unearthed in the archives of Instituto Histórico Geográfico Brasileiro (IHGB) along with other texts by Joaquim Manoel de Macedo. It was written in partnership with Joaquim Norberto in 1859 in response to a request by the Emperor to the institute. Its characteristics mark it out as a founding text: its arguments are designed to establish who really introduced the smallpox vaccine to Brazil and to resolve the controversy between the Marquis of Barbacena and a surgeon, Francisco Mendes Ribeiro de Vasconcellos. It analyzes the documents that provide the basis for both versions and consolidates the beginning of the history of vaccination in Brazilian territory in 1878, which was subsequently recognized by IHGB.

  13. Symbiotic N fixation is not down-regulated in mature versus secondary tropical forests in Bahia, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winbourne, J. B.; Daniel, P.; Porder, S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon accumulation in secondary tropical forests is substantial, and thought to be limited at least in part by nitrogen (N) availability. Slash and burn agriculture and grazing remove N from the system, however, the abundance of symbiotic N fixing trees in young tropical forests suggests rapid N accumulation as forests regrow. Here we use statistically robust spatial sampling to quantify symbiotic (SNF) and asymbiotic N fixation across a chronosequence of re-growing tropical forests in the Mata Atlântica of Bahia, Brasil. The Mata Atlântica once stretched 1500 km along the east coast of Brasil, is currently 85% deforested, and is a target of national and international restoration efforts that rely heavily on the planting of legume species to facilitate forest regrowth. As expected, we found the highest rates of SNF early in forest succession, but these rates were low compared with prior estimates (16-year-old forests fixed 5.75 ± 2.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1), and did not significantly decline in older stands. Mature forests (>100 years old) fixed 4.3 kg N ha-1 yr-1. This rate is similar to measurements using the same method in intact forests in Costa Rica, and both estimates are 5 times lower than previous estimates of SNF inputs into mature tropical forests. In our study, SNF accounted for > 99% of the total N inputs via biological N fixation. Several intriguing possibilities emerge from these data: 1) contrary to expectations, abundant legumes early in succession do not dramatically increase N inputs in these regrowing tropical forests and 2) the hypothesis that N fixation is down regulated by facultative fixers once forests reach maturity is not consistent with our observations.

  14. A new heterandrous species of Solanum section Gonatotrichum Bitter (Solanaceae) from Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Giacomin, Leandro L.; Stehmann, João Renato

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum from Brazil is described. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. belongs to section Gonatotrichum, a small group assigned to the Brevantherum Clade of the genus Solanum. It resembles Solanum turneroides Chodat, sharing with it heterandry, and Solanum parcistrigosum Bitter, with which it shares a similar habit and pubescence. Despite these similarities, the species can be recognized by its ovate-elliptic to cordiform leaf shape and more membranaceous leaf texture than the other species in the section, and stem, inflorescence axes, and calyx vestiture mainly composed of glandular hairs. Solanum evolvuloides is known to occur only in southeastern of Bahia state, Brazil, and in a preliminary assessment of the IUCN criteria can be considered a threatened species. Resumo Uma nova espécie de Solanum é descrita para o Brasil. Solanum evolvuloides Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. é componente da seção Gonatotrichum, um pequeno grupo associado ao Clado Brevantherum. A espécie é similar a Solanum turneroides, com a qual compartilha a heterandria, e Solanum parcistrigosum, que por sua vez apresenta um hábito e indumento foliar semelhante. Apesar da similaridade, a espécie pode ser facilmente reconhecida pela forma da folha ovada-elíptica a cordiforme e pela texura mais membranácea que as outras espécies da seção, além do indumento do caule, eixo da inflorescência e cálice, constituído em sua maioria por tricomas glandulares pedicelados. Solanum evolvuloides tem sua distribuição conhecida somente para o sudeste do estado da Bahia, Brasil, e é indicada como uma espécie ameaçada de extinção. PMID:22287920

  15. The cloud cover fraction obtained from a ground CCD camera and its effect on a radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, M. P.; Pereira, E. B.; Martins, F. R.; Chagas, R. C.; Freitas, W. S., Jr.

    2003-04-01

    Clouds are the major factor that rules the solar irradiance over Earth's surface. They interact with solar radiation in the shortwave spectra and with terrestrial radiation emitted by Earth's surface in the longwave range. Information about cloud cover is a very important input data for radiative transfer models and great effort is being made to improve methods to get this information. This paper reports the effects on a radiative transfer model by using the simple cloud fraction obtained by a ground set CCD camera instead of the satellite derived cloud index. The BRASIL-SR model is a radiative transfer model that calculates surface solar irradiance, using a normalized cloud index determined by statistical analyses of satellites images and from climatological values of temperature and albedo. Cloud fraction was obtained from digital images collected by a ground set CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera, in the visible range (0.4mm - 0.7mm) as RGB (Red - Green - Blue) compositions. The method initially transforms the image attributes from the RGB space to the IHS (Intensity - Hue - Saturation) space. The algorithm defines threshold values for the saturation component of the IHS system to classify a pixel as cloudy or clear sky. Clear skies are identified by high values of saturation in the visible range while cloudy condition presents a mixture of several wavelengths and consequently lower saturation values. Results from the CCD camera and from the satellite were compared with the Kt and Kd from pyranometer data obtained from a local BSRN radiation station at Florianópolis (27º 28'S, 48º 29'W) and show that cloud fraction is only a poor information about the cloud sky status since it does not bear any information on the cloud optical depth which is needed in most radiative transfer models such as the one used in this paper (the BRASIL-SR).

  16. Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in the Brazilian Western Amazon before and after the Interoceanic highway paving: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of undernutrition, overweight and associated factors, before and after the implementation of the Interoceanic Highway. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study on children under 5 years of age was conducted in the municipality of Assis Brasil, AC, Brazil, in 2003 and 2010. Prevalence of undernutrition was observed by using height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) and adopting a cut-off point equal to or lower than a -2 Z-score. Overweight prevalence was defined by a cut-off point equal to or greater than a +2 Z-score of the WHZ index. Z-scores were calculated relative to WHO 2006 reference data. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied to the children’s guardians, investigating family socio-economic and demographic characteristics, morbidities, access to services and child care. Associated factors were identified by hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of low HAZ (undernutrition) was 7.0% in 2003 and 12.2% in 2010. The prevalence of high WHZ (overweight) was 1.0% and 6.6% for 2003 and 2010, respectively. It was not possible to adjust the multiple model for the year 2003. The factors associated with low HAZ in 2010 were: wealth index, the situation of living with biological parents, maternal height and presence of open sewage, whereas the factors associated with a high WHZ in the same year were: child’s age, mother’s time of residence in the location, mother’s body mass index. Conclusions Overweight increase within this undernutrition scenario reveals that the process of nutritional transition began in this Amazonian city only in the last decade, and therefore, it is delayed when compared to overweight in other parts of Brazil. Such nutritional transition in Assis Brasil may have been facilitated by the construction of the Interoceanic Highway. PMID:24283293

  17. Inclusion of Astronomy Themes in an Inovative Approach of Informal Physics Teaching for High School Students. (Spanish Title: Inclusión de Temas Astronómicos en Uma Abordaje Innovadora de la Enseñanza Informal de Física Para Estudiantes de Secumdaria.) Inclusão de Temas Astronômicos Numa Abordagem Inovadora do Ensino Informal de Física Para Estudantes do Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiara Mota, Aline; de Morais Bonomini, Iracema Ariel; Meloni Martins Rosado, Ricardo

    2009-12-01

    The current work reports on an experience on Astronomy education at the Federal University of Itajubá through an extra-curricular course offered for High School students. This initiative was motivated by the low attention paid to the Astronomy subjects at this stage of the Brazilian Formal Education, in spite that the National Curricular Parameters (PCN and PCN+, in Brazil) point out the importance of their inclusion Este artículo relata una experiencia en la enseñanza de la astronomía efectuada en la Universidad Federal de Itajubá en la forma de un curso de extensión orientado para los estudiantes del colegio secundario. Esta iniciativa surgió de constatar la poca atención dada a la Astronomía en esta etapa de la Educación formal brasileña, a pesar que los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales (PCN y PCN+, en Brasil) destacan la importancia de su inclusión. Este artigo relata uma experiência em ensino de Astronomia realizada na Universidade Federal de Itajubá na forma de um curso de extensão voltado para alunos do Ensino Médio. Esta iniciativa surgiu da pouca atenção que se dá à Astronomia nesta etapa da Educação embora os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN e PCN+) apontem a importância de sua inclusão.

  18. [RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PATTERNS OF BREASTFEEDING AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN BRAZILIAN AND SPANISH SCHOOLCHILDREN].

    PubMed

    Mora Urda, Ana Isabel; Pereira da Silva, Raiane; Bisi Molina, María del Carmen; Bresciani Salaroli, Luciane; Montero López, María del Pilar

    2015-10-01

    Introducción: la relación entre alimentación temprana y presión arterial en etapas posteriores de la vida todavía se muestra incierta y, a veces, contradictoria. Algunas investigaciones apuntan hacia el efecto protector de la lactancia materna sobre la enfermedad cardiovascular, mientras que otras no obtienen resultados concluyentes. Objetivos: el objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la relación entre patrones de lactancia durante los primeros meses de vida y tensión arterial en la infancia, en dos muestras de niños y niñas procedentes de dos poblaciones con características socioculturales diferentes, controlando el efecto de la calidad de la alimentación en la infancia. Métodos: el estudio, de diseño transversal y retrospectivo, se realizó con 492 escolares de edades comprendidas entre los 8 y los 10 años, y se compone de dos muestras, ambas recogidas en colegios públicos, una en Madrid (España) y otra en Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brasil). Resultados: el 90% de la muestra fue amamantado en algún momento, 196 (44,2%) en Madrid y 247 (55,7%) en Vitória/ES. La duración media de la lactancia materna exclusiva (LME) en Madrid fue de 12,89 semanas (std=9,6) y en Vitória/ES de 22,00 semanas (std= 13,4), siendo estas diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Los valores medios de presión arterial sistólica, diastólica y media fueron significativamente superiores en la muestra brasileña. La prevalencia de hipertensión limítrofe y de hipertensión también fue mayor en la muestra brasileña que en la española, 68% vs 32% y 60% vs 40%, respectivamente. En las dos muestras se observó asociación entre una duración más corta de LME y mayor prevalencia de hipertensión en la infancia. Con respecto a la asociación entre calidad de la alimentación y valores de presión arterial, esta fue solo significativa en la muestra brasileña, pero no en la española. Discusión: en ambas muestras se observa un efecto protector de la LM sobre la presi

  19. Cultural Adaptation and Reliability of the Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale (CSPS) for Nurses in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Lam, Simon Ching; Gir, Elucir

    2017-03-02

    this study aimed to carry of the cultural adaptation and to evaluate the reliability of the Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale (CSPS) for nurses in Brazil. the adaptation process entailed translation, consensus among judges, back-translation, semantic validation and pretest. The reliability was evaluated by internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) and stability (test-retest). The instrument was administered to a sample group of 300 nurses who worked in a large hospital located in the city of São Paulo/SP, Brazil. through the semantic validation, the items from the scale were considered understandable and deemed important for the nurse´s clinical practice. The CSPS Brazilian Portuguese version (CSPS-PB) revealed excellent interpretability. The Cronbach`s alpha was 0.61 and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.85. the initial study showed that CSPS-PB is appropriate to assess compliance with standard precautions among nurses in Brazil. The reliability was considered acceptable. Furhter study is necessary to evaluate its comprehensive psychometric properties. adaptar culturalmente y evaluar la confiabilidad de la Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale (CSPS) para enfermeros en Brasil. el proceso de adaptación abarcó la traducción, consenso entre jueces, retrotraducción, validación semántica y pretest. La confiabilidad fue evaluada mediante la consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach) y estabilidad (test-retest). El instrumento fue administrado a una muestra de 300 enfermeros actuantes en un gran hospital ubicado en la ciudad de São Paulo/SP, Brasil. a través de la validación semántica, los ítems de la escala fueron considerados comprensibles e importantes para la práctica clínica enfermera. La versión en portugués de Brasil de la CSPS (CSPS-PB) reveló excelente posibilidad de interpretación. El alfa de Cronbach correspondió a 0.61 y el coeficiente de correlación intraclase fue 0.85. el estudio inicial mostró que la CSPS-PB es

  20. Quality of life of patients using intermittent urinary catheterization.

    PubMed

    Fumincelli, Laís; Mazzo, Alessandra; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Henriques, Fernando Manuel Dias; Orlandin, Leonardo

    2017-07-10

    measure and compare the quality of life of neurogenic bladder patients using intermittent urinary catheterization who were going through rehabilitation in Brazil and Portugal. multicenter, quantitative, cross-sectional, observational-analytic and correlational study executed in Brazil and Portugal. Two data collection tools were used, being one questionnaire with sociodemographic and clinical data and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-bref. Patients were included who were over 18 years of age, suffering from neurogenic urinary bladder and using intermittent urinary catheterization. in the sample of Brazilian (n = 170) and Portuguese (n = 52) patients, respectively, most patients were single (87-51.2%; 25-48.1%), had finished primary education (47-45.3%; 31-59.6%) and were retired (70-41.2%; 21-40.4%). Spinal cord injury was the main cause of using the urinary catheter in both countries. The Brazilian patients presented higher mean quality of life scores in the psychological domain (68.9) and lower scores in the physical domain (58.9). The Portuguese patients presented higher scores in the psychological domain (68.4) and lower scores in the environment domain (59.4). The execution of intermittent urinary self-catheterization was significant for both countries. in the two countries, these patients' quality of life can be determined by the improvement in the urinary symptoms, independence, self-confidence, social relationships and access to work activities. mensurar e comparar a qualidade de vida de pacientes com bexiga neurogênica em uso do cateterismo urinário intermitente em processo de reabilitação, no Brasil e em Portugal. estudo multicêntrico, Brasil e Portugal, quantitativo, transversal, observacional-analítico e correlacional. Foram utilizados dois instrumentos de coleta, um questionário de dados sociodemográficos e clínicos e World Health Organization Quality Life-bref. Foram inclusos pacientes maiores de 18 anos, com bexiga urin

  1. Accuracy of a pediatric early warning score in the recognition of clinical deterioration.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Juliana de Oliveira Freitas; Camargo, Climene Laura de; Nascimento, Carlito Lopes; Portela, Daniel Sales; Monaghan, Alan

    2017-07-10

    intervalo de 5 a 10 minutos entre as avaliações, para aplicação do Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score, para o contexto brasileiro e do padrão de referência. Os dados foram processados e analisados nos programas Statistical Package for the Social Sciences e VassarStats.net. O desempenho do Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para o contexto brasileiro foi avaliado por meio dos indicadores de sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivos, área sob a curva ROC, razões de probabilidades e probabilidade pós-teste. o Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para o contexto brasileiro apresentou sensibilidade de 73,9%, especificidade de 95,5%, valor preditivo positivo de 73,3%, valor preditivo negativo de 94,7%, área sob a Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve de 91,9% e a probabilidade pós-teste positivo foi de 80%. o Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score, para o contexto brasileiro, apresentou bom desempenho, considerado válido para o reconhecimento de sinais de alerta de deterioração clínica das crianças estudadas. evaluar la precisión de la versión traducida y adaptada del Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para el contexto brasileño, en el reconocimiento de la deterioración clínica. estudio de test diagnóstico para medir la precisión del Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para el contexto brasileño, en relación a un estándar de referencia. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 271 niños de 0 a 10 años, evaluadas de forma ciega por especialistas en pediatría, una enfermera y un médico, con intervalo de 5 a 10 minutos entre las evaluaciones, para aplicación del Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para el contexto brasileño. Los datos fueron procesados y analizados en los programas Statistical Package for the Social Sciences y VassarStats.net. El desempeño del Brighton Paediatric Early Warning Score para el contexto brasileño fue evaluado por medio de los indicadores de sensibilidad, especificidad, valores predictivos,

  2. Age-related changes in bone architecture.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Vincenzo; Franco, José Sérgio; Koch, Hilton Augusto; Labronici, Pedro José; Pires, Robinson Esteves S; Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro DO

    2016-01-01

    morfométricas de biópsias ósseas da região anterior da crista ilíaca de pacientes de diferentes faixas etárias. foram estudadas 30 amostras de osso da crista ilíaca, utilizando-se microscopia óptica de campo claro. As amostras foram divididas pela faixa etária dos doadores em três grupos: Grupo 1 (n = 10), indivíduos com idade entre 25 e 39 anos; Grupo 2 (n = 10), indivíduos com idade entre 40 e 64 anos; Grupo 3 (n = 10), indivíduos com idade igual ou superior a 65 anos. As amostras foram separadas aleatoriamente em dois conjuntos com 15 peças. No primeiro segmento do estudo (n = 15), foi avaliada histologicamente a propriedade osteogênica do enxerto, através da análise da reserva celular no periósteo, do número de osteócitos nas lacunas e da quantidade de canais de Havers e de Volkmann. No segundo segmento do estudo (n = 15), investigou-se morfologicamente a propriedade osteocondutora do enxerto, através da quantificação da rede trabecular (Vv) e da área trabecular (Sv). histologicamente, observou-se que ocorre degeneração do tecido ósseo com a idade, caracterizada pelo adelgaçamento do periósteo, com substituição gradual da camada osteogênica por tecido fibroso, pequena quantidade de canais de Havers e de Volkmann, osteoplastos vazios e trabéculas finas de osso esponjoso, permitindo amplo espaço medular, em geral ocupado por células lipídicas e adipócitos. Morfologicamente, com relação à quantificação da rede trabecular (Vv), foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante entre os Grupos 1 e 3 e entre os Grupos 2 e 3, com redução da rede trabecular de cerca de 45% no idoso acima de 65 anos de idade; não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante entre os Grupos 1 e 2. Não foi observada diferença estatística entre os grupos quanto à Sv. os achados do presente experimento sugerem que nos indivíduos idosos (acima de 65 anos de idade), a propriedade osteogênica do enxerto ósseo autólogo diminui e a

  3. Use of health services by Brazilian older adults with and without functional limitation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alexandre Moreira de Melo; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2017-06-01

    idosos brasileiros com e sem limitação funcional. As análises principais foram baseadas em amostra nacional representativa de 23.815 participantes da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde com 60 anos ou mais. A limitação funcional foi definida pela dificuldade para realizar pelo menos uma entre dez atividades básicas ou instrumentais da vida diária. Potenciais variáveis de confusão incluíram fatores predisponentes e facilitadores do uso de serviços de saúde. A prevalência da limitação funcional foi de 30,1% (IC95% 29,2-31,4). O número de consultas médicas e a ocorrência de hospitalizações nos últimos 12 meses apresentaram associações estatisticamente significantes com a limitação funcional, tanto entre usuários do sistema público (OR = 2,48 [IC95% 2,13-2,88] para três ou mais consultas e OR = 2,58 [IC95% 2,15-3,09] para uma ou mais hospitalizações) quanto do sistema privado (OR = 2,56 [IC95% 1,50-4,36] e OR = 2,22 [IC95% 1,64-3,00], respectivamente). A propensão ao uso da unidade básica de saúde foi maior entre usuários do sistema privado com limitações funcionais (OR = 2,01 [IC95% 1,12-3,59]). Entre sete indicadores da qualidade da atenção médica recebida, na percepção dos usuários dos sistemas público e privado, somente dois apresentaram associação com a limitação funcional. Os usuários do sistema público com limitações funcionais fizeram pior avaliação da liberdade para escolha do médico e do tempo de espera para a consulta, em comparação aos usuários do mesmo sistema sem essas limitações (OR = 0,81 [IC95% 0,67-0,99] e OR = 0,76 [IC95% 0,62-0,93], respectivamente). Idosos com limitações funcionais utilizam mais serviços de saúde em comparação aos seus pares sem essas limitações. A magnitude da associação entre a limitação funcional e o número de consultas médicas e de hospitalizações foi semelhante nos sistemas público e privado de saúde.

  4. Socioeconomic determinants of access to health services among older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Ana Paula Santana Coelho; Nunes, Bruno Pereira; Duro, Suele Manjourany Silva; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2017-05-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the association between the socioeconomic characteristics and the access to or use of health services among older adults. This is a systematic review of the literature. The search has been carried out in the databases PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science, without restriction of dates and languages; however we have included only articles published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. The inclusion criteria were: observational design, socioeconomic factors as variables of interest in the analysis of the access to or use of health services among older adults, representative sample of the target population, adjustment for confounding factors, and no selection bias. We have found 5,096 articles after deleting duplicates and 36 of them have been selected for review after the process of reading and evaluating the inclusion criteria. Higher income and education have been associated with the use and access to medical appointments in developing countries and some developed countries. The same association has been observed in dental appointments in all countries. Most studies have shown no association between socioeconomic characteristics and the use of inpatient and emergency services. We have identified greater use of home visits in lower-income individuals, with the exception of the United States. We have observed an unequal access to or use of health services in most countries, varying according to the type of service used. The expansion of the health care coverage is necessary to reduce this unequal access generated by social inequities. Analisar a associação entre características socioeconômicas e acesso ou utilização de serviços de saúde entre idosos. Revisão sistemática da literatura. A busca foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, Lilacs e Web of Science, sem restrição de datas e idiomas, entretanto foram incluídos somente os artigos publicados em português, inglês e espanhol. Foram critérios de inclusão: ter

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Nursing Student Satisfaction Scale for use with Brazilian nursing students.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Carolina Domingues; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Barlem, Jamila Geri Tomaschewski; Dalmolin, Graziele de Lima; Pereira, Liliane Alves; Ferreira, Amanda Guimarães

    2016-08-29

    to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Nursing Student Satisfaction Scale (NSSS) for use with nursing students in the Brazilian context. this was a quantitative exploratory and descriptive study using a cross-sectional design conducted with 123 undergraduate nursing students studying at a public university in the south of Brazil. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to international guidelines. Validation for use in a Brazilian context was performed using factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. based on the expert committee assessment and pre-test, face and content validity were considered satisfactory. Factor analysis resulted in three constructs: curriculum and teaching; professional social interaction, and learning environment. The internal consistency of the instrument was satisfactory: the value of Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.93 for the instrument as a whole, and between 0.88 and 0.89 for the constructs. the Brazilian version of the Nursing Student Satisfaction Scale was shown to be reliable and validated for the evaluation of student satisfaction with undergraduate nursing programs, considering the aspects teaching activities, curriculum, professional social interaction, and learning environment. adaptar culturalmente e validar o instrumento Nursing Student Satisfaction Scale (NSSS) para utilização no contexto brasileiro por estudantes de enfermagem. estudo quantitativo, do tipo exploratório e descritivo, com delineamento transversal, realizado com 123 estudantes da graduação em enfermagem de uma universidade pública no sul do Brasil. Realizou-se a adaptação cultural do instrumento segundo recomendações internacionais e a sua validação para utilização no contexto brasileiro, através da análise fatorial e alfa de Cronbach. mediante avaliação de comitê de especialistas e realização de pré-teste, a validade de face e conteúdo do instrumento foram considerados satisfatórios. A partir da análise fatorial, foram

  6. Translation and adaptation of the Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los recursos humanos en salud.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Maria de Lourdes de; Peres, Aida Maris; Ferreira, Maria Manuela Frederico; Mantovani, Maria de Fátima

    2017-06-05

    to perform the translation and cultural adaptation of the document named Marco Regional de Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los Recursos Humanos en Salud de la Región de las Américas (Regional Framework of Core Competencies in Public Health for Health Human Resources in the Region of Americas) from Spanish to Brazilian Portuguese. a methodological study comprising the following phases: authorization for translation; initial translation; synthesis of translations and consensus; back-translation and formation of an expert committee. in the translation of domain names, there was no difference in 66.7% (N = 4); in the translation of domain description and competencies there were divergences in 100% of them (N = 6, N = 56). A consensus of more than 80% was obtained in the translation and improvement in the expert committee by the change of words and expressions for approximation of meanings to the Brazilian context. the translated and adapted document has the potential of application in research, and use in the practice of collective/public health care in Brazil. realizar a tradução e adaptação cultural do Marco Regional de Competencias Esenciales en Salud Pública para los Recursos Humanos en Salud de la Región de las Américas, do espanhol para a língua portuguesa do Brasil. pesquisa metodológica, que seguiu as fases: autorização para tradução; tradução inicial; síntese das traduções e consenso; retrotradução e composição de um comitê de especialistas. na tradução dos nomes dos domínios, não houve diferença em 66,7 % (N=4); na tradução da descrição dos domínios e das competências ocorreram divergências em 100 % destes (N=6, N=56), obteve-se consenso acima de 80% ainda na tradução, e aprimoramento no comitê de especialistas pela alteração de palavras e expressões para aproximar os significados ao contexto brasileiro. o documento traduzido e adaptado possui potencial de aplicação em pesquisas e utilização na pr

  7. Impact of Different Normality Thresholds for 24-hour ABPM at the Primary Health Care Level.

    PubMed

    Grezzana, Guilherme Brasil; Moraes, David William; Stein, Airton Tetelbon; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-02-01

    desfechos cardiovasculares. Médicos da atenção primária à saúde (APS) devem estar preparados para atuar adequadamente na prevenção de fatores de risco cardiovascular. No entanto, as taxas de pacientes com pressão arterial (PA) controlada continuam baixas. O impacto da reclassificação do diagnóstico de hipertensão pela utilização da monitorização ambulatorial da PA (MAPA) de 24 horas pode levar a diferentes decisões médicas na APS. Avaliar a concordância entre as PAs medidas por método convencional por médicos da APS e por MAPA de 24 horas, considerando diferentes limiares de normalidade para a MAPA de 24 horas de acordo com as recomendações da V Diretriz Brasileira de MAPA e da Diretriz da Sociedade Europeia de Hipertensão. Estudo transversal com 569 pacientes hipertensos. A PA foi medida inicialmente por médicos da APS e, posteriormente, pela MAPA de 24 horas. As medidas foram obtidas de forma independente entre os dois métodos. Os alvos terapêuticos para a PA convencional seguiram as orientações do Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8), das V Diretrizes Brasileiras de MAPA e das Diretrizes Europeias de Hipertensão de 2013. Foi observada uma acurácia de 54,8% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 0,51 - 0,58%) para a PA aferida de forma convencional quando comparada à obtida com a MAPA de 24 horas, além de uma sensibilidade de 85% (IC95% 80,8 - 88,6%), especificidade de 31,9% (IC95% 28,7 - 34,7%) e kappa de 0,155, quando consideradas as Diretrizes Europeias de Hipertensão. Quando utilizados limiares mais rígidos para caracterizar a PA como "normal" pela MAPA, foi identificada uma acurácia de 45% (IC95% 0,41 - 0,47%) pela medida convencional quando comparada à obtida pela MAPA de 24 horas, além de uma sensibilidade de 86,7% (IC95% 0,81 - 0,91%), especificidade de 29% (IC95% 0,26 - 0,30%) e kappa de 0,103. As medidas de PA avaliadas pelos médicos da APS apresentaram baixa acurácia quando comparadas às medidas pela MAPA de 24

  8. EFFECT OF SIZE OF INTESTINAL DIVERSIONS IN OBESE PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME SUBMITTED TO GASTRIC BYPASS.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rafael Jacques; Mottin, Cláudio Corá; Alves, Letícia Biscaino; Benzano, Daniela; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel

    /m2) diabéticos com síndrome metabólica submetidos ao bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux. Foram divididos em três grupos conforme a dimensão das alças intestinais: grupo 1, alça biliopancreática de 50 cm e alça alimentar de 100 cm; grupo 2, alça biliopancreática de 50 cm e alça alimentar de 150 cm e grupo 3, alça biliopancreática de 100 cm e alça alimentar de 150 cm. Foram avaliados os parâmetros que compõem a síndrome metabólica. Incluíram-se 63 pacientes, com média de idade de 44.7±9.4 anos. Todos eram diabéticos, 62 (98.4%) hipertensos e 51 (82.2%) dislipidêmicos. Os três grupos eram homogêneos em relação às variáveis estudadas. Em 24 meses houve remissão da hipertensão arterial sistêmica em 65% do grupo 1, 62.5% no grupo 2 e 68.4% no grupo 3. A remissão do diabete melito tipo 2 ocorreu em 85% dos pacientes do grupo 1, 83% no grupo 2, e 84% no grupo 3. Não houve diferença estatística na porcentagem de perda do excesso de peso entre os grupos e as medidas da cintura abdominal reduziram de forma homogênea em todos os grupos. A dimensão das alças também não influenciou na melhora da dislipidemia. A variação da dimensão das alças intestinais não influenciou na melhora da síndrome metabólica neste grupo de pacientes.

  9. EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS ON BODY WEIGHT AND CLINICAL METABOLIC COMORBIDITIES IN BARIATRIC SURGERY SERVICE OF A UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cátia Ferreira da; Cohen, Larissa; Sarmento, Luciana d'Abreu; Rosa, Felipe Monnerat Marino; Rosado, Eliane Lopes; Carneiro, João Régis Ivar; Souza, Antônio Augusto Peixoto de; Magno, Fernanda Cristina Carvalho Mattos

    tipo 2, da hipertensão arterial sistêmica e da dislipidemia em pacientes submetidos à gastroplastia redutora em Y-de-Roux no período de pós-operatório tardio. Análise retrospectiva de 59 pacientes inseridos em programa de cirurgia bariátrica. Foram coletados dados antropométricos (altura e peso corporal) e laboratoriais (LDLc, HDLc, VLDLc, triglicerídeo -TG - e glicose) nos períodos pré e pós-operatório por meio de prontuários médicos. Entre os pacientes, 86% eram mulheres com idade de 43±11 anos e 52% tinham cursado o ensino médio. O tempo médio de pós-operatório foi de 7±3 anos. Houve redução no peso e no índice de massa corporal no pós-operatório, respectivamente (133±06 kg vs 91±04 kg p<0,05 e 49±74 kg/m2 vs 33±79 kg/m2, p<0,05). Observou-se concentrações inferiores no pós-operatório, comparado com o pré-operatório, da glicose (101,00±26,99 vs 89,11±15,19, p=0,014), colesterol total (179,00±37,95 vs 167,48±28,50, p=0,016), LDLc (104,30±33,12 vs 91,46±24,58, p=0,016), VLDLc (25,40±11,12 vs 15,68±7,40, p<0,01), e TG (143,35±86,35 vs 82,45±37,39, p<0,01) e maiores de HDLc (43,53±8,23 vs 57,90±15,60, p<0,01 ). No pós-operatório 40% dos pacientes hipertensos ainda estavam em tratamento para hipertensão arterial sistêmica. Houve remissão do diabete melito tipo 2 e da dislipidemia em 81% e 94% dos casos, respectivamente. A gastroplastia redutora em Y-de-Roux mostrou ser procedimento eficaz em longo prazo, com resultados persistentes na perda de peso, remissão do DM2 e da dislipidemia.

  10. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê

    2016-10-10

    ário administrativo 0%; Transferência para outra unidade 25%; Óbito 50%; Opção desistir 50%; Mudança de endereço 57% e Mudança de esquema terapêutico 80%. Observados sentimentos de aceitação do programa pelos usuários. No conceito de acesso à saúde, a inatividade pode ser explicada na dimensão Informação, no grau de assimetria entre o conhecimento do paciente e do profissional de saúde, identificada pelos indicadores: escolaridade, conhecimento e fontes de informação. devido ao baixo nível de escolaridade, o usuário não assimila as informações sobre as etapas do fluxograma do programa, não retorna para a avaliação que garante sua continuidade. Consequentemente, para de receber medicamentos e permanece longo tempo sem tratamento, o que aumenta o risco cardiovascular dos hipertensos (92% da amostra), diabéticos (44%) e dislipidêmicos (31%). verificar causas de inactividad en el Programa Medicamento en Casa, referidas por usuarios de Unidad Básica de Salud de São Paulo, comparándolas a las registradas por el programa y analizándolas en el modelo teórico Concepto de Acceso a la Salud. estudio trasversal entrevistando 111 usuarios inactivos; y documental, en los registros del programa. la mitad de los usuario desconocía la condición de inactividad. Constatadas discrepancias en las informaciones usuario versus programa, observándose diferentes niveles de concordancia: Falta de médico y funcionario administrativo 0%; Trasferencia para otra unidad 25%; Óbito 50%; Opción desistir 50%; Cambio de dirección 57% y Cambio de esquema terapéutico 80%. Observados sentimientos de aceptación del programa por los usuarios. En el concepto de acceso a la salud, la inactividad puede ser explicada en la dimensión Información, en el grado de asimetría entre el conocimiento del paciente y del profesional de salud, identificada por los indicadores: escolaridad, conocimiento y fuentes de información. debido al bajo nivel de escolaridad, el usuario no asimila las

  11. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sá, Thiago Hérick de; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-06-27

    To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. By using data from the Health section of 2008's Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil's National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making. Apresentar estimativas nacionais sobre o deslocamento a pé ou de bicicleta no trajeto casa-trabalho no Brasil e em 10 de suas regiões metropolitanas. Utilizando dados do Suplemento sobre Saúde da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios de 2008, estimamos a frequência de pessoas empregadas que se deslocam a pé ou de bicicleta no trajeto casa-trabalho estratificada por sexo, e segundo faixa etária, escolaridade, renda domiciliar per capita, residência em área urbana ou rural, regiões metropolitanas e macrorregiões do país. Adicionalmente, estimamos a distribuição da mesma frequ

  12. The Quebec Sleep Questionnaire on quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: translation into Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, José Tavares de; Maurici, Rosemeri; Tavares, Michelle Gonçalves de Souza; Pizzichini, Marcia Margareth Menezes; Pizzichini, Emilio

    2017-07-31

    To translate the Quebec Sleep Questionnaire (QSQ), a specific instrument for the assessment of quality of life in patients with sleep obstructive apnea, into Portuguese and to create a version that is cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil. The Portuguese-language version was developed according to a rigorous methodology, which included the following steps: preparation; translation from English into Portuguese in three versions; reconciliation to a single version; back-translation of that version into English; comparison and harmonization of the back-translation with the original version; review of the Portuguese-language version; cognitive debriefing; text review; and arrival at the final version. The Portuguese-language version of the QSQ for use in Brazil had a clarity score, as measured by cognitive debriefing, ranging from 0.81 to 0.99, demonstrating the consistency of translation and cross-cultural adaptation processes. The process of translating the QSQ into Portuguese and creating a version that is cross-culturally adapted for use in Brazil produced a valid instrument to assess the quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Traduzir para a língua portuguesa e adaptar culturalmente para uso no Brasil o Quebec Sleep Questionnaire (QSQ), um instrumento específico para a avaliação da qualidade de vida em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono. A versão em português foi desenvolvida obedecendo a uma criteriosa metodologia, que incluiu as seguintes fases: preparação; tradução do inglês para o português em três versões; conciliação para uma versão única em português; retradução da versão única para o inglês; comparação e harmonização da retradução com a versão original; revisão da versão em português; desdobramento cognitivo; revisão textual; e definição da versão final. A versão em português falado no Brasil do QSQ apresentou um índice de clareza, aferida pelo desdobramento cognitivo, que variou de 0

  13. The impact of asthma in Brazil: a longitudinal analysis of data from a Brazilian national database system.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Thiago de Araujo; Roncada, Cristian; Silva, Emerson Rodrigues da; Pinto, Leonardo Araujo; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Stein, Renato Tetelbon; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio

    2017-01-01

    To present official longitudinal data on the impact of asthma in Brazil between 2008 and 2013. This was a descriptive study of data collected between 2008 and 2013 from an official Brazilian national database, including data on asthma-related number of hospitalizations, mortality, and hospitalization costs. A geographical subanalysis was also performed. In 2013, 2,047 people died from asthma in Brazil (5 deaths/day), with more than 120,000 asthma-related hospitalizations. During the whole study period, the absolute number of asthma-related deaths and of hospitalizations decreased by 10% and 36%, respectively. However, the in-hospital mortality rate increased by approximately 25% in that period. The geographic subanalysis showed that the northern/northeastern and southeastern regions had the highest asthma-related hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rates, respectively. An analysis of the states representative of the regions of Brazil revealed discrepancies between the numbers of asthma-related hospitalizations and asthma-related in-hospital mortality rates. During the study period, the cost of asthma-related hospitalizations to the public health care system was US$ 170 million. Although the numbers of asthma-related deaths and hospital admissions in Brazil have been decreasing since 2009, the absolute numbers are still high, resulting in elevated direct and indirect costs for the society. This shows the relevance of the burden of asthma in middle-income countries. Apresentar dados longitudinais oficiais sobre o impacto da asma no Brasil entre 2008 e 2013. Estudo descritivo de dados extraídos de um banco de dados do governo brasileiro entre 2008 e 2013, no qual foram analisados as hospitalizações e óbitos por asma, bem como o custo das hospitalizações. Foi também realizada uma subanálise geográfica. Em 2013, 2.047 pessoas morreram de asma no Brasil (5 óbitos/dia), com mais de 120.000 hospitalizações por asma. Durante o período de estudo, o n

  14. Trends in corrected lung cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions.

    PubMed

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier de; Moura, Lenildo de; Lana, Gustavo C; Azevedo, Gulnar; França, Elisabeth

    2016-06-27

    To describe the trend in cancer mortality rates in Brazil and regions before and after correction for underreporting of deaths and redistribution of ill-defined and nonspecific causes. The study used data of deaths from lung cancer among the population aged from 30 to 69 years, notified to the Mortality Information System between 1996 and 2011, corrected for underreporting of deaths, non-registered sex and age , and causes with ill-defined or garbage codes according to sex, age, and region. Standardized rates were calculated by age for raw and corrected data. An analysis of time trend in lung cancer mortality was carried out using the regression model with autoregressive errors. Lung cancer in Brazil presented higher rates among men compared to women, and the South region showed the highest death risk in 1996 and 2011. Mortality showed a trend of reduction for males and increase for women. Lung cancer in Brazil presented different distribution patterns according to sex, with higher rates among men and a reduction in the mortality trend for men and increase for women. Descrever a tendência da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão no Brasil e regiões, antes e após as correções por sub-registro de óbitos, redistribuição de causas mal definidas e causas inespecíficas. Foram utilizados dados de óbitos por câncer de pulmão da população de 30 a 69 anos, notificados ao Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade, entre 1996 e 2011, corrigidos para sub-registro de óbitos, declaração de sexo e idade ignorados e causas com códigos mal definidos e inespecíficos segundo sexo, idade e região. Foram calculadas taxas padronizadas por idade para dados brutos e corrigidos. Realizou-se análise da tendência temporal da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão por meio do modelo de regressão com erros autorregressivos. O câncer de pulmão no Brasil apresentou taxas mais elevadas em homens que em mulheres e a região Sul foi a que apresentou maior risco de morte em 1996 e

  15. Quality of nursing documentation before and after the Hospital Accreditation in a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Aline Tsuma Gaedke; Silva, Marcos Barragan da; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu

    2016-11-21

    , haciendo uso del Quality of Nursing Diagnoses, Interventions and Outcomes - Versión brasileña (Q-DIO- Versión brasileña). estudio observacional de intervenciones realizado en un hospital universitario. Los registros de enfermería de 112 historias clínicas del período anterior y 112 historias clínicas del período posterior a la acreditación hospitalaria se compararon mediante el instrumento Q-DIO - Versión brasileña. Los datos fueron analizados estadísticamente. se observó una mejora significativa de la calidad de los registros de enfermería. Cuando se evaluó la puntuación total del instrumento, se observó una mejora significativa en 24 de los 29 ítenes (82,8%). hubo un compromiso con el cambio en la cultura por medio de las intervenciones realizadas, lo que resultó en la conquista del sello de calidad garantizado por la Joint Commission International.

  16. Pressure ulcer dressings in critical patients: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Dinara Raquel Araújo; Bezerra, Sandra Marina Gonçalves; Costa, Jéssica Pereira; Luz, Maria Helena Barros Araújo; Lopes, Vanessa Caminha Aguiar; Nogueira, Lidya Tolstenko

    2017-06-12

    To assess the direct cost of dressings in pressure ulcer treatment. This was a descriptive observational study conducted at an intensive care unit in the Northeast region of Brazil, between November and December 2015. Data were gathered using the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing and a form to characterize and assess costs. Values in Brazilian reais (BRL) were converted into U.S. dollars at the exchange rate of USD 0.26/BRL. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted. The sample consisted of 15 patients with at least stage 2 ulcers. There was a significant reduction in costs with dressing materials between the initial and final assessments (p=0.002), with a mean of USD 11.9 (±7.4). The most common topical treatments used were essential fatty acids and papain. Cost reduction was proportional to the stage of pressure ulcer. The role of nurses in creating evidence-based care plans is crucial to improve care management. Avaliar o custo direto com curativos no tratamento de lesões por pressão. Estudo observacional descritivo, realizado em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva do nordeste do Brasil, de novembro a dezembro de 2015. Foi aplicada a Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing e formulário para caracterização e avaliação de custos. Os valores da moeda brasileira (R$) foram convertidos para a moeda norte-americana (US$) à taxa de US$0,26/R$. Foram realizadas análises univariadas e bivariadas. Compuseram a amostra 15 pacientes com lesões, no mínimo, estágio 2. Houve redução significativa dos custos com materiais de curativos entre as avaliações inicial e final (p=0,002), com média de US$11,9 (±7,4). As terapias tópicas mais frequentes foram ácidos graxos essenciais e papaína. Verificou-se redução de custos proporcional aos estágios das lesões. Enfatiza-se o papel do enfermeiro na elaboração de planos de cuidados baseados em evidências para melhor gerenciamento do cuidado. Evaluar el costo directo de curativos para el tratamiento de lesiones por

  17. Chest CT findings in patients with dysphagia and aspiration: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Scheeren, Betina; Gomes, Erissandra; Alves, Giordano; Marchiori, Edson; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2017-07-31

    , com predominância de sujeitos adultos e idosos. Os achados tomográficos em pacientes com aspiração relacionada à disfagia foram variados, abrangendo bronquiectasias, espessamento da parede brônquica, nódulos pulmonares, consolidações, derrame pleural, atenuação em vidro fosco, atelectasias, espessamento septal, fibrose, aprisionamento aéreo, entre outros. As evidências sugerem que os achados de TC de tórax em pacientes que apresentam aspiração são diversificados. Nesta revisão, não foi possível estabelecer um consenso que pudesse caracterizar um padrão de aspiração pulmonar nos pacientes com disfagia, sendo importantes investigações futuras sobre o assunto.

  18. Aging and health: Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Albertina L; Silva, José T; Lima, Margarida P

    2016-07-04

    To validate the Escala de Autoeficácia para a Autodireção na Saúde (EAAS - Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale). Non-experimental quantitative study of EAAS validation, by confirmatory factorial analyses, evaluating a sample of 508 older adults from the north and the center of Portugal with mean age of 71.67 (from 51 to 96 years), to whom the Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale were applied. The EAAS was developed from the theoretical constructs of self-efficacy and from self-directed learning within the PALADIN European project framework, aiming to develop an instrument able to assess the extent to which older adults take good care of their health. The internal consistency was 0.87 (Cronbach's alpha) and confirmatory factorial analyses enabled to find a model near the one theoretically proposed, indicating a structure consisting of four dimensions: physical exercise, healthy diet, engaging in health-related learning, and visits to health professionals. From the psychometric point of view, the model in four factors showed quite satisfactory fit indicators. The Self-efficacy for Self-direction in Health Scale, with 16 items, is adequate to evaluate to what extent older adults have confidence in their ability to take care of their own health, with high degree of autonomy. Validar a Escala de Autoeficácia para a Autodireção no domínio da Saúde (EAAS). Estudo quantitativo não experimental de validação da EAAS, por meio de análises fatoriais confirmatórias, avaliando amostra de 508 seniores e idosos provenientes das regiões Norte e Centro de Portugal com média etária de 71.67 (51 a 96 anos), a quem foram aplicadas a Escala de Autoeficácia para a Autodireção na Saúde, a Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg, a Escala de Afeto Positivo e Afeto Negativo, a Escala de

  19. Blood pressure variability in the elderly. Association between postprandial and sleeping periods.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Fernando Abrão; Fidale, Beatriz; Ferreira-Filho, Sebastião Rodrigues

    2017-04-27

    The variability of arterial blood pressure (BP) is considered an important cardiovascular risk factor. To verify the possible associations between the postprandial and the sleeping blood pressure variability. This study evaluated systolic, diastolic, mean, pulse pressures and heart variability in 69 elderly patients in preprandial, postprandial and sleeping periods. One 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was used for measurements and the results were showed in the time-rate index. We observed a decrease in the systolic blood pressure values from preprandial to postprandial and to the sleeping periods (124.7 ± 14.6, 113.2 ± 15.3 and 108.5 ± 13.9mmHg, respectively; p = 0.003). Associations between BP variability of the postprandial and sleeping periods were obtained for systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure. The correlation between postprandial and sleeping BP variability has rarely been demonstrated in the literature. These correlations between BP changes after eating and during sleep might suggest that both events could coexist in other clinical situations. A variabilidade da Pressão Arterial Sistêmica (PAS) é considerada um importante fator de risco cardio vascular. Verificar as possíveis associações entre as variabilidades pressóricas nos períodos pós prandial e durante o sono. A variabilidade das pressões sistólica, diastólica, média, de pulso e frequência cardíaca foram avaliadas em 69 pacientes idosos nos períodos pós prandial e durante o sono. A Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial de 24 horas foi usada para o cálculo da variabilidade pressórica e os resultados apresentados no índice frequência tempo. Observamosuma redução nos níveis sistólicos pos prandiais em relação ao período pre prandial e durante o sono (124.7 ± 14.6, 113.2 ± 15.3 e 108.5 ± 13.9mmHg, respectivamente; p = 0.003). A associação das variabilidade das pressões sistólicas, diastólicas e média foram confirmadas (p < 0

  20. Incidence of colorectal cancer in young patients.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fábio Guilherme C M DE; Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Monteiro, Mariane; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is traditionally diagnosed after de sixth decade of life, although a small percentage of cases are diagnosed in patients under 40 years of age, and incidence is increasing. There exists a great volume of controversy regarding clinical outcome of young patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) when compared to elder counterparts. Our aims were to evaluate the rate of CRC in young patients, to review the pertaining literature and to discuss outcomes and clinical prognosis. A retrospective review involving patients with CRC was undertaken, focusing on age at diagnosis. The information extracted from this literature review showed a trend towards a decreased incidence in older people with an opposite effect among adolescents and young adults. Moreover, biological aggressiveness in young adults diagnosed with CRC has not been fully recognized, although it is usually diagnosed later and in association with adverse histological features. Besides that, these features don't affect outcome. These apparent increase in CRC incidence among young patients during the last decades raises the need for a greater suspicious when evaluating common symptoms in this group. Thus, educational programs should widespread information for both population and physicians to improve prevention and early diagnosis results. RESUMO O câncer colorretal (CCR) esporádico é tradicionalmente diagnosticado após a sexta década de vida, embora uma pequena porcentagem de casos seja diagnosticada em doentes abaixo dos 40 anos de idade, e a incidência está aumentando. Existe uma grande controvérsia a respeito da evolução clínica de doentes jovens portadores de CCR em comparação aos mais idosos. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de CCR em doentes jovens, rever a literatura pertinente e discutir suas características mais importantes nesta faixa etária. Para tanto realizou-se revisão da literatura envolvendo doentes com CCR com foco na

  1. Factors associated with self-reported diabetes according to the 2013 National Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Schmidt, Maria Inês

    2017-06-01

    ísticas sociodemográficas, estilos de vida, doença crônica autorreferida e autoavaliação do estado de saúde. Razões de prevalência foram ajustadas segundo idade, sexo e escolaridade por regressão de Poisson com variância robusta. O diagnóstico de diabetes foi referido por 6,2% dos entrevistados. Sua prevalência bruta foi maior em mulheres (7,0 vs. 5,4%), e entre adultos de maior idade, chegando a 19,8% dos idosos. Os adultos de cor preta e de menor escolaridade apresentaram prevalências maiores. Entre os classificados como obesos, 11,8% referiram ter diabetes. Ex-fumantes, aqueles insuficientemente ativos e que consomem álcool abusivamente referiram diabetes mais frequentemente. Não foram verificadas diferenças nos hábitos alimentares entre adultos que referiram ou não diabetes. Verificou-se relação entre diabetes e a ocorrência de hipertensão arterial. Após ajustes por idade, escolaridade e sexo, o diabetes mostrou-se associado com maior idade, menor escolaridade, fumo no passado, sobrepeso e obesidade, e hipertensão arterial sistêmica, bem como com estado de saúde auto-declarado como ruim, indicando um padrão de fatores de risco comum a várias doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e associação da doença com morbidade.

  2. Revista de Saúde Pública: 50 years disseminating the knowledge in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Sichieri, Rosely; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2016-12-22

    This work describes and comments on articles in the area of Public Health Nutrition published in Revista de Saúde Pública (RSP - Public Health Journal) from 1967 to 2016. We searched in the PubMed database restricted to the periodical "Revista de Saúde Pública" and using terms related to key topics in the area of Public Health Nutrition. We retrieved 742 articles and, after exclusion of duplicates and articles unrelated to the subject, we analyzed 441 articles, grouped according to subject: dental caries, anemia, hypovitaminosis A, macro/micronutrients, malnutrition, nutritional assessment, overweight/obesity, food consumption, low birthweight, and breastfeeding. We observed significant increase in the number of articles published and diversification of subjects addressed over the 50 years, representing the consistent development of the scientific field of Nutrition in Brazil. Since its inception, RSP has played an important role in the dissemination of knowledge about the main nutritional issues in Brazil. RESUMO Este trabalho descreve e comenta os artigos na área de Nutrição em Saúde Pública, publicados na Revista de Saúde Pública (RSP) de 1967 a 2016. Foi realizada busca na base de dados PubMed restrita ao periódico "Revista de Saúde Pública" e utilizando termos relacionados com temáticas chaves da área de Nutrição em Saúde Pública. Foram recuperados 742 artigos e, após as exclusões dos artigos repetidos e daqueles não relacionados com a temática, foram analisados 441 artigos, agrupados segundo o tema: cárie dental, anemia, hipovitaminose A, macro/micronutrientes, desnutrição, avaliação do estado nutricional, sobrepeso/obesidade, consumo de alimentos, baixo peso ao nascer, e aleitamento materno. Observou-se incremento significativo no número de artigos publicados e a diversificação dos temas tratados ao longo destes 50 anos, retratando o consistente desenvolvimento do campo científico da Nutrição no Brasil. Desde seu início, a

  3. Path of infectious diseases in Brazil in the last 50 years: an ongoing challenge.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Eliseu Alves; Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri

    2016-12-22

    In this article, we comment on the main features of infectious diseases in Brazil in the last 50 years, highlighting how much of this path Revista de Saúde Pública could portray. From 1967 to 2016, 1,335 articles focusing on infectious diseases were published in Revista de Saúde Pública. Although the proportion of articles on the topic have decreased from about 50.0% to 15.0%, its notability remained and reflected the growing complexity of the research required for its control. It is noteworthy that studies design and analysis strategies progressively became more sophisticated, following the great development of epidemiology in Brazil in the recent decades. Thus, the journal has followed the success of public health interventions that permitted to control or eliminate numerous infectious diseases - which were responsible, in the past, for high rates of morbidity and mortality -, and also followed the reemergence of diseases already controlled and the emergence of until then unknown diseases, with a strong impact on the Brazilian population, establishing a little predictable and very challenging path. RESUMO Neste artigo, comentamos as principais características das doenças infecciosas no Brasil, nos últimos 50 anos, destacando o quanto a Revista de Saúde Pública conseguiu capturar essa trajetória. De 1967 a 2016, foram publicados 1.335 artigos na Revista de Saúde Pública com foco em doenças infecciosas. Ainda que a proporção de artigos sobre esse tema tenha declinado de cerca de 50,0% para 15,0%, seu destaque se manteve e refletiu a crescente complexidade das pesquisas necessárias para o seu controle. Nota-se que os desenhos dos estudos e as estratégias de análise ganharam progressivamente maior sofisticação, acompanhando o grande desenvolvimento da epidemiologia no Brasil, nas últimas décadas. Assim, foi registrado não apenas o sucesso de intervenções de saúde pública que permitiram o controle ou a eliminação de inúmeras doen

  4. Data Democratization - Promoting Real-Time Data Sharing and Use throughout the Americas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoksas, T. C.

    2006-05-01

    The Unidata Program Center (Unidata) of the University Corporation of Atmospheric Research (UCAR) is actively involved in international collaborations whose goals are real-time sharing of hydro-meteorological data by institutions of higher education throughout the Americas; in the distribution of analysis and visualization tools for those data; and in the establishment of server sites that provide easy-to-use, programmatic remote- access to a wide variety of datasets. Data sharing capabilities are being provided by Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD) system, a community-based effort that has been the primary source of real-time meteorological data for approximately 150 US universities for over a decade. A collaboration among Unidata, Brazil's Centro de PreviSão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC), the Universidad Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), and the Universidade de São Paulo (USP) has resulted in the creation of a Brazilian peer of the North American IDD, the IDD-Brasil. Collaboration among Unidata, the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), and the University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez (UPRM) seeks to extend IDD data sharing throughout Central America and the Caribbean in an IDD-Caribe. Collaboration between Unidata and the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH), a World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Regional Meteorological Training Center (RMTC) based in Barbados, has been launched to investigate the possibility of expansion of IDD data sharing throughout Caribbean RMTC member countries. Most recently, efforts aimed at creating a data sharing network for researchers on the Antarctic continent have resulted in the establishment of the Antarctic-IDD. Data analysis and visualization capabilities are being provided by Unidata through a suite of freely-available applications: the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) GEneral Meteorology PAcKage (GEMPAK); the Unidata Integrated Data Viewer (IDV); and University of

  5. Crustal thinning and tectonic geomorphology: redefining the passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redfield, T.; Osmundsen, P. T.

    2012-04-01

    We describe Scandinavia's passive margin in terms of a hyper-extended distal margin, a variably tapered proximal margin that includes the outer onshore areas, and an upwarped, unstretched, continent-sloping hinterland that terminates against the "undeformed" cratonic interior. Two benchmark locations, defined as the taper break (TB) and the Hinterland Break in Slope (HBSL), occur at the inner boundary of the distal margin and at the transition from the continent-sloping hinterland and craton, respectively. The elevation of the seaward-facing escarpment is directly scaled to the distance between the taper break and the Hinterland Break in Slope. Scaling relationships between the taper of the crystalline crust in the direction of the distal margin and the length/dip of the hinterland backslope follow directly. The shape factors of major catchments are directly scaled to the taper of the proximal margin and drainage azimuths are parallel to the mean transport lineation recorded from a distinct population of range-bounding normal faults. Topographic expressions of the footwalls and offsets in apatite fission-track age-patterns indicate that fault movement controlled topography, locally and regionally inboard of sharp crustal tapers long after the main phase of crustal thinning. We extend our definition of the passive margin to other post-breakup margins. One particularly fine example is SE Brasil. New data (Zalan et al., 2011) suggest the direct correlation of SE Brasil's Taper Break with its escarpment elevation in a manner consistent with our Scandinavian and global observations. The Taper Hypothesis appears to hold across old and young, glaciated, and unglaciated margins. Following the stretching, thinning, and exhumation phase, an "accommodation phase" is warranted. During accommodation, the initially elevated escarpments can be eroded to very low base levels and subsequently undergo inboard rejuvenation by footwall uplift, in response to tensile stresses

  6. MICROBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF LETTUCE SALADS AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS SPP.

    PubMed

    Guimarães César, Josi; Madruga Peres, Andriele; Pereira das Neves, Caroline; Tupiniquim Freitas de Abreu, Érica; Fagundes de Mello, Jozi; Nunes Moreira, Ângela; Lameiro Rodrigues, Kelly

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la procura por estabelecimientos que ofrecen alimentos prontos para consumo ha aumentado, sin embrago, los alimentos disponibles en estos locales pueden estar contaminados con microorganismos patogénicos, pudiendo causar enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos. Objetivos: evaluar la calidad microbiológica de las ensaladas de lechuga en los restaurantes de Pelotas RS Brasil, a través de los recuentos de coliformes termotolerantes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp. y la detección de Salmonella spp. Resistencia a los antimicrobianos de Staphylococcus spp. también se evalúan. Métodos: fueron colectadas 36 muestras de ensaladas de lechuga en nueve restaurantes y realizada la cuantificación de coliformes termotolerantes, Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus spp. e investigación de Salmonella spp., siguiendo la metodología del Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Los aislados de Staphylococcus spp. fueron sometidos al examen de resistencia a antimicrobianos por el método de difusión con discos. Resultados y discusión: de las 36 muestras de ensalada de lechuga, 61,1% presentaron cuantificación de coliformes termotolerantes superiores a lo permitido por la legislación brasileña, y hubo confirmación de E. coli en 5,6% de las muestras. La cuantificación de Staphylococcus coagulasa positiva representó 5,6% de los aislados y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativa representó 77,8%. Todas las muestras presentaron ausencia de Salmonella spp. De los 30 aislados de Staphylococcus spp. examinados, 56,7% fueron resistentes a penicilina, 46,7% a oxacilina, 26,7% a eritromicina y 23,3% fueron multirresistentes. Conclusión: la calidad microbiológica de las ensaladas de lechuga se mostró inadecuada debido a la presencia de microorganismos patogénicos, y los aislados de Staphylococcus spp. presentaron elevado porcentaje de resistencia antimicrobiana.

  7. Dietary patterns of young adolescents in urban areas of northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Célia Márcia Medeiros; Pinheiro, Liana Galvão Bacurau; Lima, Severina Carla Vieira Cunha; Lyra, Clelia Oliveira; de Sena Evangelista, Karine Cavalcanti Mauricio; Lima, Kenio Costa; Pedrosa, Lucia Fatima Campos

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Estudios nacionales de evolución temporal encuentran que la tendencia del consumo alimentario se asocia con aumento de la prevalencia de las enfermedades crónicas. Objetivos: Caracterizar los hábitos alimentarios de los adolescentes en un área urbana del Noreste de Brasil, relacionándolos con los marcadores dietéticos saludables. Métodos: Estudio transversal con adolescentes (n=430) de las escuelas públicas de Natal-RN, Brasil. El consumo alimentario se evaluó mediante dos recordatorios 24h. La técnica de Análisis de Componentes Principales fue utilizada para derivar patrones dietéticos, de acuerdo con: alimentos en gramos (g), la energía en Kcal y la fibra en gramos, lo que resulta, respectivamente, en 3 componentes principales distintos: 7, 8 y 4 (varianza acumulada >70%; cargas factoriales >0,4). La asociación entre las variables independientes y los escores de los factores de todos los componentes obtenidos, se determinó por la razón de prevalencia (IC 95%). Resultados: Los patrones dietéticos fueron: el (1) Sistema Alimentario Tradicional puro representó el primero componente de los modelos; el (2) Sistema Alimentario Combinado y de riesgo reveló marcadores de alimentación no saludables, debido a la alta frecuencia de azucares refinados, grasas saturadas y sal; y el (3) Sistema Alimentario Modificado fue identificado en el modelo de las fibras, el patrón 1 de nuevo fue observado en este patrón. Las asociaciones observadas, en particular del patrón SATm, distinguen por sexo, edad y estado nutricional. Conclusiones: Los patrones dietéticos 1 y 3 se caracterizaron por la preservación de las prácticas regionales de alimentos, muy saludables, desde el punto de vista de la prevención de las enfermedades crónicas, mientras que el 2 representó alerta y riesgo para la salud. Los hallazgos pueden subvencionar Políticas de Atención a la Salud para infancia y adolescencia en carácter intersectorial.

  8. Healthcare systems, the State, and innovation in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Ignacio José Godinho

    2016-11-03

    This article discusses the relations between healthcare systems and the pharmaceutical industry, focusing on state support for pharmaceutical innovation. The study highlights the experiences of the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany, developed countries and paradigms of modern health systems (liberal, universal, and corporatist), in addition to Japan, a case of successful catching up. The study also emphasizes the experiences of China, India, and Brazil, large developing countries that have tried different catching up strategies, with diverse histories and profiles in their healthcare systems and pharmaceutical industries. Finally, with a focus on state forms of support for health research, the article addresses the mechanisms for linkage between health systems and the pharmaceutical industry, evaluating the possibilities of Brazil strengthening a virtuous interaction, favoring the expansion and consolidation of the Brazilian health system - universal but segmented ‒ and the affirmation of the innovative national pharmaceutical industry. Resumo: O artigo discute as relações entre os sistemas de saúde e a indústria farmacêutica, concentrando-se no apoio do Estado à inovação farmacêutica. Salienta as trajetórias dos Estados Unidos, Reino Unido e Alemanha, países desenvolvidos, paradigmáticos dos modernos sistemas de saúde (liberais, universais e corporativos), além do Japão, um caso de emparelhamento bem-sucedido. Também enfatiza as trajetórias de China, Índia e Brasil, países em desenvolvimento, extensos, que experimentaram diferentes estratégias de emparelhamento, dispondo de sistemas de saúde e indústrias farmacêuticas com trajetórias e perfis diversos. Finalmente, com foco nas formas estatais de apoio à pesquisa em saúde, considera os mecanismos de conexão entre os sistemas de saúde e a indústria farmacêutica, avaliando as possibilidades, no Brasil, de fortalecer uma interação virtuosa que favoreça a expansão e

  9. The applicability of the concept of treatment adherence in the context of the Brazilian mental health system.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Patricia Elizabeth Sanz de; Rosendo, Ernestina; Alchieri, João Carlos

    2016-06-01

    To present reflections on the type of research conducted on a treatment adherence among users of Public Mental Health System in Brazil and discuss the applicability of the concept of adherence to treatment in this context. Literature review in SciELO, LILACS, Cochrane Library and PubMed / MEDLINE using the Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) treatment, adhesion and "mental health" and the specific vocabulary of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "patient compliance/psychologist" y "mental health". They were included for review the complete texts and theses published between 2007-2012 in Portuguese, English and Spanish. 127 articles were recovered, 32 specifically related to mental health. Eight were excluded for duplicates and after reading the remaining 24 articles were selected for this study 10 conducted in the field of Mental Health in Brazil. No investigations have been identified with focus on adherence to psychosocial treatment offered in public mental health. disregard of the mental health legislation and reinforce the asylum model of assistance. Presentar reflexiones sobre el tipo de investigaciones realizadas en Brasil sobre la adhesión al tratamiento de los usuarios del Sistema Público de Salud Mental y discutir la aplicabilidad del concepto de adhesión al tratamiento en dicho contexto. Revisión bibliográfica en las bases SciELO, LILACS, Biblioteca Cochrane y PubMed/MEDLINE utilizando los descriptores de Ciencias de la Salud (DeCS) adhesión, tratamiento y "salud mental" y el vocabulario específico de Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "patient compliance/psychologist" y "mental health". Se incluyeron los textos completos y las tesis publicadas entre 2007-2012, en portugués, inglés y español. F1eron recuperados 127 artículos, 32 específicamente de la salud mental. Se excluyeron los 8 duplicados y de los 24 restantes fueron seleccionados para el presente trabajo los 10 realizados en Brasil. No se identificaron enfoques sobre la adhesión al

  10. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, the association with socioeconomic variables in adolescents from low-income region.

    PubMed

    Nascimento-Ferreira, M