Science.gov

Sample records for iea etsap modelling

  1. IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 2: Wind farm wake models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Gancarski, Pawel; Chuchfield, Matthew; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Hansen, Kurt S.; Machefaux, Ewan; Maguire, Eoghan; Castellani, Francesco; Terzi, Ludovico; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Ueda, Yuko

    2014-06-01

    Researchers within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 31: Wakebench have created a framework for the evaluation of wind farm flow models operating at the microscale level. The framework consists of a model evaluation protocol integrated with a web-based portal for model benchmarking (www.windbench.net). This paper provides an overview of the building-block validation approach applied to wind farm wake models, including best practices for the benchmarking and data processing procedures for validation datasets from wind farm SCADA and meteorological databases. A hierarchy of test cases has been proposed for wake model evaluation, from similarity theory of the axisymmetric wake and idealized infinite wind farm, to single-wake wind tunnel (UMN-EPFL) and field experiments (Sexbierum), to wind farm arrays in offshore (Horns Rev, Lillgrund) and complex terrain conditions (San Gregorio). A summary of results from the axisymmetric wake, Sexbierum, Horns Rev and Lillgrund benchmarks are used to discuss the state-of-the-art of wake model validation and highlight the most relevant issues for future development.

  2. RAS/ERK pathway transcriptional regulation through ETS/AP-1 binding sites.

    PubMed

    Hollenhorst, Peter C

    2012-01-01

    The RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway is activated by mutation in many cancers. Neighboring ETS and AP-1 DNA binding sequences can act as response elements for transcriptional activation by this pathway. ERK phosphorylation of an ETS transcription factor is one mechanism of activating the RAS/ERK gene expression program that can promote cancer cell phenotypes such as proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Recent genome-wide mapping of ETS proteins over-expressed by chromosomal rearrangement in prostate cancer reveals a second mechanism for activation of this gene expression program. An oncogenic subset of ETS transcription factors can activate RAS/ERK target genes even in the absence of RAS/ERK pathway activation by binding ETS/AP-1 sequences. Thus, regulation of cancer cell invasion and metastasis via ETS/AP-1 sequence elements depends on which ETS protein is bound, and the status of the RAS/ERK pathway. This commentary will focus on what is known about the selectivity of ETS/AP-1 sequences for different ETS transcription factors and the transcriptional consequences of ETS protein selection.

  3. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration within IEA Wind Annex XXIII: Phase III Results Regarding Tripod Support Structure Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, J.; Camp, T.; Jonkman, J.; Butterfield, S.; Larsen, T.; Hansen, A.; Azcona, J.; Martinez, A.; Munduate, X.; Vorpahl, F.; Kleinhansl, S.; Kohlmeier, M.; Kossel, T.; Boker, C.; Kaufer, D.

    2009-01-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation codes. This paper describes the findings of code-to-code verification activities of the IEA Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration.

  4. IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 1: Flow-over-terrain models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Gancarski, Pawel; Chavez Arroyo, Roberto; Moriarty, Patrick; Chuchfield, Matthew; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Hansen, Kurt S.; Machefaux, Ewan; Koblitz, Tilman; Maguire, Eoghan; Castellani, Francesco; Terzi, Ludovico; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Ueda, Yuko; Prospathopoulos, John; Oxley, Gregory S.; Peralta, Carlos; Zhang, Xiadong; Witha, Björn

    2014-06-01

    The IEA Task 31 Wakebench is setting up a framework for the evaluation of wind farm flow models operating at microscale level. The framework consists on a model evaluation protocol integrated on a web-based portal for model benchmarking (www.windbench.net). This paper provides an overview of the building-block validation approach applied to flow-over-terrain models, including best practices for the benchmarking and data processing procedures for the analysis and qualification of validation datasets from wind resource assessment campaigns. A hierarchy of test cases has been proposed for flow-over-terrain model evaluation, from Monin- Obukhov similarity theory for verification of surface-layer properties, to the Leipzig profile for the near-neutral atmospheric boundary layer, to flow over isolated hills (Askervein and Bolund) to flow over mountaneous complex terrain (Alaiz). A summary of results from the first benchmarks are used to illustrate the model evaluation protocol applied to flow-over-terrain modeling in neutral conditions.

  5. IEA Wind Energy Annual Report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2001-05-01

    The twenty-third IEA Wind Energy Annual Report reviews the progress during 2000 of the activities in the Implementing Agreement for Co-operation in the Research and Development on Wind Turbine Systems under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA). The agreement and its program, which is known as IEA R&D Wind, is a collaborative venture among 19 contracting parties from 17 IEA member countries and the European Commission.

  6. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration within IEA Wind Task 23: Phase IV Results Regarding Floating Wind Turbine Modeling; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J.; Larsen, T.; Hansen, A.; Nygaard, T.; Maus, K.; Karimirad, M.; Gao, Z.; Moan, T.; Fylling, I.

    2010-04-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation codes that account for the coupled dynamics of the wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity, and controls of the turbine, along with the incident waves, sea current, hydrodynamics, and foundation dynamics of the support structure. This paper describes the latest findings of the code-to-code verification activities of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, which operates under Subtask 2 of the International Energy Agency Wind Task 23. In the latest phase of the project, participants used an assortment of codes to model the coupled dynamic response of a 5-MW wind turbine installed on a floating spar buoy in 320 m of water. Code predictions were compared from load-case simulations selected to test different model features. The comparisons have resulted in a greater understanding of offshore floating wind turbine dynamics and modeling techniques, and better knowledge of the validity of various approximations. The lessons learned from this exercise have improved the participants' codes, thus improving the standard of offshore wind turbine modeling.

  7. STS-33: At Pad B - IEA Removal; STS-32: In the VAB HB1 - IEA Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The STS-33 at Pad B Integrated Electronic Assembly (I.E.A.) is shown. The STS-32 I.E.A. removal in the Vehicle Assembly Building (V.A.B) High Bay 1 (H.B.1) is also presented. The change out of the short they found in boosters is the purpose for the video.

  8. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    SciTech Connect

    Giebel, G.; Cline, J.; Frank, H.; Shaw, W.; Pinson, P.; Hodge, B-M; Kariniotakis, G.; Madsen, J.; Möhrlen, C.

    2016-10-03

    Here, this paper presents the new International Energy Agency Wind Task 36 on Forecasting, and invites to collaborate within the group. Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national meteorological centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, MetOffice, met.no, DMI,...), operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions. As first results, an overview of current issues for research in short-term forecasting of wind power is presented.

  9. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    DOE PAGES

    Giebel, G.; Cline, J.; Frank, H.; ...

    2016-10-03

    Here, this paper presents the new International Energy Agency Wind Task 36 on Forecasting, and invites to collaborate within the group. Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national meteorological centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, MetOffice, met.no, DMI,...), operational forecaster and forecast users. The Taskmore » is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions. As first results, an overview of current issues for research in short-term forecasting of wind power is presented.« less

  10. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, G.; Cline, J.; Frank, H.; Shaw, W.; Pinson, P.; Hodge, B.-M.; Kariniotakis, G.; Madsen, J.; Möhrlen, C.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the new International Energy Agency Wind Task 36 on Forecasting, and invites to collaborate within the group. Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national meteorological centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, MetOffice, met.no, DMI,...), operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions. As first results, an overview of current issues for research in short-term forecasting of wind power is presented.

  11. [Experience of coronary artery bypass grafting with inferior epigastric artery (IEA) and pathological examination of the IEA].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, S; Kawaue, Y

    1995-01-01

    From January to March 1994, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using the inferior epigastric artery (IEA) were performed in 10 patients. The stumps of the IEAs were examined pathologically. 1. Intimal thickening of the IEA was scarcely noted. 2. Internal elastic lamina of the IEA showed good development equivalent to the internal thoracic artery (ITA). 3. Tunica media of the IEA was poor in elastic fibers and rich in smooth muscle cells compared with the ITA. 4. The thickness of intima + media was 150-360 microns, suggesting its low risk of ischemic necrosis in case of free grafting. These results suggested the IEA to be a good graft material applicable for CABG.

  12. Overview of IEA biomass combustion activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hustad, J. E.

    1994-07-01

    The objectives of the International Energy Agency (IEA) bioenergy program are: (1) to encourage cooperative research, development and use of energy and the increased utilization of alternatives to oil; and (2) to establish increased program and project cooperation between participants in the whole field of bioenergy. There are four Task Annexes to the Implementing Agreement during the period 1992-1994: Efficient and Environmentally Sound Biomass Production Systems; Harvesting and Supply of Woody Biomass for Energy; Biomass Utilization; and Conversion of Municipal Solid Waste Feedstock to Energy. The report describes the following biomass combustion activities during the period 1992-1994: Round robin test of a wood stove; Emissions from biomass combustion; A pilot project cofiring biomass with oil to reduce SO2 emissions; Small scale biomass chip handling; Energy from contaminated wood waste combustion; Modeling of biomass combustion; Wood chip cogeneration; Combustion of wet biomass feedstocks, ash reinjection and carbon burnout; Oxidation of wet biomass; Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances; Characterization of biomass fuels and ashes; Measurement techniques (FTIR).

  13. IEA BESTEST Multi-Zone Non-Airflow In-Depth Diagnostic Cases: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.; Alexander, D.; Felsmann, C.; Strachan, P.; Wijsman, A.

    2011-11-01

    This paper documents a set of in-depth diagnostic test cases for multi-zone heat transfer models that do not include the heat and mass transfer effects of airflow between zones. The multi-zone non-airflow test cases represent an extension to IEA BESTEST (Judkoff and Neymark 1995a).

  14. International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy Under IEA Annex XXIII

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.; Butterfield, S.; Lemming, J.

    2005-11-01

    This paper defines the purpose of IEA Annex XXIII, the International Collaboration on Offshore Wind Energy. This international collaboration through the International Energy Agency (IEA) is an efficient forum from which to advance the technical and environmental experiences collected from existing offshore wind energy projects, as well as the research necessary to advance future technology for deep-water wind energy technology.

  15. The IEA/SSPS high flux experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schiel, W.; Geyer, M.; Contreras, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Results and conclusions of the IEA-SSPS High Experiment are presented together with the thermodynamic theory of the Advanced Sodium Receiver. During the experiment, flux distributions, surface temperature distributions, efficiencies and losses, were measured and calculated in a power range of 0.8-3.5 MW at different sodium inlet/outlet temperatures. The design heat flux of 1.4 MW/m/sup 2/ was increased to 2.5 MW/m/sup 2/ resulting in a slightly increased total receiver efficiency of over 90%.

  16. The recent history of the IEA: an analysis of IEA Congress presentations since 1961.

    PubMed

    Waterson, Patrick; Falzon, Pierre; Barcellini, Flore

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review historical material relating to the growth and coverage of past IEA meetings and congresses. In particular, we report on presentations at IEA Congresses dating back to the first one in Stockholm in 1961. A content analysis of Congress proceedings was carried out and we present findings on changes since 1961 covering: numbers and nationalities of conference participants and the types of topics presented at Congresses. Our findings point to evidence of widening participation at the conferences, in particular delegates drawn from Asia, South East Asia and the Far East. In addition, some topics (e.g., physiology, methodological papers and studies of workload) appear to have waned in popularity over the period, whereas some topics (e.g., ODAM, Cognitive Ergonomics) have grown in popularity. We discuss these findings in the light of other evidence covering historical trends and developments within human factors and ergonomics.

  17. IEA Bioenergy Countries' Report: Bioenergy policies and status of implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Bacovsky, Dina; Ludwiczek, Nikolaus; Pointner, Christian; Verma, Vijay Kumar

    2016-08-05

    This report was prepared from IEA statistical data, information from IRENA, and IEA Bioenergy Tasks’ country reports, combined with data provided by the IEA Bioenergy Executive Committee. All individual country reports were reviewed by the national delegates to the IEA Bioenergy Executive Committee, who have approved the content. In the first section of each country report, national renewable energy targets are presented (first table in each country report), and the main pieces of national legislation are discussed. In the second section of each country report the total primary energy supply (TPES) by resources and the contribution of bioenergy are presented. All data is taken from IEA statistics for the year 2014. Where 2014 data was not available, 2013 data was used. It is worth noting that data reported in national statistics can differ from the IEA data presented, as the reporting categories and definitions are different. In the third section of each country report, the research focus related to bioenergy is discussed. Relevant funding programs, major research institutes and projects are described. In the fourth section, recent major bioenergy developments are described. Finally, in the fifth section, links to sources of information are provided.

  18. Solar photoproduction of hydrogen. IEA technical report of the IEA Agreement of the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, J.R.

    1996-09-30

    The report was prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Hydrogen Program and represents the result of subtask C, Annex 10 - Photoproduction of Hydrogen. The concept of using solar energy to drive the conversion of water into hydrogen and oxygen has been examined, from the standpoints of potential and ideal efficiencies, measurement of (and how to calculate) solar hydrogen production efficiencies, a survey of the state-of-the-art, and a technological assessment of various solar hydrogen options. The analysis demonstrates that the ideal limit of the conversion efficiency for 1 sun irradiance is {approximately}31% for a single photosystem scheme and {approximately}42% for a dual photosystem scheme. However, practical considerations indicate that real efficiencies will not likely exceed {approximately}10% and {approximately}16% for single and dual photosystem schemes, respectively. Four types of solar photochemical hydrogen systems have been identified: photochemical systems, semiconductor systems, photobiological systems, and hybrid and other systems. A survey of the state-of-the-art of these four types is presented. The four types (and their subtypes) have also been examined in a technological assessment, where each has been examined as to efficiency, potential for improvement, and long-term functionality. Four solar hydrogen systems have been selected as showing sufficient promise for further research and development: (1) Photovoltaic cells plus an electrolyzer; (2) Photoelectrochemical cells with one or more semiconductor electrodes; (3) Photobiological systems; and (4) Photodegradation systems. The following recommendations were presented for consideration of the IEA: (1) Define and measure solar hydrogen conversion efficiencies as the ratio of the rate of generation of Gibbs energy of dry hydrogen gas (with appropriate corrections for any bias power) to the incident solar power (solar irradiance times the irradiated area); (2) Expand support for pilot

  19. IEA Small Solar Power Systems Project: operation status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    The status of the operation of the IEA Small Solar Power Systems Project is reported for the period from January 1, 1983 to August 31, 1983. Included are reports of new hardware activities as given by the installation of both the advanced sodium receiver in the central receiver system and a 3rd collector field in the distributed collector system. (LEW)

  20. The Second IEA Science Study--U.S. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Willard J.; And Others

    The Second IEA Science Study (SISS) was carried out in 1983 in 24 countries. In the United States a second phase of testing was undertaken in 1986. This document describes the organization of the study in the United States and highlights some of the results and their possible implications for science education. The countries included in the SISS…

  1. Achievement Data in IEA Studies and Simpson's Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuzovsky, Ruth; Steinberg, David M.; Libman, Zipi

    2011-01-01

    This paper is meant to highlight the occurrence of Simpson's Paradox when using aggregated data obtained from two IEA studies in Israel, while ignoring the effect of a powerful intervening variable in the local context--the ethnicity factor. It will demonstrate faulty conclusions regarding either the absence of relationships between a contextual…

  2. Twenty Years On!: Updating the IEA BESTEST Building Thermal Fabric Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.

    2013-07-01

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs applies the IEA BESTEST building thermal fabric test cases and example simulation results originally published in 1995. These software accuracy test cases and their example simulation results, which comprise the first test suite adapted for the initial 2001 version of Standard 140, are approaching their 20th anniversary. In response to the evolution of the state of the art in building thermal fabric modeling since the test cases and example simulation results were developed, work is commencing to update the normative test specification and the informative example results.

  3. PIRLS-IEA Reading Literacy Framework: Comparative Analysis of the 1991 IEA Reading Study and the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapinus, Barbara

    A study examined how two international studies--the 1991 International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Reading Literacy Study and the 2001 Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS, also conducted by IEA)--compared to each other in the aspects of reading literacy each assessed, the types of texts they…

  4. A second solar array is moved to the IEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility get ready to attach an overhead crane (center top) to the solar array below it to move the array for installation onto the Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA). A component of the International Space Station, the solar array is the second one being installed on the IEA. The arrays are scheduled to be launched on mission STS-97 in late November along with the P6 truss. The Station's electrical power system (EPS) will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays to convert sunlight to electricity. Each of the eight solar arrays will be 112 feet long by 39 feet wide. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station.

  5. A second solar array is moved to the IEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Workers rise to the occasion on accordion lifts as they oversee the movement of solar array in front of them. The solar array will be installed onto the Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA). A component of the International Space Station, the solar array is the second one being installed on the IEA. The arrays are scheduled to be launched on mission STS-97 in late November along with the P6 truss. The Station's electrical power system (EPS) will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays to convert sunlight to electricity. Each of the eight solar arrays will be 112 feet long by 39 feet wide. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station.

  6. A second solar array is moved to the IEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The overhead crane carrying a solar array turns on its axis to move the array to the Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) for installation. A component of the International Space Station, the solar array is the second one being installed on the IEA. The arrays are scheduled to be launched on mission STS-97 in late November along with the P6 truss. The Station's electrical power system (EPS) will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays to convert sunlight to electricity. Each of the eight solar arrays will be 112 feet long by 39 feet wide. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station.

  7. A second solar array is moved to the IEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An overhead crane in the Space Station Processing Facility lifts a solar array as workers stand by to help guide it. The solar array will be installed onto the Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA). A component of the International Space Station, the solar array is the second one being installed on the IEA. The arrays are scheduled to be launched on mission STS-97 in late November along with the P6 truss. The Station's electrical power system (EPS) will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays to convert sunlight to electricity. Each of the eight solar arrays will be 112 feet long by 39 feet wide. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station.

  8. A second solar array is moved to the IEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility help guide an overhead crane toward a workstand containing a solar array in order to move it for installation onto the Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA). A component of the International Space Station, the solar array is the second one being installed on the IEA. The arrays are scheduled to be launched on mission STS-97 in late November along with the P6 truss. The Station's electrical power system (EPS) will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays to convert sunlight to electricity. Each of the eight solar arrays will be 112 feet long by 39 feet wide. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station.

  9. IEA Implementing Agreements and Annexes: A Guide for Building Technologies Program Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Meier, Alan; Runci, Paul J.

    2008-08-05

    This guide presents insights and guidance from DOE’s gathered through longstanding and extensive participation in IEA implementing agreements (IAs) and annexes. Even though DOE has been a key participant in international research activities through the IEA since the 1970s, the experience, knowledge, and institutional memory associated with these activities can be lost or forgotten easily as key DOE managers retire or leave the department. The guide seeks to assemble in a single reference some of the learning that has occurred through participation in IEA IAs as a guide for BTP managers currently responsible for IAs and for those who might consider entering into new IEA activities in the future.

  10. Open Session IEA General Assembly (24th, Enschede, Netherlands, August 15-19, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, T. J. H. M., Ed.

    Ten papers, four general overviews,, and three commentaries delivered at the General Assembly of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) in 1983 are presented. The papers include: (1) "Why Join IEA?" (J. P. Keeves); (2) "Research and Policymaking in Education: An International…

  11. State-of-the-Art of Fast Pyrolysis in IEA Bioenergy Member Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Dietrich; van de Beld, Bert; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Oasmaa, Anja; Preto, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass is becoming increasingly important in some member countries of the International Energy Agency(IEA). Six countries have joined the IEA Task 34 of the Bioenergy Activity: Canada, Finland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, and USA. The National Task Leaders give an overview of the current activities in their countries both on research, pilot and demonstration level.

  12. Funding Formulas and Arrangements under IEA Implementing Agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, Alison; Evans, Meredydd

    2008-12-30

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has researched how participating countries divide funding obligations under International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreements (IAs). This is part of a broader assessment evaluating the buildings-area IAs. This particular part of the analysis looked at 12 IAs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy. By selecting a range of agreements, we hoped to understand the types of arrangements and the range of funding formulas. PNNL asked the U.S. Executive Committee (ExCo) members how the total contribution for their IA and its Annexes were determined, and how the total was then divided between participating countries.

  13. Twenty Years On!: Updating the IEA BESTEST Building Thermal Fabric Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.

    2013-07-01

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs applies the IEA BESTEST building thermal fabric test cases and example simulation results originally published in 1995. These software accuracy test cases and their example simulation results, which comprise the first test suite adapted for the initial 2001 version of Standard 140, are approaching their 20th anniversary. In response to the evolution of the state of the art in building thermal fabric modeling since the test cases and example simulation results were developed, work is commencing to update the normative test specification and the informative example results.

  14. The IEA for the ISS is being processed in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) is lifted from a rotation stand in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC to be placed on a work stand. The IEA, a large truss segment of the International Space Station (ISS), is one of four power modules to be used on the International Space Station. The modules contain batteries for the ISS solar panels and power for the life support systems and experiments that will be conducted. This first IEA will fly on the Space Shuttle Endeavour as part of STS- 97, scheduled to launch August 5, 1999.

  15. The IEA for the ISS is being processed in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Technicians in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC prepare to lower an Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) onto a work stand. The IEA, a large truss segment of the International Space Station (ISS), is one of four power modules to be used on the International Space Station. The modules contain batteries for the ISS solar panels and power for the life support systems and experiments that will be conducted. This first IEA will fly on the Space Shuttle Endeavour as part of STS-97, scheduled to launch August 5, 1999.

  16. The IEA for the ISS is being processed in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) is moved from the low bay into the high bay at the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC. The IEA, a large truss segment of the International Space Station (ISS), is one of four power modules to be used on the ISS. The modules contain batteries for the ISS solar panels and power for the life support systems and experiments that will be conducted. This first IEA will fly on the Space Shuttle Endeavour as part of STS-97, scheduled to launch August 5, 1999.

  17. The IEA for the ISS is being processed in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) is suspended in air after being lifted from a rotation stand in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC in order to be moved to a work stand. The IEA, a large truss segment of the International Space Station (ISS), is one of four power modules to be used on the International Space Station. The modules contain batteries for the ISS solar panels and power for the life support systems and experiments that will be conducted. This first IEA will fly on the Space Shuttle Endeavour as part of STS-97, scheduled to launch August 5, 1999.

  18. The IEA for the ISS is being processed in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) is moved into the center of the Space Station Processing Facility clean room at KSC for transition to the high bay. The IEA, a large truss segment of the International Space Station (ISS), is one of four power modules to be used on the International Space Station. The modules contain batteries for the ISS solar panels and power for the life support systems and experiments that will be conducted. This first IEA will fly on the Space Shuttle Endeavour as part of STS- 97, scheduled to launch August 5, 1999.

  19. The IEA for the ISS is being processed in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Technicians carefully lower an Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) onto a work stand in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC . The IEA, a large truss segment of the International Space Station (ISS), is one of four power modules to be used on the International Space Station. The modules contain batteries for the ISS solar panels and power for the life support systems and experiments that will be conducted. This first IEA will fly on the Space Shuttle Endeavour as part of STS-97, scheduled to launch August 5, 1999.

  20. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case has its own

  1. A second solar array is moved to the IEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, the overhead crane carrying a solar array arrives at the Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) on which it will be installed. Solar Array Wing-3 is already in place. Components of the International Space Station, the arrays are scheduled to be launched on mission STS- 97 in late November along with the P6 truss. The Station's electrical power system (EPS) will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays to convert sunlight to electricity. Each of the eight solar arrays will be 112 feet long by 39 feet wide. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station.

  2. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 2: Participant Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  3. IEA Agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, Carolyn C. )

    1997-01-31

    The annual report includes an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including a brief summary of hydrogen in general. The Chairman's report provides highlights for the year. Sections are included on hydrogen energy activities in the IEA Hydrogen Agreement member countries, including Canada, European Commission, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the US. Lastly, Annex reports are given for the following tasks: Task 10, Photoproduction of Hydrogen, Task 11, Integrated Systems, and Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage.

  4. Radiotherapy of stage IEA primary breast lymphoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Juretić, Antonio; Zivković, Mirko; Samija, Mirko; Bagović, Davorin; Purisić, Anka; Viculin, Tomislav; Bistrović, Matija; Stanec, Mladen; Juzbasić, Stjepan; Lesar, Miro; Tomek, Rudolf

    2002-10-01

    A 47-year-old woman was referred for the treatment to our Hospital because of a palpable nodule in the upper medial quadrant of her right breast. After tumor excision, pathohistological examination showed a follicular center cell lymphoma grade 2, B-cell type (CD20+, bc16+, CD10+, bcl2+). The final diagnosis was stage IEA primary extranodal non-Hodgkin s breast lymphoma. The involved breast was irradiated isocentrically with two opposite 6-megavolt (MeV) photon beams delivered from the linear accelerator (tangential fields) using asymmetric collimator opening. Radiation volume, inclinations of the medial and lateral field, and the part of the underlying chest wall and lung parenchyma were determined during the radiotherapy simulation process. The total irradiation dose was 44 Gy delivered in single daily doses of 2 Grays (Gy). After breast photon irradiation, a boost to the tumor bed was performed by a direct 12 MeV electron beam, with a total dose of 6 Gy delivered over three days. Since primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the breast is rather rare, there has been no uniform approach to its treatment. The advantage of applying the asymmetric collimator jaw opening in breast radiotherapy is the instant reduction of the dose at margin fields, resulting in both the protection of neighboring lung parenchyma and the good coverage of planned target volume.

  5. IEA Wind Task 26: Offshore Wind Farm Baseline Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, Gavin; Smith, Aaron; Warner, Ethan; Sperstad, Iver Bakken; Prinsen, Bob; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto

    2016-06-02

    This document has been produced to provide the definition and rationale for the Baseline Offshore Wind Farm established within IEA Wind Task 26--Cost of Wind Energy. The Baseline has been developed to provide a common starting point for country comparisons and sensitivity analysis on key offshore wind cost and value drivers. The baseline project reflects an approximate average of the characteristics of projects installed between 2012 and 2014, with the project life assumed to be 20 years. The baseline wind farm is located 40 kilometres (km) from construction and operations and maintenance (O&M) ports and from export cable landfall. The wind farm consists of 100 4-megawatt (MW) wind turbines mounted on monopile foundations in an average water depth of 25 metres (m), connected by 33-kilovolt (kV) inter-array cables. The arrays are connected to a single offshore substation (33kV/220kV) mounted on a jacket foundation, with the substation connected via a single 220kV export cable to an onshore substation, 10km from landfall. The wind farm employs a port-based O&M strategy using crew-transfer vessels.

  6. Technology status of hydrogen road vehicles. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement of the production and utilization of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, T.A.

    1998-01-31

    The report was commissioned under the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and examines the state of the art in the evolving field of hydrogen-fueled vehicles for road transport. The first phase surveys and analyzes developments since 1989, when a comprehensive review was last published. The report emphasizes the following: problems, especially backfiring, with internal combustion engines (ICEs); operational safety; hydrogen handling and on-board storage; and ongoing demonstration projects. Hydrogen vehicles are receiving much attention, especially at the research and development level. However, there has been a steady move during the past 5 years toward integral demonstrations of operable vehicles intended for public roads. Because they emit few, or no greenhouse gases, hydrogen vehicles are beginning to be taken seriously as a promising solution to the problems of urban air quality. Since the time the first draft of the report was prepared (mid-19 96), the 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference took place in Stuttgart, Germany. This biennial conference can be regarded as a valid updating of the state of the art; therefore, the 1996 results are included in the current version. Sections of the report include: hydrogen production and distribution to urban users; on-board storage and refilling; vehicle power units and drives, and four appendices titled: 'Safety questions of hydrogen storage and use in vehicles', 'Performance of hydrogen fuel in internal production engines for road vehicles, 'Fuel cells for hydrogen vehicles', and 'Summaries of papers on hydrogen vehicles'. (refs., tabs.)

  7. Evaluation of advanced sodium receiver losses during operation of the IEA/SSPS central receiver system

    SciTech Connect

    Carmona, R.; Rosa, F.; Jacobs, H.; Sanchez, M.

    1989-02-01

    This article presents the measurements and experiments conducted on the external receiver: the so-called Advanced Sodium Receiver (ASR) of the Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS) Project of the International Energy Agency (IEA) in southern Spain. The basis of this experiment was to provide loss measurements for later use in determining receiver performance. The tests to evaluate thermal losses consisted in operating the receiver with the doors open and circulating the sodium in normal and reverse flow without providing any incident power from the heliostat field (flux-off technique). In this way, total thermal losses are calculated as the energy lost by the sodium. Radiative losses have been calculated based on theoretical calculations and some results have been compared with infrared thermography measurements. Conductive losses are small and have been estimated by flux-off experiments with the receiver doors closed. Convective losses were evaluated subtracting radiative and conductive losses from the total thermal losses. Optical losses were assessed using absorptance measurements of the receiver coating. A simplified analytical model has been developed to calculate losses and ASR efficiency during operation. In spite of the method's simplicity, the results are very similar to those found by other investigators, verified simulation programs and test results.

  8. Proceedings of the ninth IEA workshop on radiation effects in ceramic insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Burn, G.L.; Hodgson, E.R.; Shikama, T.

    1997-12-31

    Several IEA workshops have been held over the past few years to discuss the growing number of experimental studies on the intriguing phenomenon of radiation induced electrical degradation (RIED). In the past year, several new RIED irradiation experiments have been performed which have a significant impact on the understanding of the RIED phenomenon. These experiments include a HFIR neutron irradiation experiment on 12 different grades of single- and poly-crystal alumina (450 C, {approximately}3 dpa, 200 V/mm) and several additional neutron, electron and light ion irradiation experiments. The primary objective of the IEA workshop was to review the available RIED studies on ceramic insulators. Some discussion of recent work in other areas such as loss tangent measurements, mechanical strength, etc. occurred on the final afternoon of the workshop. The IEA workshop was held in conjunction with a US-Japan JUPITER program experimenter`s workshop on dynamic radiation effects in ceramic insulators.

  9. [Research on HBsAg: comparison between two methods of the third generation, RPHA and IEA].

    PubMed

    Moretti, R; Vujovic, A; Benda, N

    1982-06-01

    Two tests of the 3rd generation were evaluated for the identification of HBsAg: the reverse hemoagglutination and the enzymatic immunoassay. The results of the study, carried out on 2,434 sera of occasional and periodic donors, have been slightly discordant. It was confirmed the greater sensibility of the IEA test over the RHA and there was a high incidence of false positive results of the IEA test probably caused by the presence in the sera of an elevated concentration of lipid and/or Hb. However, we can consider the RHA a useful test adaptable as an emergency test while the IEA method, being more sensible, can be used as a basic screening test.

  10. IEA Task 32: Wind Lidar Systems for Wind Energy Deployment (LIDAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, Martin; Trabucchi, Davide; Clifton, Andrew; Courtney, Mike; Rettenmeier, Andreas

    2016-05-09

    Under the International Energy Agency Wind Implementing Agreement (IEA Wind) Task 11, researchers started examining novel applications for remote sensing and the issues around them during the 51st topical expert meeting about remote sensing in January 2007. The 59th topical expert meeting organized by Task 11 in October 2009 was also dedicated to remote sensing, and the first draft of the Task's recommended practices on remote sensing was published in January 2013. The results of the Task 11 topical expert meetings provided solid groundwork for a new IEA Wind Task 32 on wind lidar technologies. Members of the wind community identified the need to consolidate the knowledge about wind lidar systems to facilitate their use, and to investigate how to exploit the advantages offered by this technology. This was the motivation that led to the start of IEA Wind Task 32 'Lidar Application for Wind Energy Deployment' in November 2011. The kick-off was meeting was held in May 2012.

  11. Proceedings of the IEA Working Group meeting on ferritic/martensitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    An IEA working group on ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion applications, consisting of researchers from Japan, European Union, USA, and Switzerland, met at the headquarters of the Joint European Torus, Culham, UK. At the meeting, preliminary data generated on the large heats of steels purchased for the IEA program and on other heats of steels were presented and discussed. Second purpose of the meeting was to continue planning and coordinating the collaborative test program in progress on reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels. The majority of this report consists of viewographs for the presentations.

  12. Missed Opportunities: The IEA's Study of Civic Education and Civic Education in Post-Communist Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buk-Berge, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the opportunity in Phase I of the IEA's Civic Education Study to include the new democracies' experiences of citizenship education have not been sufficiently exploited. "Borrowing" citizenship education from abroad and citizenship education for "civil society" have been chosen as examples of problems in…

  13. Reading Achievement and Social Selection in Independent Schools in Sweden: Results from IEA PIRLS 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrberg, Eva; Rosen, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The study investigates the mean difference in reading achievement between third-graders in public and independent schools in Sweden. The data come from the Swedish participation in PIRLS 2001 conducted by IEA. Variables from the home questionnaire mainly indicating possession of cultural capital are used as independent variables. A total IRT score…

  14. Democracy, Citizenship, Participation. The Results of the Second IEA Civic Education Study in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losito, Bruno; Annamaria D'Apice

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the Italian results of the IEA Civic Education study with particular reference to the concepts of democracy and citizenship as well as attitudes towards political participation. The results are presented in relation to the organisation of civic education teaching and to the degree of participation in school life in the…

  15. Task V of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Program: Implementing Accomplishments and Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Ward

    1999-06-10

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) is an energy forum for 24 industrialized countries and was established in 1974 as an autonomous body within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) program implementing agreement was signed in 1993, and renewed for another five years in 1998. Twenty-two countries are collaborating under the auspices of the IEA in the PVPS to address common technical and informational barriers that often limit the rate at which photovoltaic technologies advance into the markets. Task V of the IEA PVPS is entitled "Grid Interconnection of Building-Integrated and Other Dispersed Photovoltaic Power Systems." The task sponsored a workshop in September 1997 on grid-interconnection of photovoltaic systems and is planning a second workshop to address impacts of more penetration of dispersed systems into the utility grid. This paper will summarize the accomplishments of Task V over the last five years and will detail the planned work for the next three years.

  16. Reading Literacy in an International Perspective: Collected Papers from the IEA Reading Literacy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkley, Marilyn, Ed.; And Others

    Presenting nine papers from the IEA (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement) Reading Literacy Study that place results in an international perspective, this report address factors related to variation in literacy outcomes, both across and within countries; the teaching of reading; and the quality of life in…

  17. Methodological Issues in Comparative Educational Studies: The Case of the IEA Reading Literacy Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkley, Marilyn, Ed.; And Others

    This report discusses various methodological issues confronted in the Reading Literacy Study conducted under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) and issues relating to analysis of the data. The study analyzed in the report involved fourth- and ninth-grade students (9-year-olds and…

  18. Loss of IGF-IEa or IGF-IEb impairs myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Matheny, Ronald W; Nindl, Bradley C

    2011-05-01

    Actions of protein products resulting from alternative splicing of the Igf1 gene have received increasing attention in recent years. However, the significance and functional relevance of these observations remain poorly defined. To address functions of IGF-I splice variants, we examined the impact of loss of IGF-IEa and IGF-IEb on the proliferation and differentiation of cultured mouse myoblasts. RNA interference-mediated reductions in total IGF-I, IGF-IEa alone, or IGF-IEb alone had no effect on cell viability in growth medium. However, cells deficient in total IGF-I or IGF-IEa alone proliferated significantly slower than control cells or cells deficient in IGF-IEb in serum-free media. Simultaneous loss of both or specific loss of either splice variant significantly inhibited myosin heavy chain (MyHC) immunoreactivity by 70-80% (P < 0.01) under differentiation conditions (48 h in 2% horse serum) as determined by Western immunoblotting. This loss in protein was associated with reduced MyHC isoform mRNAs, because reductions in total IGF-I or IGF-IEa mRNA significantly reduced MyHC mRNAs by approximately 50-75% (P < 0.05). Loss of IGF-IEb also reduced MyHC isoform mRNA significantly, with the exception of Myh7, but to a lesser degree (∼20-40%, P < 0.05). Provision of mature IGF-I, but not synthetic E peptides, restored Myh3 expression to control levels in cells deficient in IGF-IEa or IGF-IEb. Collectively, these data suggest that IGF-I splice variants may regulate myoblast differentiation through the actions of mature IGF-I and not the E peptides.

  19. Summary of the IEA workshop/working group meeting on ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.

    1997-04-01

    An International Energy Agency (IEA) Working Group on Ferritic/Martensitic Steels for Fusion Applications, consisting of researchers from Japan, the European Union, the United States, and Switzerland, met at the headquarters of the Joint European Torus (JET), Culham, United Kingdom, 24-25 October 1996. At the meeting preliminary data generated on the large heats of steel purchased for the IEA program and on other heats of steels were presented and discussed. The second purpose of the meeting was to continue planning and coordinating the collaborative test program in progress on reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels. The next meeting will be held in conjunction with the International Conference on Fusion Reactor Materials (ICFRM-8) in Sendai, Japan, 23-31 October 1997.

  20. Summary of the IEA workshop on radiation effects in ceramic insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    A brief summary is given of research on radiation effects in ceramic insulators for fusion energy application performed during the last two years in Europe, Canada, Japan, the Russian Federation, the Ukraine and the United States. The IEA round-robin radiation induced electrical degradation (RIED) experiment on Wesgo AL995 polycrystalline alumina has been completed by 5 research groups, with none of the groups observing clear indications of REID.

  1. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation within IEA Wind Task 30: Phase II Results Regarding a Floating Semisubmersible Wind System: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Vorpahl, F.; Popko, W.; Qvist, J.; Froyd, L.; Chen, X.; Azcona, J.; Uzungoglu, E.; Guedes Soares, C.; Luan, C.; Yutong, H.; Pengcheng, F.; Yde, A.; Larsen, T.; Nichols, J.; Buils, R.; Lei, L.; Anders Nygard, T.; et al.

    2014-03-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation tools (or codes) that account for the coupled dynamics of the wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity, and controls of the turbine, along with the incident waves, sea current, hydrodynamics, and foundation dynamics of the support structure. This paper describes the latest findings of the code-to-code verification activities of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation (OC4) project, which operates under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 30. In the latest phase of the project, participants used an assortment of simulation codes to model the coupled dynamic response of a 5-MW wind turbine installed on a floating semisubmersible in 200 m of water. Code predictions were compared from load-case simulations selected to test different model features. The comparisons have resulted in a greater understanding of offshore floating wind turbine dynamics and modeling techniques, and better knowledge of the validity of various approximations. The lessons learned from this exercise have improved the participants? codes, thus improving the standard of offshore wind turbine modeling.

  2. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States. 2007 - 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Vitina, Aisma; Luers, Silke; Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin; Berkhout, Volker; Duffy, Aidan; Cleary, Brendan; Husabo, Leif I.; Weir, David E.; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto; Hand, M. Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Belyeu, Kathy; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Hoen, Ben

    2015-06-12

    This report builds from a similar previous analysis (Schwabe et al., 2011) exploring the differences in cost of wind energy in 2008 among countries participating in IEA Wind Task 26 at that time. The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is a widely recognized metric for understanding how technology, capital investment, operations, and financing impact the life-cycle cost of building and operating a wind plant. Schwabe et al. (2011) apply a spreadsheet-based cash flow model developed by the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) to estimate LCOE. This model is a detailed, discounted cash flow model used to represent the various cost structures in each of the participating countries from the perspective of a financial investor in a domestic wind energy project. This model is used for the present analysis as well, and comparisons are made for those countries who contributed to both reports, Denmark, Germany, and the United States.

  3. The Causality Study of External Environment Analysis (EEA), Internal Environment Analysis (IEA), Strategy Implementation on Study Program Performance at Vocational High School (VHS) in Nias Archipelago, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waruwu, Binahati; Sitompul, Harun; Manullang, Belferik

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to find out the significant effect of: (1) EEA on strategy implementation, (2) IEA on strategy implementation, (3) EEA on study program performance, (4) IEA on study program performance, and (5) strategy implementation on study program performance of Vocational High School (VHS) in Nias Archipelago. The population of…

  4. Coordination and management tasks for the IEA solar heating and cooling program and CCMS solar energy pilot study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, S B; Kennish, W J

    1980-10-01

    The objective of the project entitled, Coordination/Management Tasks for the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program and CCMS Solar Energy Pilot Study, was to provide support to DOE in connection with the afore-named multilateral cooperative projects. The work included both management assistance for the overall IEA and CCMS projects and technical involvement in IEA Task I, particularly the solar system performance validation effort. The final report, covering the period March 15, 1979 - September 30, 1980, provides an overview of the accomplishments under this contract and gives conclusions and recommendations for future work. Also included in this document is the final project status report for the period May 15, 1980 to September 30, 1980.

  5. IEA Agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 1999 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, Carolyn C. )

    2000-01-31

    The annual report begins with an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including guiding principles and their strategic plan followed by the Chairman's report providing the year's highlights. Annex reports included are: the final report for Task 11, Integrated Systems; task updates for Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage, Task 13, Design and Optimization of Integrated Systems, Task 14, Photoelectrolytic Production of Hydrogen, and Task 15, Photobiological Production of Hydrogen; and a feature article by Karsten Wurr titled 'Large-Scale Industrial Uses of Hydrogen: Final Development Report'.

  6. IEA Agreement on the Production and utilization of hydrogen: 1998 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, Carolyn C. )

    1999-01-31

    The annual report includes an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including its guiding principles. The Chairman's report section includes highlights of the agreement for 1998. Annex reports are given on various tasks: Task 10, Photoproduction of Hydrogen, Task 11, Integrated Systems, and Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage. Lastly, a feature article by Karsten Wurr, E3M Material Consulting, GmbH, Hamburg Germany, is included titled 'Hydrogen in Material Science and Technology: State of the Art and New Tendencies'.

  7. Recurring issues in the IEA, the discipline and the profession of ergonomics/human factors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John R

    2012-01-01

    Although the past 25 years have seen many apparently new challenges for the academic discipline and the professional practice of ergonomics/human factors, and for the International Ergonomics Association, many issues in fact have recurred over the period. This paper takes the relevant decades and de3scribes the internal and external priorities of the IEA at the time, the main developments for researchers and practitioners, and the author's own professional interests at the time..Such an admittedly partial description of events and priorities could feed into current attempts to strengthen the position of ergonomics/ human factors for this and subsequent decades.

  8. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) for IEA Wind Task 23 Offshore Wind Technology and Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2010-12-01

    This final report for IEA Wind Task 23, Offshore Wind Energy Technology and Deployment, is made up of two separate reports, Subtask 1: Experience with Critical Deployment Issues and Subtask 2: Offshore Code Comparison Collaborative (OC3). Subtask 1 discusses ecological issues and regulation, electrical system integration, external conditions, and key conclusions for Subtask 1. Subtask 2 included here, is the larger of the two volumes and contains five chapters that cover background information and objectives of Subtask 2 and results from each of the four phases of the project.

  9. IEA agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 2000 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Elam, Carolyn C.

    2001-12-01

    The 2000 annual report of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement contains an overview of the agreement, including its guiding principles, latest strategic plan, and a report from the Chairman, Mr. Neil P. Rossmeissl, U.S. Department of Energy. Overviews of the National Hydrogen Programs of nine member countries are given: Canada, Japan, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. Task updates are provided on the following annexes: Annex 12 - Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage, Annex 13 - Design and Optimization of Integrated Systems, Annex 14 - Photoelectrolytic Production of Hydrogen, and, Annex 15 - Photobiological Production of Hydrogen.

  10. Proceedings of the IEA working group meeting on ferritic/martensitic steels

    SciTech Connect

    Klueh, R.L.

    1995-02-01

    An International Energy Agency (IEA) working group consist- ng of researchers from Japan, the European Union (EU), and the United States, met at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) 16 February 1995 to continue planning a collaborative test program on reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion applications. Plates from a 5-ton, a 1-ton, and three 150 kg heats of reduced-activation martensitic steels have been melted and processed to 7.5- and 15-mm plates in Japan. Plates were delivered in 1994 to the three parties that will participate in the test program. A second 5-ton IEA heat of modified F82H steel was produced in Japan in late 1994, and it was processed into 15- and 25-mm plates, which are to be shipped in February, 1995. Weldments will be produced on plates from this heat, and they will be shipped in April, 1995. At the ORNL meeting, a detailed test program and schedule was presented by the EU representatives, and less detailed programs were presented by the Japanese and US representatives. Detailed program schedules are required from the latter two programs to complete the program planning stage. A meeting is planned for 19--20 September 1995 in Switzerland to continue the planning and coordination of the test program and to present the preliminary results obtained in the collaboration.

  11. Torsten Husén--A Co-Founder and Chairman of IEA from 1962 to 1978

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genova, Teodora

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the work and contribution of one of the most influential comparativists in education--Torsten Husén in the period when he was a co-founder and chairman of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) in the 60 and 70 decades of the 20th century. At that particular time, the first major…

  12. Student Achievement Study, 1970-1974. The IEA Six-Subject Data Bank [machine-readable data file].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Stockholm (Sweden).

    The "Student Achievement Study" machine-readable data files (MRDF) (also referred to as the "IEA Six-Subject Survey") are the result of an international data collection effort during 1970-1974 by 21 designated National Centers, which had agreed to cooperate. The countries involved were: Australia, Belgium, Chile, England-Wales,…

  13. IEA's TIMSS 2003 International Report on Achievement in the Mathematics Cognitive Domains: Findings from a Developmental Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S.; Martin, Michael O.; Foy, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the process undertaken to produce scales in three cognitive domains: knowing, applying, and reasoning. Included are the final scales showing differences among countries, as well as within countries. TIMSS 2003 is the third and most recently completed round of IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, a…

  14. Comparing Civic Competence among European Youth: Composite and Domain-Specific Indicators Using IEA Civic Education Study Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Bryony Louise; Barber, Carolyn; Van Nijlen, Daniel; Villalba, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Addressing the European Union monitoring of civic competence, this article presents a composite indicator of civic competence and four domain indicators. The data used are from the 1999 IEA Civic Education study of 14-year-olds in school. The results demonstrate the complexity of the various influences on the development of civic competencies…

  15. Early Childhood Settings in 15 Countries: What Are Their Structural Characteristics? The IEA Preprimary Project, Phase 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, Patricia P., Ed.; Montie, Jeanne, Ed.

    This is the second of four monographs reporting the findings of Phase 2 of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Preprimary Project, which presents data on the physical characteristics of children's early childhood settings. Early childhood settings were documented in the following 15 countries: (1)…

  16. Measurement of radiation intensity on the IEA SSPS/CRS solar tower plant in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinner, A.

    1985-06-01

    The Kendall MK 9 radiometer was selected to measure the radiation intensity on the IEA SSPS/CRS solar tower plant in Spain. The measuring signal was applied to calibrate a video camera used for measurement of power density distribution in the aperture of the solar absorber. The measurement results were used to show a relationship between the gray values of a video picture of the ASR receiver under radiation and the absolute radiation intensity measured at three points so as to calculate the absolute irradiation in MW. The tests show good reproducibility and high accuracy. The conversion factors were applied to calculate the flux distribution, the maximal flux, and the ASR receiver efficiency.

  17. Characterization of cartridge filters from the IEA-R1 Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    The management of radioactive waste ensures safety to human health and the environment nowadays and for the future, without overwhelming the upcoming generations. The primary characterization of radioactive waste is one of the main steps in the management of radioactive waste. This step permits to choose the best treatment for the radioactive waste before forwarding it to its final disposal. The aim of the present work is the primary characterization of cartridge filters from the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor utilizing gamma-ray spectrometry, and the method of Monte Carlo for calibration. The IEA-R1 is located in the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN) in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Cartridge filters are used for purification of the cooling water that is pumped through the core of the pool type nuclear research reactors. Once worn out, these filters are replaced and then become radioactive waste. Determination of the radioactive inventory is of paramount importance in the management of such radioactive waste, and one of the main methods for doing so is the gamma-ray spectrometry, which can identify and quantify high energy photon emitters. The technique chosen for the characterization of radioactive waste in the present work is the gamma-ray spectrometry with High purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. From the energy identified in the experimental spectrum, three radioisotopes were identified in the cartridge filter: {sup 108m}Ag, {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 60}Co. For the estimated activity of the filter, the calibration in efficiency was made utilizing the MCNP4C code of the Monte Carlo method. Such method was chosen because there is no standard source available in the same geometry of the cartridge filter, therefore a simulation had to be developed in order to reach a calibration equation, necessary to estimate the activity of the radioactive waste. The results presented an activity value in the order of MBq for all radioisotopes. (authors)

  18. IEA Wind Task 24 Integration of Wind and Hydropower Systems; Volume 1: Issues, Impacts, and Economics of Wind and Hydropower Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, T.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the background, concepts, issues and conclusions related to the feasibility of integrating wind and hydropower, as investigated by the members of IEA Wind Task 24. It is the result of a four-year effort involving seven IEA member countries and thirteen participating organizations. The companion report, Volume 2, describes in detail the study methodologies and participant case studies, and exists as a reference for this report.

  19. Impacts of Large Amounts of Wind Power on Design and Operation of Power Systems; Results of IEA Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, B.; Ela, E.; Holttinen, H.; Meibom, P.; Orths, A.; O'Malley, M.; Ummels, B. C.; Tande, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez, E.; Smith, J. C.

    2008-06-01

    There are a multitude of studies completed and ongoing related to the cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. An international forum for exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. IEA WIND R&D Task 25 on “Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power” produced a state-of-the-art report in October 2007, where the most relevant wind-power grid integration studies were analyzed, especially regarding methodologies and input data. This paper summarizes the results from 18 case studies, with discussion on differences in methodology as well as issues that have been identified to impact the cost of wind integration.

  20. Impacts of Large Amounts of Wind Power on Design and Operation of Power Systems, Results of IEA Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, H.; Meibom, P.; Orths, A.; O'Malley, M.; Ummels, B. C.; Tande, J. O.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez, E.; Smith, J. C.; Ela, E.

    2008-01-01

    There are a multitude of studies completed and ongoing related to the cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. An international forum for exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. IEA WIND R and D Task 25 on 'Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power' produced a state-of-the-art report in October 2007, where the most relevant wind-power grid integration studies were analyzed, especially regarding methodologies and input data. This paper summarizes the results from 18 case studies, with discussion on differences in methodology as well as issues that have been identified to impact the cost of wind integration.

  1. IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor: 58 Years of Operating Experience and Utilization for Research, Teaching and Radioisotopes Production

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, Jose Patricio Nahuel; Filho, Tufic Madi; Saxena, Rajendra; Filho, Walter Ricci

    2015-07-01

    IEA-R1 research reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Nuclear and Energy Research Institute) IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil is the largest power research reactor in Brazil, with a maximum power rating of 5 MWth. It is being used for basic and applied research in the nuclear and neutron related sciences, for the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications, and for providing services of neutron activation analysis, real time neutron radiography, and neutron transmutation doping of silicon. IEA-R1 is a swimming pool reactor, with light water as the coolant and moderator, and graphite and beryllium as reflectors. The reactor was commissioned on September 16, 1957 and achieved its first criticality. It is currently operating at 4.5 MWth with a 60-hour cycle per week. In the early sixties, IPEN produced {sup 131}I, {sup 32}P, {sup 198}Au, {sup 24}Na, {sup 35}S, {sup 51}Cr and labeled compounds for medical use. During the past several years, a concerted effort has been made in order to upgrade the reactor power to 5 MWth through refurbishment and modernization programs. One of the reasons for this decision was to produce {sup 99}Mo at IPEN. The reactor cycle will be gradually increased to 120 hours per week continuous operation. It is anticipated that these programs will assure the safe and sustainable operation of the IEA-R1 reactor for several more years, to produce important primary radioisotopes {sup 99}Mo, {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm and {sup 192}Ir. Currently, all aspects of dealing with fuel element fabrication, fuel transportation, isotope processing, and spent fuel storage are handled by IPEN at the site. The reactor modernization program is slated for completion by 2015. This paper describes 58 years of operating experience and utilization of the IEA-R1 research reactor for research, teaching and radioisotopes production. (authors)

  2. Process analysis and economics of biophotolysis of water. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.

    1998-03-31

    This report is a preliminary cost analysis of the biophotolysis of water and was prepared as part of the work of Annex 10 of the IEA Hydrogen agreement. Biophotolysis is the conversion of water and solar energy to hydrogen and oxygen using microalgae. In laboratory experiments at low light intensities, algal photosynthesis and some biophotolysis reactions exhibit highlight conversion efficiencies that could be extrapolated to about 10% solar efficiencies if photosynthesis were to saturate at full sunlight intensities. The most promising approach to achieving the critical goal of high conversion efficiencies at full sunlight intensities, one that appears within the capabilities of modern biotechnology, is to genetically control the pigment content of algal cells such that the photosynthetic apparatus does not capture more photons than it can utilize. A two-stage indirect biophotolysis system was conceptualized and general design parameters extrapolated. The process comprises open ponds for the CO{sub 2}fixation stage, an algal concentration step, a dark adaptation and fermentation stage, and a closed tubular photobioreactor in which hydrogen production would take place. A preliminary cost analysis for a 200 hectare (ha) system, including 140 ha of open algal ponds and 14 ha of photobioreactors was carried out. The cost analysis was based on prior studies for algal mass cultures for fuels production and a conceptual analysis of a hypothetical photochemical processes, as well as the assumption that the photobioreactors would cost about $100/m(sup 2). Assuming a very favorable location, with 21 megajoules (MJ)/m{sup 2} total insolation, and a solar conversion efficiency of 10% based on CO{sub 2} fixation in the large algal ponds, an overall cost of $10/gigajoule (GJ) is projected. Of this, almost half is due to the photobioreactors, one fourth to the open pond system, and the remainder to the H{sub 2} handling and general support systems. It must be cautioned that

  3. In vivo comparison of free coronary grafts using the inferior epigastric (IEA), the gastroepiploic (GEA) and the internal thoracic artery (ITA).

    PubMed

    Cremer, J; Liesmann, T; Wimmer-Greinecker, G; Abraham, C; Mügge, A; Haverich, A

    1994-01-01

    The validity of alternative arterial conduits for myocardial revascularization in comparison to internal thoracic artery (ITA) has not been sufficiently defined. Evaluation of the functional in vivo vascular properties of the different conduits may be appropriate to give a perspective on long-term graft qualities. The intraoperative function of single free grafts to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was compared in inferior epigastric (IEA, n = 13), internal thoracic (ITA, n = 12) and gastroepiploic artery (GEA, n = 12) conduits. Graft flows were measured at four points of time, 1) in situ free flow after distal dissection (IEA: 42.2 ml/min, ITA: 68.8 ml/min, GEA: 61.1 ml/min), 2) free flow following proximal grafting to the aorta (IEA: 48.1 ml/min, ITA: 63.7 ml/min, GEA: 84.2 ml/min), 3) selective graft flow after distal attachment to the LAD (IEA: 52.6 ml/min, ITA: 77.5 ml/min, GEA: 102.8 ml/min), and 4) selective LAD graft flow following paraverine (Pap) stimulation (IEA: 98.4 ml/min, ITA: 128.0 ml/min, GEA: 142.9 ml/min). Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation was evaluated by examination of the intraluminal graft pressures at mechanically controlled constant flow rates. Following stimulation with substance P (SP), the change of intraluminal pressure (dp) was similar in IEA (dp: -20.0 mmHg) and GEA grafts (dp: -21.1 mmHg). Only ITA conduits were less reactive to SP (-9.7 mmHg). The response to acetylcholine (ACh) could only be assessed in ITA (dp: -16.0 mmHg) and IEA (dp: -10.7 mmHg) grafts. Gastroepiploic arteries did not react on ACh stimulation (dp: +0.4 mmHg).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. The IEA contribution to the transition of Ergonomics from research to practice.

    PubMed

    Caple, David C

    2010-10-01

    The future growth of ergonomics as a scientific discipline will require a greater focus on methods to transition research findings into practice. Whilst the International Ergonomics Association (IEA) and the Federated Ergonomics Societies provide opportunities to promote exchange on ergonomics research and collaboration in research programs, the future sustainability of the domain will be dependent on the provision of ongoing educational opportunities in ergonomics and the transitioning of the research findings into practice. This transition will require greater external focus outside the ergonomics profession in working in collaboration and partnership with other professional associations, governments and international agencies. Practical tools that are targeted towards particular user groups within the community, workplace, and governments will enhance the opportunities for the transition of ergonomics research into practice. Focus on extramural initiatives such as Ergonomics Checkpoints, integration of the ergonomics design process into the International Organisation for Standardization Guidelines, and the incorporation of ergonomics into the World Health Organisation research programs will ensure that the positioning of ergonomics will continue at an international level.

  5. World spherical torus (ST) research as coordinated by the IEA ST Implementing Agreement (IA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.-K. M.; Takase, Y.; Lloyd, B.

    2012-10-01

    Since the establishment of the IEA ST IA in 2007, the world ST research community has grown to 24 ST experiments in seven countries. For the second 5 years of the IA, major upgrades of the NSTX (USA) and MAST (UK) are or will soon be underway aiming to start enhanced experimental research in 2015. Major tests of solenoid-free start-up are addressed by experiments in Japan including QUEST (Kyushu U.), TST-2 (U. Tokyo), and LATE (Kyoto U.), Pegasus (U. Wisconsin), and SUNIST (Tsinghua U., PRC). These aim to develop database to minimize/remove the central solenoid and enable truly compact fusion energy devices. Lithium-only PFCs are tested in LTX (PPPL). The community is considering low to modest-Q applications to fusion energy R&D. These range from small size (R˜0.5m) volume neutron sources delivering several MW fusion neutrons, to medium size (R˜1.0m, 50-MW) fusion science and technology experimental facilities to enable critical R&D needed to develop database for a fusion DEMO and other energy applications. Progress and remaining ST R&D will be summarized.

  6. Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 - A Study of the Preparing for Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Filho, Tufic Madi; Ricci, Walter; Martins, Mauro Onofre; Pereira, Maria da Conceicao

    2015-07-01

    The Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), Sao Paulo, according to the assignments given by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), enabled the development of this study, especially operational reports about refurbishing carried out on 2013, involving the production of radioisotopes and research in the areas of Radiochemistry and Nuclear Physics. These reports are made in accordance with established standard procedures to meet the requirements of CNEN (National Nuclear Energy Commission, the regulator the nuclear area activities in Brazil) and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). This study presents an assessment of the procedures and methods of treatments for decontamination of the refrigeration primary circuit and changes parts, equipment and tubes of the of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor, pool type, power between 3,5 and 4,5 MW. In order to have a sequence in the work, the well-known contaminant radioisotopes were evaluated firstly, using Geiger- Muller equipment. In the second phase, the decontamination was done manually together with the ultrasound cleaning and washing equipment. From the several water solutions of citric acid assessment, the concentration with better confidence was obtained; in order to achieve the best results for decontamination. This study intends to define the best process for decontamination with low taxes of waste and without expensive costs. (authors)

  7. Rotor equivalent wind speed for power curve measurement - comparative exercise for IEA Wind Annex 32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.; Cañadillas, B.; Clifton, A.; Feeney, S.; Nygaard, N.; Poodt, M.; St. Martin, C.; Tüxen, E.; Wagenaar, J. W.

    2014-06-01

    A comparative exercise has been organised within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Annex 32 in order to test the Rotor Equivalent Wind Speed (REWS) method under various conditions of wind shear and measurement techniques. Eight organisations from five countries participated in the exercise. Each member of the group has derived both the power curve based on the wind speed at hub height and the power curve based on the REWS. This yielded results for different wind turbines, located in diverse types of terrain and where the wind speed profile was measured with different instruments (mast or various lidars). The participants carried out two preliminary steps in order to reach consensus on how to implement the REWS method. First, they all derived the REWS for one 10 minute wind speed profile. Secondly, they all derived the power curves for one dataset. The main point requiring consensus was the definition of the segment area used as weighting for the wind speeds measured at the various heights in the calculation of the REWS. This comparative exercise showed that the REWS method results in a significant difference compared to the standard method using the wind speed at hub height in conditions with large shear and low turbulence intensity.

  8. Summary of the 9th IEA workshop on radiation effects in ceramic insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Hodgson, E.R.; Shikama, T.

    1997-08-01

    Twenty one scientists attended an IEA workshop in Cincinnati, Ohio on May 8-9, 1997, which was mainly devoted to reviewing the current knowledge base on the phenonenon of radiation induced electrical degradation in ceramic insulators. Whereas convincing evidence for bulk RIED behavior has been observed by two research groups in sapphire after electron irradiation, definitive levels of bulk RIED have not been observed in high purity Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} by several research groups during energetic ion or fission neutron irradiation. Possible reasons for the conflicting RIED results obtained by different research groups were discussed. It was conducted that RIED does not appear to be of immediate concern for near-term fusion devices such as ITER. However, continued research on the RIED phenomenon with particular emphasis on electron irradiations of single crystal alumina was recommended in order to determine the underlying physical mechanisms. This will allow a better determination of whether RIED might occur under any of the widely varying experimental conditions in a fusion energy device. Several critical issues which are recommended for future study were outlined by the workshop attendees.

  9. Carbon emissions from manufacturing energy use in 13 IEA countries: long-term trends through 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schipper, Lee; Murtishaw, Scott; Khrushch, Marta; Ting, Michael; Karbuz, Sohbet; Unander, Fridtjof

    2000-12-01

    This paper analyses the evolution of carbon emissions from the manufacturing sectors of 13 IEA countries, based on national data at the 2 or 3 sector ISIC level of disaggregation. We carry out an Adaptive-Weighting-Divisia decomposition of changes into factors representing sub-sectoral branch energy intensities, output mix or structure, final fuel mix, and utility fuel mix. We also carry out a detailed comparison of emissions by country and sub-sector for 1994. We find that by the mid-1990s, emissions from manufacturing in most countries were close to their 1973 levels. The main reasons were lower branch energy intensities and in some countries changes in utility fuel mix. Changes in the mix of output had small downward effects in a few large countries (Japan and the United States), while these shifts increased emissions in others (Australia, Norway, Netherlands). Fuel mix changes lowered emissions slightly, principally through moves away from coal and oil towards gas. The comparison o f countries shows that after overall output, energy intensities explain most of the differences in per capita emissions from manufacturing. Fuel mix and utility fuel mix play an important role for some countries with very CO2 -- free power sectors (Sweden, Norway, France) or CO2 intensive power sectors (Australia). Some of the differences in energy intensities, however, arise because of hidden sub-sectoral mix effects that cannot be resolved at the 3-digit ISIC level of disaggregation. Emissions have been rising since 1990, largely because energy intensities are not falling as fast as they did before 1990. What this means for the Kyoto Accord and other concerns related to global carbon emissions remains to be seen.

  10. Serotonin regulates voltage-dependent currents in type I(e(A)) and I(i) interneurons of Hermissenda.

    PubMed

    Jin, Nan Ge; Crow, Terry

    2011-11-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has both direct and modulatory actions on central neurons contributing to behavioral arousal and cellular-synaptic plasticity in diverse species. In Hermissenda, 5-HT produces changes in intrinsic excitability of different types of identified interneurons in the circumesophageal nervous system. Using whole cell patch-clamp techniques we have examined membrane conductance changes produced by 5-HT that contribute to intrinsic excitability in two identified classes of interneurons, types I(i) and I(eA). Whole cell currents were examined before and after 5-HT application to the isolated nervous system. A 4-aminopyridine-sensitive transient outward K(+) current [I(K(A))], a tetraethylammonium-sensitive delayed rectifier K(+) current [I(K(V))], an inward rectifier K(+) current [I(K(IR))], and a hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) were characterized. 5-HT decreased the amplitude of I(K(A)) and I(K(V)) in both type I(i) and I(eA) interneurons. However, differences in 5-HT's effects on the activation-inactivation kinetics were observed in different types of interneurons. 5-HT produced a depolarizing shift in the activation curve of I(K(V)) and a hyperpolarizing shift in the inactivation curve of I(K(A)) in type I(i) interneurons. In contrast, 5-HT produced a depolarizing shift in the activation curve and a hyperpolarizing shift in the inactivation curve of both I(K(V)) and I(K(A)) in type I(eA) interneurons. In addition, 5-HT decreased the amplitude of I(K(IR)) in type I(i) interneurons and increased the amplitude of I(h) in type I(eA) interneurons. These results indicate that 5-HT-dependent changes in I(K(A)), I(K(V)), I(K(IR)), and I(h) contribute to multiple mechanisms that synergistically support modulation of increased intrinsic excitability associated with different functional classes of identified type I interneurons.

  11. IEA Wind Task 26. Wind Technology, Cost, and Performance Trends in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, the European Union, and the United States: 2007–2012

    SciTech Connect

    Vitina, Aisma; Lüers, Silke; Wallasch, Anna-Kathrin; Berkhout, Volker; Duffy, Aidan; Cleary, Brendan; Husabø, Lief I.; Weir, David E.; Lacal-Arántegui, Roberto; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Belyeu, Kathy; Wiser, Ryan H; Bolinger, Mark; Hoen, Ben

    2015-06-01

    The International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement for cooperation in Research, Development, and Deployment of Wind Energy Systems (IEA Wind) Task 26—The Cost of Wind Energy represents an international collaboration dedicated to exploring past, present and future cost of wind energy. This report provides an overview of recent trends in wind plant technology, cost, and performance in those countries that are currently represented by participating organizations in IEA Wind Task 26: Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and the United States as well as the European Union.

  12. Psychometric Framework for Modeling Parental Involvement and Reading Literacy. IEA Research for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punter, R. Annemiek; Glas, Cees A. W.; Meelissen, Martina R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Parental involvement is seen as one of the most malleable factors of the student's home situation, which makes it a relevant subject for schools, educational policies, and research. Though many studies have researched its role in student achievement, effects are not univocal. It is difficult to tell whether these inconsistent results are caused by…

  13. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration within IEA Wind Annex XXIII: Phase II Results Regarding Monopile Foundation Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J.; Butterfield, S.; Passon, P.; Larsen, T.; Camp, T.; Nichols, J.; Azcona, J.; Martinez, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and describes the latest findings of the code-to-code verification activities of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, which operates under Subtask 2 of the International Energy Agency Wind Annex XXIII.

  14. Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power, First Results of IEA Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, H.; Meibom, P.; Orths, A.; Van Hulle, F.; Ensslin, C.; Hofmann, L.; McCann, J.; Pierik, J.; Tande, J. O.; Estanqueiro, A.; Soder, L.; Strbac, G.; Parsons, B.; Smith, J. C.; Lemstrom, B.

    2006-01-01

    An international forum for exchange of knowledge of power system impacts of wind power has been formed under the IEA Implementing Agreement on Wind Energy. The task 'Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power' will analyse existing case studies from different power systems. There are a multitude of studies made and ongoing related to cost of wind integration. However, the results are not easy to compare. This paper summarizes the results from 10 countries and outlines the studies made at European Wind Energy Association and the European system operators UCTE and ETSO. A more in-depth review of the studies is needed to draw conclusions on the range of integration costs for wind power. A state-of-the art review process of the new IEA collaboration will seek reasons behind the wide range of results for costs of wind integration - definitions for wind penetration, reserves and costs; different power system and load characteristics and operational rules; underlying assumptions on variability and uncertainty of wind, etc.

  15. Sodium heat transfer system modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. F.; Fewell, M. E.

    1983-11-01

    The sodium heat transfer system of the international energy agency (IEA) small solar power systems (SSPS) central receiver system (CRS), which includes the heliostat field, receiver, hot and cold storage vessels, and sodium/water steam generator was modeled. The computer code SOLTES (simulator of large thermal energy systems), was used to model this system. The results from SOLTES are compared to measured data.

  16. IEA Civic Education Study Phase I: The United States, Volume III. Responses to the Four Core International Framing Questions g-q.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Carole L.; Dilworth, Paulette Patterson; Hughes, Michael; Sen, Trisha

    This document is the third of four prepared for Phase 1 of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Civics Education Study. The more than 20 countries that participated were asked to gather data to answer four Core International Framing Questions (CIFQs). Volume 2 explains the process from which the CIFQs…

  17. An International Perspective on Active Citizenship among Lower Secondary Students. Concepts and Measures Developed for the IEA Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    The new IEA "International Civic and Citizenship Education Study" (ICCS) will investigate the extent to which young people are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens across a range of countries. ICCS will survey 13-to-14-year old students in over 30 countries in the year 2009. The ICCS outcome data will be obtained from representative…

  18. The Second IEA International Research Conference: Proceedings of the IRC-2006. Volume 1: Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagemaker, Paula, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    As part of its mission, the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) is committed to the development of the community of researchers who work in the area of assessment both nationally and internationally. The association also has a commitment to provide policymakers with the types of data and analyses that will…

  19. Muscle expressions of MGF, IGF-IEa, and myostatin in intact and hypophysectomized rats: effects of rhGH and testosterone alone or combined.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, A E; Locatelli, L; Cella, S G; Bonomo, S M; Giunta, M; Molinari, F; Sartorio, A; Müller, E E

    2009-01-01

    Myostatin and mechano-growth factor (MGF), an isoform of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), are two important regulators of muscle hypertrophy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and/or testosterone on muscle MGF/IGF-IEa/myostatin expression in intact and hypophysectomized rats treated for 15 d with 1) saline or rhGH, 2) sesame oil or testosterone, 3) saline+sesame oil, or rhGH+testosterone (first experiment) or for 7 d with saline or rhGH (second experiment). Animals were killed by decapitation 24 h or 4 d after the last injection (first or second experiment, respectively). Muscle expressions of MGF, IGF-IEa, and myostatin were determined by RT-PCR. A significant increase in the weight of gastrocnemius muscle was observed only in hypophysectomized rats treated with rhGH alone or in combination with testosterone. Administration of rhGH to hypophysectomized rats caused a marked increase in both MGF and IGF-IEa muscle mRNA levels (without any change in the muscle expression of myostatin), an effect that was abolished when testosterone was combined with rhGH. Conversely, in intact rats rhGH increased myostatin muscle mRNA levels without affecting those of MGF and IGF-IEa. Testosterone, alone or combined with rhGH, induced an inhibition of myostatin expression in the muscle of intact rats, but did not change muscle paradigms of hypophysectomized rats. In conclusion, rhGH and/or testosterone anabolic effects in the muscle are mediated by a different expression of MGF/IGF-IEa/myostatin, which is related to the pituitary function.

  20. Third Program Plan for DOE's participation in the IEA Working Party on Energy-Conservation Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The Plan documents the projects currently being conducted by the working party in which DOE is participating and the projects proposed by DOE for consideration by other IEA member nations. Chapter 1 reviews current and planned DOE commitments to existing implementing agreements: buildings and community systems; energy conservation in building complexes; energy cascading; heat pumps with thermal storage; advanced heat pumps; combustion; heat transfer and heat exchangers; energy storage; cement manufacturer; and high-temperature materials for automotive propulsion systems. Chapter 2 reviews planned DOE commitments to new implementing agreements: combustion; pulp and paper; iron and steel; food processing; urban waste; and alcohol additives to fuel. Appendix A discusses the mechanisms for establishing implementing agreements and annexes. Appendix B lists working party members and Appendix C describes the evaluation methodology.

  1. IEA solar: Working toward greater cost-effectiveness, report of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, S.

    1986-02-01

    This is the 1985 Annual Report of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Program. The format of the report has been changed substantially from that of previous years. In addition, the report has been given a special theme: Working Toward Greater Cost-Effectiveness. Section 2 of this report, the special theme chapter, discusses the contributions of the cooperative activities to achieving more cost-effective solar heating and cooling systems. A report on the progress and accomplishments during 1985 of the current tasks is found in Section 3. Section 4, Appendix, contains a description of each of the tasks as background information for those unfamiliar with all or parts of the program. Finally, the Appendix also contains information on IEA SHC reports, meetings, Executive Committee Members and task technical participants.

  2. Measurement of radiation intensity at the solar tower plant SSPS/CRS of the IEA in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinner, A.

    1986-01-01

    The Kendall MK9 radiometer was selected to measure the radiation intensity on the IEA SSPS/CRS solar tower plant in Spain. The measuring signal was applied to calibrate a video camera used for measurement of power density distribution in the aperture of the solar absorber. The measurement results were used to show a relationship between the gray values of a video picture of the ASR receiver under radiation and the absolute radiation intensity measured at three points so as to calculate the absolute irradiation in MW. The tests show good reproducibility and high accuracy. The conversion factors were applied to calculate the flux distribution, the maximum flux and the ASR receiver efficiency.

  3. Fracture toughness of the IEA heat of F82H ferritic/martensitic stainless steel as a function of loading mode

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huaxin; Gelles, D.S.; Hirth, J.P.

    1997-04-01

    Mode I and mixed-mode I/III fracture toughness tests were performed for the IEA heat of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic stainless steel F82H at ambient temperature in order to provide comparison with previous measurements on a small heat given a different heat treatment. The results showed that heat to heat variations and heat treatment had negligible consequences on Mode I fracture toughness, but behavior during mixed-mode testing showed unexpected instabilities.

  4. Characterization of the third generation enzyme immunoassay IEA-HIV1/2-III for the detection of anti-HIV specific antibodies in human sera.

    PubMed

    Rayevskaya, G; Pilipenko, V G; Tkáciková, L; Spivak, N Y; Mikula, I; Chumak, R M

    2000-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of the developed anti-HIV1/2 third generation enzyme immunoassay, the IEA-HIV1/2-III, was examined. The test system for the detection of anti-HIV antibodies included peroxidase-conjugated HIV-specific recombinant Gag protein fragments (epitopes of p24 and p17 proteins), Env-1 (epitopes of p41 and p120 proteins), and Env-2 (p36 epitopes). Sensitivity was evaluated with 346 sera from HIV1-seropositive subjects, Anti-HIV1 Low Titer panels no. 10 and PRB-106 and seropositive panel PRB-931 in comparison with other third- and second-generation assays. The IEA-HIV1/2-III assays are characterized with high sensitivity comparable to the other third generation assays and the better sensitivity with respect to the second generation test-kit to determine HIV-specific antibodies in human sera. The specificity was determined using three hundred sixty-seven potentially cross-reactive samples (but negative for anti-HIV1/2). Only one specimen among them was reactive by IEA-HIV1/2-III.

  5. Did dead animals really spew from the IEA-GHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 monitoring and storage project?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostron, B. J.; IEA-GHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Project, T.; Theme Leaders: IEA-GHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring; Storage Project

    2011-12-01

    The IEA-GHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 monitoring and storage project was initiated in 2000 to study the geological storage of CO2 as part of a CO2-EOR project in the Weyburn Field in Saskatchewan, Canada. Initial injection of CO2 began in October 2000, and continues to date, with more than 18 Mtonnes of anthropogenic CO2 stored in the Weyburn reservoir. In January 2011, a local landowner supported by a consultant's soil gas survey, claimed they had conclusive proof that the "source of the high concentrations of CO2 in soils ... is clearly the anthropogenic CO2 injected into the Weyburn reservoir". These claims quickly attracted local, provincial, national, and international media attention alerting the world to the "leakage" at the Weyburn CO2-EOR project and furthermore calling into question the safety of geological CO2 sequestration in general. A careful look at the data reveals a different story. Twenty six soil gas samples were collected in August 2010, from shallow (< 1m) drill holes and analyzed for CO2 concentrations and short-chain hydrocarbons. Six samples were analyzed for concentrations of stable isotopes of carbon, and four water samples from shallow dugouts were sampled for BTEX and hydrocarbons. Measured CO2 concentrations ranged from approximately 1 to 11%, methane concentrations ranged from approximately 1.2 to 24 ppm, and 13C/12C isotope concentrations ranged from -21.5 to -22.9 per mil. Hydrocarbons and BTEX in the water samples were below detection limits. Volumes of data collected by more than 80 international researchers in the IEA-GHG Weyburn-Midale research project, do not support the claim(s) of anthropogenic CO2 leakage from the Weyburn reservoir. A comprehensive geological, geophysical, hydrogeological, and geochemical site characterization combined with background and on-site soil gas monitoring, integrated with numerical simulations of CO2 movement has not detected any evidence of migration of CO2 above the regional subsurface seal. Shallow

  6. Energy Simulation studies in IEA/SHC Task 18 advanced glazing and associated materials for solar and building applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.; Selkowitz, S.; Lyons, P.

    1995-04-01

    Researchers participating in IEA/SHC Task 18 on advanced glazing materials have as their primary objective the development of new innovative glazing products such as high performance glazings, wavelength selective glazings, chromogenic optical switching devices, and light transport mechanisms that will lead to significant energy use reductions and increased comfort in commercial and residential buildings. Part of the Task 18 effort involves evaluation of the energy and comfort performance of these new glazings through the use of various performance analysis simulation tools. Eleven countries (Australia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) are contributing to this multi-year simulation study to better understand the complex heat transfer interactions that determine window performance. Each country has selected particular simulation programs and identified the following items to guide the simulation tasks: (1) geographic locations; (2) building types; (3) window systems and control strategies; and (4) analysis parameters of interest. This paper summarizes the results obtained thus far by several of the research organizations.

  7. Automatic Extraction of Optimal Endmembers from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery Using Iterative Error Analysis (IEA) and Spectral Discrimination Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ahram; Chang, Anjin; Choi, Jaewan; Choi, Seokkeun; Kim, Yongil

    2015-01-01

    Pure surface materials denoted by endmembers play an important role in hyperspectral processing in various fields. Many endmember extraction algorithms (EEAs) have been proposed to find appropriate endmember sets. Most studies involving the automatic extraction of appropriate endmembers without a priori information have focused on N-FINDR. Although there are many different versions of N-FINDR algorithms, computational complexity issues still remain and these algorithms cannot consider the case where spectrally mixed materials are extracted as final endmembers. A sequential endmember extraction-based algorithm may be more effective when the number of endmembers to be extracted is unknown. In this study, we propose a simple but accurate method to automatically determine the optimal endmembers using such a method. The proposed method consists of three steps for determining the proper number of endmembers and for removing endmembers that are repeated or contain mixed signatures using the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) images obtained from Iterative Error Analysis (IEA) and spectral discrimination measurements. A synthetic hyperpsectral image and two different airborne images such as Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Application (AISA) and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) data were tested using the proposed method, and our experimental results indicate that the final endmember set contained all of the distinct signatures without redundant endmembers and errors from mixed materials. PMID:25625907

  8. Automatic extraction of optimal endmembers from airborne hyperspectral imagery using iterative error analysis (IEA) and spectral discrimination measurements.

    PubMed

    Song, Ahram; Chang, Anjin; Choi, Jaewan; Choi, Seokkeun; Kim, Yongil

    2015-01-23

    Pure surface materials denoted by endmembers play an important role in hyperspectral processing in various fields. Many endmember extraction algorithms (EEAs) have been proposed to find appropriate endmember sets. Most studies involving the automatic extraction of appropriate endmembers without a priori information have focused on N-FINDR. Although there are many different versions of N-FINDR algorithms, computational complexity issues still remain and these algorithms cannot consider the case where spectrally mixed materials are extracted as final endmembers. A sequential endmember extraction-based algorithm may be more effective when the number of endmembers to be extracted is unknown. In this study, we propose a simple but accurate method to automatically determine the optimal endmembers using such a method. The proposed method consists of three steps for determining the proper number of endmembers and for removing endmembers that are repeated or contain mixed signatures using the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) images obtained from Iterative Error Analysis (IEA) and spectral discrimination measurements. A synthetic hyperpsectral image and two different airborne images such as Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Application (AISA) and Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) data were tested using the proposed method, and our experimental results indicate that the final endmember set contained all of the distinct signatures without redundant endmembers and errors from mixed materials.

  9. IEA/WHO toolkit for WMSDs prevention: criteria and practical tools for a step by step approach.

    PubMed

    Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    When studying WMSDs, several determinants and their interrelationship are considered as relevant. Hence the necessity of an "holistic" approach to prevention, especially when preparing technical rules and strategic plans. There is a strong request, from OSH agencies and operators, for developing "simple" tools for risk assessment and management. In this context WHO asked IEA to develop a "Toolkit for WMSD prevention". The paper presents one of the main contribution to this WHO project, focused on selecting tools at different level for hazard identification, risk estimation and management. Proposals are based on two essential criteria: Acting on a step-by-step approach; Taking into account the presence of multiple influencing factors. The proposals consider: A Basic Step devoted to hazard identification by operative "key-enter" questions, that can be operated also by non-experts. A First Step, (quick assessment), for identifying 3 possible conditions: acceptable; high risk present; more detailed analysis (via tools presented at second step) necessary. This step can be operated by non-experts with only some specific training. A Second Step, where recognized (i.e. from international standards or guidelines) tools for risk estimation are used. This step can be operated only by persons with some specific training.

  10. Determination of 63Ni and 59Ni in spent ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor.

    PubMed

    Taddei, M H T; Macacini, J F; Vicente, R; Marumo, J T; Sakata, S K; Terremoto, L A A

    2013-07-01

    A radiochemical method has been adapted to determine (59)Ni and (63)Ni in samples of radioactive wastes from the water cleanup system of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The process includes extraction chromatographic resin with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as a functional group. Activity concentrations of (59)Ni and (63)Ni were measured, respectively, by X-ray spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting, whereas the chemical yield was determined by ICP-OES. The average ratio of measured activity concentrations of (63)Ni and (59)Ni agree well with theory.

  11. BEATRIX-II Program, January 1989--December 1989: ANNEX-III to IEA implementing agreement for a programme of research and development on radiation damage in fusion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Slagle, O.D.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1990-10-01

    BEATRIX-II is an International Energy Agency (IEA) sponsored collaborative experiment among Japan, Canada, and the United States. The purpose of the experiment is to evaluate the performance of ceramic solid breeder materials in a fast neutron environment. To do this, an in-situ tritium recovery experiment is being conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, Washington, together with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) are responsible for conducting the experiment.

  12. The Effects of School Ability on Educational Expectations in Fifteen Countries. IEA (Australia) Report 1977: 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Patrick

    This publication is a report which deals with the effects of school characteristics on the educational process and its outcomes. Specifically, the report focuses on the educational expectations of students at age 14 and in their final year of secondary school, and attempts to replicate in 15 countries a model which considers the effects of school…

  13. Oil substitution and energy saving - A research and development strategy of the International Energy Agency /IEA/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath-Nagel, S.

    1981-03-01

    Systems analyses were carried out by the International Energy Agency for the participating 15 countries in order to work out strategies and scenarios for lessening the dependence on imported oil and for developing new energy technologies. MARKAL model computations show the technology and energy mixes necessary for achieving a reduction of oil imports by two thirds over the next 40 years. The scenario 'high social security' examines the projected rise in energy consumption, the development of oil substitutes, the increase in alternative heating sources, the development of markets for liquid energy products, the demand for gas, and the relative usage of various energy generation methods. The recommended strategy involves as the most important points an increase in coal consumption, greater nuclear energy reliance and development of alternative technologies.

  14. TEDS-M Encyclopedia: A Guide to Teacher Education Context, Structure, and Quality Assurance in 17 Countries. Findings from the IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwille, John, Ed.; Ingvarson, Lawrence, Ed.; Holdgreve-Resendez, Richard, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M) is the first large-scale international study of the preparation of primary and lower-secondary teachers. The study investigated the pedagogical and subject-specific knowledge that future primary and lower secondary school teachers acquire during their mathematics teacher…

  15. The Second IEA International Research Conference: Proceedings of the IRC-2006. Volume 2: Civic Education Study (CivEd), Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), Second Information Technology in Education Study (SITES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagemaker, Paula, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    As part of its mission, the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) is committed to the development of the community of researchers who work in the area of assessment both nationally and internationally. The association also has a commitment to provide policymakers with the types of data and analyses that will…

  16. An Analysis of Teacher Education Context, Structure, and Quality-Assurance Arrangements in TEDS-M Countries: Findings from the IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarson, Lawrence; Schwille, John; Tatto, Maria Teresa; Rowley, Glenn; Peck, Ray; Senk, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    The Teacher Education and Development Study (TEDS-M) is the first crossnational study to examine the mathematics preparation of future teachers for both primary and secondary school levels. The study, conducted under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), collected data from…

  17. International Energy Agency (IEA) Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Weyburn-Midale CO₂ Monitoring and Storage Project

    SciTech Connect

    Sacuta, Norm; Young, Aleana; Worth, Kyle

    2015-12-22

    The IEAGHG Weyburn-Midale CO₂ Monitoring and Storage Project (WMP) began in 2000 with the first four years of research that confirmed the suitability of the containment complex of the Weyburn oil field in southeastern Saskatchewan as a storage location for CO₂ injected as part of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations. The first half of this report covers research conducted from 2010 to 2012, under the funding of the United States Department of Energy (contract DEFE0002697), the Government of Canada, and various other governmental and industry sponsors. The work includes more in-depth analysis of various components of a measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) program through investigation of data on site characterization and geological integrity, wellbore integrity, storage monitoring (geophysical and geochemical), and performance/risk assessment. These results then led to the development of a Best Practices Manual (BPM) providing oilfield and project operators with guidance on CO₂ storage and CO₂-EOR. In 2013, the USDOE and Government of Saskatchewan exercised an optional phase of the same project to further develop and deploy applied research tools, technologies, and methodologies to the data and research at Weyburn with the aim of assisting regulators and operators in transitioning CO₂-EOR operations into permanent storage. This work, detailed in the second half of this report, involves seven targeted research projects – evaluating the minimum dataset for confirming secure storage; additional overburden monitoring; passive seismic monitoring; history-matched modelling; developing proper wellbore design; casing corrosion evaluation; and assessment of post CO₂-injected core samples. The results from the final and optional phases of the Weyburn-Midale Project confirm the suitability of CO₂-EOR fields for the injection of CO₂, and further, highlight the necessary MMV and follow-up monitoring required for these operations to be considered

  18. Effective Civic Education: An Educational Effectiveness Model for Explaining Students' Civic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isac, Maria Magdalena; Maslowski, Ralf; van der Werf, Greetje

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive educational effectiveness model is tested in relation to student's civic knowledge. Multilevel analysis was applied on the dataset of the IEA Civic Education Study (CIVED; Torney-Purta, Lehmann, Oswald, & Schulz, 2001), which was conducted among junior secondary-school students (age 14), their schools, and their…

  19. Design and Operation of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power: Final Summary Report, IEA WIND Task 25, Phase Three 2012-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; Forcione, Alain; Milligan, Michael; Smith, Charles J.; Dillon, Jody; Dobschinski, Jan; van Roon, Serafin; Cutululis, Nicolaos; Orths, Antje; Eriksen, Peter Borre; Carlini, Enrico Maria; Estanqueiro, Ana; Bessa, Ricardo; Soder, Lennart; Farahmand, Hossein; Torres, Jose Rueda; Jianhua, Bai; Kondoh, Junji; Pineda, Ivan; Strbac, Goran

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes recent findings on wind integration from the 16 countries participating in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind collaboration research Task 25 in 2012-2014. Both real experience and studies are reported. The national case studies address several impacts of wind power on electric power systems. In this report, they are grouped under long-term planning issues and short-term operational impacts. Long-term planning issues include grid planning and capacity adequacy. Short-term operational impacts include reliability, stability, reserves, and maximizing the value in operational timescales (balancing related issues). The first section presents variability and uncertainty of power system-wide wind power, and the last section presents recent wind integration studies for higher shares of wind power. Appendix 1 provides a summary of ongoing research in the national projects contributing to Task 25 in 2015-2017.

  20. A guidebook for insulated low-slope roof systems. IEA Annex 19, Low-slope roof systems: International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Low-slope roof systems are common on commercial and industrial buildings and, to a lesser extent, on residential buildings. Although insulating materials have nearly always been a component of low-slope roofs, the amount of insulation used has increased in the past two decades because of escalation of heating and cooling costs and increased awareness of the need for energy conservation. As the amount of insulation has increased, the demand has intensified for design, installation, and maintenance information specifically for well-insulated roofs. Existing practices for design, installation, and maintenance of insulated roofs have evolved from experience. Typically, these practices feature compromises due to the different properties of materials making up a given roof system. Therefore, they should be examined from time to time to ensure that they are appropriate as new materials continue to enter the market and as the data base on existing systems expands. A primary purpose of this International Energy Agency (IEA) study is to assess current roofing insulation practices in the context of an accumulating data base on performance.

  1. BEATRIX-II Program: ANNEX-III to IEA implementing agreement for a programme of research and development on radiation damage in fusion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Slagle, O.D.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    The BEATRIX-II experiment is an International Energy Agency (IEA) sponsored collaborative experiment between Japan, Canada, and the United States. This is an in situ tritium recovery experiment conducted to evaluate the performance of ceramic solid breeder materials in a fast neutron environment to high burnup levels. The experiment was carried out in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and was operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland (PNL), Richland, Washington, together with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Research are conducting the experiment. The objective of the BEATRIX-II experiment is to design, conduct, and evaluate the in situ recovery of tritium from solid breeder materials during neutron irradiation in the FFTF. During the experiment, the performance of candidate solid breeder materials is continuously monitored with respect to temperature stability and tritium release. The phase I experiment was irradiated to lithium burnups of 5% while the goal for Phase II was to irradiate to burnups as high as 8%.

  2. IEA Wind Task 26 - Multi-national Case Study of the Financial Cost of Wind Energy; Work Package 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwabe, P.; Lensink, S.; Hand, M.

    2011-03-01

    The lifetime cost of wind energy is comprised of a number of components including the investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, financing costs, and annual energy production. Accurate representation of these cost streams is critical in estimating a wind plant's cost of energy. Some of these cost streams will vary over the life of a given project. From the outset of project development, investors in wind energy have relatively certain knowledge of the plant's lifetime cost of wind energy. This is because a wind energy project's installed costs and mean wind speed are known early on, and wind generation generally has low variable operation and maintenance costs, zero fuel cost, and no carbon emissions cost. Despite these inherent characteristics, there are wide variations in the cost of wind energy internationally, which is the focus of this report. Using a multinational case-study approach, this work seeks to understand the sources of wind energy cost differences among seven countries under International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 26 - Cost of Wind Energy. The participating countries in this study include Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. Due to data availability, onshore wind energy is the primary focus of this study, though a small sample of reported offshore cost data is also included.

  3. Lost carbon emissions: The role of non-manufacturing 'other industries' and refining in industrial energy use and carbon emissions in IEA countries

    SciTech Connect

    Murtishaw, Scott; Schipper, Lee; Unander, Fridtjof; Karbuz, Sohbet; Khrushch, Marta

    2000-05-01

    We present a review of trends in energy use and output in branches of industry not often studied in detail: petroleum refining and what we call the other industries--agriculture, mining, and construction. From a sample of IEA countries we analyze eight with the most complete data from the early 1970s to the mid-1990s. We carry out a decomposition analysis of changes in energy use and carbon emissions in the ''other industries'' sector. We also review briefly the impact of including refining in the evolution of manufacturing energy use, usually studied without refining. Despite many data problems, we present our results as a way of enticing others to study these important ''lost'' sectors more carefully. We have five basic findings. First, ''other industries'' tends to be a minor consumer of energy in many countries, but in some, particularly Denmark, the US, and Australia, mining or agriculture can be a major sector too large to be overlooked. Second, refining is an extremely energy intensive industry which despite a relatively low share of value added consumes as much as 20 percent of final energy use in manufacturing. Third, as a result of a slower decline in the carbon-intensity of these industries vis-a-vis the manufacturing industries, their share of industrial emissions has been rising. Fourth, for other industries variation in per capita output plays a relatively small role in differentiating per capita carbon emissions compared to the impact of subsectoral energy intensities. Finally, including this energy in CO2 calculations has little impact on overall trends, but does change the magnitude of emissions in most countries significantly. Clearly, these industries provide important opportunities for searching for carbon emissions reductions.

  4. A 10-year record of geochemical and isotopic monitoring at the IEA Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project (Saskatchewan, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Bernhard; Shevalier, Maurice; Nightingale, Michael; Kwon, Jang-Soon; Hutcheon, Ian

    2013-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage is a promising technology to reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Monitoring of CO2 storage sites is required by many of the emerging regulations with specific interest in verification of injected CO2 in various target reservoirs. The objective of this study was to use geochemical and isotopic techniques to trace the fate of CO2 injected over a 10-year period at the IEA Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project (Saskatchewan, Canada). Geochemical monitoring measures changes in chemical and isotopic parameters of fluid and gas samples in a storage reservoir due to brine-mineral-CO2 reactions resulting from CO2 injection. Seventeen sampling events were conducted over a 10-year period, including one pre-injection (baseline in the year 2000) and 16 post-injection surveys between 2001 and 2010. Fluid and gas samples were obtained from circa 50 observation wells per sampling event followed by chemical and isotope analyses. Carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of injected CO2 were constant at -20.4 ‰ throughout the 10-year study period and were markedly different from baseline δ13C values of dissolved CO2 in the reservoir brines. Therefore, carbon isotope ratio measurements constitute an elegant tool for tracing the movement and the geochemical fate of injected CO2 in the reservoir. Gas samples obtained from the observation wells at baseline had a median CO2 concentration of 4 mole%. After 7 to 10 years of CO2 injection, a significant increase in the median CO2 concentration was observed yielding values ranging from 64 to 75 mole%. This increase in CO2 concentrations was accompanied by a decrease in the δ13C values of CO2 from a median value of -12.7 ‰ at baseline in the year 2000 to values near -18 ‰ between 2008 and 2010. This is evidence that elevated CO2 concentrations are caused by injected CO2 arriving at numerous observation wells. Analyses of fluid samples revealed that the median total alkalinity increased from ~400 mg

  5. Second generation sodium heat pipe receiver for a USAB V-160 Stirling engine: Evaluation of on-sun test results using the proposed IEA guidelines and analysis of heat pipe damage

    SciTech Connect

    Laing, D.; Traebing, C.

    1997-11-01

    Dish/Stirling technology has demonstrated the highest conversion efficiencies of all solar thermal conversion systems. At the DLR a second generation sodium heat pipe receiver for the Schlaich Bergermann und Partner (SBP) 9-kW{sub e} dish/Stirling system has been developed and constructed. Long-term operation occurred from Oct. 1992 until Aug. 1993 at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA) in Spain, accumulating 950 operating hours. The performance of the SBP 9-kW{sub e} system with a sodium heat pipe receiver is evaluated according to the guidelines for dish/Stirling performance evaluation by Stine and Powel, as proposed to the International Energy Agency (IEA). Tests were stopped due to a leak in the receiver absorber surface. The analysis of this damage is reported.

  6. BEATRIX-2 Program third annual report, January 1990--December 1990. ANNEX-3 to IEA implementing agreement for a programme of research and development on radiation damage in fusion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Slagle, O.D.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1991-10-01

    The BEATRIX-2 experiment is an International Energy Agency (IEA) sponsored collaborative experiment between Japan, Canada, and the United States. The purpose of the experiment is to evaluate the performance of ceramic solid breeder materials in a fast neutron environment. To do this, an in-situ tritium recovery experiment is being conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Richland, Washington, together with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) are responsible for conducting the experiment. This work is divided into two phases: Phase 1 was irradiated from January 1990 until March 1991 in Cycle 11 of FFTF, while Phase 2 will be irradiated in Cycle 12, which began in June 1991 and is scheduled to continue until approximately October of 1991 for 300 effective full power days (EFPD).

  7. Solar Resource Characterization; Session: Modeling and Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D.

    2008-04-01

    This project supports the Solar America Initiative by: (1) meeting increasing demands for expertise in and products on solar radiation data and models--production and distribution of reliable, accurate domestic and international solar resource data, benchmarking and cross-comparison of solar irradiance models; and coordination with the international community (IEA/SHC Task 36, WMO); (2) reducing data uncertainties and increasing temporal and spatial data resolutions; (3) developing and testing short term solar resource forecasts; (4) evaluating methods for producing long term data sets from short term observations; and (5) conducting measurement activities at selected sites.

  8. BEATRIX-II Program: ANNEX-III to IEA implementing agreement for a programme of research and development on radiation damage in fusion materials. Fourth annual report, January 1991--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Slagle, O.D.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    The BEATRIX-II experiment is an International Energy Agency (IEA) sponsored collaborative experiment between Japan, Canada, and the United States. This is an in situ tritium recovery experiment conducted to evaluate the performance of ceramic solid breeder materials in a fast neutron environment to high burnup levels. The experiment was carried out in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located on the Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and was operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland (PNL), Richland, Washington, together with the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Research are conducting the experiment. The objective of the BEATRIX-II experiment is to design, conduct, and evaluate the in situ recovery of tritium from solid breeder materials during neutron irradiation in the FFTF. During the experiment, the performance of candidate solid breeder materials is continuously monitored with respect to temperature stability and tritium release. The phase I experiment was irradiated to lithium burnups of 5% while the goal for Phase II was to irradiate to burnups as high as 8%.

  9. Hydro power flexibility for power systems with variable renewable energy sources: an IEA Task 25 collaboration: Hydro power flexibility for power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Huertas-Hernando, Daniel; Farahmand, Hossein; Holttinen, Hannele; Kiviluoma, Juha; Rinne, Erkka; Söder, Lennart; Milligan, Michael; Ibanez, Eduardo; Martínez, Sergio Martín; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio; Estanqueiro, Ana; Rodrigues, Luis; Carr, Luis; van Roon, Serafin; Orths, Antje Gesa; Eriksen, Peter Børre; Forcione, Alain; Menemenlis, Nickie

    2016-06-20

    Hydro power is one of the most flexible sources of electricity production. Power systems with considerable amounts of flexible hydro power potentially offer easier integration of variable generation, e.g., wind and solar. However, there exist operational constraints to ensure mid-/long-term security of supply while keeping river flows and reservoirs levels within permitted limits. In order to properly assess the effective available hydro power flexibility and its value for storage, a detailed assessment of hydro power is essential. Due to the inherent uncertainty of the weather-dependent hydrological cycle, regulation constraints on the hydro system, and uncertainty of internal load as well as variable generation (wind and solar), this assessment is complex. Hence, it requires proper modeling of all the underlying interactions between hydro power and the power system, with a large share of other variable renewables. A summary of existing experience of wind integration in hydro-dominated power systems clearly points to strict simulation methodologies. Recommendations include requirements for techno-economic models to correctly assess strategies for hydro power and pumped storage dispatch. These models are based not only on seasonal water inflow variations but also on variable generation, and all these are in time horizons from very short term up to multiple years, depending on the studied system. Another important recommendation is to include a geographically detailed description of hydro power systems, rivers' flows, and reservoirs as well as grid topology and congestion.

  10. Heat pump concepts for nZEB Technology developments, design tools and testing of heat pump systems for nZEB in the USA: Country report IEA HPT Annex 40 Task 2, Task 3 and Task 4 of the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D.; Payne, W. Vance; Ling, Jiazhen; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2015-12-01

    The IEA HPT Annex 40 "Heat pump concepts for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings" deals with the application of heat pumps as a core component of the HVAC system for Nearly or Net Zero energy buildings (nZEB). This report covers Task 2 on the system comparison and optimisation and Task 3 dedicated to the development of adapted technologies for nZEB and field monitoring results of heat pump systems in nZEB. In the US team three institutions are involved and have worked on the following projects: The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will summarize development activities through the field demonstration stage for several integrated heat pump (IHP) systems electric ground-source (GS-IHP) and air-source (AS-IHP) versions and an engine driven AS-IHP version. The first commercial GS-IHP product was just introduced to the market in December 2012. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex. The University of Maryland will contribute a software development project to Task 2 of the Annex. The software ThermCom evaluates occupied space thermal comfort conditions accounting for all radiative and convective heat transfer effects as well as local air properties. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is working on a field study effort on the NIST Net Zero Energy Residential Test Facility (NZERTF). This residential building was constructed on the NIST campus and officially opened in summer 2013. During the first year, between July 2013 and June 2014, baseline performance of the NZERTF was monitored under a simulated occupancy protocol. The house was equipped with an air-to-air heat pump which included a dedicated dehumidification operating mode. Outdoor conditions, internal loads and modes of heat pump operation were monitored. Field study results with respect to heat pump operation will be reported and recommendations on heat pump optimization for a net zero energy building will be provided. This work is a contribution to Task 3 of the Annex.

  11. Modeling environmental impacts of urban expansion: a systematic method for dealing with uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Yang, Sheng; Chen, Jining

    2012-08-07

    In a rapidly transitioning China, urban land use has changed dramatically, both spatially and in terms of magnitude; these changes have significantly affected the natural environment. This paper reports the development of an Integrated Environmental Assessment of Urban Land Use Change (IEA-ULUC) model, which combines cellular automata, scenario analysis, and stochastic spatial sampling with the goal of exploring urban land-use change, related environmental impacts, and various uncertainties. By applying the IEA-ULUC model to a new urban development area in Dalian in northeastern China, the evolution of spatial patterns from 1986 to 2005 was examined to identify key driving forces affecting the changing trajectories of local land use. Using these results, future urban land use in the period 2005-2020 was projected for four scenarios of economic development and land-use planning regulation. A stochastic sampling process was implemented to generate industrial land distributions for each land expansion scenario. Finally, domestic and industrial water pollution loads to the ocean were estimated, and the environmental impacts of each scenario are discussed. The results showed that the four urban expansion scenarios could lead to considerable differences in environmental responses. In principle, urban expansion scenarios along the intercity transportation rail/roadways could have higher negative environmental impacts than cluster-developing scenarios, while faster economic growth could more intensely aggravate the environment than in the moderate growth scenarios.

  12. International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST); Volume 1: Cases E100-E200

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the Building Energy Simulation Test for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST) project conducted by the Tool Evaluation and Improvement International Energy Agency (IEA) Experts Group. The group was composed of experts from the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme, Task 22, Subtask A. The current test cases, E100-E200, represent the beginning of work on mechanical equipment test cases; additional cases that would expand the current test suite have been proposed for future development.

  13. Second IEA Mathematics Study. Sampling Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garden, Robert A.

    This report provides users of data from the Second International Mathematics Study with a summary of the survey procedures used by participating countries. The introductory chapter includes definitions, cross-sectional and longitudinal components, and recommended sampling procedures. Chapter 2 presents national population definitions and sampling…

  14. Facilitating Next Generation Science Collaboration: Respecting and Mediating Vocabularies with Information Model Driven Semantics in Ecosystems Assessments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.; Maffei, A.

    2012-04-01

    In Earth and space science, there is steady evolution away from isolated and single purpose data 'systems' toward systems of systems, data ecosystems, or data frameworks that provide access to highly heterogeneous data repositories. As a result, common informatics approaches are being sought for the development and implementation of newer architectures. One clear need is a repeatable method for modeling, implementing and evolving the information architectures. A newly funded U.S. initiative is developing and deploying integrated ecosystem assessment (IEA) capability for marine ecosystems using an information science and semantic technologies. The intention is to advance the capacity of an IEA to provide the foundation for synthesis and quantitative analysis of natural and socio-economic ecosystem information to support ecosystem-based management. The initiative is creating capacity to assess the impacts of changing climate on two large marine ecosystems: the northeast U.S. and the California Current. These assessments will be essential parts of the science-based decision-support tools used to develop adaptive management measures. Enhanced collaboration is required to achieve these goals: interaction and information sharing within and among diverse data providers, analysis tool developers and user groups that constitute the broader coastal and marine ecosystem science application community. This presentation outlines new component design approaches and sets of information model and semantic encodings for mediation.

  15. Verification of the New FAST v8 Capabilities for the Modeling of Fixed-Bottom Offshore Wind Turbines: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Barahona, B.; Jonkman, J.; Damiani, R.; Robertson, A.; Hayman, G.

    2014-12-01

    Coupled dynamic analysis has an important role in the design of offshore wind turbines because the systems are subject to complex operating conditions from the combined action of waves and wind. The aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool FAST v8 is framed in a novel modularization scheme that facilitates such analysis. Here, we present the verification of new capabilities of FAST v8 to model fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. We analyze a series of load cases with both wind and wave loads and compare the results against those from the previous international code comparison projects-the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 23 Subtask 2 Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) and the IEA Wind Task 30 OC3 Continued (OC4) projects. The verification is performed using the NREL 5-MW reference turbine supported by monopile, tripod, and jacket substructures. The substructure structural-dynamics models are built within the new SubDyn module of FAST v8, which uses a linear finite-element beam model with Craig-Bampton dynamic system reduction. This allows the modal properties of the substructure to be synthesized and coupled to hydrodynamic loads and tower dynamics. The hydrodynamic loads are calculated using a new strip theory approach for multimember substructures in the updated HydroDyn module of FAST v8. These modules are linked to the rest of FAST through the new coupling scheme involving mapping between module-independent spatial discretizations and a numerically rigorous implicit solver. The results show that the new structural dynamics, hydrodynamics, and coupled solutions compare well to the results from the previous code comparison projects.

  16. Renewable energy: GIS-based mapping and modelling of potentials and demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, Thomas; Biberacher, Markus; Schardinger, Ingrid.; Gadocha, Sabine; Zocher, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Worldwide demand of energy is growing and will continue to do so for the next decades to come. IEA has estimated that global primary energy demand will increase by 40 - 50% from 2003 to 2030 (IEA, 2005) depending on the fact whether currently contemplated energy policies directed towards energy-saving and fuel-diversification will be effectuated. The demand for Renewable Energy (RE) is undenied but clear figures and spatially disaggregated potentials for the various energy carriers are very rare. Renewable Energies are expected to reduce pressures on the environment and CO2 production. In several studies in Germany (North-Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony) and Austria we studied the current and future pattern of energy production and consumption. In this paper we summarize and benchmark different RE carriers, namely wind, biomass (forest and non-forest, geothermal, solar and hydro power. We demonstrate that GIS-based scalable and flexible information delivery sheds new light on the prevailing metaphor of GIS as a processing engine serving needs of users more on demand rather than through ‘maps on stock'. We compare our finding with those of several energy related EU-FP7 projects in Europe where we have been involved - namely GEOBENE, REACCESS, ENERGEO - and demonstrate that more and more spatial data will become available together with tools that allow experts to do their own analyses and to communicate their results in ways which policy makers and the public can readily understand and use as a basis for their own actions. Geoportals in combination with standardised geoprocessing today supports the older vision of an automated presentation of data on maps, and - if user privileges are given - facilities to interactively manipulate these maps. We conclude that the most critical factor in modelling energy supply and demand remain the economic valuation of goods and services, especially the forecast of future end consumer energy costs.

  17. HVAC BESTEST: A Procedure for Testing the Ability of Whole-Building Energy Simulation Programs to Model Space Conditioning Equipment: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, J,; Judkoff, R.; Knabe, G.; Le, H.-T.; Durig, M.; Glass, A.; Zweifel, G.

    2001-07-03

    Validation of Building Energy Simulation Programs consists of a combination of empirical validation, analytical verification, and comparative analysis techniques (Judkoff 1988). An analytical verification and comparative diagnostic procedure was developed to test the ability of whole-building simulation programs to model the performance of unitary space-cooling equipment that is typically modeled using manufacturer design data presented as empirically derived performance maps. Field trials of the method were conducted by researchers from nations participating in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme Task 22, using a number of detailed hourly simulation programs from Europe and the United States, including: CA-SIS, CLIM2000, PROMETHEUS, TRNSYS-TUD, and two versions of DOE-2.1E. Analytical solutions were also developed for the test cases.

  18. IEA/AIE-90; Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Industrial and Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems, Charleston, SC, July 15-18, 1990. Vols. 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The present conference on industrial and engineering applications of artificial intelligence (AI) and expert systems (ESs) encompasses diagnostic and blackboard systems, vision, scheduling, intelligent database systems, AI manufacturing, qualitative models, intelligent interfaces, AI control, and natural language processing. Also addressed are knowledge-based systems, verification/validation, parallel/distributed systems, intelligent tutoring systems, machine learning, neural networks, robotics, knowledge acquisition, and AI techniques for the operative management of aircraft routing. Specific issues addressed include a hierarchical knowledge-based system for aircraft-image interpretation, a cognitive temporal model for planning in aircraft maintenance, applications of algorithm animation techniques, an ES for supporting technical modeling in engineering systems, airobotics, and an ES for the selection of industrial robots and its implementation in two environments.

  19. IEA/Annex II Powder Characterization Cooperative Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    90509 Alcoa Technical Center B Alcoa Center, PA 15069 Corning Glass Works Dr. John Howitt Elkem Metals Company MP8-5, Corning, NY 14830 Dr. H. Fred...J. R. Sculley , SARD 1 3. Rose AMSTA-RKA Deputy Chief of Staff, Research, 3evelopment, and I AMSTA-UL, Tecini(c3 LOrar, Acquisition, Headquarters...Connson ,anala DOoratories, Alouquerque, ’NM 37Io5 I ATTN: Dr. F. Gerstle, Div 5814 The John Hopkins University, Department of Civil Engineering/ Materials

  20. A toolkit for MSDs prevention--WHO and IEA context.

    PubMed

    Caple, David C

    2012-01-01

    Many simple MSD risk management tools have been developed by ergonomists for use by workers and employers with little or no training to undertake injury prevention programs in their workplace. However, currently there is no "toolkit" which places such tools within an holistic, participative ergonomics framework and provides guidance on how best to use individual tools. It is proposed that such an holistic approach should entail initial analysis and evaluation of underlying systems of work and related health and performance indicators, prior to focusing in assessment of MSD risks stemming from particular hazards. Depending on the context, more narrowly focused tools might then be selected to assess risk associated with jobs or tasks identified as problematic. This approach ensures that biomechanical risk factors are considered within a broad context of organizational and psychosocial risk factors. This is consistent with current research evidence on work- related causes of MSDs.

  1. A second solar array is moved to the IEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility prepare an overhead crane they will use to move a solar array, a component of the International Space Station, for installation onto the Integrated Equipment Assembly. The solar array is the second one being installed. They are scheduled to be launched on mission STS-97 in late November along with the P6 truss. The Station's electrical power system (EPS) will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays to convert sunlight to electricity. Each of the eight solar arrays will be 112 feet long by 39 feet wide. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station.

  2. A second solar array is moved to the IEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, the overhead crane carrying a solar array maneuvers its cargo into position on the Integrated Equipment Assembly on which it will be installed. Solar Array Wing-3 is already in place. Components of the International Space Station, the arrays are scheduled to be launched on mission STS-97 in late November along with the P6 truss. The Station's electrical power system (EPS) will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays to convert sunlight to electricity. Each of the eight solar arrays will be 112 feet long by 39 feet wide. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station.

  3. A second solar array is moved to the IEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A solar array is nearly in place on the Integrated Equipment Assembly, next to Solar Array Wing-3, which is already installed. Components of the International Space Station, the arrays are scheduled to be launched on mission STS-97 in late November along with the P6 truss. The Station's electrical power system (EPS) will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays to convert sunlight to electricity. Each of the eight solar arrays will be 112 feet long by 39 feet wide. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station.

  4. A second solar array is moved to the IEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, workers help guide a solar array into position for installation on the Integrated Equipment Assembly. Solar Array Wing-3 is already in place. Components of the International Space Station, the arrays are scheduled to be launched on mission STS-97 in late November along with the P6 truss. The Station's electrical power system (EPS) will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays to convert sunlight to electricity. Each of the eight solar arrays will be 112 feet long by 39 feet wide. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station.

  5. A second solar array is moved to the IEA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Workers in the Space Station Processing Facility give close attention to the placement of a solar array on the Integrated Equipment Assembly. Solar Array Wing-3 is already in place. Components of the International Space Station, the arrays are scheduled to be launched on mission STS-97 in late November along with the P6 truss. The Station's electrical power system (EPS) will use eight photovoltaic solar arrays to convert sunlight to electricity. Each of the eight solar arrays will be 112 feet long by 39 feet wide. The solar arrays are mounted on a '''blanket''' that can be folded like an accordion for delivery. Once in orbit, astronauts will deploy the blankets to their full size. Gimbals will be used to rotate the arrays so that they will face the Sun to provide maximum power to the Space Station.

  6. IEA/SPS 500 kW distributed collector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, T. W.; Hartman, C. D.

    1980-05-01

    Engineering studies for an International Energy Agency project for the design and construction of a 500 kW solar thermal electric power generation system of the distributed collector system (DCS) type are reviewed. The DCS system design consists of a mixed field of parabolic trough type solar collectors which are used to heat a thermal heat transfer oil. Heated oil is delivered to a thermocline storage tank from which heat is extracted and delivered to a boiler by a second heat transfer loop using the same heat transfer oil. Steam is generated in the boiler, expanded through a steam turbine, and recirculated through a condenser system cooled by a wet cooling tower.

  7. IEA small solar-power-system project, operation status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-04-01

    Data collected from routine operation of the Small Solar Power Systems Project are summarized, and an overview is given of the data evaluation. The operation status of the data collection system and central receiver system is included as well as the status of the evaluation work organization. Some insolation and wind data are given. Tours by visitors are reported and the status of existing reports is given.

  8. IEA/SPS 500 kW distributed collector system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, T. W.; Hartman, C. D.

    1980-01-01

    Engineering studies for an International Energy Agency project for the design and construction of a 500 kW solar thermal electric power generation system of the distributed collector system (DCS) type are reviewed. The DCS system design consists of a mixed field of parabolic trough type solar collectors which are used to heat a thermal heat transfer oil. Heated oil is delivered to a thermocline storage tank from which heat is extracted and delivered to a boiler by a second heat transfer loop using the same heat transfer oil. Steam is generated in the boiler, expanded through a steam turbine, and recirculated through a condenser system cooled by a wet cooling tower.

  9. IEA HPP ANNEX 36: QUALITY INSTALLATION / QUALITY MAINTENANCE SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hourahan, Mr. Glenn; Domanski, Dr. Piotr; Baxter, Van D

    2011-01-01

    The paper summarizes the goals and planned activities to be undertaken by the participants in Annex 36. Some background information and status of Annex work specific to each participant is provided as well.

  10. Modelling nitrogen and phosphorus loads in a Mediterranean river catchment (La Tordera, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caille, F.; Riera, J. L.; Rosell-Melé, A.

    2012-08-01

    Human activities have resulted in increased nutrient levels in many rivers all over Europe. Sustainable management of river basins demands an assessment of the causes and consequences of human alteration of nutrient flows, together with an evaluation of management options. In the context of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment (IEA) of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the application of the nutrient emission model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions into River Systems) to the Catalan river basin, La Tordera (north-east Spain), for the period 1996-2002. After a successful calibration and verification process (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies E=0.85 for phosphorus and E=0.86 for nitrogen), the application of the model MONERIS proved to be useful in estimating nutrient loads. Crucial for model calibration, in-stream retention was estimated to be about 50 % of nutrient emissions on an annual basis. Through this process, we identified the importance of point sources for phosphorus emissions (about 94% for 1996-2002), and diffuse sources, especially inputs via groundwater, for nitrogen emissions (about 31% for 1996-2002). Despite hurdles related to model structure, observed loads, and input data encountered during the modelling process, MONERIS provided a good representation of the major interannual and spatial patterns in nutrient emissions. An analysis of the model uncertainty and sensitivity to input data indicates that the model MONERIS, even in data-starved Mediterranean catchments, may be profitably used by water managers for evaluating quantitative nutrient emission scenarios for the purpose of managing river basins. As an example of scenario modelling, an analysis of the changes in nutrient emissions through two different future scenarios allowed the identification of a set of relevant measures to reduce nutrient loads.

  11. Modelling nitrogen and phosphorus loads in a Mediterranean river catchment (La Tordera, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caille, F.; Riera, J. L.; Rosell-Melé, A.

    2011-08-01

    Human activities have resulted in increased nutrient levels in many rivers all over Europe. Sustainable management of river basins demands an assessment of the causes and consequences of human alteration of nutrient flows, together with an evaluation of management options. In the context of an integrated and interdisciplinary environmental assessment (IEA) of nutrient flows, we present and discuss the application of the nutrient emission model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions into River Systems) to the Catalan river basin, La Tordera (North-East of Spain), for the period 1996-2002. After a successful calibration and verification process (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies E = 0.85 for phosphorus, and E = 0.86 for nitrogen), the application of the model MONERIS proved to be useful to estimate nutrient loads. Crucial for model calibration, in-stream retention (mainly affected by variability in precipitation) was estimated to be about 50 % of nutrient emissions on an annual basis. Through this process, we identified the importance of point sources for phosphorus emissions (about 94 % for 1996-2002), and diffuse sources, especially inputs via groundwater, for nitrogen emissions (about 31 % for 1996-2002). Despite potential hurdles related to model structure, observed loads, and input data encountered during the modelling process, MONERIS provided a good representation of the major interannual and spatial patterns in nutrient emissions. An analysis of the model uncertainty and sensitivity to input data indicates that the model MONERIS, even in data-starved Mediterranean catchments, may be profitably used for evaluating quantitative nutrient emission scenarios that may help catchment managers and planners to develop effective policy and management measures to reduce nutrient loads.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2010-09-01

    The past decade has seen the development of various scenarios describing long-term patterns of future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with each new approach adding insights to our understanding of the changing dynamics of energy consumption and aggregate future energy trends. With the recent growing focus on China's energy use and emission mitigation potential, a range of Chinese outlook models have been developed across different institutions including in China's Energy Research Institute's 2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co's China's Green Revolution report, the UK Sussex Energy Group and Tyndall Centre's China's Energy Transition report, and the China-specific section of the IEA World Energy Outlook 2009. At the same time, the China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a bottom-up, end-use energy model for China with scenario analysis of energy and emission pathways out to 2050. A robust and credible energy and emission model will play a key role in informing policymakers by assessing efficiency policy impacts and understanding the dynamics of future energy consumption and energy saving and emission reduction potential. This is especially true for developing countries such as China, where uncertainties are greater while the economy continues to undergo rapid growth and industrialization. A slightly different assumption or storyline could result in significant discrepancies among different model results. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the key models in terms of their scope, methodologies, key driver assumptions and the associated findings. A comparative analysis of LBNL's energy end-use model scenarios with the five above studies was thus conducted to examine similarities and divergences in methodologies, scenario storylines, macroeconomic drivers and assumptions as well as aggregate energy and emission scenario results. Besides directly tracing different energy and CO{sub 2} savings potential

  13. Modelling 1-minute directional observations of the global irradiance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejll, Peter; Pagh Nielsen, Kristian; Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Direct and diffuse irradiances from the sky has been collected at 1-minute intervals for about a year from the experimental station at the Technical University of Denmark for the IEA project "Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting". These data were gathered by pyrheliometers tracking the Sun, as well as with apertured pyranometers gathering 1/8th and 1/16th of the light from the sky in 45 degree azimuthal ranges pointed around the compass. The data are gathered in order to develop detailed models of the potentially available solar energy and its variations at high temporal resolution in order to gain a more detailed understanding of the solar resource. This is important for a better understanding of the sub-grid scale cloud variation that cannot be resolved with climate and weather models. It is also important for optimizing the operation of active solar energy systems such as photovoltaic plants and thermal solar collector arrays, and for passive solar energy and lighting to buildings. We present regression-based modelling of the observed data, and focus, here, on the statistical properties of the model fits. Using models based on the one hand on what is found in the literature and on physical expectations, and on the other hand on purely statistical models, we find solutions that can explain up to 90% of the variance in global radiation. The models leaning on physical insights include terms for the direct solar radiation, a term for the circum-solar radiation, a diffuse term and a term for the horizon brightening/darkening. The purely statistical model is found using data- and formula-validation approaches picking model expressions from a general catalogue of possible formulae. The method allows nesting of expressions, and the results found are dependent on and heavily constrained by the cross-validation carried out on statistically independent testing and training data-sets. Slightly better fits -- in terms of variance explained -- is found using the purely

  14. Switchable window modeling. Task 12: Building energy analysis and design tools for solar applications, Subtask A.1: High-performance glazing

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, S.; Selkowitz, S.; Winkelmann, F.

    1992-06-30

    This document presents the work conducted as part of Subtask A.1, High-Performance Glazing, of Task 12 of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Program. At the start of the task, the participants agreed that chromogenic technology (switchable glazing) held considerable promise, and that algorithms to accurately model their dynamic behavior were needed. The purpose of this subtask was to develop algorithms that could be incorporated into building energy analysis programs for predicting the thermal and optical performance of switchable windows. The work entailed a review of current techniques for modelling switchable glazing in windows and switchable windows in buildings and methods for improving upon existing modeling approaches. The proposed approaches correct some of the shortcomings in the existing techniques, and could be adapted for use in other similar programs. The proposed approaches generally provide more detailed calculations needed for evaluating the short-term (hourly and daily) impact of switchable windows on the energy and daylighting performance of a building. Examples of the proposed algorithms are included.

  15. Is a substantial global bioenergy system feasible? A spatial analysis using a dynamic global vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbrecht, T.; Lucht, W.; Lotze-Campem, H.

    2007-12-01

    Avoiding dangerous climate change requires drastic reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. However, the global demand for energy is projected to grow by more than 50 % until 2030 (IEA, 2006) and therefore actions are urgently required to decarbonize the global economy. Second generation bioenergy systems are promoted as a way forward to displace large amounts of fossil fuels with renewable materials, thereby increasing energy security and stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. At the same time, concerns are being raised regarding the sustainability of large-scale dedicated biomass plantations with regard to extensive mono- cultures, irrigation and fertilization requirements. We use a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) including current agriculture to simulate the effects of rising competition for land when an additional spatially extensive production system for a new commodity, bioenergy, is added to the global land use mix under continued increase in global population size as well as per capita energy consumption. How much land is needed for a significant bioenergy generation if sufficient food production is warranted and what are the consequences for the terrestrial biosphere? To assess the potential impacts of a significant global bioenergy sector, we produced a selection of scenarios based on prior assumptions of total bioenergy demand, progress in conversion technologies and the availability of cultivable land limited by food requirements and biodiversity protection. We present the corresponding land use patterns as well as their impacts on the terrestrial carbon balance, evapotranspiration fluxes and irrigation demand. We find that an area of up to 50 % the size of current agricultural land is needed for the cultivation of ligno-cellulosic crops to satisfy high bioenergy demands. Carbon fluxes into the atmosphere caused by the removal of natural vegetation can equal those of 8 years of fossil fuel combustion.

  16. Measurement and modelling of spectral solar radiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehne, K.; Czeplak, G.

    1996-03-01

    Small band measurements of spectral solar radiation by means of commercially available spectral radiometers, which are generally designed for laboratory work, require thorough aptitude tests and mostly special fitting measures. For the already available DM 150, first of all an entrance optics to correct cosine errors, a thermostatted weathercasing, as well as a special control lamp device for field use were developped. An international IEA-field intercomparison of 12 spectral radiometers in the Oberpfaffenhofen area of DLR showed deviations between the global radiation spectra of (+/-)15% and (+/-)40% for the best and the worst case, resp. The latter was caused by the operational requirements in the field and the mechanical instabilities of some radiometers (including the DM 150). Generally a remarkable portion of the deviations belongs to calibration uncertainties and imperfect cosine corrections. With regard to the summarized experience only principal recommendations on the use of spectral radiometers are given. Measured data of atmospheric heat radiation A and other meteorological data of 16 IEA stations were compiled in a data base at MOH to facilitate the fast uniform validation of 30 formulae for parametrization of A. For the case of sky clouded in 3 layers a parametrization formula was improved and successfully validated. A special reliable A-formula could be developped from the sufficiently high number of data of station Schleswig for the case of low cloudiness only.

  17. Final draft: IEA Task 1. Report on Subtask D, optimization of solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, T.L.

    1981-03-01

    A review of general techniques and specific methods useful in the optimization of solar heating and cooling systems is undertaken. A discussion of the state-of-the-art and the principal problems in both the simplified thermal performance analysis and economic analysis portions of the optimization problem are presented. Sample economic analyses are performed using several widely used economic criteria. The predicted thermal results of one typical, widely used simplified method is compared to detailed simulation results. A methodology for and the results of a sensitivity study of key economic parameters in the life cycle cost method are presented. Finally, a simple graphical optimization technique based on the life cycle cost method is proposed.

  18. IEA Wind Task 26: The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy, Work Package 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Wiser, R.; Hand, M.

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, wind power has become a mainstream source of electricity generation around the world. However, the future of wind power will depend a great deal on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost of energy reductions. In this summary report, developed as part of the International Energy Agency Wind Implementing Agreement Task 26, titled 'The Cost of Wind Energy,' we provide a review of historical costs, evaluate near-term market trends, review the methods used to estimate long-term cost trajectories, and summarize the range of costs projected for onshore wind energy across an array of forward-looking studies and scenarios. We also highlight the influence of high-level market variables on both past and future wind energy costs.

  19. The Global Education Industry: Lessons from Private Education in Developing Countries. IEA Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James

    This book focuses on the impact of private education in developing countries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Peru, Romania, Russia, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. The private education sector is large and innovative in the countries studied and not the domain of the wealthy. Contrary to popular opinion, private education in…

  20. The IEA Six Subject Survey: An Empirical Study of Education in Twenty-One Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, David A.

    The purpose of this book is to describe in nontechnical language the objectives, methods and findings of the six subject study conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement during the years 1966-1973. The six subjects covered in the study were Science, Reading Comprehension, Literature, English as a…

  1. The International Attitudes and Knowledge of Adolescents in Nine Countries: The IEA Civic Education Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney, Judith V.

    1977-01-01

    Data concerning political attitudes and knowledge were collected for 30,000 adolescents in nine countries. Findings indicate that students in countries with a high degree of international contact were more internationally minded. Sampling procedures are described. Available from: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, P.O. Box 211, Amsterdam, The…

  2. Schools, Teachers, Students and Computers: A Cross-National Perspective. IEA-Comped Study Stage 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelgrum, W. J., Ed.; And Others

    The Computers in Education (Comped) study was designed as a two-stage survey. The first stage (1987-1990) was aimed at gathering information from a representative sample of schools at elementary, lower secondary and upper secondary level with regard to the state of computer use in education. The survey's focus was on the extent and availability of…

  3. Synergies Between Wind and Solar Generation and Demand Response: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, Sheila; Burke, Daniel; Wajahat Qazi, Hassan; Flynn, Damian; O'Malley, Mark; Kiviluoma, Juha; Hummon, Marissa; Kirby, Brendan; Milligan, Michael

    2014-11-13

    Recent years have seen the interest in demand response increase, in academia and in industry, for both large scale demands and aggregated domestic demands. A number of power systems have established demand response programs in energy, ancillary services and capacity markets, while many are currently undertaking system specific customizations. One of the key reasons for the burgeoning interest in demand response lies in its ability to enhance variable renewable penetration levels, through the provision of flexibility, wind/solar curtailment reduction and other system ancillary services. This paper will review and evaluate various demand response studies, projects and programs from different countries, examining the synergies with renewables integration, also identify some of the main barriers which exist to the deployment of such demand response at greater scale.

  4. International Energy Agency (IEA) Small Solar Power Systems (SSPS) sodium cavity and external receiver performance comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A. F.

    1987-10-01

    Experimental data is used to compare the performance of two sodium cooled solar central receivers operated at the International Energy Agency Small Solar Power Systems project near Almeria, Spain. Performance includes point-in-time steady state efficiency, average efficiency, start-up time, and operation time. Point-in-time steady state efficiency calculations were based on the statistical method of least squares using receiver incident and absorbed powers. One receiver, a cavity type, showed a peak steady state receiver efficiency of 87% +/- 5% and an average efficiency of about 67%. The other receiver, an external billboard type, had a peak steady state receiver efficiency of 96% +/- 4% and an average efficiency of about 79%. The original design peak steady state efficiency predictions for both receivers were within the experimentally determined 95% probability interval. Thermal loss test data were evaluated for the external receiver to confirm its point-in-time steady state efficiency independent of the receiver incident power. The thermal loss, which includes emitted radiation, convection, and conduction from the external receiver, was less than 100 kW(sub t) with the receiver operating at normal design conditions and having an absorbed power of over 2200 kW/sub t/.

  5. Final draft: IEA task 1. Report on subtask D, optimization of solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T. L.

    1981-03-01

    A review of general techniques and specific methods useful in the optimization of solar heating and cooling systems is undertaken. A discussion of the state of the art and the principal problems in both the simplified thermal performance analysis and economic analysis portions of the optimization problem are presented. Sample economic analyses are performed using several widely used economic criteria. The predicted thermal results of one typical, widely used simplified method is compared to detailed simulation results. A methodology for and the results of a sensitivity study of key economic parameters in the life cycle cost method are presented. Finally, a simple graphical optimization technique based on the life cycle cost method is proposed.

  6. Initial Findings from the IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John; Fraillon, Julian; Kerr, David; Losito, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    The International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) studied the ways in which countries prepare their young people to undertake their roles as citizens. It investigated student knowledge and understanding of civics and citizenship as well as student attitudes, perceptions, and activities related to civics and citizenship. It also…

  7. Summary Article: IEA HPP Annex 36: Quality Installation / Quality Maintenance Sensitivity Studies

    DOE PAGES

    Hourahan, Glenn; Domanski, Piotr; Baxter, Van D.

    2015-01-01

    The outcome from this Annex activity clearly identifies that poorly designed, installed, and/or maintained heat pumps operate inefficiently and waste considerable energy compared to their as-designed potential. Additionally, it is clear that small faults for a given field-observed practice are significant, that some attribute deviations (in various equipment applications and geographical locations) have a larger impact than others, and that multiple faults or deviations have a cumulative impact on heat pump performance.

  8. Solar thermal electricity in 1998: An IEA/SolarPACES summary of status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, C.E.; Kolb, G.J.; Meinecke, W.; Trieb, F.

    1998-07-01

    Research and development activities sponsored by countries within the International Energy Agency`s solar thermal working group. SolarPACES, have helped reduce the cost of solar thermal systems to one-fifth that of the early pilot plants. Continued technological improvements are currently being proven in next-generation demonstration plants. These advances, along with cost reductions made possible by scale-up to larger production and construction of a succession of power plants, have made solar thermal systems the lowest-cost solar energy in the world and promise cost-competitiveness with fossil-fuel plants in the future. Solar thermal technologies are appropriate for a wide range of applications, including dispatchable central-station power plants where they can meet peak-load to near-base-load needs of a utility, and distributed, modular power plants for both remote and grid-connected applications. In this paper, the authors present the collective position of the SolarPACES community on solar electricity-generating technology. They discuss the current status of the technology and likely near-term improvements; the needs of target markets; and important technical and financial issues that must be resolved for success in near-term global markets.

  9. Science Education in the United States: Are Things as Bad as the Recent IEA Report Suggests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichinger, John

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Second International Science Study. Analyzes several variables mitigating the interpretative power of the study, including different needs and agendas, cultural bias, equivalence of data, data analysis, student retention rates, comparability of target populations, and test validity. (YP)

  10. The oblique Mercator projection of the ellipsoid of revolution IE{a/2},b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, J.; Grafarend, E.

    1995-11-01

    While the standard Mercator projection / transverse Mercator projecton maps the equator / the transverse metaequator equivalent to the meridian of reference equidistantly, the oblique Mercator projection aims at a conformal mapping of the ellipsoid of revolution constraint to an equidistant mapping of an oblique metaequator. Obliqueness is determined by the extension of the area to be mapped, e.g. determined by the inclination of satellite orbits: Satellite cameras map the area just under the orbit geometry. Here we derive the mapping equations of the oblique Mercator projection being characterized to be conformal and equidistant on the oblique metaequator extending results of M. Hotine (1946, 1947).

  11. Models and role models.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    Developing experimental models to understand dental caries has been the theme in our research group. Our first, the pH-cycling model, was developed to investigate the chemical reactions in enamel or dentine, which lead to dental caries. It aimed to leverage our understanding of the fluoride mode of action and was also utilized for the formulation of oral care products. In addition, we made use of intra-oral (in situ) models to study other features of the oral environment that drive the de/remineralization balance in individual patients. This model addressed basic questions, such as how enamel and dentine are affected by challenges in the oral cavity, as well as practical issues related to fluoride toothpaste efficacy. The observation that perhaps fluoride is not sufficiently potent to reduce dental caries in the present-day society triggered us to expand our knowledge in the bacterial aetiology of dental caries. For this we developed the Amsterdam Active Attachment biofilm model. Different from studies on planktonic ('single') bacteria, this biofilm model captures bacteria in a habitat similar to dental plaque. With data from the combination of these models, it should be possible to study separate processes which together may lead to dental caries. Also products and novel agents could be evaluated that interfere with either of the processes. Having these separate models in place, a suggestion is made to design computer models to encompass the available information. Models but also role models are of the utmost importance in bringing and guiding research and researchers.

  12. Challenges of oxyfuel combustion modeling for carbon capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangwanpongpan, T.; Klatt, M.; Krautz, H. J.

    2012-04-01

    From the policies scenario from Internal Energy Agency (IEA) in 2010, global energy demand for coal climbs from 26% in 2006 to 29% in 2030 and most of demands for coal comes from the power-generation sector [1]. According to the new Copenhagen protocol [3], Global CO2 emission is rising from power generation due to an increasing world demand of electricity. For Energy-related CO2 emission in 2009, 43% of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion were produced from coal, 37% from oil and 20% from gas [4]. Therefore, CO2 capture from coal is the key factor to reduce greenhouse gas emission. Oxyfuel combustion is one of the promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants and subsequent CO2 transportation and storage in a depleted oil or gas field or saline-aquifer. The concept of Oxyfuel combustion is to remove N2 from the combustion process and burn the fuel with a mixture composed of O2 and CO2 together with recycled flue gas back into combustion chamber in order to produce a flue gas consisting mainly of CO2. This flue gas can be easily purified, compressed and transported to storage sites. However, Oxyfuel plants are still in the phase of pilot-scaled projects [5] and combustion in Oxyfuel conditions must be further investigated for a scale-up plant. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) serves as an efficient tool for many years in Oxyfuel combustion researches [6-12] to provide predictions of temperature, heat transfer, and product species from combustion process inside furnace. However, an insight into mathematical models for Oxyfuel combustion is still restricted due to many unknown parameters such as devolatilization rate, reaction mechanisms of volatile reactions, turbulent gaseous combustion of volatile products, char heterogeneous reactions, radiation properties of gaseous mixtures and heat transfer inside and through furnace's wall. Heat transfer drastically changes due to an increasing proportion of H2O and CO2 in these Oxyfuel conditions and the degree

  13. Models, Fiction, and Fictional Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuang

    2014-03-01

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Why Most Models in Science Are Not Fictional * Typically Fictional Models in Science * Modeling the Unobservable * Fictional Models for the Unobservable? * References

  14. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e., top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  15. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-10-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e., top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  16. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot Transonic wind tunnel (IA613A), volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-10-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e. top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  17. Results of wind tunnel tests of an ASRM configured 0.03 scale Space Shuttle integrated vehicle model (47-OTS) in the AEDC 16-foot Transonic wind tunnel (IA613A), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marroquin, J.; Lemoine, P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental Aerodynamic and Aero-Acoustic loads data base was obtained at transonic Mach numbers for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle configured with the ASRM Solid Rocket Boosters as an increment to the current flight configuration (RSRB). These data were obtained during transonic wind tunnel tests (IA 613A) conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center 16-Foot transonic propulsion wind tunnel from March 27, 1991 through April 12, 1991. This test is the first of a series of two tests covering the Mach range from 0.6 to 3.5. Steady state surface static and fluctuating pressure distributions over the Orbiter, External Tank and Solid Rocket Boosters of the Shuttle Integrated Vehicle were measured. Total Orbiter forces, Wing forces and Elevon hinge moments were directly measured as well from force balances. Two configurations of Solid Rocket Boosters were tested, the Redesigned Solid Rocket Booster (RSRB) and the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM). The effects of the position (i.e. top, bottom, top and bottom) of the Integrated Electronics Assembly (IEA) box, mounted on the SRB attach ring, were obtained on the ASRM configured model. These data were obtained with and without Solid Plume Simulators which, when used, matched as close as possible the flight derived pressures on the Orbiter and External Tank base. Data were obtained at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55 at a Unit Reynolds Number of 2.5 million per foot through model angles of attack from -8 to +4 degrees at sideslip angles of 0, +4 and -4 degrees.

  18. TX model: a quantitative heat-loss analysis of district heating pipes by means of IR surface-temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinko, Heimo; Perers, Bengt

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of analyzing the temperature profile at the ground surface above buried district heating pipes in such a way that enables the quantitative determination of heat loss from the pair of pipes. In practical applications, it is supposed that this temperature profile is generated by means of thermography. For this purpose, the principle of the TX-model has been developed, implementing that the heat losses from pipes buried in the ground has a temperature signature on the ground surface. A qualitative analysis of this temperature signature is very well known and in practical use for detecting leaks from pipes. These techniques mostly makes use of relative changes of the temperature pattern along the pipe. In the quantitative heat loss analysis, however, it is presumed that the temperature profile across the pipes is related to the pipe heat loss in Watt/m. The basic idea is that the integral of the temperature variation across the pipe, called TX, is a function of the heat loss, but affected by some other parameters such as depth, heat diffusivity and so on. In order to analyze the parameters influencing the TX-factor, a simulation model for the energy balance at the ground surface has been developed. This model includes the heat flow from the pipe to the surface and the heat exchange at the surface with the environment due to convection, latent heat change, solar and long wave radiation. The simulation gives the surprising result that the TX factor is relatively unaffected during the course of a day even when the sun is shining, as long as other climate conditions are relatively stable (low wind, no rain, no shadows). The results from the simulations were verified at a testfield in Studsvik, Sweden, with electrically controlled pipe heat losses and long term monitoring of the surface temperature profile and TX factor with temperature sensors at the ground surface. The quantitative TX model for heat loss

  19. Mental Models, Conceptual Models, and Modelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greca, Ileana Maria; Moreira, Marco Antonio

    2000-01-01

    Reviews science education research into representations constructed by students in their interactions with the world, its phenomena, and artefacts. Features discussions of mental models, conceptual models, and the activity of modeling. (Contains 30 references.) (Author/WRM)

  20. An International Environmental Agreement for space debris mitigation among asymmetric nations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Michael J.; Musacchio, John T.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how ideas from the International Environmental Agreement (IEA) literature can be applied to the problem of space debris mitigation. Space debris pollution is similar to other international environmental problems in that there is a potential for a "tragedy of the commons" effect: individual nations bear all the cost of their mitigation measures but share only a fraction of the benefit. As a consequence, nations have a tendency to underinvest in mitigation. Coalitions of nations, brought together by IEAs, have the potential to lessen the tragedy of the commons effect by pooling the costs and benefits of mitigation. This work brings together two recent modeling advances: (i) a game theoretic model for studying the potential gains from IEA cooperation between nations with asymmetric costs and benefits, (ii) an orbital debris model that gives the societal cost that specific actions, such as failing to deorbit an inactive spacecraft, have on the environment. We combine these two models with empirical launch-share data for a "proof of concept" of an IEA for a single mitigation measure—deorbiting spacecraft at the end of operational lifetime. Simulations of empirically derived and theoretical launch distributions among nations suggest the possibility that voluntary coalitions can provide significant deorbiting gains relative to nations acting in the absence of an IEA agreement.

  1. Mesoscale modelling methodology based on nudging to increase accuracy in WRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylonas Dirdiris, Markos; Barbouchi, Sami; Hermmann, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    The offshore wind energy has recently become a rapidly growing renewable energy resource worldwide, with several offshore wind projects in development in different planning stages. Despite of this, a better understanding of the atmospheric interaction within the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) is needed in order to contribute to a better energy capture and cost-effectiveness. Light has been thrown in observational nudging as it has recently become an innovative method to increase the accuracy of wind flow modelling. This particular study focuses on the observational nudging capability of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and ways the uncertainty of wind flow modelling in the wind resource assessment (WRA) can be reduced. Finally, an alternative way to calculate the model uncertainty is pinpointed. Approach WRF mesoscale model will be nudged with observations from FINO3 at three different heights. The model simulations with and without applying observational nudging will be verified against FINO1 measurement data at 100m. In order to evaluate the observational nudging capability of WRF two ways to derive the model uncertainty will be described: one global uncertainty and an uncertainty per wind speed bin derived using the recommended practice of the IEA in order to link the model uncertainty to a wind energy production uncertainty. This study assesses the observational data assimilation capability of WRF model within the same vertical gridded atmospheric column. The principal aim is to investigate whether having observations up to one height could improve the simulation at a higher vertical level. The study will use objective analysis implementing a Cress-man scheme interpolation to interpolate the observation in time and in sp ace (keeping the horizontal component constant) to the gridded analysis. Then the WRF model core will incorporate the interpolated variables to the "first guess" to develop a nudged simulation. Consequently, WRF with and without

  2. Marine ecosystem regime shifts: challenges and opportunities for ecosystem-based management

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Phillip S.; Möllmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Regime shifts have been observed in marine ecosystems around the globe. These phenomena can result in dramatic changes in the provision of ecosystem services to coastal communities. Accounting for regime shifts in management clearly requires integrative, ecosystem-based management (EBM) approaches. EBM has emerged as an accepted paradigm for ocean management worldwide, yet, despite the rapid and intense development of EBM theory, implementation has languished, and many implemented or proposed EBM schemes largely ignore the special characteristics of regime shifts. Here, we first explore key aspects of regime shifts that are of critical importance to EBM, and then suggest how regime shifts can be better incorporated into EBM using the concept of integrated ecosystem assessment (IEA). An IEA uses approaches that determine the likelihood that ecological or socio-economic properties of systems will move beyond or return to acceptable bounds as defined by resource managers and policy makers. We suggest an approach for implementing IEAs for cases of regime shifts where the objectives are either avoiding an undesired state or returning to a desired condition. We discuss the suitability and short-comings of methods summarizing the status of ecosystem components, screening and prioritizing potential risks, and evaluating alternative management strategies. IEAs are evolving as an EBM approach that can address regime shifts; however, advances in statistical, analytical and simulation modelling are needed before IEAs can robustly inform tactical management in systems characterized by regime shifts.

  3. Forensic analysis of explosions: Inverse calculation of the charge mass.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, M M; van Wees, R M M; Brouwer, S D; van der Jagt-Deutekom, M J; Verreault, J

    2015-07-01

    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage around an explosion. In this paper, inverse models are presented based on two frequently occurring and reliable sources of information: window breakage and building damage. The models have been verified by applying them to the Enschede firework disaster and the Khobar tower attack. Furthermore, a statistical method has been developed to combine the various types of data, in order to determine an overall charge mass distribution. In relatively open environments, like for the Enschede firework disaster, the models generate realistic charge masses that are consistent with values found in forensic literature. The spread predicted by the IEA tool is however larger than presented in the literature for these specific cases. This is also realistic due to the large inherent uncertainties in a forensic analysis. The IEA-models give a reasonable first order estimate of the charge mass in a densely built urban environment, such as for the Khobar tower attack. Due to blast shielding effects which are not taken into account in the IEA tool, this is usually an under prediction. To obtain more accurate predictions, the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations is advised. The TNO IEA tool gives unique possibilities to inversely calculate the TNT equivalent charge mass based on a large variety of explosion effects and observations. The IEA tool enables forensic analysts, also those who are not experts on explosion effects, to perform an analysis with a largely reduced effort.

  4. Supermatrix models

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, S.A.

    1991-05-01

    Radom matrix models based on an integral over supermatrices are proposed as a natural extension of bosonic matrix models. The subtle nature of superspace integration allows these models to have very different properties from the analogous bosonic models. Two choices of integration slice are investigated. One leads to a perturbative structure which is reminiscent of, and perhaps identical to, the usual Hermitian matrix models. Another leads to an eigenvalue reduction which can be described by a two component plasma in one dimension. A stationary point of the model is described.

  5. ENTRAINMENT MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presented information on entrainment models. Entrainment models use entrainment hypotheses to express the continuity equation. The advantage is that plume boundaries are known. A major disadvantage is that the problems that can be solved are rather simple. The ...

  6. Radiation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, W. G. G.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of both the wave and the corpuscular photon model of light. Suggests that students should be informed that the two models are complementary and that each model successfully describes a wide range of radiation phenomena. Cites 19 references which might be of interest to physics teachers and students. (LC)

  7. Hydrological models are mediating models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, L. V.; Karssenberg, D.

    2013-08-01

    Despite the increasing role of models in hydrological research and decision-making processes, only few accounts of the nature and function of models exist in hydrology. Earlier considerations have traditionally been conducted while making a clear distinction between physically-based and conceptual models. A new philosophical account, primarily based on the fields of physics and economics, transcends classes of models and scientific disciplines by considering models as "mediators" between theory and observations. The core of this approach lies in identifying models as (1) being only partially dependent on theory and observations, (2) integrating non-deductive elements in their construction, and (3) carrying the role of instruments of scientific enquiry about both theory and the world. The applicability of this approach to hydrology is evaluated in the present article. Three widely used hydrological models, each showing a different degree of apparent physicality, are confronted to the main characteristics of the "mediating models" concept. We argue that irrespective of their kind, hydrological models depend on both theory and observations, rather than merely on one of these two domains. Their construction is additionally involving a large number of miscellaneous, external ingredients, such as past experiences, model objectives, knowledge and preferences of the modeller, as well as hardware and software resources. We show that hydrological models convey the role of instruments in scientific practice by mediating between theory and the world. It results from these considerations that the traditional distinction between physically-based and conceptual models is necessarily too simplistic and refers at best to the stage at which theory and observations are steering model construction. The large variety of ingredients involved in model construction would deserve closer attention, for being rarely explicitly presented in peer-reviewed literature. We believe that devoting

  8. Model Experiments and Model Descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra; Scott, Courtney J.; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose; Sze, N. D.; Vohralik, Peter; Randeniya, Lakshman; Plumb, Ian

    1999-01-01

    The Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements Workshop (M&M II) is the continuation of the effort previously started in the first Workshop (M&M I, Prather and Remsberg [1993]) held in 1992. As originally stated, the aim of M&M is to provide a foundation for establishing the credibility of stratospheric models used in environmental assessments of the ozone response to chlorofluorocarbons, aircraft emissions, and other climate-chemistry interactions. To accomplish this, a set of measurements of the present day atmosphere was selected. The intent was that successful simulations of the set of measurements should become the prerequisite for the acceptance of these models as having a reliable prediction for future ozone behavior. This section is divided into two: model experiment and model descriptions. In the model experiment, participant were given the charge to design a number of experiments that would use observations to test whether models are using the correct mechanisms to simulate the distributions of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. The purpose is closely tied to the needs to reduce the uncertainties in the model predicted responses of stratospheric ozone to perturbations. The specifications for the experiments were sent out to the modeling community in June 1997. Twenty eight modeling groups responded to the requests for input. The first part of this section discusses the different modeling group, along with the experiments performed. Part two of this section, gives brief descriptions of each model as provided by the individual modeling groups.

  9. Definition of the Floating System for Phase IV of OC3

    SciTech Connect

    Jonkman, J.

    2010-05-01

    Phase IV of the IEA Annex XXIII Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3) involves the modeling of an offshore floating wind turbine. This report documents the specifications of the floating system, which are needed by the OC3 participants for building aero-hydro-servo-elastic models.

  10. Air Source Heat Pumps for Cold Climate Applications: Recent U. S. R&D Results from IEA HPP Annex 41

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D; Groll, Dr. Eckhard A.; Shen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Air source heat pumps are easily applied to buildings almost anywhere. They are widespread in milder climate regions but their use in cold regions is hampered due to low efficiency and heating capacity at cold outdoor temperatures. This article describes selected R&D activities aimed at improving their cold weather performance.

  11. IEA implementing agreement for a programme of research and development on the production of hydrogen from water

    SciTech Connect

    Mezzina, A. ); Struck, B.D. )

    1989-01-01

    Research programs on hydrogen production from USA, Canada, Japan, and the Federal Republic of Germany, are described. The programs are in the areas of electrolyte hydrogen production, thermochemical hydrogen production, and photocatalytic hydrogen production. (CBS)

  12. Markets to Facilitate Wind and Solar Energy Integration in the Bulk Power Supply: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Soder, L.; Clark, C.; Pineda, I.

    2012-09-01

    Wind and solar power will give rise to challenges in electricity markets regarding flexibility, capacity adequacy, and the participation of wind and solar generators to markets. Large amounts of wind power will have impacts on bulk power system markets and electricity prices. If the markets respond to increased wind power by increasing investments in low-capital, high-cost or marginal-cost power, the average price may remain in the same range. However, experiences so far from Denmark, Germany, Spain, and Ireland are such that the average market prices have decreased because of wind power. This reduction may result in additional revenue insufficiency, which may be corrected with a capacity market, yet capacity markets are difficult to design. However, the flexibility attributes of the capacity also need to be considered. Markets facilitating wind and solar integration will include possibilities for trading close to delivery (either by shorter gate closure times or intraday markets). Time steps chosen for markets can enable more flexibility to be assessed. Experience from 5- and 10-minute markets has been encouraging.

  13. IEA Bioenergy Task 40Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade:Securing Supply and Demand Country Report 2014—United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, J. Richard; Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S.; Jacobson, Jacob J.; Heath, Brendi

    2015-01-01

    Logistical barrier are tied to feedstock harvesting, collection, storage and distribution. Current crop harvesting machinery is unable to selectively harvest preferred components of cellulosic biomass while maintaining acceptable levels of soil carbon and minimizing erosion. Actively managing biomass variability imposes additional functional requirements on biomass harvesting equipment. A physiological variation in biomass arises from differences in genetics, degree of crop maturity, geographical location, climatic events, and harvest methods. This variability presents significant cost and performance risks for bioenergy systems. Currently, processing standards and specifications for cellulosic feedstocks are not as well-developed as for mature commodities. Biomass that is stored with high moisture content or exposed to moisture during storage is susceptible to spoilage, rotting, spontaneous combustion, and odor problems. Appropriate storage methods and strategies are needed to better define storage requirements to preserve the volume and quality of harvested biomass over time and maintain its conversion yield. Raw herbaceous biomass is costly to collect, handle, and transport because of its low density and fibrous nature. Existing conventional, bale-based handling equipment and facilities cannot cost-effectively deliver and store high volumes of biomass, even with improved handling techniques. Current handling and transportation systems designed for moving woodchips can be inefficient for bioenergy processes due to the costs and challenges of transporting, storing, and drying high-moisture biomass. The infrastructure for feedstock logistics has not been defined for the potential variety of locations, climates, feedstocks, storage methods, processing alternatives, etc., which will occur at a national scale. When setting up biomass fuel supply chains, for large-scale biomass systems, logistics are a pivotal part in the system. Various studies have shown that long-distance international transport by ship is feasible in terms of energy use and transportation costs, but availability of suitable vessels and meteorological conditions (e.g., winter time in Scandinavia and Russia) need to be considered. However, local transportation by truck (both in biomass exporting and importing countries) may be a high-cost factor, which can influence the overall energy balance and total biomass costs.

  14. TIMSS 2003 Technical Report: Findings from IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the Fourth and Eighth Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael O., Ed.; Mullis, Ina V.S., Ed.; Chrostowski, Steven J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This volume describes the technical aspects of TIMSS 2003 and summarizes the main activities involved in the development of the data collection instruments, the data collection itself, and the analysis and reporting of the data. The thirteen chapters contained herein are: (1) Overview of TIMSS 2003 (Michael O. Martin and Ina V. S. Mullis); (2)…

  15. Emerging role of human factors and ergonomics in healthcare delivery - a new field of application and influence for the IEA.

    PubMed

    Carayon, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments of research and application of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) are described, in particular the domain of healthcare delivery. HFE activities in this domain are highlighted and challenges for the discipline and the International Ergonomics Association are presented.

  16. Central Receiver System (CRS) in the Small Solar Power Systems Project (SSPS) of the International Energy Agency (IEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasse, W.; Becker, M.

    1984-02-01

    Attention is given to the design features and performance of the Small Solar Power Systems Project's Central Receiver System (CRS). The heliostat field used has a total reflective surface of 3655 sq m and focuses the irradiated power on an aperture plane of 9.2 sq m atop the tower. The cavity-type receiver is rated at 2840 kW at design conditions, of which 88.3 percent is absorbed by the liquid sodium heat transfer fluid as it is heated from 275 to 530 C. The major part of the CRS's Rankine power conversion cycle is a five-stage steam motor with two preheaters. Attention is given to CRS program funding responsibilities and development milestone chronology.

  17. Coordination and management tasks for the IEA solar heating and cooling program and CCMS solar energy pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, S. B.; Kennish, W. J.

    1980-10-01

    Both the management assistance and technical involvement are discussed for a solar system performance validation effort. An overview of the program accomplishments is presented as well as conclusions for future work.

  18. Concentrated solar-flux measurements at the IEA-SSPS solar-central-receiver power plant, Tabernas - Lameria (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vontobel, G.; Schelders, C.; Real, M.

    A flux analyzing system (F.A.S.) was installed at the central receiver system of the SSPS project to determine the relative flux distribution of the heliostat field and to measure the entire optical solar flux reflected from the heliostat field into the receiver cavity. The functional principles of the F.A.S. are described. The raw data and the evaluation of the measurements of the entire helistat field are given, and an approach to determine the actual fluxes which hit the receiver tube bundle is presented. A method is described to qualify the performance of each heliostat using a computer code. The data of the measurements of the direct radiation are presented.

  19. Quantifying the Divide: A Comparison of Ict Usage of Schools in Metro Manila and Iea-Surveyed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigo, Ma.M.T.

    2005-01-01

    The researcher quantified the digital divide that existed between schools in Metro Manila, Philippines and schools in countries surveyed by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. The researcher determined that unlike students in other countries, students in Metro Manila schools had limited access to computers,…

  20. Fluidised-bed combustion. IEA Grimethorpe Pressurized Fluidised-Bed Test Facility back-end valves: history and modification

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The pressure of the combustor freeboard is controlled by one of three back-end pressure control valves. The back-end valves are so called as they are situated at the back end of the exhaust gas system at the outlet of the main exhaust gas heat exchanger. In normal operation one of the valves is on pressure control duty, another on pressure relief duty, and the third is shut and available for operation on control or relief duty. These valves are subjected to a very arduous duty: temperatures of up to 350/sup 0/C to 375/sup 0/C with pressure drops of approximately 8 bar, and an estimated solids content of up to 400 ppM in the exhaust gases. Severe erosion on the valves seats, shafts, seals and upstream and downstream pipework has occurred and a large amount of remedial work has been carried out on the valves and adjacent pipework. This report describes the history of the valve erosion, the maintenance/remedial work carried out, and the steps being taken to attempt to solve the problem for future tests.

  1. Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.

    2012-01-01

    Climate models is a very broad topic, so a single volume can only offer a small sampling of relevant research activities. This volume of 14 chapters includes descriptions of a variety of modeling studies for a variety of geographic regions by an international roster of authors. The climate research community generally uses the rubric climate models to refer to organized sets of computer instructions that produce simulations of climate evolution. The code is based on physical relationships that describe the shared variability of meteorological parameters such as temperature, humidity, precipitation rate, circulation, radiation fluxes, etc. Three-dimensional climate models are integrated over time in order to compute the temporal and spatial variations of these parameters. Model domains can be global or regional and the horizontal and vertical resolutions of the computational grid vary from model to model. Considering the entire climate system requires accounting for interactions between solar insolation, atmospheric, oceanic and continental processes, the latter including land hydrology and vegetation. Model simulations may concentrate on one or more of these components, but the most sophisticated models will estimate the mutual interactions of all of these environments. Advances in computer technology have prompted investments in more complex model configurations that consider more phenomena interactions than were possible with yesterday s computers. However, not every attempt to add to the computational layers is rewarded by better model performance. Extensive research is required to test and document any advantages gained by greater sophistication in model formulation. One purpose for publishing climate model research results is to present purported advances for evaluation by the scientific community.

  2. Phenomenological models

    SciTech Connect

    Braby, L.A.

    1990-09-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation exposure are the result of a complex sequence of physical, chemical, biochemical, and physiological interactions. One way to begin a search for an understanding of health effects of radiation is through the development of phenomenological models of the response. Many models have been presented and tested in the slowly evolving process of characterizing cellular response. A range of models covering different endpoints and phenomena has developed in parallel. Many of these models employ similar assumptions about some underlying processes while differing about the nature of others. An attempt is made to organize many of the models into groups with similar features and to compare the consequences of those features with the actual experimental observations. It is assumed that by showing that some assumptions are inconsistent with experimental observations, the job of devising and testing mechanistic models can be simplified. 43 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Cloud Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Moncrieff, Mitchell; Einaud, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Numerical cloud models have been developed and applied extensively to study cloud-scale and mesoscale processes during the past four decades. The distinctive aspect of these cloud models is their ability to treat explicitly (or resolve) cloud-scale dynamics. This requires the cloud models to be formulated from the non-hydrostatic equations of motion that explicitly include the vertical acceleration terms since the vertical and horizontal scales of convection are similar. Such models are also necessary in order to allow gravity waves, such as those triggered by clouds, to be resolved explicitly. In contrast, the hydrostatic approximation, usually applied in global or regional models, does allow the presence of gravity waves. In addition, the availability of exponentially increasing computer capabilities has resulted in time integrations increasing from hours to days, domain grids boxes (points) increasing from less than 2000 to more than 2,500,000 grid points with 500 to 1000 m resolution, and 3-D models becoming increasingly prevalent. The cloud resolving model is now at a stage where it can provide reasonably accurate statistical information of the sub-grid, cloud-resolving processes poorly parameterized in climate models and numerical prediction models.

  4. Ventilation Model

    SciTech Connect

    V. Chipman

    2002-10-05

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. The purposes of Revision 01 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post

  5. Model Selection for Geostatistical Models

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Davis, Richard A.; Merton, Andrew A.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2006-02-01

    We consider the problem of model selection for geospatial data. Spatial correlation is typically ignored in the selection of explanatory variables and this can influence model selection results. For example, the inclusion or exclusion of particular explanatory variables may not be apparent when spatial correlation is ignored. To address this problem, we consider the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) as applied to a geostatistical model. We offer a heuristic derivation of the AIC in this context and provide simulation results that show that using AIC for a geostatistical model is superior to the often used approach of ignoring spatial correlation in the selection of explanatory variables. These ideas are further demonstrated via a model for lizard abundance. We also employ the principle of minimum description length (MDL) to variable selection for the geostatistical model. The effect of sampling design on the selection of explanatory covariates is also explored.

  6. Modeling Sunspots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Phil Seok; Oh, Sung Jin

    2013-01-01

    Modeling in science has been studied by education researchers for decades and is now being applied broadly in school. It is among the scientific practices featured in the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS") (Achieve Inc. 2013). This article describes modeling activities in an extracurricular science club in a high…

  7. Dispersion Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budiansky, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses the need for more accurate and complete input data and field verification of the various models of air pollutant dispension. Consideration should be given to changing the form of air quality standards based on enhanced dispersion modeling techniques. (Author/RE)

  8. Qualitative modeling.

    PubMed

    Forbus, Kenneth D

    2011-07-01

    Qualitative modeling concerns the representations and reasoning that people use to understand continuous aspects of the world. Qualitative models formalize everyday notions of causality and provide accounts of how to ground symbolic, relational representations in perceptual processes. This article surveys the basic ideas of qualitative modeling and their applications from a cognitive science perspective. It describes the basic principles of qualitative modeling, and a variety of qualitative representations that have been developed for quantities and for relationships between them, providing a kind of qualitative mathematics. Three ontological frameworks for organizing modeling knowledge (processes, components, and field) are summarized, along with research on automatically assembling models for particular tasks from such knowledge. Qualitative simulation and how it carves up time into meaningful units is discussed. We discuss several accounts of causal reasoning about dynamical systems, based on different choices of qualitative mathematics and ontology. Qualitative spatial reasoning is explored, both in terms of relational systems and visual reasoning. Applications of qualitative models of particular interest to cognitive scientists are described, including how they have been used to capture the expertise of scientists and engineers and how they have been used in education. Open questions and frontiers are also discussed, focusing on relationships between ideas developed in the qualitative modeling community and other areas of cognitive science. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 374-391 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.115 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Turbulence modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop, verify, and incorporate the baseline two-equation turbulence models which account for the effects of compressibility into the three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code and to provide documented descriptions of the models and their numerical procedures so that they can be implemented into 3-D CFD codes for engineering applications.

  10. Climate models and model evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, W.L.

    1994-12-31

    This brief overview addresses aspects of the nature, uses, evaluation and limitations of climate models. A comprehensive global modeling capability has been achieved only for the physical climate system, which is characterized by processes that serve to transport and exchange momentum, heat and moisture within and between the atmosphere, ocean and land surface. The fundamental aim of climate modeling, and the justification for the use of climate models, is the need to achieve a quantitative understanding of the operation of the climate system and to exploit any potential predictability that may exist.

  11. OSPREY Model

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J. Rutledge

    2013-01-01

    The absence of industrial scale nuclear fuel reprocessing in the U.S. has precluded the necessary driver for developing the advanced simulation capability now prevalent in so many other countries. Thus, it is essential to model complex series of unit operations to simulate, understand, and predict inherent transient behavior and feedback loops. A capability of accurately simulating the dynamic behavior of advanced fuel cycle separation processes will provide substantial cost savings and many technical benefits. The specific fuel cycle separation process discussed in this report is the off-gas treatment system. The off-gas separation consists of a series of scrubbers and adsorption beds to capture constituents of interest. Dynamic models are being developed to simulate each unit operation involved so each unit operation can be used as a stand-alone model and in series with multiple others. Currently, an adsorption model has been developed within Multi-physics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Off-gas Separation and REcoverY (OSPREY) models the adsorption of off-gas constituents for dispersed plug flow in a packed bed under non-isothermal and non-isobaric conditions. Inputs to the model include gas, sorbent, and column properties, equilibrium and kinetic data, and inlet conditions. The simulation outputs component concentrations along the column length as a function of time from which breakthrough data is obtained. The breakthrough data can be used to determine bed capacity, which in turn can be used to size columns. It also outputs temperature along the column length as a function of time and pressure drop along the column length. Experimental data and parameters were input into the adsorption model to develop models specific for krypton adsorption. The same can be done for iodine, xenon, and tritium. The model will be validated with experimental breakthrough curves. Customers will be given access to

  12. Model hydrographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, W.D.

    1972-01-01

    Model hydrographs are composed of pairs of dimensionless ratios, arrayed in tabular form, which, when modified by the appropriate values of rainfall exceed and by the time and areal characteristics of the drainage basin, satisfactorily represent the flood hydrograph for the basin. Model bydrographs are developed from a dimensionless translation hydrograph, having a time base of T hours and appropriately modified for storm duration by routing through reservoir storage, S=kOx. Models fall into two distinct classes: (1) those for which the value of x is unity and which have all the characteristics of true unit hydrographs and (2) those for which the value of x is other than unity and to which the unit-hydrograph principles of proportionality and superposition do not apply. Twenty-six families of linear models and eight families of nonlinear models in tabular form from the principal subject of this report. Supplemental discussions describe the development of the models and illustrate their application. Other sections of the report, supplemental to the tables, describe methods of determining the hydrograph characteristics, T, k, and x, both from observed hydrograph and from the physical characteristics of the drainage basin. Five illustrative examples of use show that the models, when properly converted to incorporate actual rainfall excess and the time and areal characteristics of the drainage basins, do indeed satisfactorily represent the observed flood hydrographs for the basins.

  13. Stereometric Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimaldi, P.

    2012-07-01

    These mandatory guidelines are provided for preparation of papers accepted for publication in the series of Volumes of The The stereometric modelling means modelling achieved with : - the use of a pair of virtual cameras, with parallel axes and positioned at a mutual distance average of 1/10 of the distance camera-object (in practice the realization and use of a stereometric camera in the modeling program); - the shot visualization in two distinct windows - the stereoscopic viewing of the shot while modelling. Since the definition of "3D vision" is inaccurately referred to as the simple perspective of an object, it is required to add the word stereo so that "3D stereo vision " shall stand for "three-dimensional view" and ,therefore, measure the width, height and depth of the surveyed image. Thanks to the development of a stereo metric model , either real or virtual, through the "materialization", either real or virtual, of the optical-stereo metric model made visible with a stereoscope. It is feasible a continuous on line updating of the cultural heritage with the help of photogrammetry and stereometric modelling. The catalogue of the Architectonic Photogrammetry Laboratory of Politecnico di Bari is available on line at: http://rappresentazione.stereofot.it:591/StereoFot/FMPro?-db=StereoFot.fp5&-lay=Scheda&-format=cerca.htm&-view

  14. A Model for Math Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tony; Erfan, Sasan

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an open-ended research subject where no definite answers exist for any problem. Math modeling enables thinking outside the box to connect different fields of studies together including statistics, algebra, calculus, matrices, programming and scientific writing. As an integral part of society, it is the foundation for many…

  15. Methane emissions from a temperate agricultural reservoir

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dr. Jake Beaulieu was invited to present at the 2014 Green House Gas Emission Modeling workshop hosted by the International Energy Agency (IEA) Hydropower Implementing Agreement for Hydropower Technologies and Programs (IAHTP). The purpose of this workshop is to assemble an int...

  16. Anchor Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia

    Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.

  17. Programming models

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, David J; Mc Pherson, Allen; Thorp, John R; Barrett, Richard; Clay, Robert; De Supinski, Bronis; Dube, Evi; Heroux, Mike; Janssen, Curtis; Langer, Steve; Laros, Jim

    2011-01-14

    A programming model is a set of software technologies that support the expression of algorithms and provide applications with an abstract representation of the capabilities of the underlying hardware architecture. The primary goals are productivity, portability and performance.

  18. Model Lungs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Emma

    1991-01-01

    A cheap and simple model that can be made and used by pupils to study the human breathing mechanism is presented. A list of needed materials, procedures for construction, possible refinements, and method of use are included. (KR)

  19. Micromolecular modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillet, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    A reaction kinetics based model of the photodegradation process, which measures all important rate constants, and a computerized model capable of predicting the photodegradation rate and failure modes of a 30 year period, were developed. It is shown that the computerized photodegradation model for polyethylene correctly predicts failure of ELVAX 15 and cross linked ELVAX 150 on outdoor exposure. It is indicated that cross linking ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) does not significantly change its degradation rate. It is shown that the effect of the stabilizer package is approximately equivalent on both polymers. The computerized model indicates that peroxide decomposers and UV absorbers are the most effective stabilizers. It is found that a combination of UV absorbers and a hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS) is the most effective stabilizer system.

  20. Environmental Modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's modeling community is working to gain insights into certain parts of a physical, biological, economic, or social system by conducting environmental assessments for Agency decision making to complex environmental issues.

  1. Energy Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Energy models characterize the energy system, its evolution, and its interactions with the broader economy. The energy system consists of primary resources, including both fossil fuels and renewables; power plants, refineries, and other technologies to process and convert these r...

  2. PREDICTIVE MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.M. )

    1986-12-01

    PREDICTIVE MODELS is a collection of five models - CFPM, CO2PM, ICPM, PFPM, and SFPM - used in the 1982-1984 National Petroleum Council study of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential. Each pertains to a specific EOR process designed to squeeze additional oil from aging or spent oil fields. The processes are: 1) chemical flooding, where soap-like surfactants are injected into the reservoir to wash out the oil; 2) carbon dioxide miscible flooding, where carbon dioxide mixes with the lighter hydrocarbons making the oil easier to displace; 3) in-situ combustion, which uses the heat from burning some of the underground oil to thin the product; 4) polymer flooding, where thick, cohesive material is pumped into a reservoir to push the oil through the underground rock; and 5) steamflood, where pressurized steam is injected underground to thin the oil. CFPM, the Chemical Flood Predictive Model, models micellar (surfactant)-polymer floods in reservoirs, which have been previously waterflooded to residual oil saturation. Thus, only true tertiary floods are considered. An option allows a rough estimate of oil recovery by caustic or caustic-polymer processes. CO2PM, the Carbon Dioxide miscible flooding Predictive Model, is applicable to both secondary (mobile oil) and tertiary (residual oil) floods, and to either continuous CO2 injection or water-alternating gas processes. ICPM, the In-situ Combustion Predictive Model, computes the recovery and profitability of an in-situ combustion project from generalized performance predictive algorithms. PFPM, the Polymer Flood Predictive Model, is switch-selectable for either polymer or waterflooding, and an option allows the calculation of the incremental oil recovery and economics of polymer relative to waterflooding. SFPM, the Steamflood Predictive Model, is applicable to the steam drive process, but not to cyclic steam injection (steam soak) processes.

  3. Model selection for geostatistical models.

    PubMed

    Hoeting, Jennifer A; Davis, Richard A; Merton, Andrew A; Thompson, Sandra E

    2006-02-01

    We consider the problem of model selection for geospatial data. Spatial correlation is often ignored in the selection of explanatory variables, and this can influence model selection results. For example, the importance of particular explanatory variables may not be apparent when spatial correlation is ignored. To address this problem, we consider the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) as applied to a geostatistical model. We offer a heuristic derivation of the AIC in this context and provide simulation results that show that using AIC for a geostatistical model is superior to the often-used traditional approach of ignoring spatial correlation in the selection of explanatory variables. These ideas are further demonstrated via a model for lizard abundance. We also apply the principle of minimum description length (MDL) to variable selection for the geostatistical model. The effect of sampling design on the selection of explanatory covariates is also explored. R software to implement the geostatistical model selection methods described in this paper is available in the Supplement.

  4. Scalable Models Using Model Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-13

    huge number of web documents. We have created a simplified demo using 5 worker machines in the Ptolemy II modeling and simulation environment [3], as...the pattern of the transformation rule matches any subgraph of the input model. When the TransformationRule actor is opened in the Ptolemy II GUI...tool developed in the Ptolemy II frame- work, existing tools include AGG [14], PROGRES [15], AToM3 [16], FUJABA [17], VIATRA2 [18], and GReAT [19

  5. Modeling reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    Although powerful computers have allowed complex physical and manmade hardware systems to be modeled successfully, we have encountered persistent problems with the reliability of computer models for systems involving human learning, human action, and human organizations. This is not a misfortune; unlike physical and manmade systems, human systems do not operate under a fixed set of laws. The rules governing the actions allowable in the system can be changed without warning at any moment, and can evolve over time. That the governing laws are inherently unpredictable raises serious questions about the reliability of models when applied to human situations. In these domains, computers are better used, not for prediction and planning, but for aiding humans. Examples are systems that help humans speculate about possible futures, offer advice about possible actions in a domain, systems that gather information from the networks, and systems that track and support work flows in organizations.

  6. Reflectance Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The overall goal of this work has been to develop a set of computational tools and media abstractions for the terrain bidirectional reflectance problem. The modeling of soil and vegetation surfaces has been emphasized with a gradual increase in the complexity of the media geometries treated. Pragmatic problems involved in the combined modeling of soil, vegetation, and atmospheric effects have been of interest and one of the objectives has been to describe the canopy reflectance problem in a classical radiative transfer sense permitting easier inclusion of our work by other workers in the radiative transfer field.

  7. Supernova models

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding the observed properties of Type I supernovae as a consequence of the thermonuclear detonation of white dwarf stars and the ensuing decay of the /sup 56/Ni produced therein is reviewed. Within the context of this model for Type I explosions and the 1978 model for Type II explosions, the expected nucleosynthesis and gamma-line spectra from both kinds of supernovae are presented. Finally, a qualitatively new approach to the problem of massive star death and Type II supernovae based upon a combination of rotation and thermonuclear burning is discussed.

  8. Ensemble Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ensemble forecasting has been used for operational numerical weather prediction in the United States and Europe since the early 1990s. An ensemble of weather or climate forecasts is used to characterize the two main sources of uncertainty in computer models of physical systems: ...

  9. Modeling Convection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, James R.; Elliott, Nancy A.; Hurteau, Laura; Schulz, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    Students must understand the fundamental process of convection before they can grasp a wide variety of Earth processes, many of which may seem abstract because of the scales on which they operate. Presentation of a very visual, concrete model prior to instruction on these topics may facilitate students' understanding of processes that are largely…

  10. Painting models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baart, F.; Donchyts, G.; van Dam, A.; Plieger, M.

    2015-12-01

    The emergence of interactive art has blurred the line between electronic, computer graphics and art. Here we apply this art form to numerical models. Here we show how the transformation of a numerical model into an interactive painting can both provide insights and solve real world problems. The cases that are used as an example include forensic reconstructions, dredging optimization, barrier design. The system can be fed using any source of time varying vector fields, such as hydrodynamic models. The cases used here, the Indian Ocean (HYCOM), the Wadden Sea (Delft3D Curvilinear), San Francisco Bay (3Di subgrid and Delft3D Flexible Mesh), show that the method used is suitable for different time and spatial scales. High resolution numerical models become interactive paintings by exchanging their velocity fields with a high resolution (>=1M cells) image based flow visualization that runs in a html5 compatible web browser. The image based flow visualization combines three images into a new image: the current image, a drawing, and a uv + mask field. The advection scheme that computes the resultant image is executed in the graphics card using WebGL, allowing for 1M grid cells at 60Hz performance on mediocre graphic cards. The software is provided as open source software. By using different sources for a drawing one can gain insight into several aspects of the velocity fields. These aspects include not only the commonly represented magnitude and direction, but also divergence, topology and turbulence .

  11. Entrepreneurship Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger Lakes Regional Education Center for Economic Development, Mount Morris, NY.

    This guide describes seven model programs that were developed by the Finger Lakes Regional Center for Economic Development (New York) to meet the training needs of female and minority entrepreneurs to help their businesses survive and grow and to assist disabled and dislocated workers and youth in beginning small businesses. The first three models…

  12. Why model?

    PubMed

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing technologies are bringing about a renaissance of mining approaches. A comprehensive picture of the genetic landscape of an individual patient will be useful, for example, to identify groups of patients that do or do not respond to certain therapies. The high expectations may however not be satisfied if the number of patient groups with similar characteristics is going to be very large. I therefore doubt that mining sequence data will give us an understanding of why and when therapies work. For understanding the mechanisms underlying diseases, an alternative approach is to model small networks in quantitative mechanistic detail, to elucidate the role of gene and proteins in dynamically changing the functioning of cells. Here an obvious critique is that these models consider too few components, compared to what might be relevant for any particular cell function. I show here that mining approaches and dynamical systems theory are two ends of a spectrum of methodologies to choose from. Drawing upon personal experience in numerous interdisciplinary collaborations, I provide guidance on how to model by discussing the question "Why model?"

  13. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  14. Atmospheric Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although air quality models have been applied historically to address issues specific to ambient air quality standards (i.e., one criteria pollutant at a time) or welfare (e.g.. acid deposition or visibility impairment). they are inherently multipollutant based. Therefore. in pri...

  15. Criticality Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality

  16. Modeling Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The molecule modeling method known as Multibody Order (N) Dynamics, or MBO(N)D, was developed by Moldyn, Inc. at Goddard Space Flight Center through funding provided by the SBIR program. The software can model the dynamics of molecules through technology which stimulates low-frequency molecular motions and properties, such as movements among a molecule's constituent parts. With MBO(N)D, a molecule is substructured into a set of interconnected rigid and flexible bodies. These bodies replace the computation burden of mapping individual atoms. Moldyn's technology cuts computation time while increasing accuracy. The MBO(N)D technology is available as Insight II 97.0 from Molecular Simulations, Inc. Currently the technology is used to account for forces on spacecraft parts and to perform molecular analyses for pharmaceutical purposes. It permits the solution of molecular dynamics problems on a moderate workstation, as opposed to on a supercomputer.

  17. Combustor Modelling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    three-dimensional gas turbine combustion chamber flows. ASME 23rd Int. Gas Turbine Conference. London (1978) 10). R.S. Reynolds, T.E. Kuhn & H.C. Mongia ... combustion data. 2 4 The concept of this global model approach is to trantform the TJI region in a physically compatible way that can be computationally...is also addressed.- ee a ot s um FUEL EFFECTS ON GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION : Fuel characteristics which are most likely to, affect the design- of future

  18. Nuclear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossión, Rubén

    2010-09-01

    The atomic nucleus is a typical example of a many-body problem. On the one hand, the number of nucleons (protons and neutrons) that constitute the nucleus is too large to allow for exact calculations. On the other hand, the number of constituent particles is too small for the individual nuclear excitation states to be explained by statistical methods. Another problem, particular for the atomic nucleus, is that the nucleon-nucleon (n-n) interaction is not one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and is hard to put in a single closed equation. The nucleon-nucleon interaction also behaves differently between two free nucleons (bare interaction) and between two nucleons in the nuclear medium (dressed interaction). Because of the above reasons, specific nuclear many-body models have been devised of which each one sheds light on some selected aspects of nuclear structure. Only combining the viewpoints of different models, a global insight of the atomic nucleus can be gained. In this chapter, we revise the the Nuclear Shell Model as an example of the microscopic approach, and the Collective Model as an example of the geometric approach. Finally, we study the statistical properties of nuclear spectra, basing on symmetry principles, to find out whether there is quantum chaos in the atomic nucleus. All three major approaches have been rewarded with the Nobel Prize of Physics. In the text, we will stress how each approach introduces its own series of approximations to reduce the prohibitingly large number of degrees of freedom of the full many-body problem to a smaller manageable number of effective degrees of freedom.

  19. Model checking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, David L.

    1995-01-01

    Automatic formal verification methods for finite-state systems, also known as model-checking, successfully reduce labor costs since they are mostly automatic. Model checkers explicitly or implicitly enumerate the reachable state space of a system, whose behavior is described implicitly, perhaps by a program or a collection of finite automata. Simple properties, such as mutual exclusion or absence of deadlock, can be checked by inspecting individual states. More complex properties, such as lack of starvation, require search for cycles in the state graph with particular properties. Specifications to be checked may consist of built-in properties, such as deadlock or 'unspecified receptions' of messages, another program or implicit description, to be compared with a simulation, bisimulation, or language inclusion relation, or an assertion in one of several temporal logics. Finite-state verification tools are beginning to have a significant impact in commercial designs. There are many success stories of verification tools finding bugs in protocols or hardware controllers. In some cases, these tools have been incorporated into design methodology. Research in finite-state verification has been advancing rapidly, and is showing no signs of slowing down. Recent results include probabilistic algorithms for verification, exploitation of symmetry and independent events, and the use symbolic representations for Boolean functions and systems of linear inequalities. One of the most exciting areas for further research is the combination of model-checking with theorem-proving methods.

  20. Modeling biomembranes.

    SciTech Connect

    Plimpton, Steven James; Heffernan, Julieanne; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Stevens, Mark Jackson; Frink, Laura J. Douglas

    2005-11-01

    Understanding the properties and behavior of biomembranes is fundamental to many biological processes and technologies. Microdomains in biomembranes or ''lipid rafts'' are now known to be an integral part of cell signaling, vesicle formation, fusion processes, protein trafficking, and viral and toxin infection processes. Understanding how microdomains form, how they depend on membrane constituents, and how they act not only has biological implications, but also will impact Sandia's effort in development of membranes that structurally adapt to their environment in a controlled manner. To provide such understanding, we created physically-based models of biomembranes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and classical density functional theory (DFT) calculations using these models were applied to phenomena such as microdomain formation, membrane fusion, pattern formation, and protein insertion. Because lipid dynamics and self-organization in membranes occur on length and time scales beyond atomistic MD, we used coarse-grained models of double tail lipid molecules that spontaneously self-assemble into bilayers. DFT provided equilibrium information on membrane structure. Experimental work was performed to further help elucidate the fundamental membrane organization principles.

  1. Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-06-01

    Molecular modeling has trickled down from the realm of pharmaceutical and research laboratories into the realm of undergraduate chemistry instruction. It has opened avenues for the visualization of chemical concepts that previously were difficult or impossible to convey. I am sure that many of you have developed exercises using the various molecular modeling tools. It is the desire of this Journal to become an avenue for you to share these exercises among your colleagues. It is to this end that Ron Starkey has agreed to edit such a column and to publish not only the description of such exercises, but also the software documents they use. The WWW is the obvious medium to distribute this combination and so accepted submissions will appear online as a feature of JCE Internet. Typical molecular modeling exercise: finding conformation energies. Molecular Modeling Exercises and Experiments is the latest feature column of JCE Internet, joining Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Hal's Picks, and Mathcad in the Chemistry Curriculum. JCE Internet continues to seek submissions in these areas of interest and submissions of general interest. If you have developed materials and would like to submit them, please see our Guide to Submissions for more information. The Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Equipment Buyers Guide, and WWW Site Review would also like to hear about chemistry textbooks and software, equipment, and WWW sites, respectively. Please consult JCE Internet Features to learn more about these resources at JCE Online. Email Announcements Would you like to be informed by email when the latest issue of the Journal is available online? when a new JCE Software title is shipping? when a new JCE Internet article has been published or is available for Open Review? when your subscription is about to expire? A new feature of JCE Online makes this possible. Visit our Guestbook to learn how. When

  2. 10. MOVABLE BED SEDIMENTATION MODELS. DOGTOOTH BEND MODEL (MODEL SCALE: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. MOVABLE BED SEDIMENTATION MODELS. DOGTOOTH BEND MODEL (MODEL SCALE: 1' = 400' HORIZONTAL, 1' = 100' VERTICAL), AND GREENVILLE BRIDGE MODEL (MODEL SCALE: 1' = 360' HORIZONTAL, 1' = 100' VERTICAL). - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  3. Students' Models of Curve Fitting: A Models and Modeling Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Shweta

    2010-01-01

    The Models and Modeling Perspectives (MMP) has evolved out of research that began 26 years ago. MMP researchers use Model Eliciting Activities (MEAs) to elicit students' mental models. In this study MMP was used as the conceptual framework to investigate the nature of students' models of curve fitting in a problem-solving environment consisting of…

  4. Biomimetic modelling.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Julian F V

    2003-01-01

    Biomimetics is seen as a path from biology to engineering. The only path from engineering to biology in current use is the application of engineering concepts and models to biological systems. However, there is another pathway: the verification of biological mechanisms by manufacture, leading to an iterative process between biology and engineering in which the new understanding that the engineering implementation of a biological system can bring is fed back into biology, allowing a more complete and certain understanding and the possibility of further revelations for application in engineering. This is a pathway as yet unformalized, and one that offers the possibility that engineers can also be scientists. PMID:14561351

  5. Pre-Modeling Ensures Accurate Solid Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, George

    2010-01-01

    Successful solid modeling requires a well-organized design tree. The design tree is a list of all the object's features and the sequential order in which they are modeled. The solid-modeling process is faster and less prone to modeling errors when the design tree is a simple and geometrically logical definition of the modeled object. Few high…

  6. Modeling metrology for calibration of OPC models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Chris A.; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Sturtevant, John; Deng, Yunfei; Zuniga, Christian; Adam, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) has continually improved in accuracy over the years by adding more physically based models. Here, we further extend OPC modeling by adding the Analytical Linescan Model (ALM) to account for systematic biases in CD-SEM metrology. The ALM was added to a conventional OPC model calibration flow and the accuracy of the calibrated model with the ALM was compared to the standard model without the ALM using validation data. Without using any adjustable parameters in the ALM, OPC validation accuracy was improved by 5%. While very preliminary, these results give hope that modeling metrology could be an important next step in OPC model improvement.

  7. Building Mental Models by Dissecting Physical Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Anveshna

    2016-01-01

    When students build physical models from prefabricated components to learn about model systems, there is an implicit trade-off between the physical degrees of freedom in building the model and the intensity of instructor supervision needed. Models that are too flexible, permitting multiple possible constructions require greater supervision to…

  8. I&C Modeling in SPAR Models

    SciTech Connect

    John A. Schroeder

    2012-06-01

    The Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models for the U.S. commercial nuclear power plants currently have very limited instrumentation and control (I&C) modeling [1]. Most of the I&C components in the operating plant SPAR models are related to the reactor protection system. This was identified as a finding during the industry peer review of SPAR models. While the Emergency Safeguard Features (ESF) actuation and control system was incorporated into the Peach Bottom Unit 2 SPAR model in a recent effort [2], various approaches to expend resources for detailed I&C modeling in other SPAR models are investigated.

  9. Engineering Structurally Configurable Models with Model Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-15

    model in the case of Simulink, and a dataflow model in the case of LabVIEW). Research modeling tools such as Ptolemy II [14], ForSyDe [21], SPEX [30...functionality of our model transformation tool built in the Ptolemy II framework, and its application to large models of distributed and parallel embedded...in Ptolemy II, the same idea can be applied to other modeling tools such as Simulink, LabVIEW, ForSyDe, SPEX and ModHel’X. Moreover, the recent OMG

  10. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios. PMID:23412687

  11. Air Quality Dispersion Modeling - Alternative Models

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Models, not listed in Appendix W, that can be used in regulatory applications with case-by-case justification to the Reviewing Authority as noted in Section 3.2, Use of Alternative Models, in Appendix W.

  12. Uncertainty Modeling Via Frequency Domain Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1999-01-01

    Abstract The majority of literature on robust control assumes that a design model is available and that the uncertainty model bounds the actual variations about the nominal model. However, methods for generating accurate design models have not received as much attention in the literature. The influence of the level of accuracy of the uncertainty model on closed loop performance has received even less attention. The research reported herein is an initial step in applying and extending the concept of model validation to the problem of obtaining practical uncertainty models for robust control analysis and design applications. An extension of model validation called 'sequential validation' is presented and applied to a simple spring-mass-damper system to establish the feasibility of the approach and demonstrate the benefits of the new developments.

  13. Model selection for logistic regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duller, Christine

    2012-09-01

    Model selection for logistic regression models decides which of some given potential regressors have an effect and hence should be included in the final model. The second interesting question is whether a certain factor is heterogeneous among some subsets, i.e. whether the model should include a random intercept or not. In this paper these questions will be answered with classical as well as with Bayesian methods. The application show some results of recent research projects in medicine and business administration.

  14. "Bohr's Atomic Model."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willden, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  15. Bohr model as an algebraic collective model

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, D. J.; Welsh, T. A.; Caprio, M. A.

    2009-05-15

    Developments and applications are presented of an algebraic version of Bohr's collective model. Illustrative examples show that fully converged calculations can be performed quickly and easily for a large range of Hamiltonians. As a result, the Bohr model becomes an effective tool in the analysis of experimental data. The examples are chosen both to confirm the reliability of the algebraic collective model and to show the diversity of results that can be obtained by its use. The focus of the paper is to facilitate identification of the limitations of the Bohr model with a view to developing more realistic, computationally tractable models.

  16. Building mental models by dissecting physical models.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anveshna

    2016-01-01

    When students build physical models from prefabricated components to learn about model systems, there is an implicit trade-off between the physical degrees of freedom in building the model and the intensity of instructor supervision needed. Models that are too flexible, permitting multiple possible constructions require greater supervision to ensure focused learning; models that are too constrained require less supervision, but can be constructed mechanically, with little to no conceptual engagement. We propose "model-dissection" as an alternative to "model-building," whereby instructors could make efficient use of supervisory resources, while simultaneously promoting focused learning. We report empirical results from a study conducted with biology undergraduate students, where we demonstrate that asking them to "dissect" out specific conceptual structures from an already built 3D physical model leads to a significant improvement in performance than asking them to build the 3D model from simpler components. Using questionnaires to measure understanding both before and after model-based interventions for two cohorts of students, we find that both the "builders" and the "dissectors" improve in the post-test, but it is the latter group who show statistically significant improvement. These results, in addition to the intrinsic time-efficiency of "model dissection," suggest that it could be a valuable pedagogical tool.

  17. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  18. Photochemical Modeling Applications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides access to modeling applications involving photochemical models, including modeling of ozone, particulate matter (PM), and mercury for national and regional EPA regulations such as the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule

  19. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  20. Orbital Debris Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation outlne: (1) The NASA Orbital Debris (OD) Engineering Model -- A mathematical model capable of predicting OD impact risks for the ISS and other critical space assets (2) The NASA OD Evolutionary Model -- A physical model capable of predicting future debris environment based on user-specified scenarios (3) The NASA Standard Satellite Breakup Model -- A model describing the outcome of a satellite breakup (explosion or collision)

  1. Continuous system modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cellier, Francois E.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.

  2. Regularized Structural Equation Modeling.

    PubMed

    Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J; McArdle, John J

    A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM's utility.

  3. ROCK PROPERTIES MODEL ANALYSIS MODEL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton Lum

    2002-02-04

    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) is to document Rock Properties Model (RPM) 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties models are intended principally for use as input to numerical physical-process modeling, such as of ground-water flow and/or radionuclide transport. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. This work was conducted in accordance with the following planning documents: WA-0344, ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1998'' (SNL 1997, WA-0358), ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1999'' (SNL 1999), and the technical development plan, Rock Properties Model Version 3.1, (CRWMS M&O 1999c). The Interim Change Notice (ICNs), ICN 02 and ICN 03, of this AMR were prepared as part of activities being conducted under the Technical Work Plan, TWP-NBS-GS-000003, ''Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model, Process Model Report, Revision 01'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The purpose of ICN 03 is to record changes in data input status due to data qualification and verification activities. These work plans describe the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and implementing procedures for model construction. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The work scope for this activity consists of the following: (1) Conversion of the input data (laboratory measured porosity data, x-ray diffraction mineralogy, petrophysical calculations of bound water, and petrophysical calculations of porosity) for each borehole into stratigraphic coordinates; (2) Re-sampling and merging of data sets; (3) Development of geostatistical simulations of porosity; (4

  4. Model Reduction of Viscoelastic Finite Element Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C. H.; Inman, D. J.; Lam, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines a method of adding viscoelastic properties to finite element models by using additional co-ordinates to account for the frequency dependence usually associated with such damping materials. Several such methods exist and all suffer from an increase in order of the final finite model which is undesirable in many applications. Here we propose to combine one of these methods, the GHM (Golla-Hughes-McTavish) method, with model reduction techniques to remove the objection of increased model order. The result of combining several methods is an ability to add the effects of visoelastic components to finite element or other analytical models without increasing the order of the system. The procedure is illustrated by a numerical example. The method proposed here results in a viscoelastic finite element of a structure without increasing the order of the original model.

  5. Neurometric Modeling: Computational Modeling of Individual Brains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-16

    Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Neural networks, computational neuroscience, fMRI ...obtained using functional MRI. Algorithmic processing of these measurements can exploit a variety of statistical machine learning methods to... statistical machine learning methods to synthesize a new kind of neuro-cognitive model, which we call neurometric models. These executable models could be

  6. Better models are more effectively connected models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bielders, Charles; Darboux, Frederic; Fiener, Peter; Finger, David; Turnbull-Lloyd, Laura; Wainwright, John

    2016-04-01

    The concept of hydrologic and geomorphologic connectivity describes the processes and pathways which link sources (e.g. rainfall, snow and ice melt, springs, eroded areas and barren lands) to accumulation areas (e.g. foot slopes, streams, aquifers, reservoirs), and the spatial variations thereof. There are many examples of hydrological and sediment connectivity on a watershed scale; in consequence, a process-based understanding of connectivity is crucial to help managers understand their systems and adopt adequate measures for flood prevention, pollution mitigation and soil protection, among others. Modelling is often used as a tool to understand and predict fluxes within a catchment by complementing observations with model results. Catchment models should therefore be able to reproduce the linkages, and thus the connectivity of water and sediment fluxes within the systems under simulation. In modelling, a high level of spatial and temporal detail is desirable to ensure taking into account a maximum number of components, which then enables connectivity to emerge from the simulated structures and functions. However, computational constraints and, in many cases, lack of data prevent the representation of all relevant processes and spatial/temporal variability in most models. In most cases, therefore, the level of detail selected for modelling is too coarse to represent the system in a way in which connectivity can emerge; a problem which can be circumvented by representing fine-scale structures and processes within coarser scale models using a variety of approaches. This poster focuses on the results of ongoing discussions on modelling connectivity held during several workshops within COST Action Connecteur. It assesses the current state of the art of incorporating the concept of connectivity in hydrological and sediment models, as well as the attitudes of modellers towards this issue. The discussion will focus on the different approaches through which connectivity

  7. Biosphere Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-10-27

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), the TSPA-LA. The ERMYN model provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs), the reference biosphere, the human receptor, and assumptions (Section 6.2 and Section 6.3); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN model compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN model by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); and (8) Validating the ERMYN model by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  8. Biosphere Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Wu

    2003-07-16

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), the TSPA-LA. The ERMYN model provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs), the reference biosphere, the human receptor, and assumptions (Section 6.2 and Section 6.3); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN model compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN model by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); and (8) Validating the ERMYN model by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  9. Qualitative Student Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clancey, William J.

    The concept of a qualitative model is used as the focus of this review of qualitative student models in order to compare alternative computational models and to contrast domain requirements. The report is divided into eight sections: (1) Origins and Goals (adaptive instruction, qualitative models of processes, components of an artificial…

  10. Models for Ammunition Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    Analysis Operations Research Management Models Mobilization Planning Computer Programming Ammunition Management Economic Analysis Production Planning...ammunition managers on a unique set of nine modern computer models specifically developed to support the conventional ammunition management decision...DECISION MODELS DIRECTORATE ROCK ISLAND, ILLINOIS 61201 r ABSTRACT This special management report presents a unique set of nine computer models

  11. Generative Models of Disfluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes a generative model for representing disfluent phenomena in human speech. This model makes use of observed syntactic structure present in disfluent speech, and uses a right-corner transform on syntax trees to model this structure in a very natural way. Specifically, the phenomenon of speech repair is modeled by explicitly…

  12. Multimodeling and Model Abstraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The multiplicity of models of the same process or phenomenon is the commonplace in environmental modeling. Last 10 years brought marked interest to making use of the variety of conceptual approaches instead of attempting to find the best model or using a single preferred model. Two systematic approa...

  13. Biomass Scenario Model

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique, carefully validated, state-of-the-art dynamic model of the domestic biofuels supply chain which explicitly focuses on policy issues, their feasibility, and potential side effects. It integrates resource availability, physical/technological/economic constraints, behavior, and policy. The model uses a system dynamics simulation (not optimization) to model dynamic interactions across the supply chain.

  14. The Instrumental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Devin Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to enable better predictive models by engaging raw experimental data through the Instrumental Model. The Instrumental Model captures the protocols and procedures of experimental data analysis. The approach is formalized by encoding the Instrumental Model in an XML record. Decoupling the raw experimental data from…

  15. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  16. Findings from IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the Fourth and Eighth Grades. TIMSS 2003 International Science Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael O.; Mullis, Ina V.S.; Gonzalez, Eugenio J.; Chrostowski, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 is the third in a continuing cycle of international mathematics and science assessments conducted every four years. TIMSS assesses achievement in countries around the world and collects a rich array of information about the educational contexts for learning mathematics and…

  17. TIMSS 2003 International Mathematics Report: Findings from IEA's Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study at the Fourth and Eighth Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ina V. S.; Martin, Michael O.; Gonzalez, Eugenio J.; Chrostowski, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2003 is the most recent in a very ambitious series of international assessments conducted in nearly 50 countries to measure trends in mathematics and science learning. The aim of TIMSS, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, is to improve the teaching and…

  18. Results of the IEA Round Robin on Viscosity and Aging of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils: Long-Term Tests and Repeatability

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Oasmaa, Anja; Meier, Dietrich; Preto, Fernando; Bridgwater, Anthony V.

    2012-11-06

    An international round robin study of the viscosity and aging of fast pyrolysis bio-oil has been undertaken recently and this work is an outgrowth from that effort. Two bio-oil samples were distributed to the laboratories for aging tests and extended viscosity studies. The accelerated aging test was defined as the change in viscosity of a sealed sample of bio-oil held for 24 h at 80 °C. The test was repeated 10 times over consecutive days to determine the repeatability of the method. Other bio-oil samples were placed in storage at three temperatures, 21 °C, 4 °C and -17 °C for a period up to a year to evaluate the change in viscosity. The variation in the results of the aging test was shown to be low within a given laboratory. Storage of bio-oil under refrigeration can minimize the amount of change in viscosity. The accelerated aging test gives a measure of change similar to that of 6-12 months of storage at room temperature. These results can be helpful in setting standards for use of bio-oil, which is just coming into the marketplace.

  19. The Context of Teaching and Learning. Report on the First Phase of the IEA Classroom Environment Study. ACER Research Monograph No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordham, Adrian M.

    This publication describes the first phase of the Classroom Environment: Teaching for Learning Study in Australia, a six-year international research effort to identify correlations between teaching practices and student achievement. The report's first chapter presents a resume of the study and reviews research findings on managerial and…

  20. Policy, Practice, and Readiness to Teach Primary and Secondary Mathematics in 17 Countries: Findings from the IEA Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M-M)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatto, Maria Teresa; Peck, Ray; Schwille, John; Bankov, Kiril; Senk, Sharon L.; Rodriguez, Michael; Ingvarson, Lawrence; Reckase, Mark; Rowley, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    The Teacher Education Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M) 2008 is the first cross-national study to provide data on the knowledge that future primary and lower-secondary school teachers acquire during their mathematics teacher education. It is also the first major study to examine variations in the nature and influence of teacher education programs…

  1. 'Ergonomics in the Nordic European countries--a historical perspective': paper presented at IEA 2000/HFES 2000 Congress. International Ergonomics Association.

    PubMed

    Ivergård, T; Landstad, B

    2000-11-01

    The Nordic Ergonomic Society was founded more than 30 years ago to represent Sweden, Finland, Norway and Denmark. Recently Iceland has also been included. The Nordic Ergonomics Society has, to a large extent, traditionally been oriented towards work in the area of physiology, and a large number of its members have backgrounds within such areas as work physiology, physiotherapy and rehabilitation. However, from its inception the society has had members who are experienced within, such fields as work psychology, design, engineering and occupational health and safety. Over the last decade we have also had new members from such areas as work sociology, organizational psychology, leadership, training, information technology and cybernetics. Members have been concerned mainly with the application and practice of ergonomics. The number of members involved in research has also increased over the years. The principal areas of application for such research have been within industry and government.

  2. What Does Democracy Mean to 14-Year-Old Turkish Children? A Comparison with Results of the 1999 IEA Civic Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doganay, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The scores of Turkish students on the international tests such as TIMMS and PISA, which assess basic science concepts, reading and problem-solving abilities, are among the lowest. Although understanding the concept of democracy has been studied across the countries, it has not been clearly researched in Turkey. For this reason, the focus of this…

  3. Trust in Government-Related Institutions and Civic Engagement among Adolescents: Analysis of Five Countries from the IEA Civic Education Study. CIRCLE Working Paper 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith; Richardson, Wendy Klandl; Barber, Carolyn Henry

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine different facets of trust in the political system or civic realm and how they are correlated to the expected civic or political engagement of young people. The nature and effects of trust in social and political institutions have been studied in adults, distinguishing between various types of trust (in…

  4. A Multicenter Phase II Study of Local Radiation Therapy for Stage IEA Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: A Preliminary Report From the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG)

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, Koichi Kagami, Yoshikazu; Higuchi, Keiko; Kodaira, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Shikama, Naoto; Nakazawa, Masanori; Fukuda, Ichiro; Nihei, Keiji; Ito, Kana; Teshima, Teruki; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Oguchi, Masahiko

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of moderate dose radiation therapy (RT) for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in a prospective multicenter phase II trial. Methods and Materials: The subjects in this study were 37 patients with MALT lymphoma between April 2002 and November 2004. There were 16 male and 21 female patients, ranging in age from 24 to 82 years, with a median of 56 years. The primary tumor originated in the orbit in 24 patients, in the thyroid and salivary gland in 4 patients each, and 5 in the others. The median tumor dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6-39.6 Gy), depending on the primary site and maximal tumor diameter. The median follow-up was 37.3 months. Results: Complete remission (CR) or CR/unconfirmed was achieved in 34 patients (92%). The 3-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control probability were 100%, 91.9%, and 97.3%, respectively. Thirteen patients experienced Grade 1 acute toxicities including dermatitis, mucositis, and conjunctivitis. One patient developed Grade 2 taste loss. Regarding late toxicities, Grade 2 reactions including hypothyroidism, and radiation pneumonitis were observed in three patients, and Grade 3 cataract was seen in three patients. Conclusions: This prospective phase II study demonstrated that moderate dose RT was highly effective in achieving local control with acceptable morbidity in 37 patients with MALT lymphoma.

  5. Renewable Electricity Grid Integration Roadmap for Mexico. Supplement to the IEA Expert Group Report on Recommended Practices for Wind Integration Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Brian; Cochran, Jaquelin; Watson, Andrea; Katz, Jessica; Bracho, Ricardo

    2015-08-19

    As a recognized leader in efforts to mitigate global climate change, the Government of Mexico (GOM) works proactively to reduce emissions, demonstrating strong political will and capacity to comprehensively address climate change. Since 2010, the U.S. government (USG) has supported these efforts by partnering with Mexico under the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program. Through the program, the USG has partnered with Mexico’s Ministry of Energy (SENER), as well as other government agencies, to support GOM in reaching its clean energy and climate change goals. Specifically, the EC-LEDS program is supporting GOM’s clean energy goal of generating 35% of its electricity from renewable energy (RE) by 2024. EC-LEDS, through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the U.S Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has been collaborating with SENER and GOM interagency working group—the Consejo Consultivo para las Energías Renovables (Consultative Council on Renewable Energy)—to create a grid integration roadmap for variable RE. 1 A key objective in creating a grid integration roadmap is assessing likely impacts of wind and solar energy on the power system and modifying planning and operations accordingly. This paper applies best practices in conducting a grid integration study to the Mexican context.

  6. International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 40 — Sustainable International Energy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand -- Country Report 2009 for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Richard Nelson; Carl Wolf

    2009-06-01

    This report outlines the status of U.S. biomass resources currently and future potentials for domestic and export markets of residues, energy crops, and woody resources. Includes energy and fuel production and consumption statistics, driving policies, targets, and government investment in bioenergy industry development.

  7. International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 40 — Sustainable International Energy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand -- Country Report 2010 for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Jacob J. Jacobson; Richard Nelson; Carl Wolf

    2011-12-01

    This report updates the status of U.S. biomass resources currently and future potentials for domestic and export markets of residues, energy crops, and woody resources. Includes energy and fuel production and consumption statistics, driving policies, targets, and government investment in bioenergy industry development.

  8. Talk about toy models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luczak, Joshua

    2017-02-01

    Scientific models are frequently discussed in philosophy of science. A great deal of the discussion is centred on approximation, idealisation, and on how these models achieve their representational function. Despite the importance, distinct nature, and high presence of toy models, they have received little attention from philosophers. This paper hopes to remedy this situation. It aims to elevate the status of toy models: by distinguishing them from approximations and idealisations, by highlighting and elaborating on several ways the Kac ring, a simple statistical mechanical model, is used as a toy model, and by explaining why toy models can be used to successfully carry out important work without performing a representational function.

  9. Equivalent Dynamic Models.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, Peter C M

    2017-02-16

    Equivalences of two classes of dynamic models for weakly stationary multivariate time series are discussed: dynamic factor models and autoregressive models. It is shown that exploratory dynamic factor models can be rotated, yielding an infinite set of equivalent solutions for any observed series. It also is shown that dynamic factor models with lagged factor loadings are not equivalent to the currently popular state-space models, and that restriction of attention to the latter type of models may yield invalid results. The known equivalent vector autoregressive model types, standard and structural, are given a new interpretation in which they are conceived of as the extremes of an innovating type of hybrid vector autoregressive models. It is shown that consideration of hybrid models solves many problems, in particular with Granger causality testing.

  10. Knowledge and information modeling.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * commonly used modelling methods what they represent * the importance of selecting the tools and methods suited to the health information system being designed * how the quality of the information or knowledge model is determined by the quality of the system requirements specification * differentiating between the purpose of information models and knowledge models * the benefits of the openEHR approach for health care data modeling.

  11. Introduction to Adjoint Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Errico, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    In this lecture, some fundamentals of adjoint models will be described. This includes a basic derivation of tangent linear and corresponding adjoint models from a parent nonlinear model, the interpretation of adjoint-derived sensitivity fields, a description of methods of automatic differentiation, and the use of adjoint models to solve various optimization problems, including singular vectors. Concluding remarks will attempt to correct common misconceptions about adjoint models and their utilization.

  12. Stable models of superacceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplinghat, Manoj; Rajaraman, Arvind

    2007-05-15

    We discuss an instability in a large class of models where dark energy is coupled to matter. In these models the mass of the scalar field is much larger than the expansion rate of the Universe. We find models in which this instability is absent, and show that these models generically predict an apparent equation of state for dark energy smaller than -1, i.e., superacceleration. These models have no acausal behavior or ghosts.

  13. WASP TRANSPORT MODELING AND WASP ECOLOGICAL MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combination of lectures, demonstrations, and hands-on excercises will be used to introduce pollutant transport modeling with the U.S. EPA's general water quality model, WASP (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program). WASP features include a user-friendly Windows-based interfa...

  14. Model Shrinkage for Discriminative Language Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Takanobu; Hori, Takaaki; Nakamura, Atsushi; Ito, Akinori

    This paper describes a technique for overcoming the model shrinkage problem in automatic speech recognition (ASR), which allows application developers and users to control the model size with less degradation of accuracy. Recently, models for ASR systems tend to be large and this can constitute a bottleneck for developers and users without special knowledge of ASR with respect to introducing the ASR function. Specifically, discriminative language models (DLMs) are usually designed in a high-dimensional parameter space, although DLMs have gained increasing attention as an approach for improving recognition accuracy. Our proposed method can be applied to linear models including DLMs, in which the score of an input sample is given by the inner product of its features and the model parameters, but our proposed method can shrink models in an easy computation by obtaining simple statistics, which are square sums of feature values appearing in a data set. Our experimental results show that our proposed method can shrink a DLM with little degradation in accuracy and perform properly whether or not the data for obtaining the statistics are the same as the data for training the model.

  15. Geochemistry Model Validation Report: External Accumulation Model

    SciTech Connect

    K. Zarrabi

    2001-09-27

    The purpose of this Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR) is to validate the External Accumulation Model that predicts accumulation of fissile materials in fractures and lithophysae in the rock beneath a degrading waste package (WP) in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. (Lithophysae are voids in the rock having concentric shells of finely crystalline alkali feldspar, quartz, and other materials that were formed due to entrapped gas that later escaped, DOE 1998, p. A-25.) The intended use of this model is to estimate the quantities of external accumulation of fissile material for use in external criticality risk assessments for different types of degrading WPs: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed with High Level Waste (HLW) glass, commercial SNF, and Immobilized Plutonium Ceramic (Pu-ceramic) codisposed with HLW glass. The scope of the model validation is to (1) describe the model and the parameters used to develop the model, (2) provide rationale for selection of the parameters by comparisons with measured values, and (3) demonstrate that the parameters chosen are the most conservative selection for external criticality risk calculations. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a Pu-ceramic WP is used as an example. The model begins with a source term from separately documented EQ6 calculations; where the source term is defined as the composition versus time of the water flowing out of a breached waste package (WP). Next, PHREEQC, is used to simulate the transport and interaction of the source term with the resident water and fractured tuff below the repository. In these simulations the primary mechanism for accumulation is mixing of the high pH, actinide-laden source term with resident water; thus lowering the pH values sufficiently for fissile minerals to become insoluble and precipitate. In the final section of the model, the outputs from PHREEQC, are processed to produce mass of accumulation

  16. Analysis and recommendations for DPA calculations in SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1998-09-01

    Recent modeling results, coupled with the implications of available experimental results, provide sufficient information to achieve consensus on the values of threshold displacement energies to use in displacements per atom (DPA) calculations. The values recommended here, 20 eV for C and 35 eV for Si, will be presented for adoption by the international fusion materials community at the next IEA SiC/SiC workshop.

  17. Defining elements of sustainable work systems--a system-oriented approach.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Klaus; Zink, Klaus J

    2012-01-01

    Based on a system-theoretic discussion of sustainability, this paper aims to develop a conceptual model of a sustainable work system which is consistent with the definition of ergonomics by the IEA in 2000 (but also with earlier definitions) as well as with the triple bottom line understanding of sustainable development - comprising the management of human, social, ecological and economic capital in a balanced manner.

  18. Model Validation Status Review

    SciTech Connect

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  19. Trapped Radiation Model Uncertainties: Model-Data and Model-Model Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    The standard AP8 and AE8 models for predicting trapped proton and electron environments have been compared with several sets of flight data to evaluate model uncertainties. Model comparisons are made with flux and dose measurements made on various U.S. low-Earth orbit satellites (APEX, CRRES, DMSP, LDEF, NOAA) and Space Shuttle flights, on Russian satellites (Photon-8, Cosmos-1887, Cosmos-2044), and on the Russian Mir Space Station. This report gives the details of the model-data comparisons-summary results in terms of empirical model uncertainty factors that can be applied for spacecraft design applications are given in a combination report. The results of model-model comparisons are also presented from standard AP8 and AE8 model predictions compared with the European Space Agency versions of AP8 and AE8 and with Russian-trapped radiation models.

  20. Trapped Radiation Model Uncertainties: Model-Data and Model-Model Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    The standard AP8 and AE8 models for predicting trapped proton and electron environments have been compared with several sets of flight data to evaluate model uncertainties. Model comparisons are made with flux and dose measurements made on various U.S. low-Earth orbit satellites (APEX, CRRES, DMSP. LDEF, NOAA) and Space Shuttle flights, on Russian satellites (Photon-8, Cosmos-1887, Cosmos-2044), and on the Russian Mir space station. This report gives the details of the model-data comparisons -- summary results in terms of empirical model uncertainty factors that can be applied for spacecraft design applications are given in a companion report. The results of model-model comparisons are also presented from standard AP8 and AE8 model predictions compared with the European Space Agency versions of AP8 and AE8 and with Russian trapped radiation models.

  1. Multiple model inference.

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Laura Painton; Urbina, Angel

    2010-07-01

    This paper compares three approaches for model selection: classical least squares methods, information theoretic criteria, and Bayesian approaches. Least squares methods are not model selection methods although one can select the model that yields the smallest sum-of-squared error function. Information theoretic approaches balance overfitting with model accuracy by incorporating terms that penalize more parameters with a log-likelihood term to reflect goodness of fit. Bayesian model selection involves calculating the posterior probability that each model is correct, given experimental data and prior probabilities that each model is correct. As part of this calculation, one often calibrates the parameters of each model and this is included in the Bayesian calculations. Our approach is demonstrated on a structural dynamics example with models for energy dissipation and peak force across a bolted joint. The three approaches are compared and the influence of the log-likelihood term in all approaches is discussed.

  2. Modeling nonstationary longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Antón, V; Zimmerman, D L

    2000-09-01

    An important theme of longitudinal data analysis in the past two decades has been the development and use of explicit parametric models for the data's variance-covariance structure. A variety of these models have been proposed, of which most are second-order stationary. A few are flexible enough to accommodate nonstationarity, i.e., nonconstant variances and/or correlations that are not a function solely of elapsed time between measurements. We review five nonstationary models that we regard as most useful: (1) the unstructured covariance model, (2) unstructured antedependence models, (3) structured antedependence models, (4) autoregressive integrated moving average and similar models, and (5) random coefficients models. We evaluate the relative strengths and limitations of each model, emphasizing when it is inappropriate or unlikely to be useful. We present three examples to illustrate the fitting and comparison of the models and to demonstrate that nonstationary longitudinal data can be modeled effectively and, in some cases, quite parsimoniously. In these examples, the antedependence models generally prove to be superior and the random coefficients models prove to be inferior. We conclude that antedependence models should be given much greater consideration than they have historically received.

  3. Modeling volatility using state space models.

    PubMed

    Timmer, J; Weigend, A S

    1997-08-01

    In time series problems, noise can be divided into two categories: dynamic noise which drives the process, and observational noise which is added in the measurement process, but does not influence future values of the system. In this framework, we show that empirical volatilities (the squared relative returns of prices) exhibit a significant amount of observational noise. To model and predict their time evolution adequately, we estimate state space models that explicitly include observational noise. We obtain relaxation times for shocks in the logarithm of volatility ranging from three weeks (for foreign exchange) to three to five months (for stock indices). In most cases, a two-dimensional hidden state is required to yield residuals that are consistent with white noise. We compare these results with ordinary autoregressive models (without a hidden state) and find that autoregressive models underestimate the relaxation times by about two orders of magnitude since they do not distinguish between observational and dynamic noise. This new interpretation of the dynamics of volatility in terms of relaxators in a state space model carries over to stochastic volatility models and to GARCH models, and is useful for several problems in finance, including risk management and the pricing of derivative securities. Data sets used: Olsen & Associates high frequency DEM/USD foreign exchange rates (8 years). Nikkei 225 index (40 years). Dow Jones Industrial Average (25 years).

  4. Reliability model generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMann, Catherine M. (Inventor); Cohen, Gerald C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved method and system for automatically generating reliability models for use with a reliability evaluation tool is described. The reliability model generator of the present invention includes means for storing a plurality of low level reliability models which represent the reliability characteristics for low level system components. In addition, the present invention includes means for defining the interconnection of the low level reliability models via a system architecture description. In accordance with the principles of the present invention, a reliability model for the entire system is automatically generated by aggregating the low level reliability models based on the system architecture description.

  5. Energy-consumption modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    A highly sophisticated and accurate approach is described to compute on an hourly or daily basis the energy consumption for space heating by individual buildings, urban sectors, and whole cities. The need for models and specifically weather-sensitive models, composite models, and space-heating models are discussed. Development of the Colorado State University Model, based on heat-transfer equations and on a heuristic, adaptive, self-organizing computation learning approach, is described. Results of modeling energy consumption by the city of Minneapolis and Cheyenne are given. Some data on energy consumption in individual buildings are included.

  6. Modeling Guru: Knowledge Base for NASA Modelers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seablom, M. S.; Wojcik, G. S.; van Aartsen, B. H.

    2009-05-01

    Modeling Guru is an on-line knowledge-sharing resource for anyone involved with or interested in NASA's scientific models or High End Computing (HEC) systems. Developed and maintained by the NASA's Software Integration and Visualization Office (SIVO) and the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS), Modeling Guru's combined forums and knowledge base for research and collaboration is becoming a repository for the accumulated expertise of NASA's scientific modeling and HEC communities. All NASA modelers and associates are encouraged to participate and provide knowledge about the models and systems so that other users may benefit from their experience. Modeling Guru is divided into a hierarchy of communities, each with its own set forums and knowledge base documents. Current modeling communities include those for space science, land and atmospheric dynamics, atmospheric chemistry, and oceanography. In addition, there are communities focused on NCCS systems, HEC tools and libraries, and programming and scripting languages. Anyone may view most of the content on Modeling Guru (available at http://modelingguru.nasa.gov/), but you must log in to post messages and subscribe to community postings. The site offers a full range of "Web 2.0" features, including discussion forums, "wiki" document generation, document uploading, RSS feeds, search tools, blogs, email notification, and "breadcrumb" links. A discussion (a.k.a. forum "thread") is used to post comments, solicit feedback, or ask questions. If marked as a question, SIVO will monitor the thread, and normally respond within a day. Discussions can include embedded images, tables, and formatting through the use of the Rich Text Editor. Also, the user can add "Tags" to their thread to facilitate later searches. The "knowledge base" is comprised of documents that are used to capture and share expertise with others. The default "wiki" document lets users edit within the browser so others can easily collaborate on the

  7. A future of the model organism model

    PubMed Central

    Rine, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    Changes in technology are fundamentally reframing our concept of what constitutes a model organism. Nevertheless, research advances in the more traditional model organisms have enabled fresh and exciting opportunities for young scientists to establish new careers and offer the hope of comprehensive understanding of fundamental processes in life. New advances in translational research can be expected to heighten the importance of basic research in model organisms and expand opportunities. However, researchers must take special care and implement new resources to enable the newest members of the community to engage fully with the remarkable legacy of information in these fields. PMID:24577733

  8. Monitoring an Experimental Reactor Using the Group Method of Data Handling Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez Goncalves, Iraci Martinez; Ting, Daniel K.S.; Ferreira, Paulo Brasko; Upadhyaya, Belle R

    2005-01-15

    This paper presents a reactor-monitoring algorithm using the group method of data handling (GMDH) that creates nonlinear algebraic models for system characterization. The monitoring system was applied to the IEA-R1 experimental reactor at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN). The IEA-R1 is a 5-MW pool-type research reactor that uses light water as coolant and moderator and graphite as reflector. The GMDH provides a general framework for characterizing the relationships among a set of state variables of a process system and is used for generating estimates of critical variables in an optimal data-driven model form. The monitoring system developed in this work was used to predict the IEA-R1 reactor environment, using nuclear power, rod position, and coolant temperatures, by combining two variables at a time. The results obtained using the GMDH models agreed very well with the dose rate measurements, with prediction errors of less than 5%. The error was minimal when the dose rate prediction was made using reactor power and coolant temperature.

  9. Biosphere Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    D.W. Wu; A.J. Smith

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), TSPA-LA. The ERMYN provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs) (Section 6.2), the reference biosphere (Section 6.1.1), the human receptor (Section 6.1.2), and approximations (Sections 6.3.1.4 and 6.3.2.4); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model (Section 6.3) and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); (8) Validating the ERMYN by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  10. Develop a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ensey, Tyler S.

    2013-01-01

    During my internship at NASA, I was a model developer for Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The purpose of a model developer is to develop and unit test model component libraries (fluid, electrical, gas, etc.). The models are designed to simulate software for GSE (Ground Special Power, Crew Access Arm, Cryo, Fire and Leak Detection System, Environmental Control System (ECS), etc. .) before they are implemented into hardware. These models support verifying local control and remote software for End-Item Software Under Test (SUT). The model simulates the physical behavior (function, state, limits and 110) of each end-item and it's dependencies as defined in the Subsystem Interface Table, Software Requirements & Design Specification (SRDS), Ground Integrated Schematic (GIS), and System Mechanical Schematic.(SMS). The software of each specific model component is simulated through MATLAB's Simulink program. The intensiv model development life cycle is a.s follows: Identify source documents; identify model scope; update schedule; preliminary design review; develop model requirements; update model.. scope; update schedule; detailed design review; create/modify library component; implement library components reference; implement subsystem components; develop a test script; run the test script; develop users guide; send model out for peer review; the model is sent out for verifictionlvalidation; if there is empirical data, a validation data package is generated; if there is not empirical data, a verification package is generated; the test results are then reviewed; and finally, the user. requests accreditation, and a statement of accreditation is prepared. Once each component model is reviewed and approved, they are intertwined together into one integrated model. This integrated model is then tested itself, through a test script and autotest, so that it can be concluded that all models work conjointly, for a single purpose. The component I was assigned, specifically, was a

  11. Aerosol Modeling for the Global Model Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisenstein, Debra K.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an aerosol module to be used within the framework of the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI). The model development work will be preformed jointly by the University of Michigan and AER, using existing aerosol models at the two institutions as starting points. The GMI aerosol model will be tested, evaluated against observations, and then applied to assessment of the effects of aircraft sulfur emissions as needed by the NASA Subsonic Assessment in 2001. The work includes the following tasks: 1. Implementation of the sulfur cycle within GMI, including sources, sinks, and aqueous conversion of sulfur. Aerosol modules will be added as they are developed and the GMI schedule permits. 2. Addition of aerosol types other than sulfate particles, including dust, soot, organic carbon, and black carbon. 3. Development of new and more efficient parameterizations for treating sulfate aerosol nucleation, condensation, and coagulation among different particle sizes and types.

  12. Nonlinear Modeling by Assembling Piecewise Linear Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Weigang; Liou, Meng-Sing

    2013-01-01

    To preserve nonlinearity of a full order system over a parameters range of interest, we propose a simple modeling approach by assembling a set of piecewise local solutions, including the first-order Taylor series terms expanded about some sampling states. The work by Rewienski and White inspired our use of piecewise linear local solutions. The assembly of these local approximations is accomplished by assigning nonlinear weights, through radial basis functions in this study. The efficacy of the proposed procedure is validated for a two-dimensional airfoil moving at different Mach numbers and pitching motions, under which the flow exhibits prominent nonlinear behaviors. All results confirm that our nonlinear model is accurate and stable for predicting not only aerodynamic forces but also detailed flowfields. Moreover, the model is robustness-accurate for inputs considerably different from the base trajectory in form and magnitude. This modeling preserves nonlinearity of the problems considered in a rather simple and accurate manner.

  13. Aggregation in ecosystem models and model stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giricheva, Evgeniya

    2015-05-01

    Using a multimodal approach to research ecosystems improves usage of available information on an object. This study presents several models of the Bering Sea ecosystem. The ecosystem is considered as a closed object, that is, the influence of the environment is not provided. We then add the links with the external medium in the models. The models differ in terms of the degree and method of grouping components. Our method is based on the differences in habitat and food source of groups, which allows us to determine the grouping of species with a greater effect on system dynamics. In particular, we determine whether benthic fish aggregation or pelagic fish aggregation can change the consumption structure of some groups of species, and consequently, the behavior of the entire model system.

  14. Onset of plasticity of helium-implanted ferritic/martensitic steels during nanoindentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Siwei; Wang, Yongming; Hashimoto, Naoyuki; Ohnuki, Somei

    2014-07-01

    The onset of plasticity during nanoindentation is a new method to investigate the irradiation damage of structural materials in fission and fusion reactors. In this paper, nanoindentation experiment was carried out to helium implanted F82H-IEA and nano-sized oxide dispersion strengthened F82H-ODS steels for studying the elastic-plastic transition at a constant loading rate. The onset of plasticity shifted after helium implantation. By a statistical thermal activation model, activation volume was extracted to discuss the strength of barrier for dislocation motion. The results reveal an increase in the pinning force and number density of effective obstacles for dislocation motion in He-implanted F82H-IEA, and a decrease in the local pinning force without changing the density of effective obstacles in He-implanted F82H-ODS.

  15. PREDICTIVE MODELS. Enhanced Oil Recovery Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.M.

    1992-02-26

    PREDICTIVE MODELS is a collection of five models - CFPM, CO2PM, ICPM, PFPM, and SFPM - used in the 1982-1984 National Petroleum Council study of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) potential. Each pertains to a specific EOR process designed to squeeze additional oil from aging or spent oil fields. The processes are: 1 chemical flooding, where soap-like surfactants are injected into the reservoir to wash out the oil; 2 carbon dioxide miscible flooding, where carbon dioxide mixes with the lighter hydrocarbons making the oil easier to displace; 3 in-situ combustion, which uses the heat from burning some of the underground oil to thin the product; 4 polymer flooding, where thick, cohesive material is pumped into a reservoir to push the oil through the underground rock; and 5 steamflood, where pressurized steam is injected underground to thin the oil. CFPM, the Chemical Flood Predictive Model, models micellar (surfactant)-polymer floods in reservoirs, which have been previously waterflooded to residual oil saturation. Thus, only true tertiary floods are considered. An option allows a rough estimate of oil recovery by caustic or caustic-polymer processes. CO2PM, the Carbon Dioxide miscible flooding Predictive Model, is applicable to both secondary (mobile oil) and tertiary (residual oil) floods, and to either continuous CO2 injection or water-alternating gas processes. ICPM, the In-situ Combustion Predictive Model, computes the recovery and profitability of an in-situ combustion project from generalized performance predictive algorithms. PFPM, the Polymer Flood Predictive Model, is switch-selectable for either polymer or waterflooding, and an option allows the calculation of the incremental oil recovery and economics of polymer relative to waterflooding. SFPM, the Steamflood Predictive Model, is applicable to the steam drive process, but not to cyclic steam injection (steam soak) processes.

  16. Of Molecules and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinner, Bonnie

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which models help students visualize both the DNA process and transcription. After constructing DNA, RNA messenger, and RNA transfer molecules; students model cells, protein synthesis, codons, and RNA movement. (MDH)

  17. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  18. Mass modeling for bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1987-01-01

    Methods of modeling mass for bars are surveyed. A method for extending John Archer's concept of consistent mass beyond just translational inertia effects is included. Recommendations are given for various types of modeling situations.

  19. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit is a toolkit of 5 EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication materials, that can be used as a teaching tool and a quick reference resource when making GI implementation decisions.

  20. X-33 RCS model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Model support system and instumentation cabling of the 1% scale X-33 reaction control system model. Installed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel for supersonic testing. In building 1251, test section #2.

  1. SEDIMENT GEOCHEMICAL MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Until recently, sediment geochemical models (diagenetic models) have been only able to explain sedimentary flux and concentration profiles for a few simplified geochemical cycles (e.g., nitrogen, carbon and sulfur). However with advances in numerical methods, increased accuracy ...

  2. Modeling EERE deployment programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, K. A.; Hostick, D. J.; Belzer, D. B.; Livingston, O. V.

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge for future research.

  3. The Model Builders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video explores the world of modeling at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Artisans create models, large and small, to help scientists and engineers make final design modifications before building more costly prototypes.

  4. Model comparison in ANOVA.

    PubMed

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Engelhardt, Christopher R; McCabe, Simon; Morey, Richard D

    2016-12-01

    Analysis of variance (ANOVA), the workhorse analysis of experimental designs, consists of F-tests of main effects and interactions. Yet, testing, including traditional ANOVA, has been recently critiqued on a number of theoretical and practical grounds. In light of these critiques, model comparison and model selection serve as an attractive alternative. Model comparison differs from testing in that one can support a null or nested model vis-a-vis a more general alternative by penalizing more flexible models. We argue this ability to support more simple models allows for more nuanced theoretical conclusions than provided by traditional ANOVA F-tests. We provide a model comparison strategy and show how ANOVA models may be reparameterized to better address substantive questions in data analysis.

  5. Protein solubility modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Consistent model driven architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  7. Ginocchio model with isospin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okai, Tadashi; Otsuka, Takaharu; Arima, Akito

    1992-02-01

    We study the sp(8) subgroup of the isospin-invariant Ginnocchio model. The allowed quantum numbers are determined in terms of Young's diagrams. Using this result, we discuss the excitation energy of a model hamiltonian.

  8. Modeling DNA Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  9. Bounding species distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Esaias, W.E.; Morisette, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used. ?? 2011 Current Zoology.

  10. Modelling pelagic biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Donald B.; Hood, Raleigh R.

    Various combinations of physical and biological models are used to explore factors that determine the distribution of organisms in the world's oceans. The physical models examined include simple box models with parameterized inter-box exchanges that take into account variable box geometries, and specified continuous flows either in the Eulerian frame as stream-functions or as Lagrangian trajectories. A 1-dimensional mixed-layer model and a primitive equation channel model are introduced as examples of dynamical models depicting ocean physics. Biological models are discussed starting with a simple nitrogen (N), phytoplankton (P), zooplankton (Z) and detritus (D), NPZD formulation. The equilibria of this model is explored analytically as an example of computing steady state solutions, and then considering where in parameter space extinction occurs. Nonlinearities and expansion of NPZD to multi-species models are also treated. This is followed by the introduction of a nonlinear three-component food chain model, multi-species Lotka-Voltera competition models, and finally a discussion of structured population models including a derivation of a genetics model written in terms of genotypes. The physical models are then coupled with the biological ones in a series of examples. Both the box model with Lotka-Voltera multi-species population dynamics, and the 1-dimensional mixed-layer model with NPZD are used to demonstrate how the existence of spatial and temporal niches can allow a large number of species to coexist within biogeographic domains even though conditions at most sites and times are not conducive to supporting such diversity. These models recreate the basic diversity patterns observed in the pelagic ecosystem at various latitudes. The box model simulations also demonstrate the tendency for diffusive models to overestimate the dispersion of a species. In order to explore the dynamics of the edges of biogeographic domains a three species food chain model is

  11. Hierarchical Bass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashiro, Tohru

    2014-03-01

    We propose a new model about diffusion of a product which includes a memory of how many adopters or advertisements a non-adopter met, where (non-)adopters mean people (not) possessing the product. This effect is lacking in the Bass model. As an application, we utilize the model to fit the iPod sales data, and so the better agreement is obtained than the Bass model.

  12. Methodology for Stochastic Modeling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    AD-AISS 851 METHODOLOGY FOR STOCHASTIC MODELING(U) ARMY MATERIEL 11 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS ACTIYITY ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD H E COHEN JAN 95 RNSAA-TR-41...FORM T REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’$ CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Methodology for...autoregression models, moving average models, ARMA, adaptive modeling, covariance methods , singular value decom- position, order determination rational

  13. Reinforced Concrete Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    AFWL-TR-82-9 AFWL-TR-82-9 REINFORCED CONCRETE MODELING H. L. Schreyer J. W. Jeter, Jr. New Mexico Engineering Reseprch Institute University of New...Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED REINFORCED CONCRETE MODELING Final Report 6. PERFORMING OtG. REPORT NUMBER NMERI TA8-9 7. AUTHORg) S...loading were identified and used to evaluate current concrete models . Since the endochronic and viscoplastic models provide satisfactory descriptions

  14. Atmospheric density models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    An atmospheric model developed by Jacchia, quite accurate but requiring a large amount of computer storage and execution time, was found to be ill-suited for the space shuttle onboard program. The development of a simple atmospheric density model to simulate the Jacchia model was studied. Required characteristics including variation with solar activity, diurnal variation, variation with geomagnetic activity, semiannual variation, and variation with height were met by the new atmospheric density model.

  15. Soil moisture modeling review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildreth, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    A determination of the state of the art in soil moisture transport modeling based on physical or physiological principles was made. It was found that soil moisture models based on physical principles have been under development for more than 10 years. However, these models were shown to represent infiltration and redistribution of soil moisture quite well. Evapotranspiration has not been as adequately incorporated into the models.

  16. Model Engineering using Multimodeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-16

    given as a Statecharts model, and interprets it as a hierarchical multimodel. We then show an equivalent model constructed with Ptolemy II [13] that...That work followed on Ptolemy Classic [9], which provided a software architecture supporting a general form of hierarchical multimodeling. In [9...Colif [10]. This approach does not segregate distinct models of computation hierarchically. Ptolemy Classic [9] also illustrated multi-view modeling

  17. Mathematical circulatory system model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakin, William D. (Inventor); Stevens, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method of modeling a circulatory system including a regulatory mechanism parameter. In one embodiment, a regulatory mechanism parameter in a lumped parameter model is represented as a logistic function. In another embodiment, the circulatory system model includes a compliant vessel, the model having a parameter representing a change in pressure due to contraction of smooth muscles of a wall of the vessel.

  18. Future of groundwater modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langevin, Christian D.; Panday, Sorab

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing need to better manage water resources, the future of groundwater modeling is bright and exciting. However, while the past can be described and the present is known, the future of groundwater modeling, just like a groundwater model result, is highly uncertain and any prediction is probably not going to be entirely representative. Thus we acknowledge this as we present our vision of where groundwater modeling may be headed.

  19. Surface complexation modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adsorption-desorption reactions are important processes that affect the transport of contaminants in the environment. Surface complexation models are chemical models that can account for the effects of variable chemical conditions, such as pH, on adsorption reactions. These models define specific ...

  20. Rock Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    C. Lum

    2004-09-16

    The purpose of this model report is to document the Rock Properties Model version 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties model provides mean matrix and lithophysae porosity, and the cross-correlated mean bulk density as direct input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021, REV 02 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.6 and 8.2. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7. The revision of this model report was performed as part of activities being conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan for: The Integrated Site Model, Revision 05'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169635]). The purpose of this revision is to bring the report up to current procedural requirements and address the Regulatory Integration Team evaluation comments. The work plan describes the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and procedures for this process.

  1. General Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    This paper describes the graded response model. The graded response model represents a family of mathematical models that deal with ordered polytomous categories, such as: (1) letter grading; (2) an attitude survey with "strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree" choices; (3) partial credit given in accord with an…

  2. Models, Norms and Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.

    To investigate the effect of modeling on altruism, 156 third and fifth grade children were exposed to a model who either shared with them, gave to a charity, or refused to share. The test apparatus, identified as a game, consisted of a box with signal lights and a chute through which marbles were dispensed. Subjects and the model played the game…

  3. Designing cyclic universe models.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Justin; Steinhardt, Paul J; Turok, Neil

    2004-01-23

    The phenomenological constraints on the scalar field potential in cyclic models of the Universe are presented. We show that cyclic models require a comparable degree of tuning to that needed for inflationary models. The constraints are reduced to a set of simple design rules including "fast-roll" parameters analogous to the "slow-roll" parameters in inflation.

  4. Modelling Vocabulary Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meara, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes some simple simulation models of vocabulary attrition. The attrition process is modelled using a random autonomous Boolean network model, and some parallels with real attrition data are drawn. The paper argues that applying a complex systems approach to attrition can provide some important insights, which suggest that real…

  5. Open Source Molecular Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Pirhadi, Somayeh; Sunseri, Jocelyn; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The success of molecular modeling and computational chemistry efforts are, by definition, dependent on quality software applications. Open source software development provides many advantages to users of modeling applications, not the least of which is that the software is free and completely extendable. In this review we categorize, enumerate, and describe available open source software packages for molecular modeling and computational chemistry. PMID:27631126

  6. A Model Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Bradley D.; Smalley, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Building information modeling (BIM) uses three-dimensional modeling concepts, information technology and interoperable software to design, construct and operate a facility. However, BIM can be more than a tool for virtual modeling--it can provide schools with a 3-D walkthrough of a project while it still is on the electronic drawing board. BIM can…

  7. Modeling EERE Deployment Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, K. A.; Hostick, D. J.; Belzer, D. B.; Livingston, O. V.

    2007-11-01

    This report compiles information and conclusions gathered as part of the “Modeling EERE Deployment Programs” project. The purpose of the project was to identify and characterize the modeling of deployment programs within the EERE Technology Development (TD) programs, address possible improvements to the modeling process, and note gaps in knowledge in which future research is needed.

  8. Modeling Applications and Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Air Quality Modeling Group (AQMG) conducts modeling analyses to support policy and regulatory decisions in OAR and provides leadership and direction on the full range of air quality models and other mathematical simulation techniques used in

  9. Model Rockets and Microchips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    Points out the instructional applications and program possibilities of a unit on model rocketry. Describes the ways that microcomputers can assist in model rocket design and in problem calculations. Provides a descriptive listing of model rocket software for the Apple II microcomputer. (ML)

  10. IR DIAL performance modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sharlemann, E.T.

    1994-07-01

    We are developing a DIAL performance model for CALIOPE at LLNL. The intent of the model is to provide quick and interactive parameter sensitivity calculations with immediate graphical output. A brief overview of the features of the performance model is given, along with an example of performance calculations for a non-CALIOPE application.

  11. Modeling and Remodeling Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, John R.

    2012-01-01

    In Section 1 of this article, the author discusses the succession of models of adult writing that he and his colleagues have proposed from 1980 to the present. He notes the most important changes that differentiate earlier and later models and discusses reasons for the changes. In Section 2, he describes his recent efforts to model young…

  12. Campus Energy Modeling Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Sides, Scott; Kemper, Travis; Larsen, Ross; Graf, Peter

    2014-09-19

    NREL's Campus Energy Modeling project provides a suite of simulation tools for integrated, data driven energy modeling of commercial buildings and campuses using Simulink. The tools enable development of fully interconnected models for commercial campus energy infrastructure, including electrical distribution systems, district heating and cooling, onsite generation (both conventional and renewable), building loads, energy storage, and control systems.

  13. Modeling Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogiages, Christopher A.; Lotter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In their research, scientists generate, test, and modify scientific models. These models can be shared with others and demonstrate a scientist's understanding of how the natural world works. Similarly, students can generate and modify models to gain a better understanding of the content, process, and nature of science (Kenyon, Schwarz, and Hug…

  14. Groves model accuracy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Matthew C.

    1991-08-01

    The United States Air Force Environmental Technical Applications Center (USAFETAC) was tasked to review the scientific literature for studies of the Groves Neutral Density Climatology Model and compare the Groves Model with others in the 30-60 km range. The tasking included a request to investigate the merits of comparing accuracy of the Groves Model to rocketsonde data. USAFETAC analysts found the Groves Model to be state of the art for middle-atmospheric climatological models. In reviewing previous comparisons with other models and with space shuttle-derived atmospheric densities, good density vs altitude agreement was found in almost all cases. A simple technique involving comparison of the model with range reference atmospheres was found to be the most economical way to compare the Groves Model with rocketsonde data; an example of this type is provided. The Groves 85 Model is used routinely in USAFETAC's Improved Point Analysis Model (IPAM). To create this model, Dr. Gerald Vann Groves produced tabulations of atmospheric density based on data derived from satellite observations and modified by rocketsonde observations. Neutral Density as presented here refers to the monthly mean density in 10-degree latitude bands as a function of altitude. The Groves 85 Model zonal mean density tabulations are given in their entirety.

  15. The Accreditation Plus Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Jerry B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Accreditation Plus model developed by the Center for Teacher Education Evaluation of Tennessee Technological University (Cookeville) for evaluation of teacher education programs is described. An amalgamation of the accreditation model and use-tailored evaluation plans, the model calls for informed eclecticism in the assembly of evaluation…

  16. Improved analytic nutation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, C. F.; Ivins, E. R.

    1988-01-01

    Models describing the earth's nutations are discussed. It is found that the simple model of Sasao et al., (1981) differs from Wahr's (1981) theory term by term by less than 0.3 marcsec if a modern earth structure model is used to evaluate the nutation structure constants. In addition, the effect of oceans is estimated.

  17. Modeling Climate Dynamically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jim; McGehee, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A dynamical systems approach to energy balance models of climate is presented, focusing on low order, or conceptual, models. Included are global average and latitude-dependent, surface temperature models. The development and analysis of the differential equations and corresponding bifurcation diagrams provides a host of appropriate material for…

  18. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  19. Modern Media Education Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The author supposed that media education models can be divided into the following groups: (1) educational-information models (the study of the theory, history, language of media culture, etc.), based on the cultural, aesthetic, semiotic, socio-cultural theories of media education; (2) educational-ethical models (the study of moral, religions,…

  20. Models and Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Kenneth C.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the definition, construction, and interpretation of social indicators. Shows how standard classes of formalisms used to construct models in contemporary sociology are derived from the general theory of models. Reviews recent model building and evaluation related to active life expectancy among the elderly, fertility rates, and indicators…

  1. Generalized Latent Trait Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moustaki, Irini; Knott, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a general model framework within which manifest variables with different distributions in the exponential family can be analyzed with a latent trait model. Presents a unified maximum likelihood method for estimating the parameters of the generalized latent trait model and discusses the scoring of individuals on the latent dimensions.…

  2. Molecular Models in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Richard E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes types of molecular models (ball-and-stick, framework, and space-filling) and evaluates commercially available kits. Gives instructions for constructive models from polystyrene balls and pipe-cleaners. Models are useful for class demonstrations although not sufficiently accurate for research use. Illustrations show biologically important…

  3. A Model Chemistry Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerlin, Lee; Borgford, Christie

    1989-01-01

    Described is an activity which uses a 96-well reaction plate and soda straws to construct a model of the periodic table of the elements. The model illustrates the ionization energies of the various elements. Construction of the model and related concepts are discussed. (CW)

  4. Models for Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speiser, Bob; Walter, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how models can support productive thinking. For us a model is a "thing", a tool to help make sense of something. We restrict attention to specific models for whole-number multiplication, hence the wording of the title. They support evolving thinking in large measure through the ways their users redesign them. They assume new…

  5. Advances in Watershed Models and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, G. T.; Zhang, F.

    2015-12-01

    The development of watershed models and their applications to real-world problems has evolved significantly since 1960's. Watershed models can be classified based on what media are included, what processes are dealt with, and what approaches are taken. In term of media, a watershed may include segregated overland regime, river-canal-open channel networks, ponds-reservoirs-small lakes, and subsurface media. It may also include integrated media of all these or a partial set of these as well as man-made control structures. In term of processes, a watershed model may deal with coupled or decoupled hydrological and biogeochemical cycles. These processes include fluid flow, thermal transport, salinity transport, sediment transport, reactive transport, and biota and microbe kinetics. In terms of approaches, either parametric or physics-based approach can be taken. This talk discusses the evolution of watershed models in the past sixty years. The advances of watershed models center around their increasing design capability to foster these segregated or integrated media and coupled or decoupled processes. Widely used models developed by academia, research institutes, government agencies, and private industries will be reviewed in terms of the media and processes included as well as approaches taken. Many types of potential benchmark problems in general can be proposed and will be discussed. This presentation will focus on three benchmark problems of biogeochemical cycles. These three problems, dealing with water quality transport, will be formulated in terms of reactive transport. Simulation results will be illustrated using WASH123D, a watershed model developed and continuously updated by the author and his PhD graduates. Keywords: Hydrological Cycles, Biogeochemical Cycles, Biota Kinetics, Parametric Approach, Physics-based Approach, Reactive Transport.

  6. Transgenesis for pig models

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Soo-Young; Yoon, Ki-Young; Lee, Choong-Il; Lee, Byeong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Animal models, particularly pigs, have come to play an important role in translational biomedical research. There have been many pig models with genetically modifications via somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). However, because most transgenic pigs have been produced by random integration to date, the necessity for more exact gene-mutated models using recombinase based conditional gene expression like mice has been raised. Currently, advanced genome-editing technologies enable us to generate specific gene-deleted and -inserted pig models. In the future, the development of pig models with gene editing technologies could be a valuable resource for biomedical research. PMID:27030199

  7. UZ Colloid Transport Model

    SciTech Connect

    M. McGraw

    2000-04-13

    The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations.

  8. Mathematical modeling in neuroendocrinology.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Mathematical models are commonly used in neuroscience, both as tools for integrating data and as devices for designing new experiments that test model predictions. The wide range of relevant spatial and temporal scales in the neuroendocrine system makes neuroendocrinology a branch of neuroscience with great potential for modeling. This article provides an overview of concepts that are useful for understanding mathematical models of the neuroendocrine system, as well as design principles that have been illuminated through the use of mathematical models. These principles are found over and over again in cellular dynamics, and serve as building blocks for understanding some of the complex temporal dynamics that are exhibited throughout the neuroendocrine system.

  9. Models of Goldstone gauginos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Daniele S. M.; Galloway, Jamison; McCullough, Matthew; Weiner, Neal

    2016-04-01

    Models with Dirac gauginos are appealing scenarios for physics beyond the Standard Model. They have smaller radiative corrections to scalar soft masses, a suppression of certain supersymmetry (SUSY) production processes at the LHC, and ameliorated flavor constraints. Unfortunately, they are generically plagued by tachyons charged under the Standard Model, and attempts to eliminate such states typically spoil the positive features. The recently proposed "Goldstone gaugino" mechanism provides a simple realization of Dirac gauginos that is automatically free of dangerous tachyonic states. We provide details on this mechanism and explore models for its origin. In particular, we find SUSY QCD models that realize this idea simply and discuss scenarios for unification.

  10. Mechanics of materials model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meister, Jeffrey P.

    1987-01-01

    The Mechanics of Materials Model (MOMM) is a three-dimensional inelastic structural analysis code for use as an early design stage tool for hot section components. MOMM is a stiffness method finite element code that uses a network of beams to characterize component behavior. The MOMM contains three material models to account for inelastic material behavior. These include the simplified material model, which assumes a bilinear stress-strain response; the state-of-the-art model, which utilizes the classical elastic-plastic-creep strain decomposition; and Walker's viscoplastic model, which accounts for the interaction between creep and plasticity that occurs under cyclic loading conditions.

  11. Laser Range Camera Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Storjohann, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an imaging model that was derived for use with a laser range camera (LRC) developed by the Advanced Intelligent Machines Division of Odetics. However, this model could be applied to any comparable imaging system. Both the derivation of the model and the determination of the LRC's intrinsic parameters are explained. For the purpose of evaluating the LRC's extrinsic parameters, i.e., its external orientation, a transformation of the LRC's imaging model into a standard camera's (SC) pinhole model is derived. By virtue of this transformation, the evaluation of the LRC's external orientation can be found by applying any SC calibration technique.

  12. The FREZCHEM Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, Giles M.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.

    Implementation of the Pitzer approach is through the FREZCHEM (FREEZING CHEMISTRY) model, which is at the core of this work. This model was originally designed to simulate salt chemistries and freezing processes at low temperatures (-54 to 25°C) and 1 atm pressure. Over the years, this model has been broadened to include more chemistries (from 16 to 58 solid phases), a broader temperature range for some chemistries (to 113°C), and incorporation of a pressure dependence (1 to 1000 bars) into the model. Implementation, parameterization, validation, and limitations of the FREZCHEM model are extensively discussed in Chapter 3.

  13. Models of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Arthur E.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a theory of models of the universe is proposed. We refer to such models ascosmological models, where a cosmological model is defined as an Einstein-inextendible Einstein spacetime. A cosmological model isabsolute if it is a Lorentz-inextendible Einstein spacetime,predictive if it is globally hyperbolic, andnon-predictive if it is nonglobally-hyperbolic. We discuss several features of these models in the study of cosmology. As an example, any compact Einstein spacetime is always a non-predictive absolute cosmological model, whereas a noncompact complete Einstein spacetime is an absolute cosmological model which may be either predictive or non-predictive. We discuss the important role played by maximal Einstein spacetimes. In particular, we examine the possible proper Lorentz-extensions of such spacetimes, and show that a spatially compact maximal Einstein spacetime is exclusively either a predictive cosmological model or a proper sub-spacetime of a non-predictive cosmological model. Provided that the Strong Cosmic Censorship conjecture is true, a generic spatially compact maximal Einstein spacetime must be a predictive cosmological model. It isconjectured that the Strong Cosmic Censorship conjecture isnot true, and converting a vice to a virtue it is argued that the failure of the Strong Cosmic Censorship conjecture would point to what may be general relativity's greatest prediction of all, namely,that general relativity predicts that general relativity cannot predict the entire history of the universe.

  14. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  15. Distributed fuzzy system modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrycz, W.; Chi Fung Lam, P.; Rocha, A.F.

    1995-05-01

    The paper introduces and studies an idea of distributed modeling treating it as a new paradigm of fuzzy system modeling and analysis. This form of modeling is oriented towards developing individual (local) fuzzy models for specific modeling landmarks (expressed as fuzzy sets) and determining the essential logical relationships between these local models. The models themselves are implemented in the form of logic processors being regarded as specialized fuzzy neural networks. The interaction between the processors is developed either in an inhibitory or excitatory way. In more descriptive way, the distributed model can be sought as a collection of fuzzy finite state machines with their individual local first or higher order memories. It is also clarified how the concept of distributed modeling narrows down a gap between purely numerical (quantitative) models and the qualitative ones originated within the realm of Artificial Intelligence. The overall architecture of distributed modeling is discussed along with the detailed learning schemes. The results of extensive simulation experiments are provided as well. 17 refs.

  16. Horizontal model fusion paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julier, Simon J.; Durrant-Whyte, Hugh F.

    1996-05-01

    In navigation and tracking problems, the identification of an appropriate model of vehicular or target motion is vital to most practical data fusion algorithms. The true system dynamics are rarely known, and approximations are usually employed. Since systems can exhibit strikingly different behaviors, multiple models may be needed to describe each of these behaviors. Current methods either use model switching (a single process model is chosen from the set using a decision rule) or consider the models as a set of competing hypothesis, only one of which is 'correct'. However, these methods fail to exploit the fact that all models are of the same system and that all of them are, to some degree, 'correct'. In this paper we present a new paradigm for fusing information from a set of multiple process models. The predictions from each process model are regarded as observations which are corrupted by correlated noise. By employing the standard Kalman filter equations we combine data from multiple sensors and multiple process models optimally. There are a number of significant practical advantages to this technique. First, the performance of the system always equals or betters that of the best estimator in the set of models being used. Second, the same decision theoretic machinery can be used to select the process models as well as the sensor suites.

  17. Calibrated Properties Model

    SciTech Connect

    T. Ghezzehej

    2004-10-04

    The purpose of this model report is to document the calibrated properties model that provides calibrated property sets for unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport process models (UZ models). The calibration of the property sets is performed through inverse modeling. This work followed, and was planned in, ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Sections 1.2.6 and 2.1.1.6). Direct inputs to this model report were derived from the following upstream analysis and model reports: ''Analysis of Hydrologic Properties Data'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170038]); ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169855]); ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170007]); ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]). Additionally, this model report incorporates errata of the previous version and closure of the Key Technical Issue agreement TSPAI 3.26 (Section 6.2.2 and Appendix B), and it is revised for improved transparency.

  18. A model of strength

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Douglas H.; Cook, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    In her AAAS News & Notes piece "Can the Southwest manage its thirst?" (26 July, p. 362), K. Wren quotes Ajay Kalra, who advocates a particular method for predicting Colorado River streamflow "because it eschews complex physical climate models for a statistical data-driven modeling approach." A preference for data-driven models may be appropriate in this individual situation, but it is not so generally, Data-driven models often come with a warning against extrapolating beyond the range of the data used to develop the models. When the future is like the past, data-driven models can work well for prediction, but it is easy to over-model local or transient phenomena, often leading to predictive inaccuracy (1). Mechanistic models are built on established knowledge of the process that connects the response variables with the predictors, using information obtained outside of an extant data set. One may shy away from a mechanistic approach when the underlying process is judged to be too complicated, but good predictive models can be constructed with statistical components that account for ingredients missing in the mechanistic analysis. Models with sound mechanistic components are more generally applicable and robust than data-driven models.

  19. TEAMS Model Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tijidjian, Raffi P.

    2010-01-01

    The TEAMS model analyzer is a supporting tool developed to work with models created with TEAMS (Testability, Engineering, and Maintenance System), which was developed by QSI. In an effort to reduce the time spent in the manual process that each TEAMS modeler must perform in the preparation of reporting for model reviews, a new tool has been developed as an aid to models developed in TEAMS. The software allows for the viewing, reporting, and checking of TEAMS models that are checked into the TEAMS model database. The software allows the user to selectively model in a hierarchical tree outline view that displays the components, failure modes, and ports. The reporting features allow the user to quickly gather statistics about the model, and generate an input/output report pertaining to all of the components. Rules can be automatically validated against the model, with a report generated containing resulting inconsistencies. In addition to reducing manual effort, this software also provides an automated process framework for the Verification and Validation (V&V) effort that will follow development of these models. The aid of such an automated tool would have a significant impact on the V&V process.

  20. Physical modelling in biomechanics.

    PubMed Central

    Koehl, M A R

    2003-01-01

    Physical models, like mathematical models, are useful tools in biomechanical research. Physical models enable investigators to explore parameter space in a way that is not possible using a comparative approach with living organisms: parameters can be varied one at a time to measure the performance consequences of each, while values and combinations not found in nature can be tested. Experiments using physical models in the laboratory or field can circumvent problems posed by uncooperative or endangered organisms. Physical models also permit some aspects of the biomechanical performance of extinct organisms to be measured. Use of properly scaled physical models allows detailed physical measurements to be made for organisms that are too small or fast to be easily studied directly. The process of physical modelling and the advantages and limitations of this approach are illustrated using examples from our research on hydrodynamic forces on sessile organisms, mechanics of hydraulic skeletons, food capture by zooplankton and odour interception by olfactory antennules. PMID:14561350

  1. Programming Models in HPC

    SciTech Connect

    Shipman, Galen M.

    2016-06-13

    These are the slides for a presentation on programming models in HPC, at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Parallel Computing Summer School. The following topics are covered: Flynn's Taxonomy of computer architectures; single instruction single data; single instruction multiple data; multiple instruction multiple data; address space organization; definition of Trinity (Intel Xeon-Phi is a MIMD architecture); single program multiple data; multiple program multiple data; ExMatEx workflow overview; definition of a programming model, programming languages, runtime systems; programming model and environments; MPI (Message Passing Interface); OpenMP; Kokkos (Performance Portable Thread-Parallel Programming Model); Kokkos abstractions, patterns, policies, and spaces; RAJA, a systematic approach to node-level portability and tuning; overview of the Legion Programming Model; mapping tasks and data to hardware resources; interoperability: supporting task-level models; Legion S3D execution and performance details; workflow, integration of external resources into the programming model.

  2. Foam process models.

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, Harry K.; Noble, David R.; Baer, Thomas A.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Mondy, Lisa Ann

    2008-09-01

    In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level foam processing computational model suitable for predicting the self-expansion of foam in complex geometries. The model is based on a finite element representation of the equations of motion, with the movement of the free surface represented using the level set method, and has been implemented in SIERRA/ARIA. An empirically based time- and temperature-dependent density model is used to encapsulate the complex physics of foam nucleation and growth in a numerically tractable model. The change in density with time is at the heart of the foam self-expansion as it creates the motion of the foam. This continuum-level model uses an homogenized description of foam, which does not include the gas explicitly. Results from the model are compared to temperature-instrumented flow visualization experiments giving the location of the foam front as a function of time for our EFAR model system.

  3. Toward Scientific Numerical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleb, Bil

    2007-01-01

    Ultimately, scientific numerical models need quantified output uncertainties so that modeling can evolve to better match reality. Documenting model input uncertainties and verifying that numerical models are translated into code correctly, however, are necessary first steps toward that goal. Without known input parameter uncertainties, model sensitivities are all one can determine, and without code verification, output uncertainties are simply not reliable. To address these two shortcomings, two proposals are offered: (1) an unobtrusive mechanism to document input parameter uncertainties in situ and (2) an adaptation of the Scientific Method to numerical model development and deployment. Because these two steps require changes in the computational simulation community to bear fruit, they are presented in terms of the Beckhard-Harris-Gleicher change model.

  4. Modelling structured data with Probabilistic Graphical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, F.

    2016-05-01

    Most clustering and classification methods are based on the assumption that the objects to be clustered are independent. However, in more and more modern applications, data are structured in a way that makes this assumption not realistic and potentially misleading. A typical example that can be viewed as a clustering task is image segmentation where the objects are the pixels on a regular grid and depend on neighbouring pixels on this grid. Also, when data are geographically located, it is of interest to cluster data with an underlying dependence structure accounting for some spatial localisation. These spatial interactions can be naturally encoded via a graph not necessarily regular as a grid. Data sets can then be modelled via Markov random fields and mixture models (e.g. the so-called MRF and Hidden MRF). More generally, probabilistic graphical models are tools that can be used to represent and manipulate data in a structured way while modeling uncertainty. This chapter introduces the basic concepts. The two main classes of probabilistic graphical models are considered: Bayesian networks and Markov networks. The key concept of conditional independence and its link to Markov properties is presented. The main problems that can be solved with such tools are described. Some illustrations are given associated with some practical work.

  5. Ventilation Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    V. Chipman; J. Case

    2002-12-20

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. Revision 01 ICN 01 included the results of the unqualified software code MULTIFLUX to assess the influence of moisture on the ventilation efficiency. The purposes of Revision 02 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of

  6. Phyloclimatic modeling: combining phylogenetics and bioclimatic modeling.

    PubMed

    Yesson, C; Culham, A

    2006-10-01

    We investigate the impact of past climates on plant diversification by tracking the "footprint" of climate change on a phylogenetic tree. Diversity within the cosmopolitan carnivorous plant genus Drosera (Droseraceae) is focused within Mediterranean climate regions. We explore whether this diversity is temporally linked to Mediterranean-type climatic shifts of the mid-Miocene and whether climate preferences are conservative over phylogenetic timescales. Phyloclimatic modeling combines environmental niche (bioclimatic) modeling with phylogenetics in order to study evolutionary patterns in relation to climate change. We present the largest and most complete such example to date using Drosera. The bioclimatic models of extant species demonstrate clear phylogenetic patterns; this is particularly evident for the tuberous sundews from southwestern Australia (subgenus Ergaleium). We employ a method for establishing confidence intervals of node ages on a phylogeny using replicates from a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis. This chronogram shows that many clades, including subgenus Ergaleium and section Bryastrum, diversified during the establishment of the Mediterranean-type climate. Ancestral reconstructions of bioclimatic models demonstrate a pattern of preference for this climate type within these groups. Ancestral bioclimatic models are projected into palaeo-climate reconstructions for the time periods indicated by the chronogram. We present two such examples that each generate plausible estimates of ancestral lineage distribution, which are similar to their current distributions. This is the first study to attempt bioclimatic projections on evolutionary time scales. The sundews appear to have diversified in response to local climate development. Some groups are specialized for Mediterranean climates, others show wide-ranging generalism. This demonstrates that Phyloclimatic modeling could be repeated for other plant groups and is fundamental to the understanding of

  7. Constitutive models in LAME.

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  8. Modeling and Prediction Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Ermak, D L

    2002-10-18

    Effective preparation for and response to the release of toxic materials into the atmosphere hinges on accurate predictions of the dispersion pathway, concentration, and ultimate fate of the chemical or biological agent. Of particular interest is the threat to civilian populations within major urban areas, which are likely targets for potential attacks. The goals of the CBNP Modeling and Prediction area are: (1) Development of a suite of validated, multi-scale, atmospheric transport and fate modeling capabilities for chemical and biological agent releases within the complex urban environment; (2) Integration of these models and related user tools into operational emergency response systems. Existing transport and fate models are being adapted to treat the complex atmospheric flows within and around structures (e.g., buildings, subway systems, urban areas) and over terrain. Relevant source terms and the chemical and physical behavior of gas- and particle-phase species (e.g., losses due to deposition, bio-agent viability, degradation) are also being developed and incorporated into the models. Model validation is performed using both laboratory and field data. CBNP is producing and testing a suite of models with differing levels of complexity and fidelity to address the full range of user needs and applications. Lumped-parameter transport models are being developed for subway systems and building interiors, supplemented by the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models to describe the circulation within large, open spaces such as auditoriums. Both sophisticated CFD transport models and simpler fast-response models are under development to treat the complex flow around individual structures and arrays of buildings. Urban parameterizations are being incorporated into regional-scale weather forecast, meteorological data assimilation, and dispersion models for problems involving larger-scale urban and suburban areas. Source term and dose response models are being

  9. Drought modeling - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ashok K.; Singh, Vijay P.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryIn recent years droughts have been occurring frequently, and their impacts are being aggravated by the rise in water demand and the variability in hydro-meteorological variables due to climate change. As a result, drought hydrology has been receiving much attention. A variety of concepts have been applied to modeling droughts, ranging from simplistic approaches to more complex models. It is important to understand different modeling approaches as well as their advantages and limitations. This paper, supplementing the previous paper ( Mishra and Singh, 2010) where different concepts of droughts were highlighted, reviews different methodologies used for drought modeling, which include drought forecasting, probability based modeling, spatio-temporal analysis, use of Global Climate Models (GCMs) for drought scenarios, land data assimilation systems for drought modeling, and drought planning. It is found that there have been significant improvements in modeling droughts over the past three decades. Hybrid models, incorporating large scale climate indices, seem to be promising for long lead-time drought forecasting. Further research is needed to understand the spatio-temporal complexity of droughts under climate change due to changes in spatio-temporal variability of precipitation. Applications of copula based models for multivariate drought characterization seem to be promising for better drought characterization. Research on decision support systems should be advanced for issuing warnings, assessing risk, and taking precautionary measures, and the effective ways for the flow of information from decision makers to users need to be developed. Finally, some remarks are made regarding the future outlook for drought research.

  10. Quantitative Rheological Model Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Jonathan; Ewoldt, Randy

    2014-11-01

    The more parameters in a rheological the better it will reproduce available data, though this does not mean that it is necessarily a better justified model. Good fits are only part of model selection. We employ a Bayesian inference approach that quantifies model suitability by balancing closeness to data against both the number of model parameters and their a priori uncertainty. The penalty depends upon prior-to-calibration expectation of the viable range of values that model parameters might take, which we discuss as an essential aspect of the selection criterion. Models that are physically grounded are usually accompanied by tighter physical constraints on their respective parameters. The analysis reflects a basic principle: models grounded in physics can be expected to enjoy greater generality and perform better away from where they are calibrated. In contrast, purely empirical models can provide comparable fits, but the model selection framework penalizes their a priori uncertainty. We demonstrate the approach by selecting the best-justified number of modes in a Multi-mode Maxwell description of PVA-Borax. We also quantify relative merits of the Maxwell model relative to powerlaw fits and purely empirical fits for PVA-Borax, a viscoelastic liquid, and gluten.

  11. The Earth System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Rood, Richard B.; Hildebrand, Peter; Raymond, Carol

    2003-01-01

    The Earth System Model is the natural evolution of current climate models and will be the ultimate embodiment of our geophysical understanding of the planet. These models are constructed from components - atmosphere, ocean, ice, land, chemistry, solid earth, etc. models and merged together through a coupling program which is responsible for the exchange of data from the components. Climate models and future earth system models will have standardized modules, and these standards are now being developed by the ESMF project funded by NASA. The Earth System Model will have a variety of uses beyond climate prediction. The model can be used to build climate data records making it the core of an assimilation system, and it can be used in OSSE experiments to evaluate. The computing and storage requirements for the ESM appear to be daunting. However, the Japanese ES theoretical computing capability is already within 20% of the minimum requirements needed for some 2010 climate model applications. Thus it seems very possible that a focused effort to build an Earth System Model will achieve succcss.

  12. Geochemical modeling: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Jenne, E.A.

    1981-06-01

    Two general families of geochemical models presently exist. The ion speciation-solubility group of geochemical models contain submodels to first calculate a distribution of aqueous species and to secondly test the hypothesis that the water is near equilibrium with particular solid phases. These models may or may not calculate the adsorption of dissolved constituents and simulate the dissolution and precipitation (mass transfer) of solid phases. Another family of geochemical models, the reaction path models, simulates the stepwise precipitation of solid phases as a result of reacting specified amounts of water and rock. Reaction path models first perform an aqueous speciation of the dissolved constituents of the water, test solubility hypotheses, then perform the reaction path modeling. Certain improvements in the present versions of these models would enhance their value and usefulness to applications in nuclear-waste isolation, etc. Mass-transfer calculations of limited extent are certainly within the capabilities of state-of-the-art models. However, the reaction path models require an expansion of their thermodynamic data bases and systematic validation before they are generally accepted.

  13. Improved Screened Hydrogenic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nishikawa, T.

    1996-05-01

    Screened Hydrogenic Model is widely used for energy level calculation in hydrodynamic code of inertial confinement fusion because Screened Hydrogenic Model is simple algebraic calculation. More{close_quote}s Screened Hydrogenic Model and his screening constants are usually used to calculate opacity and equation of state. By the use of his model, energy level can be consistently calculated with ion{close_quote}s total energy. But his model take into account the principal quantum number dependence only and cannot reproduce hydrogenic energy levels. As the precise experiment about opacity measurement is performed, it becomes clear that his model is not enough to use for opacity calculation. In this paper, his model is improved in the framework of Screened Hydrogenic Model. The improved model can reproduce the hydrogenic energy levels and include azimuthal quantum number dependence and the effect from another quantum state (a kind of inner quantum number). Screening constants are fitted by spectroscopic data and sophisticate calculations. By the use of improved model, energy levels are calculated more accurately for low-{ital z} ions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. [Mathematical models of hysteresis

    SciTech Connect

    Mayergoyz, I.D.

    1991-01-01

    The research described in this proposal is currently being supported by the US Department of Energy under the contract Mathematical Models of Hysteresis''. Thus, before discussing the proposed research in detail, it is worthwhile to describe and summarize the main results achieved in the course of our work under the above contract. Our ongoing research has largely been focused on the development of mathematical models of hysteretic nonlinearities with nonlocal memories''. The distinct feature of these nonlinearities is that their current states depend on past histories of input variations. It turns out that memories of hysteretic nonlinearities are quite selective. Indeed, experiments show that only some past input extrema leave their marks upon future states of hysteretic nonlinearities. Thus special mathematical tools are needed in order to describe nonlocal selective memories of hysteretic nonlinearities. Our research has been primarily concerned with Preisach-type models of hysteresis. All these models have a common generic feature; they are constructed as superpositions of simplest hysteretic nonlinearities-rectangular loops. Our study has by and large been centered around the following topics: various generalizations and extensions of the classical Preisach model, finding of necessary and sufficient conditions for the representation of actual hysteretic nonlinearities by various Preisach type models, solution of identification problems for these models, numerical implementation and experimental testing of Preisach type models. Although the study of Preisach type models has constituted the main direction of the research, some effort has also been made to establish some interesting connections between these models and such topics as: the critical state model for superconducting hysteresis, the classical Stoner-Wohlfarth model of vector magnetic hysteresis, thermal activation type models for viscosity, magnetostrictive hysteresis and neural networks.

  15. Turbulence modeling and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shabbir, Aamir

    1992-01-01

    The best way of verifying turbulence is to do a direct comparison between the various terms and their models. The success of this approach depends upon the availability of the data for the exact correlations (both experimental and DNS). The other approach involves numerically solving the differential equations and then comparing the results with the data. The results of such a computation will depend upon the accuracy of all the modeled terms and constants. Because of this it is sometimes difficult to find the cause of a poor performance by a model. However, such a calculation is still meaningful in other ways as it shows how a complete Reynolds stress model performs. Thirteen homogeneous flows are numerically computed using the second order closure models. We concentrate only on those models which use a linear (or quasi-linear) model for the rapid term. This, therefore, includes the Launder, Reece and Rodi (LRR) model; the isotropization of production (IP) model; and the Speziale, Sarkar, and Gatski (SSG) model. Which of the three models performs better is examined along with what are their weaknesses, if any. The other work reported deal with the experimental balances of the second moment equations for a buoyant plume. Despite the tremendous amount of activity toward the second order closure modeling of turbulence, very little experimental information is available about the budgets of the second moment equations. Part of the problem stems from our inability to measure the pressure correlations. However, if everything else appearing in these equations is known from the experiment, pressure correlations can be obtained as the closing terms. This is the closest we can come to in obtaining these terms from experiment, and despite the measurement errors which might be present in such balances, the resulting information will be extremely useful for the turbulence modelers. The purpose of this part of the work was to provide such balances of the Reynolds stress and heat

  16. Modeling of surface reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical models are used to elucidate properties of the monomer-monomer and monomer-dimer type chemical reactions on a two-dimensional surface. The authors use mean-field and lattice gas models, detailing similarities and differences due to correlations in the lattice gas model. The monomer-monomer, or AB surface reaction model, with no diffusion, is investigated for various reaction rates k. Study of the exact rate equations reveals that poisoning always occurs if the adsorption rates of the reactants are unequal. If the adsorption rates of the reactants are equal, simulations show slow poisoning, associated with clustering of reactants. This behavior is also shown for the two-dimensional voter model. The authors analyze precisely the slow poisoning kinetics by an analytic treatment for the AB reaction with infinitesimal reaction rate, and by direct comparison with the voter model. They extend the results to incorporate the effects of place-exchange diffusion, and they compare the AB reaction with infinitesimal reaction rate and no diffusion to the voter model with diffusion at rate 1/2. They also consider the relationship of the voter model to the monomer-dimer model, and investigate the latter model for small reaction rates. The monomer-dimer, or AB[sub 2] surface reaction model is also investigated. Specifically, they consider the ZGB-model for CO-oxidation, and in generalizations of this model which include adspecies diffusion. A theory of nucleation to describe properties of non-equilibrium first-order transitions, specifically the evolution between [open quote]reactive[close quote] steady states and trivial adsorbing states, is derived. The behavior of the [open quote]epidemic[close quote] survival probability, P[sub s], for a non-poisoned patch surrounded by a poisoned background is determined below the poisoning transition.

  17. Generalized Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Skrondal, Anders; Pickles, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    A unifying framework for generalized multilevel structural equation modeling is introduced. The models in the framework, called generalized linear latent and mixed models (GLLAMM), combine features of generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) and structural equation models (SEM) and consist of a response model and a structural model for the latent…

  18. Modeling Imports in a Keynesian Expenditure Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, David W.

    2010-01-01

    The author discusses several issues that instructors of introductory macroeconomics courses should consider when introducing imports in the Keynesian expenditure model. The analysis suggests that the specification of the import function should partially, if not completely, be the result of a simple discussion about the spending and import…

  19. Animal models of scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Bobyn, Justin D; Little, David G; Gray, Randolph; Schindeler, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Multiple techniques designed to induce scoliotic deformity have been applied across many animal species. We have undertaken a review of the literature regarding experimental models of scoliosis in animals to discuss their utility in comprehending disease aetiology and treatment. Models of scoliosis in animals can be broadly divided into quadrupedal and bipedal experiments. Quadrupedal models, in the absence of axial gravitation force, depend upon development of a mechanical asymmetry along the spine to initiate a scoliotic deformity. Bipedal models more accurately mimic human posture and consequently are subject to similar forces due to gravity, which have been long appreciated to be a contributing factor to the development of scoliosis. Many effective models of scoliosis in smaller animals have not been successfully translated to primates and humans. Though these models may not clarify the aetiology of human scoliosis, by providing a reliable and reproducible deformity in the spine they are a useful means with which to test interventions designed to correct and prevent deformity.

  20. Energy balance climate models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. R.; Cahalan, R. F.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An introductory survey of the global energy balance climate models is presented with an emphasis on analytical results. A sequence of increasingly complicated models involving ice cap and radiative feedback processes are solved, and the solutions and parameter sensitivities are studied. The model parameterizations are examined critically in light of many current uncertainties. A simple seasonal model is used to study the effects of changes in orbital elements on the temperature field. A linear stability theorem and a complete nonlinear stability analysis for the models are developed. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the linearized models driven by stochastic forcing elements. In this context the relation between natural fluctuation statistics and climate sensitivity is stressed.

  1. Load Model Data Tool

    SciTech Connect

    David Chassin, Pavel Etingov

    2013-04-30

    The LMDT software automates the process of the load composite model data preparation in the format supported by the major power system software vendors (GE and Siemens). Proper representation of the load composite model in power system dynamic analysis is very important. Software tools for power system simulation like GE PSLF and Siemens PSSE already include algorithms for the load composite modeling. However, these tools require that the input information on composite load to be provided in custom formats. Preparation of this data is time consuming and requires multiple manual operations. The LMDT software enables to automate this process. Software is designed to generate composite load model data. It uses the default load composition data, motor information, and bus information as an input. Software processes the input information and produces load composition model. Generated model can be stored in .dyd format supported by GE PSLF package or .dyr format supported by Siemens PSSE package.

  2. Outside users payload model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The outside users payload model which is a continuation of documents and replaces and supersedes the July 1984 edition is presented. The time period covered by this model is 1985 through 2000. The following sections are included: (1) definition of the scope of the model; (2) discussion of the methodology used; (3) overview of total demand; (4) summary of the estimated market segmentation by launch vehicle; (5) summary of the estimated market segmentation by user type; (6) details of the STS market forecast; (7) summary of transponder trends; (8) model overview by mission category; and (9) detailed mission models. All known non-NASA, non-DOD reimbursable payloads forecast to be flown by non-Soviet-block countries are included in this model with the exception of Spacelab payloads and small self contained payloads. Certain DOD-sponsored or cosponsored payloads are included if they are reimbursable launches.

  3. Extended frequency turbofan model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. R.; Park, J. W.; Jaekel, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    The fan model was developed using two dimensional modeling techniques to add dynamic radial coupling between the core stream and the bypass stream of the fan. When incorporated into a complete TF-30 engine simulation, the fan model greatly improved compression system frequency response to planar inlet pressure disturbances up to 100 Hz. The improved simulation also matched engine stability limits at 15 Hz, whereas the one dimensional fan model required twice the inlet pressure amplitude to stall the simulation. With verification of the two dimensional fan model, this program formulated a high frequency F-100(3) engine simulation using row by row compression system characteristics. In addition to the F-100(3) remote splitter fan, the program modified the model fan characteristics to simulate a proximate splitter version of the F-100(3) engine.

  4. Probabilistic Mesomechanical Fatigue Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tryon, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    A probabilistic mesomechanical fatigue life model is proposed to link the microstructural material heterogeneities to the statistical scatter in the macrostructural response. The macrostructure is modeled as an ensemble of microelements. Cracks nucleation within the microelements and grow from the microelements to final fracture. Variations of the microelement properties are defined using statistical parameters. A micromechanical slip band decohesion model is used to determine the crack nucleation life and size. A crack tip opening displacement model is used to determine the small crack growth life and size. Paris law is used to determine the long crack growth life. The models are combined in a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the statistical distribution of total fatigue life for the macrostructure. The modeled response is compared to trends in experimental observations from the literature.

  5. Introduction to Biological Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-11

    three steady states if NT > (dZ/αg) + (dP /µ), with a P,Z non-zero point being a stable attractor. NPZD The NPZ model assumes all dead organisms or...excreted material is immediately rem- ineralized to usable nutrient. In contrast, the NPZD model assumes that dead organisms and unassimilated...phytoplankton would contribute to a detrital pool that eventually be- 17 Figure 3: Schematic representation of NPZD model showing the fluxes of biomass and the

  6. Coastal Modeling System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-04

    Coastal Inlets Research Program Coastal Modeling System The work unit develops the Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) and conducts basic research to...further understanding of sediment transport under mixed forcing from waves and currents. The CMS is a suite of coupled two- dimensional numerical...models for simulating waves, hydrodynamics, salinity and sediment transport, and morphology change. The CMS was identified by the USACE Hydraulics and

  7. Acid rain: Mesoscale model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A mesoscale numerical model of the Florida peninsula was formulated and applied to a dry, neutral atmosphere. The prospective use of the STAR-100 computer for the submesoscale model is discussed. The numerical model presented is tested under synoptically undisturbed conditions. Two cases, differing only in the direction of the prevailing geostrophic wind, are examined: a prevailing southwest wind and a prevailing southeast wind, both 6 m/sec at all levels initially.

  8. HOMER® Micropower Optimization Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lilienthal, P.

    2005-01-01

    NREL has developed the HOMER micropower optimization model. The model can analyze all of the available small power technologies individually and in hybrid configurations to identify least-cost solutions to energy requirements. This capability is valuable to a diverse set of energy professionals and applications. NREL has actively supported its growing user base and developed training programs around the model. These activities are helping to grow the global market for solar technologies.

  9. Los Alamos Programming Models

    SciTech Connect

    Bergen, Benjamin Karl

    2016-07-07

    This is the PDF of a powerpoint presentation from a teleconference on Los Alamos programming models. It starts by listing their assumptions for the programming models and then details a hierarchical programming model at the System Level and Node Level. Then it details how to map this to their internal nomenclature. Finally, a list is given of what they are currently doing in this regard.

  10. AREST model description

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, D.W.; McGrail, B.P.

    1993-11-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC) have supported the development of the Analytical Repository Source-Term (AREST) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. AREST is a computer model developed to evaluate radionuclide release from an underground geologic repository. The AREST code can be used to calculate/estimate the amount and rate of each radionuclide that is released from the engineered barrier system (EBS) of the repository. The EBS is the man-made or disrupted area of the repository. AREST was designed as a system-level models to simulate the behavior of the total repository by combining process-level models for the release from an individual waste package or container. AREST contains primarily analytical models for calculating the release/transport of radionuclides to the lost rock that surrounds each waste package. Analytical models were used because of the small computational overhead that allows all the input parameters to be derived from a statistical distribution. Recently, a one-dimensional numerical model was also incorporated into AREST, to allow for more detailed modeling of the transport process with arbitrary length decay chains. The next step in modeling the EBS, is to develop a model that couples the probabilistic capabilities of AREST with a more detailed process model. This model will need to look at the reactive coupling of the processes that are involved with the release process. Such coupling would include: (1) the dissolution of the waste form, (2) the geochemical modeling of the groundwater, (3) the corrosion of the container overpacking, and (4) the backfill material, just to name a few. Several of these coupled processes are already incorporated in the current version of AREST.

  11. Computer Models of Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Dr. Marc Pusey (seated) and Dr. Craig Kundrot use computers to analyze x-ray maps and generate three-dimensional models of protein structures. With this information, scientists at Marshall Space Flight Center can learn how proteins are made and how they work. The computer screen depicts a proten structure as a ball-and-stick model. Other models depict the actual volume occupied by the atoms, or the ribbon-like structures that are crucial to a protein's function.

  12. Atmospheric prediction model survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellck, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the SEASAT Satellite program of NASA, a survey of representative primitive equation atmospheric prediction models that exist in the world today was written for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Seventeen models developed by eleven different operational and research centers throughout the world are included in the survey. The surveys are tutorial in nature describing the features of the various models in a systematic manner.

  13. Liftoff Model for MELCOR.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Michael F.

    2015-07-01

    Aerosol particles that deposit on surfaces may be subsequently resuspended by air flowing over the surface. A review of models for this liftoff process is presented and compared to available data. Based on this review, a model that agrees with existing data and is readily computed is presented for incorporation into a system level code such as MELCOR. Liftoff Model for MELCOR July 2015 4 This page is intentionally blank

  14. Open source molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Pirhadi, Somayeh; Sunseri, Jocelyn; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-09-01

    The success of molecular modeling and computational chemistry efforts are, by definition, dependent on quality software applications. Open source software development provides many advantages to users of modeling applications, not the least of which is that the software is free and completely extendable. In this review we categorize, enumerate, and describe available open source software packages for molecular modeling and computational chemistry. An updated online version of this catalog can be found at https://opensourcemolecularmodeling.github.io.

  15. The Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; Freiere deCarvalho, Mary; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Iyengar, Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Baumann, David

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) are to develop an integrated, quantified, evidence-based decision support tool useful to crew health and mission planners and to help align science, technology, and operational activities intended to optimize crew health, safety, and mission success. Presentation slides address scope and approach, beneficiaries of IMM capabilities, history, risk components, conceptual models, development steps, and the evidence base. Space adaptation syndrome is used to demonstrate the model's capabilities.

  16. Conceptual IT model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaoudova, Kristina; Stanchev, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The business processes are the key asset for every organization. The design of the business process models is the foremost concern and target among an organization's functions. Business processes and their proper management are intensely dependent on the performance of software applications and technology solutions. The paper is attempt for definition of new Conceptual model of IT service provider, it could be examined as IT focused Enterprise model, part of Enterprise Architecture (EA) school.

  17. Compositional Modeling with DPNs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Technical Report Compositional Modeling with DPNs 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey Zweig and Stuart Russell 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 298-102 Compositional Modeling With DPNs Geoffrey Zweig Stuart Russell Report No. UCB...Modeling With DPNs Geoffrey Zweig * Stuart Russell * Sept. 8, 1997 Abstract Dynamic probabilistic networks (DPNs) are a powerful and efficient method for

  18. Numerical Modeling Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    presence of clouds is associated with the occurvence of condensation in the atmospheric models. Cloudiness 3t a particulat grid point is introduced -4...when saturation is predicted as a result of either large-scale moisture flux convergence or vertical convective adjustment. In most models such clouds ... cloud top, cloud thickness, and liquid-water content. In some general circulation models the local fractional convective cloud amountv tre taken

  19. Gauge Messenger Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Do

    2006-11-28

    We consider gauge messenger models in which X and Y gauge bosons and gauginos are messengers of supersymmetry breaking. In simple gauge messenger models, all the soft parameters except {mu} and B{mu} are calculated in terms of a single scale parameter MSUSY which is proportional to F / MGUT. Unique prediction on dark matter in gauge messenger models is discussed. (Based on hep-ph/0601036 and hep-ph/0607169)

  20. Guidelines for Model Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    by a decisionmaker. The full-scale evaluation of a complex model can be an expensive, time- consuming effort requiring diverse talents and skills...relative to PIES, were documented in a report to the Congress. 2/ An important side- effect of that document was that a foundation was laid for model...while for model evaluation there are no generally accepted standards or methods. Hence, GAO perceives the need to expand upon the lessons learned in

  1. Global Atmospheric Aerosol Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Johannes; Aquila, Valentina; Righi, Mattia

    2012-01-01

    Global aerosol models are used to study the distribution and properties of atmospheric aerosol particles as well as their effects on clouds, atmospheric chemistry, radiation, and climate. The present article provides an overview of the basic concepts of global atmospheric aerosol modeling and shows some examples from a global aerosol simulation. Particular emphasis is placed on the simulation of aerosol particles and their effects within global climate models.

  2. Rat Endovascular Perforation Model

    PubMed Central

    Sehba, Fatima A.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental animal models of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have provided a wealth of information on the mechanisms of brain injury. The Rat endovascular perforation model (EVP) replicates the early pathophysiology of SAH and hence is frequently used to study early brain injury following SAH. This paper presents a brief review of historical development of the EVP model, details the technique used to create SAH and considerations necessary to overcome technical challenges. PMID:25213427

  3. Structural model integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallerstein, D. V.; Lahey, R. S.; Haggenmacher, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    Many of the practical aspects and problems of ensuring the integrity of a structural model are discussed, as well as the steps which have been taken in the NASTRAN system to assure that these checks can be routinely performed. Model integrity as used applies not only to the structural model but also to the loads applied to the model. Emphasis is also placed on the fact that when dealing with substructure analysis, all of the checking procedures discussed should be applied at the lowest level of substructure prior to any coupling.

  4. Model Error Budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.

    2008-01-01

    An error budget is a commonly used tool in design of complex aerospace systems. It represents system performance requirements in terms of allowable errors and flows these down through a hierarchical structure to lower assemblies and components. The requirements may simply be 'allocated' based upon heuristics or experience, or they may be designed through use of physics-based models. This paper presents a basis for developing an error budget for models of the system, as opposed to the system itself. The need for model error budgets arises when system models are a principle design agent as is increasingly more common for poorly testable high performance space systems.

  5. Photovoltaic array performance model.

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvil, Jay A.; Boyson, William Earl; King, David L.

    2004-08-01

    This document summarizes the equations and applications associated with the photovoltaic array performance model developed at Sandia National Laboratories over the last twelve years. Electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics for photovoltaic modules are included in the model, and the model is designed to use hourly solar resource and meteorological data. The versatility and accuracy of the model has been validated for flat-plate modules (all technologies) and for concentrator modules, as well as for large arrays of modules. Applications include system design and sizing, 'translation' of field performance measurements to standard reporting conditions, system performance optimization, and real-time comparison of measured versus expected system performance.

  6. Railway switch transport model.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Martin; Prosen, Tomaž; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio

    2012-11-01

    We propose a simple model of coupled heat and particle transport based on zero-dimensional classical deterministic dynamics, which is reminiscent of a railway switch whose action is a function only of the particle's energy. It is shown that already in the minimal three-terminal model, where the second terminal is considered as a probe with zero net particle and heat currents, one can find extremely asymmetric Onsager matrices as a consequence of time-reversal symmetry breaking of the model. This minimalistic transport model provides a better understanding of thermoelectric heat engines in the presence of time-reversal symmetry breaking.

  7. Models of Reality.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-06-02

    Conscious awareness of our environment is based on a feedback loop comprised of sensory input transmitted to the central nervous system leading to construction of our ''model of the world,'' (Lewis et al, 1982). We then assimilate the neurological model at the unconscious level into information we can later consciously consider useful in identifying belief systems and behaviors for designing diverse systems. Thus, we can avoid potential problems based on our open-to-error perceived reality of the world. By understanding how our model of reality is organized, we allow ourselves to transcend content and develop insight into how effective choices and belief systems are generated through sensory derived processes. These are the processes which provide the designer the ability to meta model (build a model of a model) the user; consequently, matching the mental model of the user with that of the designer's and, coincidentally, forming rapport between the two participants. The information shared between the participants is neither assumed nor generalized, it is closer to equivocal; thus minimizing error through a sharing of each other's model of reality. How to identify individual mental mechanisms or processes, how to organize the individual strategies of these mechanisms into useful patterns, and to formulate these into models for success and knowledge based outcomes is the subject of the discussion that follows.

  8. Lightning return stroke models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. T.; Uman, M. A.; Standler, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    We test the two most commonly used lightning return stroke models, Bruce-Golde and transmission line, against subsequent stroke electric and magnetic field wave forms measured simultaneously at near and distant stations and show that these models are inadequate to describe the experimental data. We then propose a new return stroke model that is physically plausible and that yields good approximations to the measured two-station fields. Using the new model, we derive return stroke charge and current statistics for about 100 subsequent strokes.

  9. Particle bed reactor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  10. Wind power prediction models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations were performed to predict the power available from the wind at the Goldstone, California, antenna site complex. The background for power prediction was derived from a statistical evaluation of available wind speed data records at this location and at nearby locations similarly situated within the Mojave desert. In addition to a model for power prediction over relatively long periods of time, an interim simulation model that produces sample wind speeds is described. The interim model furnishes uncorrelated sample speeds at hourly intervals that reproduce the statistical wind distribution at Goldstone. A stochastic simulation model to provide speed samples representative of both the statistical speed distributions and correlations is also discussed.

  11. Multifamily Envelope Leakage Model

    SciTech Connect

    Faakye, O.; Griffiths, D.

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the 2013 research project was to develop the model for predicting fully guarded test results (FGT), using unguarded test data and specific building features of apartment units. The model developed has a coefficient of determination R2 value of 0.53 with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.13. Both statistical metrics indicate that the model is relatively strong. When tested against data that was not included in the development of the model, prediction accuracy was within 19%, which is reasonable given that seasonal differences in blower door measurements can vary by as much as 25%.

  12. Modelling urban snowmelt runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeo, C.; Ho, C. L. I.

    2004-12-01

    Few investigations have been made into modelling snowmelt in urban areas; hence, current urban snowmelt routines have adopted parameters and approaches intended for rural areas that are not appropriate in an urban environment. This paper examines problems with current urban snowmelt models and proposes a model that uses parameters developed from field studies focusing exclusively on urban snow. The Urban Snow Model (USM) uses an energy balance scheme at an hourly time step, changes in urban snow albedo, and incorporates eight different types of redistributed snow cover. USM is tested against observed flow data from a small residential community located in Calgary, Alberta. The degree-day method for snowmelt, the SWMM model, and a modified version of USM that incorporates a partial energy budget scheme relying only on net radiation, are also tested against the observed flow data. The full energy budget version of USM outperformed all other models in terms of time to peak, peak flowrate and model efficiency; however, the modified version of USM fared quite well and is recommended when a lack of data exists. The degree-day method and the SWMM models fared poorly and were unable to simulate peak flowrates in most cases. The tests also demonstrated the need to distribute snow into appropriate snow covers in order to simulate peak flowrates accurately and provide good model efficiency.

  13. Computer Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, V. S.

    2014-05-09

    Verification and validation of computer codes and models used in simulation are two aspects of the scientific practice of high importance and have recently been discussed by philosophers of science. While verification is predominantly associated with the correctness of the way a model is represented by a computer code or algorithm, validation more often refers to model’s relation to the real world and its intended use. It has been argued that because complex simulations are generally not transparent to a practitioner, the Duhem problem can arise for verification and validation due to their entanglement; such an entanglement makes it impossible to distinguish whether a coding error or model’s general inadequacy to its target should be blamed in the case of the model failure. I argue that in order to disentangle verification and validation, a clear distinction between computer modeling (construction of mathematical computer models of elementary processes) and simulation (construction of models of composite objects and processes by means of numerical experimenting with them) needs to be made. Holding on to that distinction, I propose to relate verification (based on theoretical strategies such as inferences) to modeling and validation, which shares the common epistemology with experimentation, to simulation. To explain reasons of their intermittent entanglement I propose a weberian ideal-typical model of modeling and simulation as roles in practice. I suggest an approach to alleviate the Duhem problem for verification and validation generally applicable in practice and based on differences in epistemic strategies and scopes

  14. Evolutionary financial market models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponzi, A.; Aizawa, Y.

    2000-12-01

    We study computer simulations of two financial market models, the second a simplified model of the first. The first is a model of the self-organized formation and breakup of crowds of traders, motivated by the dynamics of competitive evolving systems which shows interesting self-organized critical (SOC)-type behaviour without any fine tuning of control parameters. This SOC-type avalanching and stasis appear as realistic volatility clustering in the price returns time series. The market becomes highly ordered at ‘crashes’ but gradually loses this order through randomization during the intervening stasis periods. The second model is a model of stocks interacting through a competitive evolutionary dynamic in a common stock exchange. This model shows a self-organized ‘market-confidence’. When this is high the market is stable but when it gets low the market may become highly volatile. Volatile bursts rapidly increase the market confidence again. This model shows a phase transition as temperature parameter is varied. The price returns time series in the transition region is very realistic power-law truncated Levy distribution with clustered volatility and volatility superdiffusion. This model also shows generally positive stock cross-correlations as is observed in real markets. This model may shed some light on why such phenomena are observed.

  15. Radiation Environment Modeling for Spacecraft Design: New Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet; Xapsos, Mike; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Ladbury, Ray

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on various new space radiation environment models for spacecraft design is described. The topics include: 1) The Space Radiatio Environment; 2) Effects of Space Environments on Systems; 3) Space Radiatio Environment Model Use During Space Mission Development and Operations; 4) Space Radiation Hazards for Humans; 5) "Standard" Space Radiation Environment Models; 6) Concerns about Standard Models; 7) Inadequacies of Current Models; 8) Development of New Models; 9) New Model Developments: Proton Belt Models; 10) Coverage of New Proton Models; 11) Comparison of TPM-1, PSB97, AP-8; 12) New Model Developments: Electron Belt Models; 13) Coverage of New Electron Models; 14) Comparison of "Worst Case" POLE, CRESELE, and FLUMIC Models with the AE-8 Model; 15) New Model Developments: Galactic Cosmic Ray Model; 16) Comparison of NASA, MSU, CIT Models with ACE Instrument Data; 17) New Model Developmemts: Solar Proton Model; 18) Comparison of ESP, JPL91, KIng/Stassinopoulos, and PSYCHIC Models; 19) New Model Developments: Solar Heavy Ion Model; 20) Comparison of CREME96 to CREDO Measurements During 2000 and 2002; 21) PSYCHIC Heavy ion Model; 22) Model Standardization; 23) Working Group Meeting on New Standard Radiation Belt and Space Plasma Models; and 24) Summary.

  16. Convergence of a Moran model to Eigen's quasispecies model.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, Joseba

    2017-03-02

    We prove that a Moran model converges in probability to Eigen's quasispecies model in the infinite population limit. We show further that the invariant probability measure of the Moran model converges to the unique stationary solution of Eigen's quasispecies model.

  17. Anisotropic exchange-interaction model: From the Potts model to the exchange-interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, T. C.; Chen, H. H.

    1995-04-01

    A spin model called the anisotropic exchange-interaction model is proposed. The Potts model, the exchange-interaction model, and the spin-1/2 anisotropic Heisenberg model are special cases of the proposed model. Thermodynamic properties of the model on the bcc and the fcc lattices are determined by the constant-coupling approximation.

  18. Operator spin foam models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Hellmann, Frank; Kamiński, Wojciech; Kisielowski, Marcin; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to spin foams. We define operator spin foams, that is foams labelled by group representations and operators, as our main tool. A set of moves we define in the set of the operator spin foams (among other operations) allows us to split the faces and the edges of the foams. We assign to each operator spin foam a contracted operator, by using the contractions at the vertices and suitably adjusted face amplitudes. The emergence of the face amplitudes is the consequence of assuming the invariance of the contracted operator with respect to the moves. Next, we define spin foam models and consider the class of models assumed to be symmetric with respect to the moves we have introduced, and assuming their partition functions (state sums) are defined by the contracted operators. Briefly speaking, those operator spin foam models are invariant with respect to the cellular decomposition, and are sensitive only to the topology and colouring of the foam. Imposing an extra symmetry leads to a family we call natural operator spin foam models. This symmetry, combined with assumed invariance with respect to the edge splitting move, determines a complete characterization of a general natural model. It can be obtained by applying arbitrary (quantum) constraints on an arbitrary BF spin foam model. In particular, imposing suitable constraints on a spin(4) BF spin foam model is exactly the way we tend to view 4D quantum gravity, starting with the BC model and continuing with the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine (EPRL) or Freidel-Krasnov (FK) models. That makes our framework directly applicable to those models. Specifically, our operator spin foam framework can be translated into the language of spin foams and partition functions. Among our natural spin foam models there are the BF spin foam model, the BC model, and a model corresponding to the EPRL intertwiners. Our operator spin foam framework can also be used for more general spin

  19. Why business models matter.

    PubMed

    Magretta, Joan

    2002-05-01

    "Business model" was one of the great buzz-words of the Internet boom. A company didn't need a strategy, a special competence, or even any customers--all it needed was a Web-based business model that promised wild profits in some distant, ill-defined future. Many people--investors, entrepreneurs, and executives alike--fell for the fantasy and got burned. And as the inevitable counterreaction played out, the concept of the business model fell out of fashion nearly as quickly as the .com appendage itself. That's a shame. As Joan Magretta explains, a good business model remains essential to every successful organization, whether it's a new venture or an established player. To help managers apply the concept successfully, she defines what a business model is and how it complements a smart competitive strategy. Business models are, at heart, stories that explain how enterprises work. Like a good story, a robust business model contains precisely delineated characters, plausible motivations, and a plot that turns on an insight about value. It answers certain questions: Who is the customer? How do we make money? What underlying economic logic explains how we can deliver value to customers at an appropriate cost? Every viable organization is built on a sound business model, but a business model isn't a strategy, even though many people use the terms interchangeably. Business models describe, as a system, how the pieces of a business fit together. But they don't factor in one critical dimension of performance: competition. That's the job of strategy. Illustrated with examples from companies like American Express, EuroDisney, WalMart, and Dell Computer, this article clarifies the concepts of business models and strategy, which are fundamental to every company's performance.

  20. Biosphere Process Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schmitt

    2000-05-25

    To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor

  1. Expression of extracellular matrix components and related growth factors in human tendon and muscle after acute exercise.

    PubMed

    Heinemeier, K M; Bjerrum, S S; Schjerling, P; Kjaer, M

    2013-06-01

    Acute kicking exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle in humans, but it is not known if this relates to increased collagen transcription and if other matrix genes are regulated. Young men performed 1 h of one-leg kicking at 67% of max workload. Biopsies were taken from the patellar tendon and vastus lateralis muscle of each leg at 2 (n = 10), 6 (n = 11), or 26 h (n = 10) after exercise. Levels of messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA for collagens, noncollagenous matrix proteins, and growth factors were measured with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In tendon, gene expression was unchanged except for a decrease in insulin-like growth factor-IEa (IGF-IEa; P < 0.05). In muscle, collagen expression was not significantly altered, while levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), IGF-IEa, transforming growth factor-β1, -2 (TGF-β), and the TGF-β receptor II mRNA were increased (P < 0.05). Matrix components tenascin-C, fibronectin, and decorin were also induced in loaded muscle (P < 0.05), while fibromodulin was unaffected. In conclusion, the relatively robust changes in matrix components and related growth factors in muscle indicate a stimulation of extracellular matrix even with moderate exercise. However, in tendon tissue, this exercise model does not appear to induce any anabolic response on the transcriptional level.

  2. Bayesian Data-Model Fit Assessment for Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Bayesian approaches to modeling are receiving an increasing amount of attention in the areas of model construction and estimation in factor analysis, structural equation modeling (SEM), and related latent variable models. However, model diagnostics and model criticism remain relatively understudied aspects of Bayesian SEM. This article describes…

  3. Spiral model pilot project information model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The objective was an evaluation of the Spiral Model (SM) development approach to allow NASA Marshall to develop an experience base of that software management methodology. A discussion is presented of the Information Model (IM) that was used as part of the SM methodology. A key concept of the SM is the establishment of an IM to be used by management to track the progress of a project. The IM is the set of metrics that is to be measured and reported throughout the life of the project. These metrics measure both the product and the process to ensure the quality of the final delivery item and to ensure the project met programmatic guidelines. The beauty of the SM, along with the IM, is the ability to measure not only the correctness of the specification and implementation of the requirements but to also obtain a measure of customer satisfaction.

  4. Stormwater Management Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    SWMM is a model for urban hydrology. It has a long history and is relied upon by professional engineers in the US and around the world. SWMM provides both gray and green Infrastructure modeling capabilities. As such, it is a convenient tool for understanding the tradeoff between ...

  5. Model for Coastal Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Judd, Chaeli

    2007-07-27

    Successful restoration of wetland habitats depends on both our understanding of our system and our ability to characterize it. By developing a conceptual model, looking at different spatial scales and integrating diverse data streams: GIS datasets and NASA products, we were able to develop a dynamic model for site prioritization based on both qualitative and quantitative relationships found in the coastal environment.

  6. Fictional models in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Margaret

    2014-02-01

    When James Clerk Maxwell set out his famous equations 150 years ago, his model of electromagnetism included a piece of pure fiction: an invisible, all-pervasive "aether" made up of elastic vortices separated by electric charges. Margaret Morrison explores how this and other "fictional" models shape science.

  7. Automated Student Model Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koedinger, Kenneth R.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.; Stamper, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Student modeling plays a critical role in developing and improving instruction and instructional technologies. We present a technique for automated improvement of student models that leverages the DataShop repository, crowd sourcing, and a version of the Learning Factors Analysis algorithm. We demonstrate this method on eleven educational…

  8. Systematic Eclectic Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahalik, James R.

    1990-01-01

    Presents and evaluates four systematic eclectic models of psychotherapy: Beutler's eclectic psychotherapy; Howard, Nance, and Myers' adaptive counseling and therapy; Lazarus' multimodal therapy; and Prochaska and DiClemente's transtheoretical approach. Examines support for these models and makes conceptual and empirical recommendations.…

  9. The General Teaching Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, David T.; Robinson, Roger E.

    The General Teaching Model is a procedural guide for the design, implementation, evaluation, and improvement of instruction. The Model is considered applicable to all levels of education, all subject matters, and any length of instructional unit. It consists of four components: 1) instructional objectives, 2) pre-assessment, 3) instructional…

  10. The Teacher Improvement Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokalo, Mariann

    The Teacher Improvement Model was begun as an Organizational Development Project using the parallel systems approach in a school for emotionally disturbed junior high school students. Teachers volunteered for committee work and requested observations and evaluations in an effort to define and establish a discipline model best suited to them. Such…

  11. Modeling Biomimetic Mineralization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-02

    combination of computational methods including Molecular Dynamics, Langevin Dynamics, and Monte Carlo, and theories including statistical mechanics and...treated by a combination of computational methods including Molecular Dynamics, Langevin Dynamics, and Monte Carlo, and theories including...at the interfaces are neglected in our computer modeling so far. Force-field Molecular model Molecular dynamics Langevin dynamics Brownian

  12. Modeling Antibody Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Moore, Cathy Ronstadt

    1998-01-01

    Understanding antibody structure and function is difficult for many students. The rearrangement of constant and variable regions during antibody differentiation can be effectively simulated using a paper model. Describes a hands-on laboratory exercise which allows students to model antibody diversity using readily available resources. (PVD)

  13. Modelling with Magnets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Dorothy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Chemistry can be described on three levels: sensory, molecular, and symbolic. Proposes a particle approach to teaching chemistry that uses magnets to aid students construct molecular models and solve particle problems. Includes examples of Johnstone's model of chemistry phenomena, a problem worksheet, and a student concept mastery sheet. (MDH)

  14. Validation of mesoscale models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, Bill; Warner, Tom; Benjamin, Stan; Koch, Steve; Staniforth, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: verification of cloud prediction from the PSU/NCAR mesoscale model; results form MAPS/NGM verification comparisons and MAPS observation sensitivity tests to ACARS and profiler data; systematic errors and mesoscale verification for a mesoscale model; and the COMPARE Project and the CME.

  15. Acid rain: Microphysical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingle, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    A microphysical model was used to simulate the case of a ground cloud without dilution by entrainment and without precipitation. The numerical integration techniques of the model are presented. The droplet size spectra versus time and the droplet molalities for each value of time are discussed.

  16. Modeling Water Filtration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) are not new to those in engineering or mathematics, but they were new to Melissa Parks. Model-eliciting activities are simulated real-world problems that integrate engineering, mathematical, and scientific thinking as students find solutions for specific scenarios. During this process, students generate solutions…

  17. Models in Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Addresses the most popular models currently being chosen for biological research and the reasons behind those choices. Among the current favorites are zebra fish, fruit flies, mice, monkeys, and yeast. Concludes with a brief examination of the ethical issues involved, and why some animals may need to be replaced in research with model systems.…

  18. Writing Models, Versatile Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeWeghe, Richard

    1983-01-01

    Presents five research-based writing models to help student writers analyze their composition processes: (1) discovery, (2) direct writing process, (3) five-stage process, (4) write-talk-write, and (5) four key questions. Discusses advantages and disadvantages of each model. (PD)

  19. Model State Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gwen

    Models of state involvement in training child care providers are briefly discussed and the employers' role in training is explored. Six criteria for states that are taken as models are identified, and four are described. Various state activities are described for each criterion. It is noted that little is known about employer and other private…

  20. Rotorwash Operational Footprint Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    lower drag coefficient . The developed analytical model for predicting unbalance is shown to correlate relatively well with the test data. This model... coefficients and exponents within the equations. Correlation of RoWFoot to flight test data is fundamental to quantitatively trying to determine the...using empirically derived coefficients and exponents through feedback from an iterative flight test correlation process. Rotorwash Operational

  1. pylightcurve: Exoplanet lightcurve model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiaras, A.; Waldmann, I. P.; Rocchetto, M.; Varley, R.; Morello, G.; Damiano, M.; Tinetti, G.

    2016-12-01

    pylightcurve is a model for light-curves of transiting planets. It uses the four coefficients law for the stellar limb darkening and returns the relative flux, F(t), as a function of the limb darkening coefficients, an, the Rp/R* ratio and all the orbital parameters based on the nonlinear limb darkening model (Claret 2000).

  2. Legal Policy Optimizing Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Stuart; Neef, Marian

    1977-01-01

    The use of mathematical models originally developed by economists and operations researchers is described for legal process research. Situations involving plea bargaining, arraignment, and civil liberties illustrate the applicability of decision theory, inventory modeling, and linear programming in operations research. (LBH)

  3. SOSS ICN Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Zhifan

    2016-01-01

    Under the NASA-KAIA-KARI ATM research collaboration agreement, SOSS ICN Model has been developed for Incheon International Airport. This presentation describes the model validation work in the project. The presentation will show the results and analysis of the validation.

  4. Reliability model generator specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Gerald C.; Mccann, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    The Reliability Model Generator (RMG), a program which produces reliability models from block diagrams for ASSIST, the interface for the reliability evaluation tool SURE is described. An account is given of motivation for RMG and the implemented algorithms are discussed. The appendices contain the algorithms and two detailed traces of examples.

  5. Computer Model Documentation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC. Inst. for Computer Sciences and Technology.

    These guidelines for communicating effectively the details of computer model design and operation to persons with varying interests in a model recommend the development of four different types of manuals to meet the needs of managers, users, analysts and programmers. The guidelines for preparing a management summary manual suggest a broad spectrum…

  6. Modeling the Teaching Consultant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the teaching consultant process in computer programing courses, describes a teaching consultant model from both the teachers' and students' perspectives, and shows how this model can be used to develop an intelligent teaching consultant (ITC). Differences between this collection of expert systems and conventional intelligent tutoring…

  7. Modelling Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linacre, John M.

    Determination of the intentions of the test developer is fundamental to the choice of the analytical model for a rating scale. For confirmatory analysis, the developer's intentions inform the choice of the general form of the model, representing the manner in which the respondent interacts with the scale; these intentions also inform the choice of…

  8. Models and Metaphors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Stanley D.

    2007-01-01

    Humanity delights in spinning conceptual models of the world. These models, in turn, mirror their respective root metaphors. Three root metaphors--spiritual, organic, and mechanical--have dominated western thought. The spiritual metaphor runs from Plato, through Hegel, and connects with Montessori. The organic metaphor extends from Aristotle,…

  9. Modeling HIV Cure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelson, Alan; Conway, Jessica; Cao, Youfang

    A large effort is being made to find a means to cure HIV infection. I will present a dynamical model of post-treatment control (PTC) or ``functional cure'' of HIV-infection. Some patients treated with suppressive antiviral therapy have been taken off of therapy and then spontaneously control HIV infection such that the amount of virus in the circulation is maintained undetectable by clinical assays for years. The model explains PTC occurring in some patients by having a parameter regime in which the model exhibits bistability, with both a low and high steady state viral load being stable. The model makes a number of predictions about how to attain the low PTC steady state. Bistability in this model depends upon the immune response becoming exhausted when over stimulated. I will also present a generalization of the model in which immunotherapy can be used to reverse immune exhaustion and compare model predictions with experiments in SIV infected macaques given immunotherapy and then taken off of antiretroviral therapy. Lastly, if time permits, I will discuss one of the hurdles to true HIV eradication, latently infected cells, and present clinical trial data and a new model addressing pharmacological means of flushing out the latent reservoir. Supported by NIH Grants AI028433 and OD011095.

  10. A night sky model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpylev, N. P.; Smirnov, M. A.; Bagrov, A. V.

    A night sky model is proposed. It includes different components of light polution, such as solar twilight, moon scattered light, zodiacal light, Milky Way, air glow and artificial light pollution. The model is designed for calculating the efficiency of astronomical installations.

  11. PROSTATE REGULATION: MODELING ENDOGENOUS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Prostate function is an important indicator of androgen status in toxicological studies making predictive modeling of the relevant pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics desirable. Prostate function is an important indicator of androgen status in toxicological studies making predictive modeling of the relevant pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics desirable.

  12. Dynamic Eye Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Science and Mathematics Education in Southeast Asia, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Instructions (with diagrams and parts list) are provided for constructing an eye model with a pliable lens made from a plastic bottle which can vary its convexity to accommodate changing positions of an object being viewed. Also discusses concepts which the model can assist in developing. (Author/SK)

  13. The EMEFS model evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Barchet, W.R. ); Dennis, R.L. ); Seilkop, S.K. ); Banic, C.M.; Davies, D.; Hoff, R.M.; Macdonald, A.M.; Mickle, R.E.; Padro, J.; Puckett, K. ); Byun, D.; McHenry, J.N.

    1991-12-01

    The binational Eulerian Model Evaluation Field Study (EMEFS) consisted of several coordinated data gathering and model evaluation activities. In the EMEFS, data were collected by five air and precipitation monitoring networks between June 1988 and June 1990. Model evaluation is continuing. This interim report summarizes the progress made in the evaluation of the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM) and the Acid Deposition and Oxidant Model (ADOM) through the December 1990 completion of a State of Science and Technology report on model evaluation for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). Because various assessment applications of RADM had to be evaluated for NAPAP, the report emphasizes the RADM component of the evaluation. A protocol for the evaluation was developed by the model evaluation team and defined the observed and predicted values to be used and the methods by which the observed and predicted values were to be compared. Scatter plots and time series of predicted and observed values were used to present the comparisons graphically. Difference statistics and correlations were used to quantify model performance. 64 refs., 34 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Evaluating Causal Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.

    Pointing out that linear causal models can organize the interrelationships of a large number of variables, this paper contends that such models are particularly useful to mass communication research, which must by necessity deal with complex systems of variables. The paper first outlines briefly the philosophical requirements for establishing a…

  15. Model Reading Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Nancy; Dworkin, Yehoash

    The 1978 Summer Reading Institute, which served 58 Washington, D.C., elementary school children, is described in this paper. Major characteristics of the program model are first identified, along with elements that were added to the model in the preplanning stage. Numerous aspects of the program are then described, including the make-up of the…

  16. Modeling for Insights

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen Matthern

    2007-04-01

    System Dynamics is a computer-aided approach to evaluating the interrelationships of different components and activities within complex systems. Recently, System Dynamics models have been developed in areas such as policy design, biological and medical modeling, energy and the environmental analysis, and in various other areas in the natural and social sciences. The real power of System Dynamic modeling is gaining insights into total system behavior as time, and system parameters are adjusted and the effects are visualized in real time. System Dynamic models allow decision makers and stakeholders to explore long-term behavior and performance of complex systems, especially in the context of dynamic processes and changing scenarios without having to wait decades to obtain field data or risk failure if a poor management or design approach is used. The Idaho National Laboratory recently has been developing a System Dynamic model of the US Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The model is intended to be used to identify and understand interactions throughout the entire nuclear fuel cycle and suggest sustainable development strategies. This paper describes the basic framework of the current model and presents examples of useful insights gained from the model thus far with respect to sustainable development of nuclear power.

  17. Teaching Mathematical Modelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mark S.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a course at the University of Glamorgan in the United Kingdom in which a computer algebra system (CAS) teaches mathematical modeling. The format is based on continual assessment of group and individual work stating the problem, a feature list, and formulation of the models. No additional mathematical word processing package is necessary.…

  18. Computational Modeling of Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Tanner, John A. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This document contains presentations and discussions from the joint UVA/NASA Workshop on Computational Modeling of Tires. The workshop attendees represented NASA, the Army and Air force, tire companies, commercial software developers, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state of technology in the computational modeling of tires and to provide guidelines for future research.

  19. Connectionist Modelling and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin W.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a detailed, technical introduction to the state of cognitive science research, in particular the rise of the "new cognitive science," especially artificial neural net (ANN) models. Explains one influential ANN model and describes diverse applications and their implications for education. (EV)

  20. Model for Contingency Contracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Dept. of Human Development.

    The Department of Human Development at Prince George's Community College has developed a contingency contracting model for the department's counseling and student services which presents planning and evaluation as interrelated parts of the same process of self-imposed accountability. The implementation of the model consisted of: (1) planning…

  1. Structural Equation Model Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  2. Anticipatory model of cavitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kercel, Stephen W.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Dress, William B.; Hylton, James O.

    1999-03-01

    The Anticipatory System (AS) formalism developed by Robert Rosen provides some insight into the problem of embedding intelligent behavior in machines. AS emulates the anticipatory behavior of biological systems. AS bases its behavior on its expectations about the near future and those expectations are modified as the system gains experience. The expectation is based on an internal model that is drawn from an appeal to physical reality. To be adaptive, the model must be able to update itself. To be practical, the model must run faster than real-time. The need for a physical model and the requirement that the model execute at extreme speeds, has held back the application of AS to practical problems. Two recent advances make it possible to consider the use of AS for practical intelligent sensors. First, advances in transducer technology make it possible to obtain previously unavailable data from which a model can be derived. For example, acoustic emissions (AE) can be fed into a Bayesian system identifier that enables the separation of a weak characterizing signal, such as the signature of pump cavitation precursors, from a strong masking signal, such as a pump vibration feature. The second advance is the development of extremely fast, but inexpensive, digital signal processing hardware on which it is possible to run an adaptive Bayesian-derived model faster than real-time. This paper reports the investigation of an AS using a model of cavitation based on hydrodynamic principles and Bayesian analysis of data from high-performance AE sensors.

  3. Model Children's Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.

    The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

  4. Modeling Carbon Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, Piers

    2012-01-01

    Model results will be reviewed to assess different methods for bounding the terrestrial role in the global carbon cycle. It is proposed that a series of climate model runs could be scoped that would tighten the limits on the "missing sink" of terrestrial carbon and could also direct future satellite image analyses to search for its geographical location and understand its seasonal dynamics.

  5. Video Self-Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buggey, Tom; Ogle, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Video self-modeling (VSM) first appeared on the psychology and education stage in the early 1970s. The practical applications of VSM were limited by lack of access to tools for editing video, which is necessary for almost all self-modeling videos. Thus, VSM remained in the research domain until the advent of camcorders and VCR/DVD players and,…

  6. Updating Situation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaan, Rolf A.; Madden, Carol J.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined how situation models are updated during text comprehension. If comprehenders keep track of the evolving situation, they should update their models such that the most current information, the here and now, is more available than outdated information. Contrary to this updating hypothesis, E. J. O'Brien, M. L. Rizzella, J. E.…

  7. Solar Atmosphere Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    This contribution honoring Kees de Jager's 80th birthday is a review of "one-dimensional" solar atmosphere modeling that followed on the initial "Utrecht Reference Photosphere" of Heintze, Hubenet & de Jager (1964). My starting point is the Bilderberg conference, convened by de Jager in 1967 at the time when NLTE radiative transfer theory became mature. The resulting Bilderberg model was quickly superseded by the HSRA and later by the VAL-FAL sequence of increasingly sophisticated NLTE continuum-fitting models from Harvard. They became the "standard models" of solar atmosphere physics, but Holweger's relatively simple LTE line-fitting model still persists as a favorite of solar abundance determiners. After a brief model inventory I discuss subsequent work on the major modeling issues (coherency, NLTE, dynamics) listed as to-do items by de Jager in 1968. The present conclusion is that one-dimensional modeling recovers Schwarzschild's (1906) finding that the lower solar atmosphere is grosso modo in radiative equilibrium. This is a boon for applications regarding the solar atmosphere as one-dimensional stellar example - but the real sun, including all the intricate phenomena that now constitute the mainstay of solar physics, is vastly more interesting.

  8. Animal models for osteoporosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Maran, A.; Lotinun, S.; Hefferan, T.; Evans, G. L.; Zhang, M.; Sibonga, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Animal models will continue to be important tools in the quest to understand the contribution of specific genes to establishment of peak bone mass and optimal bone architecture, as well as the genetic basis for a predisposition toward accelerated bone loss in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as estrogen deficiency. Existing animal models will continue to be useful for modeling changes in bone metabolism and architecture induced by well-defined local and systemic factors. However, there is a critical unfulfilled need to develop and validate better animal models to allow fruitful investigation of the interaction of the multitude of factors which precipitate senile osteoporosis. Well characterized and validated animal models that can be recommended for investigation of the etiology, prevention and treatment of several forms of osteoporosis have been listed in Table 1. Also listed are models which are provisionally recommended. These latter models have potential but are inadequately characterized, deviate significantly from the human response, require careful choice of strain or age, or are not practical for most investigators to adopt. It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the enormous potential of laboratory animals as models for osteoporosis can only be realized if great care is taken in the choice of an appropriate species, age, experimental design, and measurements. Poor choices will results in misinterpretation of results which ultimately can bring harm to patients who suffer from osteoporosis by delaying advancement of knowledge.

  9. THE AQUATOX MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This lecture will present AQUATOX, an aquatic ecosystem simulation model developed by Dr. Dick Park and supported by the U.S. EPA. The AQUATOX model predicts the fate of various pollutants, such as nutrients and organic chemicals, and their effects on the ecosystem, including fi...

  10. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of…

  11. Model-Based Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Seel, Norbert M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, there will be a particular focus on mental models and their application to inductive reasoning within the realm of instruction. A basic assumption of this study is the observation that the construction of mental models and related reasoning is a slowly developing capability of cognitive systems that emerges effectively with proper…

  12. Earth and ocean modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knezovich, F. M.

    1976-01-01

    A modular structured system of computer programs is presented utilizing earth and ocean dynamical data keyed to finitely defined parameters. The model is an assemblage of mathematical algorithms with an inherent capability of maturation with progressive improvements in observational data frequencies, accuracies and scopes. The Eom in its present state is a first-order approach to a geophysical model of the earth's dynamics.

  13. Unitary Response Regression Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    The dependent variable in a regular linear regression is a numerical variable, and in a logistic regression it is a binary or categorical variable. In these models the dependent variable has varying values. However, there are problems yielding an identity output of a constant value which can also be modelled in a linear or logistic regression with…

  14. On Some Electroconvection Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantin, Peter; Elgindi, Tarek; Ignatova, Mihaela; Vicol, Vlad

    2017-02-01

    We consider a model of electroconvection motivated by studies of the motion of a two-dimensional annular suspended smectic film under the influence of an electric potential maintained at the boundary by two electrodes. We prove that this electroconvection model has global in time unique smooth solutions.

  15. Tacit Models and Infinity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Efraim

    2001-01-01

    Analyses several examples of tacit influences exerted by mental models on the interpretation of various mathematical concepts in the domain of actual infinity. Specifically addresses the unconscious effect of the figural-pictorial models of statements related to the infinite sets of geometrical points related to the concepts of function and…

  16. Dual-Schemata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  17. Using Models Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichinger, John

    2005-01-01

    Models are crucial to science teaching and learning, yet they can create unforeseen and overlooked challenges for students and teachers. For example, consider the time-tested clay volcano that relies on a vinegar and-baking-soda mixture for its "eruption." Based on a classroom demonstration of that geologic model, elementary students may interpret…

  18. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  19. BioVapor Model Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    General background on modeling and specifics of modeling vapor intrusion are given. Three classical model applications are described and related to the problem of petroleum vapor intrusion. These indicate the need for model calibration and uncertainty analysis. Evaluation of Bi...

  20. Animal models of tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Brozoski, Thomas J; Bauer, Carol A

    2016-08-01

    Presented is a thematic review of animal tinnitus models from a functional perspective. Chronic tinnitus is a persistent subjective sound sensation, emergent typically after hearing loss. Although the sensation is experientially simple, it appears to have central a nervous system substrate of unexpected complexity that includes areas outside of those classically defined as auditory. Over the past 27 years animal models have significantly contributed to understanding tinnitus' complex neurophysiology. In that time, a diversity of models have been developed, each with its own strengths and limitations. None has clearly become a standard. Animal models trace their origin to the 1988 experiments of Jastreboff and colleagues. All subsequent models derive some of their features from those experiments. Common features include behavior-dependent psychophysical determination, acoustic conditions that contrast objective sound and silence, and inclusion of at least one normal-hearing control group. In the present review, animal models have been categorized as either interrogative or reflexive. Interrogative models use emitted behavior under voluntary control to indicate hearing. An example would be pressing a lever to obtain food in the presence of a particular sound. In this type of model animals are interrogated about their auditory sensations, analogous to asking a patient, "What do you hear?" These models require at least some training and motivation management, and reflect the perception of tinnitus. Reflexive models, in contrast, employ acoustic modulation of an auditory reflex, such as the acoustic startle response. An unexpected loud sound will elicit a reflexive motor response from many species, including humans. Although involuntary, acoustic startle can be modified by a lower-level preceding event, including a silent sound gap. Sound-gap modulation of acoustic startle appears to discriminate tinnitus in animals as well as humans, and requires no training or