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Sample records for ieee asia-pacific region

  1. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  2. Leptospirosis in the Asia Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection that has been recognized for decades, but the problem of the disease has not been fully addressed, particularly in resource-poor, developing countries, where the major burden of the disease occurs. This paper presents an overview of the current situation of leptospirosis in the region. It describes the current trends in the epidemiology of leptospirosis, the existing surveillance systems, and presents the existing prevention and control programs in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Data on leptospirosis in each member country were sought from official national organizations, international public health organizations, online articles and the scientific literature. Papers were reviewed and relevant data were extracted. Results Leptospirosis is highly prevalent in the Asia Pacific region. Infections in developed countries arise mainly from occupational exposure, travel to endemic areas, recreational activities, or importation of domestic and wild animals, whereas outbreaks in developing countries are most frequently related to normal daily activities, over-crowding, poor sanitation and climatic conditions. Conclusion In the Asia Pacific region, predominantly in developing countries, leptospirosis is largely a water-borne disease. Unless interventions to minimize exposure are aggressively implemented, the current global climate change will further aggravate the extent of the disease problem. Although trends indicate successful control of leptospirosis in some areas, there is no clear evidence that the disease has decreased in the last decade. The efficiency of surveillance systems and data collection varies significantly among the countries and areas within the region, leading to incomplete information in some instances. Thus, an accurate reflection of the true burden of the disease remains unknown. PMID:19732423

  3. Education Standards in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Lenore Yaffee

    This report presents an overview of some of the similarities and differences in education standards in the Asia-Pacific region that are revealed in survey responses of members of APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation). All 14 member states of APEC submitted responses to the survey; the members are: Australia, Brunei, Darussalam, Canada, People's…

  4. Endemic fungal infections in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, A; Slavin, M A

    2011-05-01

    Endemic mycoses are important fungal infections in their respective habitats. In the Asia-Pacific region, an accurate epidemiological picture of endemic mycoses is elusive; few epidemiological surveys have been performed, and limited laboratory facilities and experience with fungal infections have further hampered recognition of infection. However, pockets of endemicity do indeed exist, and endemic fungal infections can have a significant impact on public health. This article reviews the most common endemic mycoses in the Asia-Pacific region: histoplasmosis, penicilliosis, and sporotrichosis. Blastomycosis, which has been infrequently reported within the region, is also briefly discussed. Certain areas of the Asia-Pacific region are endemic for histoplasmosis; however, the ecologic niche for this infection remains unclear. Penicilliosis is restricted to Southeast and Eastern Asia, whereas sporotrichosis is encountered in tropical areas of the Asia-Pacific region linked to environmental reservoirs distinct from those seen in the Western world. Before the advent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), histoplasmosis and penicilliosis were only occasionally reported; however, the incidence of both mycoses has increased with the rise in the incidence of AIDS. Comprehensive studies are needed to fully assess the areas of endemicity and the impact of endemic mycoses in the Asia-Pacific region.

  5. Satellite broadcasting and communications in the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonzon, S.

    1985-12-01

    Against the general context of worldwide developments in satellite communications and broadcasting, and the recent ORB'85 Conference, this paper assesses the future for satellite communication and broadcasting in the Asia-Pacific region. While most attention focusses on satellite developments for the industrialized world, the Asia-Pacific region is expected to play an increasingly significant role, and the needs of its population will be satisfied by development of satellite communications and broadcasting systems. Particular emphasis is placed in this paper on the broadcasting aspects, and their relationship to cultural and economic development.

  6. Progress in island health in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region contains many islands, perhaps up to 100 000. The provision of public health and health care to small isolated groups poses particular challenges in the 21st century. The health of island populations has improved over the past 3 decades, but maintaining and improving current levels of health is made more difficult by emigration and the difficulty of maintaining communications.

  7. Food crisis in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Katinka M; Easdown, Warwick J; Yang, Ray-yu; Keatinge, John Donough H

    2009-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region was on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of halving the prevalence of extreme poverty by 2015, but recent dramatic rises in the price of rice and other staples have pushed millions of people back into hunger and poverty. This indicates that the region's food supply system is more fragile and imbalanced than what was previously believed. Proximate causes of the rise in staple prices can be found in market forces such as export restrictions and rising energy prices but the ultimate causes are policies that have led to under-investment in agricultural research and emergency mitigation. Large numbers of people in the Asia-Pacific were already undernourished prior to the recent price rises, relying on monotonous diets dominated by a few staples. Pushed into reducing their dietary diversity even further, many more millions are now suffering from hunger and deteriorating health. The most fundamental food crisis in the Asia-Pacific is one of poor diets, and this affects the obese just as much as the undernourished. The solution lies in a food system that focuses on producing balanced diets, developing safe production practices, increasing food supplies by reducing losses, and investing in the research that make it all happen. Improving food systems is a fundamental community expectation and can be a matter of government survival, but if the urgency to improve food supplies overrides improving diets, the long-term impact on national health will be severe. Proactive policies, regional responses, and more integrated scientific approaches are needed.

  8. Sustainability in Business Education in the Asia Pacific Region: A Snapshot of the Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeem, Malik; Neal, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the extent to which sustainability is integrated into business school education and learning in the Asia Pacific region. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was developed, and administered to business schools in the Asia Pacific region. In addition to measuring the number of…

  9. Dioxins and organohalogen contaminants in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Minh, Tu Binh

    2010-03-01

    This article reviews the outcome of comprehensive investigations conducted in our laboratory at CMES, Ehime University over the past three decades on the distribution, sources, temporal trends and toxic impacts of the persistent and bioaccumulative organohalogen contaminants in Asia-Pacific region with a particular emphasis on developing countries. Results of multi-media monitoring studies were compiled and discussed to provide in-depth understanding on various issues of dioxins and organohalogen contamination in both ambient environment and animals including humans. Prominent contaminations were found in the regions where they have been heavily used. The eastern Asian region is probably a potential source of pollution, particularly by the new contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyls ethers. These groups of contaminants, together with polychlorinated biphenyls, exhibited either decreasing or increasing trends depending on the extent of industrialization in Asian developing region, indicating the necessity for long term monitoring. The open dumping sites for municipal wastes in major cities are significant sources of many toxic chemicals, and these areas are probably one of the challenges for future research due to the long term impacts on the environmental quality and human health. The formation of dioxins and related compounds in such dumping sites and their elevated residues found in breast milk of residents living in and around warrant long term impacts of dioxins upon next generations. Comprehensive and long term monitoring programs are urgently needed with close collaboration and proper capacity building in Asian developing countries in order to mitigate dioxin and organohalogen emission and their risk on ecosystems and human health.

  10. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region : Networking and shared education.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L

    2012-01-01

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities in the Asia Pacific Region are particularly important since births there account for approximately half of the world's births. To date, there have been two workshops to facilitate formation of the Asia Pacific Newborn Screening Collaboratives. The 1st Workshop on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region occurred in Cebu, Philippines, on March 30-April 1, 2008, as a satellite meeting to the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics. The second workshop was held on June 4-5, 2010, in Manila, Philippines. Workshop participants included key policy-makers, service providers, researchers, and consumer advocates from 11 countries with 50% or less newborn screening coverage. Expert lectures included experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, international quality assurance activities and ongoing and potential research activities. Additional meeting support was provided by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, the International Society for Neonatal Screening, and the March of Dimes. As part of both meeting activities, participants shared individual experiences in program implementation with formal updates of screening information for each country. This report reviews the activities and country reports from two Workshops on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region with emphasis on the second workshop. It

  11. Accreditation of public health education in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Karunathilake, Indika M; Liyanage, Chiranthi K

    2015-01-01

    There has been dramatic advancement in health status in the Asia-Pacific region (APR) over the past 50 years. This ever-changing paradigm of public health calls for continuous review and quality improvement of public health education (PHE). Since its founding in 1984, the mission of the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) has been to improve the quality and relevance of PHE to combat the diverse, dynamic, and unique challenges in the APR. Prof Walter Patrick was a forerunner in this movement and played an instrumental role in establishing APACPH's position in accreditation and improvement of PHE.

  12. Educational Reforms in the Asia-Pacific Region: Trends, Challenges and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    This paper analyzes trends and challenges in recent educational reform and development in the Asia-Pacific region and explores related implications for educational research. There are numerous educational reforms in nearly all countries in the region as they respond to challenges of globalization, information technology, knowledge-based economy,…

  13. Rethinking the Mission of Internationalization of Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Shun Wing

    2012-01-01

    This article adopts the critical theory approach to reflect and analyse the impacts of globalization on the internationalization process of higher education in the Asia-Pacific region. It argues that globalization forces many of the higher education institutions in the region to follow global practices and ideologies of the Anglo-American paradigm…

  14. Ocular Pathology: Role of Emerging Viruses in the Asia-Pacific Region-A Review.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Ratnesh; Ranjan, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    The role of viral infections in ocular pathology varies greatly, involving all the components of the eye. Some viruses like herpes simplex, herpes zoster, adenovirus, enterovirus 70, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and cytomegalovirus are well-known for their role in ocular pathology. In recent years, emerging and resurging viral infections represent an important public health problem. The Asia-Pacific region has witnessed a number of pandemic and epidemic outbreaks caused by these viruses during the last 2 decades. The number of ocular complications being reported in patients of these viral infections has also increased significantly during this period. Ophthalmologists and physicians should be aware of ocular manifestations of newly emerging or resurging viral diseases. We conducted a review of the literature published during the last 20 years with the objectives of finding out outbreaks of emerging and reemerging viruses in the Asia-Pacific region and finding out any ocular involvement in these viral infections. An iterative search of the MEDLINE and the Google databases was made using the search terms emerging virus, ocular manifestations, ocular complications, Chikungunya, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, Kyasanur forest disease, Rift valley fever, Hantavirus, Henipavirus, Influenza virus, Enterovirus 71, and Asia-Pacific region, separately and with reported ocular involvement in combination. This review article discusses the epidemiology and the systemic and ocular manifestations of all emerging viral infections with reported ocular involvement in the Asia-Pacific region.

  15. Future Developments of Educational Research in the Asia-Pacific Region: Paradigm Shifts, Reforms, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    2007-01-01

    In facing up to the challenges and impacts of globalization, high technology, economic transformation, international competitions and local developments in the new century, there have been numerous educational reforms and initiatives in many countries in the Asia-Pacific Region (Cheng, 2005a, A new paradigm for re-engineering education:…

  16. Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education in the Asia Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeem, Malik A.; Peach, Neil W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe how a consortium of universities in the Asia Pacific region are endeavouring to make a contribution to the implementation of education for sustainable development (ESD) through their participation with and the operation of the Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education and Research Net…

  17. Online Learning and Information Technology in the Asia-Pacific Region: Perspectives, Issues, and Divides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2003-01-01

    This special issue presents articles contributed by academics from the Asia-Pacific region on perspectives and progress made in online learning and information technology (IT). The articles discuss online learning and IT efforts in South Korea, Hong Kong, China, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Australia, Guam, and New Zealand. (AEF)

  18. Continuing Professional Development in the Accounting Profession: Practices and Perceptions from the Asia Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lange, Paul; Jackling, Beverley; Suwardy, Themin

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on research in the sociology of professions as a reference point, this study examines the practices and perceptions of professional accountants towards the requirements of IES7 on continuing professional development (CPD). Responses from 1310 accountants in the Asia Pacific region suggest while increasing globalisation has led to more…

  19. Security of water, energy, and food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Fujii, M.; Shoji, J.; Baba, K.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F. P.; Delinom, R.

    2014-12-01

    Water, energy, and food are the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Demands for these resources are escalating rapidly because of increases in populations and changes in lifestyles. Therefore intensive demand for those resources makes conflicts between resources. Securities of water, energy, and food are treated separately, however they should be considered as one integrated matter, because water-energy-food are connected and it makes nexus and tradeoff. Security in terms of self-production, diversity of alternatives, and variability are evaluated for water, energy and food for thirty two countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The water and energy nexus includes water consumption for the cooling of power plant systems, water use for hydro power generation, and energy consumption for water allocation and pumping. The water and food nexus consists of water consumption for agriculture and aquaculture. The energy and food nexus includes energy consumption for food production and biomass for energy. Analyses of 11 countries within the Asia- Pacific region show that energy consumption for fish is the largest among foods in Japan, Philippines, and Peru, while energy consumption for cereals is the largest among foods in Canada, US, Indonesia, and others. Water consumption for different types of food and energy are also analyzed, including nexus ratio to total water consumption. The water-energy-food nexus at a local level in the Asia Pacific region are examined by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature project "Human environmental security in Asia Pacific Ring of Fire". Themes including geothermal power plants for energy development and hot springs as water, shale gas for energy development and water consumption/contamination, aquaculture for food and water contamination are used to evaluate the water-energy-food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region.

  20. 'Getting the biosecurity architecture right' in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Minehata, Masamichi

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers insights to enhance biosecurity in the Asia-Pacific by asking three questions. What risks/threats are significant in the region? Which security measures should be prioritized? What kind of regional--institutionalized and ad-hoc--arrangements should be implemented? By doing so the paper specifically focuses on two important aspects of biosecurity. Firstly, the issue of immediate capacity-building in the context of disaster relief, public health preparedness and biodefence. Secondly, the long-term preventive aspect, namely education and awareness-raising activities to more broadly promote responsible conduct in life science research in terms of laboratory accidents as well as the intentional use of biological agents for hostile purposes. In order to promote both aspects of biosecurity within the policy process, the paper analyses the strategic value of the US-Japan partnership in its efforts to build a biosecurity architecture in the Asia-Pacific region.

  1. Dynamic Spatiotemporal Trends of Dengue Transmission in the Asia-Pacific Region, 1955–2004

    PubMed Central

    Banu, Shahera; Hu, Wenbiao; Guo, Yuming; Naish, Suchithra; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue fever (DF) is one of the most important emerging arboviral human diseases. Globally, DF incidence has increased by 30-fold over the last fifty years, and the geographic range of the virus and its vectors has expanded. The disease is now endemic in more than 120 countries in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. This study examines the spatiotemporal trends of DF transmission in the Asia-Pacific region over a 50-year period, and identified the disease’s cluster areas. Methodology and Findings The World Health Organization’s DengueNet provided the annual number of DF cases in 16 countries in the Asia-Pacific region for the period 1955 to 2004. This fifty-year dataset was divided into five ten-year periods as the basis for the investigation of DF transmission trends. Space-time cluster analyses were conducted using scan statistics to detect the disease clusters. This study shows an increasing trend in the spatiotemporal distribution of DF in the Asia-Pacific region over the study period. Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Singapore and Malaysia are identified as the most likely clusters (relative risk = 13.02) of DF transmission in this region in the period studied (1995 to 2004). The study also indicates that, for the most part, DF transmission has expanded southwards in the region. Conclusions This information will lead to the improvement of DF prevention and control strategies in the Asia-Pacific region by prioritizing control efforts and directing them where they are most needed. PMID:24586780

  2. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region; Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-11

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  3. Development of Crop Yield Estimation Method by Applying Seasonal Climate Prediction in Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y.; Lee, E.

    2015-12-01

    Under the influence of recent climate change, abnormal weather condition such as floods and droughts has issued frequently all over the world. The occurrence of abnormal weather in major crop production areas leads to soaring world grain prices because it influence the reduction of crop yield. Development of crop yield estimation method is important means to accommodate the global food crisis caused by abnormal weather. However, due to problems with the reliability of the seasonal climate prediction, application research on agricultural productivity has not been much progress yet. In this study, it is an object to develop long-term crop yield estimation method in major crop production countries worldwide using multi seasonal climate prediction data collected by APEC Climate Center. There are 6-month lead seasonal predictions produced by six state-of-the-art global coupled ocean-atmosphere models(MSC_CANCM3, MSC_CANCM4, NASA, NCEP, PNU, POAMA). First of all, we produce a customized climate data through temporal and spatial downscaling methods for use as a climatic input data to the global scale crop model. Next, we evaluate the uncertainty of climate prediction by applying multi seasonal climate prediction in the crop model. Because rice is the most important staple food crop in the Asia-Pacific region, we assess the reliability of the rice yields using seasonal climate prediction for main rice production countries. RMSE(Root Mean Squire Error) and TCC(Temporal Correlation Coefficient) analysis is performed in Asia-Pacific countries, major 14 rice production countries, to evaluate the reliability of the rice yield according to the climate prediction models. We compare the rice yield data obtained from FAOSTAT and estimated using the seasonal climate prediction data in Asia-Pacific countries. In addition, we show that the reliability of seasonal climate prediction according to the climate models in Asia-Pacific countries where rice cultivation is being carried out.

  4. United States security strategy for the east Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The United States National Security Strategy published in July 1994 is based on enlarging the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation, our allies and our interests. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are: to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth; and to promote democracy abroad. In accordance with the National Security Strategy, this document explains United States defense policy toward furthering these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. It builds upon the Strategy`s emphasis on maintaining a strong defense capability to enhance U.S. security and to provide a foundation for regional stability through mutually beneficial security partnerships. As the Strategy states, East Asia is a region of growing importance to American goals: nowhere are the strands of our three-part strategy more intertwined; nowhere is the need for continued engagement more evident. In thinking about the Asia-Pacific region, security comes first, and a committed United States military presence will continue to serve as a bedrock for America`s security role in this dynamic area of the world. The regional security strategy for the Asia-Pacific region emphasizes strengthening the bilateral alliances that have been at the heart of United States strategy for more than forty years. The United States is also committed to contribute to regional security through active participation in new multi-lateral fora like the ASEAN Regional Forum. Through such multi-lateral mechanisms the countries of the region seek to develop new cooperative approaches to achieve greater stability and security. Additionally, the Pacific Command sponsors multi-national military activities.

  5. 2013 Asia-Pacific Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net) Regional Study on Transversal Competencies in Education Policy & Practice (Phase I). Regional Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoko, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an understanding of how transversal competencies are viewed, implemented, and adapted in education policy and curriculum across the Asia-Pacific region. The publication consolidates the results of ten country studies carried out in 2013-2014 in ten countries and economies of the Asia-Pacific region, including: Australia; China…

  6. PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region: opportunities, implementation and barriers

    PubMed Central

    Zablotska, Iryna; Grulich, Andrew E; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Anand, Tarandeep; Janyam, Surang; Poonkasetwattana, Midnight; Baggaley, Rachel; van Griensven, Frits; Lo, Ying-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV epidemics in the Asia-Pacific region are concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and other key populations. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention intervention and could be a potential game changer in the region. We discuss the progress towards PrEP implementation in the Asia-Pacific region, including opportunities and barriers. Discussion Awareness about PrEP in the Asia-Pacific is still low and so are its levels of use. A high proportion of MSM who are aware of PrEP are willing to use it. Key PrEP implementation barriers include poor knowledge about PrEP, limited access to PrEP, weak or non-existent HIV prevention programmes for MSM and other key populations, high cost of PrEP, stigma and discrimination against key populations and restrictive laws in some countries. Only several clinical trials, demonstration projects and a few larger-scale implementation studies have been implemented so far in Thailand and Australia. However, novel approaches to PrEP implementation have emerged: researcher-, facility- and community-led models of care, with PrEP services for fee and for free. The WHO consolidated guidelines on HIV testing, treatment and prevention call for an expanded access to PrEP worldwide and have provided guidance on PrEP implementation in the region. Some countries like Australia have released national PrEP guidelines. There are growing community leadership and consultation processes to initiate PrEP implementation in Asia and the Pacific. Conclusions Countries of the Asia-Pacific region will benefit from adding PrEP to their HIV prevention packages, but for many this is a critical step that requires resourcing. Having an impact on the HIV epidemic requires investment. The next years should see the region transitioning from limited PrEP implementation projects to growing access to PrEP and expansion of HIV prevention programmes. PMID:27760688

  7. Meningococcal disease in the Asia-Pacific region: Findings and recommendations from the Global Meningococcal Initiative.

    PubMed

    Borrow, Ray; Lee, Jin-Soo; Vázquez, Julio A; Enwere, Godwin; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Kamiya, Hajime; Kim, Hwang Min; Jo, Dae Sun

    2016-11-21

    The Global Meningococcal Initiative (GMI) is a global expert group that includes scientists, clinicians, and public health officials with a wide range of specialties. The purpose of the Initiative is to promote the global prevention of meningococcal disease (MD) through education, research, and cooperation. The first Asia-Pacific regional meeting was held in November 2014. The GMI reviewed the epidemiology of MD, surveillance, and prevention strategies, and outbreak control practices from participating countries in the Asia-Pacific region.Although, in general, MD is underreported in this region, serogroup A disease is most prominent in low-income countries such as India and the Philippines, while Taiwan, Japan, and Korea reported disease from serogroups C, W, and Y. China has a mixed epidemiology of serogroups A, B, C, and W. Perspectives from countries outside of the region were also provided to provide insight into lessons learnt. Based on the available data and meeting discussions, a number of challenges and data gaps were identified and, as a consequence, several recommendations were formulated: strengthen surveillance; improve diagnosis, typing and case reporting; standardize case definitions; develop guidelines for outbreak management; and promote awareness of MD among healthcare professionals, public health officials, and the general public.

  8. Regional ash fall hazard II: Asia-Pacific modelling results and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Susanna; McAneney, John; Magill, Christina; Blong, Russell

    2012-09-01

    In a companion paper (this volume), the authors propose a methodology for assessing ash fall hazard on a regional scale. In this study, the methodology is applied to the Asia-Pacific region, determining the hazard from 190 volcanoes to over one million square kilometre of urban area. Ash fall hazard is quantified for each square kilometre grid cell of urban area in terms of the annual exceedance probability (AEP), and its inverse, the average recurrence interval (ARI), for ash falls exceeding 1, 10 and 100 mm. A surrogate risk variable, the Population-Weighted Hazard Score: the product of AEP and population density, approximates the relative risk for each grid cell. Within the Asia-Pacific region, urban areas in Indonesia are found to have the highest levels of hazard and risk, while Australia has the lowest. A clear demarcation emerges between the hazard in countries close to and farther from major subduction plate boundaries, with the latter having ARIs at least 2 orders of magnitude longer for the same thickness thresholds. Countries with no volcanoes, such as North Korea and Malaysia, also face ash falls from volcanoes in neighbouring countries. Ash falls exceeding 1 mm are expected to affect more than one million people living in urban areas within the study region; in Indonesia, Japan and the Philippines, this situation could occur with ARIs less than 40 years.

  9. Particularities of hydro lidar missions in the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feygels, Viktor I.; Kopilevich, Yuri; Park, Joong Yong; Kim, Minsu; Aitken, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    The Asia-Pacific ocean region is one of the areas where airborne lidar is a promising tool for depth measurement. The anticipated efficiency of a laser bathymetry survey of a coastal zone in the region varies with the optical characteristics of the water. Near-shore waters in open areas of several countries (Philippines, Indonesia, Taiwan, and the east coast of South Korea) may be described as Class II in the Jerlov 1 classification (turbid tropical-subtropical water), while water properties in internal seas are described as Classes 1 to 9 (coastal waters of increasing turbidity); the optical characteristics of the coastal waters of the East China Sea are beyond the Jerlov classification. In this paper, the applicability of the CZMIL (Coastal Zone Mapping and Imaging Lidar) 2, 3 system developed by Optech is considered for lidar bathymetry in the Asia-Pacific region. The Optech CZMIL has several attributes that enable it to significantly improve seafloor detectability in shallow and, in particular, turbid waters, namely a high-energy laser, a short system response function, increased receiver sensitivity, and high point density. The system capability was tested in a relatively turbid area of the Gulf Coast of Mississippi. The maximal depth for bathymetry with the CZMIL system is estimated theoretically in various countries, accounting for the spatial and seasonal variability of the internal optical properties of near-shore water

  10. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2014 survey results.

    PubMed

    Kron, Tomas; Azhari, H A; Voon, E O; Cheung, K Y; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, N M; TsedenIsh, Bolortuya; Win, U M; Srivastava, R; Marsh, S; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, Men; Baggarley, S; DilipKumara, A H; Lee, C C; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, X C; Ng, K H

    2015-09-01

    It was the aim of this work to assess and track the workload, working conditions and professional recognition of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region over time. In this third survey since 2008, a structured questionnaire was mailed in 2014 to 22 senior medical physicists representing 23 countries. As in previous surveys the questionnaire covered seven themes: 1 education, training and professional certification, 2 staffing, 3 typical tasks, 4 professional organisations, 5 resources, 6 research and teaching, and 7 job satisfaction. The response rate of 100% is a result of performing a survey through a network, which allows easy follow-up. The replies cover 4841 ROMPs in 23 countries. Compared to 2008, the number of medical physicists in many countries has doubled. However, the number of experienced ROMPs compared to the overall workforce is still small, especially in low and middle income countries. The increase in staff is matched by a similar increase in the number of treatment units over the years. Furthermore, the number of countries using complex techniques (IMRT, IGRT) or installing high end equipment (tomotherapy, robotic linear accelerators) is increasing. Overall, ROMPs still feel generally overworked and the professional recognition, while varying widely, appears to be improving only slightly. Radiation oncology medical physics practice has not changed significantly over the last 6 years in the Asia Pacific Region even if the number of physicists and the number and complexity of treatment techniques and technologies have increased dramatically.

  11. Model-informed risk assessment for Zika virus outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific regions.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yue; Bi, Dehua; Xie, Guigang; Jin, Yuan; Huang, Yong; Lin, Baihan; An, Xiaoping; Tong, Yigang; Feng, Dan

    2017-02-09

    Recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has been recognized as a significant threat to global public health. The disease was present in large parts of the Americas, the Caribbean, and also the western Pacific area with southern Asia during 2015 and 2016. However, little is known about the factors affecting the transmission of ZIKV. We used Gradient Boosted Regression Tree models to investigate the effects of various potential explanatory variables on the spread of ZIKV, and used current with historical information from a range of sources to assess the risks of future ZIKV outbreaks. Our results indicated that the probability of ZIKV outbreaks increases with vapor pressure, the occurrence of Dengue virus, and population density but decreases as health expenditure, GDP, and numbers of travelers. The predictive results revealed the potential risk countries of ZIKV infection in the Asia-Pacific regions between October 2016 and January 2017. We believe that the high-risk conditions would continue in South Asia and Australia over this period. By integrating information on eco-environmental, social-economical, and ZIKV-related niche factors, this study estimated the probability for locally acquired mosquito-borne ZIKV infections in the Asia-Pacific region and improves the ability to forecast, and possibly even prevent, future outbreaks of ZIKV.

  12. A Food in Health Security (FIHS) platform in the Asia-Pacific Region: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Keatinge, John Donough H; Butler, Colin D; Friel, Sharon; McKay, John; Easdown, Warwick; Kuo, Ken N; Huang, Ching-jang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yang, Ray-Yu; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Jaron, Dov; Krawinkel, Michael; Barlow, Snow; Walsh, Greg; Chiang, Tung-liang; Huang, Po-Chao; Li, Duo

    2009-01-01

    The advent of multiple global crises, especially those of climate change, economics, energy, water, food and health evident in 2008, is of considerable moment to those who are suffering their consequences and for those with responsibility and interest in the systems affected. A coalition of parties in the Asia Pacific Region who work in the food and health systems met in August, 2009 in Taiwan and instigated a Food in Health Security (FIHS) Network which might join with other like-minded networks in and beyond the region. Sustainable health has many dimensions, among which food and nutrition is often neglected; there is a wide spectrum of nutritionally-related disorders. Malnutrition remains the global concern for agricultural research and development scientists and linkage with the health sector is key to progress. The disconnect between agricultural and health sectors negatively impacts consumer nutrition and health. Ethical and equity affect food and health systems. Food and health security is attainable only when the underlying social inequities are addressed; it is an ethical issue as reflected in the UN Universal declaration of Human Rights which includes the right to food for health and well-being. Food and health security are part of the larger security agenda and merit corresponding attention. Policy recommendations with immediacy are greater investment in combined food and health research; an Asia Pacific security agenda which emphasizes planetary, human, health and food security as relevant to traditional defence security; and community and household security measures which include maternal literacy, communication technology and entrepreneurial opportunity.

  13. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection-focus on the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Q M; Nguyen, H L; Nguyen, V N; Nguyen, T V A; Sintchenko, V; Marais, B J

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading opportunistic disease and cause of death in patients with HIV infection. In 2013 there were 1.1 million new TB/HIV co-infected cases globally, accounting for 12% of incident TB cases and 360,000 deaths. The Asia-Pacific region, which contributes more than a half of all TB cases worldwide, traditionally reports low TB/HIV co-infection rates. However, routine testing of TB patients for HIV infection is not universally implemented and the estimated prevalence of HIV in new TB cases increased to 6.3% in 2013. Although HIV infection rates have not seen the rapid rise observed in Sub-Saharan Africa, indications are that rates are increasing among specific high-risk groups. This paper reviews the risks of TB exposure and progression to disease, including the risk of TB recurrence, in this vulnerable population. There is urgency to scale up interventions such as intensified TB case-finding, isoniazid preventive therapy, and TB infection control, as well as HIV testing and improved access to antiretroviral treatment. Increased awareness and concerted action is required to reduce TB/HIV co-infection rates in the Asia-Pacific region and to improve the outcomes of people living with HIV.

  14. Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko; Bell, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    With the emphasis on faculty experiences and efforts to enhance higher learning in less-developed regions, "Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of the Asia-Pacific Region" is a comprehensive study of teaching applications involving educational technology. The book encourages collaboration across…

  15. Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and Human Health Implications in the Asia Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Hashim, Zailina

    2016-03-01

    The Asia Pacific region is regarded as the most disaster-prone area of the world. Since 2000, 1.2 billion people have been exposed to hydrometeorological hazards alone through 1215 disaster events. The impacts of climate change on meteorological phenomena and environmental consequences are well documented. However, the impacts on health are more elusive. Nevertheless, climate change is believed to alter weather patterns on the regional scale, giving rise to extreme weather events. The impacts from extreme weather events are definitely more acute and traumatic in nature, leading to deaths and injuries, as well as debilitating and fatal communicable diseases. Extreme weather events include heat waves, cold waves, floods, droughts, hurricanes, tropical cyclones, heavy rain, and snowfalls. Globally, within the 20-year period from 1993 to 2012, more than 530 000 people died as a direct result of almost 15 000 extreme weather events, with losses of more than US$2.5 trillion in purchasing power parity.

  16. [Current trends of NASH/NAFLD in Asia-Pacific region].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiromasa

    2006-06-01

    In Japan, much attention has been paid to NASH and NAFLD for the past several years and the prevalence of this disease entity has been estimated, and NASH is thought to be present in 10% of those who have fatty liver diseases. Other points out the prevalence of NASH in Japan as 6 to 8 hundred thousand patients. The last two or three decades have seen the evolution of Western-style life of near complete inactivity, energy-dense food choices and liberal fiscal resources to obtain them and other means to avoid physical activity. Moreover, what is increasingly apparent is that NASH and NAFLD is not a Western disease and many population groups in the Asia-Pacific region are particularly prone to type 2 diabetes. Thus, it is not surprising that NASH has increasingly been diagnosed in several regions in Asia including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and India.

  17. The Impact of English as a Global Language on Educational Policies and Practices in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the results of an investigation into the place of English in the curriculum in several countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The study indicates that the emergence of English as a global language is having considerable impact on policies and practices in all countries surveyed. However, it also reveals significant problems,…

  18. Why Offer the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme? A Comparison between Schools in Asia-Pacific and Other Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung; Tang, Hayes; Chak Pong Tsui, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) has become a powerful educational brand by developing a reputation for combining progressive approaches with academic rigour. This can be identified by the growing number of schools adopting IB programmes globally and especially in the IB Asia-Pacific region. As part of this trend, the IB Middle Years Programme…

  19. Letter from Seoul: Correspondence from the International Arts Education Symposium and the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprill, Arnold; Schroeder-Yu, Gigi

    2006-01-01

    Arts educator Gigi Schroeder-Yu and Arnold Aprill arrived in Seoul, Korea to participate in the International Arts Education Symposium and in the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference that are part of the wind up for the pitch of the UNESCO World Conference on Arts Education to be held in Lisbon in March 2006. In this article, they reflect on their…

  20. Remote sensing helps to assess natural hazards and environmental changes in Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouret, Jean-Claud; Liew, Soo Chin; Gupta, Avijit

    2012-04-01

    Conference on Remote Sensing, Natural Hazards, and Environmental Change; Singapore, 28-29 July 2011 Natural hazards and anthropogenic environmental changes, both significant in the Asia-Pacific region, were the two themes of a conference organized by the National University of Singapore's Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing (CRISP) and the Université Blaise Pascal's Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans. The application of satellite imagery at a wide range of resolutions, from 500 meters to 50 centimeters, was a unifying approach in many of the studies presented. The recent arrival of a new generation of satellites with extremely high resolution (50 centimeters) has improved scientists' ability to carry out detailed studies of natural hazards and environmental change.

  1. Telemedicine for gastrointestinal endoscopy: The Endoscopic Club E-conference in the Asia Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Shiaw-Hooi; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Kudo, Kuriko; Tomimatsu, Shunta; Ahmad, Mohamad Zahir; Aso, Akira; Seo, Dong Wan; Goh, Khean-Lee; Shimizu, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims An Endoscopic Club E-conference (ECE) was set up in May 2014 to cater to increased demand for gastrointestinal endoscopy-related teleconferences in the Asia-Pacific region which were traditionally organized by the medical working group (MWG) of Asia-Pacific Advanced Network. This study describes how the ECE meeting was run, examines the group dynamics, outlines feedback and analyzes factors affecting the enthusiasm of participants. It is hoped that the findings here can serve as guidance for future development of other teleconference groups. Methods The preparation, running of and feedback on the ECE teleconference were evaluated and described. The country’s economic situation, time zone differences, connectivity with a research and education network (REN) and engineering cooperation of each member were recorded and analyzed with regard to their association with participant enthusiasm, which was taken as participation in at least 50 % of the meetings since joining. Associations were calculated using 2-way table with chi-square test to generate odds ratio and P value. Results To date, ECE members have increased from 7 to 29 (increment of 314 %). Feedback received indicated a high level of satisfaction with program content, audiovisual transmission and ease of technical preparation. Upper gastrointestinal luminal endoscopy-related topics were the most favored program content. Those topics were presented mainly via case studies with a focus on management challenges. Time zone differences of more than 6 hours and poor engineering cooperation were independently associated with inactive participation (P values of 0.04 and 0.001 respectively). Conclusions Good program content and high-quality audiovisual transmission are keys to the success of an endoscopic medical teleconference. In our analysis, poor engineering cooperation and discordant time zones contributed to inactive participation while connectivity with REN and a country

  2. Surveillance colonoscopy after endoscopic treatment for colorectal neoplasia: From the standpoint of the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Takahisa; Chiu, Han-Mo; Sano, Yasushi; Fujii, Takahiro; Ono, Akiko; Saito, Yutaka

    2016-04-01

    Colonoscopy is considered the gold standard to detect and remove colorectal neoplasia. The efficacy of colonoscopy with polypectomy to reduce colorectal cancer incidence and mortality has been demonstrated. Recently, post-polypectomy surveillance colonoscopy has become a necessary intervention in daily practice not only in Western countries but also in the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, it is crucial to establish new clinical practice guidelines to reduce the number of unnecessary surveillance colonoscopies in order to create space for screening colonoscopy. The Asia-Pacific Consensus group recommended that surveillance colonoscopy interval should be tailored according to risk level of index colonoscopy. However, precise guidelines on interval of surveillance cannot be given because of a lack of prospective data. According to Korean and Australian guidelines, surveillance intervals after index colonoscopy of 5 years for low-risk subjects and 3 years for high-risk subjects are recommended in Asia-Pacific regions at present. Prospective data including long-term outcomes from the Japan Polyp Study, which is a multicenter randomized control trial, would be useful to establish the Asia-Pacific consensus in the near future.

  3. Challenges and solutions in medically managed ACS in the Asia-Pacific region: expert recommendations from the Asia-Pacific ACS Medical Management Working Group.

    PubMed

    Huo, Yong; Thompson, Peter; Buddhari, Wacin; Ge, Junbo; Harding, Scott; Ramanathan, Letchuman; Reyes, Eugenio; Santoso, Anwar; Tam, Li-Wah; Vijayaraghavan, Govindan; Yeh, Hung-I

    2015-03-15

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) remain a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the Asia-Pacific (APAC) region. International guidelines advocate invasive procedures in all but low-risk ACS patients; however, a high proportion of ACS patients in the APAC region receive solely medical management due to a combination of unique geographical, socioeconomic, and population-specific barriers. The APAC ACS Medical Management Working Group recently convened to discuss the ACS medical management landscape in the APAC region. Local and international ACS guidelines and the global and APAC clinical evidence-base for medical management of ACS were reviewed. Challenges in the provision of optimal care for these patients were identified and broadly categorized into issues related to (1) accessibility/systems of care, (2) risk stratification, (3) education, (4) optimization of pharmacotherapy, and (5) cost/affordability. While ACS guidelines clearly represent a valuable standard of care, the group concluded that these challenges can be best met by establishing cardiac networks and individual hospital models/clinical pathways taking into account local risk factors (including socioeconomic status), affordability and availability of pharmacotherapies/invasive facilities, and the nature of local healthcare systems. Potential solutions central to the optimization of ACS medical management in the APAC region are outlined with specific recommendations.

  4. How To Establish Effective Book Marketing and Distribution Systems in Asia/Pacific. Report of the Regional Training Course on Book Production in Asia/Pacific (Tokyo, Japan, September 21-October 9, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    The participants in this 1994 regional training course examined the issue of book distribution and marketing. They focused on book marketing together with the development of distribution in order to prepare practical action plans for improvement. Twenty-three experts from 20 countries in Asia/Pacific and Africa analyzed problems, exchanged…

  5. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  6. Mechanical circulatory support and heart transplantation in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Sivathasan, Cumaraswamy; Lim, Choon Pin; Kerk, Ka Lee; Sim, David K L; Mehra, Mandeep R

    2017-01-01

    . By the end of 2015, 243 HeartWare HVADs had been implanted in Asia Pacific. There is a need for focused efforts at improving the reporting of data and intensifying health policy within the region to advocate organ transplantation. Individual governments need to take national responsibility to fulfill organ donation and transplantation needs of their populations. International collaboratives, coordinated by societies such as the ISHLT, will be essential in moving this field forward in Asia Pacific.

  7. Plan of Korean Geostationary Environment Satellite over Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sukjo; Hong, Youdeog; Song, Chang-Keun; Lee, Joonsuk; Choi, Won-Jun; Kim, Dukrae; Moon, Kyung-Jung; Kim, Jhoon

    2010-05-01

    National Institute of Environmental Research(NIER/Ministry of Environment Korea) is planning GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) program to be launched in 2017-2018 onboard a MP-GEOSAT(Multi-Purpose GEOstationary SATellite) which is supposed to be the successive mission of COMS(Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite). GEMS is a scanning UV-Visible Spectrometer to monitor trans-boundary pollution events in Asia-Pacific region, together with ABI(Advanced Baseline Imager) and GOCI-2 (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager). The objective of GEMS is to provide high resolution atmospheric chemistry measurements, to monitor regional and transboundary events, to understand on interactions between atmospheric chemistry and climate, and to improve chemical weather forecast with constraining hourly emissions and data assimilation of chemical observations. Opportunity of international collaboration with NASA and ESA, for the constellation with the GEMS of Korea, Japanese air quality mission, GEO-CAPE of U.S.A and Sentennial-4 of Europe planned to be launched in 2017- 2020 time frame, which can make great synergistic outcomes for better understanding in global air quality and climate change issues.

  8. Soil health as a factor of ensuring food security (the case of the Asia-Pacific Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, Alla; Nesterova, Olga; Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Viktoriia; Derbentseva, Alla; Purtova, Lyudmila; Kostenkov, Nikolay; Tyurina, Elena; Glotova, Elena; Sergeeva, Olesya; Korshenko, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    Soil health as a factor of ensuring food security (the case of the Asia-Pacific Region) Food security is a complex issue of both international and national levels. The food embargo on imported products has defined the preservation and regeneration of soils as a priority task in ensuring the food security of the Russian Federation. Soils are a finite, non-renewable resource and their preservation is extremely important for the national food security. Food production is the major function of soils; production of high-quality foods, rich in nutrients, is possible only in healthy soils. Therefore, a healthy and fertile soil is the most important factor in ensuring the food security and improved subsistence. By 2050, in order to meet the demand for food, the global agricultural production has to increase by 60%, and almost by 100% in the developing countries. In many countries and subregions of the Asia-Pacific Region, the population growth rates outrun the rates of food production. The possibilities of incorporating new lands into agricultural activities and providing their irrigation are also limited. In the context of expanding cooperation with the Asia-Pacific neighbors, Russia can make its contribution into improving the food security of the region. Russia has vast territories that could be used for crops farming; a substantial part of these lands have not been farmed yet. Hence, in the Russian Far East, production of grain crops can be increased by incorporating the unused territories into agricultural activities. Therefore, the Russian Far East is a unique site for creating a crops farming territory. And the preservation and regeneration of soils will provide for the production growth and ensure the food security of Russia and the Asia-Pacific region.

  9. The United States and the Asia-Pacific Region: National Interests and Strategic Imperatives (Strategic Forum, Number 239, April 2009)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    American territory in the Pacific Ocean extended from the Aleutian Islands to Guam, Secretary Gates characterized the United States as a “resident power...extend their operational reach to the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf. It is noteworthy to recall that the first U.S. forces to reach the Persian Gulf...alliance cooperation beyond the Asia-Pacific region. Japan’s Maritime Self- Defense Force is engaged in refueling oper- ations in the Indian Ocean

  10. Non-communicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: Prevalence, risk factors and community-based prevention.

    PubMed

    Low, Wah-Yun; Lee, Yew-Kong; Samy, Alexander Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) lead to substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. The most common NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. With the rapid increase in NCD-related deaths in Asia Pacific countries, NCDs are now the major cause of deaths and disease burden in the region. NCDs hamper achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). People in the low socio-economic group are most affected by NCDs as they have poor access to policies, legislations, regulations and healthcare services meant to combat NCDs. This results in loss of productivity by a decreasing labor force with implications at the macroeconomic level. The 3 major NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are CVDs, cancer and diabetes due to the increasing loss of disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The 4 major behavioral risk factors for NCDs are: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, inadequate physical activity and unhealthy diet. The underlying risk factors are urbanization, globalization, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and hypertension. Strategies to combat NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are as follows: population-based dietary salt reduction, health education, psychological interventions, i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational-interviewing, taxation and bans on tobacco-related advertisements, implementing smoke-free zones and surveillance by the World Health Organization. Control measures must focus on prevention and strengthening inter-sectorial collaboration.

  11. Health systems and noncommunicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Mannava, Priya; Abdullah, Asnawi; James, Chris; Dodd, Rebecca; Annear, Peter Leslie

    2015-03-01

    Addressing the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in countries of the Asia-Pacific region requires well-functioning health systems. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, health systems are generally characterized by inadequate financial and human resources, unsuitable service delivery models, and weak information systems. The aims of this review were to identify (a) health systems interventions being implemented to deliver NCD programs and services and their outcomes and (b) the health systems bottlenecks impeding access to or delivery of these programs and services in LMICs of the Asia-Pacific region. A search of 4 databases for literature published between 1990 and 2010 retrieved 36 relevant studies. For each study, information on basic characteristics, type of health systems bottleneck/intervention, and outcome was extracted, and methodological quality appraised. Health systems interventions and bottlenecks were classified as per the World Health Organization health systems building blocks framework. The review identified interventions and bottlenecks in the building blocks of service delivery, health workforce, financing, health information systems, and medical products, vaccines, and technologies. Studies, however, were heterogeneous in methodologies used, and the overall quality was generally low. There are several gaps in the evidence base around NCDs in the Asia-Pacific region that require further investigation.

  12. Autoimmune liver diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: Proceedings of APASL symposium on AIH and PBC 2016.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Ma, Xiong; Yokosuka, Osamu; Weltman, Martin; You, Hong; Amarapurkar, Deepak N; Kim, Yoon Jun; Abbas, Zaigham; Payawal, Diana A; Chang, Ming-Ling; Efe, Cumali; Ozaslan, Ersan; Abe, Masanori; Mitchell-Thain, Robert; Zeniya, Mikio; Han, Kwang Hyub; Vierling, John M; Takikawa, Hajime

    2016-11-01

    During the 25th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL 2016) in Tokyo, we organized and moderated an inaugural satellite symposium on the autoimmune liver diseases, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Following the keynote lecture by John M. Vierling (USA), speakers from the Asia-Pacific region provided an up-to-date perspective on the epidemiology, clinical practice and research in AIH and PBC in the Asia-Pacific region. Although epidemiology and clinical features of AIH seem to be similar in East Asia compared to those in western countries, the majority of patients with AIH are detected at an advanced stage and have higher mortality rates in South Asia, indicating an unmet need for earlier diagnosis and the initiation of appropriate immunosuppressive treatment. PBC is more commonly seen in Australia and East Asia. As of 2016, clinical practice guidelines (CPG) for PBC have been published in Japan and China. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is recommended as a first-line therapy by both CPG. Nevertheless, one of the unmet therapeutic needs in PBC is the treatment of patients refractory to or intolerant of UDCA. It is of interest that the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in PBC patients was low in Taiwan and mainland China where the prevalence of CHB is very high. In this review, we overview this exciting and epoch-making symposium.

  13. Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (gems) Over the Korea Peninsula and Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasnik, J.; Stephens, M.; Baker, B.; Randall, C.; Ko, D. H.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, E. S.; Chang, S.; Park, J. M.; SEO, S. B.; Youk, Y.; Kong, J. P.; Lee, D.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction: The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is one of two instruments manifested aboard the South Korean Geostationary Earth Orbit KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-2B (GEO-KOMPSAT-2B or GK2B), which is scheduled to launch in 2018. Jointly developed/built by KARI and Ball Aerospace, GEMS is a geostationary UV-Vis hyperspectral imager designed to monitor trans-boundary tropospheric pollution events over the Korean peninsula and Asia-Pacific region. The spectrometer provides high temporal and spatial resolution (3.5 km N/S by 7.2 km E/W) measurements of ozone, its precursors, and aerosols. Over the short-term, hourly measurements by GEMS will improve early warnings for potentially dangerous pollution events and monitor population exposure. Over the 10-year mission-life, GEMS will serve to enhance our understanding of long-term climate change and broader air quality issues on both a regional and global scale. The GEMS sensor design and performance are discussed, which includes an overview of measurement capabilities and the on-orbit concept of operations. GEMS Sensor Overview: The GEMS hyperspectral imaging system consists of a telescope and Offner grating spectrometer that feeds a single CCD detector array. A spectral range of 300-500 nm and sampling of 0.2 nm enables NO2, SO2, HCHO, O3, and aerosol retrieval. The GEMS field of regard (FOR), which extends from 5°S to 45°N in latitude and 75°E to 145°E in longitude, is operationally achieved using an onboard two-axis scan mirror. On-orbit, the radiometric calibration is maintained using solar measurements, which are performed using two onboard diffusers: a working diffuser that is deployed routinely for the purpose of solar calibration, and a reference diffuser that is deployed sparingly for the purpose of monitoring working diffuser performance degradation.

  14. New mechanism under International Flood Initiative toward robustness for flood management in the Asia Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, M.; Yoshitani, J.; Takeuchi, K.; Koike, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is likely to result in increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events. It is imperative that a good understanding is developed of how climate change affects the events that are reflected in hydrological extremes such as floods and how practitioners in water resources management deal with them. Since there is still major uncertainty as to how the impact of climate change affect actual water resources management, it is important to build robustness into management schemes and communities. Flood management under such variety of uncertainty favors the flexible and adaptive implementation both in top-down and bottom-up approaches. The former uses projections of global or spatially downscaled models to drive resource models and project resource impacts. The latter utilizes policy or planning tools to identify what changes in climate would be most threatening to their long-range operations. Especially for the bottom-up approaches, it is essential to identify the gap between what should be done and what has not been achieved for disaster risks. Indicators or index are appropriate tools to measure such gaps, but they are still in progress to cover the whole world. The International Flood Initiative (IFI), initiated in January 2005 by UNESCO and WMO in close cooperation with UNU and ISDR, IAHS and IAHR, has promoted an integrated approach to flood management to take advantage of floods and use of flood plains while reducing the social, environmental and economic risks. Its secretariat is located in ICHARM. The initiative objective is to support national platforms to practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction through mobilizing scientific and research networks at national, regional and international levels. The initiative is now preparing for a new mechanism to facilitate the integrated approach for flood management on the ground regionally in the Asia Pacific (IFI-AP) through monitoring, assessment and capacity building.

  15. Paediatric palliative care in the Asia Pacific region: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Chong, Poh Heng; Hamsah, Ednin; Goh, Cynthia

    2017-03-01

    Paediatric palliative care services have increased both in numbers and capacity around the world in response to the needs of children living with life-limiting conditions. Members of the Asia Pacific Hospice Network, who render care to children, have increasingly realised the need to map existing services for enhanced collaborative, educational and advocacy efforts. An online survey was conducted over 2 months among professionals in the region to document current service provision, and at the same time to explore individual training needs and practice challenges. A questionnaire crafted through consensus by members of a new special interest group within the network was used to collect data. 59 distinct responses from 16 countries were obtained to build a directory, which has already been circulated. Content analyses of narrative responses yield further findings. Half of these services catered to adults as well as to children. Staffing and service provision varied across the region but most members worked in teams consisting of multidisciplinary professionals. Numerous service and funding models were found, reflecting wide differences in local conditions and responses to diverse patient populations unique to paediatric palliative care. The highest training needs centred around bereavement and spiritual care. Capacity and funding issues were expected, but significant lack of support by paediatricians was found to be alarming and warrants further study. Amid the heterogeneity, these services share common struggles and face similar needs. Identifying individual profiles of different services potentially helps to draw everyone together, towards a common vision, and towards creating opportunities for sharing of expertise and experience.

  16. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Kron, T; Cheung, Ky; Dai, J; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Song, Jy; Bold, L; Srivastava, R; Rodriguez, L; Wong, Tj; Kumara, A; Lee, Cc; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, Xc; Ng, Kh

    2008-07-01

    Medical physics plays an essential role in modern medicine. This is particularly evident in cancer care where medical physicists are involved in radiotherapy treatment planning and quality assurance as well as in imaging and radiation protection. Due to the large variety of tasks and interests, medical physics is often subdivided into specialties such as radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology medical physics. However, even within their specialty, the role of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) is diverse and varies between different societies. Therefore, a questionnaire was sent to leading medical physicists in most countries/areas in the Asia/Pacific region to determine the education, role and status of medical physicists.Answers were received from 17 countries/areas representing nearly 2800 radiation oncology medical physicists. There was general agreement that medical physicists should have both academic (typically at MSc level) and clinical (typically at least 2 years) training. ROMPs spent most of their time working in radiotherapy treatment planning (average 17 hours per week); however radiation protection and engineering tasks were also common. Typically, only physicists in large centres are involved in research and teaching. Most respondents thought that the workload of physicists was high, with more than 500 patients per year per physicist, less than one ROMP per two oncologists being the norm, and on average, one megavoltage treatment unit per medical physicist.There was also a clear indication of increased complexity of technology in the region with many countries/areas reporting to have installed helical tomotherapy, IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy), IGRT (Image Guided Radiation Therapy), Gamma-knife and Cyber-knife units. This and the continued workload from brachytherapy will require growing expertise and numbers in the medical physics workforce. Addressing these needs will be an important challenge for the future.

  17. Rewilding the tropics, and other conservation translocations strategies in the tropical Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Louys, Julien; Corlett, Richard T; Price, Gilbert J; Hawkins, Stuart; Piper, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Alarm over the prospects for survival of species in a rapidly changing world has encouraged discussion of translocation conservation strategies that move beyond the focus of ‘at-risk’ species. These approaches consider larger spatial and temporal scales than customary, with the aim of recreating functioning ecosystems through a combination of large-scale ecological restoration and species introductions. The term ‘rewilding’ has come to apply to this large-scale ecosystem restoration program. While reintroductions of species within their historical ranges have become standard conservation tools, introductions within known paleontological ranges—but outside historical ranges—are more controversial, as is the use of taxon substitutions for extinct species. Here, we consider possible conservation translocations for nine large-bodied taxa in tropical Asia-Pacific. We consider the entire spectrum of conservation translocation strategies as defined by the IUCN in addition to rewilding. The taxa considered are spread across diverse taxonomic and ecological spectra and all are listed as ‘endangered’ or ‘critically endangered’ by the IUCN in our region of study. They all have a written and fossil record that is sufficient to assess past changes in range, as well as ecological and environmental preferences, and the reasons for their decline, and they have all suffered massive range restrictions since the late Pleistocene. General principles, problems, and benefits of translocation strategies are reviewed as case studies. These allowed us to develop a conservation translocation matrix, with taxa scored for risk, benefit, and feasibility. Comparisons between taxa across this matrix indicated that orangutans, tapirs, Tasmanian devils, and perhaps tortoises are the most viable taxa for translocations. However, overall the case studies revealed a need for more data and research for all taxa, and their ecological and environmental needs. Rewilding the Asian

  18. Status of radiation protection in various interventional cardiology procedures in the Asia Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Tsapaki, Virginia; Faruque Ghulam, Mohammed; Lim, Soo Teik; Ngo Minh, Hung; Nwe, Nwe; Sharma, Anil; Sim, Kui-Hian; Srimahachota, Suphot; Rehani, Madan Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Increasing use of interventional procedures in cardiology with unknown levels of radiation protection in many countries of Asia-Pacific region necessitates the need for status assessment. The study was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project for achieving improved radiation protection in interventional cardiology (IC) in developing countries. Design The survey covers 18 cardiac catheterisation laboratories in seven countries (Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam). An important step was the creation of the ‘Asian network of Cardiologists in Radiation Protection’ and a newsletter. Data were collected on: radiation protection tools, number of IC laboratories, and annual number of various IC paediatric and adult procedures in the hospital and in the country. Patient radiation dose data were collected in terms of Kerma Area Product (KAP) and cumulative dose (CD). Results It is encouraging that protection devices for staff are largely used in the routine practice. Only 39% of the angiographic machines were equipped with a KAP meter. Operators' initial lack of awareness on radiation-protection optimisation improved significantly after participation in IAEA radiation-protection training. Only two out of five countries reporting patient percutaneous coronary intervention radiation-dose data were fully within the international guidance levels. Data from 51 patients who underwent multiple therapeutic procedures (median 2–3) indicated a total KAP reaching 995 Gy.cm2 (range 10.1–995) and CD 15.1 Gy (range 0.4–15.1), stressing the importance of dose monitoring and optimisation. Conclusions There is a need for interventional cardiology societies to play an active role in training actions and implementation of radiation protection. PMID:27325974

  19. A review of population-based prevalence studies of physical activity in adults in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) surveillance is an important component of non-communicable disease risk factor monitoring, and occurs through national and international surveillance systems. This review identifies population PA estimates for adults in the Asia-Pacific region, and examines variation in trends and prevalence rates obtained using different PA measures. Methods Data were obtained from a MEDLINE search; World Health Organization's Global Health Infobase; Government websites and reference lists of relevant papers. Inclusion criteria included: national studies or those reporting large scale population-level data; data published from 2000 to 2010 and trend data prior; sample sizes over n = 1000, or fewer subjects in small nations. Results In total, 56 population surveys from 29 Asia-Pacific countries were identified. Data on 'sufficient physical activity' amongst adults were available from 45 studies (80%), with estimates ranging from 7% to 93% (median 62%, inter-quartile range 40%-85%). For 14 countries, estimates of 'sufficient activity' were documented in multiple surveys using different methods, with the largest variation from 18% to 92% in Nepal. Median or mean MET-minutes/day, reported in 20 studies, ranged from 6 to 1356. Serial trend data were available for 11 countries (22%), for periods spanning 2-10 years. Of these, five countries demonstrated increases in physical activity over time, four demonstrated decreases and three showed no changes. Conclusions Many countries in the Asia-Pacific region collect population-level PA data. This review highlights differences in estimates within and between countries. Some differences may be real, others due to variation in the PA questions asked and survey methods used. Use of standardized protocols and measures, and combined reporting of data are essential goals of improved international PA surveillance. PMID:22251660

  20. Integrating male sexual diversity into violence prevention efforts with men and boys: evidence from the Asia-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Miedema, Stephanie S; Yount, Kathryn M; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Fulu, Emma

    2017-02-01

    Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and preferences captured in a multi-country gender-based violence prevention survey in the Asia-Pacific region, we test the effects of sexuality-related factors on men's adverse life experiences. We find that sexual minority men face statistically higher risk of lifetime adversity related to gender-based violence, stemming from gender inequitable norms in society. Sexuality is thus a key axis of differentiation among men in the Asia-Pacific region, influencing health and wellbeing and reflecting men's differential engagement with dominant norms of masculinity. Integrating awareness of male sexual diversity into gender-based violence prevention interventions, particularly those that work with boys and men, and bridging violence prevention programming between sexual minority communities and women, are essential to tackle the root drivers of violence.

  1. Cross-sectional survey of the disaster preparedness of nurses across the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Casella, Evan; Dorji, Passang; Guo, Aimin; Koy, Virya; Pego, George; Phanpaseuth, Souksavanh; Phouthavong, Olaphim; Sayami, Jamuna; Lak, Muy Seang; Sio, Alison; Ullah, Mohammad Mofiz; Sheng, Yu; Zang, Yuli; Buettner, Petra; Woods, Cindy

    2015-12-01

    Healthcare workers who have received disaster preparedness education are more likely to report a greater understanding of disaster preparedness. However, research indicates that current nursing curricula do not adequately prepare nurses to respond to disasters. This is the first study to assess Asia-Pacific nurses' perceptions about their level of disaster knowledge, skills, and preparedness. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 757 hospital and community nurses in seven Asia-Pacific countries. Data were collected using the modified Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool. Participants were found to have overall low-to-moderate levels of disaster knowledge, skills and preparedness, wherein important gaps were identified. A majority of the variance in disaster preparedness scores was located at the level of the individual respondent, not linked to countries or institutions. Multilevel random effects modelling identified disaster experience and education as significant factors of positive perceptions of disaster knowledge, skills, and management. The first step toward disaster preparedness is to ensure frontline health workers are able to respond effectively to disaster events. The outcomes of this study have important policy and education implications.

  2. Report of the Regional Consultation for Asia-Pacific Co-operative Programme in Reading Promotion and Book Development (APPREB) (Tokyo, Japan, November 20-21, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asia/Pacific Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    The 1997 Regional Consultation for Asia-Pacific Cooperative Programme for Reading Promotion and Book Development (APPREB) held at Japan Publishers Building, Tokyo, Japan, on November 20-21, 1997, highlighted the vital areas where more intensive regional cooperation is required to promote books and reading in this time of drastic changes. Included…

  3. Ensuring Opportunities for the Professional Development of Teachers. Innovation and Reform in Teacher Education for the 21st Century in the Asia-Pacific Region. Seminar Report (Hiroshima, Japan, September 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabata, Yoshinori, Ed.; Griek, Lyckle, Ed.

    This is the second seminar report in the sixth cycle of the UNESCO-APEID (Asia-Pacific Program of Educational Innovation for Development) Program on Innovation and Reform in Teacher Education for the 21st Century in the Asia-Pacific Region. The seminar focused on ensuring opportunities for the professional development of teachers. Experts from 10…

  4. Model-Informed Risk Assessment and Decision Making for an Emerging Infectious Disease in the Asia-Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Robert; Hickson, Roslyn I.; McVernon, Jodie; McCaw, James M.; Hort, Krishna; Black, Jim; Madden, John R.; Tran, Nhi H.; McBryde, Emma S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Effective response to emerging infectious disease (EID) threats relies on health care systems that can detect and contain localised outbreaks before they reach a national or international scale. The Asia-Pacific region contains low and middle income countries in which the risk of EID outbreaks is elevated and whose health care systems may require international support to effectively detect and respond to such events. The absence of comprehensive data on populations, health care systems and disease characteristics in this region makes risk assessment and decisions about the provision of such support challenging. Methodology/principal findings We describe a mathematical modelling framework that can inform this process by integrating available data sources, systematically explore the effects of uncertainty, and provide estimates of outbreak risk under a range of intervention scenarios. We illustrate the use of this framework in the context of a potential importation of Ebola Virus Disease into the Asia-Pacific region. Results suggest that, across a wide range of plausible scenarios, preemptive interventions supporting the timely detection of early cases provide substantially greater reductions in the probability of large outbreaks than interventions that support health care system capacity after an outbreak has commenced. Conclusions/significance Our study demonstrates how, in the presence of substantial uncertainty about health care system infrastructure and other relevant aspects of disease control, mathematical models can be used to assess the constraints that limited resources place upon the ability of local health care systems to detect and respond to EID outbreaks in a timely and effective fashion. Our framework can help evaluate the relative impact of these constraints to identify resourcing priorities for health care system support, in order to inform principled and quantifiable decision making. PMID:27661978

  5. A review of accessibility of administrative healthcare databases in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Milea, Dominique; Azmi, Soraya; Reginald, Praveen; Verpillat, Patrice; Francois, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe and compare the availability and accessibility of administrative healthcare databases (AHDB) in several Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, China, Thailand, and Malaysia. Methods The study included hospital records, reimbursement databases, prescription databases, and data linkages. Databases were first identified through PubMed, Google Scholar, and the ISPOR database register. Database custodians were contacted. Six criteria were used to assess the databases and provided the basis for a tool to categorise databases into seven levels ranging from least accessible (Level 1) to most accessible (Level 7). We also categorised overall data accessibility for each country as high, medium, or low based on accessibility of databases as well as the number of academic articles published using the databases. Results Fifty-four administrative databases were identified. Only a limited number of databases allowed access to raw data and were at Level 7 [Medical Data Vision EBM Provider, Japan Medical Data Centre (JMDC) Claims database and Nihon-Chouzai Pharmacy Claims database in Japan, and Medicare, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL), HealthLinQ, Victorian Data Linkages (VDL), SA-NT DataLink in Australia]. At Levels 3–6 were several databases from Japan [Hamamatsu Medical University Database, Medi-Trend, Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse (NUSM)], Australia [Western Australia Data Linkage (WADL)], Taiwan [National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)], South Korea [Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)], and Malaysia [United Nations University (UNU)-Casemix]. Countries were categorised as having a high level of data accessibility (Australia, Taiwan, and Japan), medium level of accessibility (South Korea), or a low level of accessibility (Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Singapore). In some countries, data may be available but

  6. Development of entrained-flow gasification technologies in the Asia-Pacific region (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkov, A. F.; Bogatova, T. F.; Lingyan, Zeng; Osipov, P. V.

    2016-11-01

    The gasifier that provides solid fuel conversion to produce syngas with relevant parameters is the key element of plants generating electric and thermal power, producing chemicals from coal. The purpose of this article is to analyze the modern trends in the development of gasification technologies and determine technical solutions providing the high efficiency of gasifiers and the characteristics of generated syngas that meet the requirements established by the process user. Based on the analysis of the world gasification technologies database, which includes all types of gasifiers in use and gasifiers at the construction or design stage, the data on the development of entrained-flow gasification technologies in the Asia-Pacific (AP) countries are discussed. The major constructional components of gasification plants, fuel-feed and syngas cooling methods and their influence on the efficiency and operational reliability are considered. The analysis of technological solutions confirmed the prospectivity of dry-feed entrained-flow technologies. The staged organization of the gasification process makes it possible to solve issues of increasing the economic and environmental indicators of gasification plant operation. The basic directions of modernization of entrained-flow gasifiers for improving their technical-and-economic perfomance was determined.

  7. Distribution and transportability of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in the Asia-Pacific region using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Alaee, Mehran; Marvin, Chris; Muir, Derek C G; Macinnis, Gordia; Reiner, Eric; Crozier, Patrick; Furdui, Vasile I; Subramanian, Annamalai; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K S; Zheng, Gene J; Muchtar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-11-01

    The geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was investigated through analysis of muscle tissue of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters of Asia-Pacific region (Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, Brazil, Japan Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Indian Ocean and North Pacific Ocean). HBCD was detected in almost all samples analyzed (<0.1 to 45 ng/g lipid weight basis), indicating widespread presence of this compound in the marine environment. Elevated concentrations of HBCD were found in skipjack tuna from areas around Japan, which have the larger modern industrial/urban societies, and implicated these areas as primary regional sources. All three individual HBCD isomers (alpha-, gamma- and beta-HBCD) were detected in almost all samples; the percentage contribution of the alpha-isomer to total HBCD increased with increasing latitude. The estimated empirical 1/2 distance for alpha-HBCD was 8500 km, which is one of the highest atmospheric transportability among various halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

  8. Risk factors for leptospirosis infection in humans and implications for public health intervention in Indonesia and the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Sakundarno, Mateus; Bertolatti, Dean; Maycock, Bruce; Spickett, Jeffery; Dhaliwal, Satvinder

    2014-01-01

    Prevention and control of leptospirosis require an understanding of risk factors. This review identifies risk factors associated with leptospirosis infection from countries in the Asia-Pacific region, and compares and contrasts these data with those available from Indonesia. MEDLINE, PubMed, and Scopus databases were used to search for relevant articles. Indonesian gray literature was searched for leptospirosis risk factor studies in Indonesia. A total of 34 articles were included in this review. The contrast between peer-reviewed publications and Indonesian gray literature revealed that the variety of risk factors associated with leptospirosis infection is region or area specific. The presence of skin wounds, the existence of rodents, especially rats, and activities related to contact with contaminated surface water are factors frequently reported to have significant association with leptospirosis infection in human in Indonesia and in other Asia-Pacific countries.

  9. Construction of a mathematical model for tuberculosis transmission in highly endemic regions of the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Trauer, James M; Denholm, Justin T; McBryde, Emma S

    2014-10-07

    We present a mathematical model to simulate tuberculosis (TB) transmission in highly endemic regions of the Asia-Pacific, where epidemiology does not appear to be primarily driven by HIV-coinfection. The ten-compartment deterministic model captures many of the observed phenomena important to disease dynamics, including partial and temporary vaccine efficacy, declining risk of active disease following infection, the possibility of reinfection both during the infection latent period and after treatment, multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and de novo resistance during treatment. We found that the model could not be calibrated to the estimated incidence rate without allowing for reinfection during latency, and that even in the presence of a moderate fitness cost and a lower value of R0, MDR-TB becomes the dominant strain at equilibrium. Of the modifiable programmatic parameters, the rate of detection and treatment commencement was the most important determinant of disease rates with each respective strain, while vaccination rates were less important. Improved treatment of drug-susceptible TB did not result in decreased rates of MDR-TB through prevention of de novo resistance, but rather resulted in a modest increase in MDR-TB through strain replacement. This was due to the considerably greater relative contribution of community transmission to MDR-TB incidence, by comparison to de novo amplification of resistance in previously susceptible strains.

  10. Assessment of the Contribution of BeiDou GEO, IGSO, and MEO Satellites to PPP in Asia-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qile; Wang, Chen; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xianglin

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to the US Global Positioning System (GPS), the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) and the European Galileo, the developing Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS) consists of not only Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), but also Geostationary Orbit (GEO) as well as Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites. In this study, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and PPP with Integer Ambiguity Resolution (IAR) are obtained. The contributions of these three different types of BDS satellites to PPP in Asia-Pacific region are assessed using data from selected 20 sites over more than four weeks. By using various PPP cases with different satellite combinations, in general, the largest contribution of BDS IGSO among the three kinds of BDS satellites to the reduction of convergence time and the improvement of positioning accuracy, particularly in the east direction, is identified. These PPP cases include static BDS only solutions and static/kinematic ambiguity-float and -fixed PPP with the combination of GPS and BDS. The statistical results demonstrate that the inclusion of BDS GEO and MEO satellites can improve the observation condition and result in better PPP performance as well. When combined with GPS, the contribution of BDS to the reduction of convergence time is, however, not as significant as that of GLONASS. As far as the positioning accuracy is concerned, GLONASS improves the accuracy in vertical component more than BDS does, whereas similar improvement in horizontal component can be achieved by inclusion of BDS IGSO and MEO as GLONASS.

  11. OCLC in Asia Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Min-min

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and the changing Asia Pacific library scene under the broad headings of the three phases of technology innovation. Highlights include WorldCat and the OCLC shared cataloging system; resource sharing and interlibrary loan; enriching OCLC online catalog with Asian collections; and future outlooks.…

  12. Leadership Challenges in International Schools in the Asia Pacific Region: Evidence from Programme Implementation of the International Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip; Walker, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last four decades, International Baccalaureate (IB) schools have become increasingly important in the global market of international education. This is especially evident in Asia Pacific, which has evidenced the fastest growth in IB schools, as well as international schools more generally, across the world over the last decade. Despite…

  13. Never Let the Opportunity to Prepare for a Crisis Go to Waste: The Need for Proactive Measures in the Asia-Pacific Region to Mitigate the Impacts of Climate Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    Impacts of Climate Change A Monograph by MAJ Jeffrey P. Rhodes United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States...Proactive Measures in the Asia-Pacific Region to Mitigate the Impacts of Climate Change 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...threat. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Climate Change , PACOM, Asia-Pacific, the Philippines, Migration, Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Response, natural

  14. Heart failure in patients presenting with dyspnoea to the emergency department in the Asia Pacific region: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Anne-Maree; Cullen, Louise; Klim, Sharon; Craig, Simon; Kuan, Win Sen; Jones, Peter; Holdgate, Anna; Lawoko, Charles; Laribi, Said

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe demographic features, assessment, management and outcomes of patients who were diagnosed with heart failure after presenting to an emergency department (ED) with a principal symptom of dyspnoea. Design Planned substudy of the prospective, descriptive cohort study: Asia, Australia and New Zealand Dyspnoea in Emergency Departments (AANZDEM). Setting 46 EDs in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong and Malaysia collected data over 3 72-hour periods in May, August and October 2014. Participants Patients with an ED diagnosis of heart failure. Outcome measures Outcomes included patient epidemiology, investigations ordered, treatment modalities used and patient outcomes (hospital length of stay (LOS) and mortality). Results 455 (14.9%) of the 3044 patients had an ED diagnosis of heart failure. Median age was 79 years, half were male and 62% arrived via ambulance. 392 (86%) patients were admitted to hospital. ED diagnosis was concordant with hospital discharge diagnosis in 81% of cases. Median hospital LOS was 6 days (IQR 4–9) and in-hospital mortality was 5.1%. Natriuretic peptide levels were ordered in 19%, with lung ultrasound (<1%) and echocardiography (2%) uncommonly performed. Treatment modalities included non-invasive ventilation (12%), diuretics (73%), nitrates (25%), antibiotics (16%), inhaled β-agonists (13%) and corticosteroids (6%). Conclusions In the Asia Pacific region, heart failure is a common diagnosis among patients presenting to the ED with a principal symptom of dyspnoea. Admission rates were high and ED diagnostic accuracy was good. Despite the seemingly suboptimal adherence to investigation and treatment guidelines, patient outcomes were favourable compared with other registries. PMID:28246137

  15. Co-operation in Environmental Education at the Tertiary Level in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Masahisa; Bhandari, Bishnu; Abe, Osamu

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the co-operation in environmental education at the tertiary level with regard to sub-regions, which include North-East Asia, South-East Asia, South Asia, and the South Pacific. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  16. Human resource development in the Asia-Pacific region: implications for Australia.

    PubMed

    Jones, G W

    1997-11-01

    "Educational development has played a role in rapid economic development in East and Southeast Asia.... Australia faces problems in common with countries of the region, including the need to provide greater equality of educational opportunity to students from disadvantaged backgrounds, and to find the appropriate disciplinary mix in tertiary education. The massive growth of the numbers with secondary and higher education in the region will provide opportunities to market our education, pose issues for Australian immigration policy, and provide both risks and opportunities in building a favourable image of Australia."

  17. Perspectives on the Development of LNG Market Hubs in the Asia Pacific Region

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses current initiatives to establish regional liquefied natural gas (LNG) trading hubs and pricing benchmarks in Asia and assesses the prospects for the Asian gas hubs in the near future. The report examines the characteristics of successful natural gas trading hubs and develops qualitative and quantitative indicators of the components of effective hubs, with emphasis on applying these indicators to Asian markets

  18. The impacts of summer monsoons on the ozone budget of the atmospheric boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xuewei; Zhu, Bin; Fei, Dongdong; Wang, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and inter-annual variations of ozone (O3) in the atmospheric boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific Ocean were investigated using model simulations (2001-2007) from the Model of Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). The simulated O3 and diagnostic precipitation are in good agreement with the observations. Model results suggest that the Asia-Pacific monsoon significantly influences the seasonal and inter-annual variations of ozone. The differences of anthropogenic emissions and zonal winds in meridional directions cause a pollutants' transition zone at approximately 20°-30°N. The onset of summer monsoons with a northward migration of the rain belt leads the transition zone to drift north, eventually causing a summer minimum of ozone to the north of 30°N. In years with an early onset of summer monsoons, strong inflows of clean oceanic air lead to low ozone at polluted oceanic sites near the continent, while strong outflows from the continent exist, resulting in high levels of O3 over remote portions of the Asia-Pacific Ocean. The reverse is true in years when the summer monsoon onset is late.

  19. Use of targeted therapies for advanced renal cell carcinoma in the Asia-Pacific region: opinion statement from China, Japan, Taiwan, Korea, and Australia.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dingwei; Eto, Masatoshi; Chung, Jin Soo; Kimura, Go; Chang, Wen-Cheng; Chang, Yen-Hwa; Pang, See-Tong; Lee, Jae Lyun; Niu, Yuanjie; Gurney, Howard; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2014-08-01

    Rates of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) morbidity and mortality vary widely by geography, with increasing incidence in most countries. Interestingly, RCC incidence is significantly lower in Asian countries relative to other regions, which is attributed to environmental and genetic influences. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that different ethnic groups differ in their RCC characteristics which might lead to varied responses to therapy. In this review, physicians drawn from countries across the Asia-Pacific region--China, Japan, Taiwan, Republic of Korea, and Australia--take all available data into consideration to develop the first opinion statement on treatment of advanced RCC in the region. We have sought to determine what factors influence treatment patterns and availability of therapeutic agents in our respective countries, discussed whether these factors are fully justified or should be modified, and considered what additional efforts should be undertaken to optimize treatment outcomes in RCC. Additionally, we have addressed the limitations on treatment of RCC in the region, capturing the restrictive situations of targeted therapy use in the Asia-Pacific region, mainly because of drug availability and treatment reimbursement. Often this illustrates the gap between Western and regional or even among local guidelines, the opinions of leading physicians regarding the treatment, and the realistic access to agents for most patients. Proposals made in this document are based on clinical experience and data from clinical trials of RCC therapies in which Asian patients have been included.

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Vernakalant for Cardioversion of Recent-onset Atrial Fibrillation in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Phase 3 Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Beatch, Gregory N; Bhirangi, Kiran; Juul-Moller, Steen; Rustige, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common clinically significant cardiac arrhythmia. This phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of vernakalant hydrochloride for the pharmacological conversion of AF to sinus rhythm in patients with recent-onset (>3 hours to ≤7 days) symptomatic AF from the Asia-Pacific region. Patients received an infusion of vernakalant (3 mg/kg) or placebo for 10 minutes. If AF had not been terminated 15 minutes later, a second infusion of vernakalant (2 mg/kg) or placebo for 15 minutes was administered. The primary efficacy end point was conversion of AF to sinus rhythm for >1 minute within 90 minutes. The study was terminated early for administrative reasons; 123 patients from Korea, Taiwan, and India were randomized to receive vernakalant (n = 55) or placebo (n = 56). A greater proportion of patients who received vernakalant (52.7%) than placebo (12.5%) met the primary end point (P < 0.001), and cardioversion was faster in the vernakalant group than in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Vernakalant was generally well tolerated; the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar between the groups. We conclude that vernakalant is efficacious in the rapid cardioversion of recent-onset AF in patients from the Asia-Pacific region.

  1. Teacher Education for the Effective Use of New Information Media in Schools. Innovation and Reform in Teacher Education for the 21st Century in the Asia-Pacific Region. 1997 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Shuichi, Ed.; Griek, Lyckle, Ed.

    The International Seminar on Teacher Education for the 21st Century in Hiroshima explores innovative strategies to enhance the quality of teacher education in the Asia-Pacific Region. The goal of the seminar is to identify problems and issues related to teacher competencies at rural as well as urban schools in the region; the focus of the 1997…

  2. Developing a Non-Formal Education and Literacy Database in the Asia-Pacific Region. Final Report of the Expert Group Consultation Meeting (Dhaka, Bangladesh, December 15-18, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The objectives of the Expert Group Consultation Meeting for Developing a Non-Formal Education and Literacy Database in the Asia-Pacific Region were: to exchange information and review the state-of-the-art in the field of data collection, analysis and indicators of non-formal education and literacy programs; to examine and review the set of…

  3. Patterns of polymorphism and divergence in the VP1 gene of enterovirus 71 circulating in the Asia-Pacific region between 1994 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-Song; Zhao, Na; Pan, Hao; Wang, Cheng-Min; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Hong-Mei; He, Hong-Xuan; Liu, Dan; Amer, Said; Liu, She-Lan

    2013-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 has been implicated in several outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease in the Asia-Pacific region. The present study aimed to achieve comprehensive evolutionary dynamic aspects of EV71 during 1994-2013, based on phylogenetic analyses of the VP1 sequences. The results indicated that 4 genotypes, namely C4, C1, C2 and B4 are the predominant strains, especially in Southeast Asian countries. No common ancestor was shared in different countries. Fourteen sites of substitutions were detected in the VP1 gene sequences; including the most common sites related to neutralization at position V249I [47.1% (189/401)] and A289T [42.6% (171/401)]. However, the sites Q22H and Q22R associated with increased virulence were recognized only in 13.7% (55/401) and 18% (72/401), respectively. None of the above mutations seemed to become fixed because the ratio of Ka/Ks was greater than 1.0. Mutations K43E, A58T, S184T, and T240S could possibly change the spatial structure. Two mutations, G145E and T240S, could obviously affect the hydrophobicity of VP1 and thus alter the EV71 immunoreactivity. In conclusion, the VP1 gene of EV71 strains circulating in the Asia-Pacific region during 1994-2013, showed polymorphisms and divergence with very slow evolution rate, which may be one of the reasons for periodic outbreaks in this area.

  4. Capacity building and predictors of success for HIV-1 drug resistance testing in the Asia-Pacific region and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Land, Sally; Zhou, Julian; Cunningham, Philip; Sohn, Annette H; Singtoroj, Thida; Katzenstein, David; Mann, Marita; Sayer, David; Kantor, Rami

    2013-01-01

    Background The TREAT Asia Quality Assessment Scheme (TAQAS) was developed as a quality assessment programme through expert education and training, for laboratories in the Asia-Pacific and Africa that perform HIV drug-resistance (HIVDR) genotyping. We evaluated the programme performance and factors associated with high-quality HIVDR genotyping. Methods Laboratories used their standard protocols to test panels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive plasma samples or electropherograms. Protocols were documented and performance was evaluated according to a newly developed scoring system, agreement with panel-specific consensus sequence, and detection of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) and mixtures of wild-type and resistant virus (mixtures). High-quality performance was defined as detection of ≥95% DRMs. Results Over 4.5 years, 23 participating laboratories in 13 countries tested 45 samples (30 HIV-1 subtype B; 15 non-B subtypes) in nine panels. Median detection of DRMs was 88–98% in plasma panels and 90–97% in electropherogram panels. Laboratories were supported to amend and improve their test outcomes as appropriate. Three laboratories that detected <80% DRMs in early panels demonstrated subsequent improvement. Sample complexity factors – number of DRMs (p<0.001) and number of DRMs as mixtures (p<0.001); and laboratory performance factors – detection of mixtures (p<0.001) and agreement with consensus sequence (p<0.001), were associated with high performance; sample format (plasma or electropherogram), subtype and genotyping protocol were not. Conclusion High-quality HIVDR genotyping was achieved in the TAQAS collaborative laboratory network. Sample complexity and detection of mixtures were associated with performance quality. Laboratories conducting HIVDR genotyping are encouraged to participate in quality assessment programmes. PMID:23845227

  5. The Emergence of Trans-Regional Educational Exchange Schemes (TREES) in Europe, North America, and the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    Explores how salient aspects of globalization, such as free trade zones, have led to emergence of trans-regional educational exchange schemes (TREES) in higher education. Discusses how these schemes are set apart from others by the proliferation of international university organizations that go beyond region and infiltrate other parts of the globe…

  6. 20 Years of Developing Capacity for Action-Oriented Collaborative Regional Research in the Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupas, L. M.; Stevenson, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    During its 3rd strategic phase, which ran from 2010 to 2015, the APN provided support for 123 projects through its competitive collaborative regional research and capacity development programmes. With over 250 peer-reviewed papers and the underlying philosophy that the regional research it undertakes engages at least two developing countries, the 3rd strategic phase is not only improving the research capabilities of nations in the region, but is engaging the developing country community in underpinning policy-relevant research. The extent to which science is contributing to policy is further evident in that 69% of the activities conducted had some form of science-policy mechanism built in to the project activities. The period of the 3rd Strategic Phase has been witness to significant changes in the make-up of the "conventional" global change arena, with the transition of some global change programmes into the new "Future Earth" initiative. At the same time, major events such as the Rio+20 Summit, the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, the establishment of an IPCC-related platform for biodiversity, i.e. IPBES, and the evolving engagement of science and policy communities has kept the APN busy at what it does best - networking and partnering with the international community. The APN has embraced these changes through its dynamism, allowing the APN to meet not only the needs of the scientists and decision makers its serves in the region but those of the international science communities as well. The challenge for the APN in its next two decades will be to ensure alignment with the transforming global change arena. With key phrases such as "policy-relevant science" and "science-policy interactions" being adopted broadly by the community at large these days, the APN's niche in the global community has received considerable recognition, particularly as other institutions strive to adopt similar practices that the APN has built over the last 20 years.

  7. Righting the mismatch between law, policy and the sexual and reproductive health needs of young people in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Godwin, John; Szabo, Gabrielle; Sass, Justine; Sauvarin, Josephine

    2014-11-01

    The context of sexual relations is changing in the Asia-Pacific. While the age of sexual debut remains the same, young people are generally marrying later and sex outside of marriage is increasing. The first systematic review of how laws and policies govern young people's access to sexual and reproductive health services was conducted in 2013. The study considered >400 national documents and held focus group discussions with >60 young people across three countries in the region. This paper examines the study findings in light of epidemiological data on young people's sexual behaviour and health, exposing a critical mismatch between the onset of sexual activity and laws and policies governing consent (to sex and medical treatment), and the restriction and orientation of services to married persons. An enabling legal and policy environment is an essential foundation for efforts to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health. This paper argues that international guidance and commitments (including the widely ratified Convention on the Rights of the Child) provide a framework for recognising young people's evolving capacity for independent decision-making, including in the realm of sexual and reproductive health. A number of countries in the region are using these frameworks to expand access to services, providing valuable examples for others to build on.

  8. Analysis of seasonal ozone budget and spring ozone latitudinal gradient variation in the boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xuewei; Zhu, Bin; Kang, Hanqing; Gao, Jinhui

    2014-09-01

    The ozone (O3) budget in the boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region (AP) was studied from 2001 to 2007 using the output of Model of Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). The model-simulated O3 data agree well with observed values. O3 budget analysis using the model output confirms that the dominant factor controlling seasonal variation of O3 differs by region. Photochemistry was found to play a critical role over Japan, the Korean Peninsula and Eastern China. Over the northwestern Pacific Ocean, advective flux was found to drive the seasonal variation of O3 concentrations. The large latitudinal gradient in O3 with a maximum of 52 ppbv over the marine boundary layer around 35°N during the spring was mainly due to chemistry; meanwhile, advection was found to weaken the gradient. The contribution of stratospheric O3 was ranked second (20%) to the local contribution (25%) in Japan and the Korean Peninsula near 35°N. The rate of O3 export from China's boundary layer was the highest (approximately 30%) in low latitudes and decreased with increasing latitude, while the contribution of North America and Europe increased with increasing latitude, from 10% in lower latitudes to 24% in higher latitudes.

  9. Combination therapy in hypertension: an Asia-Pacific consensus viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahman, Abdul Rashid; Reyes, Eugenio B; Sritara, Piyamitr; Pancholia, Arvind; Van Phuoc, Dang; Tomlinson, Brian

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension incurs a significant healthcare burden in Asia-Pacific countries, which have suboptimal rates of blood pressure (BP) treatment and control. A consensus meeting of hypertension experts from the Asia-Pacific region convened in Hanoi, Vietnam, in April 2013. The principal objectives were to discuss the growing problem of hypertension in the Asia-Pacific region, and to develop consensus recommendations to promote standards of care across the region. A particular focus was recommendations for combination therapy, since it is known that most patients with hypertension will require two or more antihypertensive drugs to achieve BP control, and also that combinations of drugs with complementary mechanisms of action achieve BP targets more effectively than monotherapy. The expert panel reviewed guidelines for hypertension management from the USA and Europe, as well as individual Asia-Pacific countries, and devised a treatment matrix/guide, in which they propose the preferred combination therapy regimens for patients with hypertension, both with and without compelling indications. This report summarizes key recommendations from the group, including recommended antihypertensive combinations for specific patient populations. These strategies generally entail initiating therapy with free drug combinations, starting with the lowest available dosage, followed by treatment with single-pill combinations once the BP target has been achieved. A single reference for the whole Asia-Pacific region may contribute to increased consistency of treatment and greater proportions of patients achieving BP control, and hence reducing hypertension-related morbidity and mortality.

  10. What Lessons to Take from Educational Reforms in Asia-Pacific Region? Factors That May Influence the Restructuring of Secondary Education in East Timor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capelo, Ana; Pedrosa, Maria Arminda; Almeida, Patrícia Albergaria

    2013-01-01

    To better understand current curricular reforms in some Asia-Pacific countries that came out of conflict periods, documents and information posted on various national and international agency websites were analysed. In this paper we aimed to (i) present a brief description of the conditions under which new secondary education curricula are being…

  11. Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER) project and a next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarada, S.

    2012-12-01

    The first Workshop of Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER1) was held in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan from February 23 to 24, 2012. The workshop focused on the formulation of strategies to reduce the risks of disasters worldwide caused by the occurrence of earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. More than 150 participants attended the workshop. During the workshop, the G-EVER1 accord was approved by the participants. The Accord consists of 10 recommendations like enhancing collaboration, sharing of resources, and making information about the risks of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions freely available and understandable. The G-EVER Hub website (http://g-ever.org) was established to promote the exchange of information and knowledge among the Asia-Pacific countries. Several G-EVER Working Groups and Task Forces were proposed. One of the working groups was tasked to make the next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system. The next-generation volcano hazard assessment system is useful for volcanic eruption prediction, risk assessment, and evacuation at various eruption stages. The assessment system is planned to be developed based on volcanic eruption scenario datasets, volcanic eruption database, and numerical simulations. Defining volcanic eruption scenarios based on precursor phenomena leading up to major eruptions of active volcanoes is quite important for the future prediction of volcanic eruptions. Compiling volcanic eruption scenarios after a major eruption is also important. A high quality volcanic eruption database, which contains compilations of eruption dates, volumes, and styles, is important for the next-generation volcano hazard assessment system. The volcanic eruption database is developed based on past eruption results, which only represent a subset of possible future scenarios. Hence, different distributions from the previous deposits are mainly observed due to the differences in

  12. Proceedings of Regional Asia Pacific Defence Environmental Workshop Held in Darwin, Australia on 11-14 May 1998 (Environmental Security Series Number 5)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    Puckapunyal Training Area in Victoria and Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) in North Queensland as examples where much has been done by the Australian...disharmony between states. For example, the problems posed by acid rain originating from the eastern European countries and falling in Germany and...countries, Eastern and Central Europe and Russia. Conferences such as the one hosted by the Asia-Pacific Center in June 1997 are also important steps in

  13. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    aspects of taxonomy, biology and ecology relevant to species-specific vector control. This research is particularly relevant to help unravel the complicated taxonomic status, ecology and epidemiology of the vectors of the Asia-Pacific region. All the occurrence data, predictive maps and EO-shape files generated during the production of these publications will be made available in the public domain. We hope that this will encourage data sharing to improve future iterations of the distribution maps. PMID:21612587

  14. A Bilateral U.S. - Russia Contribution to Disaster Risk Reduction in the Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Bratton, J.; Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2012-12-01

    collaboration in dealing with the geohazards of the Russian Far East - Alaska region. Subduction within this segment of the Pacific Rim has produced 50% of the top 30 earthquakes recorded instrumentally worldwide, numerous Pacific-crossing tsunamis, and the largest ash eruption in almost 200 years. Recognizing that Russia and the United States need to develop a whole-region perspective of disaster risk, scientists and program managers from several Russian and U.S. government agencies met at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow in July to identify bilateral steps that would improve safety for communities of the Kuril-Kamchatka-Aleutian-Alaska region. Significantly, the meeting included disaster preparation and response agencies EMERCOM and FEMA. Participants proposed development of a standing committee to advocate and facilitate bilateral collaboration, expanded exchange of real-time monitoring data, development of a strategy for monitoring currently unmonitored sections of plate and micro-plate boundaries, and holding of an inclusive, all-stakeholders meeting in the U.S. next year.

  15. The Asia Pacific LNG trade: Status and technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Hovdestad, W.R.

    1995-10-01

    The Asia Pacific Region is experiencing a period of sustained economic expansion. Economic growth has led to an increasing demand for energy that has spurred a rapid expansion of baseload liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in this region. This is illustrated by the fact that seven of the ten baseload facilities in existence provide LNG for markets in the Asia Pacific region. With the three exceptions having been initially commissioned in 1972 and earlier, it is fair to observed that most advances in LNG technology have been developed and applied for this market. The paper presents the current status and identified future trends for the Asia Pacific LNG trade. Technology development in terms of application to onstream production, processing and transportation facilities, including LNG tankers, is presented. The potential of future advances to applied technology and operational practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of new and existing facilities is discussed. Current design data and methods as actually used are examined in terms of identifying where fundamental research and basic physical data are insufficient for optimization purposes. These findings are then summarized and presented in terms of the likely evolution of future and existing LNG projects in the Asia Pacific region.

  16. Impact of revised CLSI breakpoints for susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates in the Asia-Pacific region: results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2002-2010.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Toh, Han-Siong; Lee, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yuag-Meng; Ho, Cheng-Mao; Lu, Po-Liang; Liu, Chun-Eng; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Liu, Yung-Ching; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Xu, Yingchun; Ni, Yuxing; Ko, Wen-Chien; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the rates of susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems among Enterobacteriaceae isolates that had been obtained from patients with intraabdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region as part of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART). Susceptibility profiles obtained using 2009 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoints were compared with those obtained using the 2011 CLSI breakpoints. From 2002 to 2010, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae together accounted for more than 60% of the 13714 Enterobacteriaceae isolates analyzed during the study period. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers comprised 28.2% of E. coli isolates and 22.1% of K. pneumoniae isolates in the Asia-Pacific region, with China (55.6% and 33.7%, respectively) and Thailand (43.1% and 40.7%, respectively) having the highest proportions of ESBL producers. Based on the 2011 CLSI criteria, 77.2% of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 40.4% of ESBL-producing E. coli, and 25.2% of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime. Carbapenems showed in vitro activity against >90% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates in all participating countries, except for ertapenem in South Korea (susceptibility rate 82.2%). Marked differences (>5%) in susceptibility of ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates to carbapenems were noted between the profiles obtained using the 2009 CLSI criteria and those using the 2011 CLSI criteria. Continuous monitoring of antimicrobial resistance is necessary in the Asia-Pacific region.

  17. Tuberculosis and mental health in the Asia-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Paul H; Sweetland, Annika C; Fox, Greg J; Halovic, Shaun; Nguyen, Thu Anh; Marks, Guy B

    2017-01-01

    Objective This opinion piece encourages mental health researchers and clinicians to engage with mental health issues among tuberculosis patients in the Asia-Pacific region in a culturally appropriate and ethical manner. The diversity of cultural contexts and the high burden of tuberculosis throughout the Asia-Pacific presents significant challenges. Research into tuberculosis and mental illness in this region is an opportunity to develop more nuanced models of mental illness and treatment, while simultaneously contributing meaningfully to regional tuberculosis care and prevention. Conclusions We overview key issues in tuberculosis and mental illness co-morbidity, highlight ethical concerns and advocate for a regional approach to tuberculosis and mental health that is consistent with the transnational challenges presented by this airborne infectious disease. Integrating tuberculosis and mental health services will go a long way to addressing the needs of vulnerable populations and stopping the transmission of one of the world’s biggest infectious killers. PMID:27206468

  18. Asia-Pacific consensus statements on Crohn's disease. Part 2: Management.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Choon Jin; Makharia, Govind K; Hilmi, Ida; Gibson, Peter R; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ahuja, Vineet; Ling, Khoon Lin; Lim, Wee Chian; Thia, Kelvin T; Wei, Shu-chen; Leung, Wai Keung; Koh, Poh Koon; Gearry, Richard B; Goh, Khean Lee; Ouyang, Qin; Sollano, Jose; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; de Silva, H Janaka; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Pisespongsa, Pises; Abu Hassan, Muhamad Radzi; Sung, Joseph; Hibi, Toshifumi; Boey, Christopher C M; Moran, Neil; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology (APAGE) with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis (UC) with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease (CD). The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all-comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field.

  19. Russia, America, and Security in the Asia-Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    educational experiences, and, most importantly, expanding a regional community of security influence that shares a mutual concern for a secure...Far East remains. China is becoming a much more influential actor in Asian affairs because of its growing economy and its successful bilateral and...equality, and mutual respect for the legitimate interests of all states. The fact that the vast majority of the Asia- Pacific states share this approach

  20. Emerging strengths in Asia Pacific bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Yang, Ueng-Cheng; Tan, Tin Wee

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 annual conference of the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation set up in 1998, was organized as the 7th International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB), jointly with the Bioinformatics and Systems Biology in Taiwan (BIT 2008) Conference, Oct. 20–23, 2008 at Taipei, Taiwan. Besides bringing together scientists from the field of bioinformatics in this region, InCoB is actively involving researchers from the area of systems biology, to facilitate greater synergy between these two groups. Marking the 10th Anniversary of APBioNet, this InCoB 2008 meeting followed on from a series of successful annual events in Bangkok (Thailand), Penang (Malaysia), Auckland (New Zealand), Busan (South Korea), New Delhi (India) and Hong Kong. Additionally, tutorials and the Workshop on Education in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (WEBCB) immediately prior to the 20th Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists and Molecular Biologists (FAOBMB) Taipei Conference provided ample opportunity for inducting mainstream biochemists and molecular biologists from the region into a greater level of awareness of the importance of bioinformatics in their craft. In this editorial, we provide a brief overview of the peer-reviewed manuscripts accepted for publication herein, grouped into thematic areas. As the regional research expertise in bioinformatics matures, the papers fall into thematic areas, illustrating the specific contributions made by APBioNet to global bioinformatics efforts. PMID:19091008

  1. Distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region: results of the study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    PubMed

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Badal, Robert E; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2013-07-01

    The increasing trend of β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat. Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections (IAI) from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) collected in 2008 and 2009 from the Asia-Pacific region were investigated. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases was performed by multiplex PCR. A total of 699 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with positive genotypic results, included Escherichia coli (n = 443), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 187), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 45), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 9), Citrobacter freundii (n = 5), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2), Morganella morganii (n = 2), and one each of Enterobacter asburiae, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri were analyzed. Nearly 20% of these β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were from community-associated IAI. CTX-M (588 isolates, including 428 [72.8%] with CTX-M-15) was the most common ESBL, followed by SHV (n = 59) and TEM (n = 4). CMY (n = 110, including 102 [92.7%] with CMY-2) was the most common AmpC β-lactamase, followed by DHA (n = 46) and ACT/MIR (n = 40). NDM (n = 65, including 62 [95.4%] with NDM-1) was the most common carbapenemase, followed by IMP (n = 7) and OXA (n = 7). Isolates from hospital-associated IAI had more complicated β-lactamase combinations than isolates from the community. Carbapenemases were all exclusively detected in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from India, except that IMP β-lactamases were also detected in Philippines and Australia. CTX-M β-lactamases were the predominant ESBLs produced by Enterobacteriaceae causing IAI in the Asia-Pacific region. Emergence of CTX-M-15-, CMY-2-, and NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates is of major concern and highlights the need for further surveillance in this area.

  2. Epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of pathogens causing urinary tract infections in the Asia-Pacific region: Results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Jean, Shio-Shin; Coombs, Geoffrey; Ling, Thomas; Balaji, V; Rodrigues, Camilla; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Kim, Min-Ja; Rajasekaram, Datin Ganeswrie; Mendoza, Myrna; Tan, Thean Yen; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Ni, Yuxing; Weinman, Barry; Xu, Yingchun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2016-04-01

    A total of 9599 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) were collected from 60 centres in 13 countries in the Asia-Pacific region from 2010-2013. These isolates comprised Enterobacteriaceae species (mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae and Morganella morganii) and non-fermentative GNB species (predominantly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii). In vitro susceptibilities were determined by the agar dilution method and susceptibility profiles were determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive breakpoints recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in 2015. Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) amongst E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis and K. oxytoca isolates was determined by the double-disk synergy test. China, Vietnam, India, Thailand and the Philippines had the highest rates of GNB species producing ESBLs and the highest rates of cephalosporin resistance. ESBL production and hospital-acquired infection (isolates obtained ≥48 h after admission) significantly compromised the susceptibility of isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and most β-lactams, with the exception of imipenem and ertapenem. However, >87% of ESBL-producing E. coli strains were susceptible to amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam, indicating that these antibiotics might be appropriate alternatives for treating UTIs due to ESBL-producing E. coli. Fluoroquinolones were shown to be inappropriate as empirical therapy for UTIs. Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem in the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, continuous monitoring of evolutionary trends in the susceptibility profiles of GNB causing UTIs in Asia is crucial.

  3. Clinical Recommendations for the Use of Donepezil 23 mg in Moderate-to-Severe Alzheimer's Disease in the Asia-Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Marwan; Han, SeolHeui; Kim, SangYun; Na, Hae-Ri; Lee, Jae-Hong; Kandiah, Nagaendran; Phanthumchinda, Kammant; Suthisisang, Chuthamanee; Senanarong, Vorapun; Pai, Ming-Chyi; Narilastri, Diatri; Sowani, Ajit M.; Ampil, Encarnita; Dash, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    Background The ‘Asia-Pacific Expert Panel (APEX) for donepezil 23 mg’ met in November 2015 to review evidence for the recently approved high dose of donepezil and to provide recommendations to help physicians in Asia make informed clinical decisions about using donepezil 23 mg in patients with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Summary In a global phase III study (study 326) in patients with moderate-to-severe AD, donepezil 23 mg/day demonstrated significantly greater cognitive benefits versus donepezil 10 mg/day, with a between-treatment difference in mean change in the Severe Impairment Battery score of 2.2 points (p < 0.001) in the overall population and 3.1 points (p < 0.001) in patients with advanced AD. A subanalysis of study 326 demonstrated that the benefits and risks associated with donepezil 23 mg/day versus donepezil 10 mg/day in Asian patients with moderate-to-severe AD were comparable to those in the global study population. Key Message Donepezil 23 mg is a valuable treatment for patients with AD, particularly those with advanced disease. The APEX emphasized the importance of patient selection (AD severity, tolerability of lower doses of donepezil, and absence of contraindications), a stepwise titration strategy for dose escalation, and appropriate monitoring and counseling of patients and caregivers in the management of patients with AD. PMID:27703471

  4. Report of the first Asia-Pacific influenza summit, Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI), Bangkok, 12-13 June 2012.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Lance C; Smith, David W; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-11-01

    On June 12-13, 2012, the Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) convened jointly with the Influenza Foundation of Thailand and the Thailand Department of Disease Control, the First Asia-Pacific Influenza Summit. The objectives of the meeting were to review the current state of official influenza control policies in Asia-Pacific countries; identify, summarize and communicate influenza control strategies that have successfully increased vaccine uptake in the region; develop policy and advocacy approaches to improve influenza vaccine uptake in high-risk groups and healthcare workers in the region; and establish collaborative relationships to promote best practices for the control of influenza. In moving forward, the challenge for the region will be establishing collaborations able to effectively communicate risk and key messages about influenza vaccination.

  5. Report of the first Asia-Pacific Forum on antiviral treatment of influenza, Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza, Bangkok, 14 June 2012.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Lance C; Smith, David W; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-11-01

    On 14 June 2012, the Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) convened the first Antiviral Forum jointly with the Influenza Foundation of Thailand and the Thailand Department of Disease Control. The goals of the meeting were to improve pandemic planning in the region from lessons learned during the 2009 pandemic, particularly with regard to the safety and efficacy of antiviral use; gain a better understanding of the therapeutic use of antivirals in seasonal influenza; review and analyse the official influenza control policies of Asia-Pacific countries and evidence gaps to support policy development; and to establish collaborative relationships to promote best practices in the use of antivirals for the treatment of influenza. The urgent need for education highlighting the importance of influenza and the benefits of antiviral drug use in the Asia-Pacific region was identified.

  6. Asia Pacific Consensus Statements on Crohn's disease. Part 1: Definition, diagnosis, and epidemiology: (Asia Pacific Crohn's Disease Consensus--Part 1).

    PubMed

    Ooi, Choon Jin; Makharia, Govind K; Hilmi, Ida; Gibson, Peter R; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ahuja, Vineet; Ling, Khoon Lin; Lim, Wee Chian; Thia, Kelvin T; Wei, Shu-chen; Leung, Wai Keung; Koh, Poh Koon; Gearry, Richard B; Goh, Khean Lee; Ouyang, Qin; Sollano, Jose; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; de Silva, H Janaka; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Pisespongsa, Pises; Abu Hassan, Muhamad Radzi; Sung, Joseph; Hibi, Toshifumi; Boey, Christopher C M; Moran, Neil; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was previously thought to be rare in Asia, but emerging data indicate rising incidence and prevalence of IBD in the region. The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research, and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of Crohn's disease. The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses, and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field.

  7. Epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infections in the Asia-Pacific region: 2009-2010 results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    PubMed

    Lu, Po-Liang; Liu, Yung-Ching; Toh, Han-Siong; Lee, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yuag-Meng; Ho, Cheng-Mao; Huang, Chi-Chang; Liu, Chun-Eng; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Chen, Yao-Shen; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Xu, Yingchun; Ni, Yuxing; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-06-01

    In 2009, the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) was expanded to include surveillance of Gram-negative pathogens causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the Asia-Pacific region. A total of 1762 isolates were collected from 38 centers in 11 countries from patients with UTIs in 2009 and 2010. In vitro susceptibilities were determined by the broth microdilution method and susceptibility profiles were determined using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive criteria, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) in 2010 (M100-S20), in 2011 (M100-S21), and in 2012 (M100-S22). Enterobacteriaceae comprised 86.0% of the isolates, of which Escherichia coli (56.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.8%) were the two most common species. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic (91.7%), followed by ertapenem (86.9%), imipenem (86.6%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (84.9%). Rates of susceptibility were 50.3% for cefoxitin and ranged from 50.3% to 74.2% for the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. For ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, the susceptibility rates were 51.4% and 54.4%, respectively. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae comprised 28.2% of all isolates. We also found a high rate of resistance to carbapenems among Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing UTI. Interestingly, according to 2012 CLSI breakpoints, approximately 33.4% of ESBL producers were still susceptible to ceftazidime. However, this in vitro efficacy of ceftazidime needs to be validated in vivo by clinical data. The lowered CLSI interpretive breakpoints for piperacillin-tazobactam, carbapenems, and some cephalosporins in 2011-2012 for Enterobacteriaceae resulted in an approximate 5% drop in susceptibility rates for each drug, with the exception of imipenem for which the susceptibility rate dropped from 99.4% according to 2010 criteria to 91.2% according to 2011 criteria. With the updated

  8. New Zealand Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report on New Zealand is one of a series of country studies intended to provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This report addresses significant changes occurring due to the reform, deregulation, and privatization of the economy in general and the energy sector in particular; provides the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation; petroleum and gas issues are highlighted, particularly the implications of foreign trade in oil and gas; provides the latest available statistics and insights to energy policy that are not generally available elsewhere.

  9. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth.

  10. Sustainability in Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific: Developments, Challenges, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Alexandra; Tilbury, Daniella; Corcoran, Peter Blaze; Abe, Osamu; Nomura, Ko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the contributions of the Asia-Pacific region to leading practice in sustainability in higher education (HE), as prelude and orientation to this special issue collection from different countries and regions. Design/methodology/approach: This is a critical review that includes…

  11. New Challenges for Higher Education: Global and Asia-Pacific Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Harman, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With rapid socio-economic changes, twenty-first century higher education is facing major challenges to its governance systems, curriculum, mission focus, external relations, research, and financing. A theoretical framework to analyze these post-massification challenges is suggested, with a focus on the Asia-Pacific region as well as global issues.…

  12. Integration of Technology Education in Basic and General Education Curriculum in Asia-Pacific Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, C. K.

    Despite the expansion of technical-vocational education and training (TVET) in nearly all Asia-Pacific countries during the past 10-15 years, many of the region's policymakers have called for greater and more effective integration of technical-vocational components in basic and general education curricula. The idea that technology education should…

  13. Malaysia. National Studies. Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This study examines the work of the Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL) since its 1987 inception. Efforts to assess educational achievement at the local, regional, and national levels in Malaysia are examined with a view to achieving universal primary education; eradicating illiteracy; and providing continuing education in support…

  14. Emerging University Student Experiences of Learning Technologies across the Asia Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, B. F. D.; Higa, C.; Ellis, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred students across eight countries and eleven higher education institutions in the Asia Pacific Region participated in two courses on climate change and disaster management that were supported by learning technologies: a satellite-enabled video-conferencing system and a learning management system. Evaluation of the student experience…

  15. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  16. Strategic Analysis of the Asia-Pacific Region: Is a Forward-Based Aircraft Carrier Required in the Post-Cold War Era?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-07

    include Southeast Asia, Indonesia and Thailand (East Indian Ocean ) in the west, the Australian continent in the south to Northeast Asia the Kurile...purposes, the area bounded by western Indonesia and Thailand (East Indian Ocean /South Asia) in the west extending northwesterly to include the Arabian Sea...relations, regional stability, and freedom of oceanic trade routes. In Europe, the multilateral NATO military alliance protected free democracies against the

  17. Family Food Providers’ Perceptions of the Causes of Obesity and Effectiveness of Weight Control Strategies in Five Countries in the Asia Pacific Region: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Worsley, Anthony; Wang, Wei; Sarmugam, Rani; Pham, Quynh; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ridley, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    The rise of the middle classes in developing countries and the associated epidemiological transition raises the importance of assessing this population group’s awareness of the causes of obesity and effective weight control strategies in order to develop effective health promotion strategies. The study aimed to examine the perceptions of the causes of obesity and weight control strategies held by middle class household food providers in Melbourne, Singapore, Shanghai, Indonesia and Vietnam. An online survey was conducted in late 2013, early 2014 among 3945 respondents. Information about body weight concerns, perceived causes of obesity, effectiveness of weight control methods, demographics, self-reported height and weight, and personal values was elicited. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) derived nine reliable factors which were used in structural equation modelling (SEM). Two thirds of respondents were trying to change their body weight, of them, 71% were trying to lose weight. The CFA and SEM showed that demographics, region of residence, personal values and perceptions of the causes of obesity (Unhealthy food behaviours, influences Beyond personal control and Environmental influences) had direct and indirect associations with three weight control methods factors, named: Healthy habits, Eat less, sit less, and Dieting. Middle class food providers in the study regions share public health views of obesity causation and personal weight control. These findings could inform public health and food policies, and the design of public health interventions and communications. Further research is required among lower socio economic status (SES) populations. PMID:28106781

  18. Emerging issues in health and education in Asia-Pacific: a focus on speech-language pathology.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li-Rong Lilly

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some emerging issues in health and education in the Asia-Pacific region. Special attention will be given to the education of speech-language pathologists (SLP) and to service provision for the people with communicative disorders whenever possible. Information on the education of SLP in Asia-Pacific is not easy to gather because of the geographical distances between areas, language differences in the data compiled and the lack of consistent collaboration and information exchanges. In this article, a case study from Singapore is also presented. Implications for clinical services and education are discussed at the end of this paper.

  19. Role of bilastine in the management of allergic rhinitis and urticaria: an Asia-Pacific consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dennis Lip Yen; Abong, Jovilia; Siasoco, Bella; Chow, Steven KW; Leong, Jern-Lin; Singh, Harvinder; Kuljit, S; Campomanes, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing globally, most particularly in middle- to low-income countries. This article examines the burden of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria in the Asia-Pacific region, unmet clinical needs, and the potential role of bilastine in the management of these conditions. An International Advisory Group meeting was convened in association with the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology Annual Congress in November 2014, followed by a literature review, and consensus-based outcomes from the meeting and literature review are described. Regional estimates of the prevalence of allergic rhinitis range from 10% to 50%, while little is known regarding the burden of urticaria in the Asia-Pacific region. A survey of allergy patients in the region identified fast, complete, and long-lasting symptom relief as the medication attributes most important to patients. International treatment guidelines for allergic rhinitis and urticaria advocate the first-line use of second-generation, no-sedating H1-antihistamines, such as bilastine, over their first-generation counterparts and a range of these agents are available to Asia-Pacific patients. The newer agents possess many of the properties of an "ideal" antihistamine (once daily administration, rapid and complete symptom relief, limited potential for drug-drug interactions, minimal side effects). The burgeoning prevalence of allergic diseases in the Asia-Pacific region and the uncontrolled symptoms that these patients experience demand a new antihistamine that offers the highest number of positive features according to the international guidelines. PMID:26844221

  20. Role of bilastine in the management of allergic rhinitis and urticaria: an Asia-Pacific consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Mösges, Ralph; Lee, Dennis Lip Yen; Abong, Jovilia; Siasoco, Bella; Chow, Steven Kw; Leong, Jern-Lin; Singh, Harvinder; Kuljit, S; Campomanes, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing globally, most particularly in middle- to low-income countries. This article examines the burden of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria in the Asia-Pacific region, unmet clinical needs, and the potential role of bilastine in the management of these conditions. An International Advisory Group meeting was convened in association with the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology Annual Congress in November 2014, followed by a literature review, and consensus-based outcomes from the meeting and literature review are described. Regional estimates of the prevalence of allergic rhinitis range from 10% to 50%, while little is known regarding the burden of urticaria in the Asia-Pacific region. A survey of allergy patients in the region identified fast, complete, and long-lasting symptom relief as the medication attributes most important to patients. International treatment guidelines for allergic rhinitis and urticaria advocate the first-line use of second-generation, no-sedating H1-antihistamines, such as bilastine, over their first-generation counterparts and a range of these agents are available to Asia-Pacific patients. The newer agents possess many of the properties of an "ideal" antihistamine (once daily administration, rapid and complete symptom relief, limited potential for drug-drug interactions, minimal side effects). The burgeoning prevalence of allergic diseases in the Asia-Pacific region and the uncontrolled symptoms that these patients experience demand a new antihistamine that offers the highest number of positive features according to the international guidelines.

  1. The Asia pacific cohort studies collaboration: a decade of achievements.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Mark; Huxley, Rachel; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Fang, Xianghua; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-12-01

    The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) was established in the late 1990s when there was a distinct shortfall in evidence of the importance of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Asia. With few exceptions, most notably from Japan, most of the published reports on cardiovascular disease in the last century were from Western countries, and there was uncertainty how far etiological associations found in the West could be assumed to prevail in the East. Against this background, APCSC was set up as a pooling project, combining individual participant data (about 600,000 subjects) from all available leading cohort studies (36 from Asia and 8 from Australasia) in the region, to fill the knowledge gaps. In the past 10 years, APCSC has published 50 peer-reviewed publications of original epidemiological research, primarily concerned with coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This work has established that Western risk factors generally act similarly in Asia and in Australasia, just as they do in other parts of the world. Consequently, strategies to reduce the prevalence of elevated blood pressure, obesity, and smoking are at least as important in Asia as elsewhere- and possibly more important when the vast size of Asia is considered. This article reviews the achievements of APCSC in the past decade, with an emphasis on coronary heart disease.

  2. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect

    Prawiraatmadja, W.; Yamaguchi, N.; Breazeale, K.; Basari, S.R.

    1991-04-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy have covered Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report covers Indonesia. 37 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  3. Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

  4. Recommendations for cervical cancer prevention in Asia Pacific.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Cuzick, Jack; Domingo, Efren J; Goldie, Sue J; Kim, Young-Tak; Konno, Ryo; Parkin, D Maxwell; Qiao, You-Lin; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Stern, Peter L; Tay, Sun Kuie; Bosch, F Xavier

    2008-08-19

    Asia Oceania includes countries from both the Asia Pacific region and Australasia, which cover very diverse geographical areas and populations as well as bearing 52% of the cervical cancer burden in the world. Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in women with normal cytology varies between countries in this region, as well as with the distribution typically observed in worldwide estimates or in Western countries. HPV-16 remains the predominant oncogenic type for high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer across the region, and HPV-18 is generally among the five most common types. HPV-58 is commonly found in cervical cancer as well as in women with normal cytology, and HPV-31, 33 and 35 are relatively less frequent in these regions compared to the West. While screening programmes have been proposed and implemented in several populations, successful programmes are rather limited and the majority of countries still have no or minimal screening services. Prophylactic HPV vaccination will only be feasible when it becomes affordable, thus the current priority and the short-term goal for cervical cancer control is to identify feasible and effective screening measures, and to find the most effective way to combine vaccination with sustainable screening programmes. This Regional Report has carefully described the disease burden of HPV and cervical cancer and the current situations in cervical cancer prevention for many countries in the Asia Oceania region. These data identify the many challenges and opportunities to be considered for policy decisions for cervical cancer control. Furthermore, this report presents the results of advanced decision analytic models calibrated to countries in the region that provide early insight into what strategies are most promising and those likely to be cost-effective and affordable. It thus provides a synthesis of the available evidence-based scientific information, in the context of a significant and systematic

  5. A structural and stochastic optimal model for projections of LNG imports and exports in Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kompas, Tom; Che, Tuong Nhu

    2016-06-01

    The Asia-Pacific region, the largest and fastest growing liquefied natural gas (LNG) market in the world, has been undergoing radical changes over the past few years. These changes include considerable additional supplies from North America and Australia, and a recent LNG price slump resulting from an oil-linked pricing mechanism and demand uncertainties. This paper develops an Asia-Pacific Gas Model (APGM), based on a structural, stochastic and optimising framework, providing a valuable tool for the projection of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region. With existing social-economic conditions, the model projects that Asia-Pacific LNG imports are expected to increase by 49.1 percent in 2020 and 95.7 percent in 2030, compared to 2013. Total LNG trade value is estimated to increase to US$127.2 billion in 2020 and US$199.0 billion in 2030. Future LNG trade expansion is mainly driven by emerging and large importers (i.e., China and India), and serviced, most importantly, by new supplies from Australia and the USA. The model's projected results are sensitive to changes in expected oil prices, pricing mechanisms, economic growth and energy policies, as well as unexpected geopolitical-economic events.

  6. Asia-Pacific Partnership for Human Development through TVET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, C. K.

    Despite their great geographic, economic, and demographic diversity, Asia-Pacific countries share many common challenges and pose many common issues that are fundamental to improving the quality and relevance of technical-vocational education and training (TVET) as a means of human resource development (HRD). Because of their great need for…

  7. The 2015 CASE Asia-Pacific Alumni Relations Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Judith A.; Bakerman, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE) launched the volunteer-led Asia-Pacific Alumni Relations Survey in 2014 to provide a resource for alumni relations professionals to benchmark performance internally and against fellow institutions of higher education. That was the first survey CASE has done on alumni relations programmes…

  8. The Asia Pacific Rebalance: Tipping the Scale with Landpower

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    partners from the more important discussion of an overall military strategy for the Asia-Pacific. As Michael O ” Hanlon and James Steinberg noted, 4...13 Ibid. 14 Michael O ” Hanlon and James Steinberg, “How Air-Sea Battle Fits in U.S. Planning,” Washington Post, August 24, 2012, http

  9. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  10. Advances in translational bioinformatics and population genomics in the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Tongsima, Sissades; Chan, Jonathan; Tan, Tin Wee; Schönbach, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The theme of the 2012 International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB) in Bangkok, Thailand was "From Biological Data to Knowledge to Technological Breakthroughs." Besides providing a forum for life scientists and bioinformatics researchers in the Asia-Pacific region to meet and interact, the conference also hosted thematic sessions on the Pan-Asian Pacific Genome Initiative and immunoinformatics. Over the seven years of conference papers published in BMC Bioinformatics and four years in BMC Genomics, we note that there is increasing interest in the applications of -omics technologies to the understanding of diseases, as a forerunner to personalized genomic medicine.

  11. More arms, less stability: Nuclear, chemical, and missile proliferation in the Asia-Pacific. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, A.

    1991-04-01

    In the wake of the Gulf War, the Bush Administration has reaffirmed its determination to seek controls over weapons of mass destruction in the Third World, in particular nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons (CBW); and over ballistic missiles, one possible delivery system for nuclear and CBW systems. Attention over the past eight months has naturally focused on the Middle East, but the Asia-Pacific region contains a number of countries which are alleged to have CW and BW programs. One country, North Korea, is far closer to manufacturing nuclear weapons than Iraq was.

  12. Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-24

    Defending Australia in the Asia Pacific Century: Force 2030 Defence White Paper 2009 and energy; population movements, environmental crises or food ...combined with booming population growth, will sharpen competition for scarce food , water and energy resources in many parts of the world, particularly in...budgets, including in critical areas such as health programs, food and fuel subsidies, or even counter-terrorism activities. 4.11 For nations

  13. Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies 2007 Annual Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies,2058 Maluhia Road,Honolulu,HI,96815 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...improv- ing what we contribute have worked diligently to transform systems to meet needs and expectations. 2007 has been a year of refocusing...development of a collaborative international institutional and leadership capacity, and willingness, to addresses complex security-related systems in

  14. Dependence values of Asia-Pacific stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, Ruzanna Ab; Ismail, Noriszura

    2014-06-01

    Return series of stock markets tend to have leptokurtic distribution thus making linear correlation an inappropriate measure of dependence. Copula theory can be used as an alternative to show the dependencies between return series. In this paper, we study the dependence structure of extreme returns between several Asia-Pacific stock markets by applying the Copula based marginal GARCH approach. The results of our study are discussed in this paper.

  15. The future liver of the Asia pacific: fatter and firmer from more fructose and fortune?

    PubMed

    Mahady, Suzanne E; George, Jacob

    2013-06-01

    The Asia Pacific region is the most diverse and the most populous region in the world. Recent socioeconomic changes have resulted in an emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian Pacific countries now approximates that seen in Western countries. This increase is fueled by rising obesity, partly due to adoption of Western style diets and exposure to compounds such as high fructose corn syrup that are not included in traditional diets. Furthermore, South Asian populations may be more genetically susceptible via the inheritance of polymorphisms in apolipoprotein 3 that increase insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Importantly, there remains a substantial lack of data on the incidence and natural history of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and subsequent complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma in Asian Pacific populations. This information gap prevents estimation of current and future disease burden and impedes efforts to lobby health policymakers to improve public health measures, as given the size of Asian Pacific populations, prevention rather than treatment of non-communicable diseases remains key. This review article addresses these issues and highlights research priorities for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease within the Asia Pacific region.

  16. The Future Liver of the Asia Pacific: Fatter and Firmer from More Fructose and Fortune?

    PubMed Central

    Mahady, Suzanne E.; George, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The Asia Pacific region is the most diverse and the most populous region in the world. Recent socioeconomic changes have resulted in an emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian Pacific countries now approximates that seen in Western countries. This increase is fueled by rising obesity, partly due to adoption of Western style diets and exposure to compounds such as high fructose corn syrup that are not included in traditional diets. Furthermore, South Asian populations may be more genetically susceptible via the inheritance of polymorphisms in apolipoprotein 3 that increase insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Importantly, there remains a substantial lack of data on the incidence and natural history of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and subsequent complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma in Asian Pacific populations. This information gap prevents estimation of current and future disease burden and impedes efforts to lobby health policymakers to improve public health measures, as given the size of Asian Pacific populations, prevention rather than treatment of non-communicable diseases remains key. This review article addresses these issues and highlights research priorities for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease within the Asia Pacific region. PMID:25755484

  17. Food security in the Asia-Pacific: Malthus, limits and environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Butler, Colin D

    2009-01-01

    This is the first of two articles on the steepening challenges which confront global agriculture, food security and hence nutrition and population health. The recent deterioration in global food security has caught most experts by surprise. While the Asia Pacific region as a whole has so far fared reasonably well, there should be no complacency about medium to long term food security in the region, whether or not food security improves in the near future. The first paper places this debate in the context of the long-standing arguments between Malthusianists and optimists. The apparent reversal of position in the last decade of two leading agricultural experts is discussed. Their recent writings reflect intensified Malthusian concerns curbed in their writings from the 1990s. The paper concludes that far more credence needs to be given to the pessimistic position in order to avoid it becoming reality. The second paper focusses on five interrelated challenges to future food security in the Asia Pacific. These may be conceptualised as pathways by which pessimistic Malthusian scenarios become manifest. The mechanisms are (1) climate change, (2) water scarcity, (3) tropospheric ozone pollution, (4) impending scarcity of phosphorus and conventional oil and (5) the possible interaction between future population displacement, conflict and poor governance. The article concludes that a sustainable improvement in food security requires a radical transformation in society's approach to the environment, population growth, agricultural research and the distribution of rights, opportunities and entitlements.

  18. Health Professional Workforce Education in the Asia Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Jessica; Webb, Gillian; Coulston, Frances; Smart, Aidan; Remedios, Louisa

    2016-01-01

    . Significance for public health The Global Learning Partnership model aims to contribute to the capacity building of a health workforce that is capable of working effectively in cross cultural and interprofessional health care teams. A shared public health focused global placement has the potential to catalyse collaborative relationships between educational institutions in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:27190976

  19. Children's exposure to food advertising on free-to-air television: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Xiao, Yang; Yu, Yang; He, Gengsheng; Li, Liangli; Zeng, Lingxia; Hadi, Hamam; Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Hoe, Ng See; Noor, Mohd Ismail; Yoon, Jihyun; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2016-03-01

    There is an established link between food promotions and children's food purchase and consumption. Children in developing countries may be more vulnerable to food promotions given the relative novelty of advertising in these markets. This study aimed to determine the scope of television food advertising to children across the Asia-Pacific to inform policies to restrict this marketing. Six sites were sampled, including from China, Indonesia, Malaysia and South Korea. At each site, 192 h of television were recorded (4 days, 16 h/day, three channels) from May to October 2012. Advertised foods were categorized as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous, and by product type. Twenty-seven percent of advertisements were for food/beverages, and the most frequently advertised product was sugar-sweetened drinks. Rates of non-core food advertising were highest during viewing times most popular with children, when between 3 (South Korea) and 15 (Indonesia) non-core food advertisements were broadcast each hour. Children in the Asia-Pacific are exposed to high volumes of unhealthy food/beverage television advertising. Different policy arrangements for food advertising are likely to contribute to regional variations in advertising patterns. Cities with the lowest advertising rates can be identified as exemplars of good policy practice.

  20. 2011 Asia Pacific Few-Body Conference Summary Remarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, B. F.

    2013-03-01

    These remarks represent the author's personal perspective regarding ideas presented at this fifth Asia Pacific Conference on Few-Body Problems in Physics. They are not intended as a comprehensive summary of what we witnessed during this week of stimulating presentations and intense discussions. However, these remarks do characterize some of the physics we heard and some of the key questions raised. The ideas presented will hopefully outlive the rapporteurs who brought their work and that of others to our attention here in the International Hall of the Sungkyunkwan University in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Finally, we bid adieu to our friend, colleague, and mentor, John A. Tjon.

  1. Natural disasters and dialysis care in the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Gray, Nicholas A; Wolley, Martin; Liew, Adrian; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The impact of natural disasters on the provision of dialysis services has received increased attention in the last decade following Hurricane Katrina devastating New Orleans in 2005. The Asia-Pacific is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes, tsunami, typhoons (also known as cyclones and hurricanes) or storms and flooding. These events can seriously interrupt provision of haemodialysis with adverse effects for patients including missed dialysis, increased hospitalization and post-traumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, haemodialysis patients may need to relocate and experience prolonged periods of displacement from family and social supports. In contrast to haemodialysis, most literature suggests peritoneal dialysis in a disaster situation is more easily managed and supported. It has become apparent that dialysis units and patients should be prepared for a disaster event and that appropriate planning will result in reduced confusion and adverse outcomes should a disaster occur. Numerous resources are now available to guide dialysis units, patients and staff in preparation for a possible disaster. This article will examine the disaster experiences of dialysis units in the Asia-Pacific, the impact on patients and staff, methods employed to manage during the disaster and suggested plans for reducing the impact of future disasters.

  2. An Observational, Prospective Survey Assessing the Control of Atrial Fibrillation in Asia Pacific: Rationale and Design of the RecordAF-AP Registry

    PubMed Central

    Amerena, John; Chen, Shih-Ann; Sriratanasathavorn, Charn; Cho, Jeong-Gwan; Dejia, Huang; Omar, Razali; Fat, Tse Hung; King, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature suggests that the prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) may be lower in Asian countries than in Western countries. Nevertheless, AF remains a significant public health problem in the region. The burden of AF, the experiences of previous trials and the lack of data on AF and its management in Asia Pacific highlight the need for a comprehensive prospective study of AF management. Methods: The REgistry on Cardiac rhythm disORDers assessing the control of Atrial Fibrillation Asia Pacific (RecordAF-AP) is a prospective, observational survey of the management of recently diagnosed AF patients with 1-year follow-up in 8 countries across Asia Pacific. Eligible patients presenting with AF, treated or not, will be included in the registry and data will be recorded prospectively during follow-up visits at 6 and 12 months. Results: RecordAF-AP will recruit more than 3000 patients. Study recruitment commenced in April 2009 and the final results anticipated at the end of 2011. Conclusions: RecordAF-AP will assess the real-life management of AF patients in Asia Pacific, including a comparison of clinical outcomes in rhythm versus rate control strategies, providing much needed insight into the costs, treatment choices and clinical outcomes of AF patients in this region. PMID:21344019

  3. Child Survival and Development toward Health for All: roles and strategies for Asia-Pacific universities.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J S; Patrick, W

    1989-01-01

    Recently, discussion among academics and practitioners has focused on the potential roles, strategies, and functions of universities in the Asia-Pacific region in the next ten to fifteen years in the global initiative commonly referred to as the Child Survival and Development Revolution toward Health for All. (1) The purpose of this paper is to capture the practical key elements of recent discussions and to extend the current thinking into potentially useful guidelines or frameworks for universities of the region. Universities may then be better prepared to move forward in ways which promote the goals and interests of the Health For All movement and the well-being of particularly the world's children.

  4. The Changing Face of Crises and Aid in the Asia-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Burkle, Frederick M.; Hamon, David W.; Walker, Peter; Benjamin, Georges C.

    2014-01-01

    Both US foreign policy and global attention attest to the strategic, economic, and political importance of Asia. Yet, the region faces urgent challenges that must be addressed if it is to remain stable and prosperous. The densely populated countries of the Asia-Pacific are beleaguered by poverty, population displacement, decreasing access to potable water and adequate sanitation, and high rates of disease morbidity and mortality. New and reemerging diseases known to have originated in Asia over the past decades have spread globally by international trade, tourism, worker migration, and agricultural exportation. Unremitting naturally occurring and man-made disasters have strained Southeast Asia's already fragile disaster and public health response infrastructures and the essential services they provide (eg, surveillance, vaccination, maternal and child health, and mental health programs). Following disasters, governments often contract with the broader humanitarian community (eg, indigenous and international NGOs) and seek the assistance of militaries to provide essential services. Yet, their roles and capabilities in addressing acute and chronic health issues in the wake of complex disasters remain unclear. Current mechanisms of nation-state and outside organization interaction, including dissimilar operational platforms, may limit true partnership on behalf of the health security mission. Additionally, concerns regarding skill sets and the lack of standards-based training raise questions about the balance between developing internal response capabilities and professionalizing external, deployable resources. Both the mega-disasters that are forecast for the region and the global health security threats that are expected to emanate from them require an increased focus on improving the Asia-Pacific's emergency preparedness and response posture. PMID:25268048

  5. Public Health & Nutrition in the Asia-Pacific: reflections on a quarter century.

    PubMed

    Cavalli-Sforza, Luca Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    Some reflections from work in the Asia Pacific Region, mostly with WHO, in the past 25 years, and the changes in nutrition seen in this time are shared. In 1988-89 I helped to start a Centre for Child Nutrition in Chengdu, Sichuan, through the Italian Development Cooperation. The nutritional problems in urban and rural China, 25 years ago, were similar to those elsewhere in the Region. Like China, these countries underwent rapid economic development and changes in health patterns, within two decades. The main problems for child nutrition had to do with infant feeding practices and less breastfeeding: anaemia, protein energy malnutrition and rickets were frequent. How did China and other countries tackle these and other nutrition problems? In the 1990s the global nutrition community started working on a problem-solving framework. In 1992, at the 1st FAO/WHO International Conference on Nutrition, 159 countries agreed to develop national nutrition plans. In 2014, 22 years later, FAO and WHO invited countries to review their national nutrition situation and plans. The epidemiological picture today is profoundly different. Many Asia-Pacific countries have achieved remarkable progress in socio-economic development, including malnutrition reduction. To reach the MDGs and the post-MDG goals being formulated, the remaining under-nutrition problems need to be alleviated, inequalities between sectors of society reduced, and also the growing threat of overweight/obesity and NCDs prevented and controlled. Assessing, monitoring and evaluating programmes to improve progress, now requires focusing not only on biological outcomes, but also on food security, programme process, and the policy environment.

  6. The changing face of crises and aid in the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Gursky, Elin A; Burkle, Frederick M; Hamon, David W; Walker, Peter; Benjamin, Georges C

    2014-01-01

    Both US foreign policy and global attention attest to the strategic, economic, and political importance of Asia. Yet, the region faces urgent challenges that must be addressed if it is to remain stable and prosperous. The densely populated countries of the Asia-Pacific are beleaguered by poverty, population displacement, decreasing access to potable water and adequate sanitation, and high rates of disease morbidity and mortality. New and reemerging diseases known to have originated in Asia over the past decades have spread globally by international trade, tourism, worker migration, and agricultural exportation. Unremitting naturally occurring and man-made disasters have strained Southeast Asia's already fragile disaster and public health response infrastructures and the essential services they provide (eg, surveillance, vaccination, maternal and child health, and mental health programs). Following disasters, governments often contract with the broader humanitarian community (eg, indigenous and international NGOs) and seek the assistance of militaries to provide essential services. Yet, their roles and capabilities in addressing acute and chronic health issues in the wake of complex disasters remain unclear. Current mechanisms of nation-state and outside organization interaction, including dissimilar operational platforms, may limit true partnership on behalf of the health security mission. Additionally, concerns regarding skill sets and the lack of standards-based training raise questions about the balance between developing internal response capabilities and professionalizing external, deployable resources. Both the mega-disasters that are forecast for the region and the global health security threats that are expected to emanate from them require an increased focus on improving the Asia-Pacific's emergency preparedness and response posture.

  7. Basic Education for Empowerment of the Poor. Report of a Regional Study on "Literacy as a Tool for Empowerment of the Poor." Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, Victor; Kasaju, Prem K.; Seshadri, C.

    This book is the outcome of a regional study on using literacy as a tool for empowering the poor, carried out by the UNESCO Asia and Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL) with collaborative support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The book sketches a program for empowerment of the poor through basic education on the…

  8. A continuation of the Asia-Pacific Risk Index for natural disasters: extending the record for an updated analysis from 1900-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Daniell, Trevor; Daniell, Katherine; Khazai, Bijan; Schaefer, Andreas; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, an Asia-Pacific risk index was created for the CECAR5 (Civil Engineering Conference for the Asia-Pacific Region) by Daniell et al. (2010a) for floods and earthquakes, using empirical and analytical risk data for direct as well as socio-economic community vulnerability. The socio-economic situation of countries can aggravate the physical risk of natural disaster impacts, as demonstrated by the impacts of earthquakes in Christchurch and Tohoku 2011; add to this a number of deadly typhoon (Haiyan 2013), cyclone (Yasi 2011), flood (Thailand 2011), bushfire and weather effects, and significant changes to the index in 2010 have been seen. At least 10,000 historical events have been recorded since 1900 across the Asia-Pacific region (western Pacific). The database for global socio-economic indicators was produced to allow comparison of countries in terms of their socio-economic situation for use in risk studies. In addition, a global damaging natural disasters database (CATDAT) has been created over the last 14 years to better understand the historical impact of natural disasters on the Asia-Pacific region as well as globally. Simplified hazard models have been used in conjunction with historical damage data added to human exposure. Post-flood and post-typhoon loss models have been produced this methodology. The relative country level rural and urban building inventories and historical building trends are used to define levels of vulnerability, exposure and hazard. From this, physical and community risk indices are derived for the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. It was found that the vulnerabilities in communities of developing countries such as Indonesia and the Philippines can further intensify the impact from direct damages by many times, showing the increased need for earthquake and flood risk reduction policy. Trends based on HDI and other indicators within the fields of economy, poverty, demographics, governance and environment are also presented

  9. EPA Efforts in the Asia-Pacific Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s engagement in Asia and the Pacific Islands helps safeguard our domestic environment; protect the health of our citizens; address global environmental issues; and improve the safety of products and food.

  10. S&T in the Asia-Pacific Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    has been bought out by the US and Germany), and opium poppies for morphine and codeine (15K hectares). Also vegetable processing; Tasmania has the...new world-class centres of excellence in ICT and BT, an expanded CRC program, doubled funds to support early commercialization, competitive pre- seed ...Adelaide, that includes parts of the AU and U SA campuses. They are also providing pre- seed funding (matching private capital 3:1) for very early

  11. The Asia-Pacific: A Region in Transition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    as the national and sole official language . This cause suspicion within the Chinese community, particularly those concerned with preserving their... modernity . Malaysia is a country undergoing many transitions: in identity; in education and language ; and in the role of Islam, to name a few. Michael...China, calls for more democracy could be seen on Chinese websites, although they were officially discouraged. It is clear that Asia has embarked on a

  12. Future Joint Seabasing in the Asia-Pacific Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Joint High Speed Vessel (JHSV) and the Joint Maritime Assault Connector ( JMAC ) provide the means to quickly move forces and cargo intra-theater from...shipping on high speed JMAC , EFV, and/or rotary wing aircraft.72 The 2005 Seabasing JIC is a great point of departure in attempting to describe

  13. Preparing for introduction of a dengue vaccine: recommendations from the 1st Dengue v2V Asia-Pacific Meeting.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sai Kit; Burke, Donald; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Chong, Chee Keong; Coudeville, Laurent; Farrar, Jeremy; Gubler, Duane; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki; Hanna, Jeffrey; Lang, Jean; Lee, Han Lim; Leo, Yee Sin; Luong, Chan Quang; Mahoney, Richard; McBride, John; Mendez-Galvan, Jorge; Ng, Lee Ching; Nimmannitya, Suchitra; Ooi, Eng Eong; Shepard, Donald; Smit, Jaco; Teyssou, Rémy; Thomas, Laurent; Torresi, Joseph; Vasconcelos, Pedro; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman; Yoksan, Sutee

    2011-11-28

    Infection with dengue virus is a major public health problem in the Asia-Pacific region and throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Vaccination represents a major opportunity to control dengue and several candidate vaccines are in development. Experts in dengue and in vaccine introduction gathered for a two day meeting during which they examined the challenges inherent to the introduction of a dengue vaccine into the national immunisation programmes of countries of the Asia-Pacific. The aim was to develop a series of recommendations to reduce the delay between vaccine licensure and vaccine introduction. Major recommendations arising from the meeting included: ascertaining and publicising the full burden and cost of dengue; changing the perception of dengue in non-endemic countries to help generate global support for dengue vaccination; ensuring high quality active surveillance systems and diagnostics; and identifying sustainable sources of funding, both to support vaccine introduction and to maintain the vaccination programme. The attendees at the meeting were in agreement that with the introduction of an effective vaccine, dengue is a disease that could be controlled, and that in order to ensure a vaccine is introduced as rapidly as possible, there is a need to start preparing now.

  14. Prawn biomonitors of nutrient and trace metal pollution along Asia-Pacific coastlines.

    PubMed

    Fry, Brian; Carter, James F; Tinggi, Ujang; Arman, Ali; Kamal, Masud; Metian, Marc; Waduge, Vajira Ariyaratna; Yaccup, Rahman Bin

    2016-12-01

    To assess coastal ecosystem status and pollution baselines, prawns were collected from the commercial catches of eight Asia-Pacific countries (Australia, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand). Samples collected from 21 sites along regional coastlines were analysed for trace metal and stable isotopic compositions of H, C, N, O and S. A combination of simple averaging and multivariate analyses was used to evaluate the data. Sites could be assigned to easily recognise polluted and unpolluted groups based on the prawn results. Some filter-feeding clams were also collected and analysed together with the benthic-feeding prawns, and the prawns generally had lower trace metal burdens. Climate change effects were not strongly evident at this time, but altered ocean circulation and watershed run-off patterns accompanying future climate change are expected to change chemical patterns recorded by prawns along these and other coastlines. Stable isotopes, especially (15)N, can help to distinguish between relatively polluted and unpolluted sites.

  15. Submicron aerosols during the Beijing Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation conference in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, Y. H.; Wang, Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30%-40% of industrial practices and 50% of vehicles in operation were limited in Beijing and its surroundings regions during the Beijing Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in 2014. Compared with values obtained prior to the APEC conference, the atmospheric concentration of submicron aerosol particles (PM1) decreased from 101 to 36.9 μg m-3, or 63%. Of all the inorganic species and black carbon present, the concentrations of nitrate to the total concentration of PM1 decreased the most in terms of both mass concentration, from 25.5 to 7.1 μg m-3, and relative contribution, from 21% to 14%. In addition, both sulfate and ammonium decreased substantially by 9.5 and 8.5 μg m-3, respectively. Accordingly, the relative contributions of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate to light extinction decreased by 10% and 5%, respectively, as a result of the pollution control measures implemented during that period. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vehicle emissions were reduced significantly.

  16. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D K; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-02-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3-S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m(2). The level of DS was most prevalent at L4-L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3-L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5-S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in facet

  17. Advancing Research on Comparative and International Education in Asia: Contribution of the "Asia Pacific Education Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gok, Enes; Weidman, John C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored the contribution of Asia Pacific Education Review (APER) to expanding the scope of research on comparative and international education in Asia. We developed a rubric based on extensive studies (Rust et al. in "Comp Educ Rev," 43(1):86-109, 1999; Foster et al. in "Int J Educ Dev" 32:711-732, 2012) of…

  18. Snapshots of Primary and Secondary Education in Asia-Pacific. Educational Innovation for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John Dewar

    In responding to the emerging challenges to education in Asia and the Pacific in this new century, this Asia-Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) book series, "Educational Innovation for Development," is launched to reflect a knowledge base of rethinking on roles of education in development. The series…

  19. Educational Psychology as an Evolving Discipline: Trends and Synthesis in Asia Pacific Education Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-il; Koh, Hye-jung; Jo, Su-yeon; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Kim, Myeung-chan

    2014-01-01

    Educational psychology has seen rapid growth as an academic discipline in recent years. The current study reviewed research articles published in "Asia Pacific Education Review" ("APER"), a journal that has been gaining greater international recognition, to reveal recent trends in educational psychology research in Asia…

  20. Globalization and the Asia Pacific: An Exploration of Efficiency and Equality Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.; Rutkowski, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the relationship between globalization and education through an investigation of educational policy development in the specific context of the Asia Pacific. The paper's primary focus is on data collected from the World Bank, OECD, IMF and UNESCO to look primarily at three interrelated trends in education: increasing…

  1. Design and Usability of Digital Libraries: Case Studies in the Asia Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theng, Yin-Leng, Ed.; Foo, Schubert, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book showcases some of the best digital library practices from organizations in the Asia Pacific. Particular emphasis has been placed on the design, use and usability of digital libraries. Not only are digital libraries examined, but related technologies, the management of knowledge in digital libraries, and the associated usability and…

  2. An Analysis of Asia-Pacific Educational Technology Research Published Internationally in 2000-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung; Yoo, Mina

    2014-01-01

    The past fourteen years have seen a significant rise in the percentage of Asia-Pacific papers on educational technology (ET) published internationally: from 13.7% in 2000 to 38.4% in 2013. This study seeks to identify the overall trends and gaps in this research. Of the 4,332 articles published in five selected international journals between 2000…

  3. Mainstreaming climate adaptation in the Asia-Pacific: Role of networks and universities in promoting climate literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, F. H.; Yasuhara, K.; Tamura, M.; Tabayashi, Y.; Mimura, N.

    2011-12-01

    As the international climate regime continues to evolve, adaptation has emerged as a key component of responding to climate change. Due to limited scientific, financial, and institutional capacities, as well as perceived competition with multiple priorities, strategies for adaptive measures are not being implemented at the pace needed to address current and future climate risks. Adaptation networks, both global and in the Asia-Pacific region, have formed to overcome the lack of sufficient communication and collaboration among different stakeholders and domains of expertise. In this presentation, we discuss various efforts at Ibaraki University in Japan to integrate technical and social aspects of adaptation into a multidisciplinary effort, to foster synergies among various networks, to clarify the roles of developed and developing countries, and to develop a standard for assessing vulnerability and adaptability across various geographical contexts.

  4. Promoting mental health in Asia-Pacific: Systematic review focusing on Thailand and China.

    PubMed

    Moeller-Saxone, Kristen; Davis, Elise; Herrman, Helen

    2015-12-01

    Mental health is essential for functioning, general health, and quality of life in low and middle-income countries (LAMICs), as for high-income countries. This study aimed first to search in the English language peer-reviewed literature for reviews of mental health promotion interventions in the Asia-Pacific region. A global rapid review by Barry and colleagues indicated a paucity of publications on this topic in the peer-reviewed literature. The second aim of the study followed from this observation. Two systematic reviews of English language literature were conducted as case studies in two countries with known interest in mental health promotion, Thailand and China. The reviews covered publications in peer-reviewed journals and the "grey" literature. In Thailand, the review demonstrated: strong evidence for an empowerment program for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers; a reduction in HIV-related stigma in a community-based program; and a coping program for adolescents. The second review concerned suicide prevention interventions in China. It found one relevant study, a WHO multi-site study of suicide prevention. We found surprisingly little evidence in either country of interventions focused on health equity or modifying the social determinants of mental health. We agree with Barry and colleagues that there is an urgent need to invest in the policy, practice, and research capacity for mental health promotion in LAMICs so that mental health promotion can be incorporated into the wider health promotion and global health development agenda. This includes the Global Action for Health Equity Network. Evidence-based interventions in parenting, schools, workplaces, and among older people can be initiated or adapted and evaluated in LAMIC settings.

  5. Comparative in vitro activity of carbapenems against major Gram-negative pathogens: results of Asia-Pacific surveillance from the COMPACT II study.

    PubMed

    Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Chongthaleong, Anan; Tan, Thean Yen; Lagamayo, Evelina; Roberts, Sally; Garcia, Jemelyn; Davies, Todd

    2012-04-01

    Resistance rates amongst Gram-negative pathogens are increasing in the Asia-Pacific region. The Comparative Activity of Carbapenem Testing (COMPACT) II study surveyed the carbapenem susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem against 1260 major Gram-negative pathogens isolated from hospitalised patients at 20 centres in five Asia-Pacific countries (New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) during 2010. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=625), Enterobacteriaceae (n=500), and other Gram-negative pathogens including Acinetobacter baumannii (n=135) were collected from patients with bloodstream infection (32.2%), nosocomial pneumonia including ventilator-associated pneumonia (58.1%), and complicated intra-abdominal infection (9.7%), with 36.7% being isolated from patients in an Intensive Care Unit. As high as 29.8% of P. aeruginosa and 73.0% of A. baumannii isolates were not susceptible to at least a carbapenem, whereas the majority of Enterobacteriaceae (97.2%) were susceptible to all carbapenems. Respective MIC(50)/MIC(90) values (MICs for 50% and 90% of the organisms, respectively) of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem were: 0.38/8, 1.5/32 and 0.38/16 mg/L for P. aeruginosa; 0.023/0.094, 0.25/0.5 and 0.032/0.094 mg/L for Enterobacteriaceae; and 32/64, 32/128 and 32/64 mg/L for A. baumannii. Doripenem and meropenem had comparable activity against P. aeruginosa, both being more active than imipenem. All carbapenems were highly potent against Enterobacteriaceae, although imipenem demonstrated higher MIC values than doripenem and meropenem. The three carbapenems showed less activity against A. baumannii. The high prevalence of carbapenem resistance amongst important nosocomial pathogens (P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii) warrants rigorous infection control measures and appropriate antimicrobial use in the Asia-Pacific region.

  6. The burden of segregated respiratory diseases in India and the quality of care in these patients: Results from the Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases study

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal; Ravindran, G D; Gangwal, Paras; Rajadhyaksha, Girish; Cho, Sang-Heon; Muttalif, Abdul Razak Bin Abdul; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Bagga, Shalini; Faruqi, Rab; Sajjan, Shiva; Shetty, Pradeep; Syed, Raeesuddin; Hamrosi, Kim K; Wang, De Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and rhinosinusitis are becoming increasingly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region. The Asia-Pacific Burden of Respiratory Diseases study examined the disease and economic burden of AR, asthma, COPD, and rhinosinusitis across the Asia-Pacific and more specifically India. Objectives: To estimate the proportion of adults receiving care for asthma, AR, COPD, and rhinosinusitis and assess the economic burden, both direct and indirect of these chronic respiratory disease. Subjects and Methods: Consecutive participants aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of asthma, AR, COPD, or rhinosinusitis were enrolled. Surveys comprising questions about respiratory disease symptoms, healthcare resource utilization, work productivity, and activity impairment were completed by treating physicians and participants during one study visit. Costs, indirect and direct, that contributed to treatment for each of the four respiratory diseases were calculated. Results: A total of 1000 patients were enrolled. Asthma was the most frequent primary diagnosis followed by AR, COPD, and rhinosinusitis. A total of 335 (33.5%) patients were diagnosed with combinations of the four respiratory diseases; the most frequently diagnosed combinations were asthma/AR and rhinosinusitis/AR. Cough or coughing up sputum was the primary reason for the current visit by patients diagnosed with asthma and COPD while AR patients reported a watery, runny nose, and sneezing; patients with rhinosinusitis primarily reported a colored nasal discharge. The mean annual cost per patient was US$637 (SD 806). The most significant driver of direct costs was medications. The biggest cost component was productivity loss. Conclusions: Given the ongoing rapid urbanization of India, the frequency of respiratory diseases and their economic burden will continue to rise. Efforts are required to better

  7. The United States Strategy in East Asia-Pacific-Implications for Australia’s Defenses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    power by wealth, has been a dominant historical catalyst for human conflict. When Charles Darwin published The Descent of Man in 1871 he made the...71 Ross Babbage , "Trends in Asia-Pacific Security." In The Army and the Future. Ed. David Horner, 47-48. Canberra: Directorate of...Keehn, 112. 165 General Charles Krulak, Commandant USMC, in an interview with The Navy Times, 1 January 1996, 18. 166 General Dennis J. Reimer, in

  8. Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of tailoring iron chelation practice in thalassaemia patients from Asia-Pacific: a subanalysis of the EPIC study of deferasirox.

    PubMed

    Viprakasit, Vip; Ibrahim, Hishamshah; Ha, Shau-Yin; Ho, Phoebe Joy; Li, Chi-Kong; Chan, Lee-Lee; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Sutcharitchan, Pranee; Habr, Dany; Domokos, Gabor; Roubert, Bernard; Xue, Hong-Ling; Bowden, Donald K; Lin, Kai-Hsin

    2011-03-01

    Although thalassaemia is highly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region, clinical data on efficacy and safety profiles of deferasirox in patients from this region are rather limited. Recently, data from the multicentre Evaluation of Patients' Iron Chelation with Exjade (EPIC) study in 1744 patients with different anaemias has provided an opportunity to analyse 1115 thalassaemia patients, of whom 444 patients were from five countries in the Asia-Pacific region (AP) for whom thalassaemia management and choice of iron chelators were similar. Compared to the rest of the world (ROW), baseline clinical data showed that the AP group appeared to be more loaded with iron (3745.0 vs. 2822.0 ng/ml) and had a higher proportion on deferoxamine monotherapy prior to the study (82.9 vs. 58.9%). Using a starting deferasirox dose based on transfusional iron intake and tailoring it to individual patient response, clinical efficacy based on serum ferritin reduction in AP and ROW thalassaemia patients was similar. Interestingly, the AP group developed a higher incidence of drug-related skin rash compared to ROW (18.0 vs. 7.2%), which may indicate different pharmacogenetic backgrounds in the two populations. Our analysis confirms that, with appropriate adjustment of dose, deferasirox can be clinically effective across different regions, with manageable side effects.

  9. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    PubMed

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region.

  10. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring of butyltin contamination in coastal waters of Asian developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Monirith, In; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Subramanian, Annamalai; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Nguyen Duc; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2002-10-01

    anthropogenic BTs represent the major source of tin accumulation in mussels. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on butyltin pollution monitoring in developing countries in the Asia-Pacific region.

  11. Spiders of medical importance in the Asia-Pacific: atracotoxin, latrotoxin and related spider neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Graham M; Graudins, Andis

    2002-09-01

    1. The spiders of medical importance in the Asia-Pacific region include widow (family Theridiidae) and Australian funnel-web spiders (subfamily Atracinae). In addition, cupboard (family Theridiidae) and Australian mouse spiders (family Actinopodidae) may contain neurotoxins responsible for serious systemic envenomation. Fortunately, there appears to be extensive cross-reactivity of species-specific widow spider antivenom within the family Theridiidae. Moreover, Sydney funnel-web antivenom has been shown to be effective in the treatment of mouse spider envenomation. 2. alpha-Latrotoxin (alpha-LTx) appears to be the main neurotoxin responsible for the envenomation syndrome known as "latrodectism" following bites from widow spiders. This 120 kDa protein binds to distinct receptors (latrophilin 1 and neurexins) to induce neurotransmitter vesicle exocytosis via both Ca2+-dependent and -independent mechanisms, resulting in vesicle depletion. This appears to involve disruption to a process that normally inhibits vesicle fusion in the absence of Ca2+. Precise elucidation of the mechanism of action of alpha-LTx will lead to a major advancement in our understanding of vesicle exocytosis. 3. delta-Atracotoxins (delta-ACTX) are responsible for the primate-specific envenomation syndrome seen following funnel-web spider envenomation. These peptides induce spontaneous repetitive firing and prolongation of action potentials in excitable cells. This results from a hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation and a slowing of voltage-gated Na+ channel inactivation. This action is due to voltage-dependent binding to neurotoxin receptor site-3 on insect and mammalian voltage-gated Na+ channels in a manner similar, but not identical, to scorpion alpha-toxins and sea anemone toxins. delta-Atracotoxins provide us with highly specific tools to study Na+ channel structure and function 4. omega- and Janus-faced ACTX, from funnel-web spider venom, are novel neurotoxins that

  12. Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies Annual Report 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    term among graduates, to implementing a sustainable capital management strategy given resourcing available and projected , all continue to underpin... projects that empower them to build national and regional capacity in comprehensive crisis management . Just one of several examples from CCM 10-01... Project was presented to and approved by his Governor and it involved renovation of the existing Disaster Coordinating Office, with installation of

  13. Strategic Flexibility to Deter in the Asia Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Review Report, the 2002 National Security Strategy of the United States of America, and the 2003 Global Defense Posture Review. The specific term...national security strategy and corresponding willingness to use force have been a function of its perceived economic and military strength relative to that...attractive and increasingly indispensable PRC market for its regional neighbors.16 Trends like these have allowed the PRC today to assert itself

  14. United States Pacific Command, Asia-Pacific Economic Update.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    region appear to be modernization of military forces, adaptation to new requirements for naval and air defense, and procurement of high-tech...Lo in Vietnam, Penang and Klang in Malaysia; Indonesia’s Batam Island near Singapore; Subic Bay in the Philippines; and at ports along coastal China...to cooperate on maritime safety, pollution , search and rescue, and combating piracy and drug trafficking. The United States and China subsequently

  15. Asia-Pacific Economic Update, 2012. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    dynamic and important region. We hope that the APEU will inform more nuanced, effective policy , and decision‐making related to security and energy...provide new insights for readers and a view for new policy options that can be entertained. The first of the three papers in this volume, “US and...Korea. The trillion dollar club is important because it represents over 80% of the Asia-Pacific’s GDP, and about 67% of the region’s total exports

  16. Dynamic spanning trees in stock market networks: The case of Asia-Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sensoy, Ahmet; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2014-11-01

    This article proposes a new procedure to evaluate Asia Pacific stock market interconnections using a dynamic setting. Dynamic spanning trees (DST) are constructed using an ARMA-FIEGARCH-cDCC process. The main results show that: 1. the DST significantly shrinks over time; 2. Hong Kong is found to be the key financial market; 3. the DST has a significantly increased stability in the last few years; 4. the removal of the key player has two effects: there is no clear key market any longer and the stability of the DST significantly decreases. These results are important for the design of policies that help develop stock markets and for academics and practitioners.

  17. Control of neglected tropical diseases in Asia Pacific: implications for health information priorities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Poverty magnifies limitations posed by traditional biases and environmental risks. Any approach towards disease control needs to recognise that socially embedded vulnerabilities can be as powerful as externally imposed infections. Asia Pacific has a specific panorama of infectious diseases, which, in common with other endemic areas, have a tendency to emerge or re-emerge if not carefully monitored. Sustained control aiming at elimination requires strong emphasis on surveillance and response. Well-designed informatics platforms can improve support systems and strengthen control activities, as they rapidly locate high-risk areas and provide detailed, up-to-date information on the performance of ongoing control programmes. PMID:23849136

  18. Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring contamination of persistent organochlorine compounds in coastal waters of Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Monirith, In; Ueno, Daisuke; Takahashi, Shin; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Karuppiah, Subramanian; Ismail, Ahmad; Muchtar, Muswerry; Zheng, Jinshu; Richardson, Bruce J; Prudente, Maricar; Hue, Ngyen Duc; Tana, Touch Seang; Tkalin, Alexander V; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2003-03-01

    Contamination of persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and HCB (hexachlorobenzene) were examined in mussels collected from coastal waters of Asian countries such as Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Far East Russia, Singapore, and Vietnam in 1994, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2001 to elucidate the contamination status, distribution and possible pollution sources and to assess the risks on aquatic organisms and human. OCs were detected in all mussels collected from all the sampling sites investigated. Considerable residue levels of p,p(')-DDT and alpha-HCH were found in mussels and the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs found in mussels from Asian developing countries were higher than those in developed nations suggesting present usage of DDTs and HCHs along the coastal waters of Asian developing countries. On the other hand, lower concentrations of PCBs detected in mussels from Asian developing countries than those in developed countries indicate that PCBs contamination in mussels is strongly related to industrial and activities. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive report on monitoring OCs pollution in the Asia-Pacific region.

  19. Outwitting dengue threat and epidemics resurgence in Asia-Pacific countries: strengthening integrated dengue surveillance, monitoring and response systems.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Chen, Jun-Hu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Khater, Emad I M

    2016-05-27

    Dengue is still a substantial vector-borne viral disease threat and burden of public health importance worldwide. This situation is complicated by dengue virus unprecedented resurgence and persistence of varied serotypes in endemic-prone areas, and man-made and natural activities consequences that promote vector emergence, transmission dynamics and spread across the Asia-Pacific region. There is an urgent need to strengthen operational and contextual surveillance-response research in improving early detection of active reservoir detection, novel drug in case management and quality evidence-based response including the deployment of dengue mass vaccination. Moreover, sustained mapping and watching of dengue risk factors or determinants, performance and outcome indicators of control or elimination programs effectiveness in defining minimum effective data towards community knowledge-based decision-making policy and effective response packages is imperative. Moreover, implementation of a robust, integrated dengue early warning surveillance, monitoring and response systems metrics is required for evidence-based, timely and cost-effective contextual mitigation strategies, and innovative interventions.

  20. Teachers, Teacher Education and Development: Report on an APEID Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region. Final Report of a Regional Meeting (July 7-15, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The 1997 Asia-Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region reviewed research from the Asia-Pacific region related to teachers, teacher education, and teacher development. The meeting identified common…

  1. One hundred case studies of Asia-Pacific telemedicine using a digital video transport system over a research and education network.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shuji; Nakashima, Naoki; Okamura, Koji; Tanaka, Masao

    2009-01-01

    Although the use of video in telemedicine is most helpful, the transmission of high-quality moving images is difficult in conventional systems due to the limitation of network bandwidth and the quality of service. We have established a new system via the academic broadband network that can preserve the original quality and assure smooth movement of the image. Here we report on 100 case studies and discuss the lessons we have learned. Kyushu University Hospital in Fukuoka, Japan, was linked to 53 medical institutions and meeting venues in 13 countries and regions over the Asia-Pacific Advanced Network, an international research and education consortium. The digital video transport system (DVTS), free software that transforms digital video signals directly into Internet Protocol, was installed on a personal computer (PC) with a network bandwidth of 30 Mbps per channel. Between February 2003 and June 2007, 100 telecommunication sessions were held, 94 of which were international and 6 domestic. Furthermore, 47 involved real-time demonstrations and 53 interactive teleconferences using video or PC presentations. Multiple stations were connected in 37 events, and the number of connected stations in total reached 269. The time delay was restricted to 0.3-1.0 seconds between the stations. Participants provided feedback via questionnaires, and with respect to image quality, 509 (68.3%) participants reported "very good," 206 (27.7%) reported "good," 19 (2.6%) reported "poor," and 11 (1.5%) reported "very poor." DVTS is both economical, with a minimal initial investment, and simple to set up, and this is the first time that this advanced system has been used so widely in the Asia-Pacific region. Because the high-speed academic network for research and education is available worldwide, we believe our cutting-edge technology will facilitate medical standardization beyond geographic borders in the world.

  2. Burden of allergic rhinitis: allergies in America, Latin America, and Asia-Pacific adult surveys.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Eli O; Blaiss, Michael S; Naclerio, Robert M; Stoloff, Stuart W; Derebery, M Jennifer; Nelson, Harold S; Boyle, John M; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR; also nasal allergies or "hay fever") is a chronic upper airway inflammatory disease that affects ∼60 million adults and children in the United States. The duration and severity of AR symptoms contribute to a substantial burden on patients' quality of life (QoL), sleep, work productivity, and activity. This study was designed to examine symptoms, QoL, productivity, comorbidities, disease management, and pharmacologic treatment of AR in United States and ex-U.S. sufferers. Allergies in America was a comprehensive telephone-based survey of 2500 adults with AR. These data are compared and contrasted with findings from the Pediatric Allergies in America, Allergies in Latin America, and Allergies in Asia-Pacific telephone surveys. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed AR was 14% in U.S. adults, 7% in Latin America adults, and 9% in Asia-Pacific adults. Nasal congestion is the most common and bothersome symptom for adults. Approximately two-thirds of adults rely on medication to relieve intolerable AR symptoms. Incomplete relief, slow onset, <24-hour relief, and reduced efficacy with sustained use were commonly reported with AR medications, including intranasal corticosteroids. One in seven U.S. adults reported achieving little to no relief with AR medications. Bothersome adverse effects of AR medications included drowsiness, a drying feeling, medication dripping down the throat, and bad taste. Perception of inadequate efficacy was the leading cause of medication discontinuation or change and contributed to treatment dissatisfaction. These findings support the assertion that AR burden has been substantially underestimated and identify several important challenges to successful management of AR.

  3. Chemical and optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols in Beijing during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jun; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Han; Qiu, Xionghui; Zhang, Zhisheng; Wu, Yunfei; Chai, Fahe; Wang, Shulan

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of regional pollution control measures for improving visibility imposed during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) period, day- and nighttime PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected at an urban site in Beijing from October to November, 2014. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were subject to chemical analysis for major water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), and biomass burning tracers - anhydrosugar levoglucosan (LG). In addition, aerosol scattering coefficient (bsp) and aerosol absorption coefficient (bap) at dry condition were measured. PM2.5 mass concentration was 190 ± 125, 88 ± 60, 199 ± 142 μg m-3 during the pre-, during- and post-APEC period, respectively, while the concentration of the sum of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 was 75 ± 69, 19 ± 22 and 40 ± 46 μg m-3, respectively. The sum of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 accounted for 49 ± 24%, 19 ± 12% and 24 ± 12% of bext (the sum of bsp and bap) at ambient condition during the pre-, during- and post-APEC period, respectively, and the corresponding numbers are 39 ± 18%, 62 ± 8% and 61 ± 10% for the sum of OM and EC. Reduction of secondary inorganic aerosols played a key role in the "APEC blue", especially under moisture conditions due to their hygroscopic properties. As a result, visibility was improved significantly during the APEC period with five out of the 12 days having a visibility higher than 20 km. Control of biomass burning, especially during the nighttime, was not performed well during the APEC period, which should be paid more attention in making future emission control measures.

  4. Report of the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand Congress (Organising Chair and Scientific Chair).

    PubMed

    A, Roohi Sharifah; Abdullah, Shalimar

    2016-10-01

    A report on the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for the Surgery of the Hand and 6(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Hand Therapists is submitted detailing the numbers of attendees participating, papers presented and support received as well the some of the challenges faced and how best to overcome them from the local conference chair and scientific chair point of view.

  5. Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma in Asia Pacific and the ARIA Update 2008

    PubMed Central

    Bunnag, Chaweewan; Khaltaev, Nikolai; Bousquet, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The prevalence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma are markedly increasing to epidemic proportions worldwide as societies adopt Western lifestyles. An estimated 300 million persons worldwide have asthma, about 50% of whom live in developing countries, and about 400 million people suffer from AR. AR has a marked impact on quality of life, socially, at school, and in the workplace and is a huge socioeconomic burden. Thus, there was clearly a need for a global evidence-based guideline not only for managing AR but also highlighting the interactions between the upper and lower airways including diagnosis, epidemiology, common risk factors, management, and prevention. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) document was first published in 2001 as a state-of-the-art document for the specialist, the general practitioner, and other health care professionals. Subsequent research and increasing knowledge have resulted in the ARIA 2008 update. The present review summarizes the ARIA update with particular emphasis on the current status of AR and asthma in Asia Pacific. PMID:23268481

  6. PREFACE: Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Okada, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Toru; Okano, Ken

    2012-03-01

    AP-IRC Logo Scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs and policymakers gather at the first truly interdisciplinary conference held in Asia-Pacific http://www.apirc.jp/ The inaugural Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011) was held at Toyohashi University of Technology (Toyohashi Tech) on 17-18 November 2011. The conference is a forum for enhancing mutual understanding between scientists, engineers, policymakers and experts from a wide spectrum of pure and applied sciences, to resolve the daunting global issues facing mankind. The conference attracted approximately 300 participants including delegates from France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom, USA and Vietnam. AP-IRC 2011 was chaired by Dr Yoshiyuki Sakaki, President of Toyohashi Tech, who opened the proceedings by stressing the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to research, to resolve global scientific and technical issues. Recalling his own experience as the leader of Japan's efforts in the Human Genome Project, Sakaki also encouraged participants to make an effort to try to understand the sometimes difficult concepts and terminology of other areas of research. The presentations at AP-IRC 2011 were divided into three focus sessions: innovative mechano-magneto-electronic systems, life sciences, and green science and technology. A total of 174 papers were presented over the two-day conference including eight by invited speakers. Highlights of AP-IRC 2011 included a first-hand account of the damage caused by the massive earthquake in March 2011 to experimental facilities at Tohoku University by Masayoshi Esashi; the fascinating world of bees and the inborn numerical competence of humans and animals by Hans J Gross; research on robots and cognition-enabled technical systems at Technische Universität München by Sandra Hirche; the history of events leading to the invention of the world's strongest NdFeB permanent magnet by Masato Sagawa

  7. Inequities in access to healthcare: analysis of national survey data across six Asia-Pacific countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that there is a link between inequitable access to healthcare and inequitable distribution of illness. A recent World Health Organization report stated that there is a need for research and policy to address the critical role of health services in reducing inequities and preventing future inequities. The aim of this manuscript is to highlight disparities and differences in terms of the factors that distinguish between poor and good access to healthcare across six Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Methods A population survey was undertaken in each country. This paper is a secondary analysis of these existing data. Data were collected in each country between 2009 and 2010. Four variables related to difficulties in access to healthcare (distance, appointment, waiting time, and cost) were analysed using binomial logistic regression to identify socio- and demographic predictors of inequity. Results Consistent across the findings, poor health and low income were identified as difficulties in access. Country specific indicators were also identified. For Thailand, the poorest level of access appears to be for respondents who work within the household whereas in Taiwan, part-time work is associated with difficulties in access. Within Hong Kong, results suggest that older (above 60) and retired individuals have the poorest access and within Australia, females and married individuals are the worst off. Conclusion Recognition of these inequities, from a policy perspective, is essential for health sector policy decision-making. Despite the differences in political and economic climate in the countries under analysis, our findings highlight patterns of inequity which require policy responses. Our data should be used as a means of deciding the most appropriate policy response for each country which includes, rather than excludes, socially marginalised population groups. These findings should be of

  8. Amphibious Force Sustainment Shortfalls Applied to the Asia-Pacific Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-15

    of Normandy. 2012 Portsmouth City Council. Accessed 21 Dec 2012. http://www.ddaymuseum.co.uk 2 Dakota L. Wood. Caught on a Lee Shore. The American...World War II and Korea leveraged forward staging, and a robust sustainment pipeline creating operational endurance for the amphibious force. As has...trust on two fronts. First this solution requires coalition and host nation partnership in order to ensure port access in the 1st and 2nd tier Pacific

  9. Neo-Liberalism, Globalization, Language Policy and Practice Issues in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majhanovich, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    By the beginning of the twenty-first century, the English language had become the de facto "lingua franca" of the modern world. It is the most popular second or foreign language studied, such that now there are more people who have learned English as a second language and speak it with some competence than there are native English…

  10. Lessons from DoD Disaster Relief Efforts in the Asia-Pacific Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    AND TECHNOLOGY TERRORISM AND HOMELAND SECURITY Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of...maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other...aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for

  11. Technologies for Education: Achievements and Future Initiatives in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachholz, Cedric; Meleisea, Ellie; Apikul, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Developments in information and communication technologies (ICT) in recent years have resulted in changes to content and delivery of education services. For its ICT in Education Policy Project, UNESCO since 2003 has published several reports that raise awareness and prepare policymakers to develop their own national action plan for ICT in…

  12. The United States and the Asia-Pacific Region: Security Strategy for the Obama Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    focused on project organization, history and framing the large issues that would demand further exploration. Panelists Dr. Thomas Bowditch CNA Dr...Strategic Planning and Policy, PACOM Dr. Stanley B. weeks Institute for Defense Analyses Participants Dr. Thomas Bowditch CNA Ambassador Raymond F...USMC (ret) Mr. Robert Gromoll State Department Dr. John Hanley IDA Dr. Katy Oh Hassig IDA Dr. Scott Kastner University of Maryland Mr. Michael Keifer

  13. Teaching Neuro-Ophthalmology in the Asia-Pacific Region and China: A Personal Perspective.

    PubMed

    Crompton, John

    2015-12-01

    Over the last 30 years, I have been involved in a number of projects helping to educate and train local ophthalmologists in many parts of Asia and the Pacific Islands, which lack adequate training and service in neuro-ophthalmology. In this article, I offer an overview of a number of different teaching initiatives and offer practical suggestions to anyone who might wish to become involved.

  14. Future Directions for Comparative Education Dialogue in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The broad goals of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES) are: (1) to advance education for international understanding in the interests of peace, intercultural co-operation, mutual respect among peoples and observance of human rights; and (2) to improve education systems so that the right of all to education may be more…

  15. Prospects of Research for Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Asia Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterova, Olga; Semal, , Viktoriia; Tregubova, Valentina; Derbentseva, Alla; Tyurina, Elena; Kravchenko, Alla; Glotova, Elena; Sergeeva, Olesya; Korshenko, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    One of the most essential tasks for the humankind is to create an effective system for recording greenhouse gases. Forecasting CO2 content changing in the atmosphere is impossible without up-to-date data from the entire global territory. Russia occupies the most part of the Eurasian continent and so it makes substantial contribution to the greenhouse gases emission. The creation of a modern system for recording the carbon emission on the Russian Federation territory is becoming the most crucial task for the national government. The Far East of Russia is a unique platform for establishing a network of base stations to record greenhouse gases. This is due to a very low level of anthropogenic impact in this area. So there is a possibility to obtain the unique data about the carbon emission in the "standard" landscapes of the APR zone characterizing continental, coastal and island ecosystems.

  16. Non-Traditional Security Threats and Asia-Pacific Regional Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    of Pittsburgh to complete his Master’s of Arts degree in political science and earned a graduate certificate in Latin American studies. After a tour...as a munitions maintenance officer, Dr. Keagle went on to become an assistant professor of political science at the U.S. Air Force Academy. In 1980...the Military Technical Academy of Romania-- the only United States citizen so honored. Following his extensive education, Dr. Keagle’s next six tours

  17. Ballistic Missile Defense in the Asia-Pacific Region: Cooperation and Opposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-24

    interceptors on Aegis-equipped destroyers; PAC-3 batteries at military bases in the theater; and early warning sensors on land (AN/ TPY -2), at sea...Opposition Congressional Research Service 12 AN/ TPY -2 X-band radar to Japan, this one sited in the southern part of Japan’s main island of Honshu

  18. Training EFL/ESL Teachers for a Peaceful Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirici, Ismail Hakki

    2008-01-01

    In this experimental study which is based on qualitative and quantitative data collection from an experimental and a control group, it has been found that when some educational terms in English Language Teacher Training programs are strengthened in meaning through some adaptations to better convey the message, their effectiveness is increased.…

  19. Megacities in the Asia/Pacific Region: Focusing on Their Environmental Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Kim, Pearl; Li, Alan; Chenette, Sara

    This curriculum unit explains that currently Asia has 9 of the world's 14 megacities (a city with a population of 10 million people or more) and that by the year 2015 there will be 27 megacities with 17 of them in Asia. The unit introduces students to several megacities in Asia and uses these cities as examples for understanding the ecological…

  20. Scientific Researches on High Intensity Laser Plasma in Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabe, Hideaki

    The important topics of the presentations in the titled session are briefly summarized with author's comments for the further maturity and more challenge as plasma science. The topics of the session has been classified to three; fundamental plasma science, particle and photon sources, and quantum polarization of vacuum and non-linear QED plasma. In order not to make the paper only for a memorandum of the titled session, very important and related topics were also picked up from the other sessions. It is concluded that we have to go forward to more challenging plasma physics, not staying at almost the same place where many people are sitting for a long time compared to the time scale of the rapid progress of intense and ultra-intense laser technology and related laser plasma diagnostics.

  1. Strategic SOF Partnering with India: Preventing Future Large Scale Conflict in the Asia Pacific Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-30

    18-19 o Creation of a Special Operations Aviation Regiment…………………19-20 - What U.S. SOF can learn from the Indian SOF experience…………………...20-21...supported for the Bengalis in East Pakistan helped liberated East Pakistan and created the nation of Bangladesh. The major point of contention today is

  2. Conflict and Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Strategic Net Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    commands. Political regimes can draw legitimacy from several sources, such as tradition, habit, history, religion, ethnic identity, legality ...cohorts, espe - cially working-age men. In the latest revisions of the UN Population Division’s World Population Prospects, the medium projections...for India’s growth prospects is whether the new Modi govern- ment will be able to overcome cultural and legal rigidities and implement more effective

  3. U.S. Force Posture Strategy in the Asia Pacific Region: An Independent Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-27

    Navy access to Her Majesty‘s Australian Ship (HMAS) Stirling (submarines and surface vessels) is a possible next phase of enhanced access...arrangements with Australia. HMAS Stirling offers advantages including direct blue water access to the Indian Ocean and to the extensive offshore West 33...political sensitivities than others, and some, such as a major expansion of facilities at HMAS Stirling , would entail significant investments. In addition

  4. Climate change and food security in the Asia-Pacific region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of earth’s carbon-based products, food, fiber, and some fuel, come from the terrestrial ecosystem. The earth’s thin mantel of soil is a major component of this ecosystem, which captures, stores, and releases water to vegetation, aquifers, streams, and lakes. It also provides a major portion of...

  5. The Delivery System of Environmental Education at the Tertiary Level in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Masahisa; Bhandari, Bishnu; Abe, Osamu

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the delivery system of environmental education at the tertiary level in relation to higher education attendance rate. Describes the characteristics of the delivery system in countries such as China, India, Australia, Japan, South Korea, and Indonesia. (Author/MM)

  6. Intelligence Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific Region: Establishing a Framework for Multilateralism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    111 Synthesis : The Way Ahead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Closing Thoughts...intelligence support plan. The culmination of the two-week curriculum was a course synthesis seminar “The Way Ahead.” The Fellows were first tasked to...Peace-Keeping Operations (notional) ● Briefing to Executive Panel Day Nine: Course Synthesis — The Way Ahead ● Intelligence Cooperation

  7. Shifting State Partnership Program Resources to the Asia-Pacific Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    considered five major tenets of the President’s strategic guidance when assessing the risks associated with making necessary budgetary decisions...to eight when it formalized a partnership between Vietnam and Oregon in November 2012. The other partnered countries within USPACOM include Mongolia...engagements recently included humanitarian missions to rehabilitate several schools 11 damaged during a powerful 5.3 magnitude earthquake in

  8. An International Observational Prospective Survey Assessing the Control of Atrial Fibrillation in Asia-Pacific: Results of the Record-AFAP Registry

    PubMed Central

    Amerena, John; Chen, Shih-Ann; Sriratanasathavorn, Charn; Cho, Jeong-Gwan; Dejia, Huang; Omar, Razali; Fat, Tse Hung; King, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    A prospective 1-year observational survey was designed to assess the management and control of atrial fibrillation (AF) in eight countries within the Asia-Pacific region. Patients (N = 2,604) with recently diagnosed AF or a history of AF ≤1 year were included. Clinicians chose the treatment strategy (rhythm or rate control) according to their standard practice and medical discretion. The primary endpoint was therapeutic success. At baseline, rhythm- and rate-control strategies were applied to 35.7% and 64.3% of patients, respectively. At 12 months, therapeutic success was 43.2% overall. Being assigned to rhythm-control strategy at baseline was associated with a higher therapeutic success (46.5% vs 41.4%; P = 0.0214) and a lower incidence of clinical outcomes (10.4% vs 17.1% P < 0.0001). Patients assigned to rate-control strategies at baseline had higher cardiovascular morbidities (history of heart failure or valvular heart disease). Cardiovascular outcomes may be less dependent on the choice of treatment strategy than cardiovascular comorbidities. PMID:26279634

  9. Enhancing and Managing Regionally Oriented Individuals and Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-30

    and build coalitions” (especially, but not exclusively, in the Asia -Pacific region). He stated, “This rebalancing should not, however, be...misinterpreted. The U.S. has allies, interests and responsibilities across the globe. The Asia -Pacific rebalance is not a retreat from other regions of the...essential part of developing “a network of partnerships from South Asia to the Sahel” to expand “our reach” without requiring large numbers of forward

  10. Proceedings for the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine: creating an agenda for action.

    PubMed

    De Grace, M; Ericson, D; Folz, H; Greene, W; Ho, K; Pearce, L

    2001-01-01

    again identified as the vehicle for promoting this action. The responsibility of the next meeting of the Asia-Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine will be to measure progress made in these areas by assessing how well these collective decisions have been implemented.

  11. Education Standards for the 21st Century: Opening Statements of Ministers at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Education Ministerial, August 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy and Planning (ED), Washington, DC.

    While the member countries of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) have many differences in culture, history, and level of economic development, all APEC representatives who attended this ministerial agreed on the importance of establishing education standards and examination systems to meet the needs of their people in the 21st century.…

  12. Activities of Tedizolid and Linezolid Determined by the Reference Broth Microdilution Method against 3,032 Gram-Positive Bacterial Isolates Collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern Europe, and Latin American Countries in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Flamm, Robert K.; Jones, Ronald N.; Farrell, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Tedizolid and linezolid in vitro activities against 3,032 Gram-positive pathogens collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern European, and Latin American medical centers during 2014 were assessed. The isolates were tested for susceptibility by the current reference broth microdilution methods. Due to concern over the effect of MIC endpoint criteria on the results of testing the oxazolidinones tedizolid and linezolid, MIC endpoint values were read by two methods: (i) reading the MIC at the first well where the trailing began without regard for pinpoint trailing, according to CLSI M07-A10 and M100-S26 document instructions for reading linezolid (i.e., 80% inhibition of growth; these reads were designated tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80), and (ii) at 100% inhibition of growth (designated tedizolid 100 and linezolid 100). All Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus group, and Enterococcus faecalis isolates were inhibited at tedizolid 80 and 100 MIC values of 0.25 and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.25, 0.25 and 0.5, 0.12 and 0.25, and 0.5 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Generally, MIC50 and MIC90 results for tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80 were one doubling dilution lower than those read at 100% inhibition. Tedizolid was 4- to 8-fold more potent than linezolid against all the isolates tested regardless of the MIC endpoint criterion used. Despite the differences in potency, >99.9% of isolates tested in this survey were susceptible to both linezolid and tedizolid using CLSI and EUCAST interpretive criteria. In conclusion, tedizolid demonstrated greater in vitro potency than linezolid against Gram-positive pathogens isolated from patients in medical centers across the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe, and Latin America. PMID:27353270

  13. The Use of Mixed Effects Models for Obtaining Low-Cost Ecosystem Carbon Stock Estimates in Mangroves of the Asia-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Bukoski, Jacob J.; Broadhead, Jeremy S.; Donato, Daniel C.; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Gregoire, Timothy G.

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves provide extensive ecosystem services that support local livelihoods and international environmental goals, including coastal protection, biodiversity conservation and the sequestration of carbon (C). While voluntary C market projects seeking to preserve and enhance forest C stocks offer a potential means of generating finance for mangrove conservation, their implementation faces barriers due to the high costs of quantifying C stocks through field inventories. To streamline C quantification in mangrove conservation projects, we develop predictive models for (i) biomass-based C stocks, and (ii) soil-based C stocks for the mangroves of the Asia-Pacific. We compile datasets of mangrove biomass C (197 observations from 48 sites) and soil organic C (99 observations from 27 sites) to parameterize the predictive models, and use linear mixed effect models to model the expected C as a function of stand attributes. The most parsimonious biomass model predicts total biomass C stocks as a function of both basal area and the interaction between latitude and basal area, whereas the most parsimonious soil C model predicts soil C stocks as a function of the logarithmic transformations of both latitude and basal area. Random effects are specified by site for both models, which are found to explain a substantial proportion of variance within the estimation datasets and indicate significant heterogeneity across-sites within the region. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the biomass C model is approximated at 24.6 Mg/ha (18.4% of mean biomass C in the dataset), whereas the RMSE of the soil C model is estimated at 4.9 mg C/cm3 (14.1% of mean soil C). The results point to a need for standardization of forest metrics to facilitate meta-analyses, as well as provide important considerations for refining ecosystem C stock models in mangroves. PMID:28068361

  14. The Use of Mixed Effects Models for Obtaining Low-Cost Ecosystem Carbon Stock Estimates in Mangroves of the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Bukoski, Jacob J; Broadhead, Jeremy S; Donato, Daniel C; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Gregoire, Timothy G

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves provide extensive ecosystem services that support local livelihoods and international environmental goals, including coastal protection, biodiversity conservation and the sequestration of carbon (C). While voluntary C market projects seeking to preserve and enhance forest C stocks offer a potential means of generating finance for mangrove conservation, their implementation faces barriers due to the high costs of quantifying C stocks through field inventories. To streamline C quantification in mangrove conservation projects, we develop predictive models for (i) biomass-based C stocks, and (ii) soil-based C stocks for the mangroves of the Asia-Pacific. We compile datasets of mangrove biomass C (197 observations from 48 sites) and soil organic C (99 observations from 27 sites) to parameterize the predictive models, and use linear mixed effect models to model the expected C as a function of stand attributes. The most parsimonious biomass model predicts total biomass C stocks as a function of both basal area and the interaction between latitude and basal area, whereas the most parsimonious soil C model predicts soil C stocks as a function of the logarithmic transformations of both latitude and basal area. Random effects are specified by site for both models, which are found to explain a substantial proportion of variance within the estimation datasets and indicate significant heterogeneity across-sites within the region. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the biomass C model is approximated at 24.6 Mg/ha (18.4% of mean biomass C in the dataset), whereas the RMSE of the soil C model is estimated at 4.9 mg C/cm3 (14.1% of mean soil C). The results point to a need for standardization of forest metrics to facilitate meta-analyses, as well as provide important considerations for refining ecosystem C stock models in mangroves.

  15. Regional Cooperation to Strengthen Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Minnini, Margot; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2016-06-06

    President Obama’s decision over four years ago to ”pivot” toward Asia represented an important strategic shift in American foreign policy and a rebalancing of U.S. economic and security engagement in the Asia-Pacific countries. The United States has since supported a variety of regional initiatives aimed at promoting nuclear security and safeguards. When a new regional organization, the Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network (APSN) was established in 2010, DOE/NNSA became an early member and enthusiastic advocate. Launched on the initiative of Australia, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Indonesia, the APSN aims to strengthen the quality and effectiveness of safeguards implementation in the Asia-Pacific region.

  16. Asia-Pacific mussel watch for emerging pollutants: Distribution of synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers in Asian and US coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Shinohara, Ryu-Ichi; Nakazawa, Yusuke; Isobe, Tomohiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S; Kim, Eun Young; Min, Byung-Yoon; We, Sung-Ug; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Frank, Donnell; Lauenstein, Gunnar; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-10-01

    We analyzed 68 green and blue mussels collected from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam and the USA during 2003 and 2007, to elucidate the occurrence and widespread distributions of emerging pollutants, synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) in Asia-Pacific coastal waters. Synthetic musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from all countries, suggesting their ubiquitous contamination and widespread distribution. High concentrations of musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from Japan and Korea, where the levels were comparable or greater than those of PCBs, DDTs and PBDEs. Significant correlations were found between the concentrations of HHCB and AHTN, and also between the concentrations of UV-327 and UV-328, which suggest similar sources and compositions of these compounds in commercial and industrial products. To our knowledge, this is the first study of large-scale monitoring of synthetic musks and BUVSs in Asia-Pacific coastal waters.

  17. Variation of airborne quartz in air of Beijing during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Economic Leaders' Meeting.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Hongxing; Li, Honghua; Gao, Guanjun; Zhou, Qian; Gao, Yuan; Li, Wenjuan; Sun, Huizhong; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Quartz particles are a toxic component of airborne particulate matter (PM). Quartz concentrations were analyzed by X-ray diffraction in eighty-seven airborne PM samples collected from three locations in Beijing before, during, and after the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Leaders' Meeting in 2014. The results showed that the mean concentrations of quartz in PM samples from the two urban sites were considerably higher than those from the rural site. The quartz concentrations in samples collected after the APEC meeting, when the pollution restriction lever was lifted, were higher than those in the samples collected before or during the APEC meeting. The quartz concentrations ranged from 0.97 to 13.2 μg/m(3), which were among the highest values amid those reported from other countries. The highest quartz concentration exceeded the Californian Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment reference exposure level and was close to the occupational threshold limit values for occupational settings. Moreover, a correlation analysis showed that quartz concentrations were positively correlated with concentrations of pollution parameters PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NOx, but were negatively correlated with O3 concentration. The results suggest that the airborne quartz particles may potentially pose health risks to the general population of Beijing.

  18. U. S.-Thailand Combatant Commander Considerations for the Asia-Pacific Rebalance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    NUMBER Asia – Pacific Rebalance 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Southeast Asia region and pivotal to the Asia – Pacific rebalance. U.S. – Thai relations have stalled following a bloodless military coup which deposed...the dangers associated with strict adherence to Section 508 mandates with the growing emergence of China as a region power in Southeast Asia . It

  19. Regional Early Childhood Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…

  20. Food irradiation: regulatory aspects in the Asia and Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckman, Gary James

    2002-03-01

    Irradiation treatment of food is becoming an increasingly accepted processing option for countries in the Asia Pacific region wishing to meet growing sanitary and phytosanitary requirements in international trade. There remain however, large differences between the regulatory requirements in the countries in this region. This paper gives an outline on existing food irradiation regulations in the separate countries of the Asia Pacific region. New developments such as the recent decision by the Australia New Zealand Food Authority to start assessing applications for food irradiation treatment are discussed. Australia's intention to regulate the export of food treated by irradiation will also be outlined. Details of the decision to harmonise food irradiation regulations by 13 countries in the Asia Pacific region based on conformance with Codex requirements is outlined. The likelihood of other Asia Pacific countries enacting similar harmonisation of their regulations will be examined. Future development such as certification of irradiation as a sanitary treatment for food are discussed. The expected result of these initiatives is a likely increase in irradiated foods traded within the Asia Pacific region.

  1. Data and Data Products for Climate Research: Web Services at the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, S.; Potemra, J. T.; Wang, K.

    2012-12-01

    The International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) at the University of Hawaii maintains a data center for climate studies called the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC). This data center was designed within a center of excellence in climate research with the intention of serving the needs of the research scientist. The APDRC provides easy access to a wide collection of climate data and data products for a wide variety of users. The data center maintains an archive of approximately 100 data sets including in-situ and remote data, as well as a range of model-based output. All data are available via on-line browsing tools such as a Live Access Server (LAS) and DChart, and direct binary access is available through OPeNDAP services. On-line tutorials on how to use these services are now available. Users can keep up-to-date with new data and product announcements via the APDRC facebook page. The main focus of the APDRC has been climate scientists, and the services are therefore streamlined to such users, both in the number and types of data served, but also in the way data are served. In addition, due to the integration of the APDRC within the IPRC, several value-added data products (see figure for an example using Argo floats) have been developed via a variety of research activities. The APDRC, therefore, has three main foci: 1. acquisition of climate-related data, 2. maintenance of integrated data servers, and 3. development and distribution of data products The APDRC can be found at http://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu. The presentation will provide an overview along with specific examples of the data, data products and data services available at the APDRC.; APDRC product example: gridded field from Argo profiling floats

  2. Reflections on the Bologna Process: The Making of an Asia Pacific Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Brisbane Communiqué's goals and initiatives seem to follow the Bologna Process' normative path towards the creation of a common regional higher education space. However, comparing demography, socio-economics, student mobility, political economy framework and the initiatives undertaken by both the Brisbane Communiqué and the Bologna Process…

  3. The U.S. Pivot to Asia-Pacific and What it Means for NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-02

    NATO’s integrated military command since 1966 when French President Charles de Gaulle pulled French military forces out of NATO over objections about...Also, the Marine Corps will deploy a contingent of 2500 Marines to Darwin , Australia, in addition to its already strong presence in the region.54 The

  4. Higher Education and the Asia-Pacific Century. Proceedings of the '88 PRAHE Seoul Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chul-hwan, Ed.; Lee, Wha-kuk, Ed.

    Proceedings of the Pacific Region Association for Higher Education (PRAHE) are presented, including 5 opening speeches, 6 plenary lectures, 7 invited lectures, and 13 general papers. Presentation topics include: higher education and societal change; educational exchange and the Pacific Rim; international cooperation through electronic media;…

  5. Human Security in the Asia-Pacific: In Australia’s National Interests?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-16

    University of Queensland Asian Studies Department, also argued that the concept of human security would have “greater analytical and policy value” if it...development. 13 Alex Bellamy and Matt McDonald, professors at the School of Political Science at the University of Queensland , supported the...reflect regional concerns with threats from natural disasters including earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions and landslides. As a developing

  6. Infectious Diseases and Their Outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: Biodiversity and Its Regulation Loss Matter

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:24587201

  7. The Asia-Pacific effects of a megatsunami along the Tonga Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    A megatsunami (M>9.0) along the Tonga Trench has far-reaching consequences for 4 major continents of the world, and exposure ranging from the cities of Sydney and Brisbane, the coastlines of Japan, Canada, USA, and along South America not to mention the Pacific Islands. Using the TSUDAT software of Geoscience Australia, relevant scenarios are selected for the location. Fault mechanics and the possible regime are also then examined to create the scenario. In this study, the effects of a megatsunami scenario are investigated including the run-up heights in coastal regions on these four continents in addition to other hazard effects. Global level DEM and bathymetry data is used to provide a first estimate of the exposed population, built infrastructure (capital stock) and GDP in the tsunami inundation area. The uncertainties of such a study are taken into account by adjusting the scenario via source mechanism, magnitude range and directivity effects. This is combined with basic vulnerability functions from historical tsunamis in order to give an exposed and estimated loss and cost of reconstruction across the Pacific rim. Notes as to the warning times, country preparation and evacuation plans for tsunamis are also made given long lead times in some cases.

  8. Stevens-Johnson syndrome / toxic epidermal necrolysis: an Asia-Pacific perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) to drugs which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. High risk drugs in Asia are similar to those reported worldwide. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-related risk alleles for carbamazepine and allopurinol SCAR are unique to Asians. Although prognostic scoring systems like the SCORTEN have been used for more than a decade, pitfalls and caveats need to be recognized, in particular in patients with multiple medical co-morbidities and systemic features in SJS/TEN. In centres without a tertiary Burns Centre, SJS/TEN patients can still be managed successfully in general and dermatology wards with well-executed supportive/nursing care. Controversy remains regarding the effectiveness of immunomodulation in reducing SJS/TEN morbidity, mortality and hastening re-epithelialization. Despite paucity of robust evidence, intravenous immunoglobulins and ciclosporin remain the most commonly used modalities worldwide. Acute and long-term ocular effects are an important source of morbidity for which emerging ophthalmic therapies appear promising. Quality of life issues have now become an important outcome in patients with SJS/TEN as they often impact survivors' future attitudes towards pharmacotherapy. Even though pharmacogenetic testing for high-risk drugs appears to be the panacea for preventing carbamazepine- and allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN in ethnic Asians, many issues remain before health regulators in our region can conclusively determine whether testing should be made mandatory or highly recommended as standard of care. PMID:24260726

  9. IEEE Smart Grid Series of Standards IEEE 2030 (Interoperability) and IEEE 1547 (Interconnection) Status: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2012-04-01

    The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.

  10. U.S. Pacific Command Theater Security Cooperation: A Building Block to Cooperative Security in the Asia Pacific Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-17

    Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Commander, U.S. Pacific Command, "Partnership, Readiness, Presence" United States Pacific Command Strategy, (Camp H...Guinea Philippines Singapore Solomon Islands Sri Lanka Thailand Tonga Tuvalu UK us Vanuatu Vietnam (31 countries) UNCLASSIFIED 6 Multinational

  11. Conserving biological diversity: A strategy for protected areas in the Asia-Pacific region. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Braatz, S.; Davis, G.; Shen, S.; Rees, C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper acknowledges the importance of biodiversity conservation and suggests that policy change coupled with the establishment of protected area systems will be critical to success. A wide range of interventions will be needed to support these efforts toward conserving biodiversity-interventions involving national and local governments, national and international nongovernmental organizations and, most importantly, local people. The strategy defined in the paper is intended to complement existing national and international initiatives and to build partnerships in conservation for the 1990s.

  12. Dont Leave Me Hanging on the Anglophone: The Potential for Online Distance Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade there have been many attempts to mount online distance higher education programs on a global scale, led by the e-learning industry and university companies and consortia, some with government support: e.g. Universitas 21 Global, Cardean University, Fathom, NYUOnline and the UKe-University. A primary commercial objective has been…

  13. The United States and Japan: A Broad View to Achieving Economic and Security Interests in the Asia-Pacific Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-14

    7, Army War College, 1992. PRIMACY OF ECONOMICS 24. World Almanac `1993, p. 718. 25. Solomon, p. 54. 26. Baker, J., p. 16. RELIGIOUS ISSUES 27. World ...9 June 1992, p.11,1 2. 53. Holbrooke, p. 9. 54. The World Almanac 1993, p.128. 55.Wood, p. 142. 56. I p.142. 57. Ibid. p. 144. 58. David C...p. 107. 90. World Almanac 1993, p.718. 91. Brandon, p.228. 92. Hollerman, p. 50,51. 93. Makin, p. 55. 44 94. Ibid. 95. Ibid., p. 57. 96. Gary D

  14. From Islands to Networks: A Blueprint for a Comprehensive US Security Strategy in the Asia-Pacific Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    1 A Strategy of Island- hopping ...1 A Brewing Typhoon? The Long View...for Security and Peace, similar to Europe’s Partnership for Peace program. vii Introduction A Strategy of Island- hopping Briefly put, neither

  15. U.S. Policy Approaches for Maintaining Stability in the Asia-Pacific Region: History, Economics, and Soft Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    predictable power associated with military force, coercion, and intimidation. 6 I when President Woodrow Wilson offered a “new world order” in the League ... League of Nations, but also posited the origins of the Cold War. Finally, the third came at the end of the Cold War as the shift of power occurred...1921 Year Mao’s Campaigns Descriptions 1930–1931 Anti-Bolshevik League Incident A political purge in Communist Party bases in Jiangxi province

  16. Learning with Intangible Heritage for a Sustainable Future: Guidelines for Educators in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillai, Janet; Achilles, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    The guide provides teacher educators and teachers with an understanding of the concept of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) and explains why ICH should be integrated into the curriculum in tandem with the principles and perspectives of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). This guide explains how the strategic incorporation of ICH elements…

  17. The Forgotten Service: Determining the US Army’s Role in Shaping American Strategy in the Asia-Pacific Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    39 2 Army Campaigns in the Pacific, 1945-1975 ……………………… 40 3 WWII US Overseas Deployments as of December 1943...immense size, and politics, officials divided the Pacific Theater during WWII into two, independent, coordinate commands. General of the Army Douglas...gains during the war. WWII proved the Pacific to be a joint theater. By 1942, the Army and USAAF units had sent approximately 350,000 men to the

  18. Report on the '92 Seoul International Conference on the Role of the University Education in the Asia/Pacific Age (Seoul, Republic of Korea, April 8-10, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Robert A.

    This report, by the U.S. representative to the conference, presents observations on and basic results of the 1992 Seoul International Conference on the Role of the University in the Asia/Pacific Age, as well as the conference agenda and program, the minutes of the meeting, and other related documents. The conference convened 51 representatives…

  19. Rationale, Methodology, and Implementation of a Dispatcher-assisted Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Trial in the Asia-Pacific (Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study Phase 2).

    PubMed

    Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Shin, Sang Do; Tanaka, Hideharu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Lee, Eui Jung; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Edwin Doctor, Nausheen; Khruekarnchana, Pairoj; Naroo, Ghulam Yasin; Wong, Kwanhathai Darin; Nakagawa, Takashi; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Lin, Chih-Hao; Goh, E-Shaun; Khunkhlai, Nalinas; Alsakaf, Omer Ahmed; Hisamuddin, Nik A B Rahman Nik; Bobrow, Bentley J; McNally, Bryan; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert; Chan, Edwin S Y

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background. Survival outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Asia are poor (2-11%). Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates are relatively low in Asia. Dispatcher-assisted CPR (DA-CPR) has recently emerged as a potentially cost-effective intervention to increase bystander CPR and survival from OHCA. The Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS), an Asia-Pacific cardiac arrest registry, was set up in 2009, with the aim of understanding OHCA as a disease in Asia and improving OHCA survival. The network has adopted DA-CPR as part of its strategy to improve OHCA survival. Objective. This article aims to describe the conceptualization, study design, potential benefits, and difficulties for implementation of DA-CPR trial in the Asia-Pacific. Methods. Two levels of intervention, basic and comprehensive, will be offered to PAROS participating sites. The basic level consists of implementation of a DA-CPR protocol and training program, while the comprehensive level consists of implementation of the basic level, with the addition of a dispatch quality measurement tool, quality improvement program, and community education program. Sites that are not able to implement the package will contribute control data. The primary outcome of the study is survival to hospital discharge or survival to 30 days post cardiac arrest. DA-CPR and bystander CPR are secondary outcomes. Conclusion. Implementation of DA-CPR requires concerted efforts by EMS leaders and supervisors, dispatchers, hospital stakeholders, policy makers, and the general public. The DA-CPR trial implemented by the PAROS sites, if successful, can serve as a model for other countries considering such an intervention in their EMS systems.

  20. IEEE standards worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. )

    1995-01-01

    This article presents North American views on the development and use of internationally acceptable standards through strengthened ties with global standards organizations. The key ingredient to enhance the international reputation of IEEE standards is, without doubt, greater participation of members around the world. Standards that will really have force are those that are recognized as preeminent and that are sought after by organizations worldwide. it will be necessary to develop enhanced liaisons with standards organizations around the world, such as the IEC. These are some of the issues that will be addressed by panelists representing standards organizations and users from North America, United States, Canada, and Mexico. Also discussed is the importance of standards in the NAFTA and GATT agreements on trade.

  1. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Breazeale, K.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  2. Regional Planning Meeting on Literacy Initiative for Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication presents an overview of the Asia-Pacific Regional Planning Meeting on the Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE). Countries in Asia and the Pacific that participate in the LIFE initiative are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan and Papua New Guinea. The purpose of the meeting was to assist…

  3. The Effect of Firm Strategy and Corporate Performance on Software Market Growth in Emerging Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Sharon A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of firm strategies and corporate performance on enterprise software market growth in emerging regions. The emerging regions of Asia Pacific, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and Latin America, currently represent smaller overall markets for software vendors, but exhibit high growth…

  4. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Stephany N; Farr, Amanda M; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Blevins, Meridith; Wester, C William; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Ekouevi, Didier K; Egger, Matthias; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer; Cooper, David A; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine C; Nash, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20), Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7), North America (n=7), Central Africa (n=12), East Africa (n=51), Southern Africa (n=16) and West Africa (n=15). We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr): 33–100%) and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%). Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB) screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%), combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) (94%) and other prevention and clinical management services (97%) – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46%) of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI), especially those in the President's Emergency Plan

  5. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qichen; Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods: The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results: Average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6%) and (50.3% and 60.8%) respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions: The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection. PMID:28036006

  6. Low-frequency oscillations of the East Asia-Pacific teleconnection pattern and their impacts on persistent heavy precipitation in the Yangtze-Huai River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Zhai, Panmao; Chen, Yang; Ni, Yunqi

    2016-06-01

    Based on the daily reanalysis data from NCEP-NCAR and daily precipitation data from the China National Meteorological Information Center, an ensemble empirical mode decomposition method is employed to extract the predominant oscillation modes of the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) teleconnection pattern. The influences of these low-frequency modes on persistent heavy precipitation in the Yangtze-Huai River (YHR) valley are investigated. The results indicate that the EAP pattern and rainfall in YHR valley both exhibit remarkable 10-30- and 30-60-day oscillations. The impacts of the EAP pattern on the YHR persistent heavy precipitation can be found on both the 10-30- and 30-60-day timescales—the 10-30-day scale for most cases. Composite analysis indicates that, on the 10-30-day timescale, formation of the EAP pattern in the lower and middle troposphere is determined by convective systems near the tropical western Pacific; whereas in the middle troposphere, the phase transition is jointly contributed by both the dispersion of zonal wave energies at higher latitudes and convective systems over the South China Sea. In the context of the 10-30-day EAP pattern, the anomalously abundant moisture is transported by an anomalous subtropical anticyclone system, and strong moisture convergence results from that anomalous anticyclone system and a cyclonic system in the midlatitude East Asia. Such a combination of systems persists for at least three days, contributing to the formation of persistent heavy precipitation in the YHR valley.

  7. Consensus for Radiotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma from The 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014): Current Practice and Future Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Chul; Yu, Jeong Il; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Zeng, Zhao Chong; Hong, Ji Hong; Wang, Michael Lian Chek; Kim, Mi Sook; Chi, Kwan Hwa; Liang, Po-Ching; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Lau, Wan-Yee; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe; Seong, Jinsil

    2016-01-01

    A consensus meeting to develop practice guidelines and to recommend future clinical trials for radiation therapy (RT), including external beam RT (EBRT), and selective internal RT (SIRT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was held at the 5th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert consortium. Although there is no randomized phase III trial evidence, the efficacy and safety of RT in HCC has been shown by prospective and retrospective studies using modern RT techniques. Based on these results, the committee came to a consensus on the utility and efficacy of RT in the management of HCC according to each disease stage as follows: in early and intermediate stage HCC, if standard treatment is not compatible, RT, including EBRT and SIRT can be considered. In locally advanced stage HCC, combined EBRT with transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, and SIRT can be considered. In terminal stage HCC, EBRT can be considered for palliation of symptoms and reduction of morbidity caused by the primary tumor or its metastases. Despite the currently reported benefits of RT in HCC, the committee agreed that there is a compelling need for large prospective studies, including randomized phase III trial evidence evaluating the role of RT. Specifically studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of sequential combination of EBRT and SIRT are strongly recommended. PMID:27493892

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients with intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in Asia-Pacific countries: SMART 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Karlowsky, James A; Hoban, Daryl J; Hackel, Meredith A; Lob, Sibylle H; Sahm, Daniel F

    2017-01-01

    Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp.) are responsible for increases in antimicrobial-resistant infections worldwide. We determined in vitro susceptibilities to eight parenteral antimicrobial agents using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution methodology for Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens isolated from hospitalized patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) (n=3052) and urinary tract infections (UTIs) (n=1088) in 11 Asia-Pacific countries/regions from 2013 to 2015. Amikacin (98.3, 96.4 %), imipenem (97.1, 95.5 %) and ertapenem (95.3, 93.2 %) demonstrated the highest rates of susceptibility for isolates of K. pneumoniae from IAI and UTI, respectively, whereas susceptibility to advanced-generation cephalosporins was <84 and <71 %, respectively. K. pneumoniae with an extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive phenotype were more common in UTI (27.1 %) than IAI (16.2 %). Imipenem and amikacin were the most active agents against extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive K. pneumoniae from IAI (95.1, 91.8 %) and UTI (94.9, 92.3 %), respectively, whereas <54 % were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam. Against Enterobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa, amikacin demonstrated the highest rates of susceptibility for isolates from IAI (99.7, 95.5 %) and UTI (90.9, 91.5 %), respectively. K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp. and P. aeruginosa from urine demonstrated lower susceptibility to levofloxacin (74.1, 81.8 and 73.8 %) than from IAI (87.6, 91.8 and 85.4 %). For A. baumannii, rates of susceptibility to all agents tested were <43 %. We conclude that the studied Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens demonstrated reduced susceptibility to commonly prescribed advanced-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam and levofloxacin, while amikacin and carbapenems were the most active. Ongoing surveillance to monitor evolving resistance trends and

  9. Summaries of the Regional Conferences Held in Preparation for the Second International Congress on Technical and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNEVOC Info, 1999

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, five regional conferences were held in preparation for the Second International Congress on Technical and Vocational Education (TVE). The Asia-Pacific regional conference focused on challenges of the 21st century, demands of the world of work, and changing patterns in the delivery of training programs. The European symposium covered five…

  10. PREFACE: 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) and 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Kaneko, Toshio; Sekine, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasunori

    2013-06-01

    The 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) was held in Kyoto, Japan on 2-5 October 2012 with the 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25). SPSM has been held annually since 1988 under the sponsorship of The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This symposium is one of the major activities of the Committee, which is organized by researchers in academia and industry for the purpose of advancing intersectional scientific information exchange and discussion of science and technology of plasma materials processing. APCPST and SPSM are jointly held biennially to survey the current status of low temperature and thermal plasma physics and chemistry for industrial applications. The whole area of plasma processing was covered from fundamentals to applications. Previous meetings were held in China, Japan, Korea, and Australia, attended by scientists from the Asia-Pacific and other countries. The joint conference was organized in plenary lectures, invited, contributed oral presentations and poster sessions. At this meeting, we had 386 participants from 10 countries and 398 presentations, including 26 invited presentations. This year, we arranged special topical sessions that covered green innovation, life innovation, and technical reports from industry. This conference seeks to bring the plasma community together and to create a forum for discussing the latest developments and issues, the challenges ahead in the field of plasma research and applications among engineers and scientists in Asia, the Pacific Rim, as well as Europe. This volume presents 44 papers that were selected via a strict peer-review process from full papers submitted for the proceedings of the conference. The topics range from the basic physics and chemistry of plasma processing to a broad variety of materials processing and environmental applications. This volume offers an overview of recent

  11. IEEE Conference Publications in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1984-01-01

    Conclusions of surveys (63 libraries, OCLC database, University of Rhode Island users) assessing handling of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) conference publications indicate that most libraries fully catalog these publications using LC cataloging, and library patrons frequently require series access to publications. Eight…

  12. The Varying Effects of Regional Organizations as Subjects of Globalization of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Roger; Robertson, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the noneconomic role of three regional international organizations--the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation. Describes differences in organizational structure and purpose, dimensions of organizational power, policies and intentions toward education, direct impact on national…

  13. Deparochializing Education: Globalization, Regionalization, and the Formation of an ASEAN Education Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Research on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has hitherto attracted scholarly attention and debate by both regional and international scholars working in area studies, such as international relations and Asia-Pacific/Southeast Asia studies. Confined to area studies, scholarly research on ASEAN is limiting because the parameters…

  14. Identifying Vulnerable Populations Using a Social Determinants of Health Framework: Analysis of National Survey Data across Six Asia-Pacific Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Paul R.; Mamerow, Loreen; Meyer, Samantha B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO called for research on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper analyses four key SDH (social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security) across six Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Methods Population surveys were undertaken using a validated instrument in 2009-10, with sample sizes around 1000 in each country. The four SDH were analysed using multivariate binomial logistic regression to identify socio-demographic predictors in each country. Results Low socio-economic security was associated with low income in all six study countries and with poor subjective health in Japan, South Korea and Thailand and with being married or cohabiting in Australia and Hong Kong. Low social cohesion was associated with low income in all countries and with undertaking household duties in South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan. Low social inclusion was associated with low income in Australia, South Korea and Taiwan and with poor subjective health in Australia, Japan and South Korea. Older people had lower social inclusion in Taiwan (50-59 years) and Hong Kong (retired), younger people in Japan and South Korea (20-29 years in both countries) and younger and middle-aged people in Australia. Low social empowerment was associated with low income in Australia, Thailand and Taiwan, with being aged 60 years or over in Australia, Hong Kong and South Korea, and over 50 years in Thailand. Conclusions This paper provides baseline measures for identifying where and how policy should be altered to improve the SDH. Furthermore, these data can be used for future policy evaluation to identify whether changes in policy have indeed improved the SDH, particularly for marginalised and vulnerable populations. PMID:24349417

  15. Characterization of ambient volatile organic compounds and their sources in Beijing, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Xie, S. D.; Zeng, L. M.; Li, L. Y.; Li, Y. Q.; Wu, R. R.

    2015-04-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using an online system, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID), in Beijing, China, before, during and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, when stringent air quality control measures were implemented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify the major VOC contributing sources and their temporal variations. The secondary organic aerosols potential (SOAP) approach was used to estimate variations of precursor source contributions to SOA formation. The average VOC mixing ratios during the three periods were 86.17, 48.28, and 72.97 ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 44%, and the mixing ratios of acetonitrile, halocarbons, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), aromatics, acetylene, alkanes, and alkenes decreased by approximately 65, 62, 54, 53, 37, 36, and 23%, respectively. The mixing ratios of all measured VOC species decreased during control, and the most affected species were chlorinated VOCs (chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, chlorobenzene). PMF analysis indicated eight major sources of ambient VOCs, and emissions from target control sources were clearly reduced during the control period. Contributions of vehicular exhaust were most reduced (19.65 ppbv, the contributions before the control period minus the values after the control period), followed by industrial manufacturing (10.29 ppbv) and solvent utilization (6.20 ppbv). Contributions of evaporated or liquid gasoline and industrial chemical feedstock were slightly reduced, with values of 2.85 and 0.35 ppbv, respectively. Contributions of secondary and long-lived species were relatively stable. Due to central heating, emissions from fuel combustion kept on increasing during the whole campaign; because of weak control of liquid petroleum gas (LPG), the highest emissions of LPG occurred in the control period. Vehicle-related sources were

  16. Relative impact of emissions controls and meteorology on air pollution mitigation associated with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqin; Zhang, Yang; Schauer, James Jay; de Foy, Benjamin; Guo, Bo; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2016-11-15

    The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10(th)-11(th), 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11(th)-November 2(nd), 2014), during (November 3(rd)-12(th), 2014) and after (November 13(th), 2014-January 31(st), 2015). The measurements are used in a positive matrix factorization model to determine the contributions from seven sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosols, traffic exhaust, industrial emission, road dust, soil dust, biomass burning and residual oil combustion. The source apportionment results are integrated with backward trajectory analysis using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological simulations, which determine the relative influence of new regulation and meteorology upon improved air quality during the APEC conference. Data show that controls are very effective, but meteorology must be taken into account to determine the actual influence of the controls on pollution reduction. The industry source control is the most effective for reducing concentrations, followed by secondary aerosol and biomass controls, while the least effective control is for the residual oil combustion source. The largest reductions in concentrations occur when air mass transport is from the west-northwest (Ulanqab). Secondary aerosol and traffic exhaust reductions are most significant for air mass transport from the north-northwest (Xilingele League) origin, and least significant for northeast transport (Chifeng via Tangshan conditions). The largest reductions of soil dust, biomass burning, and industrial source are distinctly seen for Ulanqab conditions and least distinct for

  17. Characterization of ambient volatile organic compounds and their sources in Beijing, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Xie, S. D.; Zeng, L. M.; Li, L. Y.; Li, Y. Q.; Wu, R. R.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using an online system, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID), in Beijing, China, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, when stringent air quality control measures were implemented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify the major VOC contributing sources and their temporal variations. The secondary organic aerosols potential (SOAP) approach was used to estimate variations of precursor source contributions to SOA formation. The average VOC mixing ratios during the three periods were 86.17, 48.28, and 72.97 ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 44 %, and the mixing ratios of acetonitrile, halocarbons, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), aromatics, acetylene, alkanes, and alkenes decreased by approximately 65, 62, 54, 53, 37, 36, and 23 %, respectively. The mixing ratios of all measured VOC species decreased during control, and the most affected species were chlorinated VOCs (chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, chlorobenzene). PMF analysis indicated eight major sources of ambient VOCs, and emissions from target control sources were clearly reduced during the control period. Compared with the values before control, contributions of vehicular exhaust were most reduced, followed by industrial manufacturing and solvent utilization. Reductions of these three sources were responsible for 50, 26, and 16 % of the reductions in ambient VOCs. Contributions of evaporated or liquid gasoline and industrial chemical feedstock were slightly reduced, and contributions of secondary and long-lived species were relatively stable. Due to central heating, emissions from fuel combustion kept on increasing during the whole campaign; because of weak control of liquid petroleum gas (LPG), the highest emissions of LPG occurred in the control period. Vehicle-related sources were the most important

  18. Statistical coherence of primary schooling in IPUMS-International integrated population samples for China, India, Vietnam, and ten other Asia-Pacific countries1

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert; Cleveland, Lara; Kelly-Hall, Patricia; Ruggles, Steven; Sobek, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    IPUMS-International www.ipums.org/international disseminates harmonized census microdata for more than 80 countries at no cost, although access is restricted to bona-fide researchers and students who agree to the stringent conditions of use license. Currently over 270 samples are available, totalling more than 600 million person records. Each year 15–20 additional samples are released, as more countries cooperate with the IPUMS initiative and the integration of 2010 round census samples is completed. With so much microdata so readily available, questions of data quality naturally arise. This paper focusses on the concept of statistical coherence over time for a single concept, primary schooling completed. From an analysis of the percentage completing primary schooling by birth year for pairs of samples for thirteen Asia-Pacific countries, we find outstanding coherence for four—China, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Indonesia—with mean differences of less than 0.5 percentage points, regression coefficient (b) ranging from 0.93 to 1.07 and R2 =.99. For the thirteen countries as a group there is considerable variation overall with mean absolute difference as high as 16 percentage points, b ranging from 0.62–1.44 and R2=.65–.99. As a whole, statistical coherence of primary schooling is outstanding. Nonetheless, to make expert use of the harmonized microdata, researchers are cautioned to carefully study the IPUMS integrated metadata as well as the original source documentation. National Statistical Offices not currently cooperating or that have not yet entrusted 2010 round census microdata are invited to do so. PMID:26478685

  19. Radiocarbon-derived source apportionment of fine carbonaceous aerosols before, during, and after the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junwen; Mo, Yangzhi; Li, Jun; Liu, Di; Shen, Chengde; Ding, Ping; Jiang, Haoyu; Cheng, Zhineng; Zhang, Xiangyun; Tian, Chongguo; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-04-01

    The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit took place in Beijing, China, 5-11 November 2014, during which numerous measures were performed to control the air pollution, and consequently, the sky of Beijing was so clean that the public called it "APEC blue." The concentrations before, during, and after the APEC summit are 14.4 ± 6.81 µg C/m3, 6.66 ± 2.99 µg C/m3, and 32.3 ± 10.6 µg C/m3, respectively, for organic carbon (OC), and 2.27 ± 1.17 µg C/m3, 0.76 ± 0.52 µg C/m3, and 4.99 ± 1.74 µg C/m3, respectively, for elemental carbon (EC). We quantify the contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to the OC and EC using radiocarbon. Results show that the contribution of nonfossil sources is 56 ± 1% (before APEC), 61 ± 1% (during APEC), and 48 ± 1% (after APEC), respectively, for OC, and 36 ± 4% (before APEC), 46 ± 1% (during APEC), and 33 ± 4% (after APEC), respectively, for EC. Comparing to the period before APEC, 70% and 60% of fossil EC and OC and 60% and 50% of nonfossil EC and OC are reduced, respectively, implying that the control on the nonfossil sources has considerable contribution to the good air quality in Beijing. Both EC and OC mass loadings during the APEC summit would have increased by 60% if the biomass-burning activities were not taken into account for control. In such a case, the atmospheric visibility would decrease 20% at least and the blue sky thereby would likely not have been visible during the summit.

  20. Give Me a Hand... As We Dance With the Dragon: Fine Tuning the Asia-Pacific Hands Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    management of a future Hands program. The essay will examine the complexity of the contemporary program and its predecessor using a variety of primary...3 The Chairman stated, “ Future commanders of our force will need deep regional understanding to execute their missions, starting in the Phase Zero...new concept. This essay attempts to look at the Hands’ programs of the past and present to pull relevant and instructive lessons to assist in the

  1. Variability of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the southern hemisphere: a regional perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H.; Hendon, H. H.; Lim, E.-P.; Boschat, G.; Maloney, E.; Timbal, B.

    2017-03-01

    In order to understand the regional impacts of variations in the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere, regional Hadley circulations are defined in three sectors centered on the main tropical heat sources over Africa, Asia-Pacific (Maritime Continent) and the Americas. These regional circulations are defined by computing a streamfunction from the divergent component of the meridional wind. A major finding from this study is that year-to-year variability in the extent of the hemispheric Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere is primarily governed by variations of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Asia-Pacific sector, especially during austral spring and summer when there is little co-variability with the African sector, and the American sector exhibits an out of phase behavior. An expanded Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (both hemispherically and in the Asia-Pacific sector) is associated with La Niña conditions and a poleward expansion of the tropical wet zone in the Asia-Pacific sector. While La Niña also promotes expansion in the American and African sectors during austral winter, these tropical conditions tend to promote contraction in the two sectors during austral summer as a result of compensating convergence over the Americas and Africa sectors: a process driven by variations in the Walker circulation and Rossby wave trains emanating from the tropical Indian Ocean.

  2. Asia-Pacific International Space Year (ISY) Conference, Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 16-20, 1992, Proceedings. Vols. 1 & 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topics discussed include the Mission to Planet Earth, the Space Station, and space activities in the Pacific Rim region. Possible future space missions are also examined, with particular attention given to medium-term and long-term perspectives in the ESA scientific program, projected lunar and planetary missions in the Japanese space program, and post-Cold War international cooperation in planetary exploration. Also presented are workshops on such topics as the future space transportation system, JERS-1 and ERS-1, and cover change and disaster mitigation, polar stratospheric ozone, and Space Station utilization.

  3. [UNESCO] Regional Consultation Meeting on the Asia and Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) (12th, Chaing Mai, Thailand, August 20-27, 1990). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This document is the final report of a Regional Consultation Meeting (RCM) on the Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID), a mechanism developed by UNESCO to bring about regional cooperation in education in Asia and the Pacific. This RCM was attended by 55 participants, resource persons, and observers from…

  4. Asia-Pacific energy database

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Statistical data is presented in graphic and tabular form on the petroleum market in Asia and Pacific nations. Seven major categories are reported: (1) primary energy production and consumption; (2) historical petroleum product demand and forecasts; (3) crude oil production and exports; (4) import dependence; (5) crude and product pricing assumptions; (6) market share of refined products by suppliers in selected countries; and (7) refining margins. Petroleum demand and forecasts and crude oil production and exports are reported by country. Historical data are presented from 1970 through 1996, and forecasts are made through 2010.

  5. Trends and Strategies of Action in Population Education for 1992-1995. Report of a Regional Consultative Seminar on Population Education (Bangkok, Thailand, May 21-28, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This five-part report concerns a seminar in which representatives from countries in the Asia Pacific region met to discuss their countries' experiences in population education and to cooperatively develop strategies to meet emerging needs in this area. Chapter 1 is an introduction that provides background information and discusses the inaugural…

  6. Predictors and Extent of Institutional Trust in Government, Banks, the Media and Religious Organisations: Evidence from Cross-Sectional Surveys in Six Asia-Pacific Countries

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Emma; Pearce, Alex R.; Meyer, Samantha B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Building or maintaining institutional trust is of central importance in democratic societies since negative experiences (potentially leading to mistrust) with government or other institutions may have a much more profound effect than positive experiences (potentially maintaining trust). Healthy democracy relies on more than simply trusting the national government of the time, and is mediated through other symbols of institutional power, such as the legal system, banks, the media and religious organisations. This paper focuses on institutional trust–the level and predictors of trust in some of the major institutions in society, namely politics, the media, banks, the legal system and religious organisations. We present analyses from a consolidated dataset containing data from six countries in the Asia Pacific region–Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in each country in 2009–10, with an overall sample of 6331. Analyses of differences in overall levels of institutional trust between countries were undertaken using Chi square analyses. Multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis was undertaken to identify socio-demographic predictors of trust in each country. Results Religious institutions, banks and the judicial system had the highest overall trust across all countries (70%, 70% and 67% respectively), followed by newspapers and TV (59% and 58%) and then political leaders (43%). The range of levels of higher trust between countries differed from 43% for banks (range 49% in Australia to 92% in Thailand) to 59% for newspapers (28% in Australia to 87% in Japan). Across all countries, except for Australia, trust in political leaders had the lowest scores, particularly in Japan and South Korea (25% in both countries). In Thailand, people expressed the most trust in religious organisations (94%), banks (92%) and in their judicial/legal system (89%). In Hong Kong, people

  7. Joint conference of iMEC 2015 (2nd International Manufacturing Engineering Conference & APCOMS 2015 (3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Manufacturing Systems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    The iMEC 2015 is the second International Manufacturing Engineering Conference organized by the Faculty of Manufacturing, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), held from 12-14th November 2015 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with a theme "Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow". For the first time, iMEC is organized together with 3rd Asia- Pacific Conference on Manufacturing System (APCOMS 2015) which owned by Fakulti Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Indonesia. This is an extended collaboration between UMP and ITB to intensify knowledge sharing and experiences between higher learning institutions. This conference (iMEC & APCOMS 2015) is a platform for knowledge exchange and the growth of ideas, particularly in manufacturing engineering. The conference aims to bring researchers, academics, scientists, students, engineers and practitioners from around the world together to present their latest findings, ideas, developments and applications related to manufacturing engineering and other related research areas. With rapid advancements in manufacturing engineering, iMEC is an appropriate medium for the associated community to keep pace with the changes. In 2015, the conference theme is “Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow” which reflects the acceleration of knowledge and technology in global manufacturing. The papers in these proceedings are examples of the work presented at the conference. They represent the tip of the iceberg, as the conference attracted over 200 abstracts from Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, United Kingdom, Australia, India, Bangladesh, South Africa, Turkey and Morocco and 151 full papers were accepted in these proceedings. The conference was run in four parallel sessions with 160 presenters sharing their latest finding in the areas of manufacturing process, systems, advanced materials and automation. The first keynote presentation was given by Prof. B. S. Murthy (IIT, Madras) on "Nanomaterials with Exceptional

  8. Sustaining U.S. Leadership in the Asia-Pacific Region: Why a Strategy of Direct Defense Against Antiaccess and Area Denial Threats Is Desirable and Feasible

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    able to decisively tip the balance against Muammar Gaddafi’s Libyan forces without really breaking a sweat . Rather, observers have been impressed by...monographs/MG524.html Colby, Elbridge, “Don’t Sweat AirSea Battle,” The National Interest, July 13, 2013. Congressional Budget Office, Long-Term

  9. Rebalancing to the Asia-Pacific Region, and Challenges of Anti-Access/Area Denial & the Air-Sea Battle Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-05

    must employ electronic protection (EP) measures to include the use of decoys and spoofing to entice PLA attacks on false or low-priority targets...Department of Defense (U.S.) EA Electronic Attack EP Electronic Protection EW Electronic Warfare GPS Global Positioning System HALE High Altitude Low...a hypothetical scenario involving Chinese A2/AD attack along with projected impacts on the U.S. Following this, the paper proposes application of the

  10. The US-China Face-Off in the Asia-Pacific Region: What Answer Can the Offense-Defense Theory Provide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    unconditional love in my one-year intellectual journey at the SAASS. vi ABSTRACT The study comprises an analysis of the security dilemma ...belligerents can be identified clearly, then the offense-defense balance can provide useful answers to the questions related to the security dilemma issues...at present, the defense has the advantage and therefore the likelihood of major conflict due to security dilemma factors is low. Nonetheless

  11. Pharmacological and Safety Profile of Dexlansoprazole: A New Proton Pump Inhibitor - Implications for Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the Asia Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Goh, Khean Lee; Choi, Myung Gyu; Hsu, Ping I; Chun, Hoon Jai; Mahachai, Varocha; Kachintorn, Udom; Leelakusolvong, Somchai; Kim, Nayoung; Rani, Abdul Aziz; Wong, Benjamin C Y; Wu, Justin; Chiu, Cheng Tang; Shetty, Vikram; Bocobo, Joseph C; Chan, Melchor M; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2016-07-30

    Although gastroesophageal reflux disease is not as common in Asia as in western countries, the prevalence has increased substantially during the past decade. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is associated with considerable reductions in subjective well-being and work productivity, as well as increased healthcare use. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently the most effective treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, there are limitations associated with these drugs in terms of partial and non-response. Dexlansoprazole is the first PPI with a dual delayed release formulation designed to provide 2 separate releases of medication to extend the duration of effective plasma drug concentration. Dexlansoprazole has been shown to be effective for healing of erosive esophagitis, and to improve subjective well-being by controlling 24-hour symptoms. Dexlansoprazole has also been shown to achieve good plasma concentration regardless of administration with food, providing flexible dosing. Studies in healthy volunteers showed no clinically important effects on exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel or clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition, with no dose adjustment of clopidogrel necessary when coprescribed. This review discusses the role of the new generation PPI, dexlansoprazole, in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Asia.

  12. Quality in Cross-Border Higher Education and Challenges for the Internationalization of National Quality Assurance Agencies in the Asia-Pacific Region: The Taiwanese Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Angela Yung-chi

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border higher education has created a need to build capacity -- particularly in the internationalization dimension -- for national quality assurance agencies to evaluate cross-border education provided by foreign educational providers, or jointly by local and foreign institutions. This is quickly becoming a key issue in the Asia-Pacific…

  13. Pharmacological and Safety Profile of Dexlansoprazole: A New Proton Pump Inhibitor – Implications for Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the Asia Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Khean Lee; Choi, Myung Gyu; Hsu, Ping I; Chun, Hoon Jai; Mahachai, Varocha; Kachintorn, Udom; Leelakusolvong, Somchai; Kim, Nayoung; Rani, Abdul Aziz; Wong, Benjamin C Y; Wu, Justin; Chiu, Cheng Tang; Shetty, Vikram; Bocobo, Joseph C; Chan, Melchor M; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2016-01-01

    Although gastroesophageal reflux disease is not as common in Asia as in western countries, the prevalence has increased substantially during the past decade. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is associated with considerable reductions in subjective well-being and work productivity, as well as increased healthcare use. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently the most effective treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, there are limitations associated with these drugs in terms of partial and non-response. Dexlansoprazole is the first PPI with a dual delayed release formulation designed to provide 2 separate releases of medication to extend the duration of effective plasma drug concentration. Dexlansoprazole has been shown to be effective for healing of erosive esophagitis, and to improve subjective well-being by controlling 24-hour symptoms. Dexlansoprazole has also been shown to achieve good plasma concentration regardless of administration with food, providing flexible dosing. Studies in healthy volunteers showed no clinically important effects on exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel or clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition, with no dose adjustment of clopidogrel necessary when coprescribed. This review discusses the role of the new generation PPI, dexlansoprazole, in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Asia. PMID:26932927

  14. Regional trends in the take-up of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wootten, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    Using surveys of the electricity industry taken in major OECD coal producing/coal consuming regions of North America, Europe, Southern Africa, and Asia/Pacific, this paper reports on the attitudes of power plant operators and developers toward clean coal technologies, the barriers to their use and the policies and measures that might be implemented, if a country or region desired to encourage greater use of clean coal technologies.

  15. An IEEE 1451.1 Architecture for ISHM Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Jon A.; Turowski, Mark; Schmalzel, John L.; Figueroa, Jorge F.

    2007-01-01

    The IEEE 1451.1 Standard for a Smart Transducer Interface defines a common network information model for connecting and managing smart elements in control and data acquisition networks using network-capable application processors (NCAPs). The Standard is a network-neutral design model that is easily ported across operating systems and physical networks for implementing complex acquisition and control applications by simply plugging in the appropriate network level drivers. To simplify configuration and tracking of transducer and actuator details, the family of 1451 standards defines a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) that is associated with each physical element. The TEDS contains all of the pertinent information about the physical operations of a transducer (such as operating regions, calibration tables, and manufacturer information), which the NCAP uses to configure the system to support a specific transducer. The Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) group at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has been developing an ISHM architecture that utilizes IEEE 1451.1 as the primary configuration and data acquisition mechanism for managing and collecting information from a network of distributed intelligent sensing elements. This work has involved collaboration with other NASA centers, universities and aerospace industries to develop IEEE 1451.1 compliant sensors and interfaces tailored to support health assessment of complex systems. This paper and presentation describe the development and implementation of an interface for the configuration, management and communication of data, information and knowledge generated by a distributed system of IEEE 1451.1 intelligent elements monitoring a rocket engine test system. In this context, an intelligent element is defined as one incorporating support for the IEEE 1451.x standards and additional ISHM functions. Our implementation supports real-time collection of both measurement data (raw ADC counts and

  16. Risk Management Supplement to IEEE-15288.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER TAILORING RISK MANAGEMENT SUPPLEMENT TO IEEE -15288.1 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...IEC- IEEE -15288: 2015, SYSTEMS AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERING — SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE PROCESSES...1 2.2. IEEE -15288.1: 2015, STANDARD FOR APPLICATION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ON DEFENSE PROGRAMS

  17. Recent Reform and Perspectives in Higher Education: Report of the Seminar Including a Range of Countries from Asia-Pacific and Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    This report describes a 1998 seminar held to review the situation of higher education reform in Asia and the Pacific region, as well as in some Western nations, and to identify common issues and priorities, and then develop a collaborative framework for addressing these issues and setting priorities. Seventeen participants from 16 countries…

  18. Defining the IEEE-854 floating-point standard in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.

    1995-01-01

    A significant portion of the ANSI/IEEE-854 Standard for Radix-Independent Floating-Point Arithmetic is defined in PVS (Prototype Verification System). Since IEEE-854 is a generalization of the ANSI/IEEE-754 Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, the definition of IEEE-854 in PVS also formally defines much of IEEE-754. This collection of PVS theories provides a basis for machine checked verification of floating-point systems. This formal definition illustrates that formal specification techniques are sufficiently advanced that is is reasonable to consider their use in the development of future standards.

  19. MDR-TB--its characteristics and control in Asia-Pacific rim symposium in USJCMSP 10th international conference on emerging infectious diseases in the Pacific rim.

    PubMed

    Mori, Toru

    2007-08-01

    The strategy of directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) is achieving substantial progress in coverage and quality improvements worldwide. However, the problem of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a new challenge to TB control in both developing and industrialized countries. The effort of various countries of the Pacific Rim to fight this problem, one of the negative progenies from the 20th century, was a major theme of the conference. Asia, WHO's Southwest Asia and Western Pacific Regions, combined, account globally for almost 60% of the newly occurring MDR-TB cases. However, the problem has likely been overlooked, as it was masked by taking averages for countries or wider regions. In this way, we may have lost sight of "hot zones" with extremely high prevalence of MDR-TB in smaller areas or in population segments. The problem was basically a result of the low-quality treatment program, but recently it may be amplified in some areas by the HIV epidemic that is another new challenge to TB strategies. So far, developing countries have not been taking active measures to manage this problem. However, some countries, such as the Philippines and Peru, have undertaken aggressive efforts, supported technically and financially by the new international mechanisms, such as the Stop TB Partnership and the Global Fund to fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. These efforts would be more effective if there were further technical innovation in diagnosis and treatment, supported by a strong political commitment.

  20. Specialty Engineering Supplement to IEEE-15288.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER TAILORING SPECIALTY ENGINEERING SUPPLEMENT TO IEEE -15288.1 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...IS UNLIMITED 1 Tailoring of IEEE 15288.1: Specialty Engineering Supplement. 1. Intent of this Tailoring Document This tailoring document is...historically deemed valuable to mission assurance/success of high-reliability space systems. This tailoring document supplements IEEE 15288.1-2015 Annex E

  1. Asia-Pacific: A Strategic Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands in the dis- puted area. Those islands consist of three tiny unin- habited islands and five barren rocks that are barely... pines ’ claimed South China Sea territories.87 Chinese leaders have taken watchful notes of the U.S. adjustments in its position toward the South

  2. Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, S.

    1988-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an overview of Philippines energy planning and policy and to analyze its energy resources and economic developments. Geography, population, geothermal reserves, coal, oil industry, electricity, and renewable energy are the major topics included in the report. A chapter is focused on national economy and energy policy. 40 tabs., 2 figs.

  3. Asia-Pacific: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    2010): 1162-1183. JSTOR Laffey, Mark, and Suthaharan Nadarajah. "The Hybridity of Liberal Peace: States, Diasporas and Insecurity." [Sri Lanka...3 (May/June 2010): 615-639. JSTOR Case, William. "Electoral Authoritarianism and Backlash: Hardening Malaysia, Oscillating Thailand...615-639. JSTOR Callahan, William A. "China’s Strategic Futures: Debating the Post-American World Order." Asian Survey 52, no. 4 (July/August 2012

  4. IEEE 1547 Standards Advancing Grid Modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, Thomas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Hoke, Andy; Coddington, Michael

    2015-06-14

    Technology advances including development of advanced distributed energy resources (DER) and grid-integrated operations and controls functionalities have surpassed the requirements in current standards and codes for DER interconnection with the distribution grid. The full revision of IEEE Standards 1547 (requirements for DER-grid interconnection and interoperability) and 1547.1 (test procedures for conformance to 1547) are establishing requirements and best practices for state-of-the-art DER including variable renewable energy sources. The revised standards will also address challenges associated with interoperability and transmission-level effects, in addition to strictly addressing the distribution grid needs. This paper provides the status and future direction of the ongoing development focus for the 1547 standards.

  5. Sine-Fitting Software for IEEE Standard 1057

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Jerome

    1999-05-01

    Software application that performs the calculations related to the sine-fit tests of IEEE Standard 1057/94. Example outputs and explainations of these outputs to determine the important characteristics of the device under test. This application performs the calculations related to sine-fit tests and uses 4-parameter sine fit from IEEE Standard 1057-1994.

  6. IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY.

    This dictionary, prepared by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE), defines 13,000 technical words from every area of electrical and electronics engineering. The dictionary contains hundreds of new terms as well as revisions of earlier ones. Each definition is an official standard of IEEE. The definitions are arranged…

  7. Understanding the Korean Peninsula in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part II, U.S. and Japanese Relations with the Korean Peninsula: Opportunities and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Cheng, Amy; Amar, Jasmine; Donahue, Dave; Fisher, Grace; Klein, Emily; Lee, Joanne

    This curriculum unit is part two of a three-part series. Each of the three parts can be taught independently. The lessons include perspectives from each of the countries under study. This unit introduces students to challenges and opportunities presented by policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with the Korean Peninsula at the turn of the…

  8. Understanding Vietnam in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part III, U.S. and Japanese Relations with Vietnam: Liberalization and Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Chenette, Sara; Cheng, Amy; Cheng, Yu Wen; Fairbrother, Greg; Midling, Michael; Nordquist, Silvy; Tan, Kwee Foon

    This curriculum unit is part three of a three-part series. Each of the three parts can be taught independently. The lessons include perspectives from each of the countries under study. This unit introduces students to policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with Vietnam at the turn of the century. By identifying and examining these options…

  9. Methodology and outcomes of platelet aggregation testing in Australia, New Zealand and the Asia-Pacific region: results of a survey from the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Haematology Quality Assurance Program.

    PubMed

    Duncan, E M; Bonar, R; Rodgers, S E; Favaloro, E J; Marsden, K

    2009-08-01

    Platelet aggregometry is widely used to investigate platelet function but its performance is poorly standardized between laboratories. The aim of this work was to document the platelet aggregation methods used in specialist laboratories enrolled in the Haematology Quality Assurance Program of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. A questionnaire requesting many details of methodology was distributed and from the responses, we determined a consensus view. Consensus was defined here as >70% agreement among respondents in answer to a question and this was seen for a number of aspects of the preanalytical, analytical and interpretive phases. However, for many questions there was a wide variation in responses. Sixteen laboratories provided a breakdown of the types of abnormal results typically seen in a 12-month period. In these laboratories a total of 1400 patients were tested and 390 (27%) had abnormal platelet function. Although it was common to diagnose the cause as aspirin or an aspirin-like defect or a release/storage pool disorder, the range of experience was wide and other rare defects were reported. We conclude that whilst there are a number of points of agreement between laboratories in platelet function testing, standardization could be improved.

  10. Understanding China in the 21st Century: Political, Economic, and Security Issues in the Asia/Pacific Region. Part I, U.S. and Japanese Relations with China: Case Studies of Cooperation and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Moore, Carey; Young, Jocelyn; Cheng, Amy; Fairbrother, Greg

    This curriculum unit is part one of a three-part series. The unit introduces students to policy options for U.S. and Japanese relations with China at the beginning of the 21st century. By identifying and examining these options, students gain an awareness of U.S., Japanese, and Chinese perspectives on political, economic, and security issues.…

  11. Delay Analysis of GTS Bridging between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11 Networks for Healthcare Applications.

    PubMed

    Misić, Jelena; Sherman Shen, Xuemin

    2009-01-01

    We consider interconnection of IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled network cluster with IEEE 802.11b network. This scenario is important in healthcare applications where IEEE 802.15.4 nodes comprise patient's body area network (BAN) and are involved in sensing some health-related data. BAN nodes have very short communication range in order to avoid harming patient's health and save energy. Sensed data needs to be transmitted to an access point in the ward room using wireless technology with higher transmission range and rate such as IEEE 802.11b. We model the interconnected network where IEEE 802.15.4-based BAN operates in guaranteed time slot (GTS) mode, and IEEE 802.11b part of the bridge conveys GTS superframe to the 802.11b access point. We then analyze the network delays. Performance analysis is performed using EKG traffic from continuous telemetry, and we discuss the delays of communication due the increasing number of patients.

  12. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  13. IEEE 1547 Series of Standards: Interconnection Issues; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2003-09-01

    IEEE 1547TM 2003 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems is the first in the 1547 series of planned interconnection standards. Major issues and a wealth of constructive dialogue arose during 1547 development. There was also a perceived increased vitality in updating complementary IEEE standards and developing additional standards to accommodate modern electrical and electronics systems and improved grid communications and operations. Power engineers and other stakeholders looking to the future are poised to incorporate 1547 into their knowledge base to help transform our nation's aging distribution systems while alleviating some of the burden on existing transmission systems.

  14. System Behavior Specification Using IEEE Std 1175.4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-27

    22nd Annual Systems & Software Technology Conference S stem Beha ior Specification1 7 y v Using IEEE Std 1175.4 e v i e w 5 2 8 1 2 R 27 April...DATE 27 APR 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE System Behavior Specification Using IEEE Std ...RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std

  15. The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, Intellectual Property Protection, and Access to Medicines.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Belinda; Gleeson, Deborah; Lopert, Ruth

    2016-11-01

    The inclusion of elevated standards of intellectual property (IP) protection in the recently negotiated Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement has raised serious public health concerns regarding access to medicines. A lesser-known trade agreement under negotiation in the Asia-Pacific region is the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Framed as an attempt to reassert ASEAN's position in response to the United States-led TPP, RCEP includes key players China and India as well as several low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Leaked drafts of IP provisions proposed by Japan and South Korea raise similar concerns in the Asia-Pacific region. This article identifies TRIPS (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement)-Plus provisions in leaked negotiating texts and examines their implications for LMICs that are not also parties to the TPP: Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, China, and India. We find that higher levels of IP protection delay the market entry of generic medicines, giving rise to increased costs to governments and reduced access to essential medicines. The article concludes that the public health community should recognize risks inherent in trade agreements that promote expansions of IP rights and engage with governments to ensure that public health is adequately and explicitly protected in trade and investment negotiations.

  16. Eleanor McElwee and the Formation of IEEE PCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the historical professional project that created the Institute of Radio Engineers' Professional Group on Engineering Writing an Speech (IRE PGEWS)--now called the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' Professional Communication Society (IEEE PCS)--and recounts the group's early history in detail. It also traces…

  17. Radio Frequency Fingerprinting Techniques Through Preamble Modification in IEEE 802.11B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-30

    David Bull, and Joseph McGeehan. “A Comparison of the HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a Wireless LAN Standards”, Communications Magazine , IEEE , vol. 40, no...RADIO FREQUENCY FINGERPRINTING TECHNIQUES THROUGH PREAMBLE MODIFICATION IN IEEE 802.11B THESIS Nicholas J. Kulesza, Captain, USAF AFIT–ENG–T–14–J–8...MODIFICATION IN IEEE 802.11B THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management

  18. A neutralizing monoclonal antibody previously mapped exclusively on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 recognizes an epitope in p17 sharing the core sequence IEEE.

    PubMed Central

    Buratti, E; Tisminetzky, S G; D'Agaro, P; Baralle, F E

    1997-01-01

    We report here that a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb 1575) mapped to the conserved putative intracellular region from amino acid residues 735 to 752 (735-752 region) of gp41 also recognizes a region in an extracellular portion of p17. Both epitopes have a core recognition sequence (IEEE) in a nonhomologous context. The IEEE motif found in HIV-1 p17 is located in a region known as HGP-30 (residues 86 to 115) which has been previously associated with virus neutralization, cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity, and mother-to-child transmission. An analysis of available gp41 and p17 sequences demonstrates that in these regions both IEEE sequences are highly conserved in different HIV-1 clades. The presence of the IEEE epitope in p17 allows us to explain some unexpected neutralizing characteristics of MAb 1575. In addition, the gp41 735-752 region has been previously reported both in intra- and extracellular locations. Our results suggest that the extracellular location was the result of cross-reactivity with p17. PMID:9032383

  19. IEEE P1547 Series of Standards for Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T. S.; DeBlasio, R.

    2003-05-01

    The IEEE P1547 Standard For Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems is the first in the P1547 series of planned interconnection standards, and additional standards are needed. There are major issues and obstacles to an orderly transition to the use and integration of distributed power resources with electric power systems (grid or utility grid). The lack of uniform national interconnection standards and tests for interconnection operation and certification-as well as the lack of uniform national building, electrical, and safety codes-is understood, and resolving this needs reasonable lead time to develop and promulgate consensus. The P1547 standard is a benchmark milestone for the IEEE standards consensus process and successfully demonstrates a model for ongoing success in the development of further national standards and for moving forward in modernizing our nation's electric power system.

  20. Computer aided coordination of line protection schemes IEEE committee report

    SciTech Connect

    Postforoosh, J.M.; Akamine, J.; Banerjee, H.N.; Cornelison, J.R.; Enns, M.K.; Grier, S.E.; Hass, R.W.; Hasenwinkle, I.O.; Johnson, R.W.; Mozina, C.J.; Ramaswami, R.; Smith, H.S.; Taylor, R.P.; Turley, J.R.; Zipp, J.A.

    1991-04-01

    IEEE PSRC working group on Computer Aided Coordination of Line Protection Schemes was established in 1985 to investigate the application of computers to the task of setting and verifying the setting of line protective devices. This report provides the findings of the working group regarding functional requirements of the data base, software, and hardware for this system as well as the methods of presenting the results to the protection engineer.

  1. Performance of IEEE 1588 in Large-Scale Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    commercially available Syn1588 network cards from Oregano Systems. They not only feature an IEEE 1588 hardware timestamper, but also a 1 PPS output...of the measurements, which are done per default once a second, can be removed considering the short-term stability of the oscillator. As the Oregano ...PTTI) Meeting 76 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to thank Julien Ridoux, the University of Melbourne, Oregano Systems, and Meinberg for

  2. SAR changes in a human head model for plane wave exposure (500 - 2500 MHz) and a comparison with IEEE 2005 safety limits.

    PubMed

    Yelkenci, Tanju; Paker, Selcuk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, external electric field values that are derived from the largest peak average 10 g SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) results in a realistic human head model are compared with current IEEE and ICNIRP reference levels. The head is illuminated by a plane wave source at seven different frequencies ranging from 500 MHz to 2500 MHz, with five different incident directions and three polarizations. Results reveal that the presence of metallic wire spectacles reduces the external electric field levels in the region above 900 MHz. Comparison of derived electric field values shows that the current IEEE and ICNIRP safety limits provide a conservative estimate.

  3. 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest winner: Visualizing unsteady vortical behavior of a centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Otto, Mathias; Kuhn, Alexander; Engelke, Wito; Theisel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    In the 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest, the dataset represented a high-resolution simulation of a centrifugal pump operating below optimal speed. The goal was to find suitable visualization techniques to identify regions of rotating stall that impede the pump's effectiveness. The winning entry split analysis of the pump into three parts based on the pump's functional behavior. It then applied local and integration-based methods to communicate the unsteady flow behavior in different regions of the dataset. This research formed the basis for a comparison of common vortex extractors and more recent methods. In particular, integration-based methods (separation measures, accumulated scalar fields, particle path lines, and advection textures) are well suited to capture the complex time-dependent flow behavior. This video (http://youtu.be/oD7QuabY0oU) shows simulations of unsteady flow in a centrifugal pump.

  4. Virus Diseases: The Global Challenge to Health for All. Asia-Pacific Congress of Medical Virology (2nd) Held in Bangkok, Thailand on November 17-22, 1991. Abstracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    Wand.. Varavlthya Savanat The ra van i/ Yang Poavora wan AUDIOVISUAL SUBCOMMITTEE CHAIRMAN Surapol Suwanagool VICE CHAIRMAN Sta porn Manatsatit...factors: (1) HBsAg (+) mother was a high risk factor in this region and (2) the infected children with HBV may transmit to others through child to child ...JEV infection in an Australian child who visited Bali, prompted establishing a hospital based surveillance of pediatric encephalitis cases in Denpasar

  5. Short-term risk of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected patients in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia-Pacific, and central and South America

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective was to examine the short-term risk and predictors of anaemia following initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected patients from the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian-Pacific, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) collaboration. Methods Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin of < 10 g/dL. Patients were included if they started cART with three or more drugs, had prior haemoglobin of > = 10 g/dL, and had one or more follow-up haemoglobin tests. Factors associated with anaemia up to 12 months were examined using Cox proportional hazards models and stratified by IeDEA region. Results Between 1998 and 2008, 19,947 patients initiated cART with baseline and follow-up haemoglobin tests (7358, 7289, 2853, 471, 1550 and 426 in the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian-Pacific, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions, respectively). At initiation, anaemia was found in 45% of Western Africa patients, 29% of Eastern Africa patients, 21% of Southern Africa patients, 36% of Central Africa patients, 15% of patients in Asian-Pacific and 14% of patients in Caribbean and Central and South America. Among patients with haemoglobin of > = 10 g/dL at baseline (13,445), the risks of anaemia were 18.2, 6.6, 9.7, 22.9, 11.8 and 19.5 per 100 person-years in the Western Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa, Central Africa, Asian, and Caribbean and Central and South America regions, respectively. Factors associated with anaemia were female sex, low baseline haemoglobin level, low baseline CD4 count, more advanced disease stage, and initial cART containing zidovudine. Conclusions In data from 34 cohorts of HIV-infected patients from sub-Saharan Africa, Central and South America, and Asia, the risk of anaemia within 12 months of initiating cART was moderate. Routine haemoglobin

  6. IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference: Notes on the Early Conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper gathers the remembrances of several key contributors who participated in the earliest Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conferences (NSREC).

  7. Analysis of Global Radiotherapy Needs and Costs by Geographic Region and Income Level.

    PubMed

    Zubizarreta, E; Van Dyk, J; Lievens, Y

    2017-02-01

    Recent years have seen various reviews on the lack of access to radiotherapy often based on geographic regions of the world such as Africa, Asia Pacific, Europe, Latin America and North America. Countries are often defined by their national income per capita levels based on World Bank definitions of high income, upper middle income, lower middle income and low income. Within the world regions, there are significant variations in gross national income (GNI) per capita among the different countries, and even within similar income levels, large variations exist. This report presents the actual status of radiotherapy and analyses the current needs and costs to provide full access in the different regions of the world. Actual coverage of the needs ranges from 34% in Africa to over 92% in Europe to about double the needs in North America. In line with this, proportional additional investments and operational costs are as high as more than 200% in Africa to almost none in North America. Two world regions face substantial challenges: Africa, based on the important demands to build new capacity and subsequently to maintain operational capability; and Asia Pacific, due to its high population density, translating into large absolute needs in radiotherapy treatments and resources, and hence in associated costs. With the data highlighting a large variability of GNI/capita even within similar income levels in the various world regions, it is expected that additional investment in resources and costs may be more dependent on income level of the country than on the GNI group or the geographic region of the world.

  8. Benefits of IEEE-754 features in modern symmetric tridiagonaleigensolvers

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Osni; Riedy, Jason E.; Vomel, Christof

    2006-03-12

    Bisection is one of the most common methods used to compute the eigenvalues of symmetric tridiagonal matrices. Bisection relies on the Sturm count: For a given shift a, the number of negative pivots in the factorization T - {sigma}I = LDL{sup T} equals the number of eigenvalues of T that are smaller than a. In IEEE-754 arithmetic, the value oo permits the computation to continue past a zero pivot, producing a correct Sturm count when T is unreduced. Demmel and Li showed that using oo rather than testing for zero pivots within the loop could significantly improve performance on certain architectures. When eigenvalues are to be computed to high relative accuracy, it is often preferable to work with LDL{sup T} factorizations instead of the original tridiagonal T. One important example is the MRRR algorithm. When bisection is applied to the factored matrix, the Sturm count is computed from LDL{sup T} which makes differential stationary and progressive qds algorithms the methods of choice. While it seems trivial to replace T by LDL{sup T}, in reality these algorithms are more complicated: In IEEE-754 arithmetic, a zero pivot produces an overflow followed by an invalid exception (NaN, or 'Not a Number') that renders the Sturm count incorrect. We present alternative, safe formulations that are guaranteed to produce the correct result. Benchmarking these algorithms on a variety of platforms shows that the original formulation without tests is always faster provided that no exception occurs. The transforms see speed-ups of up to 2.6x over the careful formulations. Tests on industrial matrices show that encountering exceptions in practice is rare. This leads to the following design: First, compute the Sturm count by the fast but unsafe algorithm. Then, if an exception occurs, recompute the count by a safe, slower alternative. The new Sturm count algorithms improve the speed of bisection by up to 2x on our test matrices. Furthermore, unlike the traditional tiny

  9. Regional differences in pathogen prevalence and defensive reactions to the "swine flu" outbreak among East Asians and Westerners.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, Takeshi; Park, Justin H

    2010-09-24

    Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the "swine flu" outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas); rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.

  10. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Security White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    King, J

    2001-10-22

    Given the increased productivity and growing popularity of wireless communications in general, and wireless data communications in particular, this paper outlines the protocols, security implications, and architectures of IEEE Std. 802.11-1999 wireless LANs (WLANs) and makes recommendations regarding a phased implementation of WLANs at LLNL. This project is driven by the need for convenient and secure access to the Internet for Laboratory visitors and to the internal network for Laboratory employees. A solid architecture designed with a priority on security will allow LLNL to offer network access in areas where it is traditionally hard to deploy wired networks. It will also enable such services as wireless access for inventory control and convenient network access for conference rooms around LLNL. Wireless network access has the potential to increase productivity by enabling instant access to information.

  11. Review of the IEEE Standard for Computerized Operating Procedure Systems

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J.

    2010-02-26

    Increasingly nuclear power plant procedures, such as emergency operating procedures, are being presented in computer form with functionality to support operator use and management of the procedures. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently has guidance for the review of computer-based procedures (CBPs); however, there remain CBP functions and human performance issues for which up-to-date guidance is lacking. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has initiated a standard development effort to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of CBP systems. When completed, it may provide guidance to supplement the NRC staff's review criteria. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the suitability of the IEEE Standard for use in the NRC's HFE safety reviews of CBP systems and to ensure that the guidance meets the NRC's standard for scientific and engineering rigor used in its own guidance development efforts. We established the following criteria with which to evaluate the Standard: (1) it should meet an existing need of NRC reviewers, (2) it should be based in sound HFE principles, (3) it should be thoroughly peer-reviewed, and (4) it should address CBP-related human performance issues identified in the literature. This report describes the methodology we used to evaluate each criterion. Our evaluation concluded that the Standard generally does meet these criteria, however several areas were identified for which additional clarifications are needed. Thus consideration of the Standard's use by the NRC is supported. The standard evaluation methodology developed in this study can be generally applied to the review of other HFE standards being considered for possible use or endorsement by the NRC.

  12. Comparison Of Several Methods Of Implementing A Fiber Optic IEEE 802.3 Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Geoffrey O.

    1987-01-01

    Several different methods of implementing a fiber optic version of IEEE 802.3 10BASE LANs have been proposed as a candidate for standardization by IEEE. There have been extensive discussions as to the relative merits and features of the several systems. This paper will discuss the merits of each for this particular application on a comparative basis.

  13. The Asia-Pacific Century: Challenges and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    countries were those who were children during the post–World War 2 period. The lesson they could have taken from that time was one associated with the...economic might. The earliest such prediction was by German scholar and poly- math, Wilhelm Fucks , in his economic essay Formeln zur Macht (For- mulas...france.t_0.html. 7. Wilhelm Fucks , Formeln zur Macht [Formulas for Power] (Stuttgart, West Ger- many: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1965). 8. Joseph A

  14. The Strategic Shift to the Asia-Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943–5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...Maui, HI: AMOS , 2007), 321, http://www.m.celestrak.com/publications/ AMOS /2007/ AMOS -2007.pdf. 91 Bates Gill and Martin Kleiber, “China’s Space Odyssey...Space Environment.” In 2007 Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference, 321–330. Maui, HI: AMOS , 2007. http://www.m

  15. Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, Annual Report 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    initiative via a joint DoD- Hawaii photovoltaic project, and (3) continue our detailed planning related to a $12.7 million Military Construction project to add...organizational activities. • Installed a new visually pleasing, photovoltaic -ready roof on Wing B. • Technologically transformed seminar rooms...environmentally safe, heat-reflective paint • Installed solar -powered extraction fans • Upgraded Private Branch Exchange (PBX) phone system GO A l 4

  16. Migration and Singapore: implications for the Asia Pacific.

    PubMed

    Low, L

    1994-01-01

    Regarding immigration and emigration issues, there is a need for greater and more detailed data collection, an emphasis on data on illegal as well as legal migration, an examination of the impact of direct foreign investment on job creation and new labor market entrants, and a strengthening of international conventions for protection of foreign workers. The Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC), Human Resource Development Task Force, is the source for projections of labor demand and supply for 18 PECC countries in 1993 and 1994. These projections indicate labor shortages in 1993 in Canada, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. The greatest labor supplier will be China. Japan and Korea are expected to have economic downturns, which will increase excess labor. The extent of excess labor is estimated to be 8.01 million in 1993 and 12.43 in 1994. The nature of the calculations could potentially exaggerate existing demand. A variety of theories are used to determine the direction and flow of migration, capital, goods and services, and technology. Estimates of migration flows indicate an increase to 100 million migrants in 1992, or 1.8% of world population (35 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 15 million in Asia and the Middle East, and almost 13 million in Western Europe and North America). The value of remittances is estimated at $66 million (US dollars), which is slightly less than the value of oil trade and exceeds the $46 million in foreign aid. It is hypothesized that wider spatial and income inequalities with expanding globalization will increase migration flows. The case of Singapore illustrates how manipulation of the labor market reduces potential problems. Immigration policy historically encouraged migration of skilled and professional workers. In 1990 foreign workers in Singapore constituted 12% of the labor force. Since 1982 a monthly foreign worker levy has been imposed. The levy is increased when needed in order to slow demand. In 1992 the levy was lowered for skilled workers and increased for unskilled workers. Emigration peaked in 1987 at 4700 and declined to 3000 in 1989.

  17. Asia-Pacific Responses to U.S. Security Policies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    to involve itself). Australia’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade ( DFAT ) major policy document, entitled Advancing the National Interest...demonstrates that Indonesia, and Southeast Asia more widely, is threatened by the presence of terrorist cells linked to the al Qaeda network. Yet even...persuaded about the existence of terrorist cells within Indonesia. Although most Indonesians were as horrified by the September 11 attacks, there has

  18. UN Peacekeeping Missions: The Lessons from Cambodia (Asia Pacific Issues)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    neighboring Thailand where sex their duties, and at times many seemed to have no tourism is a multibillion-dollar operation and idea what their role was. As a...A. Terry Rambo, gy at the University of Fine Arts in ly those of the East-West Center. Nguyen Manh Hung and Neil L. ,Jamie- Phnom Penh, directed a

  19. Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies Annual Report 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    reducing system interdiction risks, and educa- tional technology upgrades permeate all learning spaces within the Center, as well as at the condominium ...analy- ses – in some cases reducing cycle- times from days to minutes. EKMS will be comprised of a suite of modern software applications that will

  20. Advanced Technologies Addressing Asia-Pacific Infectious Diseases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    particular useful for rapid diagnosis of dengue. A panel of 123 serum samples from Singapore was provided by Duke-NUS to test using the NS1 MIA assay...getting 1 red top tube, serum was separated and 140 µL was used for RNA extraction. We isolated RNA, made cDNA, and then ran RT-PCR and results...were obtained by 8 P.M.  Concurrently 24 µL of the serum sample was used for MIA assay to test for DENV NS1 antigen, and DENV IgM and IgG

  1. Guam USA: America’s Forward Fortress in Asia Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    uninhabited island for naval gunnery and aircraft target practice. The Farallon de Mendinilla Island north of Saipan and Tinian is currently being used by both...33 "New Japan Leader Urges Stronger Military," The Honolulu Advertiser 28 April 2001, sec. A, p.2. and Thomas Plate , "Would a Militarized Japan...Mission Brings B-2 Bombers to Guam." Hagatna (GU) Pacific Daily News. 30 March 2002, p. 1. Plate , Thomas. "Would a Militarized Japan Benefit Asia?" The

  2. East Asia/Pacific Reactions to the Strategic Defense Initiative.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    Moscow’s strong public relations cam- paign preceding the summit indicated that "general world opinion is in favor of Soviet endeavor for halting the arms...article in Xiandai Guoji Guanxi [Modern International Relations ] (Beijing) opined that SDI had deepened Western European mistrust of US nuclear...REPORT DOCU MENTATION PAGE Forw Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour

  3. Cooperative measures to mitigate Asia-Pacific maritime conflicts.

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Wen-Chung

    2003-05-01

    The economies of East Asia are predominantly export based and, therefore, place special emphasis on the security of the sea lines of communication (SLOCs). Due to economic globalization, the United States shares these concerns. Cooperative measures by the concerned parties could reduce the potential for disruption by maritime conflicts. Primary threats against the SLOCs are disputes over the resources under the seas, disputes over some small island groups, disputes between particular parties (China-Taiwan and North-South Korea), or illegal activities like smuggling, piracy, or terrorism. This paper provides an overview on these threats, issue by issue, to identify common elements and needed cooperation. Cooperation on other topics such as search and rescue, fisheries protection, and oil spill response may help support improved relations to prevent maritime conflicts. Many technologies can help support maritime cooperation, including improved communications links, tracking and emergency beacon devices, and satellite imaging. Appropriate technical and political means are suggested for each threat to the SLOCs.

  4. Strategic Pivot Toward the Asia-Pacific: Implications for USMC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    power if it is needed to protect the state’s national interests. Robert Bunker appears to be similarly influenced by the importance of the Western...variety of operational missions. Former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates affirmed the value of such a force in this era of fiscal constraints: Looking...Press, 2006), 22 10 Henry S. Albinski, Richard Herr, Robert C. Kiste, Ross Babbage, Denis McLean; The South Pacific: Political, Economic, and

  5. Cautious Peace: Strategy and Circumstance in Asia-Pacific Security.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-07-01

    Away Asia’s Security Bedrock," Asian Wall Street Journal, July 27, 1993 Simon Dalby , "A Climate of Conflict? Environment and Security in the...34 International Security, 8(1), 1983; Jessica Tuchman Mathews, "Redefining Security," Foreign Affairs, Spring 1989; and Simon Dalby , "A Climate of Conflict

  6. Expanding the State Partnership Program within Asia Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    2006) Michigan / Liberia (2009) New York / South Africa (2003) North Carolina / Botswana (2008) North Dakota / Ghana (2004) Utah / Morocco (2003...reduced to support the rebalance efforts. Furthermore, given the reduction in defense spending directed by the Budget Control 6 Act of 2011, GCCs...Support partners’ defense reform and professional development. Goal #4: Enable and facilitate enduring broad-spectrum security relationships. Figure

  7. Strategic Landpower in the Indo-Asia-Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Defense Strategic Guidance , it has become conventional wisdom to say the US Army has only a minimal role in the rebal- ancing effort underway...U.S.-South Korea Relations,” Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, April 26, 2013, www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R41481.pdf. US Landpower...May/June 2013. 10 The US Army currently operates the only system for strategic missile defense of the US homeland—the Ground-based Midcourse

  8. The U.S. Army and the Asia-Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    also made by Joel S. Wit, “North Korea: The Leader of the Pack,” The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 1, Winter 2001, p. 83. 19. Shin Yong-bae...Seoul, Washington, Likely to Clash over SOFA,” Korea Herald, November 28, 2000; Kil Byung -ok, “White Paper on SOFA Highlights The Unfairness of Korea-U.S

  9. IEEE 802.11ah: A Technology to Face the IoT Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Baños-Gonzalez, Victor; Afaqui, M. Shahwaiz; Lopez-Aguilera, Elena; Garcia-Villegas, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Since the conception of the Internet of things (IoT), a large number of promising applications and technologies have been developed, which will change different aspects in our daily life. This paper explores the key characteristics of the forthcoming IEEE 802.11ah specification. This future IEEE 802.11 standard aims to amend the IEEE 802.11 legacy specification to support IoT requirements. We present a thorough evaluation of the foregoing amendment in comparison to the most notable IEEE 802.11 standards. In addition, we expose the capabilities of future IEEE 802.11ah in supporting different IoT applications. Also, we provide a brief overview of the technology contenders that are competing to cover the IoT communications framework. Numerical results are presented showing how the future IEEE 802.11ah specification offers the features required by IoT communications, thus putting forward IEEE 802.11ah as a technology to cater the needs of the Internet of Things paradigm. PMID:27879688

  10. IEEE 802.11ah: A Technology to Face the IoT Challenge.

    PubMed

    Baños-Gonzalez, Victor; Afaqui, M Shahwaiz; Lopez-Aguilera, Elena; Garcia-Villegas, Eduard

    2016-11-22

    Since the conception of the Internet of things (IoT), a large number of promising applications and technologies have been developed, which will change different aspects in our daily life. This paper explores the key characteristics of the forthcoming IEEE 802.11ah specification. This future IEEE 802.11 standard aims to amend the IEEE 802.11 legacy specification to support IoT requirements. We present a thorough evaluation of the foregoing amendment in comparison to the most notable IEEE 802.11 standards. In addition, we expose the capabilities of future IEEE 802.11ah in supporting different IoT applications. Also, we provide a brief overview of the technology contenders that are competing to cover the IoT communications framework. Numerical results are presented showing how the future IEEE 802.11ah specification offers the features required by IoT communications, thus putting forward IEEE 802.11ah as a technology to cater the needs of the Internet of Things paradigm.

  11. Public Health Emergencies of International Concern: Global, Regional, and Local Responses to Risk.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Belinda; Carney, Terry

    2017-03-31

    The declaration in 2009 that the H1N1 pandemic constituted a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) was the first such declaration under the revised International Health Regulations that were adopted in 2005. In the period since then PHEIC have been declared in relation to polio, Ebola, and Zika. This article evaluates initiatives that have been introduced globally, within the Asia-Pacific region, and within Australia, to strengthen preparedness for public health emergencies. Through analysis of evolving conceptualisations of risk, surveillance of zoonotic diseases, and development of public health capacities, the article argues that to date the global community has failed to make the necessary investments in health system strengthening, and that without these investments, global public health emergencies will continue to be an ongoing challenge.

  12. Health for all: a fundamental goal of public health in our region.

    PubMed

    Binns, Colin; Lee, Mi Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Since its foundation 30 years ago, the mission of the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health has been promoting "health for all" through public health. "Health for all" became the theme of Walter Patrick's public health career and inspired his contribution to APACPH. However, the universality of health care is now under threat, more from economists and politicians than public health workers. Health for all remains a continuing challenge for all public health workers in our region. Progress is being made toward this goal as life expectancy in the Western Pacific has increased from 64 to 78 in the past 3 decades. Prof Walter Patrick was strong public health advocate, and this review was written as a tribute to good friend and inspiring colleague who believed in, and worked for "health for all."

  13. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11e (EDCF) and IEEE 802.11(DCF) WLAN Incorporating Different Physical Layer Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V.; Singh, H.; Malhotra, J.

    2012-12-01

    Medium access coordination function basically implements the distributed coordination function (DCF) which provides support to best effort services but limited to QoS services. Subsequently, a new standard, namely enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) is reported. The IEEE 802.11e (EDCA) defines MAC procedures to support QoS requirements which specifies distributed contention based access scheme to access the shared wireless media. This paper evaluates the performance of EDCA based IEEE 802.11 WLAN for various access categories (ACs) using OPNET™ Modeller 14.5. Further, the computed results are compared with DCF protocols in terms of QoS parameters. Furthermore, the simulative observation is reported at data rate of 54 Mbps using different physical layer protocols such as IEEE 802.11a/b/g to stumble on the best one to be implemented with EDCF to achieve improved QoS.

  14. Analysis of Adaptive Control Scheme in IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.11e Wireless LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bih-Hwang; Lai, Hui-Cheng

    In order to achieve the prioritized quality of service (QoS) guarantee, the IEEE 802.11e EDCAF (the enhanced distributed channel access function) provides the distinguished services by configuring the different QoS parameters to different access categories (ACs). An admission control scheme is needed to maximize the utilization of wireless channel. Most of papers study throughput improvement by solving the complicated multidimensional Markov-chain model. In this paper, we introduce a back-off model to study the transmission probability of the different arbitration interframe space number (AIFSN) and the minimum contention window size (CWmin). We propose an adaptive control scheme (ACS) to dynamically update AIFSN and CWmin based on the periodical monitoring of current channel status and QoS requirements to achieve the specific service differentiation at access points (AP). This paper provides an effective tuning mechanism for improving QoS in WLAN. Analytical and simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the basic EDCAF in terms of throughput and service differentiation especially at high collision rate.

  15. Are there global shifts in the world science base? Analysing the catching up and falling behind of world regions.

    PubMed

    Radosevic, Slavo; Yoruk, Esin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the changing role of world regions (North America, EU15, South EU, Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), Former-USSR, Latin America, Asia Pacific and the Middle East) in science from 1981 to 2011. We use bibliometric data extracted from Thomson Reuter's National Science Indicators (2011) for 21 broad disciplines, and aggregated the data into the four major science areas: life, fundamental, applied and social sciences. Comparing three sub-periods (1981-1989, 1990-2000 and 2001-2011), we investigate (i) over time changes in descriptive indicators such as publications, citations, and relative impact; (ii) static specialization measured by revealed comparative advantage (RCA) in citations and papers; and (iii) dynamic specialization measured by absolute growth in papers. Descriptive results show a global shift in science largely in quantity (papers) and much less in impact (citations). We argue this should be interpreted as a shift in science's absorptive capacity but not necessarily a shift of knowledge generation at the world science frontier, which reflects the nature of science systems operating with high inertia and path dependency in areas of their historically inherited advantages and disadvantages. In view of their common historical legacy in science we are particularly interested in the process of convergence/divergence of the catching-up/transition regions with the world frontier regions. We implement an interpretative framework to compare regions in terms of their static and dynamic specialization from 1981-1989 to 2001-2011. Again, our analysis shows that while science systems are mostly characterised by strong inertia and historically inherited (dis)advantages, Asia Pacific, Latin America and CEE show strong catching-up characteristics but largely in the absorptive capacity of science.

  16. Neural Networks for Signal Processing VII Proceeding of the 1997 IEEE Workshop

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fu, Hsin-Chia and Xu, Y. Y. 626 Neural Networks for Engine Fault Diagnostics Dong, Dawei W., Hopfield , John J., and Unnikrishnan, K. P. 636...June 98 REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final \\^Q\\ Cf\\ - M DteC ^ TITLE AND SUBTITLE Neural Networks for Signal Processing VII Proceeding...sponsored by the Neural Networks Technical Committee of the IEEE Signal Processing Society, in cooperation with the IEEE Neural Networks Council and

  17. Enhancing MAC performance of DCF protocol for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2017-01-01

    The DCF (Distributed Coordination Function) is the basic MAC (Medium Access Control) protocol of IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs and compatible with various IEEE 802.11 PHY extensions. The performance of the DCF degrades exponentially as the number of nodes participating in the DCF transmission procedure increases. To deal with this problem, we propose a simple, however efficient modification of the DCF by which the performance of the DCF is greatly enhanced.

  18. Validation of IEEE P1547.1 Interconnection Test Procedures: ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Englebretson, S.; Pink, C.; Daley, J.; Siciliano, R.; Hinton, D.

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of testing the ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System according to IEEE P1547.1 procedures. The ASCO system interconnects synchronous generators with the electric power system and provides monitoring and control for the generator and grid connection through extensive protective functions. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate and give feedback on the contents of IEEE Draft Standard P1547.1 Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  19. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  20. The scalable coherent interface, IEEE P1596, status and possible applications to data acquisition and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    IEEE P1596, the Scalable Coherent Interface (formerly known as SuperBus) is based on experience gained while developing Fastbus (ANSI/IEEE 960-1986, IEC 935), Futurebus (IEEE P896.x) and other modern 32-bit buses. SCI goals include a minimum bandwidth of 1 GByte/sec per processor in multiprocessor systems with thousands of processors; efficient support of a coherent distributed-cache image of distributed shared memory; support for repeaters which interface to existing or future buses; and support for inexpensive small rings as well as for general switched interconnections like Banyan, Omega, or crossbar networks. This paper presents a summary of current directions, reports the status of the work in progress, and suggests some applications in data acquisition and physics. 7 refs.

  1. IEEE 1451.2 based Smart sensor system using ADuc847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejithlal, A.; Ajith, Jose

    IEEE 1451 standard defines a standard interface for connecting transducers to microprocessor based data acquisition systems, instrumentation systems, control and field networks. Smart transducer interface module (STIM) acts as a unit which provides signal conditioning, digitization and data packet generation functions to the transducers connected to it. This paper describes the implementation of a microcontroller based smart transducer interface module based on IEEE 1451.2 standard. The module, implemented using ADuc847 microcontroller has 2 transducer channels and is programmed using Embedded C language. The Sensor system consists of a Network Controlled Application Processor (NCAP) module which controls the Smart transducer interface module (STIM) over an IEEE1451.2-RS232 bus. The NCAP module is implemented as a software module in C# language. The hardware details, control principles involved and the software implementation for the STIM are described in detail.

  2. An Analytical Model for the Performance Analysis of Concurrent Transmission in IEEE 802.15.4

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Cengiz; Zanella, Alberto; Verdone, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Interference is a serious cause of performance degradation for IEEE802.15.4 devices. The effect of concurrent transmissions in IEEE 802.15.4 has been generally investigated by means of simulation or experimental activities. In this paper, a mathematical framework for the derivation of chip, symbol and packet error probability of a typical IEEE 802.15.4 receiver in the presence of interference is proposed. Both non-coherent and coherent demodulation schemes are considered by our model under the assumption of the absence of thermal noise. Simulation results are also added to assess the validity of the mathematical framework when the effect of thermal noise cannot be neglected. Numerical results show that the proposed analysis is in agreement with the measurement results on the literature under realistic working conditions. PMID:24658624

  3. Performance Analysis of Sleep Mode Operation in IEEE 802.16m Mobile WiMAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sangkyu; Son, Jung Je; Choi, Bong Dae

    We mathematically analyze the sleep mode operation of IEEE 802.16m. The sleep mode operation for downlink traffic is modeled as a 3-dimensional discrete time Markov chain. We obtain the average power consumption of a mobile station and the average delay of a message. Numerical results match simulations very well. Numerical results show that there is a tradeoff between power consumption and message delay. We find the optimal lengths of sleep cycle and close-down time that minimize the power consumption while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) constraint on message delay. The power consumption of the sleep mode in IEEE 802.16m is better than that of sleep modes in legacy IEEE 802.16e standard under the same delay bound.

  4. Throughput and delay analysis of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA protocol.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Chen, Min; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-12-01

    The IEEE 802.15.6 is a new communication standard on Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) that focuses on a variety of medical, Consumer Electronics (CE) and entertainment applications. In this paper, the throughput and delay performance of the IEEE 802.15.6 is presented. Numerical formulas are derived to determine the maximum throughput and minimum delay limits of the IEEE 802.15.6 for an ideal channel with no transmission errors. These limits are derived for different frequency bands and data rates. Our analysis is validated by extensive simulations using a custom C+ + simulator. Based on analytical and simulation results, useful conclusions are derived for network provisioning and packet size optimization for different applications.

  5. An analytical model for the performance analysis of concurrent transmission in IEEE 802.15.4.

    PubMed

    Gezer, Cengiz; Zanella, Alberto; Verdone, Roberto

    2014-03-20

    Interference is a serious cause of performance degradation for IEEE802.15.4 devices. The effect of concurrent transmissions in IEEE 802.15.4 has been generally investigated by means of simulation or experimental activities. In this paper, a mathematical framework for the derivation of chip, symbol and packet error probability of a typical IEEE 802.15.4 receiver in the presence of interference is proposed. Both non-coherent and coherent demodulation schemes are considered by our model under the assumption of the absence of thermal noise. Simulation results are also added to assess the validity of the mathematical framework when the effect of thermal noise cannot be neglected. Numerical results show that the proposed analysis is in agreement with the measurement results on the literature under realistic working conditions.

  6. Efficiency testing of medium induction motors: A comment on IEEE Std 112-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.G.; Martiny, W.J.

    1996-09-01

    The energy crisis of 1973 focused attention on the efficiency of polyphase induction motors, and the need to have a test procedure that was repeatable and accurate. Medium induction motors, especially those in the size range 1 through 125 horsepower, were important because of the large number in service and the fact that a significant efficiency improvement through redesign was economically feasible. In response to this the ANSI/IEEE Std. 112, ``IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators`` Method B was chosen for testing medium ac motors for efficiency. The current version IEEE std. 112-1991 Method B contains several requirements for accuracy improvement which have been found to be effective. Even though the Method B procedure with the additional accuracy requirement has been in use since 1984 no rational has been published to support these extra requirements. The paper discusses the purpose of these improvements, and also point out some weakness in procedure.

  7. Introduction to IEEE-EMBS -- What Can the Society Do for You?

    PubMed

    Oakley, Barbara; Lazareck, Lisa; Wolf, Laura

    2005-01-01

    IEEE-EMBS is the largest bioengineering society in the world. This paper introduces material about the Society and its benefits, including the EMBS mission, types of EMBS membership, and direct membership benefits such as the EMB Magazine. EMBS governance is also explained, including the new worldwide representational organization for AdCom (Administrative Committee), and recent changes in the Executive Committee. EMBS delegates to other societies are described, as well as the infrastructure of the main office and duties of key personnel there. Infostructure efforts related to the website and web-based conference registration and manuscript submission are also briefly discussed. Publications sponsored and co-sponsored by EMBS are reviewed. Plans for future national conferences are put forth. The various EMBS awards are outlined. Context is provided for the relationship between IEEE and EMBS, and a brief description is provided of IEEE organization and benefits.

  8. Applying IEEE storage system management standards at the National Storage Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, S.; Hyer, S.W.

    1992-12-04

    Since its inception in 1990, the IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group has identified storage-system management as an area in need of further development The pressing need for standards in storage-system management arises from the requirement to exchange management information and to provide control in a consistent predictable manner between the components of a storage system. An appropriate set of management standards will allow multiple vendors to supply storage management subsystems or applications that are integral to or compatible with new storage systems conforming to future IEEE standards. An early, practical application of IEEE storage-system-management work is being pursued at the National Storage Laboratory (NSL), a recently-formed industrial collaboration at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NSL`s purpose is to develop advanced hardware and software technologies for high-performance, distributed storage systems. Since storage system management is of critical concern, it is being explored in depth at the NSL. Work was initiated to define basic management requirements and develop generalized graphical-user-interface tools using remote-procedure-call mechanisms to implement the NSL`s conceptual management framework. Several constraints were imposed on the development of early versions of this work to maintain compatibility with the NSL`s underlying UniTree-based software architecture and to provide timely prototypes and proof of concept. The project leverages the on-going standards work of the IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group (SSSWG) and also explores some of the relationships and interactions between IEEE storage-system management and more well known management methods for distributed systems and networks. It will have long term benefits by providing ``real-life`` storage-system-management requirements to the IEEE SSSWG for validation of evolving standards.

  9. Design of acquisition devices management subsystem for IEEE 1073 compliant software agents.

    PubMed

    Nagin, V A; Potapov, I V; Selishchev, S V

    2002-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of device management system design for software agents compliant with IEEE 1073 device communication standard. Based on middleware architecture the device control layer represents a universal versatile object-oriented application-programming interface. The approach presented in the paper allows to implement plug-and-play integration and interoperability of medical acquisition devices within the medical device system be means of common middleware services. Adherence to Medical Data Information Base nomenclature, component part of IEEE 1073 communication standard, adds necessary consistency to presented component-based infrastructure.

  10. Maxi program at IEEE EMBS Student Club of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunfeng; Tao, Ningning; Tang, Luxian; Ma, Xu; Garcia, Gonzalo A; Mitsui, Mie

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the recently launched Maxi Program at IEEE EMBS Student Club of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications. The program initiates a variety of seminar series covering biomedical expertise and professional communication skills, forms a cooperative partnership between students, university and industry through guest speakers events and industry tours, and sets in motion personal consultative services (PCS) to foster the individualized competence of students. This extended program could be an innovative model of self-development as an affiliated student chapter/club with IEEE EMBS.

  11. The "APEC Blue" Phenomenon: Impacts of Regional emission control Meteorology Condition and Regional Transport from a Modeling Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Liu, Z.; Ji, D.; Saide, P. E.; Wang, Y.; Xin, J.

    2015-12-01

    On November 5-11, China hosted the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Economic Leaders' Week in Beijing. To ensure good air quality during the APEC week, a series of strict emission control measures were taken in Beijing and surrounding provinces, which provide us with a great opportunity to examine the effectiveness of regional emission control. As important as emissions, meteorology can also significantly affect air quality in Beijing, so it's meaningful to understand the impact of meteorology conditions in the APEC week. Besides, it's important to study the impact of regional transport as its contribution to Beijing pollution levels is controversial. In this study, we investigate the impacts of emission control, meteorology and regional transport on the air quality during APEC week using a fully online coupled meteorology-chemistry model WRF-Chem. Compared to surface observations, the model has very good performance. The conclusions from this study will provide useful insights for government to control aerosol pollution in Beijing.

  12. Evaluation of H.264/AVC over IEEE 802.11p vehicular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozas-Ramallal, Ismael; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Dapena, Adriana; García-Naya, José Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The capacity of vehicular networks to offer non-safety services, like infotainment applications or the exchange of multimedia information between vehicles, have attracted a great deal of attention to the field of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). In particular, in this article we focus our attention on IEEE 802.11p which defines enhancements to IEEE 802.11 required to support ITS applications. We present an FPGA-based testbed developed to evaluate H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) video transmission over vehicular networks. The testbed covers some of the most common situations in vehicle-to-vehicle and roadside-to-vehicle communications and it is highly flexible, allowing the performance evaluation of different vehicular standard configurations. We also show several experimental results to illustrate the quality obtained when H.264/AVC encoded video is transmitted over IEEE 802.11p networks. The quality is measured considering two important parameters: the percentage of recovered group of pictures and the frame quality. In order to improve performance, we propose to substitute the convolutional channel encoder used in IEEE 802.11p for a low-density parity-check code encoder. In addition, we suggest a simple strategy to decide the optimum number of iterations needed to decode each packet received.

  13. IEEE 1547 National Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Generation: How Could It Help My Facility? Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; Friedman, N. R.

    2003-11-01

    This article summarizes the purpose, development, and impact of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1547 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems. Also included is a short explanation of supporting standards IEEE P1547.1, P1547.2, and P1547.3.

  14. Evaluation of the Effects of Hidden Node Problems in IEEE 802.15.7 Uplink Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ley-Bosch, Carlos; Alonso-González, Itziar; Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Ramírez-Casañas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the increasing use of LEDs in illumination systems has been conducted due to the emergence of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technologies, in which data communication is performed by transmitting through the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum. In 2011, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 802.15.7 standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks based on VLC. Due to limitations in the coverage of the transmitted signal, wireless networks can suffer from the hidden node problems, when there are nodes in the network whose transmissions are not detected by other nodes. This problem can cause an important degradation in communications when they are made by means of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) access control method, which is used in IEEE 802.15.7 This research work evaluates the effects of the hidden node problem in the performance of the IEEE 802.15.7 standard We implement a simulator and analyze VLC performance in terms of parameters like end-to-end goodput and message loss rate. As part of this research work, a solution to the hidden node problem is proposed, based on the use of idle patterns defined in the standard. Idle patterns are sent by the network coordinator node to communicate to the other nodes that there is an ongoing transmission. The validity of the proposed solution is demonstrated with simulation results. PMID:26861352

  15. Some problems of implementation: ANSI/IEEE Std 1149.1 in microcontroller design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamkiewicz, Hubert; Glinski, Krzysztof; Lewandowski, Artur

    1992-08-01

    The paper presents some problems of implementation ANSI/IEEE Std 1149.1 worked out in the Industrial Institute of Electronics (PIE) microcontroller board. Diagnostic properties of some special hardware solutions and examples of testing procedures are described. Testing was performed with the help of the PIE diagnostic bus analyzer.

  16. Evaluation of the Effects of Hidden Node Problems in IEEE 802.15.7 Uplink Performance.

    PubMed

    Ley-Bosch, Carlos; Alonso-González, Itziar; Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Ramírez-Casañas, Carlos

    2016-02-06

    In the last few years, the increasing use of LEDs in illumination systems has been conducted due to the emergence of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technologies, in which data communication is performed by transmitting through the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum. In 2011, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 802.15.7 standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks based on VLC. Due to limitations in the coverage of the transmitted signal, wireless networks can suffer from the hidden node problems, when there are nodes in the network whose transmissions are not detected by other nodes. This problem can cause an important degradation in communications when they are made by means of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) access control method, which is used in IEEE 802.15.7 This research work evaluates the effects of the hidden node problem in the performance of the IEEE 802.15.7 standard We implement a simulator and analyze VLC performance in terms of parameters like end-to-end goodput and message loss rate. As part of this research work, a solution to the hidden node problem is proposed, based on the use of idle patterns defined in the standard. Idle patterns are sent by the network coordinator node to communicate to the other nodes that there is an ongoing transmission. The validity of the proposed solution is demonstrated with simulation results.

  17. Computer Controlled Test Systems. Introduction. A Course Based on the IEEE 488 Bus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Eric J.

    An introductory course in computer automated tests and measurement systems based on the International Test Instrument-Computer Interface Standard, the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)-488, is presented in this study guide. This course is designed to: (1) introduce the electronics engineering technician to the functional…

  18. Comparison of IEC and IEEE Standards for Computer-Based Control Systems Important to Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.

    2001-12-19

    The collections of IEEE and 1EC standards have some overlap, but in many cases cover significantly different topics. For example, 1EEE standards go to great depth on environmental qualification of many specific types of components, while IEC covers the topic only at the general level. Conversely, certain IEC standards deal with specific instrumentation and control functions, a topic area where IEEE standards are largely mute. This paper studies two questions related to the above observations. Which standards in each body should be coordinated with each other? What opportunities exist for the two bodies to build on each other's standards to efficiently improve upon the coverage of their sets of standards? Poor coordination between the two sets of standards poses a problem for the developers of systems for plant upgrades. Developers must try to address both sets of standards to avail themselves of a sufficiently broad market. Additionally, the IEEE and IEC standards together form a more comprehensive set of guidance than either set alone. If the interfaces between the standard sets were smoother, plant staff and system designers would have a better set of tools to help in the design and specification of I and C upgrades. To understand the similarities and differences between 1EC and IEEE nuclear power standards layer diagrams were developed for each set of standards.

  19. IEEE802.15.6 -based multi-accelerometer WBAN system for monitoring Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Keränen, Niina; Särestöniemi, Mariella; Partala, Juha; Hämäläinen, Matti; Reponen, Jarmo; Seppänen, Tapio; Iinatti, Jari; Jämsä, Timo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed example of a wireless body area network (WBAN) scenario utilizing the recent IEEE802.15.6 standard as applied to a multi-accelerometer system for monitoring Parkinson's disease and fall detection. Ultra wideband physical layer and standard security protocols are applied to meet application requirements for data rate and security.

  20. IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium Student Awards Support Request: 2010-2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    System for E-GSM900 and DCS1800 Cellular Phone Networks for Search and Rescue Applications, IEEE WiSNET (09 2011) A. Cagri Ulusoy , Gang Liu, Andreas...Receiver for Multi-Gigabit Wireless Communications Cagri Ulusoy *, Gang Liu*, Andreas Trasser*, S´ebastien Chartier# and Hermann Schumacher* Ulm University

  1. Perspectives on development of IEEE 1073: the Medical Information Bus (MIB) standard.

    PubMed

    Kennelly, R J; Gardner, R M

    1997-08-01

    Automated data capture from bedside patient medical devices is now possible using a new Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Medical Information Bus (MIB) data communications standard (IEEE 1073). The first two standard documents, IEEE 1073.3.1 (Transportation Profile) and IEEE 1073.4.1 (Physical Layer), define the hardware protocol for bedside device communications. With the above noted IEEE MIB standards in place, hospitals can now start designing customized applications for acquiring data from bedside devices such as bedside monitors, i.v. pumps, ventilators, etc. for multiple purposes. The hardware 'plug and play' features of the MIB will enable nurses and physicians to establish communications with these devices simply and conveniently by plugging them into a bedside data connector. No other action will be necessary to establish identification of the device or communications with the device. Presently to connect bedside devices, technical help from hardware and software experts are required to establish such communications links. As a result of standardization of communications, it will be easy to establish a highly mobile network of bedside devices and more promptly and efficiently collect patient related data. Collection of data automatically should lead to the design of new medical computing applications that will tie in directly with the emerging mission and operations of hospitals. The MIB will permit acquisition of patient data more efficiently with greater accuracy, more completeness and more promptly. The above noted features are all essential to the development of computerized treatment protocols and should lead to improved quality of patient care. This manuscript provides the rational and historical overview of the development of the MIB standard.

  2. IEEE 802.16J-Relay Fortified Aeromacs Networks; Benefits and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2014-01-01

    Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is an IEEE 802.16 standard-based (WiMAX) broadband aviation transmission technology, developed to provide safety critical communications coverage for airport surface in support of fixed and mobile ground to ground applications and services. We have previously demonstrated that IEEE 802.16j-amendment-based WiMAX is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. The principal argument in favor of application of IEEE 802.16j technology is the flexible and cost effective extension of radio coverage that is afforded by relay fortified WiMAX networks, with virtually no increase in the power requirements. In this article, following introductory remarks on airport surface communications, WiMAX and AeroMACS; the IEEE 802.16j-based WiMAX technology and multihop relay systems are briefly described. The two modes of relay operation supported by IEEE 802.16j amendment; i.e., transparent (TRS) and non-transparent (NTRS) modes, are discussed in some detail. Advantages and disadvantages of using TRS and NTRS in AeroMACS networks are summarized in a table. Practical issues vis--vis the inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks are addressed. It is argued that the selection of relay type may affect a number of network parameters. A discussion on specific benefits and challenges of inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks is provided. The article concludes that in case it is desired or necessary to exclusively employ one type of relay mode for all applications throughout an AeroMACS network, the proper selection would be the non-transparent mode.

  3. Education for the Twenty-first Century: Asia-Pacific Perspectives. [A Synthesis of Papers Presented at a Regional Symposium on Qualities Required of Education Today To Meet the Foreseeable Demands of the Twenty-first Century (Bangkok, Thailand, August 16-18, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raja Roy

    The future of the political, social, cultural, and economic sectors will depend on the contributions of today's students. In rethinking education to cope with rapid change, innovation, technology, and research are indispensable tools of education. This book is a synthesis of ideas contained in papers presented at a symposium sponsored by UNESCO's…

  4. A resolution reaffirming the strong support of the United States Government for freedom of navigation and other internationally lawful uses of sea and airspace in the Asia-Pacific region, and for the peaceful diplomatic resolution of outstanding territorial and maritime claims and disputes.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Menendez, Robert [D-NJ

    2014-04-07

    07/10/2014 Resolution agreed to in Senate with amendments and an amended preamble by Unanimous Consent. (text: CR S4440-4442) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Template for preparation of papers for IEEE sponsored conferences & symposia.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, L; Dagliati, A; Tibollo, V; Leporati, P; De Cata, P; Cerra, C; Chiovato, L; Bellazzi, R

    2015-01-01

    To improve the access to medical information is necessary to design and implement integrated informatics techniques aimed to gather data from different and heterogeneous sources. This paper describes the technologies used to integrate data coming from the electronic medical record of the IRCCS Fondazione Maugeri (FSM) hospital of Pavia, Italy, and combines them with administrative, pharmacy drugs purchase coming from the local healthcare agency (ASL) of the Pavia area and environmental open data of the same region. The integration process is focused on data coming from a cohort of one thousand patients diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Data analysis and temporal data mining techniques have been integrated to enhance the initial dataset allowing the possibility to stratify patients using further information coming from the mined data like behavioral patterns of prescription-related drug purchases and other frequent clinical temporal patterns, through the use of an intuitive dashboard controlled system.

  6. PACFEST 2004 : enabling technologies for maritime security in the Pacific region.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Chellis, Craig

    2005-06-01

    In October of 2003 experts involved in various aspects of homeland security from the Pacific region met to engage in a free-wheeling discussion and brainstorming (a 'fest') on the role that technology could play in winning the war on terrorism in the Pacific region. The result was a concise and relatively thorough definition of the terrorism problem in the Pacific region, emphasizing the issues unique to Island nations in the Pacific setting, along with an action plan for developing working demonstrations of advanced technological solutions to these issues. Since PacFest 2003, the maritime dimensions of the international security environment have garnered increased attention and interest. To this end, PacFest 2004 sought to identify gaps and enabling technologies for maritime domain awareness and responsive decision-making in the Asia-Pacific region. The PacFest 2004 participants concluded that the technologies and basic information building blocks exist to create a system that would enable the Pacific region government and private organizations to effectively collaborate and share their capabilities and information concerning maritime security. The proposed solution summarized in this report integrates national environments in real time, thereby enabling effective prevention and first response to natural and terrorist induced disasters through better use of national and regional investments in people, infrastructure, systems, processes and standards.

  7. Performance of the Sleep-Mode Mechanism of the New IEEE 802.16m Proposal for Correlated Downlink Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Turck, Koen; de Vuyst, Stijn; Fiems, Dieter; Wittevrongel, Sabine; Bruneel, Herwig

    There is a considerable interest nowadays in making wireless telecommunication more energy-efficient. The sleep-mode mechanism in WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e) is one of such energy saving measures. Recently, Samsung proposed some modifications on the sleep-mode mechanism, scheduled to appear in the forthcoming IEEE 802.16m standard, aimed at minimizing the signaling overhead. In this work, we present a performance analysis of this proposal and clarify the differences with the standard mechanism included in IEEE 802.16e. We also propose some special algorithms aimed at reducing the computational complexity of the analysis.

  8. A Novel IEEE 802.15.4e DSME MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar; Pattanaik, Sudhir Ranjan; Wu, Shih-Lin

    2017-01-01

    IEEE 802.15.4e standard proposes Deterministic and Synchronous Multichannel Extension (DSME) mode for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to support industrial, commercial and health care applications. In this paper, a new channel access scheme and beacon scheduling schemes are designed for the IEEE 802.15.4e enabled WSNs in star topology to reduce the network discovery time and energy consumption. In addition, a new dynamic guaranteed retransmission slot allocation scheme is designed for devices with the failure Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) transmission to reduce the retransmission delay. To evaluate our schemes, analytical models are designed to analyze the performance of WSNs in terms of reliability, delay, throughput and energy consumption. Our schemes are validated with simulation and analytical results and are observed that simulation results well match with the analytical one. The evaluated results of our designed schemes can improve the reliability, throughput, delay, and energy consumptions significantly. PMID:28275216

  9. A nomadic access mechanism for enabling dynamic video surveillance over IEEE 802.15.4 networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Losilla, Fernando; Garcia-Haro, Joan

    2010-12-01

    IEEE 802.15.4 networking technology is designed to be the common standard for integrating WSN applications in heterogeneous environments. However, applications considering mobile nodes along with strict temporal requirements, such as those required for video transmission, are an unexplored field for this technology. These applications involve different challenges and issues that the direct employment of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard does not resolve. Therefore, in this paper a cross-layer mechanism consisting of application and medium access arbitration is presented, enabling the efficient connection and operation of mobile nodes together with the transmission of video flows. The proposed mechanism is evaluated via simulation and its feasibility checked by means of a first prototype. The study of power consumption is also taken into account and so are the quality of service parameters and the human quality perception of the received video stream. The results obtained are presented and further discussed.

  10. Performance Evolution of IEEE 802.11b Wireless Local Area Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Deepak; Singhal, Ankur

    2011-12-01

    The Wireless network can be employed to connect wired network to the wireless network. Wireless local area networks (WLAN) are more bandwidth limited as compared to the wired networks because they rely on an inexpensive, but error prone, physical medium (air). Hence it is important to evaluate their performance. This paper presents a study of IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN (WLAN). The performance evaluation has been presented via a series of test with different parameters such as data rate, different number of nodes and physical characteristics. The different qualities of service parameter are chosen to be throughput, media access delay and dropped data packets. The simulation results show that an IEEE 802.11b WLAN can support up to 60 clients with modest throughput. Finally the results are compared to evaluate the performance of wireless local networks.

  11. A Novel IEEE 802.15.4e DSME MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar; Pattanaik, Sudhir Ranjan; Wu, Shih-Lin

    2017-01-16

    IEEE 802.15.4e standard proposes Deterministic and Synchronous Multichannel Extension (DSME) mode for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to support industrial, commercial and health care applications. In this paper, a new channel access scheme and beacon scheduling schemes are designed for the IEEE 802.15.4e enabled WSNs in star topology to reduce the network discovery time and energy consumption. In addition, a new dynamic guaranteed retransmission slot allocation scheme is designed for devices with the failure Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) transmission to reduce the retransmission delay. To evaluate our schemes, analytical models are designed to analyze the performance of WSNs in terms of reliability, delay, throughput and energy consumption. Our schemes are validated with simulation and analytical results and are observed that simulation results well match with the analytical one. The evaluated results of our designed schemes can improve the reliability, throughput, delay, and energy consumptions significantly.

  12. Integration of IEEE 1451 and HL7 exchanging information for patients' sensor data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooshik; Lim, Suyoung; Ahn, Jinsoo; Nah, Jiyoung; Kim, Namhyun

    2010-12-01

    HL7 (Health Level 7) is a standard developed for exchanging incompatible healthcare information generated from programs or devices among heterogenous medical information systems. At present, HL7 is growing as a global standard. However, the HL7 standard does not support effective methods for treating data from various medical sensors, especially from mobile sensors. As ubiquitous systems are growing, HL7 must communicate with various medical transducers. In the area of sensor fields, IEEE 1451 is a group of standards for controlling transducers and for communicating data from/to various transducers. In this paper, we present the possibility of interoperability between the two standards, i.e., HL7 and IEEE 1451. After we present a method to integrate them and show the preliminary results of this approach.

  13. A note on bound constraints handling for the IEEE CEC'05 benchmark function suite.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tianjun; Molina, Daniel; de Oca, Marco A Montes; Stützle, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The benchmark functions and some of the algorithms proposed for the special session on real parameter optimization of the 2005 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC'05) have played and still play an important role in the assessment of the state of the art in continuous optimization. In this article, we show that if bound constraints are not enforced for the final reported solutions, state-of-the-art algorithms produce infeasible best candidate solutions for the majority of functions of the IEEE CEC'05 benchmark function suite. This occurs even though the optima of the CEC'05 functions are within the specified bounds. This phenomenon has important implications on algorithm comparisons, and therefore on algorithm designs. This article's goal is to draw the attention of the community to the fact that some authors might have drawn wrong conclusions from experiments using the CEC'05 problems.

  14. [Mobile Health: IEEE Standard for Wearable Cuffless Blood Pressure Measuring Devices].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Wu, Wenli; Bao, Shudi

    2015-07-01

    IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details will be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users will be addressed.

  15. Sensor Networking Testbed with IEEE 1451 Compatibility and Network Performance Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurkan, Deniz; Yuan, X.; Benhaddou, D.; Figueroa, F.; Morris, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Design and implementation of a testbed for testing and verifying IEEE 1451-compatible sensor systems with network performance monitoring is of significant importance. The performance parameters measurement as well as decision support systems implementation will enhance the understanding of sensor systems with plug-and-play capabilities. The paper will present the design aspects for such a testbed environment under development at University of Houston in collaboration with NASA Stennis Space Center - SSST (Smart Sensor System Testbed).

  16. An NTP Stratum-One Server Farm Fed By IEEE-1588

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    42 nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 111 AN NTP STRATUM-ONE SERVER FARM FED BY IEEE-1588 Richard E...Schmidt and Blair Fonville Time Service Department, U.S. Naval Observatory 3450 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, D.C. 20392, USA rich.schmidt...usno.navy.mil, blair.fonville@usno.navy.mil Abstract For the past 16 years, USNO’s Network Time Protocol (NTP) stratum-1 servers have been

  17. Interpretation of IEEE-854 floating-point standard and definition in the HOL system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A.

    1995-01-01

    The ANSI/IEEE Standard 854-1987 for floating-point arithmetic is interpreted by converting the lexical descriptions in the standard into mathematical conditional descriptions organized in tables. The standard is represented in higher-order logic within the framework of the HOL (Higher Order Logic) system. The paper is divided in two parts with the first part the interpretation and the second part the description in HOL.

  18. Segmentized Clear Channel Assessment for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks.

    PubMed

    Son, Kyou Jung; Hong, Sung Hyeuck; Moon, Seong-Pil; Chang, Tae Gyu; Cho, Hanjin

    2016-06-03

    This paper proposed segmentized clear channel assessment (CCA) which increases the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 networks by improving carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). Improving CSMA/CA is important because the low-power consumption feature and throughput performance of IEEE 802.15.4 are greatly affected by CSMA/CA behavior. To improve the performance of CSMA/CA, this paper focused on increasing the chance to transmit a packet by assessing precise channel status. The previous method used in CCA, which is employed by CSMA/CA, assesses the channel by measuring the energy level of the channel. However, this method shows limited channel assessing behavior, which comes from simple threshold dependent channel busy evaluation. The proposed method solves this limited channel decision problem by dividing CCA into two groups. Two groups of CCA compare their energy levels to get precise channel status. To evaluate the performance of the segmentized CCA method, a Markov chain model has been developed. The validation of analytic results is confirmed by comparing them with simulation results. Additionally, simulation results show the proposed method is improving a maximum 8.76% of throughput and decreasing a maximum 3.9% of the average number of CCAs per packet transmission than the IEEE 802.15.4 CCA method.

  19. On IEEE 802.15.6 IR-UWB receivers - simulations for DBPSK modulation.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Ville; Hämäläinen, Matti; Iinatti, Jari

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was the first in defining regulations for ultra wideband (UWB) communications followed by Europe and Japan some years later. Focusing on impulse radio (IR) UWB, in 2007 was the time for the first published standard targeting in personal area networks, released by the IEEE. The second IEEE released standard including UWB definitions is targeted for wireless body area networks (WBAN) and was published in 2012. As the wireless communications has been and will be passing through almost any levels in society, the natural step with WBAN is using it in different medical, healthcare and wellbeing applications. The arguments for these are related to the modern lifestyle, in which people have increasingly more free time and are more interested in taking care of their health and wellbeing. Another challenge is the population composition, i.e., aging in developed countries which call for new solutions and procedures, particularly from cost wise. In this paper, we are evaluating UWB receivers based on the IEEE 802.15.6 physical layer definitions and capable of detecting differentially encoded modulation. The evaluation is performed using two different WBAN channel models.

  20. Strategies for Optimal MAC Parameters Tuning in IEEE 802.15.6 Wearable Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2015-09-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) has penetrated immensely in revolutionizing the classical heath-care system. Recently, number of WBAN applications has emerged which introduce potential limits to existing solutions. In particular, IEEE 802.15.6 standard has provided great flexibility, provisions and capabilities to deal emerging applications. In this paper, we investigate the application-specific throughput analysis by fine-tuning the physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) parameters of the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. Based on PHY characterizations in narrow band, at the MAC layer, carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) and scheduled access protocols are extensively analyzed. It is concluded that, IEEE 802.15.6 standard can satisfy most of the WBANs applications throughput requirements by maximum achieving 680 Kbps. However, those emerging applications which require high quality audio or video transmissions, standard is not able to meet their constraints. Moreover, delay, energy efficiency and successful packet reception are considered as key performance metrics for comparing the MAC protocols. CSMA/CA protocol provides the best results to meet the delay constraints of medical and non-medical WBAN applications. Whereas, the scheduled access approach, performs very well both in energy efficiency and packet reception ratio.

  1. Interoperability in digital electrocardiography: harmonization of ISO/IEEE x73-PHD and SCP-ECG.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Chiarugi, Franco; Alesanco, Alvaro; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Serrano, Luis; Chronaki, Catherine E; Escayola, Javier; Martínez, Ignacio; García, José

    2010-11-01

    The ISO/IEEE 11073 (x73) family of standards is a reference frame for medical device interoperability. A draft for an ECG device specialization (ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02) has already been presented to the Personal Health Device (PHD) Working Group, and the Standard Communications Protocol for Computer-Assisted ElectroCardioGraphy (SCP-ECG) Standard for short-term diagnostic ECGs (EN1064:2005+A1:2007) has recently been approved as part of the x73 family (ISO 11073-91064:2009). These factors suggest the coordinated use of these two standards in foreseeable telecardiology environments, and hence the need to harmonize them. Such harmonization is the subject of this paper. Thus, a mapping of the mandatory attributes defined in the second draft of the ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02 and the minimum SCP-ECG fields is presented, and various other capabilities of the SCP-ECG Standard (such as the messaging part) are also analyzed from an x73-PHD point of view. As a result, this paper addresses and analyzes the implications of some inconsistencies in the coordinated use of these two standards. Finally, a proof-of-concept implementation of the draft x73-PHD ECG device specialization is presented, along with the conversion from x73-PHD to SCP-ECG. This paper, therefore, provides recommendations for future implementations of telecardiology systems that are compliant with both x73-PHD and SCP-ECG.

  2. Study on additional carrier sensing for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bih-Hwang; Lai, Ruei-Lung; Wu, Huai-Kuei; Wong, Chi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are able to achieve low-power transmissions in the guise of low-rate and short-distance wireless personal area networks (WPANs). The slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is used for contention mechanism. Sensor nodes perform a backoff process as soon as the clear channel assessment (CCA) detects a busy channel. In doing so they may neglect the implicit information of the failed CCA detection and further cause the redundant sensing. The blind backoff process in the slotted CSMA/CA will cause lower channel utilization. This paper proposes an additional carrier sensing (ACS) algorithm based on IEEE 802.15.4 to enhance the carrier sensing mechanism for the original slotted CSMA/CA. An analytical Markov chain model is developed to evaluate the performance of the ACS algorithm. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than IEEE 802.15.4, which in turn significantly improves throughput, average medium access control (MAC) delay and power consumption of CCA detection.

  3. A versatile electrical penetration design qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lankenau, W.; Wetherill, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    Although worldwide demand for new construction of nuclear power stations has been on a decline, the available opportunities for the design and construction of qualified electrical penetrations continues to offer challenges, requiring a highly versatile design. Versatility is necessary in order to meet unique customer requirements within the constraints of a design basis qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983. This paper summarizes such a versatile electrical penetration designed, built and tested to IEEE Std. 317-1983. The principal features are described including major materials of construction. Some of the design constraints such as sealing requirements, and conductor density (including numerical example) are discussed. The requirements for qualification testing of the penetration assembly to IEEE Std. 317-1983 are delineated in a general sense, and some typical test ranges for preconditioning, radiation exposure, and LOCA are provided. The paper concludes by describing ways in which this versatile design has been adapted to meet unique customer requirements in a variety of nuclear power plants.

  4. An IEEE802.15.4-Based System for Locating Children on Their School Commutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Akihiko; Baba, Ryoichi; Kobayashi, Hideyuki

    With the increasing number of crimes and accidents in which children are becoming involved, there is a growing demand for devices to safeguard children's security by detecting their locations on their way to and from school. This paper proposes a system that uses an IEEE802.15.4-standard network to detect children's locations. To overcome the susceptibility of radio interference from nearby wireless LANs, frequency division multiplexing is applied to this IEEE802.15.4-based network, toward improving data acquisition from terminal units. The effectiveness of the system was field-tested with elementary school students who used about 400 IEEE 802.15.4-compliant terminal units. An experiment verified that the use of frequency division multiplexing in an environment where radio interference by wireless LANs is strong allowed the network to double the success rate of information communication from terminal units relative to that without frequency division multiplexing. In the experiment for detecting elementary schoolers' arrival at and departure from school, the terminal detection rate was 99% and the terminal detection rate on the designated school routes was 90%. These results prove the effectiveness of the system in detecting locations.

  5. NIH-IEEE 2015 Strategic Conference on Healthcare Innovations and Point-of-Care Technologies for Prec

    Cancer.gov

    NIH and the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE/EMBS) hosted the third iteration of the Healthcare Innovations and Point-of-Care Technologies Conference last week.

  6. Test Methodology for Characterizing the SEE Sensitivity of a Commercial IEEE 1394 Serial Bus (FireWire)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidleck, C.; Kim, H.; Buchner, S.; Marshall, P. W.; LaBel, K.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Single Event Effect (SEE) responses of two FireWire serial buses based on the IEEE 1394 standard were tested with heavy ions and protons. A unique approach to testing and categorizing the SEEs is presented.

  7. IEEE Std 730 Software Quality Assurance: Supporting CMMI-DEV v1.3, Product and Process Quality Assurance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-27

    TAG to ISO TC 176 Quality Management • Quality : ASQ, work experience • Software: three books, consulting, work experience • Systems: Telecom & DoD... management activities may be assured in accordance with the clauses of ISO 9001 . ©2011 Walz Map Process Areas to P730 Tasks 20 CMMI has several...frameworks 4 CMMI-DEV IEEE / ISO / IEC 15288 / 12207 Quality Assurance ©2011 Walz IEEE Life Cycle Processes & Artifacts • Systems Life Cycle Processes

  8. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes

    PubMed Central

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel’s bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  9. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes.

    PubMed

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel's bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm.

  10. Impact of electric vehicles on the IEEE 34 node distribution infrastructure

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Zeming; Shalalfel, Laith; Beshir, Mohammed J.

    2014-10-01

    With the growing penetration of the electric vehicles to our daily life owing to their economic and environmental benefits, there will be both opportunities and challenges to the utilities when adopting plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) to the distribution network. In this study, a thorough analysis based on real-world project is conducted to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles infrastructure on the grid relating to system load flow, load factor, and voltage stability. IEEE 34 node test feeder was selected and tested along with different case scenarios utilizing the electrical distribution design (EDD) software to find out the potential impacts tomore » the grid.« less

  11. Suitability of the IEEE 802.15.4e Extensions for Spacecraft and Launcher Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallemagne, Ph.; Decotignie, J.-D.; Piguet, D.; Pelissou, P.; Patte, M.; Dufour, J.-F.

    2014-08-01

    Spacecraft currently use wires to support communication between sensors, controllers and actuators. Replacing the wires by wireless networks is appealing for a number of reasons. This paper presents an analysis of recent extensions to the wireless standard IEEE 802.15.4 as a possible solution to support robust and timely wireless communications inside and between spacecraft. In particular, it shows that with proper tuning and adaptation of the retransmission protocol, it can be used to increase the robustness and determinism of the wireless link.

  12. Impact of electric vehicles on the IEEE 34 node distribution infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Zeming; Shalalfel, Laith; Beshir, Mohammed J.

    2014-10-01

    With the growing penetration of the electric vehicles to our daily life owing to their economic and environmental benefits, there will be both opportunities and challenges to the utilities when adopting plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) to the distribution network. In this study, a thorough analysis based on real-world project is conducted to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles infrastructure on the grid relating to system load flow, load factor, and voltage stability. IEEE 34 node test feeder was selected and tested along with different case scenarios utilizing the electrical distribution design (EDD) software to find out the potential impacts to the grid.

  13. Acquisition of Diagnostic Screen and Synchrotron Radiation Images Using IEEE1394 Digital Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, G.

    2004-11-01

    In the LINAC, booster synchrotron and transfer lines of DIAMOND a number of screens (YAG:Ce and OTR) as well as synchrotron radiation ports will be used to acquire information about the transverse beam distribution. Digital IEEE1394 cameras have been selected for their range of sensor sizes and resolutions available, their easy triggering to single events, and their noise-free transmission of the images into the control system. Their suitability for use under influence of high-energy radiation has been verified. Images from preliminary tests at the SRS Daresbury are presented.

  14. Building smart sensor nodes according to IEEE 1451.3 standard.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Murilo N J; Neto, Olegario C S; Ferreira, José O; da Rocha, Adson F; de A Barbosa, Talles M G

    2011-01-01

    A Body Sensor Network (BSN) application requires many software and hardware adaptations to support correctly data exchanges between different sensor node architectures. However, these customizations demand extra time, cost and components. This paper introduces a simple development process in order to customize off-the-shelf BSN sensor nodes according to Transducer Bus Interface Modules (TBIM) standard. IEEE 1451.3 offers technical solutions for interfacing multiple and physically separated transducer allowing self-identification, self-configuration, plug and play and hot swapping capabilities. These are important requirements relating to most BSN applications.

  15. The ac power line protection for an IEEE 587 Class B environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roehr, W. D.; Clark, O. M.

    1984-01-01

    The 587B series of protectors are unique, low clamping voltage transient suppressors to protect ac-powered equipment from the 6000V peak open-circuit voltage and 3000A short circuit current as defined in IEEE standard 587 for Category B transients. The devices, which incorporate multiple-stage solid-state protector components, were specifically designed to operate under multiple exposures to maximum threat levels in this severe environment. The output voltage peaks are limited to 350V under maximum threat conditions for a 120V ac power line, thus providing adequate protection to vulnerable electronic equipment. The principle of operation and test performance data is discussed.

  16. Promoting National Book Strategies in Asia and the Pacific--Problems and Perspectives. Studies on Books and Reading No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Abul

    Focusing on the present state of book development in the Asia-Pacific region, where countries are separated by vast distances, this report examines measures that might improve local book industries and meet the needs for endogenous literature. The various sections of the report discuss (1) the book situation and needs in the Asia-Pacific region;…

  17. 76 FR 25515 - Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... American dream for centuries. Generations of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders have helped develop and... women from the Asia-Pacific region have forged enduring links between America and other nations as they... States of our rich shared history and integrated future with the dynamic Asia-Pacific region....

  18. Interoperable and diligent body area networks over IEEE802.15.6 for real-time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Takizawa, Ken-ichi; Kaneda, Isami; Shibata, Yoshiharu; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there are no standardization efforts to define interfaces and verify interoperability among implementations for body area networks (BANs) on IEEE802.15.6. A BAN consists of small and lightweight sensors, such as the ring-type SpO2 sensor, and a coordinator that collects vital data from the sensors and transfers them to a backend system for real-time monitoring and analysis. It is important for sensors to be easy-to-use, light for wearing and that they are long-lived using a small rechargeable battery. IEEE802.15.6 provides basic features for these sensors. We establish an industry-driven standardization association for healthcare/medical services on IEEE802.15.6. Industry standardization targets current and emerging small sensors, not those for fixed medical devices in hospitals, such as those in the ISO/IEEE11073 family, and deals with time-driven data. We propose a combination of various layers of power-saving functions for a sensor that satisfies the interfaces. We discuss these functions and evaluate them. As a feasibility study, we then test a false-alert system using a BAN configuration following the standard interfaces, though the standardizations and evaluations are still in progress along with the IEEE802.15.6 standardization activity.

  19. An Efficient Power Saving Mechanism for Delay-Guaranteed Services in IEEE 802.16e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yunju; Hwang, Gang Uk

    As the IEEE 802.16e Wireless Metropolitan Access Network (WMAN) supports the mobility of a mobile station (MS), increasing MS power efficiency has become an important issue. In this paper, we analyze the sleep-mode operation for an efficient power saving mechanism for delay-guaranteed services in the IEEE 802.16e WMAN and observe the effects of the operating parameters related to this operation. For the analysis we use the M/GI/1/K queueing system with multiple vacations, exhaustive services and setup times. In the analysis, we consider the power consumption during the wake-mode period as well as the sleep-mode period. As a performance measure for the power consumption, we propose the power consumption per unit time per effective arrival which considers the power consumption and the packet blocking probability simultaneously. In addition, since we consider delay-guaranteed services, the average packet response delay is also considered as a performance measure. Based on the performance measures, we obtain the optimal sleep-mode operation which minimizes the power consumption per unit time per effective arrival with a given delay requirement. Numerical studies are also provided to investigate the system performance and to show how to achieve our objective.

  20. Software Aspects of IEEE Floating-Point Computations for Numerical Applications in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Floating-point computations are at the heart of much of the computing done in high energy physics. The correctness, speed and accuracy of these computations are of paramount importance. The lack of any of these characteristics can mean the difference between new, exciting physics and an embarrassing correction. This talk will examine practical aspects of IEEE 754-2008 floating-point arithmetic as encountered in HEP applications. After describing the basic features of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, the presentation will cover: common hardware implementations (SSE, x87) techniques for improving the accuracy of summation, multiplication and data interchange compiler options for gcc and icc affecting floating-point operations hazards to be avoided About the speaker Jeffrey M Arnold is a Senior Software Engineer in the Intel Compiler and Languages group at Intel Corporation. He has been part of the Digital->Compaq->Intel compiler organization for nearly 20 years; part of that time, he worked on both low- and high-level math libraries. Prior to that, he was in the VMS Engineering organization at Digital Equipment Corporation. In the late 1980s, Jeff spent 2½ years at CERN as part of the CERN/Digital Joint Project. In 2008, he returned to CERN to spent 10 weeks working with CERN/openlab. Since that time, he has returned to CERN multiple times to teach at openlab workshops and consult with various LHC experiments. Jeff received his Ph.D. in physics from Case Western Reserve University.

  1. Throughput analysis of the IEEE 802.4 token bus standard under heavy load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Joseph; Tobagi, Fouad

    1987-01-01

    It has become clear in the last few years that there is a trend towards integrated digital services. Parallel to the development of public Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is service integration in the local area (e.g., a campus, a building, an aircraft). The types of services to be integrated depend very much on the specific local environment. However, applications tend to generate data traffic belonging to one of two classes. According to IEEE 802.4 terminology, the first major class of traffic is termed synchronous, such as packetized voice and data generated from other applications with real-time constraints, and the second class is called asynchronous which includes most computer data traffic such as file transfer or facsimile. The IEEE 802.4 token bus protocol which was designed to support both synchronous and asynchronous traffic is examined. The protocol is basically a timer-controlled token bus access scheme. By a suitable choice of the design parameters, it can be shown that access delay is bounded for synchronous traffic. As well, the bandwidth allocated to asynchronous traffic can be controlled. A throughput analysis of the protocol under heavy load with constant channel occupation of synchronous traffic and constant token-passing times is presented.

  2. Investigating the efficiency of IEEE 802.15.4 for medical monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Pelegris, P; Banitsas, K

    2011-01-01

    Recent advancements in wireless communications technologies bring us one step closer to provide reliable Telecare services as an alternative to patients staying in a hospital mainly for monitoring purposes. In this research we investigate the efficiency of IEEE 802.15.4 in a simple scenario where a patient is being monitored using an ECG and a blood analysis module. This approach binds well with assisted living solutions, by sharing the network infrastructure for both monitoring and control while taking advantage of the low power features of the protocol. Such applications are becoming more and more realistic to implement as IEEE 802.15.4 compatible hardware becomes increasingly available. Our aim is to examine the impact of Beacon and Superframe Order in the medium access delay, dropped packets, end to end delay, average retransmission attempts and consumed power focusing on this bandwidth demanding situation where the network load does not allow low duty cycles, in order to draw some conclusions on the effect that this will have to telemonitoring applications.

  3. Predictable and reliable ECG monitoring over IEEE 802.11 WLANs within a hospital.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; Kang, Kyungtae

    2014-09-01

    Telecardiology provides mobility for patients who require constant electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. However, its safety is dependent on the predictability and robustness of data delivery, which must overcome errors in the wireless channel through which the ECG data are transmitted. We report here a framework that can be used to gauge the applicability of IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN) technology to ECG monitoring systems in terms of delay constraints and transmission reliability. For this purpose, a medical-grade WLAN architecture achieved predictable delay through the combination of a medium access control mechanism based on the point coordination function provided by IEEE 802.11 and an error control scheme based on Reed-Solomon coding and block interleaving. The size of the jitter buffer needed was determined by this architecture to avoid service dropout caused by buffer underrun, through analysis of variations in transmission delay. Finally, we assessed this architecture in terms of service latency and reliability by modeling the transmission of uncompressed two-lead electrocardiogram data from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and highlight the applicability of this wireless technology to telecardiology.

  4. Throughput analysis of the IEEE 802.4 token bus standard under heavy load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Joseph; Tobagi, Fouad

    1987-03-01

    It has become clear in the last few years that there is a trend towards integrated digital services. Parallel to the development of public Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is service integration in the local area (e.g., a campus, a building, an aircraft). The types of services to be integrated depend very much on the specific local environment. However, applications tend to generate data traffic belonging to one of two classes. According to IEEE 802.4 terminology, the first major class of traffic is termed synchronous, such as packetized voice and data generated from other applications with real-time constraints, and the second class is called asynchronous which includes most computer data traffic such as file transfer or facsimile. The IEEE 802.4 token bus protocol which was designed to support both synchronous and asynchronous traffic is examined. The protocol is basically a timer-controlled token bus access scheme. By a suitable choice of the design parameters, it can be shown that access delay is bounded for synchronous traffic. As well, the bandwidth allocated to asynchronous traffic can be controlled. A throughput analysis of the protocol under heavy load with constant channel occupation of synchronous traffic and constant token-passing times is presented.

  5. Service design projects sponsored by the Kansas State University Student Chapter of the IEEE EMBS.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Connor; Gruber, Lucinda; Young, Ethan; Humphrey, Jason; Warren, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Service projects offer volunteer student organizations a means to generate interest and focus activity outside of the context of the classroom. This paper addresses efforts by the Kansas State University (KSU) Student Chapter of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) to initiate and guide service projects in two primary areas: (1) research to aid persons with disabilities (RAPD) and (2) hands-on efforts to interest young women in the quantitative fields of science and engineering. Three RAPD projects are presented: a computer mouse design that helps to alleviate productivity problems associated with Parkinson's tremors, a battery removal tool for arthritic individuals with limited dexterity, and a wireless door control and communication system to assist mobility-limited individuals. Service projects to garner science and engineering interest in young women are co-sponsored by the KSU Women in Engineering and Science Program (WESP). The most recent activity, entitled 'Vital Signs Shirts,' is presented in this paper, along with a summary of pending interactive laboratories designed to interest participants in engineering as applied to the human body. These service projects encourage IEEE EMBS student chapter members to explore their biomedical engineering interests and make a positive impact in the community.

  6. Implementing ISO/IEEE 11073: proposal of two different strategic approaches.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Espronceda, M; Serrano, L; Martínez, I; Escayola, J; Led, S; Trigo, J; García, J

    2008-01-01

    This paper explains the challenges encountered during the ISO/IEEE 11073 standard implementation process. The complexity of the standard and the consequent heavy requirements, which have not encouraged software engineers to adopt the standard. The developing complexity evaluation drives us to propose two possible implementation strategies that cover almost all possible use cases and eases handling the standard by non-expert users. The first one is focused on medical devices (MD) and proposes a low-memory and low-processor usage technique. It is based on message patterns that allow simple functions to generate ISO/IEEE 11073 messages and to process them easily. In this way a framework for MDs can be obtained. Second one is focused on more powerful machines such as data loggers or gateways (aka. computer engines (CE)), which do not have the MDs' memory and processor usage constraints. For CEs a more intelligent and adaptative Plug&Play (P&P) solution is provided. It consists on a general platform that can access to any device supported by the standard. Combining both strategies will cut developing time for applications based on ISO/EEE 11073.

  7. On the seamless, harmonized use of ISO/IEEE11073 and openEHR.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Kohl, Christian D; Eguzkiza, Aitor; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Alesanco, Álvaro; Serrano, Luis; García, José; Knaup, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Standardized exchange of clinical information is a key factor in the provision of high quality health care systems. In this context, the openEHR specification facilitates the management of health data in electronic health records (EHRs), while the ISO/IEEE11073 (also referred to as X73PHD) family of standards provides a reference framework for medical device interoperability. Hospitals and health care providers using openEHR require flawless integration of data coming from external sources, such as X73PHD. Hence, a harmonization process is crucial for achieving a seamless, coherent use of those specifications in real scenarios. Such harmonization is the aim of this paper. Thus, the classes and attributes of a representative number of X73PHD specializations for medical devices--weight, temperature, blood pressure, pulse and heart rate, oximetry, and electrocardiograph--along with the X73PHD core document--ISO/IEEE11073-20601--have been analyzed and mapped to openEHR archetypes. The proposed methodology reuses the existing archetypes when possible and suggests new ones--or appropriate modifications--otherwise. As a result, this paper analyzes the inconsistencies found and the implications thereof in the coordinated use of these two standards. The procedure has also shown how existing standards are able to influence the archetype development process, enhancing the existing archetype corpus.

  8. A distributed scheme to manage the dynamic coexistence of IEEE 802.15.4-based health-monitoring WBANs.

    PubMed

    Deylami, Mohammad N; Jovanov, Emil

    2014-01-01

    The overlap of transmission ranges between wireless networks as a result of mobility is referred to as dynamic coexistence. The interference caused by coexistence may significantly affect the performance of wireless body area networks (WBANs) where reliability is particularly critical for health monitoring applications. In this paper, we analytically study the effects of dynamic coexistence on the operation of IEEE 802.15.4-based health monitoring WBANs. The current IEEE 802.15.4 standard lacks mechanisms for effectively managing the coexistence of mobile WBANs. Considering the specific characteristics and requirements of health monitoring WBANs, we propose the dynamic coexistence management (DCM) mechanism to make IEEE 802.15.4-based WBANs able to detect and mitigate the harmful effects of coexistence. We assess the effectiveness of this scheme using extensive OPNET simulations. Our results indicate that DCM improves the successful transmission rates of dynamically coexisting WBANs by 20%-25% for typical medical monitoring applications.

  9. To provide for the redesignation of the Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies as the Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Hanabusa, Colleen W. [D-HI-1

    2013-12-23

    01/24/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Readiness. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.3979, which became Public Law 113-291 on 12/19/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Latin America: the next region for haematopoietic transplant progress.

    PubMed

    Jaimovich, G; Martinez Rolon, J; Baldomero, H; Rivas, M; Hanesman, I; Bouzas, L; Bonfim, C; Palma, J; Kardus-Urueta, A; Ubidia, D; Bujan-Boza, W; Gonzalez-Ramella, O; Ruiz-Argüelles, G; Gomez-Almaguer, D; Espino, G; Fanilla, E; Gonzalez, D; Carrasco, A; Galeano, S; Borelli, G; Hernandez-Gimenez, M; Pasquini, M; Kodera, Y; Gratwohl, A; Gratwohl, M; Nuñez, J; Szer, J; Gale, R P; Niederwieser, D; Seber, A

    2017-01-23

    Haematopoietic cell transplant activity in the 28 countries comprising Latin America is poorly defined. We conducted a voluntary survey of members of the Latin American Bone Marrow Transplantation Group regarding transplant activity 2009-2012. Collated responses were compared with data of transplant rates from the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation for other geographic regions. Several socio-economic variables were analysed to determine correlations with transplant rates. In total, 94 teams from 12 countries reported 11 519 transplants including 7033 autotransplants and 4486 allotransplants. Annual activity increased from 2517 transplants in 2009 to 3263 in 2012, a 30% increase. Median transplants rate (transplant per million inhabitants) in 2012 was 64 (autotransplants, median 40; allotransplants, median 24). This rate is substantially lower than that in North America and European regions (482 and 378) but higher than that in the Eastern Mediterranean and Asia Pacific regions (30 and 45). However, the Latin America transplant rate is 5-8-fold lower than that in America and Europe, suggesting a need to increase transplant availability. Transplant team density in Latin America (teams per million population; 1.8) is 3-4-fold lower than that in North America (6.2) or Europe (7.6). Within Latin America, there is substantial diversity in transplant rates by country partially explained by diverse socio-economic variables including per capita gross national income, health expenditure and physician density. These data should help inform future health-care policy in Latin America.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 23 January 2017; doi:10.1038/bmt.2016.361.

  11. Effects of Female Education on Economic Growth: A Cross Country Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztunc, Hakan; Oo, Zar Chi; Serin, Zehra Vildan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which women's education affects long-term economic growth in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on the time period between 1990 and 2010, using data collected in randomly selected Asia Pacific countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.…

  12. Determination of safety distance limits for a human near a cellular base station antenna, adopting the IEEE standard or ICNIRP guidelines.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Justin; Marx, Bernd; Buhl, Johannes; Hombach, Volker

    2002-09-01

    This paper investigates the minimum distance for a human body in the near field of a cellular telephone base station antenna for which there is compliance with the IEEE or ICNIRP threshold values for radio frequency electromagnetic energy absorption in the human body. First, local maximum specific absorption rates (SARs), measured and averaged over volumes equivalent to 1 and to 10 g tissue within the trunk region of a physical, liquid filled shell phantom facing and irradiated by a typical GSM 900 base station antenna, were compared to corresponding calculated SAR values. The calculation used a homogeneous Visible Human body model in front of a simulated base station antenna of the same type. Both real and simulated base station antennas operated at 935 MHz. Antenna-body distances were between 1 and 65 cm. The agreement between measurements and calculations was excellent. This gave confidence in the subsequent calculated SAR values for the heterogeneous Visible Human model, for which each tissue was assigned the currently accepted values for permittivity and conductivity at 935 MHz. Calculated SAR values within the trunk of the body were found to be about double those for the homogeneous case. When the IEEE standard and the ICNIRP guidelines are both to be complied with, the local SAR averaged over 1 g tissue was found to be the determining parameter. Emitted power values from the antenna that produced the maximum SAR value over 1 g specified in the IEEE standard at the base station are less than those needed to reach the ICNIRP threshold specified for the local SAR averaged over 10 g. For the GSM base station antenna investigated here operating at 935 MHz with 40 W emitted power, the model indicates that the human body should not be closer to the antenna than 18 cm for controlled environment exposure, or about 95 cm for uncontrolled environment exposure. These safe distance limits are for SARs averaged over 1 g tissue. The corresponding safety distance limits

  13. IEEE/NASA Workshop on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margaria, Tiziana (Editor); Steffen, Bernhard (Editor); Hichey, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains the Preliminary Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE ISoLA Workshop on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation, with a special track on the theme of Formal Methods in Human and Robotic Space Exploration. The workshop was held on 23-24 September 2005 at the Loyola College Graduate Center, Columbia, MD, USA. The idea behind the Workshop arose from the experience and feedback of ISoLA 2004, the 1st International Symposium on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods held in Paphos (Cyprus) last October-November. ISoLA 2004 served the need of providing a forum for developers, users, and researchers to discuss issues related to the adoption and use of rigorous tools and methods for the specification, analysis, verification, certification, construction, test, and maintenance of systems from the point of view of their different application domains.

  14. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-01

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as ‘high priority’ by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  15. vispubdata.org: A Metadata Collection about IEEE Visualization (VIS) Publications.

    PubMed

    Isenberg, Petra; Heimerl, Florian; Koch, Steffen; Isenberg, Tobias; Xu, Panpan; Stolper, Charles; Sedlmair, Michael; Chen, Jian; Moller, Torsten; Stasko, John T

    2016-10-05

    We have created and made available to all a dataset with information about every paper that has appeared at the IEEE Visualization (VIS) set of conferences: InfoVis, SciVis, VAST, and Vis. The information about each paper includes its title, abstract, authors, and citations to other papers in the conference series, among many other attributes. This article describes the motivation for creating the dataset, as well as our process of coalescing and cleaning the data, and a set of three visualizations we created to facilitate exploration of the data. This data is meant to be useful to the broad data visualization community to help understand the evolution of the field and as an example document collection for text data visualization research.

  16. Beamforming transmission in IEEE 802.11ac under time-varying channels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Heejung; Kim, Taejoon

    2014-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11ac wireless local area network (WLAN) standard has adopted beamforming (BF) schemes to improve spectral efficiency and throughput with multiple antennas. To design the transmit beam, a channel sounding process to feedback channel state information (CSI) is required. Due to sounding overhead, throughput increases with the amount of transmit data under static channels. Under practical channel conditions with mobility, however, the mismatch between the transmit beam and the channel at transmission time causes performance loss when transmission duration after channel sounding is too long. When the fading rate, payload size, and operating signal-to-noise ratio are given, the optimal transmission duration (i.e., packet length) can be determined to maximize throughput. The relationship between packet length and throughput is also investigated for single-user and multiuser BF modes.

  17. Development of a low mobility IEEE 802.15.4 compliant VANET system for urban environments.

    PubMed

    Nazabal, Juan Antonio; Falcone, Francisco; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Matías, Ignacio Raúl

    2013-05-29

    The use of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) is growing nowadays and it includes both roadside-to-vehicle communication (RVC) and inter-vehicle communication (IVC). The purpose of VANETs is to exchange useful information between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures for making an intelligent use of them. There are several possible applications for this technology like: emergency warning system for vehicles, cooperative adaptive cruise control or collision avoidance, among others. The objective of this work is to develop a VANET prototype system for urban environments using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant devices. Simulation-based values of the estimated signal strength and radio link quality values are obtained and compared with measurements in outdoor conditions to validate an implemented VANET system. The results confirm the possibility of implementing low cost vehicular communication networks operating at moderate vehicular speeds.

  18. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-21

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as 'high priority' by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  19. IEEE 1394/firewire a low cost, high speed, digital serial bus

    SciTech Connect

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    Does the world need yet another 1/0 bus standard? If you need fast and cheap serial video communication, then the answer is yes. As technology advances, so too must data transport mechanisms advance. You can`t expect RS-232 to support real-time digital video, and if you can`t afford expensive professional serial video interfaces, (such as Sony`s Serial Digital Interface), Firewire may be a good solution. IEEE 1394, or commonly known as Firewire, is a general purpose serial bus that meets many of the 1/0 needs of today`s video and multimedia developers. For those of you who only read the first paragraph, here`s Firewire in a nutshell: It provides a guaranteed transfer rate of 10OMbps or 20OMbps of digital data (such as video direct from camera to computer), over an inexpensive, non-proprietary serial bus. Here is a list of its features.

  20. Heterogeneous voice flows-oriented call admission control in IEEE 802.11e WLANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qi-lin; Huang, Zhen-jin; Wang, Shi-yi

    2014-04-01

    Considering the circumstance of heterogeneous voice flows, first, by applying Markov chain, this paper proposes an unsaturated analytical model for the IEEE 802.11e EDCA protocol, which considers the condition of non-ideal transmission channel and the character of the occurrence of backoff countdown at the beginning of time slot in EDCA protocol. Furthermore, according to the proposed model, the media access delay and throughput of a flow are analysed, and the flow-oriented call admission control (CAC) scheme is proposed. Finally, the simulation results are shown to confirm that the proposed CAC scheme can guarantee the requirements of throughput and delay of voice flows, and can admit more voice flows to improve the utilisation efficiency of network resources by choosing the appropriate values of the minimum contention window or the appropriate varieties of voice flows.

  1. Development of a Low Mobility IEEE 802.15.4 Compliant VANET System for Urban Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nazabal, Juan Antonio; Falcone, Francisco; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Matías, Ignacio Raúl

    2013-01-01

    The use of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) is growing nowadays and it includes both roadside-to-vehicle communication (RVC) and inter-vehicle communication (IVC). The purpose of VANETs is to exchange useful information between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures for making an intelligent use of them. There are several possible applications for this technology like: emergency warning system for vehicles, cooperative adaptive cruise control or collision avoidance, among others. The objective of this work is to develop a VANET prototype system for urban environments using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant devices. Simulation-based values of the estimated signal strength and radio link quality values are obtained and compared with measurements in outdoor conditions to validate an implemented VANET system. The results confirm the possibility of implementing low cost vehicular communication networks operating at moderate vehicular speeds. PMID:23760089

  2. Integration of heterogeneous biomedical sensors into an ISO/IEEE 11073 compliant application.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, A; Fico, G; Arredondo, M T; Salvi, D; Villalar, J L

    2010-01-01

    Current trends in healthcare technology include mobile-based applications. Relevant advances in the integration of vital signs monitoring devices with mobile platforms are widely reported nowadays. In this context, conceiving and designing an interoperable application is essential due to the growing necessity of integrating a huge and heterogeneous amount of biomedical data, coming from a wide range of devices and sensors. In this paper the key research issues associated with such integration are presented as well as a specific proposal to solve these problems. It is based on a middleware architecture for the integration of biomedical sensors with mobile devices, derived from the ISO/IEEE 11073 standards family. The application has been developed in the framework of an EU-funded R&D project called METABO.

  3. Fair Scheduling and Throughput Maximization for IEEE 802.16 Mesh Mode Broadband Wireless Access Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahbub; Hamid, Md. Abdul; Razzaque, Md. Abdur; Hong, Choong Seon

    Broadband wireless access networks are promising technology for providing better end user services. For such networks, designing a scheduling algorithm that fairly allocates the available bandwidth to the end users and maximizes the overall network throughput is a challenging task. In this paper, we develop a centralized fair scheduling algorithm for IEEE 802.16 mesh networks that exploits the spatio-temporal bandwidth reuse to further enhance the network throughput. The proposed mechanism reduces the length of a transmission round by increasing the number of non-contending links that can be scheduled simultaneously. We also propose a greedy algorithm that runs in polynomial time. Performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated by extensive simulations. Results show that our algorithms achieve higher throughput than that of the existing ones and reduce the computational complexity.

  4. A study of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Shahnaz; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE) applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical) information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent malicious interaction with the system. In this paper, we first highlight major security requirements and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks in WBAN at Physical, Medium Access Control (MAC), Network, and Transport layers. Then we discuss the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework and identify the security vulnerabilities and major attacks in the context of WBAN. Different types of attacks on the Contention Access Period (CAP) and Contention Free Period (CFP) parts of the superframe are analyzed and discussed. It is observed that a smart attacker can successfully corrupt an increasing number of GTS slots in the CFP period and can considerably affect the Quality of Service (QoS) in WBAN (since most of the data is carried in CFP period). As we increase the number of smart attackers the corrupted GTS slots are eventually increased, which prevents the legitimate nodes to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. This means that the direct adaptation of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for WBAN is not totally secure for certain WBAN applications. New solutions are required to integrate high level security in WBAN.

  5. Draft 16 of a working document for a proposed standard to be entitled: IEEE standard definitions of terms associated with ferroelectric and related materials.

    PubMed

    2003-12-01

    Prior to acceptance of a standard by IEEE, it is important that the document be widely reviewed by experts in the field. This draft version of the standard is being published here to solicit that input. Readers are encouraged to submit any suggestions or corrections to the IEEE ferroelectrics standards committee for inclusion in the final version.

  6. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.706(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  7. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  8. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  9. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  10. Architectural and Functional Design and Evaluation of E-Learning VUIS Based on the Proposed IEEE LTSA Reference Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Droma, Mairtin S.; Ganchev, Ivan; McDonnell, Fergal

    2003-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Learning Technology Standards Committee's (LTSC) of the architectural and functional design of e-learning delivery platforms and applications, e-learning course authoring tools, and learning management systems (LMSs), with a view of assessing how…

  11. Analyzing the Engineering Educational Research in Spain: A Global Vision through the Awards of CESEI-IEEE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaza, I.; Arcega, F.; Castro, M.; Llamas, M.

    2011-01-01

    CESEI is the acronym of the Spanish Chapter of the Education Society of IEEE (the Institute of Electric and Electronics Engineers). Every year, the CESEI awards a prize for the best doctoral thesis and FDP (final (master) degree projects) about education. The thesis or the project must be developed in the areas of electrical engineering,…

  12. An Analysis of IEEE 802.11B and 802.16 Technologies as Part of the Tactical Internet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    MANET, MESH, C2PC, C2CE, 802.16, WIMAX, OFDM , COTS, Common Operational Picture, Common Tactical Picture, WLAN, Bridging, Tactical Internet, PRC- 119...19 a. AN/MRC-142 Digital Wideband Transmission System ( DWTS ...63 B. HARRIS CORPORATION’S IEEE 802.11B BASED SECNET-11 PRODUCTS

  13. Aerosol particles collected on aircraft flights over the northwestern Pacific region during the ACE-Asia campaign: Composition and major sources of the organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Kobayashi, Minoru; Mochida, Michihiro; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Huebert, Barry J.

    2004-10-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter, collected over the polluted east Asia/Pacific region in spring 2001 during research flights with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 aircraft, was analyzed for different types of organic compounds using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. More than 70 organic species were detected in the aerosols and grouped into different compound classes on the basis of functional groups, including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, dehydroabietic acid, alkanols, water-soluble sugars (including glucose, sucrose, mycose, and levoglucosan), monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids, urea, and phthalates. Interestingly, the water-soluble compounds (72-133 ng m-3) were found to account for 16-50% (average 34%) of the total identified compound mass (TCM). Organic compounds were further categorized into several groups to suggest their sources. Fossil fuel combustion was recognized as the most significant source for the TCM (contributing 33-80% of TCM, average 50%), followed by soil resuspension (5-25%, average 19%) and secondary oxidation products (4-15%, average 9%). In contrast, the contribution of natural sources such as terrestrial plant wax and marine lipids (fatty acids and alkanols) was relatively small (3.4% and 9.4% on average, respectively). Biomass burning was suggested to contribute only a minor portion to the TCM of the Asian aerosols during the spring season (1.4% on average based on levoglucosan). However, levoglucosan may have been hydrolyzed and/or oxidized in part during long-range transport, and therefore this value represents a lower limit. The organic compound compositions of these samples are very different from those reported for aerosol particles of the Atlantic Ocean and from the earlier data for the mid-Pacific in terms of the abundant presence of water-soluble compounds consisting of saccharides, anhydrosaccharides, and the secondary dicarboxylic acids. This study

  14. The summer snow cover anomaly over the Tibetan Plateau and its association with simultaneous precipitation over the mei-yu-baiu region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ge; Wu, Renguang; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Nan, Sulan

    2014-07-01

    The summer snow anomalies over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and their effects on climate variability are often overlooked, possibly due to the fact that some datasets cannot properly capture summer snow cover over high terrain. The satellite-derived Equal-Area Scalable Earth grid (EASE-grid) dataset shows that snow still exists in summer in the western part and along the southern flank of the TP. Analysis demonstrates that the summer snow cover area proportion (SCAP) over the TP has a significant positive correlation with simultaneous precipitation over the mei-yu-baiu (MB) region on the interannual time scale. The close relationship between the summer SCAP and summer precipitation over the MB region could not be simply considered as a simultaneous response to the Silk Road pattern and the SST anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean and tropical central-eastern Pacific. The SCAP anomaly has an independent effect and may directly modulate the land surface heating and, consequently, vertical motion over the western TP, and concurrently induce anomalous vertical motion over the North Indian Ocean via a meridional vertical circulation. Through a zonal vertical circulation over the tropics and a Kelvin wave-type response, anomalous vertical motion over the North Indian Ocean may result in an anomalous high over the western North Pacific and modulate the convective activity in the western Pacific warm pool, which stimulates the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) pattern and eventually affects summer precipitation over the MB region.

  15. Home healthcare settop-box for senior chronic care using ISO/IEEE 11073 PHD standard.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joon-Ho; Park, Chanyong; Park, Soo-Jun

    2010-01-01

    As the number of seniors with chronic disease increases, the need of home healthcare settop-box is increased to manage their chronic disease in their home environment. Using the home healthcare settop-box, the patients can regularly check their health data, and finally, it can lead the decrease of medical expenses. For the home healthcare settop-box, the most important factor is the standard compatibility, which can interoperate with standard devices of any other companies. In this paper, we propose a home healthcare settop-box using ISO/IEEE 11073 PHD standard. It collects health data according to the PHD standard, and provides a chronic-care service based on the collected data. The proposed settop-box is connected with 3 devices of weigh scale, blood pressure monitor, and glucose meter, and tested at 10 homes for a month. Lastly, the proposed settop-box can be used for various healthcare services such as Google Health and Telemedicine Services using a healthcare platform server.

  16. Link Investigation of IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks in Forests

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xingjian; Sun, Guodong; Yang, Gaoxiang; Shang, Xinna

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to automatically monitor the ecological evolution and wildlife habits in forests. Low-power links (transceivers) are often adopted in wireless sensor network applications, in order to save the precious sensor energy and then achieve long-term, unattended monitoring. Recent research has presented some performance characteristics of such low-power wireless links under laboratory or outdoor scenarios with less obstacles, and they have found that low-power wireless links are unreliable and prone to be affected by the target environment. However, there is still less understanding about how well the low-power wireless link performs in real-world forests and to what extent the complex in-forest surrounding environments affect the link performances. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the low-power links of wireless sensors in three typical different forest environments. Our experiment investigates the performance of the link layer compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and analyzes the variation patterns of the packet reception ratio (PRR), the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the link quality indicator (LQI) under diverse experimental settings. Some observations of this study are inconsistent with or even contradict prior results that are achieved in open fields or relatively clean environments and thus, provide new insights both into effectively evaluating the low-power wireless links and into efficiently deploying wireless sensor network systems in forest environments. PMID:27355957

  17. On the Feasibility of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks over IEEE 802.15.5 Mesh Topologies

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Losilla, Fernando; Rodenas-Herraiz, David; Cruz-Martinez, Felipe; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) are a special type of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) where large amounts of multimedia data are transmitted over networks composed of low power devices. Hierarchical routing protocols typically used in WSNs for multi-path communication tend to overload nodes located within radio communication range of the data collection unit or data sink. The battery life of these nodes is therefore reduced considerably, requiring frequent battery replacement work to extend the operational life of the WSN system. In a wireless sensor network with mesh topology, any node may act as a forwarder node, thereby enabling multiple routing paths toward any other node or collection unit. In addition, mesh topologies have proven advantages, such as data transmission reliability, network robustness against node failures, and potential reduction in energy consumption. This work studies the feasibility of implementing WMSNs in mesh topologies and their limitations by means of exhaustive computer simulation experiments. To this end, a module developed for the Synchronous Energy Saving (SES) mode of the IEEE 802.15.5 mesh standard has been integrated with multimedia tools to thoroughly test video sequences encoded using H.264 in mesh networks. PMID:27164106

  18. Low-power secure body area network for vital sensors toward IEEE802.15.6.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Qiu, Shuye; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    Many healthcare/medical services have started using personal area networks, such as Bluetooth and ZigBee; these networks consist of various types of vital sensors. These works focus on generalized functions for sensor networks that expect enough battery capacity and low-power CPU/RF (Radio Frequency) modules, but less attention to easy-to-use privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a commercially-deployable secure body area network (S-BAN) with reduced computational burden on a real sensor that has limited RAM/ROM sizes and CPU/RF power consumption under a light-weight battery. Our proposed S-BAN provides vital data ordering among sensors that are involved in an S-BAN and also provides low-power networking with zero-administration security by automatic private key generation. We design and implement the power-efficient media access control (MAC) with resource-constraint security in sensors. Then, we evaluate the power efficiency of the S-BAN consisting of small sensors, such as an accessory type ECG and ring-type SpO2. The evaluation of power efficiency of the S-BAN using real sensors convinces us in deploying S-BAN and will also help us in providing feedbacks to the IEEE802.15.6 MAC, which will be the standard for BANs.

  19. On the Feasibility of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks over IEEE 802.15.5 Mesh Topologies.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Losilla, Fernando; Rodenas-Herraiz, David; Cruz-Martinez, Felipe; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe

    2016-05-05

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) are a special type of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) where large amounts of multimedia data are transmitted over networks composed of low power devices. Hierarchical routing protocols typically used in WSNs for multi-path communication tend to overload nodes located within radio communication range of the data collection unit or data sink. The battery life of these nodes is therefore reduced considerably, requiring frequent battery replacement work to extend the operational life of the WSN system. In a wireless sensor network with mesh topology, any node may act as a forwarder node, thereby enabling multiple routing paths toward any other node or collection unit. In addition, mesh topologies have proven advantages, such as data transmission reliability, network robustness against node failures, and potential reduction in energy consumption. This work studies the feasibility of implementing WMSNs in mesh topologies and their limitations by means of exhaustive computer simulation experiments. To this end, a module developed for the Synchronous Energy Saving (SES) mode of the IEEE 802.15.5 mesh standard has been integrated with multimedia tools to thoroughly test video sequences encoded using H.264 in mesh networks.

  20. New IEEE 11073 Standards for interoperable, networked Point-of-Care Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Kasparick, Martin; Schlichting, Stefan; Golatowski, Frank; Timmermann, Dirk

    2015-08-01

    Surgical procedures become more and more complex and the number of medical devices in an operating room (OR) increases continuously. Today's vendor-dependent solutions for integrated ORs are not able to handle this complexity. They can only form isolated solutions. Furthermore, high costs are a result of vendor-dependent approaches. Thus we present a service-oriented device communication for distributed medical systems that enables the integration and interconnection between medical devices among each other and to (medical) information systems, including plug-and-play functionality. This system will improve patient's safety by making technical complexity of a comprehensive integration manageable. It will be available as open standards that are part of the IEEE 11073 family of standards. The solution consists of a service-oriented communication technology, the so called Medical Devices Profile for Web Services (MDPWS), a Domain Information & Service Model, and a binding between the first two mechanisms. A proof of this concept has been done with demonstrators of real world OR devices.

  1. An SNMP-based solution to enable remote ISO/IEEE 11073 technical management.

    PubMed

    Lasierra, Nelia; Alesanco, Alvaro; García, José

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an architecture based on the integration of simple network management protocol version 3 (SNMPv3) and the standard ISO/IEEE 11073 (X73) to manage technical information in home-based telemonitoring scenarios. This architecture includes the development of an SNMPv3-proxyX73 agent which comprises a management information base (MIB) module adapted to X73. In the proposed scenario, medical devices (MDs) send information to a concentrator device [designated as compute engine (CE)] using the X73 standard. This information together with extra information collected in the CE is stored in the developed MIB. Finally, the information collected is available for remote access via SNMP connection. Moreover, alarms and events can be configured by an external manager in order to provide warnings of irregularities in the MDs' technical performance evaluation. This proposed SNMPv3 agent provides a solution to integrate and unify technical device management in home-based telemonitoring scenarios fully adapted to X73.

  2. ISO/IEEE 11073 PHD message generation toolkit to standardize healthcare device.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joon-Ho; Park, Chanyong; Park, Soo-Jun; Lee, Kyu-Chul

    2011-01-01

    As senior population increases, various healthcare devices and services are developed such as fall detection device, home hypertension management service, and etc. However, to vitalize healthcare devices and services market, standardization for interoperability between device and service must precede. To achieve the standardization goal, the IEEE 11073 Personal Health Device (PHD) group has been standardized many healthcare devices, but until now there are few devices compatible with the PHD standard. One of main reasons is that it isn't easy for device manufactures to implement standard communication module by analyzing standard documents of over 600 pages. In this paper, we propose a standard message generation toolkit to easily standardize existing non-standard healthcare devices. The proposed toolkit generates standard PHD messages using inputted device information, and the generated messages are adapted to the device with the standard state machine file. For the experiments, we develop a reference H/W, and test the proposed toolkit with three healthcare devices: blood pressure, weighting scale, and glucose meter. The proposed toolkit has an advantage that even if the user doesn't know the standard in detail, the user can easily standardize the non-standard healthcare devices.

  3. Link Investigation of IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks in Forests.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xingjian; Sun, Guodong; Yang, Gaoxiang; Shang, Xinna

    2016-06-27

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to automatically monitor the ecological evolution and wildlife habits in forests. Low-power links (transceivers) are often adopted in wireless sensor network applications, in order to save the precious sensor energy and then achieve long-term, unattended monitoring. Recent research has presented some performance characteristics of such low-power wireless links under laboratory or outdoor scenarios with less obstacles, and they have found that low-power wireless links are unreliable and prone to be affected by the target environment. However, there is still less understanding about how well the low-power wireless link performs in real-world forests and to what extent the complex in-forest surrounding environments affect the link performances. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the low-power links of wireless sensors in three typical different forest environments. Our experiment investigates the performance of the link layer compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and analyzes the variation patterns of the packet reception ratio (PRR), the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the link quality indicator (LQI) under diverse experimental settings. Some observations of this study are inconsistent with or even contradict prior results that are achieved in open fields or relatively clean environments and thus, provide new insights both into effectively evaluating the low-power wireless links and into efficiently deploying wireless sensor network systems in forest environments.

  4. IEEE-802.15.4-based low-power body sensor node with RF energy harvester.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thang Viet; Chung, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the design and implementation of a low-voltage and low-power body sensor node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard to collect electrocardiography (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals. To achieve compact size, low supply voltage, and low power consumption, the proposed platform is integrated into a ZigBee mote, which contains a DC-DC booster, a PPG sensor interface module, and an ECG front-end circuit that has ultra-low current consumption. The input voltage of the proposed node is very low and has a wide range, from 0.65 V to 3.3 V. An RF energy harvester is also designed to charge the battery during the working mode or standby mode of the node. The power consumption of the proposed node reaches 14 mW in working mode to prolong the battery lifetime. The software is supported by the nesC language under the TinyOS environment, which enables the proposed node to be easily configured to function as an individual health monitoring node or a node in a wireless body sensor network (BSN). The proposed node is used to set up a wireless BSN that can simultaneously collect ECG and PPG signals and monitor the results on the personal computer.

  5. IEEE 802.16 Packet Scheduling with Traffic Prioritization and Cross-Layer Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, João; Sargento, Susana; Gomes, Álvaro; Fontes, Francisco; Neves, Pedro

    WiMAX is emerging as a broadband wireless access technology to satisfy end user expectations, containing a new set of advantages in terms of throughput, coverage and QoS support at the MAC level which allows convergence of several different types of applications and services. For that reason, the allocation of resources or scheduling becomes of greater importance. This paper focuses on a cross-layer scheduling optimization solution for IEEE 802.16. The relevant features of the proposed packet scheduling optimization scheme consist: of prioritization of users within the same traffic class, allowing for example to an operator, differentiated treatment among users, for instance distinguishing between premium or gold users and silver users; and also cross layer optimization which implies radio resource optimization and a more effective scheduler decision. Simulation scenarios are presented to demonstrate how the scheduling solution allocates resources through particular WiMAX MAC layer implementation in the NS-2 simulator. Results show that the new mechanism implementation results in an improvement to the simple Round Robin fashion present in the original simulation model, being able to increase differentiation between different classes and decrease packets delay, due to its cross-layer processing and traffic prioritization.

  6. Experiences and lessons learned from the formation of a new IEEE EMBS student chapter.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Leyla; Pickel, Lara; Sprouse, Mary; Dyer, Stephen A; Warren, Steve

    2006-01-01

    A student chapter of a professional society offers many benefits to faculty and students, as it presents a means whereby students can become engaged with a global community in their areas of training prior to graduation from their local institution. This paper addresses the experiences and lessons learned from the Fall 2005 formation of a student chapter of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) at Kansas State University (KSU). Since KSU does not currently support a formal biomedical engineering program, the overall goal of this endeavor was to establish an organization that could serve as a focal community for both ongoing and future biomedical efforts. Initial chapter activities targeted fund raising and the establishment of project teams whose goal is to design products to aid persons with disabilities. Successes include very rapid growth in numbers of participants, excitement that the students and local community express with regard to the design projects, and the broad diversity, in terms of both gender and area of study, of those participating. Lessons learned center on constitutional issues and the administration of the student design projects.

  7. An enhanced reservation-based MAC protocol for IEEE 802.15.4 networks.

    PubMed

    Afonso, José A; Silva, Helder D; Macedo, Pedro; Rocha, Luis A

    2011-01-01

    The IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is an enabling standard for wireless sensor networks. In order to support applications requiring dedicated bandwidth or bounded delay, it provides a reservation-based scheme named Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS). However, the GTS scheme presents some drawbacks, such as inefficient bandwidth utilization and support to a maximum of only seven devices. This paper presents eLPRT (enhanced Low Power Real Time), a new reservation-based MAC protocol that introduces several performance enhancing features in comparison to the GTS scheme. This MAC protocol builds on top of LPRT (Low Power Real Time) and includes various mechanisms designed to increase data transmission reliability against channel errors, improve bandwidth utilization and increase the number of supported devices. A motion capture system based on inertial and magnetic sensors has been used to validate the protocol. The effectiveness of the performance enhancements introduced by each of the new features is demonstrated through the provision of both simulation and experimental results.

  8. Adaptive RTS threshold for maximum network throughput in IEEE 802.11 DCF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shaohu; Zhuo, Yongning; Wu, Shiqi; Guo, Wei

    2004-04-01

    The IEEE 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol provides shared access to wireless channel. Its primary MAC technique is called distributed coordination function (DCF) that includes two packet transmission schemes, namely, basic access and RTS/CTS access mechanisms. In a "hybrid" network combining the two schemes, packets with payload longer than a given threshold (RTS Threshold) are transmitted according to the RTS/CTS mechanism. Based on delicate mathematical model, the average time in a successful and unsuccessful transmission is analyzed in the assumption of idea channel. Then the relation of network saturation throughput and RTS threshold was found and expressed in theoretical formula. We present the numerical techniques to find out the optimum RTS threshold that can maximize the network capacity. An adaptive RTS threshold adjust algorithm (ARTA), with which a station can automatically adjust its RTS threshold to the current optimum value, is also presented in detail. A special procedure is also developed to help ARTA in determination of station numbers. All theoretical analysis and algorithm are validated through computer simulation.

  9. [Analysis on Regional Characteristics of Air Quality Index and Weather Situation in Beijing and Its Surrounding Cities During the APEC].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing-xian; Lu, Jun-rong; Wang, Ning; Li, Wen-tao; Gao, Wen-kang; Su, Bu-da

    2015-11-01

    Analysis on the revolution and regional characteristics of air quality by hourly monitored readings from 1 to 15 November 2014 released by Environmental Monitoring Station of China and research of the impacts of weather situation and meteorological elements released by China Meteorological Administration towards air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) indicated that: (1) The air quality was good because of the implementation of mitigation measures, while the Air Quality Index (AQI) increased along with the termination of mitigation measures. Thus it can be seen that mitigation measures made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality of Beijing and its surrounding cities. (2) Affected by thermal inversion layer, AQI of Beijing and its surrounding cities increased quickly during the initial of the implemental of reducing measures which proved that pollutants would accumulate in the context of unfavourable weather, hence the influence of weather situation towards air quality could not be ignored. (3) Although affected by thermal inversion layer, the concentration of pollutants of Beijing was not accumulated to a high degree at the end period of reducing measures, while Tianjin, Tangshan, Baoding and Xingtai suffered from moderate and severe pollution at the same time which further illustrated that the implementation of mitigation measures have made a great contribution to the improvement of air quality in Beijing during APEC.

  10. Design and implementation of an IEEE 802.11 baseband OFDM transceiver in 0.18 μm CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Wu; Yumei, Zhou; Yongxu, Zhu; Zhengdong, Zhang; Jingjing, Cai

    2011-05-01

    An SISO IEEE 802.11 baseband OFDM transceiver ASIC is implemented. The chip can support all of the SISO IEEE 802.11 work modes by optimizing the key module and sharing the module between the transmitter and receiver. The area and power are decreased greatly compared with other designs. The baseband prototype has been verified under the WLAN baseband test equipment and through transferring the video. The 0.18 μm 1P/6M CMOS technology layout is finished and the chip is fabricated in SMIC, which occupies a 2.6 × 2.6 mm2 area and consumes 83 mW under typical work modes.

  11. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11g Waveform Transmitted Over a Fading Channel with Pulse-Noise Interference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    transmitted over a slow, flat fading Nakagami channel for AWGN only, as well as for AWGN plus pulse-noise interference. The implementation of forward...noise power. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 123 14. SUBJECT TERMS IEEE 802.11g WLAN Standard, Nakagami Fading Channel, OFDM, Soft Decision Decoding, Pulse...their performance with Viterbi soft decision decoding when the signal was transmitted over a slow, flat fading Nakagami channel for additive white

  12. Error detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujiwara, Toru; Kasami, Tadao; Lin, Shu

    1989-01-01

    The error-detecting capabilities of the shortened Hamming codes adopted for error detection in IEEE Standard 802.3 are investigated. These codes are also used for error detection in the data link layer of the Ethernet, a local area network. The weight distributions for various code lengths are calculated to obtain the probability of undetectable error and that of detectable error for a binary symmetric channel with bit-error rate between 0.00001 and 1/2.

  13. Introduction to the special issue on the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum.

    PubMed

    Burt, Eric; Gill, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    The 8 invited and 17 contributed papers in this special issue focus on the following topical areas covered at the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum, held in San Francisco, California: 1) Materials and Resonators; 2) Oscillators, Synthesizers, and Noise; 3) Microwave Frequency Standards; 4) Sensors and Transducers; 5) Timekeeping and Time and Frequency Transfer; and 6) Optical Frequency Standards.

  14. Dynamic subframe allocation for mobile broadband m-health using IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay networks.

    PubMed

    Alinejad, Ali; Istepanian, R S H; Philip, N

    2012-01-01

    The concept of 4G health will be one of the key focus areas of future m-health research and enterprise activities in the coming years. WiMAX technology is one of the constituent 4G wireless technologies that provides broadband wireless access (BWA). Despite the fact that WiMAX is able to provide a high data rate in a relatively large coverage; this technology has specific limitations such as: coverage, signal attenuation problems due to shadowing or path loss, and limited available spectrum. The IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay (MMR) technology is a pragmatic solution designed to overcome these limitations. The aim of IEEE 802.16j MMR is to expand the IEEE 802.16e's capabilities with multihop features. In particular, the uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) subframe allocation in WiMAX network is usually fixed. However, dynamic frame allocation is a useful mechanism to optimize uplink and downlink subframe size dynamically based on the traffic conditions through real-time traffic monitoring. This particular mechanism is important for future WiMAX based m-health applications as it allows the tradeoff in both UL and DL channels. In this paper, we address the dynamic frame allocation issue in IEEE 802.16j MMR network for m-health applications. A comparative performance analysis of the proposed approach is validated using the OPNET Modeler(®). The simulation results have shown an improved performance of resource allocation and end-to-end delay performance for typical medical video streaming application.

  15. Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA over IEEE 802.15.4 for Cyber-Physical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruixia

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) that collect, exchange, manage information, and coordinate actions are an integral part of the Smart Grid. In addition, Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in CPS, especially in the wireless sensor/actuator networks, plays an essential role in Smart Grid applications. IEEE 802.15.4, which is one of the most widely used communication protocols in this area, still needs to be improved to meet multiple QoS requirements. This is because IEEE 802.15.4 slotted Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) employs static parameter configuration without supporting differentiated services and network self-adaptivity. To address this issue, this paper proposes a priority-based Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA (SDA-CSMA/CA) algorithm to provide differentiated QoS for various Smart Grid applications as well as dynamically initialize backoff exponent according to traffic conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SDA-CSMA/CA scheme significantly outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 slotted CSMA/CA in terms of effective data rate, packet loss rate, and average delay. PMID:24260021

  16. Service differentiated and adaptive CSMA/CA over IEEE 802.15.4 for Cyber-Physical Systems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Feng; Li, Jie; Hao, Ruonan; Kong, Xiangjie; Gao, Ruixia

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) that collect, exchange, manage information, and coordinate actions are an integral part of the Smart Grid. In addition, Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in CPS, especially in the wireless sensor/actuator networks, plays an essential role in Smart Grid applications. IEEE 802.15.4, which is one of the most widely used communication protocols in this area, still needs to be improved to meet multiple QoS requirements. This is because IEEE 802.15.4 slotted Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) employs static parameter configuration without supporting differentiated services and network self-adaptivity. To address this issue, this paper proposes a priority-based Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA (SDA-CSMA/CA) algorithm to provide differentiated QoS for various Smart Grid applications as well as dynamically initialize backoff exponent according to traffic conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SDA-CSMA/CA scheme significantly outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 slotted CSMA/CA in terms of effective data rate, packet loss rate, and average delay.

  17. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA/CA Protocol for WBAN Medical Scenario through DTMC Model.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Gupta, Bharat

    2016-12-01

    The newly drafted IEEE 802.15.6 standard for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) has been concentrating on a numerous medical and non-medical applications. Such short range wireless communication standard offers ultra-low power consumption with variable data rates from few Kbps to Mbps in, on or around the proximity of the human body. In this paper, the performance analysis of carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) scheme based on IEEE 802.15.6 standard in terms of throughput, reliability, clear channel assessment (CCA) failure probability, packet drop probability, and end-to-end delay has been presented. We have developed a discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC) to significantly evaluate the performances of IEEE 802.15.6 CSMA/CA under non-ideal channel condition having saturated traffic condition including node wait time and service time. We also visualize that, as soon as the payload length increases the CCA failure probability increases, which results in lower node's reliability. Also, we have calculated the end-to-end delay in order to prioritize the node wait time cause by backoff and retransmission. The user priority (UP) wise DTMC analysis has been performed to show the importance of the standard especially for medical scenario.

  18. Drug production, trafficking and trade in Asia and Pacific Island countries.

    PubMed

    Reid, Gary; Devaney, Madonna L; Baldwin, Simon

    2006-11-01

    We report here on illicit drug production, trafficking and transit routes found in the Asia Pacific region. The report is based on the 'Situational analysis of illicit drug issues and responses in Asia and the Pacific', commissioned by the Australian National Council on Drugs Asia Pacific Drug Issues Committee. The situational analysis was a comprehensive desk based review; data sources included published and unpublished literature and key informant reports. It was found that Myanmar was the main producer of opium, heroin and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) in the Asia-Pacific region. China is now considered a major producer of methamphetamines, but other Asia-Pacific nations are also involved in production. Cannabis production was found throughout most of the Asia-Pacific region, in particular Cambodia and the Philippines. Drug trafficking and transit routes of Asia and the Pacific were proliferating and dynamic. The Pacific is mainly known as a trans-shipment point for drugs entering other countries in the region. Drug cultivation and production in Asia is substantial. The expansion of ATS production in the Asia Pacific region is causing much concern. Most drug traffickers change routes and tactics to exploit available vulnerable points along international borders. Responding effectively to the complexity and scale of drug production and trafficking in the Asia-Pacific region will remain a major challenge.

  19. The "APEC Blue" phenomenon: Regional emission control effects observed from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kan; Zhang, Xingying; Lin, Yanfen

    2015-10-01

    Observations from space were used to evaluate the effect of emission control measures on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Summit held in Beijing. Compared to the past three years (2011-2013), NO2 tropospheric vertical column densities in 2014 were found to exhibit almost across-the-board significant reductions over the North China Plain, suggesting the effectiveness of the national policy on NOx emission reduction during China's 12th "Five-Year-Plan". During the APEC period (Nov. 3-11), AOD and AAOD were found reduced the most in Beijing, followed by Hebei province. Stringent emission control measures implemented in Beijing and the regional joint control over the surroundings especially in Hebei were responsible for the good air quality and so-called "APEC Blue". However, air quality plummeted during the post-APEC period (Nov. 12-30), which was largely related to the lifting of local and regional joint emission control measures. By applying a spatial correlation analysis method, the potential emission source regions impacting air quality of Beijing included widespread areas in Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi, and Tianjin in the past three years (2011-2013). While during the study period in 2014, areas impacting Beijing evidently shrank and were limited within Hebei, suggesting evident effects of intense emission perturbations on lowering the extent of regional transport. This study indicates short-term measures did fix the air pollution problems in China but a permanent solution is still a tremendous challenge.

  20. Impacts of regional transport on black carbon in Huairou, Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqin; de Foy, Benjamin; Schauer, James J; Olson, Michael R; Zhang, Yang; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2017-02-01

    The 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Conference was held near Yanqi Lake, Huairou, in Beijing, China during November 10-11, 2014. To guarantee haze-free days during the APEC Conference, the Beijing government and the governments of the surrounding provinces implemented a series of controls. Three months of Aethalometer 880 nm black carbon (BC) measurements were examined to understand the hourly fluctuations in BC concentrations that resulted from emission controls and meteorology changes. Measurements were collected at the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences near the APEC Conference site and in Central Beijing at the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Synoptic conditions are successfully represented through analysis of backward trajectories in six cluster groups. The clusters are identified based on air mass transport from various areas such as Inner Mongolia, Russia, three northeastern provinces, and Hebei industrial areas, to the measurement sites. Air pollution control measures during the APEC Conference significantly reduced BC at the conference site (Huairou) and in Central Beijing, with greater reductions in BC concentrations at the conference site than in Central Beijing. The highest BC concentrations in Huairou were associated with air masses originating from Central Beijing rather than from the Hebei industrial region. The success of the control measures implemented in Beijing and the surrounding regions demonstrates that BC concentrations can be effectively reduced to protect human health and mitigate regional climate forcing. This study also demonstrates the need for regional strategies to reduce BC concentrations, since urban areas like Beijing are sources as well as downwind receptors of emissions.

  1. 76 FR 45303 - ING Asia Pacific High Dividend Equity Income Fund, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... permit certain registered closed-end management investment companies to make periodic distributions of..., 2008) (order) (``Existing Order'') to make periodic distributions of long-term capital gains with... year, through periodic distributions as nearly equal as practicable and any required...

  2. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT's. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT's in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT's introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT's in a number of countries.

  3. Air and Sea Power Shaped for the Asia-Pacific Rebalance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Liberation Army Navy) library of Chinese publications—both hard copy and electronic—with a cadre of Mandarin analysts to conduct PLAN research, publish...advise, and teach. This allows the CMSI to accomplish some intellectual emulation of the PRC/PLA by analyzing primary Mandarin sources or secondary...sources that analyze Mandarin sources. The importance of people, ideas, and things has stood the test of time and is a testament to the Air Force

  4. An Approach toward an Asia-Pacific Strategy 2012 to 2020

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    million of 10 years ago.”39 Furthermore, attempts to keep children enrolled in secondary education have met with little success. Only six of 10...secondary-school-aged children were enrolled in sec- ondary education.40 Perhaps more notable is the expected duration of education in measur- ing a nation’s...spend in school through university. At the top, Australia and New Zealand expect their children to receive 20.4 and 18.5 years, respectively. On the

  5. 77 FR 44582 - Applications To Serve as Accountability Agents in the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... International Trade Administration's Office of Technology and Electronic Commerce (OTEC) invites interested... and Electronic Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, by telephone... APEC by promoting a common set of privacy principles that will enhance electronic commerce,...

  6. A Comparison of Technology Education Programs in Eight Asia-Pacific Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lung-Sheng

    To improve technology education in Taiwan and promote understanding of international technology education, technology education programs in Australia, Japan, Korea, Mainland China, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, and Taiwan were compared. A four-stage comparative approach (description, interpretation, juxtaposition, comparison) was used.…

  7. The Trajectory of Perpetrators' Trauma: Mnemonic Politics around the Asia-Pacific War in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsutsui, Kiyoteru

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a theoretical framework to understand how nations deal with collective memories of perpetration of severe human rights violations, which do not ft comfortably in any national master narrative but have become increasingly difficult to ignore. Building on studies of collective memory, the framework explicates how initial…

  8. Aeroallergens in clinical practice of allergy in India- ARIA Asia Pacific Workshop report.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anand B; Shahi, Shipra

    2008-12-01

    Allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are dramatically increasing all over the world including developing countries like India. Today, more than 30% of the population is known to suffer from one or other allergic ailment. Major causative agents implicated are pollen grains, fungal spores, dust mites, insect debris, animal epithelia, etc. Several aerobiological studies have been conducted in different parts of the country to ascertain aerial concentration and seasonality of pollen grains and fungi. Recently, an "All India Coordinated Project on Aeroallergens and Human Health" was undertaken by us to discover the quantitative and qualitative prevalence of aerosols at 18 different centers in the country. Allergenically important airborne pollen identified by clinico-immunologic evaluation are Alnus, Amaranthus, Argemone, Brassica, Cannabis, Cassia, Cedrus, Chenopodium, Cocos, Holoptelia, Mallotus, Morus, Parthenium, Prosopis juliflora, Quercus, Ricinus communis, and grasses such as Cenchrus, Cynodon, Imperata, Pennisetum etc. Cross-reactivity of the IgE antibodies is a common phenomenon among various pollen allergens. Ricinus communis pollen a commonly growing weed/shrub in India, cross-reacts with latex (Hevea brasiliensis), Mercurialis annua and also with seeds of Ricinus communis--all belonging to family Euphorbiaceae but geographically distantly located. Areca catechu cross-reacts with other members of Arecaceae such as Phoenix sylvestris, Cocos nucifera and Borassus flabelifer while pollen of Holoptelia integrifolia from India cross reacts with pollen of Parietaria judaica from Mediterranean Europe, both of which are members of family Urticaceae. Several reports on pollen and fruit syndrome have been analyzed. Experiments conducted by us revealed that pollutants (NO2 and SO2) not only affect pollen morphology but also changes its allergenic potency.

  9. Vocational Qualification Frameworks in Asia-Pacific: A Cresting Wave of Educational Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comyn, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of national qualification frameworks (NQFs), including frameworks specifically for the vocational sector (NVQFs), are policy initiatives that have far reaching implications for the management and delivery of education and training. Despite the caution called for by researchers and the challenging reality of implementation in both…

  10. 76 FR 61950 - Security Zones, 2011 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Conference, Oahu, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary interim rule; request for comments. SUMMARY... Cooperation Conference, Oahu, HI. (a) Locations. The following areas, from the surface of the water to...

  11. Educational Policy and Notions of Citizenship in Four Asia-Pacific Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutch, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The future schooling scenarios prepared by the OECD/CERI (OECD, 2001) are the focus of this article, first because they provide a useful tool for futures thinking in educational settings and, second, because they provide an analytic framework to investigate how notions of citizenship are embedded in educational policies and in the organisation of…

  12. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Travel Cards Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Larsen, Rick [D-WA-2

    2011-05-26

    11/03/2011 Read twice. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 217. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.1487, which became Public Law 112-54 on 11/12/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Travel Cards Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Brady, Kevin [R-TX-8

    2011-11-02

    11/15/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Border and Maritime Security. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.1487, which became Public Law 112-54 on 11/12/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Building Partnership Capacity by Using MQ-9s in the Asia-Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    reciprocation of ISR information in accordance with international agreements; exchanges of the acquisition and ex- ploitation of foreign material; and...Intelligence, Surveillance, and Re- connaissance ,” Air and Space Power Journal 26, no. 6 (November–December 2012): 115–17, http...Department of Defense, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition , Technology and Logistics, February 2011), ix, http

  15. Advances in health promotion in Asia-Pacific: promoting health through hospitals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2016-03-01

    Since 1990, the WHO Health Promoting Hospital (HPH) movement has tried to facilitate and support hospitals to assume a core responsibility in health promotion. The Taiwan HPH Network was established in December 2006, and became the largest HPH network in the world in 2013. Compared to Europe where the HPH has been more established, the pace of HPH development has been much more rapid. This rapid development provides an inspiring example for research and health promotion practice. Systematic data and empirical information have been collected about HPH in Taiwan, allowing for research to be published about the achievements of the HPH movement. This paper provides an overview of the existing literature on current progress of the HPH project according to the four main perspectives of the WHO-HPH movement: promoting the health of patients, promoting the health of staff, changing the organization to a health-promoting setting, and promoting the health of the community in the catchment area of the hospital. The assessment can serve as a stepping stone in understanding current HPH development in Taiwan and as a reference for future research.

  16. Shaping China’s Development: Stable Growth of an Asia-Pacific Might

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-05

    debt of gratitude to my wife, Molly, for all of her support and encouragement. I am also very grateful to Kaitlin, Elijah, and Emma , for their...and Turkey for the period ending June 30, 1948. Cynthia A. Watson , U.S. National Security: A Reference Handbook (Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, Inc., 2002... Watson , U.S. National Security: A Reference Handbook, 161. 17 recalling the outcome of China’s civil war, the U.S. responded with military force to the

  17. The Strategic Shift to the Asia-Pacific and the U.S. Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    lending practices, and the subsequently high default rates on subprime mortgages.4 Others cite the European Union and their fiscal banking challenges as a...positively influence international and domestic prosperity in the 21st Century.26 Consequently , the prosperity azimuth must be pursued in tandem with...2012): 38. 5 Luc Laeven and Fabian Valencia, “Resolution of Banking Crises : The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly," IMF Working Papers 10, no. 146, (June

  18. The Asia-Pacific in the U.S. National Security Calculus for a New Millennium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    guanxi de kaifang ( public opinion on cross-strait relations in the Taiwan district of the Republic of China), Taipei: Mainland Affairs Council, November...Monitor’s Report Number(s) Distribution/Availability Statement Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Supplementary Notes ISBN 1-58487...cautious, consistent, and pragmatic approach to Pyongyang targeted at fostering evolutionary change with incremental improvements in bilateral relations

  19. Access, Equity, and Capacity in Asia-Pacific Higher Education. International and Development Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Deane, Ed.; Tanaka, Yoshiro, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Access, equity and capacity are elements within the higher education environment that interact in complex ways to affect virtually all other aspects of such institutions. This volume examines various features of how these concepts are generated, transformed throughout policy environments, and deployed across the complex differences of higher…

  20. The Asia-Pacific Rebalance: Impact on U.S. Naval Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Navies are well suited to further the diplomatic aims of their governments. John Stuart Mill , the British political theorist stated, “Our diplomacy... Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974). 22 Ken Booth, Navies and Foreign Policy, (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1979). 15...Publications/Naval-War-College-Press/Newport- Papers/Documents/26-pdf.aspx. Luttwak, Edward. The Political Uses of Sea Power. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins

  1. Choices of Destination for Transnational Higher Education: "Pull" Factors in an Asia Pacific Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Syed Zamberi; Buchanan, Frederick Robert

    2016-01-01

    Traditional assumptions favouring native English language countries in transnational higher education (TNHE) overlook experiences of international students in new emerging Asian education hubs. Specifically, there has been limited research relating to international students' choice for studying in Malaysia. Drawing from the "push-pull"…

  2. Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the 2008 Meetings in Lima, Peru

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-31

    and decides that Individual Action Plans should be updated annually. 1998 - Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia President Clinton does not attend because of the...Resource Conservation, (7) Telecommunications, (8) Transportation, (9) Tourism , and (10) Fisheries. Each working group has one or more shepherds...health problems due to SARS, the economies of both SARS-infected and non-infected members were harmed by the loss of tourism .47 The value of having

  3. Asia-Pacific Missile Defense Cooperation and the United States 2004-2005: A Mixed Bag

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    in cooperating with the United States on various missile defense -related programs. Such close friends and allies as South Korea and Taiwan have made...many local opponents of missile defense argue that the missile threat to Australia is quite low, particularly as North Korea does not yet possess any...2004 in cooperating with the United States. Overall, South Korea does not appear to regard the North Korean missile threat as very likely. Based on

  4. Interactome analysis of the EV71 5' untranslated region in differentiated neuronal cells SH-SY5Y and regulatory role of FBP3 in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsing-I; Chang, Ying-Ying; Lin, Jhao-Yin; Kuo, Rei-Lin; Liu, Hao-Ping; Shih, Shin-Ru; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2016-09-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a single-stranded RNA virus, is one of the most serious neurotropic pathogens in the Asia-Pacific region. Through interactions with host proteins, the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of EV71 is important for viral replication. To gain a protein profile that interact with the EV71 5'UTR in neuronal cells, we performed a biotinylated RNA-protein pull-down assay in conjunction with LC-MS/MS analysis. A total of 109 proteins were detected and subjected to Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) analyses. These proteins were found to be highly correlated with biological processes including RNA processing/splicing, epidermal cell differentiation, and protein folding. A protein-protein interaction network was constructed using the STRING online database to illustrate the interactions of those proteins that are mainly involved in RNA processing/splicing or protein folding. Moreover, we confirmed that the far-upstream element binding protein 3 (FBP3) was able to bind to the EV71 5'UTR. The redistribution of FBP3 in subcellular compartments was observed after EV71 infection, and the decreased expression of FBP3 in host neuronal cells markedly inhibited viral replication. Our results reveal various host proteins that potentially interact with the EV71 5'UTR in neuronal cells, and we found that FBP3 could serve as a positive regulator in host cells.

  5. A Single Nucleotide in Stem Loop II of 5′-Untranslated Region Contributes to Virulence of Enterovirus 71 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Ming-Te; Wang, Shainn-Wei; Yu, Chun-Keung; Lin, Kuei-Hsiang; Lei, Huan-Yao; Su, Ih-Jen; Wang, Jen-Ren

    2011-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus responsible for several large outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region while virulence determinant remains unexplored. Principal Findings In this report, we investigated increased virulence of unadapted EV71 clinical isolate 237 as compared with isolate 4643 in mice. A fragment 12 nucleotides in length in stem loop (SL) II of 237 5′-untranslated region (UTR) visibly reduced survival time and rate in mice was identified by constructing a series of infectious clones harboring chimeric 5′-UTR. In cells transfected with bicistronic plasmids, and replicon RNAs, the 12-nt fragment of isolate 237 enhanced translational activities and accelerated replication of subgenomic EV71. Finally, single nucleotide change from cytosine to uridine at base 158 in this short fragment of 5′-UTR was proven to reduce viral translation and EV71 virulence in mice. Results collectively indicated a pivotal role of novel virulence determinant C158 on virus translation in vitro and EV71 virulence in vivo. Conclusions These results presented the first reported virulence determinant in EV71 5′-UTR and first position discovered from unadapted isolates. PMID:22069490

  6. Guaranteeing QoE in Audio-Video Transmission by IEEE 802.11e HCCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Zul Azri Bin Muhamad; Suzuki, Takahiro; Tasaka, Shuji

    This paper studies packet scheduling schemes with QoE (user-level QoS) guarantee for audio-video transmission in a wireless LAN with HCF controlled channel access (HCCA) of the IEEE 802.11e MAC protocol. We first propose the static scheduling (SS) scheme, which grants adjustable transmission opportunity (TXOP) duration for constant bit rate (CBR) traffic. The SS scheme can determine the minimum TXOP duration capable of guaranteeing high QoE; it can maximize the number of admitted flows. As the burstiness of variable bit rate (VBR) traffic cannot be absorbed by the SS scheme, we also propose the multimedia priority dynamic scheduling (MPDS) scheme, which can absorb the burstiness through allocating additional TXOP duration. We then compare the SS scheme, the MPDS scheme, and the reference scheduler (TGe scheme) in terms of application-level QoS and user-level QoS (QoE). Numerical results show that in the SS scheme, the QoE can be kept relatively higher even when the TXOP duration is reduced in the case of video with the I picture pattern; this implies that more flows can be admitted. In the case of video with the IPPPPP picture pattern, which has the VBR characteristic more remarkably, reducing the TXOP duration according to the SS scheme will deteriorate the QoS level. In this case, the MPDS scheme performs better when the number of multimedia stations is small. However, the performance of the MPDS scheme deteriorates with the increase of the number of multimedia stations, though the results are comparable to or even better than those of the SS and TGe schemes.

  7. Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Safety of Systems (1st) held in Monterey, California on 15-16 Mar 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Programming: Concurrency Page 36© 2005 by Andrew Kornecki and Janusz Zalewski • An informal scan of the real-time (embedded, dedicated, safety...Press, pp. 40-47. 8. R. Sterritt, D.F. Bantz, “PAC-MEN: Personal Autonomic Computing Monitoring Environments,” In Proceedings of IEEE DEXA 2004...Autonomic Computing Environment,” In Proceedings of IEEE DEXA 2003 Workshops - 1st International Workshop on Autonomic Computing Systems, Prague, Czech

  8. Large-Scale Assessments of Students' Learning and Education Policy: Synthesising Evidence across World Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Mollie; Nugroho, Dita; Lietz, Petra

    2016-01-01

    This article synthesises findings from two systematic reviews that examined evidence of the link between large-scale assessments (LSAs) and education policy in economically developing countries and in countries of the Asia-Pacific. Analyses summarise evidence of assessment characteristics and policy goals of LSAs that influence education policy,…

  9. Expansion of the role of population education called for at the regional consultative seminar.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Participants at the Regional Consultative Seminar on Population Education held in 1986 in Bangkok unanimously acknowledged the progress and achievements of population education programs in the region and recommended the expansion of the core concepts and messages in the areas of quality of life, family life education, adolescent fertility, aging and migration, and the integration of population education in national education policies and plans. With regard to population education vis-a-vis national population and education policies, the participants saw a trend in many countries to link population education programs with school subjects and co-curricular areas, making it part and parcel of the national educational policies. Until recently, the core messages of population education in many countries have been built around 1) family size and welfare, 2) delayed marriage, 3) responsible parenthood, 4) population and resource development, and 5) population-related beliefs and values. The problem raised by the participants was the lack of skills by curriculum specialists and teachers to relate curricula and textbooks to the local environment so that learning becomes relevant and meaningful. Recommendations include 1) retaining core messages but adapting them to the socio-cultural concerns of individual countries, 2) reflecting population education in national education policy and planning, 3) refining and adapting curricula and materials, 4) involving higher institutions of learning in population education, 5) incorporating population education in the Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All, 6) establishing an information network for more effective dissemination, 7) having donor agencies fund more short-term training, 8) integrating population education into pre-service teacher training, 9) continuing the services of the UNESCO Population Education Regional Advisory Team, and 10) continuing funding from the UN Fund for Population Activities.

  10. SELF-POWERED WIRELESS SENSOR NODE POWER MODELING BASED ON IEEE 802.11 COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek Agarwal; Raymond A. DeCarlo; Lefteri H. Tsoukalas

    2016-04-01

    considerations that must also be taken into account when computing the power consumption associated with each task. The considerations includes: number of events occurring in a fixed active time period and the duration of each event, event-information processing time, total communication time, number of retransmission, etc. Additionally, at the network level the communication of information data packets between WSNs involves collisions, latency, andretransmission, which result in unanticipated power losses. This paper presents stochastic modeling of power demand for a schedule-driven WSN utilizing Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, IEEE, 802.11 communication protocols. The model captures the generic operation of a schedule-driven WSN when an external event occurs, i.e., sensing, following by processing, and followed by communication. The results are verified via simulation.

  11. Molecular determinants of enterovirus 71 viral entry: cleft around GLN-172 on VP1 protein interacts with variable region on scavenge receptor B 2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pan; Song, Zilin; Qi, Yonghe; Feng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Naiqing; Sun, Yinyan; Wu, Xing; Yao, Xin; Mao, Qunyin; Li, Xiuling; Dong, Wenjuan; Wan, Xiaobo; Huang, Niu; Shen, Xinliang; Liang, Zhenglun; Li, Wenhui

    2012-02-24

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major pathogens that cause hand, foot, and mouth disease outbreaks in young children in the Asia-Pacific region in recent years. Human scavenger receptor class B 2 (SCARB2) is the main cellular receptor for EV71 on target cells. The requirements of the EV71-SCARB2 interaction have not been fully characterized, and it has not been determined whether SCARB2 serves as an uncoating receptor for EV71. Here we compared the efficiency of the receptor from different species including human, horseshoe bat, mouse, and hamster and demonstrated that the residues between 144 and 151 are critical for SCARB2 binding to viral capsid protein VP1 of EV71 and seven residues from the human receptor could convert murine SCARB2, an otherwise inefficient receptor, to an efficient receptor for EV71 viral infection. We also identified that EV71 binds to SCARB2 via a canyon of VP1 around residue Gln-172. Soluble SCARB2 could convert the EV71 virions from 160 S to 135 S particles, indicating that SCARB2 is an uncoating receptor of the virus. The uncoating efficiency of SCARB2 significantly increased in an acidic environment (pH 5.6). These studies elucidated the viral capsid and receptor determinants of enterovirus 71 infection and revealed a possible target for antiviral interventions.

  12. The FAO/NACA Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals: lessons learned from their development and implementation.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, R P; Bondad-Reantaso, M G

    2008-04-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world and it is expected to produce significant quantities of fish in the coming years to meet the growing global demand for aquatic animal products. The expansion and diversification of the sector, along with globalisation and trade liberalisation have resulted in aquatic animals and animal products moving around the world rapidly, causing serious disease outbreaks stemming from incursions of pathogens through unregulated transboundary movements. It has become necessary to develop appropriate guidelines for establishing national regulatory frameworks to improve responsibility in transboundary movement of live aquatic animals. In 2000, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), in collaboration with the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) and in partnership with 21 Asian countries, developed the Asia Regional Technical Guidelines on Health Management for the Responsible Movement of Live Aquatic Animals. The present article outlines the development process of the guidelines, the lessons learned from their implementation at national level and the way forward.

  13. Proportional Increase Multiplicative Decrease (PIMD) Wireless Scheduler: An Efficient Scheduler for IEEE 802.11e HCF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Arshad; Qaiser, Shaban

    In this paper, we propose a new wireless scheduling algorithm for the IEEE 802.11e HCF. The algorithm grants the mobile stations variable time for the upstream data flow in proportion to the queue size of the transmission buffer. At the same time, it retrieves half of the extra time allocated in previous cycle from those flows whose requirement has stopped. Hence, the system achieves stability by preventing the ping-pong phenomena. The algorithm is computationally simple, and as compared to the other algorithms, it gives bounded delays and jitter to the real-time applications under heavy load conditions.

  14. China's Push for Energy Raises Regional Security Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-09-01

    China's increasing demand for energy is leading to a push to further exploit its own energy resources deposits, a leveraging of its growth market for favorable energy pricing, and conflicts with neighboring countries. Energy experts discussed China's efforts to bolster its energy resources, during a 17 September forum on energy and security issues in China and the Asia Pacific at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D. C.

  15. The relationship between migration and development in the ESCAP region.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between migration and development in the ESCAP region including southeast and south Asian countries and the Pacific island of Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Kiribati, Samoa, and the Solomon Islands is discussed in terms of mobility transition and origin and destination factors. The changing patterns of mobility in Asia are further delineated in the discussion of internal movements and international movement. Emigration in the smaller countries of the Pacific are treated separately. Future predictions are that the Asia Pacific region will experience continued fertility decline and stabilization of low rates over the next 20 years. The declines will result in slow labor force growth, and increased demand for labor in traditional core and neocore countries as defined and presented in table form by Friedman will be heightened. International movements are likely to increase in large urban areas within destination countries. Tokyo and Singapore are the principal cities in Asia. Tokyo by restrictive government policy has limited immigration, but future labor shortages of unskilled labor from southeast Asia and China are expected. Singapore is already dependent on foreign labor by 10%. Current labor shortages have led to the creation of a growth triangle between Singapore, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Other cities expected to emerge as primary cities in international regional complexes with spillover into the hinterlands include the Hong Kong, Guangzhou, and Macau triangle in the Pearl River delta, Taipei and Seoul, and possibly Kuala Lumpur. Internal migration is expected to increase in the capital cities of Bangkok, Manila,j and centers such as Shanghai, Beijing, and other large cities of southeast Asia. These cities will be linked through the flows of skilled international migrants, which began in the 1960s and is expected to become a future major flow. Recreational and resource niches will be left in much of the Pacific, the Himalayan Kingdoms, and

  16. Status of the IEEE P1547 Draft Interconnection Standard and Distributed Energy Resources R&D: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, H. P.; Basso, T. S.; Kroposki, B.

    2002-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Distributed Power Program (DPP) is conducting work to complete, validate in the field, and support the development of a national interconnection standard for distributed energy resources (DER), and to address the institutional and regulatory barriers slowing the commercial adoption of DER systems. This work includes support for the IEEE standards, including P1547 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems, P1589 Standard for Conformance Test Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems, and the P1608 Application Guide. Work is also in progress on system integration research and development (R&D) on the interface and control of DER with local energy systems. Additional efforts are supporting high-reliability power for industry, evaluating innovative concepts for DER applications, and exploring plug-and-play interface and control technologies for intelligent autonomous interconnection systems. This paper summarizes (1) the current status of the IEEE interconnection standards and application guides in support of DER, and (2) the R&D in progress at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for interconnection and system integration and application of distributed energy resources.

  17. Evaluation of IEEE 802.11g and 802.16 for Lunar Surface Exploration Missions Using MACHETE Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segui, John; Jennings, Esther; Vyas, Hemali

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the suitability of terrestrial wireless networking technologies for lunar surface exploration missions. Specifically, the scenario we considered consisted of two teams of collaborating astronauts, one base station and one rover, where the base station and the rover have the capability of acting as relays. We focused on the evaluation of IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.16 protocols, simulating homogeneous 802.11g network, homogeneous 802.16 network, and heterogeneous network using both 802.11g and 802.16. A mix of traffic flows were simulated, including telemetry, caution and warning, voice, command and file transfer. Each traffic type had its own distribution profile, data volume, and priority. We analyzed the loss and delay trade-offs of these wireless protocols with various link-layer options. We observed that 802.16 network managed the channel better than an 802.11g network due to controlled infrastructure and centralized scheduling. However, due to the centralized scheduling, 802.16 also had a longer delay. The heterogeneous (hybrid) of 802.11/802.16 achieved a better balance of performance in terms of data loss and delay compared to using 802.11 or 802.16 alone.

  18. Path loss variation of on-body UWB channel in the frequency bands of IEEE 802.15.6 standard.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Dayananda; Sarma, Kanak C; Mahanta, Anil

    2016-06-01

    The wireless body area network (WBAN) has gaining tremendous attention among researchers and academicians for its envisioned applications in healthcare service. Ultra wideband (UWB) radio technology is considered as excellent air interface for communication among body area network devices. Characterisation and modelling of channel parameters are utmost prerequisite for the development of reliable communication system. The path loss of on-body UWB channel for each frequency band defined in IEEE 802.15.6 standard is experimentally determined. The parameters of path loss model are statistically determined by analysing measurement data. Both the line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight channel conditions are considered in the measurement. Variations of parameter values with the size of human body are analysed along with the variation of parameter values with the surrounding environments. It is observed that the parameters of the path loss model vary with the frequency band as well as with the body size and surrounding environment. The derived parameter values are specific to the particular frequency bands of IEEE 802.15.6 standard, which will be useful for the development of efficient UWB WBAN system.

  19. Performance analyses and improvements for the IEEE 802.15.4 CSMA/CA scheme with heterogeneous buffered conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianping; Tao, Zhengsu; Lv, Chunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the IEEE 802.15.4 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) scheme have been received considerable attention recently, with most of these studies focusing on homogeneous or saturated traffic. Two novel transmission schemes-OSTS/BSTS (One Service a Time Scheme/Bulk Service a Time Scheme)-are proposed in this paper to improve the behaviors of time-critical buffered networks with heterogeneous unsaturated traffic. First, we propose a model which contains two modified semi-Markov chains and a macro-Markov chain combined with the theory of M/G/1/K queues to evaluate the characteristics of these two improved CSMA/CA schemes, in which traffic arrivals and accessing packets are bestowed with non-preemptive priority over each other, instead of prioritization. Then, throughput, packet delay and energy consumption of unsaturated, unacknowledged IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled networks are predicted based on the overall point of view which takes the dependent interactions of different types of nodes into account. Moreover, performance comparisons of these two schemes with other non-priority schemes are also proposed. Analysis and simulation results show that delay and fairness of our schemes are superior to those of other schemes, while throughput and energy efficiency are superior to others in more heterogeneous situations. Comprehensive simulations demonstrate that the analysis results of these models match well with the simulation results.

  20. Standard-compliant real-time transmission of ECGs: harmonization of ISO/IEEE 11073-PHD and SCP-ECG.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Chiarugi, Franco; Alesanco, Alvaro; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Chronaki, Catherine E; Escayola, Javier; Martínez, Ignacio; García, José

    2009-01-01

    Ambient assisted living and integrated care in an aging society is based on the vision of the lifelong Electronic Health Record calling for HealthCare Information Systems and medical device interoperability. For medical devices this aim can be achieved by the consistent implementation of harmonized international interoperability standards. The ISO/IEEE 11073 (x73) family of standards is a reference standard for medical device interoperability. In its Personal Health Device (PHD) version several devices have been included, but an ECG device specialization is not yet available. On the other hand, the SCP-ECG standard for short-term diagnostic ECGs (EN1064) has been recently approved as an international standard ISO/IEEE 11073-91064:2009. In this paper, the relationships between a proposed x73-PHD model for an ECG device and the fields of the SCP-ECG standard are investigated. A proof-of-concept implementation of the proposed x73-PHD ECG model is also presented, identifying open issues to be addressed by standards development for the wider interoperability adoption of x73-PHD standards.