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Sample records for ieee singapore section

  1. Singapore.

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    Singapore's population stands at 2.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.1%. The infant mortality rate is 8.9/1000, and life expectancy is 69 years for men and 74 years for women. Chinese account for 77% of the population, while Malays comprise another 15%. The work force of 1.2 million is distributed as follows: agriculture, 1%; industry and commerce, 58%; services, 35%; and government, 6%. The gross domestic product was US$16 billion in 1985, with a per capita income of $6200. Although the rate of population growth has fallen, Singapore is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Singapore's strategic location has given it an economic importance in Southeast Asia out of proportion to its size. After independence in 1965, Singapore's economy expanded rapidly and its infrastructure was modernized. Singapore continues to upgrade worker skills and search for new products and markets for its export-led economy. A central goal is to make Singapore a complete business center, offering multinationals a manufacturing base, a developed financial infrastructure, and excellent communications to service regional and world markets. The government's development policy since independence has emphasized industrialization.

  2. Singapore

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-26

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft is of the Republic of Singapore, a city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. An island country made up of 63 islands, the country is largely urbanized with very little rain forest left.

  3. Malaysia, Singapore. Section 23. Revision. Weather and Climate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-08-01

    division groups 3 to 8 inches during the driest months to 10 to 2 West Malaysia, the island of Singapore, and a few dm s th snaller offshore Islands in...high occurs over northern part of the island of Borneo. This region is the Asian Continent, aid tlsc North Pacific high approximately 700 statute miles... Islands . It At the lower elevations throughout the year mean may occur at any time of day and Is most intense daily maximum temperatures are mostly in

  4. Atypical Fractures are Mainly Subtrochanteric in Singapore and Diaphyseal in Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Schilcher, Jörg; Howe, Tet Sen; Png, Meng Ai; Aspenberg, Per; Koh, Joyce S B

    2015-11-01

    We have previously noted a dichotomy in the location of atypical fractures along the femoral shaft in Swedish patients, and a mainly subtrochanteric location of atypical fractures in descriptions of patients from Singapore. These unexpected differences were now investigated by testing the following hypotheses in a cross-sectional study: first, that there is a dichotomy also in Singapore; second, that the relation between subtrochanteric and diaphyseal location is different between the two countries; third, that the location is related to femoral bow. The previously published Swedish sample (n = 151) was re-measured, and a new Singaporean sample (n = 75) was established. Both samples were based on radiographic classification of all femoral fractures in women above 55 years of age. The distance between the fracture line and the lesser trochanter was measured. Femoral bow was classified as present or absent on frontal radiographs. Frequency distribution of the measured distances was analyzed using the Bayesian information criterion to choose the best description of the observed variable distribution in terms of a compilation of normally distributed subgroups. The analysis showed a clear dichotomy of the fracture location: either subtrochanteric or diaphyseal. Subtrochanteric fractures comprised 48% of all fractures in Singapore, and 17% in Sweden (p = 0.0001). In Singapore, femoral bow was associated with more fractures in the diaphyseal subgroup (p = 0.0001). This was not seen in Sweden. A dichotomous location of atypical fractures was confirmed, because it was found also in Singapore. The fractures showed a different localization pattern in the two countries. This difference may be linked to anatomical variations, but might also be related to cultural differences between the two populations that influence physical activity.

  5. Smoking and nicotine dependence in Singapore: findings from a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi A; Chong, Siow Ann

    2012-08-01

    Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of death throughout the world and can lead to nicotine dependence, particularly when initiated at a young age. This paper describes the prevalence of smoking and nicotine dependence in the adult Singapore resident population, whilst also exploring rates among the major ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian), different education levels and those with chronic psychiatric and physical comorbidities. The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) is a cross-sectional epidemiological study that was conducted between December 2009 and December 2010. Information on smoking status was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence measured nicotine dependence. Socio-demographic information was also collected. In total, 6616 respondents participated in the SMHS giving a response rate of 75.9%. We found that 16% of the population were current smokers and 4.5% had nicotine dependence. Current smokers were more likely to be younger (18 to 34 years old), males, Malay and have lower education, whilst males had a 4.6 times higher risk of nicotine dependence to that of females. The prevalence of nicotine dependence was also higher in those with alcohol abuse and those experiencing chronic pain. The results from this study highlight the important differences in the prevalence of smoking and nicotine dependence among different age groups, gender and ethnicity in Singapore and are important for developing future health policies and targeted preventive strategies.

  6. Chronic Pain in a Low Socioeconomic Status Population in Singapore: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Liang En, Wee; Sin, David; Wen Qi, Cher; Zong Chen, Li; Shibli, Sabina; Choon-Huat Koh, Gerald

    2016-02-18

    . The authors sought to determine the prevalence of chronic pain in a low socioeconomic-status rental-flat community in Singapore and its associations. In Singapore, ≥85% own homes; public rental flats are reserved for the low-income. . Chronic pain was defined as pain ≥3 months. From 2009-2014, residents aged ≥ 40 years in five public rental-flat enclaves were surveyed for chronic pain, as well as sociodemographic factors. Subsequently, the authors conducted an additional study among elderly (aged ≥60) in two public rental-flat enclaves in 2012. The authors compared against residents staying in adjacent owner-occupied public housing. . Prevalence of chronic pain in the rental-flat population was 14.2% (133/936) compared with 14.4% (158/1101) in the owner-occupied population (p = 0.949). On multivariate analysis, among those aged 40-59 years, staying in the rental flat community was independently associated with higher prevalence of leg/ankle/foot pain, compared to staying in the owner-occupied flat community (aOR = 2.35, CI = 1.24-7.35, p = 0.008). In the rental-flat population, unemployment was associated with chronic pain (aOR = 1.92, 95%, CI = 1.05-2.78, p = 0.030); among the elderly, dependency in instrumental-activities-of-daily-living (iADLs) was associated with chronic pain (aOR = 2.38, CI = 1.11-5.00, p = 0.025), as well as female gender, being single, and having higher education (all p > 0.05). . In this low socioeconomic-status population, chronic pain associated with unemployment and functional limitation. There was no difference in pain prevalence between the rental-flat population and adjacent owner-occupied precincts. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with psychological distress: a cross-sectional study from Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests the adverse association between sedentary behaviour (SB) with physical and mental health, but few studies have investigated the relationship between volume of physical activity and psychological distress. The present study examined the independent and interactive associations of daily SB and weekly level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with psychological distress in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods De-identified data of 4,337 adults (18–79 years old) on sedentary behaviors, physical activity patterns, psychological distresses, and other relevant variables were obtained from the Singapore Ministry of Health’s 2010 National Health Survey. Psychological distress was assessed using General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), whereas total daily SB and total weekly volume (MET/minutes) of MVPA were estimated using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire version 2 (GPAQ v2). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to estimate the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the independent and interactive relationships of SB and MVPA with prevalence of psychological distress. Results The category of high SB was positively associated with increased odds (OR = 1.29, 1.04-1.59) for psychological distress, whereas the category of active was inversely associated with lower odds (OR = 0.73, 0.62-0.86) for psychological distress. Multivariate analyses for psychological distress by combined daily SB and weekly MVPA levels showed inverse associations between middle SB and active categories (OR = 0.58, 0.45 - 0.74) along with low SB and active categories (OR = 0.61, 0.47-0.80). Conclusions The present population-based cross-sectional study indicated that in the multi-ethnic Asian society of Singapore, a high level of SB was independently associated with psychological distress and meeting the recommended guidelines for physical activity along with ≤ 5 h/day of SB was associated with the lowest

  8. Cholesterol-raising diterpenes in types of coffee commonly consumed in Singapore, Indonesia and India and associations with blood lipids: a survey and cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, Nasheen; Chen, Cynthia; Rebello, Salome A; Speer, Karl; Tai, E Shyong; Lee, Jeanette; Buchmann, Sandra; Koelling-Speer, Isabelle; van Dam, Rob M

    2011-05-15

    To measure the content of cholesterol-raising diterpenes in coffee sold at the retailer level in Singapore, Indonesia and India and to determine the relationship of coffee consumption with lipid levels in a population-based study in Singapore. Survey and cross-sectional study in local coffee shops in Singapore, Indonesia and India to measure the diterpene content in coffee, and a population-based study in Singapore to examine the relationship of coffee consumption and blood lipid levels. Interviews and coffee samples (n=27) were collected from coffee shops in Singapore, Indonesia and India. In addition, 3000 men and women who were Chinese, Malay, and Indian residents of Singapore participated in a cross-sectional study. The traditional 'sock' method of coffee preparation used in Singapore resulted in cafestol concentrations comparable to European paper drip filtered coffee (mean 0.09±SD 0.064 mg/cup). This amount would result in negligible predicted increases in serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Similarly low amounts of cafestol were found in Indian 'filter' coffee that used a metal mesh filter (0.05±0.05 mg/cup). Coffee samples from Indonesia using the 'sock' method (0.85±0.41 mg/cup) or a metal mesh filter (0.98 mg/cup) contained higher amounts of cafestol comparable to espresso coffee. Unfiltered coffee from Indonesia contained an amount of cafestol (4.43 mg/cup) similar to Scandinavian boiled, Turkish and French press coffee with substantial predicted increases in serum cholesterol (0.33 mmol/l) and triglycerides (0.20 mmol/l) concentrations for consumption of 5 cups per day. In the Singaporean population, higher coffee consumption was not substantially associated with serum lipid concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [LDL-cholesterol: 3.07 (95% confidence interval 2.97-3.18) for <1 cup/week versus 3.12 (2.99-3.26) for ≥3 cups/day; p trend 0.12]. Based on the low levels of diterpenes found in traditionally prepared

  9. Cholesterol-raising diterpenes in types of coffee commonly consumed in Singapore, Indonesia and India and associations with blood lipids: A survey and cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To measure the content of cholesterol-raising diterpenes in coffee sold at the retailer level in Singapore, Indonesia and India and to determine the relationship of coffee consumption with lipid levels in a population-based study in Singapore. Methods Survey and cross-sectional study in local coffee shops in Singapore, Indonesia and India to measure the diterpene content in coffee, and a population-based study in Singapore to examine the relationship of coffee consumption and blood lipid levels. Interviews and coffee samples (n = 27) were collected from coffee shops in Singapore, Indonesia and India. In addition, 3000 men and women who were Chinese, Malay, and Indian residents of Singapore participated in a cross-sectional study. Results and Discussion The traditional 'sock' method of coffee preparation used in Singapore resulted in cafestol concentrations comparable to European paper drip filtered coffee (mean 0.09 ± SD 0.064 mg/cup). This amount would result in negligible predicted increases in serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Similarly low amounts of cafestol were found in Indian 'filter' coffee that used a metal mesh filter (0.05 ± 0.05 mg/cup). Coffee samples from Indonesia using the 'sock' method (0.85 ± 0.41 mg/cup) or a metal mesh filter (0.98 mg/cup) contained higher amounts of cafestol comparable to espresso coffee. Unfiltered coffee from Indonesia contained an amount of cafestol (4.43 mg/cup) similar to Scandinavian boiled, Turkish and French press coffee with substantial predicted increases in serum cholesterol (0.33 mmol/l) and triglycerides (0.20 mmol/l) concentrations for consumption of 5 cups per day. In the Singaporean population, higher coffee consumption was not substantially associated with serum lipid concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [LDL-cholesterol: 3.07 (95% confidence interval 2.97-3.18) for <1 cup/week versus 3.12 (2.99-3.26) for ≥ 3 cups/day; p trend 0.12]. Conclusions Based on

  10. Exploring infant feeding practices: cross-sectional surveys of South Western Sydney, Singapore, and Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    Leow, Timothy Yong Qun; Ung, Andrew; Qian, Shelley; Nguyen, Jessie Thanh; An, Yvonne; Mudgil, Poonam; Whitehall, John

    2017-06-13

    Infant feeding practices are known to influence the child's long-term health. Studies have associated obesity and other diseases with reduced breastfeeding and early introduction of high calorie beverages (HCBs). The rising prevalence of obesity is already a problem in most developed countries, especially Australia, but cultural differences are influential. Our aim is to examine and compare infant feeding practices and educational levels of respondents through questionnaires in three culturally different sites: Campbelltown (South Western Sydney), Australia, Singapore and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (HCMC). Consenting parents and carers (aged ≥18 years old) of at least one child (≤6 years old) were recruited from paediatric clinics in Campbelltown, Singapore and HCMC. Participants completed an infant feeding practices questionnaire regarding breastfeeding, beverage and solid initiation in addition to the parent's ethnicity, age, and educational level. Data was analysed quantitatively using SPSS. Two hundred eighty-three participants were recruited across the three sites, HCMC (n = 84), Campbelltown (n = 108), and Singapore (n = 91). 237 (82.6%) children were breastfed but in all only 100 (60.2%) were exclusively breastfed for five months or more. There was a statistical difference in rates of breast feeding between each region. HCMC (n = 18, 21.4%) had the lowest, followed by Campbelltown (n = 35, 32.4%), and then Singapore (n = 47, 51.7%). There was also a difference in rates of introduction of HCBs by 3 years of age, with those in HCMC (n = 71, 84.5%) were higher than Campbelltown (n = 71, 65.8%) and Singapore (n = 48, 52.8%). The educational level of respondents was lower in Vietnam where only 46.4% (n = 39) had completed post-secondary education, compared to 75.0% (n = 81) in Campbelltown and 75.8% (n = 69) in Singapore. Rates of breast feeding were inversely correlated with rates of introduction of HCB and positively related to

  11. Singapore, Malaysia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-09

    This view of the Malay Peninsula shows the city state of Singapore, Malaysia (1.5N, 104.0E) with all its urban, industrial and commercial land use areas. Singapore is located at the south tip of the Malay peninsula separated by the Johor Strait. The prosporous island state, once Asia's major trade center, is now highly industrialized despite its small size and its ideal location has made this island a hub of trade, shipping and service industries.

  12. Singapore, Malaysia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the Malay Peninsula shows the city state of Singapore, Malaysia (1.5N, 104.0E) with all its urban, industrial and commercial land use areas. Singapore is located at the south tip of the Malay peninsula separated by the Johor Strait. The prosporous island state, once Asia's major trade center, is now highly industrialized despite its small size and its ideal location has made this island a hub of trade, shipping and service industries.

  13. Unconditional and Conditional Standards Using Cognitive Function Curves for the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses in Older Chinese Adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yin Bun; Xu, Ying; Feng, Lei; Feng, Liang; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Chong, Mei Sian; Lim, Wee Shiong; Lee, Tih Shih; Yap, Philip; Yap, Keng Bee; Ng, Tze Pin

    2015-09-01

    The conventional practice of assessing cognitive status and monitoring change over time in older adults using normative values of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) based on age bands is imprecise. Moreover, population-based normative data on changes in MMSE score over time are scarce and crude because they do not include age- and education-specific norms. This study aims to develop unconditional standards for assessing current cognitive status and conditional standards that take prior MMSE score into account for assessing longitudinal change, with percentile curves as smooth functions of age. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data of a modified version of the MMSE for 2,026 older Chinese adults from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study, aged 55-84, in Singapore were used to estimate quantile regression coefficients and create unconditional standards and conditional standards. We presented MMSE percentile curves as a smooth function of age in education strata, for unconditional and conditional standards, based on quantile regression coefficient estimates. We found the 5th and 10th percentiles were more strongly associated with age and education than were higher percentiles. Model diagnostics demonstrated the accuracy of the standards. The development and use of unconditional and conditional standards should facilitate cognitive assessment in clinical practice and deserve further studies. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of hand and food hygiene in a developed residential community of Singapore: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Pang, Junxiong; Chua, Shao Wei Jonathan Lumen; Hsu, Liyang

    2015-06-21

    Diarrhoea incidence has been increasing progressively over the past years in developed countries, including Singapore, despite the accessibility and availability to clean water, well-established sanitation infrastructures and regular hygiene promotion. The aim of this study is to determine the current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of hand and food hygiene, and the potential risk factors of diarrhoea in a residential community of Singapore. A cross-sectional study was conducted within a residential area in the west of Singapore from June to August 2013. A total of 1,156 household units were randomly sampled and invited to participate in an interviewer-assisted survey using standardised questionnaires. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, Fisher's Exact test and multivariate logistic regression modelling, respectively. R program was used for all statistical analysis. All tests were conducted at 5% level of significance with 95% confidence intervals (CI) reported where applicable. A total of 240 units (20.8%) consented and responded to the survey invitation. About 77% of the expected knowledge and attitude were observed in at least 80% of the participants, compared to only about 31% of the expected behaviours and practises. Being single [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.16-4.48], having flu in the past six month (AOR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.74-6.06), preferred self-medication (AOR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.06-4.12) were risk factors of diarrhoea. Washing hands with water before attending to children or sick persons (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.11-0.82), washing hands with water (AOR = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.05-0.45) and water with soap (AOR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.12-0.72) after attending to children or sick persons, and hand washing between 30 s to a minute (AOR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.20-0.90) were protective factors against diarrhoea. Good knowledge and attitude of the

  15. Correlation of adiposity indices with cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy adults of Singapore: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xinyan; Tey, Siew Ling; Leong, Claudia; Quek, Rina; Loo, Yi Ting; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has long been highlighted for its association with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nonetheless, the best adiposity indices to evaluate the CVD risk factors remain contentious and few studies have been performed in Asian populations. In the present study, we compared the association strength of percent body fat (PBF) to indirect anthropometric measures of general adiposity (body mass index (BMI) and body adiposity index (BAI)) and central adiposity (waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) for the prediction of CVD risk factors in healthy men and women living in Singapore. A total of 125 individuals (63 men and 62 women) took part in this study. PBF was measured by using three different techniques, including bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), BOD POD, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Anthropometric measurements (WC, hip circumference (HC), height, and weight), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin (FSI), and lipid profiles were determined according to standard protocols. Correlations of anthropometric measurements and PBF with CVD risk factors were compared. Irrespective of the measuring techniques, PBF showed strong positive correlations with FSI, HOMA-IR, TC/HDL, TG/HDL, and LDL/HDL in both genders. While PBF was highly correlated with FBG, SBP, and DBP in females, no significant relationships were observed in males. Amongst the five anthropometric measures of adiposity, BAI was the best predictor for CVD risk factors in female participants (r = 0.593 for HOMA-IR, r = 0.542 for TG/HDL, r = 0.474 for SBP, and r = 0.448 for DBP). For males, the combination of WC (r = 0.629 for HOMA-IR, and r = 0.446 for TG/HDL) and WHR (r = 0.352 for SBP, and r = 0.366 for DBP) had the best correlation with CVD risk factors. Measurement of PBF does not outperform the simple anthropometric measurements of obesity, i.e. BAI, WC, and WHR, in the prediction of CVD risk factors in

  16. Association of Maternal Vitamin D Status with Glucose Tolerance and Caesarean Section in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes Study

    PubMed Central

    Loy, See Ling; Lek, Ngee; Yap, Fabian; Soh, Shu E.; Padmapriya, Natarajan; Tan, Kok Hian; Biswas, Arijit; Yeo, George Seow Heong; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Saw, Seang Mei; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological studies relating maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and mode of delivery have shown controversial results. We examined if maternal 25OHD status was associated with plasma glucose concentrations, risks of GDM and caesarean section in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study. Methods Plasma 25OHD concentrations, fasting glucose (FG) and 2-hour postprandial glucose (2HPPG) concentrations were measured in 940 women from a Singapore mother-offspring cohort study at 26–28 weeks’ gestation. 25OHD inadequacy and adequacy were defined based on concentrations of 25OHD ≤75nmol/l and >75nmol/l respectively. Mode of delivery was obtained from hospital records. Multiple linear regression was performed to examine the association between 25OHD status and glucose concentrations, while multiple logistic regression was performed to examine the association of 25OHD status with risks of GDM and caesarean section. Results In total, 388 (41.3%) women had 25OHD inadequacy. Of these, 131 (33.8%), 155 (39.9%) and 102 (26.3%) were Chinese, Malay and Indian respectively. After adjustment for confounders, maternal 25OHD inadequacy was associated with higher FG concentrations (β = 0.08mmol/l, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.01, 0.14), but not 2HPPG concentrations and risk of GDM. A trend between 25OHD inadequacy and higher likelihood of emergency caesarean section (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.95, 2.05) was observed. On stratification by ethnicity, the association with higher FG concentrations was significant in Malay women (β = 0.19mmol/l, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.33), while risk of emergency caesarean section was greater in Chinese (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.06, 3.43) and Indian women (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.01, 5.73). Conclusions 25OHD inadequacy is prevalent in pregnant Singaporean women, particularly among the Malay and Indian women. This is associated with higher FG concentrations in Malay

  17. IEEE Smart Grid Series of Standards IEEE 2030 (Interoperability) and IEEE 1547 (Interconnection) Status: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2012-04-01

    The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.

  18. Factors associated with consistent condom use and STIs among foreign female entertainment workers: results from a cross-sectional survey in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Wong, Mee Lian; Cheung, Olive N Y; Tham, Dede Kam Tyng; Tai, Bee Choo; Chan, Roy

    2017-03-01

    We assessed the prevalence of consistent condom use and laboratory-confirmed STIs among foreign female entertainment workers (FEWs) who engaged in paid or casual sex in Singapore and the factors associated with these characteristics. A cross-sectional survey, using time-location sampling, was conducted on 220 FEWs (115 Vietnamese and 105 Thai) in 2015. For multivariable analysis, we used a mixed-effects Poisson regression model with backward stepwise approach to account for clustering by venue and to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) of factors associated with consistent condom use and STI positivity, respectively. Consistent condom use with paid or casual partners in the past month was 39.6% and 36.2% for vaginal and oral sex, respectively. The prevalence of STI (cervical chlamydia, cervical gonorrhoea or pharyngeal gonorrhoea) positivity was 13.6%. In multivariable analysis, consistent condom use for both vaginal and oral sex increased with high self-perceived risk of getting STI/HIV (vaginal: aPR 2.09; 95% CI 1.26 to 3.46; oral: aPR 2.41; 95% CI 1.23 to 4.69) and condom negotiation (vaginal: aPR 3.74; 95% CI 2.07 to 6.75; oral: aPR 2.81; 95% CI 1.51 to 5.26). STI positivity decreased with consistent condom use for vaginal sex (aPR 0.22; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.75) and increased with number of sexual partners (aPR 1.43; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.92). In addition to advocating for policy decisions to provide a safer work environment, behavioural interventions on condom negotiation skills and condom use and biomedical interventions on STI/HIV testing and treatment interventions are needed among the FEWs in Singapore. NCT02780986; pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Counseling in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Soo Yin; Neihart, Maureen F.

    2012-01-01

    Singapore, a tiny island nation, rose from 3rd- to 1st-world status in just 3 decades. Unlike in most developed countries, counseling in Singapore has a short history with faith-based beginnings and currently faces challenges to remain culturally relevant. The authors trace the development of Singapore's counseling services, provide an update…

  20. Counseling in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Soo Yin; Neihart, Maureen F.

    2012-01-01

    Singapore, a tiny island nation, rose from 3rd- to 1st-world status in just 3 decades. Unlike in most developed countries, counseling in Singapore has a short history with faith-based beginnings and currently faces challenges to remain culturally relevant. The authors trace the development of Singapore's counseling services, provide an update…

  1. Mediating effects of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes among psychiatric outpatients: findings from a cross-sectional survey in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Lau, Ying Wen; Pang, Shirlene; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-08-29

    To examine whether self-stigma mediates the relationship between perceived stigma and quality of life, self-esteem and general functioning among outpatients with depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Cross-sectional survey. Outpatient clinics at a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. 280 outpatients with a primary clinical diagnosis of either schizophrenia, depression, anxiety or OCD. Data were collected in relation to self-stigma, perceived stigma, self-esteem, functioning and quality of life. In order to examine the mediating role of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes, bootstrapping mediation analyses were used. Mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes was subject to the effects of self-stigma among the overall sample. Separate mediation analyses were conducted by diagnoses and showed differences in the mediating effects of self-stigma. Among the whole sample and the subsample with OCD, self-stigma mediated the relationship between perceived stigma and all psychosocial outcomes. For those with anxiety, depression and schizophrenia, the mediating effects of self-stigma were present in all relationships except (1) perceived stigma with physical health in the anxiety sample, (2) perceived stigma with social relationships in the depression sample and (3) perceived stigma with physical health in the schizophrenia sample. The mediating effects of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and various psychosocial outcomes are evident and differ across diagnoses. Interventions to address and reduce the effects of self-stigma along with targeted treatments and psychoeducation to assist people with mental illness overcome or better manage self-stigma while providing them the skills to counteract public stigma are needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  2. IEEE standards worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Hammons, T.J. )

    1995-01-01

    This article presents North American views on the development and use of internationally acceptable standards through strengthened ties with global standards organizations. The key ingredient to enhance the international reputation of IEEE standards is, without doubt, greater participation of members around the world. Standards that will really have force are those that are recognized as preeminent and that are sought after by organizations worldwide. it will be necessary to develop enhanced liaisons with standards organizations around the world, such as the IEC. These are some of the issues that will be addressed by panelists representing standards organizations and users from North America, United States, Canada, and Mexico. Also discussed is the importance of standards in the NAFTA and GATT agreements on trade.

  3. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Singapore. 10.570 Section 10.570 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  4. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Singapore. 10.570 Section 10.570 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  5. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Singapore. 10.570 Section 10.570 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  6. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Singapore. 10.570 Section 10.570 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  7. Disability in Singapore's Elderly Population.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, Mithila; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Picco, Louisa; Jeyagurunathan, Anita; Shafie, Saleha Binte; Pang, Shirlene; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Seow, Esmond; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-07-01

    Disability increases an individual's dependence and negatively impacts their physical, mental, and social functioning. The current study aims to establish the prevalence and risk factors of disability in Singapore's population. Data was extracted from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly (WiSE) study. This cross-sectional study recruited participants aged 60 years and above (n = 2421) who were representative of Singapore's multiethnic population. We used the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0 to assess the severity of disability in our sample while establishing its associations and correlations with cognitive levels, sociodemographic variables, and chronic illness. Cognitive deficits, old age, female gender, Malay and Indian ethnicity, lack of education, retired or homemaker status, presence of chronic illness (specifically stroke, heart problems, depression, and dementia) were found to be significantly associated with disability in Singapore's elderly population. As hypothesised, participants with deficits in cognition were more likely to indicate higher WHODAS scores. The findings highlighted specific factors associated with disability in this multiethnic population. The identification of these factors would lead the way to the development of appropriate interventions.

  8. Indonesia, Sumatra, Singapore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view shows the area around Northeastern Sumatra, Indonesia (1.0N, 104.0E). The city of Singapore and the Singapore Strait is in the center at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. The Singapore Strait is the eastern extension of the Strait of Malacca and separates the Malay Peninsula from Sumatra. Large sediment plumes from the rivers attest to the local soil erosion and industrial dumping ofd wastes.

  9. Indonesia, Sumatra, Singapore

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    This view shows the area around Northeastern Sumatra, Indonesia (1.0N, 104.0E). The city of Singapore and the Singapore Strait is in the center at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. The Singapore Strait is the eastern extension of the Strait of Malacca and separates the Malay Peninsula from Sumatra. Large sediment plumes from the rivers attest to the local soil erosion and industrial dumping ofd wastes.

  10. Indonesia, Sumatra, Singapore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view shows the area around Northeastern Sumatra, Indonesia (1.0N, 104.0E). The city of Singapore and the Singapore Strait is in the center at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. The Singapore Strait is the eastern extension of the Strait of Malacca and separates the Malay Peninsula from Sumatra. Large sediment plumes from the rivers attest to the local soil erosion and industrial dumping ofd wastes.

  11. IEEE New Jersey Coast Section. Centennial Journal.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-09

    York 21. N. V. Manuscripts should be submitten trliplicalt to the Editoriall Department. Correslpondence column items should not exceed, fatr double...0 ENJOYABLE HOBBY From small spinet to big three I manual consoles - from portable Pianos to electronic Grand Pianos. Ask for free information and

  12. Singapore: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Donna

    A survey of the status of language usage in Singapore begins with an overview of patterns of usage of Malay, English, Mandarin Chinese, and Tamil. The function of English as a primary language along with the official language, Malay, is discussed, along with the history of the dominance of English since Singapore's role as a British colony despite…

  13. Racialised Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    The Singapore education system plays a central role in the mythology of the young country's nation building project. The education system is portrayed as the cradle of Singapore's multiracialism, fostering racial harmony and understanding. Yet this historical study of primary school English textbooks from the 1970s to the present reveals that…

  14. "Crossing" in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti; Roslan, Mardiana

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the way a group of pre-teens in Singapore use Malay, Chinese and English to perform identity. It is based on one case study of a Malay girl, Syafiqah, from a larger project called The Sociolinguistic Survey of Singapore 2006, and does not claim to be generalizable. The data are transcripts of recordings made on the speech…

  15. Racialised Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    The Singapore education system plays a central role in the mythology of the young country's nation building project. The education system is portrayed as the cradle of Singapore's multiracialism, fostering racial harmony and understanding. Yet this historical study of primary school English textbooks from the 1970s to the present reveals that…

  16. The Singapore Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Southeast Asian Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Describes the education system in Singapore and new initiatives designed to meet the challenges of the new millennium. Singapore has always placed a premium on education and will continue to invest heavily in young people to prepare them for a future characterized by globalization. Emphasis on elementary and secondary education will be accompanied…

  17. "Crossing" in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti; Roslan, Mardiana

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the way a group of pre-teens in Singapore use Malay, Chinese and English to perform identity. It is based on one case study of a Malay girl, Syafiqah, from a larger project called The Sociolinguistic Survey of Singapore 2006, and does not claim to be generalizable. The data are transcripts of recordings made on the speech…

  18. IEEE Conference Publications in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1984-01-01

    Conclusions of surveys (63 libraries, OCLC database, University of Rhode Island users) assessing handling of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) conference publications indicate that most libraries fully catalog these publications using LC cataloging, and library patrons frequently require series access to publications. Eight…

  19. IEEE Conference Publications in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1984-01-01

    Conclusions of surveys (63 libraries, OCLC database, University of Rhode Island users) assessing handling of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) conference publications indicate that most libraries fully catalog these publications using LC cataloging, and library patrons frequently require series access to publications. Eight…

  20. Whither Conscription in Singapore

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    contributed to the population increase. 78Tim Huxley , Defending the Lion City: The Armed...Press, 1996. Huxley , Tim. Defending the Lion City: The Armed Forces of Singapore. Australia: Allen and Unwin, 2000. Janowitz, Morris. The

  1. Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Clifford A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents architectural details of a large Singapore polytechnical school where the specialties of engineering, health sciences, information technologies, and business management are organized as individual schools sharing a single campus. Includes ten photographs and a site plan. (GR)

  2. Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Clifford A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents architectural details of a large Singapore polytechnical school where the specialties of engineering, health sciences, information technologies, and business management are organized as individual schools sharing a single campus. Includes ten photographs and a site plan. (GR)

  3. Singapore's multibillion dollar gamble

    PubMed Central

    Van Epps, Heather L.

    2006-01-01

    Figure 1Biopolis, Singapore's futuristic research hub.How does a country one-fourth the size of Rhode Island with little history in biomedical science become one of the world's biomedical research giants? The answer: with a pile of money and a large dose of chutzpah. Since 2000, Singapore has dumped more than US$2 billion into developing a biomedical research industry—from scratch. Is the gamble paying off? PMID:16704968

  4. Prehospital Trauma Care in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Chew, David; Wong, Ting Hway; Ng, Yih Yng; Pek, Pin Pin; Lim, Swee Han; Anantharaman, Venkataraman; Hock Ong, Marcus Eng

    2015-01-01

    Prehospital emergency care in Singapore has taken shape over almost a century. What began as a hospital-based ambulance service intended to ferry medical cases was later complemented by an ambulance service under the Singapore Fire Brigade to transport trauma cases. The two ambulance services would later combine and come under the Singapore Civil Defence Force. The development of prehospital care systems in island city-state Singapore faces unique challenges as a result of its land area and population density. This article defines aspects of prehospital trauma care in Singapore. It outlines key historical milestones and current initiatives in service, training, and research. It makes propositions for the future direction of trauma care in Singapore. The progress Singapore has made given her circumstances may serve as lessons for the future development of prehospital trauma systems in similar environments. Key words: Singapore; trauma; prehospital emergency care; emergency medical services.

  5. Instructional Leadership Practices in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…

  6. Environmental management in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Hean, K C

    1991-10-01

    From modest beginnings, Singapore rapidly developed its industrial base which today comprises high technology and high value added industries. Economic growth was accompanied by a comprehensive housing and urban development programme.The formation of the Ministry of the Environment and the Anti-Pollution Unit in the early seventies marked Singapore's commitment to protect the environment in the face of rapid developments.Together with the rapid industrialisation, housing and urban development programme, Singapore also implemented a programme to prevent pollution as well as to control pollution from those sources which cannot be prevented.The success of these programmes is evident today and we have an environment that compares well with that of any nation in the world.

  7. Higher Education and Entrepreneurial Citizenship in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Soren

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on Singapore's "Global Schoolhouse" project, this article discusses how efforts to transform Singapore into a "world class" knowledge economy entail changes to the status of citizenship in Singapore. The project of wooing top foreign universities to Singapore is permeated with an entrepreneurial ideal of Singapore as…

  8. Higher Education and Entrepreneurial Citizenship in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Soren

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on Singapore's "Global Schoolhouse" project, this article discusses how efforts to transform Singapore into a "world class" knowledge economy entail changes to the status of citizenship in Singapore. The project of wooing top foreign universities to Singapore is permeated with an entrepreneurial ideal of Singapore as…

  9. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. English Teaching Profile: Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Singapore examines the role of English in society and in the educational system. It is noted: (1) that English is the most important of the four official languages, (2) that education is provided in the four languages on the primary and secondary levels, and (3) that English is the medium…

  11. "Right" in Singapore English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Singapore English has been, and still is, an enigma for many scholars and researchers. In recent years, much attention has been given to the analysis of its particles. However, rather than focusing on the analysis of one particle or several particles and how they operate at the level of the sentence, this paper looks at a particular phenomenon in…

  12. Singapore Chooses Teachers Carefully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sclafani, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    At the heart of the plans and programs that launched Singapore's rise to the top of international education comparisons are the tiny nation-state's commitments to its teaching force beginning with its highly competitive selection process and carrying through its teacher training, its career-long professional development, and even an enhanced…

  13. Singapore Chooses Teachers Carefully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sclafani, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    At the heart of the plans and programs that launched Singapore's rise to the top of international education comparisons are the tiny nation-state's commitments to its teaching force beginning with its highly competitive selection process and carrying through its teacher training, its career-long professional development, and even an enhanced…

  14. Peer Crowds in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yeo, Geck Hong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined peer crowds in the Singapore context. A total of 598 Secondary 1 and 2 adolescents were asked to identify the crowds they perceived to exist in their schools and to describe these crowds' characteristics. The adolescents had no difficulty identifying crowds, generating a total of 1,534 crowds. Among the crowds identified, seven…

  15. "Right" in Singapore English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Singapore English has been, and still is, an enigma for many scholars and researchers. In recent years, much attention has been given to the analysis of its particles. However, rather than focusing on the analysis of one particle or several particles and how they operate at the level of the sentence, this paper looks at a particular phenomenon in…

  16. Medical education in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Samarasekera, Dujeepa D; Ooi, Shirley; Yeo, Su Ping; Hooi, Shing Chuan

    2015-02-19

    Abstract Allopathic medical education in Singapore extends for more than a century from its simple beginnings. In recent times, changes have been rapid, both in undergraduate and postgraduate specialty medical training. Over the last decade, undergraduate medical education has increased from a single to three medical schools and the postgraduate training has expanded further by incorporating the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education International framework. With these changes, the curricula, assessment systems, as well as teaching and learning approaches, with the use of technology-enhanced learning and program evaluation processes have expanded, largely based on best evidence medical education. To support these initiatives and the recent rapid expansion, most training institutions have incorporated faculty development programs, such as the Centre for Medical Education at the National University of Singapore.

  17. Hoarding in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Kenneth Wei-Qiang; Lee, Wei Liang; How, Choon How; Ng, Beng Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Hoarding refers to an excessive acquisition of objects and inability to part with apparently valueless possessions. While it can lead to excessive clutter, distress and disability, it is important to note that not all cases of hoarding are pathological. This article aims to suggest how one can make recommendations to patients and families when they encounter someone exhibiting hoarding behaviour. It also introduces the Hoarding Task Force and relevant legislation in Singapore to address the issue of hoarding in the community. PMID:26464529

  18. Dietary guidelines in singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin Lc

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens.

  19. Singapore Students' Performance on Australian and Singapore Assessment Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Siew Yin; Lowrie, Tom

    2012-01-01

    This study describes Singapore students' (N = 607) performance on a recently developed Mathematics Processing Instrument (MPI). The MPI comprised tasks sourced from Australia's NAPLAN and Singapore's PSLE. In addition, the MPI had a corresponding question which encouraged students to describe how they solved the respective tasks. In particular,…

  20. A Pandora's Box in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Martha Ann

    2007-01-01

    Singapore is no longer content to produce only engineers and technocrats, says Tharman Shanmugaratnam, minister for education. The government wants to foster a dynamic environment that can attract thinkers and leaders in many fields, not just science. Singapore's planners envision their city as the "Boston of the East"--where the alchemy…

  1. A Pandora's Box in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Martha Ann

    2007-01-01

    Singapore is no longer content to produce only engineers and technocrats, says Tharman Shanmugaratnam, minister for education. The government wants to foster a dynamic environment that can attract thinkers and leaders in many fields, not just science. Singapore's planners envision their city as the "Boston of the East"--where the alchemy…

  2. Direct costs of myopia in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lim, M C C; Gazzard, G; Sim, E-L; Tong, L; Saw, S-M

    2009-05-01

    To estimate the direct costs of myopia in Singapore children. A cross-sectional study of 377 Singaporean school children aged 12-17 years from one school in Singapore Cohort study of the Risk factors for Myopia (SCORM) was conducted. A combination of parent and self-administered questionnaires asked about the cost of each optometrist visit, spectacles, and contact lenses, transport costs, father's educational level, and total family income. A total of 377 subjects participated and cost data were available from 301 subjects. The mean annual direct cost of myopia was S$221.7+/-313.7 (CI, S$186.5-258.1) or US$147.8+/-209.1 (CI, US$124.3-172.1) and median annual direct cost of myopia was S$125.0 or US$83.3. The mean cost per pair of spectacles was S$123.2+/-61.2 (CI, S$116.6-129.8) or US$82.1+/-40.8 (CI, US$77.8-86.5). Sixty subjects (15.9%) wore contact lenses. The mean annual cost of contact lenses was S$567.1+/-565.7 (CI, S$422.2-712.0) or US$378.1+/-377.1 (CI, US$281.4-474.6). Subjects of families with higher total family income and those with fathers with secondary or higher education had higher annual direct expenditure (P=0.03 and P=0.001 respectively). Subjects from families with higher household incomes had higher frequency of change of spectacles (P=0.02) and shorter time since the last change of spectacles (P=0.03). The mean annual direct cost of myopia for Singapore school children was S$221.68 (US$148) and the median, S$125.00 (US$83.33) per subject. Myopia is associated with significant financial burden in Singapore.

  3. Vibrio infections in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goh, K T; Lam, S

    1981-01-01

    Both symptomatic and asymptomatic Vibrio infections, caused by V cholerae, V parahaemolyticus and NAG vibrios, occurred in Singapore. V cholerae are introduced into the country from time to time, but the risk of transmission of infection in the community is negligible in the presence of a high standard of environmental sanitation and a well-established system of epidemiological surveillance. As cholera is probably transmitted through contaminated food, shellfish imported from cholera-endemic countries are regularly monitored for the presence of V cholerae. Vigilance has also been stepped up in the laboratory in view of the possibility of introduction of multiple-antibiotic resistant V cholerae strains into the country. V parahaemolyticus is one of the commonest causes of bacterial food poisoning in Singapore because of the preference of the local population to consume raw or partially cooked seafood. 78% of a variety of imported seafood were found to be contaminated with V parahaemolyticus. Infections caused by NAG vibrios are infrequent, and the mode of transmission has not been established.

  4. Mammoth order for Singapore project.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Two new hospitals in Singapore that form a new integrated healthcare hub, that feature a range of innovations in patient treatment and care, and are reportedly the country's first such healthcare facilities built together as an integrated development to complement each other's capabilities and services, were officially opened by Singapore's Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong, last October. Operated by Jurong Health, a public healthcare 'cluster' formed to facilitate the integration of healthcare services in the west of Singapore, the Ng Teng Fong Hospital and Jurong Community Hospital feature an extensive array of Gerflor flooring, selected, as the company explains in this article, for a combination of outstanding aesthetics, durability, safety, and hard wear.

  5. IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging.

    PubMed

    2017-01-01

    The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is a scientific conference dedicated to mathematical, algorithmic, and computational aspects of biological and biomedical imaging, across all scales of observation. It fosters knowledge transfer among different imaging communities and contributes to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging. ISBI is a joint initiative from the IEEE Signal Processing Society (SPS) and the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS). The 2018 meeting will include tutorials, and a scientific program composed of plenary talks, invited special sessions, challenges, as well as oral and poster presentations of peer-reviewed papers. High-quality papers are requested containing original contributions to the topics of interest including image formation and reconstruction, computational and statistical image processing and analysis, dynamic imaging, visualization, image quality assessment, and physical, biological, and statistical modeling. Accepted 4-page regular papers will be published in the symposium proceedings published by IEEE and included in IEEE Xplore. To encourage attendance by a broader audience of imaging scientists and offer additional presentation opportunities, ISBI 2018 will continue to have a second track featuring posters selected from 1-page abstract submissions without subsequent archival publication.

  6. Singapore’s Declining Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    the government of Singapore also matches deposits into children’s savings accounts, which can be used for schooling or medical plans . 10 Also, as...part of the Marriage and Parenthood Package, the government of Singapore will pay up to one-half of in-vitro fertilization costs, depending on the...considerations. 8 U.S. Social Security Administration. Social Security Plans Throughout the World: Asia and the Pacific, 2006. http://www.ssa.gov/policy

  7. Singapore Neonatal Resuscitation Guidelines 2016

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Cheo Lian; Biswas, Agnihotri; Ee, Teong Tai Kenny; Chinnadurai, Amutha; Baral, Vijayendra Ranjan; Chang, Alvin Shang Ming; Ereno, Imelda Lustestica; Ho, Kah Ying Selina; Poon, Woei Bing; Shah, Varsha Atul; Quek, Bin Huey

    2017-01-01

    We present the revised Neonatal Resuscitation Guidelines for Singapore. The 2015 International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Neonatal Task Force’s consensus on science and treatment recommendations (2015), and guidelines from the American Heart Association and European Resuscitation Council were debated and discussed. The final recommendations of the National Resuscitation Council, Singapore, were derived after the task force had carefully reviewed the current available evidence in the literature and addressed their relevance to local clinical practice. PMID:28741001

  8. Smoke Engulfs Singapore [annotated

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    On June 19, 2013, NASA’s Aqua satellite captured a striking image of smoke billowing from illegal wildfires on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The smoke blew east toward southern Malaysia and Singapore, and news media reported that thick clouds of haze had descended on Singapore, pushing pollution levels to record levels. Singapore’s primary measure of pollution, the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI)—a uniform measure of key pollutants similar to the Air Quality Index (AQI) used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency—spiked to 371 on the afternoon of June 20, 2013, the highest level ever recorded. The previous record occurred in 1997, when the index hit 226. Health experts consider any level above 300 to be “hazardous” to human health. Levels above 200 are considered “very unhealthy.” The image above was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), an instrument that observes the entire surface of Earth’s every 1 to 2 days. The image was captured during the afternoon at 6:30 UTC (2:30 p.m. local time). Though local laws prohibit it, farmers in Sumatra often burn forests during the dry season to prepare soil for new crops. The BBC reported that Singapore’s Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong warned that the haze could “easily last for several weeks and quite possibly longer until the dry season ends in Sumatra.” NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, LANCE/EOSDIS Rapid Response. Caption by Adam Voiland. Credit: NASA Earth Observatory Instrument: Aqua - MODIS NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  9. Trialling of the New EL Syllabuses for Singapore Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Soon Guan

    The piloting of a new English language curriculum in Singapore's lower primary and lower secondary school in 1992 is described in three sections: (1) reasons for revising the existing curriculum; (2) objectives and procedures of the pilot testing; and (3) findings. The existing curriculum, implemented in the early 1980s, was found to be too…

  10. The IEEE Software Engineering Standards Process

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Fletcher J.

    1984-01-01

    Software Engineering has emerged as a field in recent years, and those involved increasingly recognize the need for standards. As a result, members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) formed a subcommittee to develop these standards. This paper discusses the ongoing standards development, and associated efforts.

  11. Verification of IEEE Compliant Subtractive Division Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.; Leathrum, James F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A parameterized definition of subtractive floating point division algorithms is presented and verified using PVS. The general algorithm is proven to satisfy a formal definition of an IEEE standard for floating point arithmetic. The utility of the general specification is illustrated using a number of different instances of the general algorithm.

  12. Area Handbook Series: Singapore: A Country Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    farms kept a total of about 2.2 million layers, 1.6 million broilers , 245,000 breeders, and 645,000 ducks. Singapore remained free of major animal...Statistics, Monthly Digest of Statistics, Singapore, July 1989, 36, 37. 281 Singapore: A Country Study Table 12. External Trade, 1984-88 (in millions of...1987, 24-5. Singapore. Department of Statistics. Monthly Digest of Statistics. Sin- gapore: July 1989. _ . Department of Statistics. Yearbook of

  13. Singapore: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-19

    in its success. Singapore achieved home rule in 1959 and joined with Malaya, Sabah, and Sarawak to form the Federation of Malaysia in 1963...Singapore from Malaysia . Amid serious doubts about its viability, Singapore became a separate independent nation on August 9, 1965. SINGAPORE...extensive land reclamation Ethnic Groups: 77% Chinese; 14% Malay; 8% Indian; 1% other Language: Chinese (official); Malay (official and national); Tamil

  14. Metal allergy in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goon, Anthony T J; Goh, C L

    2005-03-01

    This is a clinical epidemiologic study to determine the frequency of metal allergy among patch-tested patients in the years 2001-2003. The results are compared with those of previous studies. All patients diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from January 2001 to December 2003 were studied retrospectively. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were nickel 19.9%, chromate 5.6%, cobalt 8.2% and gold 8.3%. The frequency of nickel allergy has been steadily rising over the last 20 years. The most common sources of nickel allergy are costume jewelry, belt buckles, wrist watches and spectacle frames. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have also been steadily increasing subsequently. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003, which is difficult to explain because the relevance and sources of such positive patch tests can rarely be determined with certainty. There has been an overall rise in the frequency of metal allergy in the last 20 years.

  15. Evolution of Singapore's School Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Berinderjeet

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of Singapore's school mathematics curriculum is in tandem with developments in the education system of Singapore. In the last six decades, economic policies of the government that are necessary for the survival of Singapore in a fast changing world have shaped the aims of the school mathematics curriculum. The present day curriculum…

  16. English Literatures in Post-Colonial Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dass, Rozita

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of a vibrant literary, culture and arts scene promotes Singapore's claims as a hub for arts and culture in the Asian region, and as a global arts city by the 21st century. The richness and variety of Singapore literature from the early post-colonial years are evident in the evolution of a Singapore literary culture. The diaspora of…

  17. English Literatures in Post-Colonial Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dass, Rozita

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of a vibrant literary, culture and arts scene promotes Singapore's claims as a hub for arts and culture in the Asian region, and as a global arts city by the 21st century. The richness and variety of Singapore literature from the early post-colonial years are evident in the evolution of a Singapore literary culture. The diaspora of…

  18. Misidentifying Factors Underlying Singapore's High Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2012-01-01

    Singapore students have scored exceedingly well on international tests in mathematics. In response, there has been a desire in the United States--both at the policy level and at the school level--to emulate Singapore. Because what can be identified most easily about Singapore's school mathematics can be gleaned from curriculum documents from the…

  19. Risk Management Supplement to IEEE-15288.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER TAILORING RISK MANAGEMENT SUPPLEMENT TO IEEE -15288.1 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...IEC- IEEE -15288: 2015, SYSTEMS AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERING — SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE PROCESSES...1 2.2. IEEE -15288.1: 2015, STANDARD FOR APPLICATION OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ON DEFENSE PROGRAMS

  20. Defining the IEEE-854 floating-point standard in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.

    1995-01-01

    A significant portion of the ANSI/IEEE-854 Standard for Radix-Independent Floating-Point Arithmetic is defined in PVS (Prototype Verification System). Since IEEE-854 is a generalization of the ANSI/IEEE-754 Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, the definition of IEEE-854 in PVS also formally defines much of IEEE-754. This collection of PVS theories provides a basis for machine checked verification of floating-point systems. This formal definition illustrates that formal specification techniques are sufficiently advanced that is is reasonable to consider their use in the development of future standards.

  1. Image of the Singapore Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Warrier, Sheela

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the contents of one of the leading newspapers of Singapore in an effort to identify the public image of the children of the nation. Newspaper clippings of news/articles, pictures/photographs and advertisements featuring children below 15 years of age were collected over a one-week period and the content…

  2. Singapore Language Enhancer: Identity Included

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Desmond

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the rhetoric of the four official languages (English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil) in Singapore and the domestic aversion towards Chinese "dialects" and colloquial "Singlish". The "Speak Mandarin Campaign" alongside the "Speak Good English Movement" represent a display of intercultural…

  3. Visitor Behavior at Singapore Zoo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchman, David; Bossler, Charles

    In this study, data were collected on 15 visitor groups for the duration of their stay, and on 1556 visitor groups at 18 exhibits at the Singapore Zoo. Mean time at the zoo was 155 minutes; the distribution of the time spent among four activities was analyzed by ethnicity and group size. The actual route followed was traced on zoo maps and group…

  4. Spinal Injury Rehabilitation in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, H. L.; Chua, K.; Chan, W.

    1998-01-01

    This study reviewed 231 cases of spinal cord injury treated in Singapore. Data on demographic characteristics, common causes (mostly falls and traffic accidents), types of spinal damage, and outcomes are reported. Following rehabilitation, 68 patients were able to ambulate independently and 45 patients achieved independence in activities of daily…

  5. Singapore Language Enhancer: Identity Included

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Desmond

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the rhetoric of the four official languages (English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil) in Singapore and the domestic aversion towards Chinese "dialects" and colloquial "Singlish". The "Speak Mandarin Campaign" alongside the "Speak Good English Movement" represent a display of intercultural…

  6. Station characteristics of the Singapore Infrasound Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perttu, Anna; Taisne, Benoit; Caudron, Corentin; Garces, Milton; Avila Encillo, Jeffrey; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon

    2016-04-01

    Singapore, located in Southeast Asia, presents an ideal location for an additional regional infrasound array, with diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional infrasound sources, including ~750 active or potentially active volcanoes within 4,000 kilometers. Previous studies have focused on theoretical and calculated regional signal detection capability improvement with the addition of a Singapore array. The Earth Observatory of Singapore installed a five element infrasound array in northcentral Singapore in late 2014, and this station began consistent real-time data transmission mid-2015. The Singapore array uses MB2005s microbarometers and Nanometrics Taurus digitizers. Automated array processing is carried out with the INFrasonic EneRgy Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite, and PMCC (Progressive MultiChannel Correlation). The addition of the Singapore infrasound array to the existing International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in the region has increased regional infrasound detection capability, which is illustrated with the preliminary work on three observed meteor events of various sizes in late 2015. A meteor observed in Bangkok, Thailand in early September, 2015 was picked up by the CTBTO, however, another meteor observed in Bangkok in November was only recorded on the Singapore array. Additionally, another meteor observed over Sumatra was only recorded by one IMS station and the Singapore array. This study uses array processing and Power Spectral Density results for both the Singapore and publicly available regional IMS stations to examine station characteristics and detection capability of the Singapore array in the context of the regional IMS network.

  7. Specialty Engineering Supplement to IEEE-15288.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-15

    MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER TAILORING SPECIALTY ENGINEERING SUPPLEMENT TO IEEE -15288.1 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION...IS UNLIMITED 1 Tailoring of IEEE 15288.1: Specialty Engineering Supplement. 1. Intent of this Tailoring Document This tailoring document is...historically deemed valuable to mission assurance/success of high-reliability space systems. This tailoring document supplements IEEE 15288.1-2015 Annex E

  8. Work of IEEE P1157 Medical Data Interchange committee.

    PubMed

    Rutt, T E

    1989-01-01

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has been working for several years to develop medical system communication standards, under sponsorship of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS). The work of the IEEE P1157 Medical Data Interchange committee is surveyed in this paper. By 1990 the IEEE P1157 Medical Data Interchange committee plans to have a draft standard ready for ballot, with an initial focus on the interface transactions needed to support a patient care information system. Eventually, the IEEE P1157 Medical Data Interchange committee will develop standards with a wider scope, including the transfer of electronic medical records between different vendor systems.

  9. Brain drain or links to the world: views on emigrants from Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yap, M T

    1994-01-01

    "This article will present a general picture of emigration and emigrants from Singapore, with specific references to Australia where the data permit. The first section presents some flow data on the magnitudes of emigration from Singapore.... It is necessary to place this outflow against the background of the constraints imposed by the country's small size. This is discussed in the second section, together with the economic policies and strategies adopted to overcome these constraints. The third section documents the public debate on emigration and the responses to the 'problem.' This is followed in the last section by a prognosis for the future, particularly with regard to the implications for Australia. The article ends with a discussion of the relationship between emigration and nation building, using Singapore as a case study." excerpt

  10. Sun protection in Singapore's schools.

    PubMed

    Nyiri, P

    2005-09-01

    The World Health Organisation has identified schools as key players in the global effort to reduce the rising incidence of skin cancer. Singapore lies 70 miles from the Equator, with one of the world's highest ultraviolet (UV) index scores. It is a multi-ethnic society, with many expatriates. Children in Singapore are likely to be exposed to high levels of UV radiation, and represent a variety of skin types. This study aimed to assess sun protection measures in schools, the frequency of reported sunburn in schoolchildren of different ethnic groups, the level of parental and school concern about sun exposure, the sun-protective measures currently in place, and the parental and school support for public education and "sunsmart" school programmes. Questionnaires were sent to principals and parents of primary schoolchildren in 20 local and eight international schools in January 2003. The majority of children in all ethnic groups in Singapore were reported to suffer to some degree from sunburn during their first ten years. Over 50 percent of parents and head teachers predicted an increased risk of skin cancer in their children. Some protective measures were in place. But teachers and parents were concerned, and most favoured the promotion of more active measures. The reported incidence of sunburn among Singaporean school children is higher than expected across all ethnic groups. Given the current level of sun protective measures in place, more could be done to educate parents and schools regarding "sunsmart practice", and reducing their future risk of skin cancer and eye damage.

  11. Intrauterine devices in Singapore today.

    PubMed

    Mccarthy, T G; Ratnam, S S

    1984-01-01

    The IUD has been selected by less than 1% of contraceptive users in Singapore in the past 15 years, largely because of concerns about uterine perforation and a lack of professional training in insertion techniques. However, increased public awareness of the possible complications of oral contraceptives has led to an interest in the IUD as a family planning method and the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board has introduced the Multiload Cu 250 device at its clinic. The IUD is now considered a feasible method of contraception for women in Singapore, many of whom achieve their ideal family size of 2 children between the ages of 20-25 years. Successful use of the IUD is dependent upon placement of the device at the top of the uterine cavity by an experienced physician. All devices should be changed after 4 years to reduce the risk of complications. The newer IUDs have many advantages over inert and early copper-bearing IUDs in terms of safety and efficacy.

  12. IEEE 1547 Standards Advancing Grid Modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, Thomas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Hoke, Andy; Coddington, Michael

    2015-06-14

    Technology advances including development of advanced distributed energy resources (DER) and grid-integrated operations and controls functionalities have surpassed the requirements in current standards and codes for DER interconnection with the distribution grid. The full revision of IEEE Standards 1547 (requirements for DER-grid interconnection and interoperability) and 1547.1 (test procedures for conformance to 1547) are establishing requirements and best practices for state-of-the-art DER including variable renewable energy sources. The revised standards will also address challenges associated with interoperability and transmission-level effects, in addition to strictly addressing the distribution grid needs. This paper provides the status and future direction of the ongoing development focus for the 1547 standards.

  13. IEEE 802.11 ECG monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Tejero-Calado, Juan; Lopez-Casado, Carmen; Bernal-Martin, Antonio; Lopez-Gomez, Miguel; Romero-Romero, Marco; Quesada, Guillermo; Lorca, Julio; Rivas, Ramon

    2005-01-01

    New wireless technologies make possible the implementation of high level integration wireless devices which allow the replacement of traditional large wired monitoring devices. This kind of devices favours at-home hospitalization, reducing the affluence to sanitary assistance centers to make routine controls. This fact causes a really favourable social impact, especially for elder people, rural-zone inhabitant, chronic patients and handicapped people. Furthermore, it offers new functionalities to physicians and will reduce the sanitary cost. Among these functionalities, biomedical signals can be sent to other devices (screen, PDA, PC...) or processing centers, without restricting the patients' mobility. The aim of this project is the development and implementation of a reduced size multi-channel electrocardiograph based on IEEE 802.11, which allows wireless monitoring of patients, and the insertion of the information into the TCP/IP Hospital network.

  14. Sine-Fitting Software for IEEE Standard 1057

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Jerome

    1999-05-01

    Software application that performs the calculations related to the sine-fit tests of IEEE Standard 1057/94. Example outputs and explainations of these outputs to determine the important characteristics of the device under test. This application performs the calculations related to sine-fit tests and uses 4-parameter sine fit from IEEE Standard 1057-1994.

  15. IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY.

    This dictionary, prepared by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE), defines 13,000 technical words from every area of electrical and electronics engineering. The dictionary contains hundreds of new terms as well as revisions of earlier ones. Each definition is an official standard of IEEE. The definitions are arranged…

  16. IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY.

    This dictionary, prepared by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE), defines 13,000 technical words from every area of electrical and electronics engineering. The dictionary contains hundreds of new terms as well as revisions of earlier ones. Each definition is an official standard of IEEE. The definitions are arranged…

  17. CSP-IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference 2016 (IEEE 12MTC 2016)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-22

    publication criteria of IEEE. 14 Lessons Learned : 1. From statistic of paper submissions amount and the acceptance ratio , the results indicate that Italy...be provided (line i minus j) I NT$ 0 Prog ram Income: I. Total Federal program income earned 0 m. Program income expended in accordance with the...deduction alternative 0 n. Program income expended in accordance with the addition alternative n o. Unexpended p·ogram income (line I minus line m or

  18. Children's Rights: Television Programmes Aired in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…

  19. Sorting Citizens: Differentiated Citizenship Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Li-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Using Singapore as a case study, this paper examines how the discourses of democratic elitism and meritocracy help allocate different citizen roles to students and define the nature of the social studies citizenship education programmes for different educational tracks. While the Singapore education system is not unique in its stratification of…

  20. Innovation and Enterprise in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Ng Pak

    2004-01-01

    Schools in Singapore are now tasked to develop the spirit of innovation and enterprise in their students. This is in line with the national vision of "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation". This policy initiative, which began in 2004, is set to change the fundamental nature of education in Singapore. This article discusses the innovation…

  1. Integration of ICT into Education in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Horn Mun; Koh, Thiam Seng

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Singapore's use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to enhance its economic competitiveness and quality of life in the knowledge-based economy, describing the IT Masterplan in education; Singapore's education system; integration of ICT in primary through university education; preparing teachers for the ICT environment;…

  2. Mother Tongues, English, and Religion in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of the effect of religion on language use in Singapore. Data come from the Sociolinguistic Survey of Singapore, 2006, a large-scale language survey linked to follow-up studies. The conceptual framework was based upon Castells' idea of a new social order in the network society; the main research questions were…

  3. Singapore's E(Si)nglish-Knowing Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, Siew Kheng Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Singapore's bilingual policy and looks at how the government's top-down and structured language policy has transformed the country into an English-knowing society. Education and language-in-education planning in Singapore are linked closely to the country's economic development and nation-building process. This pair of…

  4. Singapore's Literacy Policy and Its Conflicting Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, Catherine Siew Kheng

    2004-01-01

    Singapore's leading literacy policy is affected by a tension between the ideologies associated with English and those attached to Singapore's mother tongues. Singaporeans must safeguard their heritages, keeping themselves open to the places where their ancestors came from by learning their designated mother tongues. At the same time, Singaporeans…

  5. Mother Tongues, English, and Religion in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of the effect of religion on language use in Singapore. Data come from the Sociolinguistic Survey of Singapore, 2006, a large-scale language survey linked to follow-up studies. The conceptual framework was based upon Castells' idea of a new social order in the network society; the main research questions were…

  6. Singapore's Global Schoolhouse Strategy: Retreat or Recalibration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In 2002 a high-level economic review committee recommended that Singapore position itself as a "global schoolhouse". An ambitious target was set to attract 150,000 international students to Singapore by 2015 and to lift the education sector's contribution to GDP from 1.9% to 5% in the same timeframe. The global schoolhouse was viewed as…

  7. Children's Rights: Television Programmes Aired in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…

  8. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  9. Teacher Perceptions of Games in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Elizabeth; Kin, Yeo Gee; Wadhwa, Bimlesh; Lim, John

    2012-01-01

    With the proliferation of entertainment games, supported by heavy investment in the underlying technologies, educators are now examining the educational values of gaming and attempting to incorporate games into their teaching. In Singapore, the game sector is worth many million Singapore dollars (SGDs), and gaming is an engaging activity of the…

  10. Singapore's E(Si)nglish-Knowing Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, Siew Kheng Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Singapore's bilingual policy and looks at how the government's top-down and structured language policy has transformed the country into an English-knowing society. Education and language-in-education planning in Singapore are linked closely to the country's economic development and nation-building process. This pair of…

  11. Overview of Vocational Training Programmes: Singapore Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Song Seng

    The history of technical and vocational education in Singapore goes back only to the mid-1960s, when it received attention in response to the policies of industrialization adopted when Singapore became an independent republic. Establishment of the Industrial Training Board (ITB) in 1973 was the first significant step toward formalizing vocational…

  12. Deep Culture Matters: Multiracialism in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Multiculturalism is more accurately described as "multiracialism" in Singapore as the government classifies everyone based on four racial identities according to one's paternal line: Chinese, Malay, Indian, and others. Exploring the principle and practice of multiracialism in Singapore schools, this article points out that the surface…

  13. Singapore's Global Schoolhouse Strategy: Retreat or Recalibration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In 2002 a high-level economic review committee recommended that Singapore position itself as a "global schoolhouse". An ambitious target was set to attract 150,000 international students to Singapore by 2015 and to lift the education sector's contribution to GDP from 1.9% to 5% in the same timeframe. The global schoolhouse was viewed as…

  14. Mathematics Curriculum in India and Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Seok Hoon; Thirumurthy, Vidya

    This paper compares and analyzes preschool mathematics education in Singapore and India in terms of strategies, learning activities, teacher expectations, and parental involvement. The paper describes the mathematics curriculum of one school in Erode, India, including teaching methods, and in Singapore. The results of a parent survey in each…

  15. Deep Culture Matters: Multiracialism in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Multiculturalism is more accurately described as "multiracialism" in Singapore as the government classifies everyone based on four racial identities according to one's paternal line: Chinese, Malay, Indian, and others. Exploring the principle and practice of multiracialism in Singapore schools, this article points out that the surface…

  16. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  17. Sorting Citizens: Differentiated Citizenship Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Li-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Using Singapore as a case study, this paper examines how the discourses of democratic elitism and meritocracy help allocate different citizen roles to students and define the nature of the social studies citizenship education programmes for different educational tracks. While the Singapore education system is not unique in its stratification of…

  18. Integration of ICT into Education in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Horn Mun; Koh, Thiam Seng

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Singapore's use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to enhance its economic competitiveness and quality of life in the knowledge-based economy, describing the IT Masterplan in education; Singapore's education system; integration of ICT in primary through university education; preparing teachers for the ICT environment;…

  19. Teacher Perceptions of Games in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Elizabeth; Kin, Yeo Gee; Wadhwa, Bimlesh; Lim, John

    2012-01-01

    With the proliferation of entertainment games, supported by heavy investment in the underlying technologies, educators are now examining the educational values of gaming and attempting to incorporate games into their teaching. In Singapore, the game sector is worth many million Singapore dollars (SGDs), and gaming is an engaging activity of the…

  20. Active Channel Reservation for Coexistence Mechanism (ACROS) for IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Soo Young; Woo, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Jong Wook; Park, Hong Seong; Kwon, Wook Hyun

    In this paper, a coexistence mechanism between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11b, Active Channel Reservation for cOexiStence (ACROS), is proposed. The key idea underlining ACROS is to reserve the channel for IEEE 802.15.4 transmission, where IEEE 802.11 transmissions are forbidden. The request-to-send (RTS)/clear-to send (CTS) mechanism within IEEE 802.11 is used to reserve a channel. The proposed ACROS mechanism is implemented into a PC based prototype. The embedded version of ACROS is also developed to mitigate the timing drift problem in the PC-based ACROS. The efficiency of ACROS is shown using the throughput and packet error rate achieved in actual experiments.

  1. Family Medicine Specialty in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Santosh Lional

    2013-01-01

    Family Medicine in Singapore has its roots in a generalist ethos and found its origin as a counter culture movement to the increasing sub-specialisation of medicine which resulted in a complex healthcare system where that patients are often cared for by multiple specialists potentially resulting in fragmentation of care. The aim of the discipline of Family Medicine was to train and develop more generalist physicians so as to promote holistic care. Family physicians are the largest pool of generalists who are trained to provide general medical care to patients in the context of the person, the family and the community that they live in. PMID:24479066

  2. The Singapore years and subsequently.

    PubMed

    Mahathir, M

    2005-07-01

    Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad was a medical student at the King Edward VII College of Medicine from 1947 to 1953. He described his student days with fondness; he made many friends while he was at the College. He recounted his early days as a doctor before he entered politics in 1964. He became the fourth and longest serving Prime Minister of Malaysia for 22 years from 1981 to 2003. He concluded "The contribution of my Medical College days in Singapore to the racial harmony, peace and prosperity of Malaysia is tangible but unquantifiable."

  3. The Singapore Mental Health Study: an overview of the methodology.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Heng, Derrick; Kwok, Kian Woon; Lim, Yee Wei; Yap, Mabel; Chong, Siow Ann

    2012-06-01

    The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) is a population-based, cross-sectional, epidemiological study on the Singapore multi-ethnic adult population. This article provides an overview of the research design and methods used which took into consideration the unique characteristics of the country and its multi-ethnic population. A face-to-face household survey of Singapore residents aged 18 years and above was undertaken from 2009 to 2010. The nationally representative probability sample was derived using a disproportionate stratified sampling method. In order to increase precision for subgroup estimations the design was stratified with over-sampling of Malays, Indians and those aged 65 years and above. Respondents were assessed using the English, Chinese (computerized) and Malay (paper and pencil based) version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 3.0 to establish lifetime and 12-month prevalence of mental disorders, the current use of mental health services (both Western and traditional services), the treatment gaps and loss of role functioning.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of heart disease among adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and it has been well established that it is associated with both mental and physical conditions. This paper describes the prevalence of heart disease with mental disorders and other chronic physical conditions among the Singapore resident population. Data were from the Singapore Mental Health Study which was a representative, cross-sectional epidemiological survey undertaken with 6616 Singapore residents, between December 2009 and December 2010. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 was used to establish the diagnosis of mental disorders, while a chronic medical conditions checklist was used to gather information on 15 physical conditions, including various forms of heart disease. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Euro-Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D). The lifetime prevalence of heart disease was 2.8%. Socio-demographic correlates of heart disease included older age, Indian ethnicity, secondary education (vs. tertiary) and being economically inactive. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and other comorbid physical and mental disorders, the prevalence of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder were significantly higher among those with heart disease, as were diabetes, arthritis, kidney failure and lung disease. These findings highlight important associations between heart disease and various socio-demographic correlates, mental disorders and physical conditions. Given the high prevalence of mood disorders among heart disease patients, timely and appropriate screening and treatment of mental disorders among this group is essential.

  5. Hepatitis B surveillance in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goh, K T

    1980-04-01

    257 cases of acute hepatitis B were reported between January 1977 and June 1979. This constituted about one-third of all reported acute viral hepatitis cases in Singapore. The mean annual morbidity and mortality rates per 100,000 was 4.4 and 0.12 respectively. The case-fatality rate was 2.7%. The age-specific morbidity rates were high in the 15-24 and 25-34 years age groups, while the ethnic specific morbidity rate was highest in Indians. The male to female ratio was 4.6: 1. Cases were concentrated in urban and suburban areas with high population density. Three outbreaks, one traced to contaminated needles and syringes, one to contaminated tattoo neeedles, and amongst close contacts, were described. Although parenteral procedures were associated with hepatitis B infection (p < 0.005), non-parenteral or inapparent parenteral mode of transmission probably contributes to a significant extent in the transmission of hepatitis B in Singapore. Studies to determine the role of perinatal transmission, and of vectors, in maintaining the endemicity of the disease, were suggested.

  6. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a) Definitions...

  7. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.706(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a) Definitions...

  8. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a) Definitions...

  9. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a) Definitions...

  10. Health burden associated with visual impairment in Singapore: the Singapore epidemiology of eye disease study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingzhi; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Zheng, Yingfeng; Ang, Marcus; Wong, Tien Yin; Luo, Nan

    2014-09-01

    To assess the impact of visual impairment (VI) on health-related quality of life and to compare the health burden of VI and other health conditions in Singapore. Population-based cross-sectional study. We studied the 10 009 adults (3353 Chinese, 3397 Indians, and 3259 Malays) who underwent a comprehensive eye assessment and completed the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Disease Study. We estimated the effects of VI, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia on the EQ-5D index score using linear regression models and the association between VI and self-reported EQ-5D health problems using logistic regression models. We compared prevalence-based quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) loss associated with VI and other health conditions. For each condition, QALY loss was calculated for 100 000 persons in 1 year using associated reduction in EQ-5D index score estimated in regression analysis as disutility. The EQ-5D index score and annual QALY loss. The EQ-5D index score decreased with increasing VI severity in all 3 ethnicities. For example, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, the difference in EQ-5D index score between adults with bilateral severe VI and those without VI was -0.044 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.089 to 0.001) in Chinese, -0.127 (95% CI, -0.237 to -0.017) in Indians, and -0.085 (95% CI, -0.148 to -0.022) in Malays. In all 3 ethnicities, VI was associated with reporting of problems in mobility (e.g., odds ratio [OR], 3.69 for Chinese with bilateral severe VI; 95% CI, 1.21-12.13) and usual activities (e.g., OR, 6.51 for Chinese with bilateral severe VI; 95% CI, 1.59-26.58). In Indians, VI was also associated with anxiety or depression (e.g., OR, 2.68 for bilateral severe VI; 95% CI, 1.11-6.50). The annual QALY loss associated with VI was 511.8 in Chinese, 608.8 in Indians, and 706.7 in Malays, greater than that associated with other health conditions examined in

  11. The evolution of sports medicine in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, Benedict

    2013-10-01

    Sports medicine is a relatively new subspecialty in Singapore. This commentary chronicles its evolution in Singapore from 1969, through various milestones, to the present day. The first sports medicine clinic in Singapore was established in 1971 at Farrer Park. Notable institutions that followed include the Sports Medicine and Research Centre (1973), Soldier Performance Centre, Changi Sports Medicine Centre (2003), Singapore Sports Medicine Centre (2006), and other multidisciplinary centres of restructured hospitals. Formal groundwork to establish sports medicine as a subspecialty began in 2005, with its first trainee commencing traineeship at the Changi Sports Medicine Centre in 2007, and culminated in the subspecialty register at the beginning of 2011. Also captured in this discussion are the broader scopes of sports medicine, including military sports medicine, the sports sciences, exercise medicine, and event medical coverage.

  12. A brief history of psychiatry in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, B-Y; Chee, K-T

    2006-08-01

    The development of psychiatric services in Singapore during the last 150 years can be divided into four distinct, albeit overlapping, phases: (1) the origins of the Lunatic Asylum; (2) the interruption caused by the Japanese Occupation, and the post-war years; (3) the training of local psychiatrists and mental health professionals; and (4) the development of general hospital psychiatry and community mental health services. Early psychiatry in Singapore was essentially British psychiatry as an outpost but modified by local conditions. Modern psychiatry in Singapore has its roots in Singapore's colonial past and is strongly influenced by Western psychiatry. It has come a long way since its humble beginnings when the first mental hospital was established in 1841.

  13. Singapore-US Strategic Dialogue on Biosecurity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    infectious disease outbreaks with epidemic potential, as Singapore is an island with heavy, daily traffic as a result of trade, tourism , and workers...geography—Singapore is an island with heavy, daily traffic as a result of trade, tourism , and workers from Indonesia and Malaysia. The American...Department of Health and Human Services, and the Department of Homeland Security. Notwithstanding the differences in each nation’s motivations to

  14. Smoke Engulfs Singapore [high res

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    On June 19, 2013, NASA’s Aqua satellite captured a striking image of smoke billowing from illegal wildfires on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. The smoke blew east toward southern Malaysia and Singapore, and news media reported that thick clouds of haze had descended on Singapore, pushing pollution levels to record levels. Singapore’s primary measure of pollution, the Pollutant Standards Index (PSI)—a uniform measure of key pollutants similar to the Air Quality Index (AQI) used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency—spiked to 371 on the afternoon of June 20, 2013, the highest level ever recorded. The previous record occurred in 1997, when the index hit 226. Health experts consider any level above 300 to be “hazardous” to human health. Levels above 200 are considered “very unhealthy.” The image above was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), an instrument that observes the entire surface of Earth’s every 1 to 2 days. The image was captured during the afternoon at 6:30 UTC (2:30 p.m. local time). Though local laws prohibit it, farmers in Sumatra often burn forests during the dry season to prepare soil for new crops. The BBC reported that Singapore’s Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong warned that the haze could “easily last for several weeks and quite possibly longer until the dry season ends in Sumatra.” NASA image by Jeff Schmaltz, LANCE/EOSDIS Rapid Response. Caption by Adam Voiland. Credit: NASA Earth Observatory Instrument: Aqua - MODIS NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  15. Examining Students' Affective Commitment toward Country: A Case Study of a Singapore Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine students' affective commitment toward Singapore. Affective commitment refers to the sense of attachment to the nation state. The sample was taken from 286 students in a primary school. In the first section of the paper, we described the design of a Likert-type Affective Commitment to Country questionnaire.…

  16. Mass Communication in Singapore: An Annotated Bibliography. Asian Mass Communication Bibliography Series 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espejo, Cristina Y., Ed.; Fontgalland, Guy de, Ed.

    This bibliography lists and describes published and unpublished material relating to mass communications in Singapore, from 1945 to 1973. Most of the items listed are written in English; a limited number are in Chinese. The bibliography is divided into 18 sections: bibliography and reference material; communication theory and research methods;…

  17. Delay Analysis of GTS Bridging between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11 Networks for Healthcare Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mišić, Jelena; (Sherman) Shen, Xuemin

    2009-01-01

    We consider interconnection of IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled network cluster with IEEE 802.11b network. This scenario is important in healthcare applications where IEEE 802.15.4 nodes comprise patient's body area network (BAN) and are involved in sensing some health-related data. BAN nodes have very short communication range in order to avoid harming patient's health and save energy. Sensed data needs to be transmitted to an access point in the ward room using wireless technology with higher transmission range and rate such as IEEE 802.11b. We model the interconnected network where IEEE 802.15.4-based BAN operates in guaranteed time slot (GTS) mode, and IEEE 802.11b part of the bridge conveys GTS superframe to the 802.11b access point. We then analyze the network delays. Performance analysis is performed using EKG traffic from continuous telemetry, and we discuss the delays of communication due the increasing number of patients. PMID:19107184

  18. Delay Analysis of GTS Bridging between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11 Networks for Healthcare Applications.

    PubMed

    Misić, Jelena; Sherman Shen, Xuemin

    2009-01-01

    We consider interconnection of IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled network cluster with IEEE 802.11b network. This scenario is important in healthcare applications where IEEE 802.15.4 nodes comprise patient's body area network (BAN) and are involved in sensing some health-related data. BAN nodes have very short communication range in order to avoid harming patient's health and save energy. Sensed data needs to be transmitted to an access point in the ward room using wireless technology with higher transmission range and rate such as IEEE 802.11b. We model the interconnected network where IEEE 802.15.4-based BAN operates in guaranteed time slot (GTS) mode, and IEEE 802.11b part of the bridge conveys GTS superframe to the 802.11b access point. We then analyze the network delays. Performance analysis is performed using EKG traffic from continuous telemetry, and we discuss the delays of communication due the increasing number of patients.

  19. The Singapore Global Schoolhouse: An Analysis of the Development of the Tertiary Education Landscape in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee; Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to analyse the Singapore government's recent attempt to make Singapore a "Global Schoolhouse" by transforming its tertiary education sector. It aims to examine the government's attempt to promote greater diversity and autonomy in the tertiary education landscape; it also aims to examine the government's systems…

  20. The Singapore Global Schoolhouse: An Analysis of the Development of the Tertiary Education Landscape in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee; Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to analyse the Singapore government's recent attempt to make Singapore a "Global Schoolhouse" by transforming its tertiary education sector. It aims to examine the government's attempt to promote greater diversity and autonomy in the tertiary education landscape; it also aims to examine the government's systems…

  1. After Effectiveness: New Directions in the Singapore School System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Leslie; Gopinathan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes extensive, globalization-responsive educational reforms in Singapore using certain models of national economic development. Assesses likelihood of the reforms succeeding within the context of Singapore's political culture. (Contains 44 references.) (PKP)

  2. Breast cancer in Singapore: some perspectives.

    PubMed

    Jara-Lazaro, Ana Richelia; Thilagaratnam, Shyamala; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy among Singapore women, accounting for 29.7% of all female cancers, with an age-standardized rate of 54.9 per 100,000 per year. It has been the most frequent cancer in Singapore women for the last 30 years, with the highest rates previously reported in those aged between 45 and 49 years, but with a more recent observation of a change in peak age group to women in their late 50s. About 1,100 new cases are diagnosed annually and approximately 270 women die in Singapore each year from breast cancer. In the multiethnic population of Singapore, it has been noted that rising breast cancer incidence is consistent across all three ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Indians). Singapore has among the highest breast cancer incidence in Asia. Possible explanations include rapid urbanization, improvement in socio-economic status, and adoption of a western lifestyle. Our experience with the Singapore breast screening pilot project (1994-1997) and the national breast-screening program (BreastScreen Singapore) has led to increased understanding of this disease in the country. Data from the pilot project showed that breast screening is just as effective in a predominantly Asian population as in the west. Early breast cancer accounted for most breast cancers detected, with pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) comprising 26% of all screen-detected cancers in the pilot study. In the currently on-going BreastScreen Singapore, DCIS forms >30% of all breast cancers among pre-menopausal women, a relatively high proportion probably accounted for partially by the greater participation of women aged between 40 and 49 years. Despite the ready availability of subsidized mammographic screening, there are still women in Singapore who present with locally advanced breast cancer. Clinical management of an increasing number of women with breast cancer embraces a multidisciplinary team-based approach, with regular discussions of therapeutic

  3. Islam and Citizenship Education in Singapore: Challenges and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    The religious diversity of Singapore, coupled with the current phenomenon of Islamic revivalism, makes the management of religion a paramount concern for the Singapore government. By examining the developments of Islam in Singapore, this article explores the challenges and implications these developments have on citizenship education in the…

  4. Mother Tongue Education in Singapore: Concerns, Issues and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In 1966, the Singapore Government implemented the English-knowing bilingual policy which made it mandatory for all Chinese students to study English as a "First Language" and the Chinese language (CL) as a "Mother Tongue Language" in Singapore schools. Using key literature relevant to Singapore's bilingual educational policy…

  5. Mother Tongue Education in Singapore: Concerns, Issues and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In 1966, the Singapore Government implemented the English-knowing bilingual policy which made it mandatory for all Chinese students to study English as a "First Language" and the Chinese language (CL) as a "Mother Tongue Language" in Singapore schools. Using key literature relevant to Singapore's bilingual educational policy…

  6. Moving towards Quality Physical Education: Physical Education Provision in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Michael; Lim, Boon San Coral; Wang, Chee Keng John; Tan, Wee Keat Clara; MacPhail, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the provision of physical education (PE) in Singapore. Singapore is a small island city state of approximately 699 square kilometres with a population of about 4 million people. This article aims to highlight the current status of PE in Singapore schools and compare it against suggested international standards and…

  7. 1991 IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Singapore, Nov. 18-21, 1991, Proceedings. Vols. 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The present conference the application of neural networks to associative memories, neurorecognition, hybrid systems, supervised and unsupervised learning, image processing, neurophysiology, sensation and perception, electrical neurocomputers, optimization, robotics, machine vision, sensorimotor control systems, and neurodynamics. Attention is given to such topics as optimal associative mappings in recurrent networks, self-improving associative neural network models, fuzzy activation functions, adaptive pattern recognition with sparse associative networks, efficient question-answering in a hybrid system, the use of abstractions by neural networks, remote-sensing pattern classification, speech recognition with guided propagation, inverse-step competitive learning, and rotational quadratic function neural networks. Also discussed are electrical load forecasting, evolutionarily stable and unstable strategies, the capacity of recurrent networks, neural net vs control theory, perceptrons for image recognition, storage capacity of bidirectional associative memories, associative random optimization for control, automatic synthesis of digital neural architectures, self-learning robot vision, and the associative dynamics of chaotic neural networks.

  8. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  9. Implicit Block ACK Scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    PubMed Central

    Sthapit, Pranesh; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    The throughput of IEEE 802.11 standard is significantly bounded by the associated Medium Access Control (MAC) overhead. Because of the overhead, an upper limit exists for throughput, which is bounded, including situations where data rates are extremely high. Therefore, an overhead reduction is necessary to achieve higher throughput. The IEEE 802.11e amendment introduced the block ACK mechanism, to reduce the number of control messages in MAC. Although the block ACK scheme greatly reduces overhead, further improvements are possible. In this letter, we propose an implicit block ACK method that further reduces the overhead associated with IEEE 802.11e’s block ACK scheme. The mathematical analysis results are presented for both the original protocol and the proposed scheme. A performance improvement of greater than 10% was achieved with the proposed implementation.

  10. Normative data on functional grip strength of elderly in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Mat Jais, Ita Suzana; Chan, Kai Li; Loke, Mun Kitt Austin; Abdul Rahim, Saleem; Tay, Shian Chao

    2017-02-21

    Cross-sectional study for clinical measurement. Most daily tasks require individuals to exert grip strength with torque, which can be challenging for elderly as their strength diminishes with age. We postulate that to assess the functional capacity of an individual, it is important to evaluate the functional grip strength instead of the maximal static grip strength. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to establish normative data for the functional grip strength of elderly aged 60 years and older in the Singapore population. In this study, 233 healthy subjects aged 60 years and older were recruited. Using a custom-made hand strength measurement device, the following measurements were recorded: grip strength at neutral position, grip strength with resistive pronation torque, and grip strength with resistive supination torque. Grip strengths measured for both genders decreased by 13% and 16% for males and females respectively, when pronation torque was exerted, and with supination torque, the strength decreased by 18% and 17% for males and females respectively. Normative data for the elderly population in Singapore had been established. The findings from this study can complement the existing ergonomic hand data in designing better assistive tools to improve the independent living of elderly. NA. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bell's palsy in Singapore: a view from the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Charn, Tze Choong; Subramaniam, Somasundaram; Yuen, Heng-Wai

    2013-02-01

    Bell's palsy is a well-recognised disease with robust research on its possible aetiologies and epidemiology, but scant information on patients' concerns and concepts regarding the condition is available. We aimed to evaluate the ideas, concerns and expectations of patients with Bell's palsy in Singapore. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a single tertiary-care hospital in Singapore. Participants were all patients with newly diagnosed Bell's palsy referred to the otolaryngology department either from the emergency department or by general practitioners. Participants were given a self-administered questionnaire and their facial nerve palsies were graded by the consultant doctor. A total of 52 patients were recruited, of which 41 were available for analysis. 78.0% of patients were concerned that they were having a stroke upon presentation of the symptoms. Other beliefs about the cause of the disease included overwork or stress (36.6%), something that the patient had eaten (9.8%) and supernatural forces (2.4%). About 50% of patients had tried some form of complementary or alternative therapy other than the steroids/medicines prescribed by their general practitioner or emergency physician. While 39.0% of patients agreed that the Internet had helped them understand more about their condition in addition to the information provided by the physician, 9.8% of them specifically disagreed with this statement. We have found that patients with Bell's palsy in Singapore are not very knowledgeable about the disease. Although the Internet is a useful resource, a physician's explanation of the disease and its natural progression remains of utmost importance.

  12. System Behavior Specification Using IEEE Std 1175.4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-27

    22nd Annual Systems & Software Technology Conference S stem Beha ior Specification1 7 y v Using IEEE Std 1175.4 e v i e w 5 2 8 1 2 R 27 April...DATE 27 APR 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE System Behavior Specification Using IEEE Std ...RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std

  13. IEEE 1547 Series of Standards: Interconnection Issues; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2003-09-01

    IEEE 1547TM 2003 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems is the first in the 1547 series of planned interconnection standards. Major issues and a wealth of constructive dialogue arose during 1547 development. There was also a perceived increased vitality in updating complementary IEEE standards and developing additional standards to accommodate modern electrical and electronics systems and improved grid communications and operations. Power engineers and other stakeholders looking to the future are poised to incorporate 1547 into their knowledge base to help transform our nation's aging distribution systems while alleviating some of the burden on existing transmission systems.

  14. Global health: challenges and opportunities for Singapore.

    PubMed

    Jahncke, E; Lim, M K; Seow, A; Chia, K S; Wilder-Smith, A

    2010-07-01

    Over the past decade, global health has evolved from a buzzword to a discipline, attracting interest from governments, academic institutions and funding organisations. Global health centres, institutes and initiatives in Western countries have increased in both size and number, aided primarily by institutional backing and supportive funding mechanisms. As the rise to prominence of global health on the public health agenda also coincides with shifts in global balances of power, Asia, as well as Singapore, has an expanded role to play in supporting global health teaching and research, both in the region and throughout the world. Foundations, universities, government agencies, statutory boards and the private sector all have an important role to play in moving the global health agenda forward in Singapore. Rigorous global health training and increased funding for global health research are now timely and essential in order for global health, as a discipline, to develop within Singapore and have an impact within the region.

  15. National Cancer Center Singapore: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Teo, Melissa; Soo, Khee Chee

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Singapore, comprising almost 30% of annual deaths. The incidence and prevalence continue to rise, resulting in Singapore having the highest age-standardized rate of cancer in southeast Asia. A review of national health policies in 1992 resulted in the creation of a National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS) in 1999. The current NCCS, with its three pillars of clinical service, research and education, manages about 70% of all new cancer cases in the countries public healthcare system. As it outgrows its current outfit and looks to the new NCCS building in 2020, the goal must be for strategic planning to attract and retain the best minds and heart in the field of cancer if it were to continue to be successful in achieving its vision and mission. This article chronicles the NCCS's history and details the foundation of its strategic plans.

  16. Specialty and Systems Engineering Supplement to IEEE 15288.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-28

    SMC Tailoring SMC-T-006 28 August 2017 ------------------------ Supersedes: SMC-T-006 (2015) Air Force Space Command... SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER TAILORING SPECIALTY AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING SUPPLEMENT TO IEEE-15288.1 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC...is critical to high-reliability space systems for optimizing total system performance and total ownership costs, while ensuring that the system is

  17. Eleanor McElwee and the Formation of IEEE PCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the historical professional project that created the Institute of Radio Engineers' Professional Group on Engineering Writing an Speech (IRE PGEWS)--now called the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' Professional Communication Society (IEEE PCS)--and recounts the group's early history in detail. It also traces…

  18. Eleanor McElwee and the Formation of IEEE PCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the historical professional project that created the Institute of Radio Engineers' Professional Group on Engineering Writing an Speech (IRE PGEWS)--now called the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' Professional Communication Society (IEEE PCS)--and recounts the group's early history in detail. It also traces…

  19. Hormone metabolism genes and mammographic density in Singapore Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunjung; Su, Yu-Chen; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Hsu, Chris; Van den Berg, David; Ursin, Giske; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Stram, Daniel O.; Yu, Mimi C.; Wu, Anna H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Female steroid hormone levels and exogenous hormone use influence breast cancer risk. We investigated the association between genetic variation in the hormone metabolism and signaling pathway and mammographic density (MD), a strong predictor of breast cancer risk. Methods We genotyped 161 SNPs in 15 hormone metabolism pathway gene regions and evaluated MD in 2,038 Singapore Chinese women. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate SNP-MD association. An overall pathway summary was obtained using the adaptive ranked truncated product test. Results We did not find any of the individually tested SNPs to be associated with MD after a multiple testing correction. There was no evidence of an overall effect on MD of genetic variation in the hormone metabolism pathway. Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, genetic variation in hormone metabolism pathway was not associated with MD in Singapore Chinese women. Impact Consistent with existing data from Caucasian populations, polymorphisms in hormone pathway genes are not likely to be strong predictors of MD in Asian women. PMID:23429186

  20. Geography's Place in Higher Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Lily

    2007-01-01

    Unlike the other papers in this symposium, which deal with countries where there are large numbers of universities, and comparison can be made over time and across space of geography's place in higher education, this paper focuses on a country that was for a long time described as a "one-university town": Singapore. What interesting…

  1. Education and Intergenerational Mobility in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Irene Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    International research on the effects of educational regimes on intergenerational mobility suggests that Singapore's education system possesses characteristics that tend to decrease intergenerational mobility. These characteristics include ability-based and school-based streaming, privatization of basic and tertiary education, expansion of…

  2. Studying Overseas: Mainland Chinese Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Leong, Jason Ong Soon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study aimed at developing a substantive theory on the perspectives of Mainland Chinese studying in Singaporean universities. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) Why do university students from Mainland China choose to study in Singapore? and (2) How do Mainland Chinese university students manage the experience…

  3. The Particle "ya" in Colloquial Singapore English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    It has been recently argued that the particles in Colloquial Singapore English (CSE) constitute a grammatical category that actively draws new members to it. Drawing on distributional and collocational evidence, this paper establishes that CSE has a new particle, "ya". The paper then proceeds to analyse the discourse pragmatic function…

  4. Stakeholders' Perceptions of School Counselling in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Poi Kee

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study that set out to understand stakeholders' perception of the school counselling service in Singapore. Using semi-structured interviews, this study explored the perceptions of three main stakeholder groups, namely teachers and counsellors working within the schools and those working in the communities.…

  5. Listening to Estuary English in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deterding, David

    2005-01-01

    In Singapore, many people are not familiar with Estuary English (EE), the variety of English becoming popular in much of southern England. In the current study, when students listened to interviews with EE speakers and were asked to transcribe orthographically what they heard, most of them had severe problems. Features of pronunciation that…

  6. Multilingualism and Social Identity in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the results of a questionnaire designed to determine how multilingual speakers in the Singapore context express their social identities through language; how they relate to their languages; and how they perceive the various English accents to which they are exposed. (34 references) (VWL)

  7. Emerging Education Hubs: The Case of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder; Ho, K.-C.; Yeoh, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    In anticipation of a globalising post-Fordist political economy, countries and universities are increasingly pursuing strategic transnational education and research alliances. This article analyses the Global Schoolhouse, a key education policy platform that aims to transform Singapore into a knowledge and innovation hub by establishing networks…

  8. Moral Education in Singapore: A Critical Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Tan Tai

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that moral education in Singapore has been aimed pragmatically at forging together, by shared values, the four major racial and cultural communities of that nation. Maintains that moral education also has been used to preserve a cultural and national identity against the perceived erosion of Asian roots by Western education. (ACM)

  9. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  10. Television Ads in Singapore: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehman, Sharaf N.; Aw, Annette; Kennan, William

    1999-01-01

    Appraises the information content of Singapore television advertising, and makes a comparison with relevant United States findings. Research reported in this paper is a replication of two empirical studies of the informational content of television advertising in the United States from 1977. (Author/LRW)

  11. Promoting Action Research in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Background: In 2005, the North Zone Clusters of Schools made action research their niche development project with the aim of equipping the teachers with conceptual understanding and skills in conducting action research. Training workshops were mounted in seven centres. This is the first time action research is promoted en mass among Singapore as a…

  12. Physical Education and Health in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Michael C.; Fry, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    As a school subject, physical education (PE) in Singapore took on its own shape with the introduction of a conceptual games teaching approach in response to the national government's "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation" policy of the late 1990s. With the recent media attention on hosting two main international events (Asian Youth Games…

  13. Teachers' Experience with Inclusive Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Chong, Wan Har; Neihart, Maureen F.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' positive attitude is most critically and consistently associated with successful inclusion. However, little is known about teachers' first-hand encounters with inclusive education in Singapore. We present findings from a qualitative study on inclusion based on focus group interviews with 202 teachers from 41 resourced primary schools.…

  14. Stakeholders' Perceptions of School Counselling in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Poi Kee

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study that set out to understand stakeholders' perception of the school counselling service in Singapore. Using semi-structured interviews, this study explored the perceptions of three main stakeholder groups, namely teachers and counsellors working within the schools and those working in the communities.…

  15. Education and Intergenerational Mobility in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Irene Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    International research on the effects of educational regimes on intergenerational mobility suggests that Singapore's education system possesses characteristics that tend to decrease intergenerational mobility. These characteristics include ability-based and school-based streaming, privatization of basic and tertiary education, expansion of…

  16. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN SINGAPORE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    IN 1964 SINGAPORE HAD A POPULATION OF 1,844,200. EDUCATION IS FREE FOR THE 6 PRIMARY YEARS. SUCCESSFUL STUDENTS ATTEND AN ACADEMIC SECONDARY, A SECONDARY COMMERCIAL, OR A SECONDARY TECHNICAL SCHOOL. A 2-YEAR PREUNIVERSITY, A POLYTECHNIC, AND A TEACHERS' COLLEGE ARE ALSO AVAILABLE. UNSUCCESSFUL PRIMARY STUDENTS RECEIVE 2 YEARS ADDITIONAL WORK AT A…

  17. Singapore Students' Misconceptions of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chew-Hung; Pascua, Liberty

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is an important theme in the investigation of human-environment interactions in geographic education. This study explored the nature of students' understanding of concepts and processes related to climate change. Through semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 27 Secondary 3 (Grade 9) students from Singapore. The data…

  18. Globalisation of Language and Culture in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti

    2007-01-01

    What are the effects of globalisation on patterns of language use in the domain of media in Singapore? Rather than only cultural imperialism of hegemonic English, which is no doubt the case, the use of languages in the "mediascap" also shows the consumption of non-English languages and cultures. Though English may be the main language of…

  19. Physical Education and Health in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Michael C.; Fry, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    As a school subject, physical education (PE) in Singapore took on its own shape with the introduction of a conceptual games teaching approach in response to the national government's "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation" policy of the late 1990s. With the recent media attention on hosting two main international events (Asian Youth Games…

  20. Television Ads in Singapore: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehman, Sharaf N.; Aw, Annette; Kennan, William

    1999-01-01

    Appraises the information content of Singapore television advertising, and makes a comparison with relevant United States findings. Research reported in this paper is a replication of two empirical studies of the informational content of television advertising in the United States from 1977. (Author/LRW)

  1. Globalisation of Language and Culture in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti

    2007-01-01

    What are the effects of globalisation on patterns of language use in the domain of media in Singapore? Rather than only cultural imperialism of hegemonic English, which is no doubt the case, the use of languages in the "mediascap" also shows the consumption of non-English languages and cultures. Though English may be the main language of…

  2. Gender Representation in Geography: Singapore. Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeoh, Brenda S. A.; Huang, Shirlena; Wong, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    In Singapore, geography emerged as a strongly masculinist university discipline during the interwar years under colonial rule. Localizing staff hires in the postcolonial era did not immediately produce gender-balanced staff profiles. Instead, a more equitable gender representation was achieved only in the last decade, following the increasing…

  3. Research on Vocational Behavior: The Singapore Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Esther

    1998-01-01

    This review of vocational psychology research in Singapore, 1985 to 1997, addresses career development, interests, sex stereotypes, work values, job satisfaction, and home/family influence. The review shows an increase in research on school-aged populations and a need to study the vocational behavior of the work force. (SK)

  4. Teachers' Experience with Inclusive Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Chong, Wan Har; Neihart, Maureen F.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' positive attitude is most critically and consistently associated with successful inclusion. However, little is known about teachers' first-hand encounters with inclusive education in Singapore. We present findings from a qualitative study on inclusion based on focus group interviews with 202 teachers from 41 resourced primary schools.…

  5. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  6. Singapore Students' Misconceptions of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chew-Hung; Pascua, Liberty

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is an important theme in the investigation of human-environment interactions in geographic education. This study explored the nature of students' understanding of concepts and processes related to climate change. Through semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 27 Secondary 3 (Grade 9) students from Singapore. The data…

  7. Studying Overseas: Mainland Chinese Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Leong, Jason Ong Soon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study aimed at developing a substantive theory on the perspectives of Mainland Chinese studying in Singaporean universities. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) Why do university students from Mainland China choose to study in Singapore? and (2) How do Mainland Chinese university students manage the experience…

  8. Language Shift in a Singapore Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Anthea Fraser; Yeok, Siew Pui

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the major language shift in Singapore from the familial use of varieties of Chinese other than Mandarin towards the languages of education, English and Mandarin. An ethnographic study is presented of a Singaporean Chinese family that has moved from Cantonese to English, and the underlying pressures leading to this shift are examined. (19…

  9. Listening to Estuary English in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deterding, David

    2005-01-01

    In Singapore, many people are not familiar with Estuary English (EE), the variety of English becoming popular in much of southern England. In the current study, when students listened to interviews with EE speakers and were asked to transcribe orthographically what they heard, most of them had severe problems. Features of pronunciation that…

  10. Compulsory Education in Singapore--Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Compulsory education was legislated in Singapore in 2000. This came several decades after the attainment of universal primary education and after numerous assertions on the part of the government that such legislation was unnecessary. Also interesting is that the period of compulsory education was limited to six years. The article discusses the…

  11. Microsporidial Keratoconjunctivitis after Rugby Tournament, Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Phoebe; Lai, Yingqi; Hishamuddin, Pengiran; Tay, Joanne; Tan, Ai Ling; Chan, Kian Sing; Lin, Raymond; Tan, Donald; Cutter, Jeffery; Goh, Kee Tai

    2013-01-01

    We investigated an outbreak of 47 probable and 6 confirmed cases of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis involving participants of an international rugby tournament in Singapore in April 2012.The mode of transmission was eye contact with soil. Vittaforma corneae was identified in 4 of 6 corneal scrapings and in 1 of 12 soil water samples. PMID:23965938

  12. Is mindfulness associated with stress and burnout among mental health professionals in Singapore?

    PubMed

    Yang, Suyi; Meredith, Pamela; Khan, Asaduzzaman

    2016-08-19

    High levels of stress and burnout have been reported among mental health professionals worldwide, including Singapore, with concerning potential implications for the quality of patient care. Mindfulness has been associated with decreased stress and burnout; however, associations between mindfulness, stress, and burnout have not been examined in Singapore. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mindfulness is associated with stress and burnout among healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore. A total of 224 Singaporean mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey which included measures of: mindfulness (observe, describe, act with awareness, non-judge, and non-react), stress, and burnout (exhaustion and disengagement). Using multiple regression, significant negative associations were found between each of the mindfulness facets and: stress, exhaustion, and disengagement, while controlling for years of experience. Of the five mindfulness facets, act with awareness demonstrated the strongest negative association with all three variables. This study showed that mental health professionals in Singapore who have higher levels of mindfulness also have lower levels stress and burnout (disengagement and exhaustion). Future longitudinal research is warranted to better understand the directionality of these associations, with implications for the development of interventions aimed to reduce stress and burnout within this population.

  13. Radio Frequency Fingerprinting Techniques Through Preamble Modification in IEEE 802.11B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-30

    David Bull, and Joseph McGeehan. “A Comparison of the HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a Wireless LAN Standards”, Communications Magazine , IEEE , vol. 40, no...RADIO FREQUENCY FINGERPRINTING TECHNIQUES THROUGH PREAMBLE MODIFICATION IN IEEE 802.11B THESIS Nicholas J. Kulesza, Captain, USAF AFIT–ENG–T–14–J–8...MODIFICATION IN IEEE 802.11B THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management

  14. Environmental concerns and diet in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Jeitner, Chris; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-08-08

    Many factors affect how people perceive the world and their environment, and how such perceptions affect lifestyle decisions, yet the relationship between personal perceptions about environmental hazards and diet is rarely examined. In this study, environmental concerns on a local and global scale were examined, along with dietary patterns, to determine if there were associations and age-related differences. The hypothesis that concerns about water pollution might be reflected in choices about seafood consumption was examined. Many aspects of dietary choices varied significantly by age, including (1) younger people ate more "fast food" than others, (2) subjects aged 22-32 yr ate more meals in restaurants than older or younger people, (3) older individuals drank more tea than younger subjects, while younger people drank more soda than older people, and (4) there were few significant differences in total fish and shellfish meals, although young people ate more meals of other types of meat. Individuals who rated their health the best reported significantly fewer seafood meals than others. People who listed pollution as the major environmental problem did not consume seafood less often than others. While pollution was listed as the most important environmental problem globally, people distinguished between air and water pollution only for Singapore. Although Singapore, with its rapidly expanding economy, has reason to be concerned about both water and air pollution, only 14% of those listing pollution as the main Singapore environmental problem mentioned "water pollution." Singapore has been able to take measures to reduce water pollution from internal sources. Respondents considered air pollution a greater problem, perhaps reflecting recent haze disasters from deliberately set forest fires in Indonesia, which are beyond the direct control of Singapore or Singaporeans.

  15. Commanding and Controlling Satellite Clusters (IEEE Intelligent Systems, November/December 2000)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    the process of updating flight software and removes the complexity associated with software 8 IEEE INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS Commanding and controlling...experimental results. Data center customers range from mission planners and 12 IEEE INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS Figure 4. Ground station GUI. Satellite...following (for each satellite in the cluster): • relative position, • relative velocity, • absolute position, • absolute velocity, 10 IEEE INTELLIGENT

  16. An IEEE 1451.1 Architecture for ISHM Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Jon A.; Turowski, Mark; Schmalzel, John L.; Figueroa, Jorge F.

    2007-01-01

    The IEEE 1451.1 Standard for a Smart Transducer Interface defines a common network information model for connecting and managing smart elements in control and data acquisition networks using network-capable application processors (NCAPs). The Standard is a network-neutral design model that is easily ported across operating systems and physical networks for implementing complex acquisition and control applications by simply plugging in the appropriate network level drivers. To simplify configuration and tracking of transducer and actuator details, the family of 1451 standards defines a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) that is associated with each physical element. The TEDS contains all of the pertinent information about the physical operations of a transducer (such as operating regions, calibration tables, and manufacturer information), which the NCAP uses to configure the system to support a specific transducer. The Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) group at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has been developing an ISHM architecture that utilizes IEEE 1451.1 as the primary configuration and data acquisition mechanism for managing and collecting information from a network of distributed intelligent sensing elements. This work has involved collaboration with other NASA centers, universities and aerospace industries to develop IEEE 1451.1 compliant sensors and interfaces tailored to support health assessment of complex systems. This paper and presentation describe the development and implementation of an interface for the configuration, management and communication of data, information and knowledge generated by a distributed system of IEEE 1451.1 intelligent elements monitoring a rocket engine test system. In this context, an intelligent element is defined as one incorporating support for the IEEE 1451.x standards and additional ISHM functions. Our implementation supports real-time collection of both measurement data (raw ADC counts and

  17. IEEE P1547 Series of Standards for Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T. S.; DeBlasio, R.

    2003-05-01

    The IEEE P1547 Standard For Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems is the first in the P1547 series of planned interconnection standards, and additional standards are needed. There are major issues and obstacles to an orderly transition to the use and integration of distributed power resources with electric power systems (grid or utility grid). The lack of uniform national interconnection standards and tests for interconnection operation and certification-as well as the lack of uniform national building, electrical, and safety codes-is understood, and resolving this needs reasonable lead time to develop and promulgate consensus. The P1547 standard is a benchmark milestone for the IEEE standards consensus process and successfully demonstrates a model for ongoing success in the development of further national standards and for moving forward in modernizing our nation's electric power system.

  18. Computer aided coordination of line protection schemes IEEE committee report

    SciTech Connect

    Postforoosh, J.M.; Akamine, J.; Banerjee, H.N.; Cornelison, J.R.; Enns, M.K.; Grier, S.E.; Hass, R.W.; Hasenwinkle, I.O.; Johnson, R.W.; Mozina, C.J.; Ramaswami, R.; Smith, H.S.; Taylor, R.P.; Turley, J.R.; Zipp, J.A.

    1991-04-01

    IEEE PSRC working group on Computer Aided Coordination of Line Protection Schemes was established in 1985 to investigate the application of computers to the task of setting and verifying the setting of line protective devices. This report provides the findings of the working group regarding functional requirements of the data base, software, and hardware for this system as well as the methods of presenting the results to the protection engineer.

  19. Performance of IEEE 1588 in Large-Scale Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    commercially available Syn1588 network cards from Oregano Systems. They not only feature an IEEE 1588 hardware timestamper, but also a 1 PPS output...of the measurements, which are done per default once a second, can be removed considering the short-term stability of the oscillator. As the Oregano ...PTTI) Meeting 76 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to thank Julien Ridoux, the University of Melbourne, Oregano Systems, and Meinberg for

  20. Differences in body composition between Singapore Chinese, Beijing Chinese and Dutch children.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg, P; Deurenberg-Yap, M; Foo, L F; Schmidt, G; Wang, J

    2003-03-01

    To compare the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) in children of different ethnic background. Cross-sectional observational study. The study was performed in three different locations, Singapore, Beijing and Wageningen (The Netherlands). In each centre 25 boys and 25 girls, aged 7-12 y, were selected. They were matched on age, sex and body height. Body weight and body height was measured following standardized procedures. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight/height squared (kg/m(2)). Body fat was measured by densitometry in Beijing and Wageningen and by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in Singapore. The DXA measurements in Singapore were validated against densitometry. There were no significant differences in BF% or BMI within each gender group across the three study sites. However, after controlling for (non-significant) differences in age and BF%, the Singapore children had a lower (mean+/-s.e.) BMI (15.6+/-0.3) than the Beijing 17.6+/-0.3) and Wageningen (16.9+/-0.3) children. For the same BMI, age and sex the Singapore children had a significant higher BF% (24.6+/-0.7) than the Beijing (19.2+/-0.8) and Wageningen (20.3+/-0.7) children. The study strongly suggests that the relationship between BF% and BMI (or weight and height) is different among children of different ethnic background. Consequently growth charts and BMI cut-off points for underweight, overweight and obesity in children may have to be ethnic-specific.

  1. Selective Bibliography about Education and Training in Library and Information Science in PR China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, H.-R.; Meis, Nicola

    This selective bibliography lists 66 items published from 1980 until 1989 on education, training, and continuing education in library and information science and documentation in the Chinese-speaking countries, i.e., the People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore. The document is divided into 10 sections: (1) a preface (in…

  2. Validity of the Associated Symptom Criteria for Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Observations From the Singapore Mental Health Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siau Pheng; Ong, Clarissa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-05-01

    Previous findings on the diagnostic validity and reliability of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)-associated symptom criteria suggest need for further evaluation. The current study examined convergent validity and specificity of GAD-associated symptoms in a representative Singapore community sample. The Singapore of Mental Health Study a cross-sectional epidemiological survey conducted among 6166 Singapore residents aged 18 and older. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 was used to diagnose mental disorders. Associated symptoms in the GAD criteria and autonomic hyperactivity symptoms showed convergent validity with a GAD diagnosis. However, associated symptoms of GAD were also linked to major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, suggesting lack of adequate specificity. The inability of the diagnostic criteria to differentiate GAD from symptoms of other conditions highlights the need to better define its associated symptoms criteria. The relationship of overlapping symptoms between GAD and MDD is also discussed.

  3. A review of geriatric education in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gerald C H

    2007-08-01

    The United Nations has identified the training and education of healthcare professionals and care providers involved in the care of older persons as a global priority. Singapore is no exception as it faces a rapidly ageing population. Older people have many medical needs of varying dimensions and their care requires a multidisciplinary healthcare team. The current status of geriatric education of health professionals involved in elderly care in Singapore is discussed in this paper. Important issues raised include the disparity between professions in the stages of development of geriatric education, questions on the adequacy of numbers and training of healthcare professionals providing geriatric care, as well as the need for geriatric education of caregivers.

  4. Microplastics in Singapore's coastal mangrove ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Nor, Nur Hazimah Mohamed; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2014-02-15

    The prevalence of microplastics was studied in seven intertidal mangroves habitats of Singapore. Microplastics were extracted from mangrove sediments via a floatation method, and then counted and categorized according to particle shape and size. Representative microplastics from Berlayar Creek, Sungei Buloh, Pasir Ris and Lim Chu Kang were isolated for polymer identification using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Microplastics were identified in all seven habitats, with the highest concentration found in sediments at Lim Chu Kang in the northwest of Singapore. The majority of microplastics were fibrous and smaller than 20 μm. A total of four polymer types were identified, including polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon and polyvinyl chloride. The relationship between abundance of microplastics and sediment grain size was also investigated, but no relationship was apparent. The presence of microplastics is likely due to the degradation of marine plastic debris accumulating in the mangroves.

  5. Entomologic and Virologic Investigation of Chikungunya, Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li-Kiang; Tan, Cheong-Huat; Tan, Sharon S.Y.; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige C.; Pok, Kwoon-Yong; Lai, Yee-Ling; Lam-Phua, Sai-Gek; Bucht, Göran; Lin, Raymond T.P.; Leo, Yee-Sin; Tan, Boon-Hian; Han, Hwi-Kwang; Ooi, Peng-Lim S; James, Lyn; Khoo, Seow-Poh

    2009-01-01

    Local transmission of chikungunya, a debilitating mosquito-borne viral disease, was first reported in Singapore in January 2008. After 3 months of absence, locally acquired Chikungunya cases resurfaced in May 2008, causing an outbreak that resulted in a total of 231 cases by September 2008. The circulating viruses were related to East, Central, and South African genotypes that emerged in the Indian Ocean region in 2005. The first local outbreak was due to a wild-type virus (alanine at codon 226 of the envelope 1 gene) and occurred in an area where Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were the primary vector. Strains isolated during subsequent outbreaks showed alanine to valine substitution (A226V) and largely spread in areas predominated by Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. These findings led to a revision of the current vector control strategy in Singapore. This report highlights the use of entomologic and virologic data to assist in the control of chikungunya in disease-endemic areas. PMID:19751586

  6. Occupational rehabilitation in Singapore and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kay-Fei; Tan, Charlie W C; Yeo, Doreen S C; Tan, Heidi S K; Tan, F L; Tan, E W; Szeto, Grace P Y; Cheng, Andy S K

    2011-03-01

    Asia is the new and favored magnet of economic attention and foreign investments after it made an almost uneventful rebound from the depths of financial crisis of 2008/2009. Not many Western observers fully understand the diversity that is Asia other than perhaps its 2 growing economic giants of China and India. Indeed many smaller countries like Singapore and Malaysia in South East Asia along with Australia and Hong Kong (a Special Administrative Region within China) look to symbiotic relationships with these two economic giants. The purpose of this discussion paper is to examine the current issues related to the development and provision of occupational rehabilitation services in Singapore and Malaysia with a forward-looking view of how Asia's different developing societies could potentially benefit from better alignment of occupational rehabilitation practices and sharing of expertise through international collaboration and dialogue platforms. Seven therapists and one physician who are frequently involved in occupational rehabilitation services in their home countries critically reviewed the current issues in Singapore and Malaysia which included analysis of the prevalence and cost of occupational injury; overview of workers' compensation system; current practices, obstacles, and challenges in providing occupational rehabilitation and return to work practices. They also offered opinions about how to improve the occupational rehabilitation programs of their two home countries. Even though Malaysia and Singapore are two different countries, in many ways their current provision of occupational rehabilitation services and the problems they face with are very similar. There is a lot of room for systemic improvements that require government support and action. Most prominently, the training of more healthcare professionals in the assessment and rehabilitation of the injured worker should be encouraged. There could be better liaison between the many stakeholders and

  7. The incidence of IDDM in Singapore children.

    PubMed

    Lee, W W; Ooi, B C; Thai, A C; Loke, K Y; Tan, Y T; Rajan, U; Tan, C L

    1998-08-01

    To determine the incidence of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in children 0-12 years of age in Singapore, which has a population of 2.9 million. The primary source was a 2-year phone and mail survey of doctors in the government and government restructured hospitals and the private sector. The secondary source was the membership records of the Diabetes Society of Singapore. Using the capture-recapture method, ascertainment was assessed to be 92.2% complete. The age standardised incidence rate was 2.46 per 100,000 children 0-12 years old, for the period 1992-1994 (95% confidence interval: 2.16-2.75). The data seemed to indicate a rising incidence of IDDM in this population, being 1.4/100,000 in 1992, 2.4/100,000 in 1993 and 3.8/100,000 in 1994. The male: female ratio is 1:1.85. There was seasonal variation with fewer cases from July to October and more from November to May. Five percent of patients had a first degree relative with IDDM. Malays appeared to have a lower incidence (1.23/100,000) compared to the Chinese (2.25/100,000) and the Indians (5.78/100,000). The incidence of IDDM in Singapore children is similar to that reported for Hong Kong and Japan, but higher than that for Shanghai. The female preponderance is similar to that seen in other Asian population. The data suggests a rising incidence of IDDM in Singapore and differences in incidence between the Malays, Chinese and Indians, but further observations are needed.

  8. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers.

  9. Lifelong Learning in Singapore: Where Are We Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Prem

    2004-01-01

    The term lifelong learning has been used in different contexts and in policy application for a wide variety of purposes and initiatives. Singapore's approach to lifelong learning is pragmatic and rational. It is one of the economic drivers used by policy makers to enhance Singapore's competitiveness and is viewed as an antidote against…

  10. University Restructuring in Singapore: Amazing or a Maze?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Michael H.; Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2008-01-01

    The Singapore government has put forward a comprehensive restructuring program of university education since the 1990s. Public universities in Singapore are going to be developed as world-class universities through a series of university education policies and reforms. This article reviews major developments of university education policies and…

  11. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  12. Multilingualism and Social Identity: The Case of Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Knonko M.

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire surveyed how multilingual speakers in Singapore express their social identities through language, how they relate to their language, and how they perceive the various English accents to which they are exposed. Respondents related more to the local Singapore accent than to British or American English. Implications for the…

  13. English in Singapore: Culture, Capital and Identity in Linguistic Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsagoff, Lubna

    2010-01-01

    Singapore is placed in the Outer Circle of the Kachru's Three Circles Model, and has over the years developed an English which is uniquely Singaporean. This paper argues that in order to understand the ways in which Singapore English is developing its own standards and ways of speaking, a new model needs to be developed that takes culture, capital…

  14. Distributed Leadership to Support PLCs in Asian Pragmatic Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairon, Salleh; Goh, Jonathan Wee Pin; Lin, Tzu-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Nation states around the world, including Singapore, are endeavouring to reform their education systems in order to successfully compete in the global economy (Carnoy, 1999). With human capital as Singapore's primary resource, it is unsurprising that the state has placed great emphasis on strengthening the economic-education nexus. This tight…

  15. Growing Up in Singapore: The Pre-School Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Ko Peng, Ed.; Kam, Ho Wah, Ed.

    Derived from the first phase of a research study entitled "The Cognitive and Social Development of Pre-School Children in Singapore" (the IE-BvLF study), the essays in this collection focus on the language, numeracy, cognitive, and social development of approximately 3,000 Singapore children between 1983 and 1986. Following a prologue…

  16. Parental Perspectives and Challenges in Inclusive Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Meng Ee; Poon, Kenneth K.; Kaur, Sarinajit; Ng, Zi Jia

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little work has focused on inclusive education in Singapore. This study examines the experiences and perceptions of parents whose children with disabilities are attending mainstream secondary schools in Singapore. Data was drawn from interviews with 13 parents of children with mild disabilities. Our findings reveal that parental…

  17. Distributed Leadership to Support PLCs in Asian Pragmatic Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairon, Salleh; Goh, Jonathan Wee Pin; Lin, Tzu-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Nation states around the world, including Singapore, are endeavouring to reform their education systems in order to successfully compete in the global economy (Carnoy, 1999). With human capital as Singapore's primary resource, it is unsurprising that the state has placed great emphasis on strengthening the economic-education nexus. This tight…

  18. Creating "Good Citizens" and Maintaining Religious Harmony in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the concept of "good citizens" in Singapore is linked to the principle of harmony, characterised by collectivism and a strong interventionist government. The value of religious harmony is actively promoted by the Singapore government and supported by the religious leaders. This article argues that the principle…

  19. Attitudes towards Literary Tamil and Standard Spoken Tamil in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    2007-01-01

    This is the first empirical study that focused on attitudes towards two varieties of Tamil, Literary Tamil (LT) and Standard Spoken Tamil (SST), with the multilingual state of Singapore as the backdrop. The attitudes of 46 Singapore Tamil teachers towards speakers of LT and SST were investigated using the matched-guise approach along with…

  20. Creating Thinking Schools through Authentic Assessment: The Case in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Kim H.; Tan, Charlene; Ng, Pak Tee

    2012-01-01

    Using Singapore as an example, we argue that schools need to equip and encourage teachers to adopt authentic assessment in teaching and learning so as to develop the students' higher-order thinking. The importance of teaching and assessing higher-order thinking in Singapore classrooms is encapsulated in the vision of "Thinking Schools"…

  1. A Review of Singapore Principals' Leadership Qualities, Styles, and Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, David Foo Seong; Nguyen, Dong Thanh; Wong, Benjamin Koon Siak; Choy, William Kim Weng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a review of empirical studies on principal leadership in Singapore. It seeks to provide a general picture of Singapore principals' leadership qualities, styles, and roles. Design/methodology/approach: This is a systematic review of empirical studies, using a "bounded" approach with a focus…

  2. Mathematical Modelling for Singapore Primary Classrooms: From a Teacher's Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seto, Cynthia; Magdalene, Thomas Mary; Ng Kit Ee, Dawn; Chan Chun Ming, Eric; Widjaja, Wanty

    2012-01-01

    Limited Singapore research indicated a lack of exposure of modelling tasks at primary levels. Teacher reflection is used as a tool in design research cycles exploring the potentials of modelling tasks in a Singapore primary five classroom. Findings reveal that the teacher identified three potentials of a modelling task on children's…

  3. Creating "Good Citizens" and Maintaining Religious Harmony in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the concept of "good citizens" in Singapore is linked to the principle of harmony, characterised by collectivism and a strong interventionist government. The value of religious harmony is actively promoted by the Singapore government and supported by the religious leaders. This article argues that the principle…

  4. Creating Thinking Schools through Authentic Assessment: The Case in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Kim H.; Tan, Charlene; Ng, Pak Tee

    2012-01-01

    Using Singapore as an example, we argue that schools need to equip and encourage teachers to adopt authentic assessment in teaching and learning so as to develop the students' higher-order thinking. The importance of teaching and assessing higher-order thinking in Singapore classrooms is encapsulated in the vision of "Thinking Schools"…

  5. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  6. Let Your Participants Star in Your Singapore Trainings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George

    2013-01-01

    This article explains the why and how of active learning, which is based on cognitive psychology. Also explained is the Singapore Ministry of Education's slogan, "Teach Less, Learn More," a good slogan for promoting active learning. [This article was published in "Singapore Business Review," Apr 1 2013.

  7. The Curriculum of Climate Change Education: A Case for Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chew-Hung; Pascua, Liberty

    2017-01-01

    The inclusion of the climate change topic in the curriculum of school subjects in Singapore was pivotal, such that it positioned the discourse squarely in the structure of Singapore's education system. In an examination of the intersections and disjoints between state policies on climate change against the programmatic curriculum, results showed…

  8. Pre-Service Teachers' Views about Inclusion in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nonis, Karen P.; Jernice, Tan Sing Yee

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated pre-service general education teachers' views about including children with special education needs (SEN) into general classrooms in Singapore. While attitudes towards inclusion have been studied widely in other countries, little research in this area has been done in Singapore. In this study, the pre-service general…

  9. Bridging East and West Educational Divides in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Prem

    2013-01-01

    In Asia, we are witnessing an era where the pendulum of power is swaying towards the East with the rising economic strength of China and India. Singapore is at the "crossroads" between the East and West of these most populous nations on earth. Although Singapore may appear the most Westernised country in Asia, she is nevertheless a…

  10. Parental Perspectives and Challenges in Inclusive Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Meng Ee; Poon, Kenneth K.; Kaur, Sarinajit; Ng, Zi Jia

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little work has focused on inclusive education in Singapore. This study examines the experiences and perceptions of parents whose children with disabilities are attending mainstream secondary schools in Singapore. Data was drawn from interviews with 13 parents of children with mild disabilities. Our findings reveal that parental…

  11. "Countability Not Answerability?" Accountability in Hong Kong and Singapore Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Jan; Vidovich, Lesley; Yang, Rui

    2008-01-01

    Singapore and Hong Kong are vying to be the principal educational hub for the Asia-Pacific region and have begun to compete with Australia, Britain, Canada and the USA in providing cross-border education. Although these four Anglo-American countries still dominate cross-border education, Singapore and Hong Kong hope to make inroads into this…

  12. A Review of Singapore Principals' Leadership Qualities, Styles, and Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, David Foo Seong; Nguyen, Dong Thanh; Wong, Benjamin Koon Siak; Choy, William Kim Weng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a review of empirical studies on principal leadership in Singapore. It seeks to provide a general picture of Singapore principals' leadership qualities, styles, and roles. Design/methodology/approach: This is a systematic review of empirical studies, using a "bounded" approach with a focus…

  13. Choosing Teaching as a Second Career in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Sylvia; Goh, Kim Chuan

    2007-01-01

    Background: As the sole teacher provider in Singapore, the National Institute of Education (NIE) prepares all new teachers for the Singapore's Education System. In the last decade, NIE's enrolments for initial teacher preparation programmes have grown significantly. There has been a parallel increase in the number of career changers entering the…

  14. "Countability Not Answerability?" Accountability in Hong Kong and Singapore Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Jan; Vidovich, Lesley; Yang, Rui

    2008-01-01

    Singapore and Hong Kong are vying to be the principal educational hub for the Asia-Pacific region and have begun to compete with Australia, Britain, Canada and the USA in providing cross-border education. Although these four Anglo-American countries still dominate cross-border education, Singapore and Hong Kong hope to make inroads into this…

  15. Bridging East and West Educational Divides in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Prem

    2013-01-01

    In Asia, we are witnessing an era where the pendulum of power is swaying towards the East with the rising economic strength of China and India. Singapore is at the "crossroads" between the East and West of these most populous nations on earth. Although Singapore may appear the most Westernised country in Asia, she is nevertheless a…

  16. The "National" Role of the National Library Board of Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramachandran, R.

    This paper discusses the legal basis for the National Library Board's national role for library development in Singapore. It examines the new National Library Board (NLB) Act 1995 and the direct and expanded responsibility it has given the NLB for the national and public library functions in Singapore. The paper also examines the various…

  17. Trend of Vocational Training in Singapore. VITB Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Law Song

    Prior to 1960 vocational and technical education in Singapore received little attention. After Singapore attained self-government in 1959, a policy of diversification to accelerate economic growth through industrialization was adopted. The emphasis then shifted to technical education and training. In 1964 there was a significant move towards the…

  18. Building a Global Schoolhouse: International Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes Singapore and the field of international education as focal points for exploring state-market relations under conditions of globalisation. It examines Singapore's ambitions to become an "education hub" and a provider of international education through the Global Schoolhouse Project. Using an analytical approach from the…

  19. Attitudes towards Literary Tamil and Standard Spoken Tamil in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    2007-01-01

    This is the first empirical study that focused on attitudes towards two varieties of Tamil, Literary Tamil (LT) and Standard Spoken Tamil (SST), with the multilingual state of Singapore as the backdrop. The attitudes of 46 Singapore Tamil teachers towards speakers of LT and SST were investigated using the matched-guise approach along with…

  20. University Restructuring in Singapore: Amazing or a Maze?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Michael H.; Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2008-01-01

    The Singapore government has put forward a comprehensive restructuring program of university education since the 1990s. Public universities in Singapore are going to be developed as world-class universities through a series of university education policies and reforms. This article reviews major developments of university education policies and…

  1. Mathematics Education in Singapore--An Insider's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Berinderjeet

    2014-01-01

    Singapore's Education System has evolved over time and so has Mathematics Education in Singapore. The present day School Mathematics Curricula can best be described as one that caters for the needs of every child in school. It is based on a framework that has mathematical problem solving as its primary focus. The developments from 1946 to 2012…

  2. Constructing the Cosmopolitan Subject: Teaching Secondary School Literature in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Angelia Mui Cheng

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the ambitious educational reforms of the Singapore government in response to the challenges of globalization vis-a-vis the specific issues arising from the case of teaching Literature in secondary schools. It shows how the Singapore state is invested in a particular view of globalization and argues how recent scholarly moves…

  3. Linguistic Landscape in Singapore: What Shop Names Reveal about Singapore's Multilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shang, Guowen; Guo, Libo

    2017-01-01

    The visibility and salience of specific languages in public spaces are important parameters of their ethnolinguistic vitality in a society. Drawing upon data from first-hand fieldwork, this paper explores the display of multiple languages in shop names presented in Singapore's neighbourhood centres in order to reveal how local shop owners address…

  4. Postgraduate medical education and specialist training in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chew, C H; Chee, Y C

    2005-07-01

    The Singapore Medical School celebrates its Centenary in 2005. This historical review is presented on Singapore's postgraduate medical education and specialist training programmes. The special informal role of the Alumni Association and its members during the early years and soon after World War II is highlighted. Postgraduate education and specialist training was more formalised only during the challenging years when Singapore became more autonomous and politically independent with the establishment of the Academy of Medicine, the School's postgraduate medical studies, the Singapore Medical Association, specialist societies and, more recently, the College of Family Physicians. Specialist training programmes and the process of specialist accreditation are also outlined. While Singapore has gone far towards developing a comprehensive programme of postgraduate medical education and specialist training, the process is still evolving and can be improved upon. As long as we keep pace with relevant and realistic strategies, the future for postgraduate medical training and specialist training should be assured.

  5. Extending Service Area of IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2012-06-01

    According to the current IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN standards, IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks have the limitation that all STAs (Stations) are in the one-hop transmission range of each other. In this paper, to alleviate the limitation of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks we propose the efficient method for selecting the most appropriate pseudo AP (Access Point) from among the set of ad hoc STAs and extending the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks by the pseudo AP's relaying the internal traffic of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Numerical examples show that the proposed method significantly extends the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks.

  6. West Meets East in Malaysia and Singapore. Participants' Papers. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program 1999 (Malaysia and Singapore).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    These projects were completed by participants in the Fulbright-Hays summer seminar in Malaysia and Singapore in 1999. The participants represented various regions of the U.S. and different grade levels and subject areas. The seminar offered a comprehensive overview of how the people of Malaysia and Singapore live, work, and strive towards their…

  7. Influenza surveillance in Singapore: 1972-86

    PubMed Central

    Doraisingham, S.; Goh, K. T.; Ling, A. E.; Yu, M.

    1988-01-01

    Prospective laboratory surveillance of influenza viruses has been carried out since 1973 in Singapore. The results indicate that antigenic shift variants caused epidemics at various times of the year over this period, whereas drift variants were associated with a regular increase in incidence during the second and fourth calendar quarters. Outbreaks due to influenza A virus occurred every year and to influenza B virus at intervals of 16-24 months. Between outbreaks, viruses belonging to either of the two types could be detected during most months, and certain variants appeared several months before the outbreaks they subsequently caused. The factors that contribute to the seasonal pattern are at present unknown. PMID:3260142

  8. Advanced Cardiac Life Support: 2016 Singapore Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Ching, Chi Keong; Leong, Siew Hon Benjamin; Chua, Siang Jin Terrance; Lim, Swee Han; Heng, Kenneth; Pothiawala, Sohil; Anantharaman, Venkataraman

    2017-07-01

    The main areas of emphasis in the Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines are: early recognition of cardiac arrest and call for help; good-quality chest compressions; early defibrillation when applicable; early administration of drugs; appropriate airway management ensuring normoventilation; and delivery of appropriate post-resuscitation care to enhance survival. Of note, it is important to monitor the quality of the various care procedures. The resuscitation team needs to reduce unnecessary interruptions to chest compressions in order to maintain adequate coronary perfusion pressure during the ACLS drill. In addition, the team needs to continually look out for reversible causes of the cardiac arrest. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  9. IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference: Notes on the Early Conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper gathers the remembrances of several key contributors who participated in the earliest Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conferences (NSREC).

  10. Screening for Drinking Problems in the Elderly in Singapore Using the CAGE Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Ong, Clarissa Wy; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Abdin, Edimansyah; Shafie, Saleha Binte; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Eng, Goi Khia; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-10-01

    Given that past research on drinking problems has focused primarily on younger samples, the present study sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use among the elderly in Singapore. Data were extracted from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly (WiSE) study, a cross-sectional, epidemiological survey conducted among a nationally representative sample of Singapore residents (n = 2565) aged 60 years and above. Variables assessed include drinking problems, depression and anxiety symptoms, obesity, smoking status, chronic physical disorders and disability. The weighted prevalence of drinking problems (CAGE score ≥2) in our sample was 4.2%. Male sex, Indian ethnicity, and being divorced or separated were associated with a significantly higher likelihood of drinking problems. Participants with drinking problems were also more likely to have subthreshold depression. There were no significant differences in disability among those with drinking problems, those without drinking problems and non-drinkers, after adjusting for demographic variables. Our findings contribute to the body of research that indicates an association between drinking problems and depressive symptoms among the elderly. Thus, screening for depressive symptoms in the elderly with drinking problems may be useful in identifying such comorbidities in order to aid treatment planning.

  11. Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Qi; Abdin, Edimansyah; Picco, Louisa; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Shahwan, Shazana; Jeyagurunathan, Anitha; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Shafie, Saleha; Tay, Jenny; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Background Public attitudes to mental illness could influence how the public interact with, provide opportunities for, and help people with mental illness. Aims This study aims to explore the underlying factors of the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the general population in Singapore and the socio-demographic correlates of each factor. Methods From March 2014 to April 2015, a nation-wide cross-sectional survey on mental health literacy with 3,006 participants was conducted in Singapore. Results Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure for the Attitudes to Mental Illness questionnaire among the Singapore general population, namely social distancing, tolerance/support for community care, social restrictiveness, and prejudice and misconception. Older age, male gender, lower education and socio-economic status were associated with more negative attitudes towards the mentally ill. Chinese showed more negative attitudes than Indians and Malays (except for prejudice and misconception). Conclusions There is a need for culture-specific interventions, and the associated factors identified in this study should be considered for future attitude campaigns. PMID:27893796

  12. Gender differences in major depressive disorder: findings from the Singapore Mental Health Study.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-08-16

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders worldwide, and various sociodemographic risk factors including age, gender and ethnicity have been associated with MDD. The present study aimed to establish whether gender-specific differences relating to the prevalence and correlates of MDD existed in the Singapore adult resident population. The Singapore Mental Health Study was a population-based, cross-sectional, epidemiological study among Singapore citizens and permanent residents aged 18 years and above. Face-to-face interviews were completed with 6,616 respondents between December 2009 and December 2010. Psychiatric conditions were established using version 3.0 of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). In addition, data relating to chronic medical conditions was captured using a modified version of the CIDI checklist for chronic medical conditions. The lifetime prevalence of MDD was higher among women (7.2%) than men (4.3%). MDD was more prevalent among men and women who were divorced/separated and widowed women, as compared to those who were single. Among men, MDD was more prevalent among Indian and 'other' ethnicities as compared to Chinese. Of the 417 respondents with MDD, women had significantly higher odds of having generalised anxiety disorder, but lower odds of having high blood pressure, as compared to men. The study highlighted key gender-specific correlates of MDD. Given the comorbidities associated with MDD and other psychiatric disorders and/or physical illnesses, these correlates pose additional challenges for care providers.

  13. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of <33). In multivariable analysis, age, job grade, and neuroticism were significantly associated with each of the 3 components of the MBI. Staff nurses less than 30 years with high to very high neuroticism were more likely to experience high EE, high DP, and low PA. Conclusion. Younger nurses in Singapore are at increased risk of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout. PMID:27478835

  14. Stress and burnout among healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yang, Suyi; Meredith, Pamela; Khan, Asaduzzaman

    2015-06-01

    International literature suggests that the experience of high levels of stress by healthcare professionals has been associated with decreased work efficiency and high rates of staff turnover. The aims of this study are to identify the extent of stress and burnout experienced by healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore and to identify demographic characteristics and work situations associated with this stress and burnout. A total of 220 Singaporean mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey, which included measures of stress, burnout (exhaustion and disengagement), participants' demographic details, and working situation. Independent t-tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to examine between-group differences in the dependent variables (stress and burnout). Analyses revealed that healthcare professionals below the age of 25, those with less than five years experience, and those with the lowest annual income, reported the highest levels of stress and burnout. No significant differences were found with other demographic or work situation variables. Findings suggest that healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore are experiencing relatively high levels of stress and burnout. It is important that clinicians, administrators and policy makers take proactive steps to develop programs aimed at reducing stress and burnout for healthcare professionals. These programs are likely to also increase the well-being and resilience of healthcare professionals and improve the quality of mental health services in Singapore.

  15. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ang, Shin Yuh; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of <33). In multivariable analysis, age, job grade, and neuroticism were significantly associated with each of the 3 components of the MBI. Staff nurses less than 30 years with high to very high neuroticism were more likely to experience high EE, high DP, and low PA. Conclusion. Younger nurses in Singapore are at increased risk of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout.

  16. Fast-food consumers in Singapore: demographic profile, diet quality and weight status.

    PubMed

    Whitton, Clare; Ma, Yi; Bastian, Amber Carla; Fen Chan, Mei; Chew, Ling

    2014-08-01

    To determine the demographic profile of fast-food consumers among adult Singapore residents and ascertain whether fast-food consumption frequency is associated with diet quality and weight status. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey including an FFQ and anthropometric measures. Participants were grouped based on their fast-food consumption frequency as non-consumer, occasional consumer or regular consumer, with regular defined as at least once per week. Individuals living in the community in Singapore. Singapore residents (n 1627) aged 18-69 years of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity. Proportions of regular fast-food consumers were higher in younger age groups, higher income groups and middle education level groups. Mean daily energy intake was positively associated with fast-food consumption frequency (non-consumers 9636 kJ (2303 kcal); occasional consumers 11 159 kJ (2667 kcal); regular consumers 13 100 kJ (3131 kcal); P for trend < 0·001). Fast-food consumers were more likely to exceed the RDA for energy, fat and saturated fat, and less likely to meet wholegrain and fruit recommendations. Both regular consumers (OR = 1·24; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·51) and occasional consumers (OR = 1·52; 95 % CI 1·32, 1·77) were more likely to have a waist:hip ratio indicating abdominal obesity. Occasional consumers were more likely to have a BMI ≥ 23·0 kg/m2 (OR = 1·19; 95 % CI 1·04, 1·37), whereas regular consumers were less likely (OR = 0·76; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·91) to have an 'at-risk' BMI. Fast-food consumption is most prevalent in young adults, high income and middle education level groups. Frequent fast-food consumption in Singapore is associated with unfavourable dietary and nutrient profiles and abdominal obesity.

  17. Ocular biometry in an urban Indian population: the Singapore Indian Eye Study (SINDI).

    PubMed

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Wong, Tien-Yin; Chang, Lan; Lin, Xiao-Yu; Lavanya, Raghavan; Zheng, Ying-Feng; Kok, Yee-Onn; Wu, Ren-Yi; Aung, Tin; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2011-08-22

    PURPOSE. To describe the distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters in adult Singapore Indians. METHODS. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 3400 Indians aged 40 to 83 years residing in Singapore. Ocular components including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal radius (CR) were measured by partial coherence interferometry. Refraction was recorded in spherical equivalent (SE). RESULTS. After 502 individuals with previous cataract surgery were excluded, ocular biometric data on 2785 adults were analyzed. The mean AL, ACD, and CR were 23.45 ± 1.10, 3.15 ± 0.36, and 7.61 ± 0.26 mm, respectively. The mean AL/CR ratio was 3.08 ± 0.13. The mean AL was 23.53, 23.49, 23.35, and 23.25 mm in 40- to 49-, 50- to 59-, 60- to 69-, and 700 to 83-year age groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Men had significantly longer ALs than women (23.68 mm versus 23.23 mm, P < 0.001). In multivariate linear regression models, AL was found to be longer in adults who were taller (P < 0.001), better educated (University, P < 0.001), and more apt to spend time reading (P < 0.001). Increasing CR was associated with increasing height (P = 0.008). AL was the strongest determinant for refraction in all age groups, whereas lens nuclear opacity was a predictor in adults aged 60 to 83 years. CONCLUSIONS. The AL in Indians living in Singapore was similar to that of Malays in Singapore, but longer than that of Indians living in India. Time spent reading, height, and educational level were the strongest determinants of AL. AL was the strongest predictor of SE in all age groups.

  18. Public perceptions, knowledge and awareness of cholesterol management in Singapore: a prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aung, Than Htike; Go, Yun Yun; Low, Lip Ping; Chua, Terrance

    2013-01-01

    Hyperlipidaemia is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Its effective treatment has been shown to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events, both in secondary and primary prevention. An essential component of risk factor management at the community level is public awareness and knowledge of treatment benefits. However, this data is limited in Singapore. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire of public perception and knowledge on cholesterol treatment among adult Singaporeans aged 30-69 years was commissioned by the Singapore Heart Foundation and conducted by a professional market survey company. Regional quota sampling was performed to ensure that the sample was representative of the Singapore population. This was followed by random sampling of households and respondents. Of the 365 respondents, 40.9% were male, 70.3% were Chinese, 18.8% Malay and 10.9% Indian. The mean age was 47.5 years. Although 81.9% of respondents had medical check-ups involving blood tests, only 11.0% knew their actual cholesterol levels. A third of the respondents saw herbal medicine as healthier and safer than Western medication. More than 80% of respondents believed that diet and exercise were equally effective at lowering cholesterol as medication. About half of the respondents associated long-term use of statins with damage to the liver and kidney, while a third associated chronic statin use with the development of cancer. There are gaps in the level of public awareness and understanding of cholesterol treatment in Singapore. Common misconceptions should be addressed, as they could potentially impair effective management or treatment compliance.

  19. Catastrophic extinctions follow deforestation in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Ng, Peter K L

    2003-07-24

    The looming mass extinction of biodiversity in the humid tropics is a major concern for the future, yet most reports of extinctions in these regions are anecdotal or conjectural, with a scarcity of robust, broad-based empirical data. Here we report on local extinctions among a wide range of terrestrial and freshwater taxa from Singapore (540 km2) in relation to habitat loss exceeding 95% over 183 years. Substantial rates of documented and inferred extinctions were found, especially for forest specialists, with the greatest proportion of extinct taxa (34-87%) in butterflies, fish, birds and mammals. Observed extinctions were generally fewer, but inferred losses often higher, in vascular plants, phasmids, decapods, amphibians and reptiles (5-80%). Forest reserves comprising only 0.25% of Singapore's area now harbour over 50% of the residual native biodiversity. Extrapolations of the observed and inferred local extinction data, using a calibrated species-area model, imply that the current unprecedented rate of habitat destruction in Southeast Asia will result in the loss of 13-42% of regional populations over the next century, at least half of which will represent global species extinctions.

  20. Ethnic differences in suicide behavior in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Cyrus S H; Chua, Vincent; Ho, Roger C M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the ethnic differences in stressors, risk, and protective factors among people who attempted suicide in Singapore. A retrospective chart review of 626 attempted suicide cases at a hospital in Singapore between 2004 and 2006 collected information on diagnosis according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Chi-square tests was used to compare the sociodemographic characteristics, stressors, risk factors, and protective factors among Chinese, Malay, Indian, and other ethnic groups. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratios of having two or more stressors, risk factors, or protective factors for the four ethnic groups. Women were more likely than men to attempt suicide, although they also were more likely to have two or more suicide protective factors than men. In general, older people were more likely to have two or more suicide risk factors than the younger groups. Ethnic differences were found in history of psychiatric illnesses and unemployment among the risk factors, and for most of the protective factors, but none of the stressors. Indians were more likely to have two or more protective factors than were Chinese (OR of 7.74, 95% CI [1.04, 8.72]. Future suicide prevention programs should target young adults and strengthen the protective factors among different ethnic groups. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Obesity prevention and management: Singapore's experience.

    PubMed

    Foo, L L; Vijaya, K; Sloan, R A; Ling, A

    2013-11-01

    Singapore's obesity prevalence among adult Singapore residents aged 18-69 increased from 6.9% (2004) to 10.8% (2010). Among school-going children, the prevalence of overweight and severely overweight (body weight > 120% standard weight for height) increased from 1.4% (1976) to 12.7% (2006) for primary 1 students, and 2.2% to 15.9% for primary 6 students. Fundamentally, obesity is a function of excess energy intake (food consumption) and insufficient energy expenditure (physical activity). In 2010, about 40% did not have sufficient physical activity, and about 60% consumed excess energy. For students in the mainstream schools, only a fifth consumed at least two servings of fruits and vegetables every day, and a tenth were physically active for at least 60 min on 5 or more days a week. From a public health perspective, the most powerful levers for influencing population health lie in interventions that make healthy living convenient and an unconscious choice by targeting the social and environmental context. Recognizing this, the Health Promotion Board has in recent years made a strategic shift away from just public education campaigns aimed at individual behaviours, to focus on creating a ground-up social movement to enable and empower individuals to live out a healthy lifestyle.

  2. Benefits of IEEE-754 features in modern symmetric tridiagonaleigensolvers

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Osni; Riedy, Jason E.; Vomel, Christof

    2006-03-12

    Bisection is one of the most common methods used to compute the eigenvalues of symmetric tridiagonal matrices. Bisection relies on the Sturm count: For a given shift a, the number of negative pivots in the factorization T - {sigma}I = LDL{sup T} equals the number of eigenvalues of T that are smaller than a. In IEEE-754 arithmetic, the value oo permits the computation to continue past a zero pivot, producing a correct Sturm count when T is unreduced. Demmel and Li showed that using oo rather than testing for zero pivots within the loop could significantly improve performance on certain architectures. When eigenvalues are to be computed to high relative accuracy, it is often preferable to work with LDL{sup T} factorizations instead of the original tridiagonal T. One important example is the MRRR algorithm. When bisection is applied to the factored matrix, the Sturm count is computed from LDL{sup T} which makes differential stationary and progressive qds algorithms the methods of choice. While it seems trivial to replace T by LDL{sup T}, in reality these algorithms are more complicated: In IEEE-754 arithmetic, a zero pivot produces an overflow followed by an invalid exception (NaN, or 'Not a Number') that renders the Sturm count incorrect. We present alternative, safe formulations that are guaranteed to produce the correct result. Benchmarking these algorithms on a variety of platforms shows that the original formulation without tests is always faster provided that no exception occurs. The transforms see speed-ups of up to 2.6x over the careful formulations. Tests on industrial matrices show that encountering exceptions in practice is rare. This leads to the following design: First, compute the Sturm count by the fast but unsafe algorithm. Then, if an exception occurs, recompute the count by a safe, slower alternative. The new Sturm count algorithms improve the speed of bisection by up to 2x on our test matrices. Furthermore, unlike the traditional tiny

  3. Malaysia-Singapore Relations: Never Mind the Rhetoric

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    countries of maritime Southeast Asia is another common interest. Malaysia and Singapore also have long-standing defense ties that date back to pre...shipping through Southeast Asia . There are now promising signs of growing warmth in the relationship between Malaysia and Singapore, but even in less...SPECIAL ASSESSMENT O C T O B E R 2 0 0 4 Asia’s Bilateral Relations Malaysia -Singapore Relations: Never Mind the Rhetoric A N T H O N Y L . S M I

  4. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Security White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    King, J

    2001-10-22

    Given the increased productivity and growing popularity of wireless communications in general, and wireless data communications in particular, this paper outlines the protocols, security implications, and architectures of IEEE Std. 802.11-1999 wireless LANs (WLANs) and makes recommendations regarding a phased implementation of WLANs at LLNL. This project is driven by the need for convenient and secure access to the Internet for Laboratory visitors and to the internal network for Laboratory employees. A solid architecture designed with a priority on security will allow LLNL to offer network access in areas where it is traditionally hard to deploy wired networks. It will also enable such services as wireless access for inventory control and convenient network access for conference rooms around LLNL. Wireless network access has the potential to increase productivity by enabling instant access to information.

  5. WIH-based IEEE 802.11 ECG monitoring implementation.

    PubMed

    Moein, A; Pouladian, M

    2007-01-01

    New wireless technologies make possible the implementation of high level integration wireless devices which allow the replacement of traditional large wired monitoring devices. It offers new functionalities to physicians and will reduce the costs. Among these functionalities, biomedical signals can be sent to other devices (PDA, PC . . . ) or processing centers, without restricting the patients' mobility. This article discusses the WIH (Ward-In-Hand) structure and the software required for its implementation before an operational example is presented with its results. The aim of this project is the development and implementation of a reduced size electrocardiograph based on IEEE 802.11 with high speed and more accuracy, which allows wireless monitoring of patients, and the insertion of the information into the Wi-Fi hospital networks.

  6. Review of the IEEE Standard for Computerized Operating Procedure Systems

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J.

    2010-02-26

    Increasingly nuclear power plant procedures, such as emergency operating procedures, are being presented in computer form with functionality to support operator use and management of the procedures. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently has guidance for the review of computer-based procedures (CBPs); however, there remain CBP functions and human performance issues for which up-to-date guidance is lacking. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has initiated a standard development effort to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of CBP systems. When completed, it may provide guidance to supplement the NRC staff's review criteria. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the suitability of the IEEE Standard for use in the NRC's HFE safety reviews of CBP systems and to ensure that the guidance meets the NRC's standard for scientific and engineering rigor used in its own guidance development efforts. We established the following criteria with which to evaluate the Standard: (1) it should meet an existing need of NRC reviewers, (2) it should be based in sound HFE principles, (3) it should be thoroughly peer-reviewed, and (4) it should address CBP-related human performance issues identified in the literature. This report describes the methodology we used to evaluate each criterion. Our evaluation concluded that the Standard generally does meet these criteria, however several areas were identified for which additional clarifications are needed. Thus consideration of the Standard's use by the NRC is supported. The standard evaluation methodology developed in this study can be generally applied to the review of other HFE standards being considered for possible use or endorsement by the NRC.

  7. Comparison Of Several Methods Of Implementing A Fiber Optic IEEE 802.3 Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Geoffrey O.

    1987-01-01

    Several different methods of implementing a fiber optic version of IEEE 802.3 10BASE LANs have been proposed as a candidate for standardization by IEEE. There have been extensive discussions as to the relative merits and features of the several systems. This paper will discuss the merits of each for this particular application on a comparative basis.

  8. A tale of two cities: community psychobehavioral surveillance and related impact on outbreak control in Hong Kong and Singapore during the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic.

    PubMed

    Leung, Gabriel M; Quah, Stella; Ho, Lai-Ming; Ho, Sai-Yin; Hedley, Anthony J; Lee, Hin-Peng; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2004-12-01

    To compare the public's knowledge and perception of SARS and the extent to which various precautionary measures were adopted in Hong Kong and Singapore. Cross-sectional telephone survey of 705 Hong Kong and 1,201 Singapore adults selected by random-digit dialing. Hong Kong respondents had significantly higher anxiety than Singapore respondents (State Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI] score, 2.06 vs 1.77; P < .001). The former group also reported more frequent headaches, difficulty breathing, dizziness, rhinorrhea, and sore throat. More than 90% in both cities were willing to be quarantined if they had close contact with a SARS case, and 70% or more would be compliant for social contacts. Most respondents (86.7% in Hong Kong vs 71.4% in Singapore; P < .001) knew that SARS could be transmitted via respiratory droplets, although fewer (75.8% in Hong Kong vs 62.1% in Singapore; P < .001) knew that fomites were also a possible transmission source. Twenty-three percent of Hong Kong and 11.9% of Singapore respondents believed that they were "very likely" or "somewhat likely" to contract SARS during the current outbreak (P < .001). There were large differences between Hong Kong and Singapore in the adoption of personal precautionary measures. Respondents with higher levels of anxiety, better knowledge about SARS, and greater risk perceptions were more likely to take comprehensive precautionary measures against the infection, as were older, female, and more educated individuals. Comparative psychobehavioral surveillance and analysis could yield important insights into generic versus population-specific issues that could be used to inform, design, and evaluate public health infection control policy measures.

  9. DNA-based analyses of molds in Singapore public buildings results in a proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index.

    PubMed

    Goh, V; Yap, H M; Gutiérrez, R A; Ng, L C; Vesper, S S

    2014-12-01

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/36) occur at similar rates in Singapore and the United States. A Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (SERMI) is proposed which might be divided into low (<18), medium (18 to 28) and high (>28) mold burden categories but more samples will help to refine these categories.

  10. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11 DCF and IEEE 802.11e EDCA in Non-saturation Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Ok; Kim, Kyung Jae; Choi, Bong Dae

    We analyze the MAC performance of the IEEE 802.11 DCF and 802.11e EDCA in non-saturation condition where device does not have packets to transmit sometimes. We assume that a flow is not generated while the previous flow is in service and the number of packets in a flow is geometrically distributed. In this paper, we take into account the feature of non-saturation condition in standards: possibility of transmission performed without preceding backoff procedure for the first packet arriving at the idle station. Our approach is to model a stochastic behavior of one station as a discrete time Markov chain. We obtain four performance measures: normalized channel throughput, average packet HoL (head of line) delay, expected time to complete transmission of a flow and packet loss probability. Our results can be used for admission control to find the optimal number of stations with some constraints on these measures.

  11. Some milestones: specialist education, training and assessment in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chew, Chin Hin

    2007-11-01

    Singapore had its most significant milestone in 1905 when the Singapore Medical School was founded. The Academy of Medicine, founded in 1957, celebrates its Golden Anniversary in 2007. Thus, the events that influenced the development of postgraduate medicine, specialist education, training and examinations commenced rightly from 1957. These are presented chronologically. The significant roles played by the Academy, the University's Medical School and the Ministry of Health are highlighted, bearing in mind the ongoing developments in Singapore and globally over the years. To keep pace with the further developments and advances, the high gold standards in specialist training and assessment need to be refined with time. This can only be to the benefit of our patients and the community in Singapore and beyond.

  12. Regionalization, economic restructuring and labour migration in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Hui, W T

    1997-01-01

    "This paper documents the impact of economic development on changes in employment and labour migration in Singapore. High export-led growth and the relaxation of immigration policies in the late 1960s enabled employment of substantial numbers of unskilled foreign labour in manufacturing, construction and domestic service sectors....Economic development in the 1990s, characterized by the regionalization drive which relocates relatively resource-intensive operations of Singapore-based companies overseas, has led to increased retrenchments and a moderation of demand for foreign workers. The upgrading of remaining production operations in Singapore is expected to increase demand for workers with higher skill levels. Emigration of highly educated and skilled professionals from Singapore became a national concern in the late 1980s. However, with regionalization, the new challenge in the 1990s has become one of encouraging Singaporeans to temporarily take up overseas positions." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) excerpt

  13. Dengue Prevention and 35 Years of Vector Control in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Kee-Tai; Gubler, Duane J.

    2006-01-01

    After a 15-year period of low incidence, dengue has reemerged in Singapore in the past decade. We identify potential causes of this resurgence. A combination of lowered herd immunity, virus transmission outside the home, an increase in the age of infection, and the adoption of a case-reactive approach to vector control contribute to the increased dengue incidence. Singapore's experience with dengue indicates that prevention efforts may not be sustainable. For renewed success, Singapore needs to return to a vector control program that is based on carefully collected entomologic and epidemiologic data. Singapore's taking on a leadership role in strengthening disease surveillance and control in Southeast Asia may also be useful in reducing virus importation. PMID:16707042

  14. Adolescent health in Asia: insights from Singapore.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jean-Yin; Rajasegaran, Kumudhini

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of adolescent medicine as a medical subspecialty in Singapore was a welcome in an evolving health care system that is unique in terms of both efficiency, in financing and the results achieved in community health outcomes. The Ministry of Health (MOH) already recognized the need to accommodate the health care concerns related to adolescent psychosocial health risk behaviors and an increased prevalence of young people living with chronic illness. The challenge for the pioneer team of physicians trained in adolescent medicine was to develop and sustain a model of care that integrated (i) core clinical services that include quality measures of care to adolescents; (ii) professional development and capacity building needing an expansive teaching agenda at every level of health education; (iii) strong inter-sectorial collaborations within hospital and community partners; and (iv) robust research and evaluation strategies that keep clinical practice relevant and evidence based.

  15. Epidemiology and Control of Legionellosis, Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Li Wei; Tan, Ai Ling; James, Lyn; Goh, Kee Tai

    2011-01-01

    To determine trends and clinical and epidemiologic features of legionellosis in Singapore, we studied cases reported during 2000–2009. During this period, 238 indigenous and 33 imported cases of legionellosis were reported. Cases were reported individually and sporadically throughout each year. Although the annual incidence of indigenous cases had decreased from 0.46 cases per 100,000 population in 2003 to 0.16 cases per 100,000 in 2009, the proportion of imported cases increased correspondingly from 6.2% during 2000–2004 to 27.3% during 2005–2009 (p<0.0005). The prevalence of Legionella bacteria in cooling towers and water fountains was stable (range 12.1%–15.3%) during 2004–August 2008. PMID:21762574

  16. Reading, the Library, and the Elderly: A Singapore Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyt, Brendan; Ann, Ho Swee

    2011-01-01

    Singapore is now one of the fastest aging societies in the world. By 2030 those over 65 years old are expected to number 1.41m strong, 26.8 percent of the country's entire population. Given these numbers, it is not surprising that aging is a key concern in Singapore. This article reports on a qualitative study of 32 individuals over the age of 55…

  17. Singapore’s Defense Policy: Essential or Excessive?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    Southeast Asia,”5 5Tim Huxley , Defending the Lion City: The Armed Forces of Singapore (Australia: Allen...percent of voters supported merger in a referendum held in September 1962.46 This arrangement proved short-lived, however. According to Tim Huxley , an...47Tim Huxley , Defending the Lion City: The Armed Forces of Singapore (Australia: Allen & Unwin, 2000), 6-7. 48Michael Leifer

  18. Reading, the Library, and the Elderly: A Singapore Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyt, Brendan; Ann, Ho Swee

    2011-01-01

    Singapore is now one of the fastest aging societies in the world. By 2030 those over 65 years old are expected to number 1.41m strong, 26.8 percent of the country's entire population. Given these numbers, it is not surprising that aging is a key concern in Singapore. This article reports on a qualitative study of 32 individuals over the age of 55…

  19. Secure Cloud Computing Implementation Study For Singapore Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    COMPUTING IMPLEMENTATION STUDY FOR SINGAPORE MILITARY OPERATIONS by Lai Guoquan September 2016 Thesis Advisor: John D. Fulp Co-Advisor...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SECURE CLOUD COMPUTING IMPLEMENTATION STUDY FOR SINGAPORE MILITARY OPERATIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...addition, from the military perspective, the benefits of cloud computing were analyzed from a study of the U.S. Department of Defense. Then, using

  20. Computers in clinical laboratory management in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, I K; Jacob, E; Lim, S H; Chua, K S

    1986-01-01

    In 1974, an off-line mini-computer system was introduced in the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories of the Government Department of Pathology in Singapore. With the resiting of the 24-hour emergency biochemistry laboratory on the same floor as the Haematology Department within the new Singapore General Hospital, an on-line computer system was installed in 1983 to serve both the emergency biochemistry and haematology laboratories. An almost identical on-line system was also purchased in 1984 to replace the aged off-line system at the Department of Pathology. A description of the new computer systems based on Eclipse S/140 computers and Medical Information Technology (Meditech) software using Meditech Interpretive Information System (MIIS) language will be given. The specific features required and the selection criteria for the on-line systems are also discussed. The systems are used for the acquisition and processing of all patient and test data of the laboratories, direct capture of data from automated instruments, generation of work schedules and laboratory reports, compilation of work done, workload and revenue statistics and a variety of other reports. Patient cumulative records and quality control statistics are available on a real-time basis, thus greatly facilitating enquiries on patient results and monitoring of analytical performance. Prior experience with an off-line system and careful planning have been helpful in greatly shortening the preparatory period required for the smooth implementation of the on-line systems. Use of the systems has significantly improved laboratory management and has resulted in improved quality, and higher efficiency and productivity.

  1. Direct medical cost of stroke in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, Charmaine Shuyu; Toh, Matthias Paul Han Sim; Ng, Jiaying; Ko, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Globally, stroke is recognized as one of the main causes of long-term disability, accounting for approximately 5·7 million deaths each year. It is a debilitating and costly chronic condition that consumes about 2-4% of total healthcare expenditure. To estimate the direct medical cost associated with stroke in Singapore in 2012 and to determine associated predictors. The National Healthcare Group Chronic Disease Management System database was used to identify patients with stroke between the years 2006 and 2012. Estimated stroke-related costs included hospitalizations, accident and emergency room visits, outpatient physician visits, laboratory tests, and medications. A total of 700 patients were randomly selected for the analyses. The mean annual direct medical cost was found to be S$12 473·7, of which 93·6% were accounted for by inpatient services, 4·9% by outpatient services, and 1·5% by A&E services. Independent determinants of greater total costs were stroke types, such as ischemic stroke (P = 0·005), subarachnoid hemorrhage (P < 0·001) and intracerebral haemorrhage (P < 0·001), shorter poststroke period, more than one complications (P = 0·045), and a greater number of comorbidities (P = 0·001). There is a considerable economic burden associated with stroke in Singapore. The type of stroke, length of poststroke period, and stroke complications and comorbidities are found to be associated with the total costs. Efforts to reduce inpatient costs and to allocate health resources to focus on the primary prevention of stroke should become a priority. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  2. Variation in prevalence of myopia between generations of migrant indians living in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Zheng, Ying-Feng; Wong, Tien-Yin; Lavanya, Raghavan; Wu, Ren-Yi; Gazzard, Gus; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2012-08-01

    To assess the influence of factors related to migration and acculturation on myopia in migrant Indians in Singapore. Population-based cross-sectional study. A total of 3400 Singaporean Indians (75.6% response rate) aged over 40 years participated in this study. Information regarding country of birth, migration age, and language of interview were collected from interviews. Indians born outside of Singapore were defined as "first-generation" immigrants, while Indians born in Singapore were defined as "second-generation (or higher)" immigrants. Refraction was determined by autorefraction and refined by subjective refraction. Ocular biometry including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal radius (CR) were measured by partial coherence interferometry. Myopia and high myopia were defined as spherical equivalents (SE) of less than -0.5 diopter (D) for myopia, and < -5 D for high myopia, respectively. The prevalence of myopia (30.2% vs 23.4 %) and high myopia (4.8% vs 2.5%) were higher in second-generation immigrants compared with first-generation immigrants. Second-generation immigrants had longer AL (23.50 mm vs 23.37 mm, P = .004) than first-generation immigrants after multivariate adjustment. The excess prevalence of myopia was reduced by 37.5% but remained statistically significant (P = .02) after further controlling for educational level. Among first-generation immigrants, those migrating to Singapore before the age of 21 had significantly higher prevalence of myopia (odds ratio [OR]: 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32, 2.59) and longer AL (regression coefficient: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.43) than those migrating after 21 years of age. Also, first-generation immigrants interviewed in English had higher prevalence of myopia (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.17) than their non-English-interviewed counterparts. The prevalence of myopia among second-generation (or higher) Indian immigrants in Singapore is higher than first-generation immigrants

  3. Cardiovascular responses to stress in Singapore and India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Divjyot; Bishop, George D

    2013-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown significant ethnic differences in coronary heart disease death rates with South Asians showing significantly greater coronary heart disease mortality than other groups. This research examined ethnic differences in cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore as well as a sample of Indians living in India. Experiment 1 examined differences across 303 Chinese, Malay and Indian undergraduates in Singapore, while Experiment 2 looked at differences in CVR between Indian participants from Singapore, and 145 Indians living in India. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), heart rate (HR), cardiac index (CI) and total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) were measured during baselines and five laboratory tasks. Ethnicity main effects for SBP and CI reactivity were obtained in Experiment 1, with Indians showing significantly lower BP and CI reactivity than the Chinese and Malays. Significant main effects for sex were found with females showing lower reactivity than males for TPRI, and greater reactivity than males for HR and CI. Experiment 2 found that participants from India showed higher reactivity for SBP, HR and CI, while Indian participants from Singapore showed higher TPRI reactivity. These differences, however, often varied by task. These results point to differences in CVR among ethnic groups in Singapore as well as between Indians living in India and those living in Singapore. These differences may reflect cultural differences and need to be explored further with respect to their relationship to different rates of coronary heart disease among these groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Primary healthcare system and practice characteristics in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hwee Sing; Lim, Yee Wei; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Jm

    2014-01-01

    It is crucial to adapt and improve the (primary) health care systems of countries to prepare for future patient profiles and their related needs. The main aim of this study was to acquire a comprehensive overview of the perceptions of primary care experts in Singapore about the state of primary care in Singapore, and to compare this with the state of primary care in other countries. Notwithstanding ranked 2(nd) in terms of efficiency of health care, Singapore is facing significant health care challenges. Emails were sent to 85 experts, where they were asked to rate Singapore's primary care system based on nine internationally adopted health system characteristics and six practice characteristics (response rate = 29%). The primary care system in Singapore received an average of 10.9 out of 30 possible points. Lowest ratings were given to: earnings of primary care physicians compared to specialists, requirement for 24 hr accessibility of primary care services, standard of family medicine in academic departments, reflection of community served by practices in patient lists, and the access to specialists without needing to be referred by primary care physicians. Singapore was categorized as a 'low' primary care country according to the experts.

  5. Workforce education and manpower development: a road map for Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Tuan-Kay

    2002-05-01

    In recognition of the rapid growth potential of the world market in optics and photonics Singapore is determined to establish itself as an optics hub. Indeed, Singapore's strong industry base in electronics, electrical devices, and semiconductors will complement well the multidisciplinary characteristics of optics and photonics, and will serve as an excellent foundation to develop more optical applications. In addition, Singapore's excellent infrastructure and appropriate industry mix, coupled with its close proximity to the emerging Asian markets would also give it an advantage for undertaking R&D and incubation of new technologies. However, a critical factor for realizing the rapid growth of the optics industry is the adequate and steady supply of qualified personnel at all levels. In this paper, a plan for developing a comprehensive, integrated education and training system is proposed. It is pointed out that the development and implementation of such a system requires the collaboration and dedication of the whole optics and photonics community in Singapore, as well as the support of a global network of optics clusters. In particular, the important roles of the Singapore Centre of Photonics Excellence (SCOPE) and the Photonics Association, Singapore) [PA(S)] is emphasized.

  6. A Comparison of Pain Beliefs and Coping Strategies and Their Association with Chronic Pain Adjustment Between Singapore and United States.

    PubMed

    Thong, Ivan S K; Tan, Gabriel; Lee, Tammy Y C; Jensen, Mark P

    2017-09-01

    Research examining the importance of pain beliefs and coping strategies to chronic pain adjustment has been performed almost exclusively using Western populations. The purpose of this study was to examine empirically the generalizability of this research to Singapore. Employing a cross-sectional design, measures assessing pain beliefs, coping strategies, pain intensity, pain interference, and depressive symptoms were administered to 101 patients with chronic pain from Singapore. Analyses examined the means of belief and coping strategies measures and their associations with measures of pain intensity, pain interference, and depressive symptoms and compared the results with the data of a sample of 100 patients with chronic pain from a previously published study from the United States. Mean differences between the Singapore and US samples were found for four of the seven belief scales, and four of the eight coping scales. When significant, associations between belief and coping strategies with measures of pain and dysfunction were in the hypothesized directions in both samples. We also found that the strength of four out of 30 of the associations between beliefs/coping strategies and measures of pain and dysfunction were different between the Singapore and US samples. The findings provide further support for the potential influence of culture on how individuals view and cope with pain. However, the many similarities found in direction and strength of the associations between beliefs/coping strategies and measures of pain/dysfunction provide preliminary support for the appropriateness of the use of cognitive behavioral therapy developed in the United States with the Singapore population.

  7. Sex work and risky sexual behaviors among foreign entertainment workers in urban Singapore: findings from Mystery Client Survey.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mee-Lian; Chan, Roy; Tan, Hiok Hee; Yong, Eunice; Lee, Lionel; Cutter, Jeffrey; Tay, Joanne; Koh, David

    2012-12-01

    Globalization has led to a rapid influx of female workers from Asian countries with high prevalence of HIV to Singapore, with many entering the entertainment industry. We assessed the prevalence of sexual services, condom use, and self-initiated screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated variables among foreign female entertainment workers in Singapore. A cross-sectional survey of 317 female entertainment workers, using mystery clients, was conducted on a two-stage proportional cluster sample of 93 entertainment establishments stratified by geographical zone in Singapore. We found a high prevalence (71 %) of sexual services in entertainment establishments with 53 % of the female entertainment workers reporting selling sex. Consistent condom use for sex with paying clients in a usual week in the past 3 months was low, ranging from 37.9 % for oral sex, 46.9 % for anal sex, to 51.9 % for vaginal sex. On multivariate logistic regression, consistent condom use for vaginal sex with clients showed a significant independent association with the entertainment worker's behavior of asking clients to use condoms and a borderline association with entertainment worker being a Chinese national. Less than half (48.9 %) of the sex workers had ever been screened for STIs either locally or in their home country. The only independent factor significantly associated with STI screening was having to support one's family. In summary, a high percentage of foreign female entertainment workers in Singapore reported selling sex. Condom use and STI screening were low among them. Access to STI screening, treatment, and education services should be enhanced for foreign female entertainment workers in Singapore.

  8. Awareness of smoking risks and attitudes towards graphic health warning labels on cigarette packs: a cross-cultural study of two populations in Singapore and Scotland.

    PubMed

    Ng, D H L; Roxburgh, S T D; Sanjay, S; Au Eong, K G

    2010-05-01

    Little is known about the level of awareness of blindness as a smoking-related condition, although the relationship has been well established. To compare the awareness of smoking risks and the impact of graphic health warning labels on cigarette packs in discouraging smoking among adults in Singapore and Scotland. A cross-sectional survey using a structured interview of adults in ophthalmic, general medical, and general surgical outpatient clinics in Singapore and Scotland. One hundred and fifteen out of 163 (70.6%) outpatients in Singapore and 105 out of 112 (93.8%) outpatients in Scotland responded to the study. In both samples, awareness levels for smoking-related diseases such as lung cancer, mouth and throat cancer, heart disease, and stroke were all greater than 85%. These were found to be significantly higher than the level of awareness of blindness as a smoking-related condition (chi (2)-test, P<0.001). Although the awareness of blindness as a smoking-related condition was greater in Singapore (36.5%) than in Scotland (30.5%), this difference was not statistically significant. More than half of the respondents indicated that graphic health warning labels would be effective in discouraging them from smoking. Graphic health warning labels reading 'Smoking causes blindness' printed on cigarette packs may be useful in raising public awareness of blindness as a smoking-related condition and discouraging the habit of smoking in Singapore and Scotland.

  9. 76 FR 30499 - To Modify the Rules of Origin for the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, and for Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... 8682 of May 23, 2011 To Modify the Rules of Origin for the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement... tariff modifications and rules of origin necessary or appropriate to carry out the USSFTA. 3. Section 202... rules of origin set out in the USSFTA and to proclaim modifications to previously proclaimed rules of...

  10. IEEE 802.11ah: A Technology to Face the IoT Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Baños-Gonzalez, Victor; Afaqui, M. Shahwaiz; Lopez-Aguilera, Elena; Garcia-Villegas, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Since the conception of the Internet of things (IoT), a large number of promising applications and technologies have been developed, which will change different aspects in our daily life. This paper explores the key characteristics of the forthcoming IEEE 802.11ah specification. This future IEEE 802.11 standard aims to amend the IEEE 802.11 legacy specification to support IoT requirements. We present a thorough evaluation of the foregoing amendment in comparison to the most notable IEEE 802.11 standards. In addition, we expose the capabilities of future IEEE 802.11ah in supporting different IoT applications. Also, we provide a brief overview of the technology contenders that are competing to cover the IoT communications framework. Numerical results are presented showing how the future IEEE 802.11ah specification offers the features required by IoT communications, thus putting forward IEEE 802.11ah as a technology to cater the needs of the Internet of Things paradigm. PMID:27879688

  11. IEEE 802.11ah: A Technology to Face the IoT Challenge.

    PubMed

    Baños-Gonzalez, Victor; Afaqui, M Shahwaiz; Lopez-Aguilera, Elena; Garcia-Villegas, Eduard

    2016-11-22

    Since the conception of the Internet of things (IoT), a large number of promising applications and technologies have been developed, which will change different aspects in our daily life. This paper explores the key characteristics of the forthcoming IEEE 802.11ah specification. This future IEEE 802.11 standard aims to amend the IEEE 802.11 legacy specification to support IoT requirements. We present a thorough evaluation of the foregoing amendment in comparison to the most notable IEEE 802.11 standards. In addition, we expose the capabilities of future IEEE 802.11ah in supporting different IoT applications. Also, we provide a brief overview of the technology contenders that are competing to cover the IoT communications framework. Numerical results are presented showing how the future IEEE 802.11ah specification offers the features required by IoT communications, thus putting forward IEEE 802.11ah as a technology to cater the needs of the Internet of Things paradigm.

  12. Soil organic carbon distribution in roadside soils of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhadip; Scharenbroch, Bryant C; Ow, Lai Fern

    2016-12-01

    Soil is the largest pool of organic carbon in terrestrial systems and plays a key role in carbon cycle. Global population living in urban areas are increasing substantially; however, the effects of urbanization on soil carbon storage and distribution are largely unknown. Here, we characterized the soil organic carbon (SOC) in roadside soils across the city-state of Singapore. We tested three hypotheses that SOC contents (concentration and density) in Singapore would be positively related to aboveground tree biomass, soil microbial biomass and land-use patterns. Overall mean SOC concentrations and densities (0-100 cm) of Singapore's roadside soils were 29 g kg(-1) (4-106 g kg(-1)) and 11 kg m(-2) (1.1-42.5 kg m(-2)) with median values of 26 g kg(-1) and 10 kg m(-2), respectively. There was significantly higher concentration of organic carbon (10.3 g kg(-1)) in the top 0-30 cm soil depth compared to the deeper (30-50 cm, and 50-100 cm) soil depths. Singapore's roadside soils represent 4% of Singapore's land, but store 2.9 million Mg C (estimated range of 0.3-11 million Mg C). This amount of SOC is equivalent to 25% of annual anthropogenic C emissions in Singapore. Soil organic C contents in Singapore's soils were not related to aboveground vegetation or soil microbial biomass, whereas land-use patterns to best explain variance in SOC in Singapore's roadside soils. We found SOC in Singapore's roadside soils to be inversely related to urbanization. We conclude that high SOC in Singapore roadside soils are probably due to management, such as specifications of high quality top-soil, high use of irrigation and fertilization and also due to an optimal climate promoting rapid growth and biological activity.

  13. Numerical Modelling of Circulation and Exchange through Singapore Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Xu, M.; Chua, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    The circulation in the Singapore coastal region is complicated and influenced by the combination of tidal forcing of the surrounding seas, complex bathymetry, irregular coastlines, and seasonal monsoon and local winds. An unstructured-grid SUNTANS (Stanford Unstructured Nonhydrostatic Terrain-following Adaptive Navier-Stokes Simulator) model is employed to perform three-dimensional simulations of flow in Singapore coastal waters. The unstructured-grid has an average resolution of 50 - 100 m around Singapore and in areas close to the shoreline, while a coarse grid resolution is employed in the open waters. The model is tidally forced at the three open boundaries, located to the west, south and east of Singapore, using the 8 main tidal constituents as derived from the OSU Tidal Prediction Software (OTPS). A detailed calibration is performed, and the model-predicted water levels and currents compare well with observed data throughout the model domain. We examine the individual and combined effects of tidal and wind forcing by performing simulations with (1) tides only, (2) winds only and (3) both tides and wind. The exchange through Singapore Strait is investigated by computing volume fluxes and transport pathways at four transects, namely the Malacca Strait, Java Sea, South China Sea and Singapore transects. The transport pathways are computed by releasing particles on each side of the transects, and identifying the spatial distribution of the particles over one tidal cycle. Our results show that tidal forcing is predominant in Singapore Strait, and wind forcing is an important mechanism during the monsoon season. The residual effects, attributed to nonlinear interactions between tidal and wind forcing, is dominant during the inter-monsoon season.

  14. Incense Use and Cardiovascular Mortality among Chinese in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Maggie L.; Ang, Li-Wei; Yu, Mimi C.; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2014-01-01

    Background: Incense burning is common in many parts of the world. Although it is perceived that particulate matter from incense smoke is deleterious to health, there is no epidemiologic evidence linking domestic exposure to cardiovascular mortality. Objective: We examined the association between exposure to incense burning and cardiovascular mortality in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Methods: We enrolled a total of 63,257 Singapore Chinese 45–74 years of age during 1993–1998. All participants were interviewed in person to collect information about lifestyle behaviors, including the practice of burning incense at home. We identified cardiovascular deaths via record linkage with the nationwide death registry through 31 December 2011. Results: In this cohort, 76.9% were current incense users, and most of the current users (89.9%) had burned incense daily for ≥ 20 years. Relative to noncurrent users, current users had a 12% higher risk of cardiovascular mortality [multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.20]. The HR was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.37) for mortality due to stroke and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.21) for mortality due to coronary heart disease. The association between current incense use and cardiovascular mortality appeared to be limited to participants without a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.26) but not linked to those with a history (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.17). In addition, the association was stronger in never-smokers (HR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23) and former smokers (HR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.42) than in current smokers (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.22). Conclusions: Long-term exposure to incense burning in the home environment was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in the study population. Citation: Pan A, Clark ML, Ang LW, Yu MC, Yuan JM, Koh WP. 2014. Incense use and cardiovascular mortality among Chinese in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health

  15. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11e (EDCF) and IEEE 802.11(DCF) WLAN Incorporating Different Physical Layer Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V.; Singh, H.; Malhotra, J.

    2012-12-01

    Medium access coordination function basically implements the distributed coordination function (DCF) which provides support to best effort services but limited to QoS services. Subsequently, a new standard, namely enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) is reported. The IEEE 802.11e (EDCA) defines MAC procedures to support QoS requirements which specifies distributed contention based access scheme to access the shared wireless media. This paper evaluates the performance of EDCA based IEEE 802.11 WLAN for various access categories (ACs) using OPNET™ Modeller 14.5. Further, the computed results are compared with DCF protocols in terms of QoS parameters. Furthermore, the simulative observation is reported at data rate of 54 Mbps using different physical layer protocols such as IEEE 802.11a/b/g to stumble on the best one to be implemented with EDCF to achieve improved QoS.

  16. Pre-Service Preparation of Mathematics Teachers in the Singapore Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim-Teo, Suat Khoh

    2002-01-01

    Describes the teacher education programs of Singapore for mathematics teachers. Focuses on their pedagogical training and their mathematical education. A coherent system of continuing education will need to be developed to meet teachers' needs in Singapore. (SLD)

  17. Analysis of Adaptive Control Scheme in IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.11e Wireless LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bih-Hwang; Lai, Hui-Cheng

    In order to achieve the prioritized quality of service (QoS) guarantee, the IEEE 802.11e EDCAF (the enhanced distributed channel access function) provides the distinguished services by configuring the different QoS parameters to different access categories (ACs). An admission control scheme is needed to maximize the utilization of wireless channel. Most of papers study throughput improvement by solving the complicated multidimensional Markov-chain model. In this paper, we introduce a back-off model to study the transmission probability of the different arbitration interframe space number (AIFSN) and the minimum contention window size (CWmin). We propose an adaptive control scheme (ACS) to dynamically update AIFSN and CWmin based on the periodical monitoring of current channel status and QoS requirements to achieve the specific service differentiation at access points (AP). This paper provides an effective tuning mechanism for improving QoS in WLAN. Analytical and simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the basic EDCAF in terms of throughput and service differentiation especially at high collision rate.

  18. IEEE P1157 Medical Data Interchange (MEDIX) Committee Overview and Status Report

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, John J.; Benson, Timothy J. R.; Spector, Andrew L.

    1990-01-01

    Working under the auspices of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE EMBS), the IEEE P1157 Medical Data Interchange (MEDIX) Committee has been chartered with developing international standards for communication of medical information between heterogeneous healthcare information systems. The IEEE P1157 Standards are based upon, and will conform to, the International Standards Organization (ISO) Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)[1]. The IEEE P1157 Committee has adopted a phased approach and is working towards balloting the initial standards, which apply to communications between a patient care system (PCS) and selected ancillaries in the medical center setting. A parallel, longer range effort, focused on developing a reference model for electronic exchange of the medical record structure, content, and related medical knowledge, is in progress.

  19. Developing IEEE medical device standards: a case study, wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices.

    PubMed

    Carey, Carole C; Zhang, Yuang-Ting

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA) is a leading standards developing organization of global industry standards in a wide-range of industries, including biomedical and healthcare.

  20. Are University Students in Singapore Meeting the International and National Recommended Daily Servings of Fruits and Vegetables?

    PubMed

    Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Tham, Dede Kam Tyng; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Wong, Mee Lian

    2017-04-01

    Data are lacking on fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among young adults in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of students who met the international and national recommendation of daily consumption of 5 and 4 FV servings, respectively, in a university in Singapore and the factors associated with meeting the national recommendation. A cross-sectional survey using proportional stratified random sampling was conducted on 884 undergraduates in 2013. The prevalence of meeting the international and national recommendation was 13.6% and 27.1%, respectively. The significant factors of meeting national recommendation were those from higher socioeconomic status, those making conscious effort to eat food high in fiber, those not skipping breakfast, those having a lower frequency of deep fried food consumption and those with higher meal frequency. Behavioral and structural interventions to educate, motivate and nudge university students to promote FV consumption are required in Singapore.

  1. Biogeography of bacterioplankton in the tropical seawaters of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lau, Stanley C K; Zhang, Rui; Brodie, Eoin L; Piceno, Yvette M; Andersen, Gary; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge about the biogeography of marine bacterioplankton on the global scale in general and in Southeast Asia in particular has been scarce. This study investigated the biogeography of bacterioplankton community in Singapore seawaters. Twelve stations around Singapore island were sampled on different schedules over 1 year. Using PCR-DNA fingerprinting, DNA cloning and sequencing, and microarray hybridization of the 16S rRNA genes, we observed clear spatial variations of bacterioplankton diversity within the small area of the Singapore seas. Water samples collected from the Singapore Strait (south) throughout the year were dominated by DNA sequences affiliated with Cyanobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria that were believed to be associated with the influx of water from the open seas in Southeast Asia. On the contrary, water in the relatively polluted Johor Strait (north) were dominated by Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and that were presumably associated with river discharge and the relatively eutrophic conditions of the waterway. Bacterioplankton diversity was temporally stable, except for the episodic surge of Pseudoalteromonas, associated with algal blooms. Overall, these results provide valuable insights into the diversity of bacterioplankton communities in Singapore seas and the possible influences of hydrological conditions and anthropogenic activities on the dynamics of the communities.

  2. The sexual profile of rapists in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Gwee, K P; Lim, L E C; Woo, M

    2002-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first paper that examines the sexual profile of rapists in Singapore. A semi-structured interview based on a questionnaire about sexual habits was conducted on 62 convicted rapists and a control group of 63 prisoners comprising 32 convicted for violent non-sexual offences and 31 for non-violent non-sexual offences. Significantly more rapists masturbated at least once a month and were exposed to pornography within six months before the offence when compared to non-violent controls. Violent controls did not differ significantly from rapists in any aspect of the sexual history. The greater similarity between rapists and violent controls lends support to the concept of rape as a violent rather than sexual offence. A subgroup of 17 'hypersexual' rapists were identified who were either having sex or masturbating very frequently but had still resorted to rape. Compared to the other 46 rapists, the 'hypersexual' rapists were more likely to have fantasised predominantly about rape or bondage and to cite domination, aggression or hostility as reasons for committing rape, suggesting an even stronger element of power and aggression than in their less sexually active counterparts.

  3. Fear of flying--a Singapore perspective.

    PubMed

    Chew, P H

    1997-01-01

    Fear of flying is a term commonly used in the Aviation Medicine community. However, heterogeneous conditions which can present with fear of flying, demand that a more stringent and systematic approach be made in one's management of the aviator with fear of flying (FOF). Cases of FOF between 1974 and 1995 presented to the Civil Aviation Medical Board and the Aeromedical Centre of the Republic of Singapore Air Force were studied for their psychopathology, psychodynamics, diagnoses, motivation for treatment, type of treatment and response to treatment, and their eventual outcome in relation of flying. 53.3% of 15 cases had Adult Situational Reaction, 26.7% had phobia of flying, 6.6% had Adjustment Disorder, 6.7% had Anxiety Depressive Disorder and 6.7% had Transient Psychosis. All cases of Adjustment Disorder were returned to flying, compared with 25% of Adult Situational Reaction, 66.7% of Phobia of Flying and none of the aircrew suffering from Transient Psychosis. Fear of flying is thus a complex phenomenon, where there is interaction of elements of mental health, neurotic roots, real and imaginary threats and life events affecting eventually the flyer's willingness to fly.

  4. The legality of slimming advertisements in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Candlish, J

    1999-01-01

    Governments in newly affluent countries like Singapore perceive a growing obesity problem, which in turn attracts the attention of numerous suppliers of slimming aids of dubious value. Advertisements relating to these appear in many cases to breach the Sale of Food Act and the Medicines Act. Under these provisions, oral and transdermal slimming aids which are not prescription drugs or on the General Sales List must have a permit if they are to be advertised, which is granted if the authorities are satisfied as to the existence of evidence for efficacy. If perceived to be harmful, however, a product can be banned and if the associated advertisement is misleading it will attract a financial penalty. Slimming aids formally excluded (like herbal preparations) can be brought under the Act by executive order and banned from sale. That this formidable array of controls is rarely applied is due to the voluntary regulatory machinery of an advertising standards authority, a non-governmental body with a parallel in many other countries. However it has limited resources. It is suggested that either the executive or the advertising authority or both could adopt more rigorous criteria for the application of the law in the interests of the public.

  5. Enhancing MAC performance of DCF protocol for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2017-01-01

    The DCF (Distributed Coordination Function) is the basic MAC (Medium Access Control) protocol of IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs and compatible with various IEEE 802.11 PHY extensions. The performance of the DCF degrades exponentially as the number of nodes participating in the DCF transmission procedure increases. To deal with this problem, we propose a simple, however efficient modification of the DCF by which the performance of the DCF is greatly enhanced.

  6. Validation of IEEE P1547.1 Interconnection Test Procedures: ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Englebretson, S.; Pink, C.; Daley, J.; Siciliano, R.; Hinton, D.

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of testing the ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System according to IEEE P1547.1 procedures. The ASCO system interconnects synchronous generators with the electric power system and provides monitoring and control for the generator and grid connection through extensive protective functions. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate and give feedback on the contents of IEEE Draft Standard P1547.1 Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  7. Algorithm XXX : functions to support the IEEE standard for binary floating-point arithmetic.

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, W. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    1993-12-01

    This paper describes C programs for the support functions copysign(x,y), logb(x), scalb(x,n), nextafter(x,y), finite(x), and isnan(x) recommended in the Appendix to the IEEE Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic. In the case of logb, the modified definition given in the later IEEE Standard for Radix-Independent Floating-Point Arithmetic is followed. These programs should run without modification on most systems conforming to the binary standard.

  8. Singapore Math: Problem-Solving Secrets from the World's Math Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Using this four CD-ROM disc set, teachers can have their very own math problem solving mentor as a leading expert in Singapore Math guides them through a lively presentation, working through math problems and explaining how Singapore has become the world's leading method in math. The expert's explanation of how to use Singapore's model-drawing…

  9. The Quest for Global Competitiveness: Promotion of Innovation and Entrepreneurial Universities in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2015-01-01

    The economy of Singapore has been continuously reforming since its independence. In the late 1980s, the economy of Singapore depended heavily on the vibrant manufacturing sector formed by foreign direct investment and multinational companies. This article critically reviews the policies and reform measures adopted by the Singapore government in…

  10. The Quest for Global Competitiveness: Promotion of Innovation and Entrepreneurial Universities in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2015-01-01

    The economy of Singapore has been continuously reforming since its independence. In the late 1980s, the economy of Singapore depended heavily on the vibrant manufacturing sector formed by foreign direct investment and multinational companies. This article critically reviews the policies and reform measures adopted by the Singapore government in…

  11. Academically Elite Students in Singapore: A Collective Moral Stance toward Aspirations and Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luke

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on a Linguistic Ethnography (Blommaert & Rampton 2011) of a group of academically elite students in Singapore. The group comprises locals born in Singapore, as well as immigrants from China and Vietnam. My informants all attended a top-ranked secondary school in Singapore. I present data from interviews and a focus group…

  12. The Enactment of the Policy Initiative for Critical Thinking in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the enactment of the policy initiative to promote critical thinking in Singapore schools from the perspectives of educators in Singapore. It is argued that teachers in Singapore are not passive recipients or mere implementers of top-down policy decisions. Rather, they enact the policy initiative by making sense of,…

  13. Academically Elite Students in Singapore: A Collective Moral Stance toward Aspirations and Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luke

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on a Linguistic Ethnography (Blommaert & Rampton 2011) of a group of academically elite students in Singapore. The group comprises locals born in Singapore, as well as immigrants from China and Vietnam. My informants all attended a top-ranked secondary school in Singapore. I present data from interviews and a focus group…

  14. Singapore Math®. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated December 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report on "Singapore Math®" updates the 2009 WWC review of the curriculum to include seven new studies. Despite the additional research, no studies meet WWC design standards and therefore, no conclusions can be made about the effectiveness of "Singapore Math®." [For the 2009 report, "Singapore Math," see…

  15. Towards Evidence-Based Initial Teacher Education in Singapore: A Review of Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Ee-Ling; Hui, Chenri; Taylor, Peter G.; Ng, Pak Tee

    2012-01-01

    Initial teacher education (ITE) in Singapore is shifting towards evidence-based practice. Despite a clear policy orientation, ITE in Singapore has not yet produced the evidence base that it is anticipating. This paper presents an analytical review of previous research into ITE in Singapore and makes comparisons to the larger international context.…

  16. Coffee intake and risk of colorectal cancer among Chinese in Singapore: the Singapore Chinese Health Study.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Sabrina; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Sun, Can-Lan; Wang, Renwei; Turesky, Robert J; Yu, Mimi C

    2010-01-01

    We prospectively investigated whether coffee consumption was associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer and whether cigarette smoking and stage of disease modify the association in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. During the first 12 years of follow-up, 961 colorectal cancer cases occurred in the cohort of over 60,000 middle-aged or older Chinese men and women living in Singapore. Baseline dietary exposures were assessed through in-person interviews using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The relation between coffee consumption and colorectal cancer risk was assessed by proportional hazards (Cox) regression. No overall association between coffee intake and colorectal cancer was observed. However, in analysis by subsite and stage restricted to ever smokers, the coffee-colon cancer association became statistically significant for advanced disease (P for trend = 0.01). The hazard ratio was 0.56 (95% confidence interval = 0.35-0.90) for advanced colon cancer in drinkers of 2 or more cups per day compared with those who drank no coffee or less than 1 cup per day. Although there is a null association between coffee intake and risk of colorectal cancer overall, coffee may protect against smoking related advanced colon cancer.

  17. Coffee Intake and Risk of Colorectal Cancer Among Chinese in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Sabrina; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Sun, Can-Lan; Wang, Renwei; Turesky, Robert J.; Yu, Mimi C.

    2012-01-01

    We prospectively investigated whether coffee consumption was associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer and whether cigarette smoking and stage of disease modify the association in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. During the first 12 years of follow-up, 961 colorectal cancer cases occurred in the cohort of over 60,000 middle-aged or older Chinese men and women living in Singapore. Baseline dietary exposures were assessed through in-person interviews using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The relation between coffee consumption and colorectal cancer risk was assessed by proportional hazards (Cox) regression. No overall association between coffee intake and colorectal cancer was observed. However, in analysis by subsite and stage restricted to ever smokers, the coffee–colon cancer association became statistically significant for advanced disease (P for trend = 0.01). The hazard ratio was 0.56 (95% confidence interval = 0.35–0.90) for advanced colon cancer in drinkers of 2 or more cups per day compared with those who drank no coffee or less than 1 cup per day. Although there is a null association between coffee intake and risk of colorectal cancer overall, coffee may protect against smoking related advanced colon cancer. PMID:20043256

  18. Corneal arcus and cardiovascular risk factors in Asians in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K; Lun, K C; Sothy, S P; Thai, A C; Leong, W P; Yeo, P B

    1992-06-01

    This study was a cross-sectional random survey of the whole of Singapore, based on 2143 subjects (aged 18-69 years, response rate 60.3%). The presence of corneal arcus was determined by a doctor using the naked eye in good light. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured by standardized techniques. The prevalence rates overall of corneal arcus were: 18-29 years (males 0.5%, females 0.3%), 30-49 years (males 18.1%, females 13.3%) and 50-69 years (males 70.7%, females 55.3%). In the 30-49 age group, people with arcus had higher serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations than people without arcus, the mean differences being, males 0.31 mmol/l (P = 0.040) and females 0.62 mmol/l (P less than 0.001) with an increased likelihood of having values greater than 5.5.mmol/l of males 1.8 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.0-3.4) and females 2.6 (95% CI: 1.4-4.8). There were no significant differences for LDL-cholesterol in the 50-69 age group. Arcus was weakly associated with fasting plasma glucose in the 30-49 age group. Arcus was not associated with serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, serum fasting triglyceride, blood pressure and cigarette smoking. It is concluded that while corneal arcus is primarily an age-related change, its formation is accelerated by high serum LDL-cholesterol so that in people under 50 years it is a marker for the condition.

  19. Sleep behaviour in a sample of preschool children in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Aishworiya, Ramkumar; Chan, Pofun; Kiing, Jennifer; Chong, Shang Chee; Laino, Armi G; Tay, Stacey Kh

    2012-03-01

    Sleep problems are common in all ages, but may be particularly acute in urban Singapore. This study aims to describe the sleep behaviour of, and to identify any sleep problems in, preschool children. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 372 children attending local childcare centers. The questionnaire was based on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), a validated parent-report sleep screening questionnaire that contains 54 items identifying sleep behaviours in children. A total of 372 (40.0%) children participated. The mean age was 4.1 (SD 1.3) years (range, 2 to 6 years). Average total sleep duration was 10.8 hours (SD 1.1) with average night-time sleep duration of 8.5 hours (SD 0.6) and average nap duration of 1.6 hours (SD 1.0). Co-sleeping was common; 80.9% of children shared a room with someone else. The most common sleep problems were in the domains of sleep resistance and morning behaviour; namely: requiring company to fall asleep (n = 272, 73.1%), being afraid to sleep alone (n = 228, 61.6%) and diffi culty in waking up (n = 165, 44.4%). Among parents, 84.1 % (n = 313) perceived that their child's sleep duration was adequate. The duration of sleep in the Singaporean preschool population sampled is signifi cantly lower than recommended values and that of previously described Caucasian populations. Parental perception of sleep adequacy deviates from current recommendations. Given the clear relation of sleep duration with cognitive functioning, learning, and physical growth, this sleep deprivation should be addressed with parental education and opportunistic screening of sleep in well-child follow-ups.

  20. Gravitraps for management of dengue clusters in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Caleb; Vythilingam, Indra; Chong, Chee-Seng; Abdul Razak, Muhammad Aliff; Tan, Cheong-Huat; Liew, Christina; Pok, Kwoon-Yong; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2013-05-01

    Although Singapore has an intensive dengue control program, dengue remains endemic with regular outbreaks. We report development and use of a novel adult oviposition trap, the Gravitrap, in managing dengue cluster areas. The Gravitrap is a simple, hay infusion-filled cylindrical trap with a sticky inner surface to serve as an oviposition site for gravid female Aedes mosquitoes. Wire gauze fitted above the water level minimizes the risk of it being an unwanted breeding habitat. The Gravitrap was deployed in 11 dengue cluster areas throughout Singapore. Aedes aegypti was the predominant mosquito caught in the trap and some (5.73%) were found to be positive for dengue virus.

  1. Ethnic fertility differentials in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Saw, S H

    1990-01-01

    Differences in fertility between the three major ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore have existed since before the onset of fertility decline in the late 1950s and remain today, although the relative positions and the actual differences have changed due to the varying rates of decline. By 1987, the Malays experienced the highest fertility and the Chinese the lowest in both countries but in Singapore the Malay fertility was lower than the Chinese fertility in Peninsular Malaysia. The fertility differentials will lead to changes in the ethnic composition in both countries but more so in Peninsular Malaysia.

  2. Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Grobe, Lars; Wittkopf, Stephen; Pandey, Anupama Rana; Xiaoming, Yang; Seng, Ang Kian; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-02-28

    A setup to monitor the daylighting performance of different glazing types in Singapore is presented. The glazing is installed in the facade of four dedicated testing chambers in BCAA's Zero Energy Building in Singapore. These test rooms are equipped with sensors that both record illuminances on the work plane, and luminances as seen by occupants. The physical and logical design of the monitoring system is presented. Criteria to assess the daylighting performance are introduced, and initial results of the work in progress are presented.

  3. [Present situation and development of acupuncture and moxibustion in Singapore].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Jun; Zhu, An-Ning; Liao, Xiu-Lian; Ouyang, Qiang-Bo

    2013-10-01

    The development history, education, legislation, charge and institutes of acupuncture and moxibustion in Singapore are introduced in this article. Acupuncture and moxibustion has been developed in Singapore since 1840. Nowadays there are three universities that set up standard Chinese medicine courses and two acupuncture-moxibustion associations. Legislation of acupuncture and moxibustion is published in 2000. The acupuncture and moxibustion is applied for approximately 50 kinds of diseases. The acupuncture and moxibustion is at one's own expense in public or private institutions, but cheap or completely free in charity.

  4. The Medical Informatics Program at the National University of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lun, K C; Leong, T Y; Ong, K; Raghavan, R; Pung, H K

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Informatics Program at the National University of Singapore was established in September 1996 with a $4 million joint funding from the National Science and Technology Board and the Ministry of Education. The primary aims of the research program are to undertake upstream basic research in medical informatics and to build a critical mass of medical informatics expertise to meet long-term research goals and to effect technology transfer to the health sector of Singapore. Research projects fall into five groups: Clinical Decision Systems, Health Information Systems, Biomedical Datamining Systems, Medical Education Systems and Medical Networking, Applications Development and Integration Systems.

  5. The epidemiology of lung cancer in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, H P

    1985-07-01

    Lung cancer has reached epidemic proportions in all developed countries and many of the urban centres of the developing world. It is the most frequent cancer site in Singapore, accounting for 23.4% (623 cases) of all cancer deaths and nearly 5% of all causes in 1982. Based on incidence data for 1968-1977, among males, there was an average of about 330 cases diagnosed each year, giving an annual incidence rate of 30.7 per 100,000 and a proportion of 21% against all sites. Among females, there was an average of about 115 cases, with the incidence rate at 11.2 and the proportion 10.3% (ranking third behind breast and cervix). The risks among the Chinese were more than double those of the other ethnic groups. The Hokkien (73.2 per 100,000) and Teochew (67.0) males had one of the highest age-standardized incidence rates in the world. Most of the cases were of the epidermoid carcinoma type. Among the females, the Cantonese (28.5) had about double the risks compared to the other dialect groups, and the rate was among the highest in the world. Adenocarcinomas accounted for almost 50% of the cases. The relevant host and environmental factors associated with lung cancer are discussed. Without doubt, cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor. The ultimate solution to this problem must lie in an effective smoking control programme, besides much-needed improvements in early diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  6. Porokeratosis in Singapore: an Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lucinda Siyun; Chong, Wei-Sheng

    2012-05-01

    Porokeratosis is a rare disorder of skin keratinisation characterised by a cornoid lamella. We reviewed its associations with immunosuppression and phototherapy, as well as the risks of malignant progression. This is a retrospective review on all cases of porokeratosis seen at the National Skin Centre, Singapore, between 2000 and 2010. A total of 94 patients were reviewed. Clinical and histological diagnoses were confirmed in 63% patients. Most patients were Chinese (89%) with a mean age of 51.6 years. The male to female ratio was 1.4:1. The four main clinical variants were classical porokeratosis of Mibelli (56%), disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) (18%), disseminated superficial porokeratosis (DSP) (11%), and linear porokeratosis (13%). Phototherapy-induced porokeratosis, seen in three patients, is rare. Seven cases of porokeratosis occurred in patients who were immunosuppressed. Progression of porokeratosis to malignancy is uncommon and was observed in three patients. The most common treatments included cryotherapy (26.5%) as well as topical steroids or retinoids (38.1%). A good response, defined as clear or almost clear lesions, occurred in 16% patients. The most common presentation of porokeratosis in our review was a middle-aged male patient with an asymptomatic lesion of porokeratosis of Mibelli over the extremities. No particular immunosuppressive drug was implicated. Porokeratosis associated with ultraviolet phototherapy or malignancy is rare. Progression of porokeratosis to malignancy arose in the disseminated variants, with a possible correlation with age. This is the largest institutional retrospective review of porokeratosis to date and highlights the major epidemiological characteristics of this condition. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  7. Understanding the psychosocial and physical work environment in a Singapore medical school.

    PubMed

    Chan, G C T; Koh, D

    2007-02-01

    This study aims to understand the physical and psychosocial work environment, expectations and the perceived levels of stress encountered of medical students in Singapore. A cross-sectional study employing a self-administered work environment questionnaire was applied over a one-week period to the entire 2003/2004 medical school cohort (1,069 students, response rate 85 percent) from the first to fifth (final) years at the National University of Singapore. 3.3 percent had at least one needlestick injury within the academic year. The majority (especially the clinical students) also had musculoskeletal complaints (neck and back mainly) within the last three months. Using the General Health Questionnaire, it was found that 49.6 percent encountered significant stress and 64.6 percent reported that more than 60 percent of their total life stress was due to medical school. The most important psychosocial stressors were: too much work and difficulty in coping. The clinical students were particularly concerned about being good medical students and doctors. The reasons for choosing Medicine as a career and social health (health, study and sleep habits) were also studied. The health risks of a medical student are primarily psychosocial in nature. The biggest challenges are work demands, maintaining a work-life balance and managing the psychosocial work environment.

  8. Sociodemographic factors influencing the effectiveness of public health education - a comparison of two studies in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wee, Hwee-Lin; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2007-11-01

    We aimed to evaluate if sociodemographic factors influenced the effectiveness of public education programmes in Singapore. Data were extracted from 2 independent cross-sectional studies that assessed the effectiveness of diabetes and HIV/ AIDS public health education programmes. The influence of sociodemographic factors including age, gender, ethnicity and years of education on diabetes and HIV/AIDS knowledge scores (surrogate marker for programme effectiveness) were assessed using separate univariable and multiple linear regression models for each outcome variable. A total of 1321 subjects [46% male, mean (SD) age: 33.9 (13.44) years] participated in the diabetes study while 400 subjects [44% male, mean (SD) age: 33.9 (13.44) years] participated in the HIV/AIDS study. In univariable analyses, age, years of education and ethnicity influenced both diabetes and HIV/ AIDS knowledge scores. However, in multiple linear regression analyses, only age and years of education influenced both diabetes and HIV/AIDS knowledge scores. We found that age and years of education influenced the effectiveness of public health education, suggesting that there is a need to tailor public health education programmes to meet the needs of younger subjects and those with fewer years of education. That knowledge scores were similar between male and female subjects was surprising but could potentially be explained by equal access to information, high availability of information technology and heightened awareness of HIV/AIDS in Singapore.

  9. Family history, near work, outdoor activity, and myopia in Singapore Chinese preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Low, Wilson; Dirani, Mohamed; Gazzard, Gus; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Zhou, Hui-Jun; Selvaraj, Prabakaran; Au Eong, Kah-Guan; Young, Terri L; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien-Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate the risk factors for myopia, including near work and outdoor activity, in Singapore Chinese preschool children. Methods A cross-sectional study, with disproportionate random sampling by 6-month age groups, of 3009 Singapore Chinese children aged 6–72 months was performed. Information on family history, near work and outdoor activity was obtained. Spherical equivalent refraction (SEA) was assessed. Results Children with two myopic parents were more likely to be myopic (adjusted OR=1.91; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.63) and to have a more myopic SER (regression coefficient=−0.35; 95% CI −0.47 to −0.22) than children without myopic parents. For each 1 cm taller height, the SER was more myopic by 0.01 dioptres. Neither near work nor outdoor activity was associated with preschool myopia. Conclusions A family history of myopia was the strongest factor associated with preschool myopia. In contrast, neither near work nor outdoor activity was found to be associated with early myopia. These data suggest that genetic factors may play a more substantial role in the development of early-onset myopia than key environmental factors. PMID:20472747

  10. Distribution and determinants of ocular biometric parameters in an Asian population: the Singapore Malay eye study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Laurence Shen; Saw, Seang-Mei; Jeganathan, V Swetha E; Tay, Wan Ting; Aung, Tin; Tong, Louis; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin

    2010-01-01

    To examine the distribution and systemic determinants of ocular biometry as measured using partial laser interferometry in an adult Asian population. A population-based, cross-sectional study of 3280 persons (78.7% participation rate) ages 40 to 80 years, of Malay ethnicity residing in Singapore, was conducted. Axial ocular dimensions, including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal curvature (CC), were determined with partial laser interferometry. Participants had a comprehensive interview and a standardized examination. After 492 persons were excluded who had undergone cataract surgery, data on 2788 subjects were available. The mean AL, ACD, and CC were 23.55, 3.10, and 7.65 mm, respectively. AL and ACD decreased with increasing age. In multivariate models that adjusted for age, sex, education, height, weight, number of reading hours, diabetes, and current smoking, longer AL was associated with being male, height, increasing weight, higher education levels, and total reading hours. Increasing CC was associated with greater age and greater height and weight after multivariable adjustment. Age, sex, and stature were the most consistent predictors of the results of ocular biometry in the Singapore Malay adult population.

  11. Prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and severity of generalized anxiety disorder in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siau Pheng; Sagayadevan, Vathsala; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-10-01

    Despite its pervasiveness and associated impairment, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) remains a poorly recognized disorder. Furthermore, given that GAD has been relatively understudied in Asia, the current study examined the prevalence, correlates and co-morbid conditions of this disorder in a multi-ethnic population of Singapore. Data was utilized from the Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS), a cross-sectional epidemiological survey conducted among the adult population (n=6616) aged 18 years and above. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI v3.0) was used to assess co-morbidity as well as the life-time and 12-month prevalence of disorders. Functional impairment and treatment-seeking behavior were also assessed. The life-time (0.9%) and 12-month (0.4%) prevalence estimates in the current study were found to be lower than those reported in Western populations but comparable to the prevalence estimates found in Asian countries. The relatively lower prevalence rate of GAD in this study suggests the possible role of culture in reporting and manifestation of anxiety symptomatology. The failure of a substantial proportion of individuals to seek treatment despite self-reported impairment was also identified as an area of concern.

  12. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  13. Wireless Laptops in English Classrooms: A SWOT Analysis from Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towndrow, Phillip A.; Vaish, Viniti

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents illustrative findings from a one-year pilot study undertaken in the English department of a high school in Singapore that was in the first year of implementing a one-to-one wireless laptop programme. The findings show that learning was often constrained by lecture-style presentations and overt test preparation. Despite…

  14. Addressing the Needs of the Gifted in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neihart, Maureen; Teo, Chua Tee

    2013-01-01

    The tiny, multicultural nation of Singapore has a long history of provisions for gifted students. Beliefs about ability and talent development are strongly influenced by traditional Confucian perspectives that view environmental factors as dominant in the development of talent. Early identification is not stressed and working hard is emphasized at…

  15. Instituting Change in Early Childhood Education: Recent Developments in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Chan, Yvonne Yoke Yin

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to improve preschool education, the Singapore government has embraced the need for change by identifying needed policies related to preschool education. These changes require teachers to rethink their approach to learning and teaching. A proposed tool suggested in this paper that may help facilitate curriculum change is the use of…

  16. Seeking Resilience and Sustainability: Outdoor Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Ho, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor education is not a universal value. Rather, outdoor education's contributions need to be grounded in time, place and culture. In this paper we describe the historical and cultural milieu that has enabled the emergence of outdoor education in Singapore and report on exploratory survey research into Singaporean teachers' conceptions of…

  17. Fourth Way in Action? The Evolution of Singapore's Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Hargreaves and Shirley's "The Fourth Way" offers a valuable framework for considering the challenges and dilemmas that confront education change practitioners. In this article, I consider how well their framework fits the evolution and more recent changes in Singapore education. History, context culture and aspirations are seen as…

  18. Musical Memories: Snapshots of a Chinese Family in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines music in the home of a Chinese family in Singapore with specific attention to the children (aged five and seven) of the household: an exploration of what constitutes the lived 'musical' memory of a family enmeshed in the technology and media of a globalised world. The study is part of a larger ethnographic study on the musical…

  19. Sex (Education) in the City: Singapore's Sexuality Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Warren Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the Singapore Ministry of Education's sexuality education curriculum in relation to two leading approaches to sex education, namely, abstinence-only-until-marriage education (AOUME) and comprehensive sexuality education (CSE). Based on competing cultural, political, and religious beliefs, the arguments between the advocates of…

  20. University 2.0: A View from Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Daniel; Lee, Chye Seng; Chan, Lay Kock; Lu, Adrian Din How

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights the processes and best practices adopted by Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in Singapore in implementing their mission-critical e-learning services for a population of 28,000 students and 1,100 faculty members. The various phases of this rapid growth in e-learning from the initial genesis in achieving mass buy-in by…

  1. English, Language Shift and Values Shift in Japan and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This is a comparative study of English language education in Japan and Singapore and the role English plays in both countries. English language education in Japan has not been very effective. Although the communicative approach to teaching English was introduced in the 1980s, schools still use the grammar-translation method and most Japanese do…

  2. Musical Memories: Snapshots of a Chinese Family in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines music in the home of a Chinese family in Singapore with specific attention to the children (aged five and seven) of the household: an exploration of what constitutes the lived 'musical' memory of a family enmeshed in the technology and media of a globalised world. The study is part of a larger ethnographic study on the musical…

  3. Dietary practices of adolescents in Singapore and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lew, K; Barlow, P J

    2005-06-01

    This study sets out to investigate any differences in dietary practices between adolescents in Singapore and Malaysia. An adolescent dietary practices survey was conducted in Singapore and Malaysia involving 200 adolescents (100 from each country) aged 11 to 21 years in order to have a better understanding of the adolescents' dietary practices. Dietary practices were assessed by a self-administered dietary practices questionnaire (DPQ). The major differences identified between adolescents' dietary practices in Singapore and Malaysia are related to alcohol consumption and venue for taking of lunch. More Malaysian adolescents have their lunch prepared at home (32.9 percent), compared with 7.2 percent of Singaporean adolescents. More adolescents in Malaysia drink alcohol (49.4 percent), compared with only 21.7 percent of Singaporean adolescents. From the dietary practices survey of adolescents from Singapore and Malaysia, it may be concluded that while general dietary practices are similar, the major differences identified were significantly (p-value is less than 0.05) higher alcohol consumption by Malaysian adolescents and significantly (p-value is less than 0.05) more Malaysians took their lunch at home compared with Singaporeans. The reasons for the differences are discussed in the paper.

  4. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education (Singapore).

    Since Singapore achieved partial self-government in 1955, economic and political considerations have reshaped educational policy and programs to support the transformation to an industrialized country. Changes in the educational systems include: more facilities for technical education and training; a reorganized secondary school system phasing out…

  5. Journeys in the Learning Sciences: The Singapore Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Thiam Seng; Huang, David; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.; Chen, Victor; Hung, David

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research in the Learning Sciences from a Design Research perspective, as it has been framed in Singapore by the National Institute of Education (NIE). The initial research agenda is considered in the light of challenges and the subsequent re-casting of objectives, based on the working out of a tripartite…

  6. The Effect of Accent on Listening Comprehension: A Singapore Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, George K.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted at Nanyang University in Singapore with Chinese-educated students who supposedly received 12 years of instruction in English but who were still deficient in the language. Comprehension of four different English accents were tested, and two tests of measuring aural comprehension were compared. (SW)

  7. Logistics in hospitals: a case study of some Singapore hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhi Xiong; Pokharel, Shaligram

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate logistics activities in Singapore hospitals. It defines various types of activities handled by a logistics division. Inventory management policy and the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) for logistics purposes are also discussed. The study identifies the nature of strategic alliances in Singapore's health care industry. This study was conducted by utilizing a framework for data collection, pre-testing the questionnaire and conducting interviews. Various relevant literature was reviewed to design the questionnaire. This study finds that logistics division carry out many related activities and some of them also provide engineering services. The hospitals make use of ICT. The hospitals are clustered under various groups to minimize the cost of operation, including the logistics related costs. However, hospitals do not see alliances with suppliers as a strategic option; rather they focus on outsourcing of logistics services. The findings also show that Singapore hospitals have a good stocking policy for both medical and non-medical items so that changes in patient mix can be easily handled. Singapore is continuously improving its health care industry and therefore, the findings will help hospitals in other regions to adopt some of the practices, like concentrating on local vendors, outsourcing, clustering, and maximum use of information technology as competitive factors that can improve the service and reduce the cost of operation. The paper suggests motivators and barriers to the use of ICT in logistics in the health care industry.

  8. Addressing the Needs of the Gifted in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neihart, Maureen; Teo, Chua Tee

    2013-01-01

    The tiny, multicultural nation of Singapore has a long history of provisions for gifted students. Beliefs about ability and talent development are strongly influenced by traditional Confucian perspectives that view environmental factors as dominant in the development of talent. Early identification is not stressed and working hard is emphasized at…

  9. They Play Soccer Too!--"Madrasah" Education in Multicultural Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Ooi Giok; Fui, Chee Min

    2007-01-01

    Muslim education, particularly in rapidly globalising Singapore, has had to negotiate changes which both the education sector specifically and society generally have faced. Some of these changes have challenged "madrasahs", which provide Muslim religious education, to introduce new curriculum. Yet other changes are challenging the nature…

  10. Moral Education in a Plural Society: A Singapore Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopinathan, S.

    1980-01-01

    This article examines moral education in the schools of Singapore, a highly complex society with considerable pluralism plus rapid urbanization and industrialization. Analysis of recent government reports indicates an inadequate response to moral education issues--concern for political stability and ethnic sensibilities promote generalizations…

  11. Toward a Cosmopolitan Vision of English Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Suzanne S.

    2014-01-01

    English education has played a vital role in facilitating Singapore's global city ambitions since the country's independence. While the state has prioritized English education's cognitive objective emphasizing information processing and effective communication skills, it has given insufficient attention to the role of English in equipping students…

  12. Mathematics Attitudes and Achievement of Junior College Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Lim Siew

    2010-01-01

    Studies that investigated students' attitudes toward mathematics and its relationships with achievement are scarce in Singapore. To address this issue, the mathematics attitudes and achievement of 984 junior college students were measured. Results indicated that students had positive attitudes toward mathematics but lacked intrinsic motivation to…

  13. Teacher Appraisal and Its Outcomes in Singapore Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Khim Ong; Ang, Shi Yun Angela; Chong, Wei Ling; Hu, Wei Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the performance appraisal system used for primary school teachers in Singapore, and how those attributes affect satisfaction with the appraisal system, stress experienced with the appraisal system, attitudes towards performance bonus, job satisfaction and motivation, and perceived…

  14. The energy cost of water independence: the case of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Lenouvel; Michel, Lafforgue; Catherine, Chevauché; Pauline, Rhétoré

    2014-01-01

    Finding alternative resources to secure or increase water availability is a key issue in most urban areas. This makes the research of alternative and local water resources of increasing importance. In the context of political tension with its main water provider (Malaysia), Singapore has been implementing a comprehensive water policy for some decades, which relies on water demand management and local water resource mobilisation in order to reach water self-sufficiency by 2060. The production of water from alternative resources through seawater desalination or water reclamation implies energy consumptive technologies such as reverse osmosis. In the context of increasing energy costs and high primary energy dependency, this water self-sufficiency objective is likely to be an important challenge for Singapore. The aim of this paper is to quantify the long-term impact of Singapore's water policy on the national electricity bill and to investigate the impact of Singapore's projects to reduce its water energy footprint. We estimate that 2.0% of the Singaporean electricity demand is already dedicated to water and wastewater treatment processes. If its water-energy footprint dramatically increases in the coming decades, ambitious research projects may buffer the energy cost of water self-sufficiency.

  15. What Provokes Young People to Get into Trouble: Singapore Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Kai Yung; Heng, Mary Anne; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors address correctional education and juvenile delinquency. The authors examined the case files of 54 juvenile offenders incarcerated in the Kaki Bukit Center Prison School in Singapore to analyze the antecedents that provoked these young offenders to commit the offenses. The juveniles reported that peer influence and…

  16. Theoretical Discussion on Forms of Cultural Capital in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion on five forms of cultural resources that constitute cultural capital for children in the meritocratic yet stratified society of Singapore. These five forms of cultural capital are namely "academic" tastes and leisure preferences, use of Standard English, access to and dispositions toward…

  17. Libraries in West Malaysia and Singapore; A Short History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Edward Lim Huck

    An attempt is made to trace the history of every major library in Malay and Singapore. Social and recreational club libraries are not included, and school libraries are not extensively covered. Although it is possible to trace the history of Malaysia's libraries back to the first millenium of the Christian era, there are few written records…

  18. Numeracy of Young Children in Singapore, Beijing and Helsinki

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ee, Jessie; Wong, Khoon Yoong; Aunio, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Young children's number sense is essential for the acquisition of higher number skills in later years. Most recent studies focus on children over 6 years of age only. To extend the scope, this study dealt with the performance of children aged 4-7 years in 3 cities: Singapore, Beijing and Helsinki (This study is an extension of the research of…

  19. Language Shift in the Tamil Communities of Malaysia and Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Harold F.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the position of Tamil as the language of an ethnic minority in Malaysia and Singapore, placing the issue of Tamil and language maintenance within the larger sociolinguistic milieu in the two countries and drawing conclusions about the role of language policy and planning in the determination of linguistic outcomes. (SM)

  20. Tongue-Tied in Singapore: A Language Policy for Tamil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Harold F.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the Tamil language situation in Singapore, which lends itself ideally to the study of minority-language maintenance. Examines attempts to maintain Tamil, a highly diglossic language in emigration and concludes that the well-meaning bilingual education system actually produces a situation of subtractive bilingualism. (Author/VWL)

  1. Moral Education in a Plural Society: A Singapore Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopinathan, S.

    1980-01-01

    This article examines moral education in the schools of Singapore, a highly complex society with considerable pluralism plus rapid urbanization and industrialization. Analysis of recent government reports indicates an inadequate response to moral education issues--concern for political stability and ethnic sensibilities promote generalizations…

  2. Lifelong Learning, Income Inequality and Social Mobility in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Millie; Morris, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singapore has been assigned the role of a "model" nation state primarily for two reasons: its rapid rate of economic growth and its outstanding performance on cross-national tests of educational achievement, such as PISA. This has resulted in advocates of reform citing it as illustrating "best practices", especially in the…

  3. Organisational Legitimacy of the Singapore Ministry of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the perceived organisational legitimacy of the Singapore Ministry of Education (MOE) in preparing the population for work in the knowledge-based economy (KBE). It is argued that challenges to MOE's legitimacy are emerging with ramifications that are difficult to ignore. These challenges relate to equipping the population with…

  4. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  5. Organisational Legitimacy of the Singapore Ministry of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the perceived organisational legitimacy of the Singapore Ministry of Education (MOE) in preparing the population for work in the knowledge-based economy (KBE). It is argued that challenges to MOE's legitimacy are emerging with ramifications that are difficult to ignore. These challenges relate to equipping the population with…

  6. Elite Schools, Postcolonial Chineseness and Hegemonic Masculinities in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Daniel P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The educational reproduction of elite masculinity in postcolonial societies has not been properly studied. This is partly because the postcolonial masculinities of non-western elites are accomplished through the cultivation of naturalized practices signifying the body politic of the nation-state. In Singapore, same-sex elite schools of colonial…

  7. The Talent Development of a Musically Gifted Adolescent in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Pauline S. K.; Chong, Sylvia N. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Using Gagne's Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (DMGT) as a conceptual model, this study investigated the factors that influenced the talent development process of a musically gifted adolescent in Singapore. Five macro themes emerged as key catalysts that impacted the adolescent's talent growth: (1) natural abilities; (2) early musical…

  8. Nurturing Bilingual Learners: Challenges and Concerns in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan; Sun, Baoqi

    2016-01-01

    Singapore's bilingual policy legitimises English not only as the language of governmental administration and interethnic communication, but also as the medium of instruction in all schools on all levels and across all subjects except mother tongues (MTs). As a result of these politics of language recognition, a visible shift has occurred in all…

  9. Sex (Education) in the City: Singapore's Sexuality Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Warren Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the Singapore Ministry of Education's sexuality education curriculum in relation to two leading approaches to sex education, namely, abstinence-only-until-marriage education (AOUME) and comprehensive sexuality education (CSE). Based on competing cultural, political, and religious beliefs, the arguments between the advocates of…

  10. Auditors' Communication Requirements: A Study of Five MNCs in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goby, Valerie Priscilla; Lewis, Justus Helen

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the work and communication needs of newly graduated auditors, their senior colleagues, and their managers in five MNCs (multinational companies) in Singapore. Suggests that accounting courses could prepare undergraduates more effectively in the oral/interpersonal skills needed in the initial stages of their auditing careers by…

  11. Vocational Education in Singapore: Meritocracy and Hidden Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Terence

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a broad overview of vocational education in Singapore. Looking at vocational education from Independence, it argues that the development of a skilled labour force was not only crucial in the age of globalisation and the dominance of multinational companies, but also an empirical litmus test of the newly elected post-colonial…

  12. Centralized Workshops in Singapore. Education and Work 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, P. Harbans

    First in an education and work series on innovative vocational training programs in Asian countries, this booklet describes the program in Singapore of integrating technical studies with general education at the lower secondary level through centralized workshops that provide training for students from all types of secondary schools in a region.…

  13. A Consultant Study of the Singapore American School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Kenneth M.

    Designed to provide assistance in planning short- and long-range solutions to alleviate overcrowding in elementary and middle schools belonging to the Singapore American School, this study gives an overview of the geographic, political, and economic factors affecting enrollment and provides a detailed analysis of the schools' facilities. The…

  14. Workshops in Secondary Schools, Singapore. Educational Building Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew Kok-Pun, Michael; And Others

    The focus of this document is on the design of educational facilities, especially workshops, in Singapore. Chapter 1 discusses secondary schools, including the general curriculum and specifications-of-space provision in a standard secondary school. In chapter 2 the position of technical education within general secondary schools is addressed.…

  15. Use of Facebook: A Case Study of Singapore Students' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2012-01-01

    Facebook has become one of the most popular social network sites among many students. However, current research on Facebook use has focused mainly on Anglo-American students. Relatively little is known about Facebook use in Singapore. Data were collected from 83 students (ages ranged from 15 to 23). This study uses a naturalistic case study…

  16. Special Education Teacher Preparation in Singapore's Dual Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Global comparisons of teacher education programs should start with an understanding of the school systems that teachers are being prepared for in their local contexts. The purpose of this article is to describe Singapore's dual education system as well as teacher preparation in a country that educates many students with disabilities in a separate…

  17. How to Assemble a Knowledge Economy: Singapore's Transnational Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2006-01-01

    This article takes Singapore, an emerging education hub, as a focal point from which to investigate its attempts to become a global city and knowledge-based economy. It outlines how discourses of the knowledge economy are used to rationalise particular policy interventions and the transnational education forms arising from them. It speculates on…

  18. Principals' Engagement of Low Ability Students in Singapore Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Chye Hin; Dimmock, Clive

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a grounded theory constructed from a study of Singapore neighbourhood secondary school principals' engagement of their lowest stream, the Normal Technical students, in their schools. This substantive theory is labelled the "theory of selective engagement". It implies that how principals engage their lowest streamed…

  19. Teaching Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Building on the Singapore Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Turner, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Is it possible to teach someone to be an entrepreneur? Is innovation something that can be assessed and taught in a classroom? Teaching Innovation and Entrepreneurship answers these and other questions by focusing on a teaching experiment in Singapore at Nanyang Technological University, wherein classes of English-speaking Singaporeans and…

  20. Lifelong Learning, Income Inequality and Social Mobility in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Millie; Morris, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singapore has been assigned the role of a "model" nation state primarily for two reasons: its rapid rate of economic growth and its outstanding performance on cross-national tests of educational achievement, such as PISA. This has resulted in advocates of reform citing it as illustrating "best practices", especially in the…

  1. Changing Conceptualization of the Role of Educational Psychologists in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kit, Phey Ling; Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra; Burgetova, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Psychology is a young discipline in Singapore. Hence, perceptions of the roles and responsibilities of an educational psychologist (EP) are still constantly being negotiated and redefined. This qualitative study examined how role negotiations and redefinitions could be actively facilitated through an experiential and intensive two-day Basic…

  2. Supporting Inclusive Education: Negotiating Home-School Partnership in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Meng Ee; Ng, Zi Jia; Poon, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    While there has been growing theoretical and policy interest in the areas of homeschool partnership and inclusive education, relatively little work has linked the two fields. Where there have been studies, these have focused primarily on parent or school perspective. With inclusive education in its nascent stage in Singapore, this study examines…

  3. Use of Facebook: A Case Study of Singapore Students' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2012-01-01

    Facebook has become one of the most popular social network sites among many students. However, current research on Facebook use has focused mainly on Anglo-American students. Relatively little is known about Facebook use in Singapore. Data were collected from 83 students (ages ranged from 15 to 23). This study uses a naturalistic case study…

  4. The Design of Secondary Schools--A Case Study, Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew Kok-Pun, Michael; And Others

    Land scarcity dominates the thinking of school planners in Singapore. Techniques for optimizing the use of land for schools include (1) the construction of multi-storied or high-rise schools; (2) operation of a double-shift system and, in some cases, a triple-shift system; (3) multiple use of educational spaces; and (4) construction of several…

  5. Successful School Leadership: Case Studies of Four Singapore Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Loke Heng; Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics and practices of principals in four successful Singapore primary schools. Design/Methodology/Approach: Multiple perspective case studies were used which included semi-structured interviews with the principal, teaching and non-teaching staff, students, parents and school board…

  6. The practice and challenges of solid waste management in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Bai, Renbi; Sutanto, Mardina

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the current solid waste management situation in Singapore and provides a brief discussion of the future challenges. Singapore is a small island city-state with a large population, warm climate and high humidity. Over the past two to three decades, rapid industrialization and economic development have caused a tremendous increase in solid waste generation. The yearly disposed solid waste increased from 0.74 million tonnes in 1972 to 2.80 million tonnes in 2000. Solid waste management in Singapore has traditionally been undertaken by the Ministry of Environment (ENV), with the participation of some private sectors in recent years. The hierarchy of solid waste management in Singapore is waste minimization (reduce, reuse and recycle or so-called 3 Rs), followed by incineration and landfill. As land is extremely scarce and only one newly constructed offshore landfill site is available, solid waste incineration has been identified as the most preferred disposal method. Waste minimization, the utilization of incineration ashes, industrial waste management are regarded to be the major challenges in the future.

  7. The Transnational Track: State Sponsorship and Singapore's Oxbridge Elite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Rebecca; Nylander, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the process of transnational institutional matching between elite institutions in Singapore and Great Britain, and the role of state-sponsored scholarships in enabling this process as political and administrative elites are selected and groomed. Using data gathered from in-depth interviews conducted with Singaporean…

  8. English, Language Shift and Values Shift in Japan and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This is a comparative study of English language education in Japan and Singapore and the role English plays in both countries. English language education in Japan has not been very effective. Although the communicative approach to teaching English was introduced in the 1980s, schools still use the grammar-translation method and most Japanese do…

  9. Reviving Polya's "Look Back" in a Singapore School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Yew Hoong; Tay, Eng Guan; Toh, Tin Lam; Quek, Khiok Seng; Dindyal, Jaguthsing

    2011-01-01

    This study is based on the stance that Polya's "Look Back," though understudied, remains relevant to Mathematics curricula that place emphasis on problem solving. Although the Singapore Mathematics curriculum adopts the goal of teaching Look Back, research about how it is carried out in actual classroom practice is rare. In our project,…

  10. The State, Teachers and Citizenship Education in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Jasmine B-Y; Print, Murray

    2009-01-01

    States commonly employ education policy to build a strong sense of citizenship within young people and to create types of citizens appropriate to the country. In Singapore the government created a policy to build citizenship through both policy statements and social studies in the school curriculum. In the context of a tightly controlled state…

  11. Contesting Reform: Bernstein's Pedagogic Device and Madrasah Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the active role played by various pedagogic agents in contesting the state educational reforms for madrasahs in Singapore. Drawing upon Basil Bernstein's pedagogic device, the paper identifies tensions and challenges that arise from the attempts by the state to implement curriculum reforms. The paper contends that the stakes…

  12. Curriculum Integration in Singapore: Teachers' Perspectives and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chi Chung; Alviar-Martin, Theresa; Adler, Susan A.; Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we examined eleven Singapore teachers' conceptions of teaching and learning as related to their experiences implementing integrated curriculum. Interviews revealed that the teachers' conceptions of integration spanned the spectrum of ideas found in relevant literature. Further, although participants saw benefits to…

  13. Computer Habits and Behaviours among Young Children in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karuppiah, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…

  14. "Our Shared Values" in Singapore: A Confucian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Charlene Tan offers a philosophical analysis of the Singapore state's vision of shared citizenship by examining it from a Confucian perspective. The state's vision, known formally as "Our Shared Values," consists of communitarian values that reflect the official ideology of multiculturalism. This initiative included a White…

  15. Educational Leadership in Singapore: Tight Coupling, Sustainability, Scalability, and Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: While Singapore's outstanding educational achievements are well known worldwide, there is a disproportionate paucity of literature on school leadership practices that contribute to and support pedagogical initiatives that--along with socio-cultural factors--are normally considered responsible for its educational success. The aim of this…

  16. Teaching Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Building on the Singapore Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Turner, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Is it possible to teach someone to be an entrepreneur? Is innovation something that can be assessed and taught in a classroom? Teaching Innovation and Entrepreneurship answers these and other questions by focusing on a teaching experiment in Singapore at Nanyang Technological University, wherein classes of English-speaking Singaporeans and…

  17. Toward a Cosmopolitan Vision of English Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Suzanne S.

    2014-01-01

    English education has played a vital role in facilitating Singapore's global city ambitions since the country's independence. While the state has prioritized English education's cognitive objective emphasizing information processing and effective communication skills, it has given insufficient attention to the role of English in equipping students…

  18. Encouraging a Culture of Research in Practicing Teachers in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Chan, Yvonne Yoke Yin; Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Upgrading the status of early childhood teaching and improving job satisfaction are areas of concern to practitioners, policy makers and other stakeholders in the early childhood field. Ways to upgrade practicing teachers, including their involvement in research, is an on-going challenge. This paper reports on a research in Singapore where a…

  19. Principals' Engagement of Low Ability Students in Singapore Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Chye Hin; Dimmock, Clive

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a grounded theory constructed from a study of Singapore neighbourhood secondary school principals' engagement of their lowest stream, the Normal Technical students, in their schools. This substantive theory is labelled the "theory of selective engagement". It implies that how principals engage their lowest streamed…

  20. Bilingualism without Diglossia: The Indian Community in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti

    2007-01-01

    This paper tells a tentative story from the preliminary findings of The Sociolinguistic Survey of Singapore, 2006 (SSS 2006). Though the main study reports on language use amongst Chinese, Malay and Indian communities, my focus is only on Indian homes. The paper reports results from five domains: school, family and friends, media, public space and…

  1. Starting School--A Singapore Story Told by Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Clarke, Christine

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers the perspective of a group of Primary One children in Singapore on their transition from preschool to formal schooling. It examines their impressions of school expectations, adjustments in daily routine, and the best and worst aspects of school. Data obtained from a structured interview indicates that children regard school as a…

  2. "Our Shared Values" in Singapore: A Confucian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Charlene Tan offers a philosophical analysis of the Singapore state's vision of shared citizenship by examining it from a Confucian perspective. The state's vision, known formally as "Our Shared Values," consists of communitarian values that reflect the official ideology of multiculturalism. This initiative included a White…

  3. Reviving Polya's "Look Back" in a Singapore School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Yew Hoong; Tay, Eng Guan; Toh, Tin Lam; Quek, Khiok Seng; Dindyal, Jaguthsing

    2011-01-01

    This study is based on the stance that Polya's "Look Back," though understudied, remains relevant to Mathematics curricula that place emphasis on problem solving. Although the Singapore Mathematics curriculum adopts the goal of teaching Look Back, research about how it is carried out in actual classroom practice is rare. In our project,…

  4. Theoretical Discussion on Forms of Cultural Capital in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion on five forms of cultural resources that constitute cultural capital for children in the meritocratic yet stratified society of Singapore. These five forms of cultural capital are namely "academic" tastes and leisure preferences, use of Standard English, access to and dispositions toward…

  5. Elite Schools, Postcolonial Chineseness and Hegemonic Masculinities in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Daniel P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The educational reproduction of elite masculinity in postcolonial societies has not been properly studied. This is partly because the postcolonial masculinities of non-western elites are accomplished through the cultivation of naturalized practices signifying the body politic of the nation-state. In Singapore, same-sex elite schools of colonial…

  6. Young Children's Number Sense in Finland, Hong Kong and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunio, Pirjo; Ee, Jessie; Lim, Swee Eng Audrey; Hautamaki, Jarkko; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines young children's number sense in subjects from Finland (n =254), Hong Kong (n =246), and Singapore (n =130). Chinese, English and Finnish versions of the Early Numeracy Test (ENT; Van Luit et al., 1994) were used. Two highly correlated aspects of number sense were measured, one reflecting children's abilities to organize and…

  7. Educational Leadership in Singapore: Tight Coupling, Sustainability, Scalability, and Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: While Singapore's outstanding educational achievements are well known worldwide, there is a disproportionate paucity of literature on school leadership practices that contribute to and support pedagogical initiatives that--along with socio-cultural factors--are normally considered responsible for its educational success. The aim of this…

  8. Developing Teacher Leadership in Singapore: Multiple Pathways for Differentiated Journeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, A. Lin; Low, Ee Ling; Ng, Pak Tee

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine quality teachers through teacher leadership development. Using Singapore as an illustrative case, we describe the redefinition of the teaching profession to include deliberate structures and multiple pathways designed to nurture teacher leaders, and the role of teacher leaders in supporting education reform. We go on to…

  9. "Inculcating" Creativity: Culture as Public Pedagogy in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Terence

    2014-01-01

    The Singapore government has long relied on the inherent public pedagogical qualities of culture in the forms of official cultural and media policies and in the unscripted signifiers of cultural conduct, such as in the public's attitude towards the arts. The prime objective is to instrumentalise citizens on how they should become both economically…

  10. Fourth Way in Action? The Evolution of Singapore's Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Hargreaves and Shirley's "The Fourth Way" offers a valuable framework for considering the challenges and dilemmas that confront education change practitioners. In this article, I consider how well their framework fits the evolution and more recent changes in Singapore education. History, context culture and aspirations are seen as…

  11. Changing Conceptualization of the Role of Educational Psychologists in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kit, Phey Ling; Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra; Burgetova, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Psychology is a young discipline in Singapore. Hence, perceptions of the roles and responsibilities of an educational psychologist (EP) are still constantly being negotiated and redefined. This qualitative study examined how role negotiations and redefinitions could be actively facilitated through an experiential and intensive two-day Basic…

  12. Nurturing Bilingual Learners: Challenges and Concerns in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan; Sun, Baoqi

    2016-01-01

    Singapore's bilingual policy legitimises English not only as the language of governmental administration and interethnic communication, but also as the medium of instruction in all schools on all levels and across all subjects except mother tongues (MTs). As a result of these politics of language recognition, a visible shift has occurred in all…

  13. Bilingualism without Diglossia: The Indian Community in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti

    2007-01-01

    This paper tells a tentative story from the preliminary findings of The Sociolinguistic Survey of Singapore, 2006 (SSS 2006). Though the main study reports on language use amongst Chinese, Malay and Indian communities, my focus is only on Indian homes. The paper reports results from five domains: school, family and friends, media, public space and…

  14. Multiculturalism in Environmental Science: A Snapshot of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Bryan; Harbor, Jonathan M.; Shepardson, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    Students' perceptions of the environment can differ based on sociocultural factors and experiences. Understanding how students develop environmental perceptions is an important step toward developing an inclusive environmental science curriculum. This article presents preliminary data from a study conducted in Singapore in which students'…

  15. Successful School Leadership: Case Studies of Four Singapore Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Loke Heng; Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics and practices of principals in four successful Singapore primary schools. Design/Methodology/Approach: Multiple perspective case studies were used which included semi-structured interviews with the principal, teaching and non-teaching staff, students, parents and school board…

  16. Seeking Resilience and Sustainability: Outdoor Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Ho, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor education is not a universal value. Rather, outdoor education's contributions need to be grounded in time, place and culture. In this paper we describe the historical and cultural milieu that has enabled the emergence of outdoor education in Singapore and report on exploratory survey research into Singaporean teachers' conceptions of…

  17. Contesting Reform: Bernstein's Pedagogic Device and Madrasah Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the active role played by various pedagogic agents in contesting the state educational reforms for madrasahs in Singapore. Drawing upon Basil Bernstein's pedagogic device, the paper identifies tensions and challenges that arise from the attempts by the state to implement curriculum reforms. The paper contends that the stakes…

  18. Possibilities for an Inclusive Society in Singapore: Becoming Inclusive within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Levan

    2009-01-01

    The envisioning of Singapore as an inclusive society has witnessed the most progressive systemic and policy developments concerning people with disabilities in recent years. The building of "heartware" in society (as in the will, values, and attitudes of its citizens) in order to realize the vision of an inclusive society, however,…

  19. Students' Perception of Change in the Singapore Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a research that examines students' perception of the change in the Singapore Education System and how that impacts on their satisfaction and outlook. Analysis of the data obtained through a questionnaire and face-to-face interviews shows that the more favourable the perception of change amongst students, the…

  20. University 2.0: A View from Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Daniel; Lee, Chye Seng; Chan, Lay Kock; Lu, Adrian Din How

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights the processes and best practices adopted by Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in Singapore in implementing their mission-critical e-learning services for a population of 28,000 students and 1,100 faculty members. The various phases of this rapid growth in e-learning from the initial genesis in achieving mass buy-in by…

  1. Vocational Education in Singapore: Meritocracy and Hidden Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Terence

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a broad overview of vocational education in Singapore. Looking at vocational education from Independence, it argues that the development of a skilled labour force was not only crucial in the age of globalisation and the dominance of multinational companies, but also an empirical litmus test of the newly elected post-colonial…

  2. On Singapore Prospective Secondary School Teachers' Mathematical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Tin Lam

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the performance of one entire cohort of Singapore prospective secondary school mathematics teachers in a mathematics proficiency test. The prospective teachers were admitted to the teacher education program specializing in teaching secondary school mathematics. The strengths of the prospective teachers' content knowledge, their…

  3. Computer Habits and Behaviours among Young Children in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karuppiah, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…

  4. What Provokes Young People to Get into Trouble: Singapore Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Kai Yung; Heng, Mary Anne; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors address correctional education and juvenile delinquency. The authors examined the case files of 54 juvenile offenders incarcerated in the Kaki Bukit Center Prison School in Singapore to analyze the antecedents that provoked these young offenders to commit the offenses. The juveniles reported that peer influence and…

  5. Vocational Training in the Development Process. The Singapore Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, G. F.

    The planning and implementation of vocational training in Singapore (training primarily intended for school-leavers) is highly directed toward serving labor force development objectives. This paper explains the vocational training infrastructure (a national system, the conduct of which is vested in the Vocational and Industrial Training Board),…

  6. The Transnational Track: State Sponsorship and Singapore's Oxbridge Elite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Rebecca; Nylander, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the process of transnational institutional matching between elite institutions in Singapore and Great Britain, and the role of state-sponsored scholarships in enabling this process as political and administrative elites are selected and groomed. Using data gathered from in-depth interviews conducted with Singaporean…

  7. Suicide Methods in Singapore (2000-2004): Types and Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Boon-Hock; Franzco, Audrey Chia; Ng, Wai-Yee; Tai, Bee-Choo

    2011-01-01

    The choice of suicide methods varies between countries. Common methods used in Singapore between 2000 and 2004 were jumping (72.4%), hanging (16.6%), and poisoning (5.9%). Those who jumped were more likely to be young, single, female, and to have had a major mental illness. By comparison, those who hung themselves were more likely to be older (OR…

  8. Mandatory continuing professional education in pharmacy: the Singapore experience.

    PubMed

    Ang, Hui-Gek; Pua, Yong-Hao; Subari, Nur Azah

    2013-08-01

    Mandatory Continuing Professional Education (CPE) for the renewal of pharmacists' practising certificate was implemented in Singapore in 2008 OBJECTIVE: To study pharmacists' perceptions and attitudes about the impact of mandatory CPE in Singapore. Singapore. Internet-based questionnaire survey, conducted between May and June 2011. Pharmacists' perceptions and attitudes toward mandatory CPE and the perceived difficulty in fulfilling the CPE requirements. The overall survey response rate was 52 % (840/1,609). Of the respondents, 32 % were non-practising, 49 % were practising in patient care areas, and 19 % were practising in non-patient care areas. More than half the pharmacists agreed that mandatory CPE (1) enhanced or increased their knowledge base and skills (70 %; 95 % CI 67-73 %), (2) motivated them to continually learn (64 %; 95 % CI, 60-67 %), and (3) motivated them to reflect on their professional practice or work (58 %; 95 % CI, 54-61 %). Mandatory CPE was not perceived to enhance or increase employability. Non-practising pharmacists appeared to have the greatest difficulty meeting the CPE requirements. In general, pharmacists value mandatory CPE more for positive professional reasons than for employability reasons. The survey results may serve as useful baseline data for future studies of pharmacists' perceptions and attitudes toward CPE in Singapore.

  9. Language Planning in Singapore: On Pragmatism, Communitarianism and Personal Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhorst-Heng, Wendy D.; Wee, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    Singapore's annual Speak Mandarin Campaign has been largely successful in shifting the language patterns of its Chinese citizens from Chinese dialects to Mandarin in all sectors. However, there has been a notable exception: the effort to have Chinese Singaporeans give their children Mandarin names, rather than dialect ones. In this paper, we…

  10. How to Assemble a Knowledge Economy: Singapore's Transnational Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2006-01-01

    This article takes Singapore, an emerging education hub, as a focal point from which to investigate its attempts to become a global city and knowledge-based economy. It outlines how discourses of the knowledge economy are used to rationalise particular policy interventions and the transnational education forms arising from them. It speculates on…

  11. Reinventing Ourselves: Collaborative Research Initiatives between Singapore & US Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, M.; Rogers, P.S.; H. Wong, I.F.

    2005-01-01

    To show how coordinated activities involving shared assessment instruments and results between two business schools, one in Singapore, the other in the US/Midwest, have helped faculty shift their research and teaching from a focus on language to an emphasis on communicative competence in English for the global workplace.

  12. Tongue-Tied in Singapore: A Language Policy for Tamil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Harold F.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the Tamil language situation in Singapore, which lends itself ideally to the study of minority-language maintenance. Examines attempts to maintain Tamil, a highly diglossic language in emigration and concludes that the well-meaning bilingual education system actually produces a situation of subtractive bilingualism. (Author/VWL)

  13. Creating Polyphony with Exploratory Web Documentation in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Sirene; Hoo, Lum Chee

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and reflect on "Images of Teaching", an ongoing web documentation research project on preschool teaching in Singapore. This paper discusses the project's purpose, methodological process, and our learning points as researchers who aim to contribute towards inquiry-based professional learning. The website offers a window into…

  14. Suicide Methods in Singapore (2000-2004): Types and Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Boon-Hock; Franzco, Audrey Chia; Ng, Wai-Yee; Tai, Bee-Choo

    2011-01-01

    The choice of suicide methods varies between countries. Common methods used in Singapore between 2000 and 2004 were jumping (72.4%), hanging (16.6%), and poisoning (5.9%). Those who jumped were more likely to be young, single, female, and to have had a major mental illness. By comparison, those who hung themselves were more likely to be older (OR…

  15. Encouraging a Culture of Research in Practicing Teachers in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Chan, Yvonne Yoke Yin; Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Upgrading the status of early childhood teaching and improving job satisfaction are areas of concern to practitioners, policy makers and other stakeholders in the early childhood field. Ways to upgrade practicing teachers, including their involvement in research, is an on-going challenge. This paper reports on a research in Singapore where a…

  16. Special Education Teacher Preparation in Singapore's Dual Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Global comparisons of teacher education programs should start with an understanding of the school systems that teachers are being prepared for in their local contexts. The purpose of this article is to describe Singapore's dual education system as well as teacher preparation in a country that educates many students with disabilities in a separate…

  17. Instituting Change in Early Childhood Education: Recent Developments in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Chan, Yvonne Yoke Yin

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to improve preschool education, the Singapore government has embraced the need for change by identifying needed policies related to preschool education. These changes require teachers to rethink their approach to learning and teaching. A proposed tool suggested in this paper that may help facilitate curriculum change is the use of…

  18. "Inculcating" Creativity: Culture as Public Pedagogy in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Terence

    2014-01-01

    The Singapore government has long relied on the inherent public pedagogical qualities of culture in the forms of official cultural and media policies and in the unscripted signifiers of cultural conduct, such as in the public's attitude towards the arts. The prime objective is to instrumentalise citizens on how they should become both economically…

  19. Developing Teacher Leadership in Singapore: Multiple Pathways for Differentiated Journeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, A. Lin; Low, Ee Ling; Ng, Pak Tee

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine quality teachers through teacher leadership development. Using Singapore as an illustrative case, we describe the redefinition of the teaching profession to include deliberate structures and multiple pathways designed to nurture teacher leaders, and the role of teacher leaders in supporting education reform. We go on to…

  20. Possibilities for an Inclusive Society in Singapore: Becoming Inclusive within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Levan

    2009-01-01

    The envisioning of Singapore as an inclusive society has witnessed the most progressive systemic and policy developments concerning people with disabilities in recent years. The building of "heartware" in society (as in the will, values, and attitudes of its citizens) in order to realize the vision of an inclusive society, however,…

  1. Assessing Impacts of "Math in Focus," a "Singapore Math" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaciw, Andrew P.; Hegseth, Whitney Michelle; Lin, Li; Toby, Megan; Newman, Denis; Ma, Boya; Zacamy, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates, through a cluster randomized trial, the impact of "Math in Focus," a core mathematics program modeled after instructional approaches used in Singapore, on third- through fifth-grade students' achievement in mathematics. The program is currently being used in more than 400 school districts in the United States.…

  2. Numeracy of Young Children in Singapore, Beijing and Helsinki

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ee, Jessie; Wong, Khoon Yoong; Aunio, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Young children's number sense is essential for the acquisition of higher number skills in later years. Most recent studies focus on children over 6 years of age only. To extend the scope, this study dealt with the performance of children aged 4-7 years in 3 cities: Singapore, Beijing and Helsinki (This study is an extension of the research of…

  3. STR data for the 13 CODIS loci in Singapore Malays.

    PubMed

    Ang, H C; Sornarajah, R; Lim, S E S; Syn, C K C; Tan-Siew, W F; Chow, S T; Budowle, Bruce

    2005-03-10

    Allele frequencies for the 13 CODIS (Combined DNA Index System, USA) STR loci included in the AmpFISTR Profiler Plus and AmpFISTR Cofiler kits (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) were determined in a sample of 197 unrelated Malays in Singapore.

  4. Unintentional injuries in infants in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, A M; Ang, A

    2006-05-01

    To describe the risk factors, causes and outcome of infant injuries so as to guide the formulation of injury prevention strategies specific for Singapore babies less than one year old. Demographical, socio-economic data, and data on the circumstances of injury, nature, severity of injury and clinical outcome of all infants less than one year old and who sought medical attention for or died from unintentional childhood injuries or poisoning, at the Emergency Departments of three SingHealth hospitals, two SingHealth primary care polyclinics and the Forensic Medicine Department, Health Sciences Authority during a six-month period, were extracted from a larger Childhood Injuries Surveillance database and analysed. 405 cases of accidental injury and poisoning in infants aged less than one year were seen from February to July 2002. 40.5 percent of injuries occurred when infants were left alone. Most infants were aged between nine months to one year (37 percent), male (57.3 percent), first-born (57.3 percent) and Chinese (69 percent), with no past medical history (96.1 percent). 91 percent of the injuries occurred at home, of which 60.5 percent occurred in the bedroom. Falls were the major mechanism of injury (77 percent). A total of 431 injuries were sustained. 63 percent were head injuries - mainly stable head injuries, which made up 93.1 percent of all the head injuries. 67.5 percent of the cases were discharged without follow-up, while 17.9 percent required hospital admission, mostly to the general ward (98.6 percent of total admissions), and to the neurosurgery department (84.9 percent of total admissions). There were two fatalities in this study population. The mechanisms and patterns of injury changed with increasing motor ability of the infants. Parents and caregivers of infants should be taught and reminded about the age specific measures in injury prevention as their wards go through the various developmental stages in the first year of life. Emphasis should be

  5. Contact lenses in pediatrics study in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Li, Lim; Moody, Kurt; Tan, Donald T H; Yew, Khoo Chong; Ming, Por Yong; Long, Quah Boon

    2009-07-01

    Previous studies in the United States have evaluated the benefits of soft contact lenses (CLs) in 8- to 12-year-old children and 13- to 17-year-old teens. This study was undertaken in Singapore and evaluated the safety, efficacy, and physiologic performance of daily disposable soft lenses in a population of children. In this open-label, bilateral, 3-month dispensing study, 59 children (8-11 years) were fit with etafilcon A spherical or toric daily disposable lenses (1-DAY ACUVUE or 1-DAY ACUVUE for ASTIGMATISM, Vistakon, Jacksonville, FL). All subjects were neophytes requiring visual correction in both eyes. The refractive inclusion criteria were plano to -9.00 diopter (D) with astigmatism of < or =2.00DC in both eyes, or hyperopia of +0.50 to +6.00D with astigmatism of 0.75D or less. The subjects underwent follow-up evaluations, which included a questionnaire for parents and subjects, at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. Of the 59 subjects enrolled, 53 (90%) completed the study successfully. Six subjects were discontinued because of lens handling difficulties (four), unacceptable lens fit (one), and an adverse event (one). Adverse events were reported in three subjects, including the discontinuation, and in each case were due to a chalazion. Overall vision quality, overall comfort, and end-of-day comfort were graded significantly better at each of the follow-up visits compared with baseline with spectacles (P< or =0.0001). Both handling and reported symptoms improved during the course of the study. The questionnaire results indicated that most of both parents and subjects preferred CLs to spectacles across a wide variety of aspects including vision, comfort, handling, and appearance. Significantly, more limbal and bulbar hyperemia was noted at follow-up visits than at baseline (P=0.0001); however, no instances of hyperemia greater than grade 2 were noted at any visit. Significantly, more corneal staining was also noted at the 1- and 3-month follow-up visits than at

  6. Analysis of Sea Level Rise in Singapore Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalich, Pavel; Luu, Quang-Hung

    2013-04-01

    Sea level in Singapore Strait is governed by various scale phenomena, from global to local. Global signals are dominated by the climate change and multi-decadal variability and associated sea level rise; at regional scale seasonal sea level variability is caused by ENSO-modulated monsoons; locally, astronomic tides are the strongest force. Tide gauge records in Singapore Strait are analyzed to derive local sea level trend, and attempts are made to attribute observed sea level variability to phenomena at various scales, from global to local. It is found that at annual scale, sea level anomalies in Singapore Strait are quasi-periodic, of the order of ±15 cm, the highest during northeast monsoon and the lowest during southwest monsoon. Interannual regional sea level falls are associated with El Niño events, while the rises are related to La Niña episodes; both variations are in the range of ±9 cm. At multi-decadal scale, sea level in Singapore Strait has been rising at the rate 1.2-1.9 mm/year for the period 1975-2009, 2.0±0.3 mm/year for 1984-2009, and 1.3-4.7 mm/year for 1993-2009. When compared with the respective global trends of 2.0±0.3, 2.4, and 2.8±0.8 mm/year, Singapore Strait sea level rise trend was weaker at the earlier period and stronger at the recent decade.

  7. IEEE 1451.2 based Smart sensor system using ADuc847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejithlal, A.; Ajith, Jose

    IEEE 1451 standard defines a standard interface for connecting transducers to microprocessor based data acquisition systems, instrumentation systems, control and field networks. Smart transducer interface module (STIM) acts as a unit which provides signal conditioning, digitization and data packet generation functions to the transducers connected to it. This paper describes the implementation of a microcontroller based smart transducer interface module based on IEEE 1451.2 standard. The module, implemented using ADuc847 microcontroller has 2 transducer channels and is programmed using Embedded C language. The Sensor system consists of a Network Controlled Application Processor (NCAP) module which controls the Smart transducer interface module (STIM) over an IEEE1451.2-RS232 bus. The NCAP module is implemented as a software module in C# language. The hardware details, control principles involved and the software implementation for the STIM are described in detail.

  8. Introduction to IEEE-EMBS -- What Can the Society Do for You?

    PubMed

    Oakley, Barbara; Lazareck, Lisa; Wolf, Laura

    2005-01-01

    IEEE-EMBS is the largest bioengineering society in the world. This paper introduces material about the Society and its benefits, including the EMBS mission, types of EMBS membership, and direct membership benefits such as the EMB Magazine. EMBS governance is also explained, including the new worldwide representational organization for AdCom (Administrative Committee), and recent changes in the Executive Committee. EMBS delegates to other societies are described, as well as the infrastructure of the main office and duties of key personnel there. Infostructure efforts related to the website and web-based conference registration and manuscript submission are also briefly discussed. Publications sponsored and co-sponsored by EMBS are reviewed. Plans for future national conferences are put forth. The various EMBS awards are outlined. Context is provided for the relationship between IEEE and EMBS, and a brief description is provided of IEEE organization and benefits.

  9. Performance Analysis of Sleep Mode Operation in IEEE 802.16m Mobile WiMAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sangkyu; Son, Jung Je; Choi, Bong Dae

    We mathematically analyze the sleep mode operation of IEEE 802.16m. The sleep mode operation for downlink traffic is modeled as a 3-dimensional discrete time Markov chain. We obtain the average power consumption of a mobile station and the average delay of a message. Numerical results match simulations very well. Numerical results show that there is a tradeoff between power consumption and message delay. We find the optimal lengths of sleep cycle and close-down time that minimize the power consumption while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) constraint on message delay. The power consumption of the sleep mode in IEEE 802.16m is better than that of sleep modes in legacy IEEE 802.16e standard under the same delay bound.

  10. An Analytical Model for the Performance Analysis of Concurrent Transmission in IEEE 802.15.4

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Cengiz; Zanella, Alberto; Verdone, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Interference is a serious cause of performance degradation for IEEE802.15.4 devices. The effect of concurrent transmissions in IEEE 802.15.4 has been generally investigated by means of simulation or experimental activities. In this paper, a mathematical framework for the derivation of chip, symbol and packet error probability of a typical IEEE 802.15.4 receiver in the presence of interference is proposed. Both non-coherent and coherent demodulation schemes are considered by our model under the assumption of the absence of thermal noise. Simulation results are also added to assess the validity of the mathematical framework when the effect of thermal noise cannot be neglected. Numerical results show that the proposed analysis is in agreement with the measurement results on the literature under realistic working conditions. PMID:24658624

  11. Improving IEEE 802.15.4 for Low-Latency Energy-Efficient Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng

    The IEEE 802.15.4 standard for LR-WPAXs is becoming a de-facto standard for Wireless Sensor Xetworks (WSXs) applications in industrial fields. In this paper, we evaluate the latency performance of the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol based on a typical industrial scenario: a star network with 20 devices that send short messages (1 Byte) to the PAX coordinator. We analyzed the behavior of the GTS mechanism in the standard analytically. The results reveal essential limitations of the standard for low-latency applications in automation environments. According to our findings, we propose an enhanced protocol version that fully supports industry demands on low-latency communication. Our protocol version uses the original physical layer and, thus, can be implemented conveniently using cheap IEEE 802.15.4 hardware. The analytical results prove that we are able to meet the guaranteed low latency of 10 ms as specified by typical automation environments.

  12. Efficiency testing of medium induction motors: A comment on IEEE Std 112-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.G.; Martiny, W.J.

    1996-09-01

    The energy crisis of 1973 focused attention on the efficiency of polyphase induction motors, and the need to have a test procedure that was repeatable and accurate. Medium induction motors, especially those in the size range 1 through 125 horsepower, were important because of the large number in service and the fact that a significant efficiency improvement through redesign was economically feasible. In response to this the ANSI/IEEE Std. 112, ``IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators`` Method B was chosen for testing medium ac motors for efficiency. The current version IEEE std. 112-1991 Method B contains several requirements for accuracy improvement which have been found to be effective. Even though the Method B procedure with the additional accuracy requirement has been in use since 1984 no rational has been published to support these extra requirements. The paper discusses the purpose of these improvements, and also point out some weakness in procedure.

  13. An analytical model for the performance analysis of concurrent transmission in IEEE 802.15.4.

    PubMed

    Gezer, Cengiz; Zanella, Alberto; Verdone, Roberto

    2014-03-20

    Interference is a serious cause of performance degradation for IEEE802.15.4 devices. The effect of concurrent transmissions in IEEE 802.15.4 has been generally investigated by means of simulation or experimental activities. In this paper, a mathematical framework for the derivation of chip, symbol and packet error probability of a typical IEEE 802.15.4 receiver in the presence of interference is proposed. Both non-coherent and coherent demodulation schemes are considered by our model under the assumption of the absence of thermal noise. Simulation results are also added to assess the validity of the mathematical framework when the effect of thermal noise cannot be neglected. Numerical results show that the proposed analysis is in agreement with the measurement results on the literature under realistic working conditions.

  14. Throughput and delay analysis of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA protocol.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Chen, Min; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-12-01

    The IEEE 802.15.6 is a new communication standard on Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) that focuses on a variety of medical, Consumer Electronics (CE) and entertainment applications. In this paper, the throughput and delay performance of the IEEE 802.15.6 is presented. Numerical formulas are derived to determine the maximum throughput and minimum delay limits of the IEEE 802.15.6 for an ideal channel with no transmission errors. These limits are derived for different frequency bands and data rates. Our analysis is validated by extensive simulations using a custom C+ + simulator. Based on analytical and simulation results, useful conclusions are derived for network provisioning and packet size optimization for different applications.

  15. The scalable coherent interface, IEEE P1596, status and possible applications to data acquisition and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    IEEE P1596, the Scalable Coherent Interface (formerly known as SuperBus) is based on experience gained while developing Fastbus (ANSI/IEEE 960-1986, IEC 935), Futurebus (IEEE P896.x) and other modern 32-bit buses. SCI goals include a minimum bandwidth of 1 GByte/sec per processor in multiprocessor systems with thousands of processors; efficient support of a coherent distributed-cache image of distributed shared memory; support for repeaters which interface to existing or future buses; and support for inexpensive small rings as well as for general switched interconnections like Banyan, Omega, or crossbar networks. This paper presents a summary of current directions, reports the status of the work in progress, and suggests some applications in data acquisition and physics. 7 refs.

  16. DNA-Based Analyses of Molds in Singapore Public Buildings Results in a Proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction(MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/...

  17. Malaysia/Singapore: Where Asian Cultures Meet. Participants' Papers. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program, 2001 (Malaysia and Singapore).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    The general objective of the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program is to help U.S. educators enhance their international understanding and increase their knowledge of the people and culture of other countries. This particular program offered participants an overview of life in Malaysia and Singapore through seminars and other activities.…

  18. DNA-Based Analyses of Molds in Singapore Public Buildings Results in a Proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction(MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/...

  19. Applying IEEE storage system management standards at the National Storage Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Louis, S.; Hyer, S.W.

    1992-12-04

    Since its inception in 1990, the IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group has identified storage-system management as an area in need of further development The pressing need for standards in storage-system management arises from the requirement to exchange management information and to provide control in a consistent predictable manner between the components of a storage system. An appropriate set of management standards will allow multiple vendors to supply storage management subsystems or applications that are integral to or compatible with new storage systems conforming to future IEEE standards. An early, practical application of IEEE storage-system-management work is being pursued at the National Storage Laboratory (NSL), a recently-formed industrial collaboration at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NSL`s purpose is to develop advanced hardware and software technologies for high-performance, distributed storage systems. Since storage system management is of critical concern, it is being explored in depth at the NSL. Work was initiated to define basic management requirements and develop generalized graphical-user-interface tools using remote-procedure-call mechanisms to implement the NSL`s conceptual management framework. Several constraints were imposed on the development of early versions of this work to maintain compatibility with the NSL`s underlying UniTree-based software architecture and to provide timely prototypes and proof of concept. The project leverages the on-going standards work of the IEEE Storage System Standards Working Group (SSSWG) and also explores some of the relationships and interactions between IEEE storage-system management and more well known management methods for distributed systems and networks. It will have long term benefits by providing ``real-life`` storage-system-management requirements to the IEEE SSSWG for validation of evolving standards.

  20. Design of acquisition devices management subsystem for IEEE 1073 compliant software agents.

    PubMed

    Nagin, V A; Potapov, I V; Selishchev, S V

    2002-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of device management system design for software agents compliant with IEEE 1073 device communication standard. Based on middleware architecture the device control layer represents a universal versatile object-oriented application-programming interface. The approach presented in the paper allows to implement plug-and-play integration and interoperability of medical acquisition devices within the medical device system be means of common middleware services. Adherence to Medical Data Information Base nomenclature, component part of IEEE 1073 communication standard, adds necessary consistency to presented component-based infrastructure.

  1. Maxi program at IEEE EMBS Student Club of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunfeng; Tao, Ningning; Tang, Luxian; Ma, Xu; Garcia, Gonzalo A; Mitsui, Mie

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the recently launched Maxi Program at IEEE EMBS Student Club of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications. The program initiates a variety of seminar series covering biomedical expertise and professional communication skills, forms a cooperative partnership between students, university and industry through guest speakers events and industry tours, and sets in motion personal consultative services (PCS) to foster the individualized competence of students. This extended program could be an innovative model of self-development as an affiliated student chapter/club with IEEE EMBS.

  2. A New Analytic Method for IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Gang Uk; Chung, Min Young; Lee, Yutae

    In this paper, we consider a network of N identical IEEE 802.11 DCF (Distributed Coordination Function) terminals with RTS/CTS mechanism, each of which is assumed to be saturated. For performance analysis, we propose a simple and efficient mathematical model to derive the statistical characteristics of the network such as the inter-transmission time of packets in the network and the service time (the inter-transmission time of successful packet transmissions) of the network. Numerical results and simulations are provided to validate the accuracy of our model and to study the performance of the IEEE 802.11 DCF network.

  3. What the United States Can Learn From Singapore's World-Class Mathematics System (and What Singapore Can Learn from the United States): An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Alan; Leinwand, Steven; Anstrom, Terry; Pollock, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study compares key features of the Singapore and U.S. mathematics systems in the primary grades, when students need to build a strong mathematics foundation. It identifies major differences between the mathematics frameworks, textbooks, assessments, and teachers in Singapore and the United States. It also presents initial results…

  4. Investing in Our Future: The Early Years. First Singapore Conference on Preschool Education: Promoting Quality Care and Education for Preschoolers (Singapore, December 2-3, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan-Niam, Carolyn, Ed.; Ling, Quah May, Ed.

    Informed by current thinking and supported by data gathered in Singapore, this volume compiles a selection of papers presented at the First Singapore Conference on Preschool Education: Promoting Quality Care and Education for Preschoolers. The papers are: (1) "Introduction: Issues in Quality Provision for Preschool Care and Education"…

  5. Investing in Our Future: The Early Years. First Singapore Conference on Preschool Education: Promoting Quality Care and Education for Preschoolers (Singapore, December 2-3, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan-Niam, Carolyn, Ed.; Ling, Quah May, Ed.

    Informed by current thinking and supported by data gathered in Singapore, this volume compiles a selection of papers presented at the First Singapore Conference on Preschool Education: Promoting Quality Care and Education for Preschoolers. The papers are: (1) "Introduction: Issues in Quality Provision for Preschool Care and Education"…

  6. A national study of scientific talent development in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quek, Chwee Geok

    Three cohorts comprising a total of 155 gifted science students who had participated in a research mentorship program, the Science Research Program (SRP) in Singapore, were surveyed in this cross-sectional study. Adapting Gagne's (2003, 2004) Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (DMGT) as a conceptual framework, this study examined the intrapersonal and environmental catalysts that students perceived to have contributed to their talent development in the sciences. It also sought to evaluate the impact of the SRP on the students, and the extent to which it reinforced their passion for the sciences, and decision to pursue careers in science and/or research. Respondents attributed the biggest role to the 'self' in their talent development journey. They perceived that various intrapersonal qualities they had---sense of curiosity, passion for the subject as well as persistence---were most important in nurturing and sustaining their interest and engagement in science. The external catalysts of teachers and the school appeared to have played a bigger role than parents and the home in respondents' perceptions of the influences on their scientific talent development process. Qualitative descriptions of inspiring and memorable teachers were consistent with qualities of effective teachers in the literature. Findings also showed that students felt the SRP had been very effective in enhancing their scientific knowledge and skills, but that it was less impactful in shaping their future course and career decisions. Indeed, except for a handful who reported that the SRP actually helped them discover that science was not really their passion, the majority plan to pursue careers in science, both in research and in applied fields, aspirations they have had since childhood. There appeared to be little attrition of this group from the science pipeline although there are some indications that more might need to be done to attract more gifted females to the field and to help

  7. Rights versus morality: online debate about decriminalization of gay sex in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Detenber, Benjamin H; Cenite, Mark; Zhou, Shuhua; Malik, Shelly; Neo, Rachel L

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a quantitative content analysis of 10,473 comments from two opposing online petitions related to the legal status of a section of the penal code in Singapore used to ban sex between men. Results indicate numerous significant differences in how the two sides discussed the law and its significance. In particular, they used different types of arguments to support their views and expressed different kinds of concerns over the potential impact of changing or maintaining the law. The patterns of language use seem to reflect distinctly different approaches to the debate and suggest the difficulty of finding common ground amid this contentious social issue, but they also reveal similarities to how Western cultures have framed the debate.

  8. 1995 IEEE 16. symposium on fusion engineering. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.; Elliott, C.

    1995-12-31

    The papers in this volume are divided into the following sections: DIII-D; MFE (Magnetic Fusion Energy) subsystem development; MFE materials, activation, and safety; MFE toroidal experiments; MFE reactor studies; IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility)/materials irradiation; TPX design; alternative confinement; spherical configurations; magnet technology; fusion economics; heating and fueling; and anomalous reactions in solids. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.

  9. The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-26

    agreement with Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, New Zealand, Peru , Singapore, and Vietnam. The first round of negotiations began March 15, 2010, in...agreement with Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, New Zealand, Peru , Singapore, and Vietnam. The first round of negotiations began March 15, 2010, in...Sydney, Australia. Singapore, Chile, Brunei, and New Zealand are the original members of the pact. The United States, Australia, Peru , and Vietnam

  10. Some problems of implementation: ANSI/IEEE Std 1149.1 in microcontroller design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamkiewicz, Hubert; Glinski, Krzysztof; Lewandowski, Artur

    1992-08-01

    The paper presents some problems of implementation ANSI/IEEE Std 1149.1 worked out in the Industrial Institute of Electronics (PIE) microcontroller board. Diagnostic properties of some special hardware solutions and examples of testing procedures are described. Testing was performed with the help of the PIE diagnostic bus analyzer.

  11. Evaluation of H.264/AVC over IEEE 802.11p vehicular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozas-Ramallal, Ismael; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Dapena, Adriana; García-Naya, José Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The capacity of vehicular networks to offer non-safety services, like infotainment applications or the exchange of multimedia information between vehicles, have attracted a great deal of attention to the field of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). In particular, in this article we focus our attention on IEEE 802.11p which defines enhancements to IEEE 802.11 required to support ITS applications. We present an FPGA-based testbed developed to evaluate H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) video transmission over vehicular networks. The testbed covers some of the most common situations in vehicle-to-vehicle and roadside-to-vehicle communications and it is highly flexible, allowing the performance evaluation of different vehicular standard configurations. We also show several experimental results to illustrate the quality obtained when H.264/AVC encoded video is transmitted over IEEE 802.11p networks. The quality is measured considering two important parameters: the percentage of recovered group of pictures and the frame quality. In order to improve performance, we propose to substitute the convolutional channel encoder used in IEEE 802.11p for a low-density parity-check code encoder. In addition, we suggest a simple strategy to decide the optimum number of iterations needed to decode each packet received.

  12. Evaluation of the Effects of Hidden Node Problems in IEEE 802.15.7 Uplink Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ley-Bosch, Carlos; Alonso-González, Itziar; Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Ramírez-Casañas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the increasing use of LEDs in illumination systems has been conducted due to the emergence of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technologies, in which data communication is performed by transmitting through the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum. In 2011, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 802.15.7 standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks based on VLC. Due to limitations in the coverage of the transmitted signal, wireless networks can suffer from the hidden node problems, when there are nodes in the network whose transmissions are not detected by other nodes. This problem can cause an important degradation in communications when they are made by means of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) access control method, which is used in IEEE 802.15.7 This research work evaluates the effects of the hidden node problem in the performance of the IEEE 802.15.7 standard We implement a simulator and analyze VLC performance in terms of parameters like end-to-end goodput and message loss rate. As part of this research work, a solution to the hidden node problem is proposed, based on the use of idle patterns defined in the standard. Idle patterns are sent by the network coordinator node to communicate to the other nodes that there is an ongoing transmission. The validity of the proposed solution is demonstrated with simulation results. PMID:26861352

  13. IEEE802.15.6 -based multi-accelerometer WBAN system for monitoring Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Keränen, Niina; Särestöniemi, Mariella; Partala, Juha; Hämäläinen, Matti; Reponen, Jarmo; Seppänen, Tapio; Iinatti, Jari; Jämsä, Timo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed example of a wireless body area network (WBAN) scenario utilizing the recent IEEE802.15.6 standard as applied to a multi-accelerometer system for monitoring Parkinson's disease and fall detection. Ultra wideband physical layer and standard security protocols are applied to meet application requirements for data rate and security.

  14. Performance Analysis of Non-saturated IEEE 802.11 DCF Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Linbo; Zhang, Xiaomin; Xie, Gang

    This letter presents a model with queueing theory to analyze the performance of non-saturated IEEE 802.11 DCF networks. We use the closed queueing network model and derive an approximate representation of throughput which can reveal the relationship between the throughput and the total offered load under finite traffic load conditions. The accuracy of the model is verified by extensive simulations.

  15. Performance characterization of the IEEE 802.11 signal transmission over a multimode fiber PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksymiuk, L.; Siuzdak, J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper there are presented measurements concerning performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 signal distribution over multimode fiber based passive optical network. In the paper there are addressed three main sources of impairments: modal noise, frequency response fluctuation of the multimode fiber and non-linear distortion of the signal in the receiver.

  16. Comparison of IEC and IEEE Standards for Computer-Based Control Systems Important to Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.

    2001-12-19

    The collections of IEEE and 1EC standards have some overlap, but in many cases cover significantly different topics. For example, 1EEE standards go to great depth on environmental qualification of many specific types of components, while IEC covers the topic only at the general level. Conversely, certain IEC standards deal with specific instrumentation and control functions, a topic area where IEEE standards are largely mute. This paper studies two questions related to the above observations. Which standards in each body should be coordinated with each other? What opportunities exist for the two bodies to build on each other's standards to efficiently improve upon the coverage of their sets of standards? Poor coordination between the two sets of standards poses a problem for the developers of systems for plant upgrades. Developers must try to address both sets of standards to avail themselves of a sufficiently broad market. Additionally, the IEEE and IEC standards together form a more comprehensive set of guidance than either set alone. If the interfaces between the standard sets were smoother, plant staff and system designers would have a better set of tools to help in the design and specification of I and C upgrades. To understand the similarities and differences between 1EC and IEEE nuclear power standards layer diagrams were developed for each set of standards.

  17. Computer Controlled Test Systems. Introduction. A Course Based on the IEEE 488 Bus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Eric J.

    An introductory course in computer automated tests and measurement systems based on the International Test Instrument-Computer Interface Standard, the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)-488, is presented in this study guide. This course is designed to: (1) introduce the electronics engineering technician to the functional…

  18. IEEE 1547 National Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Generation: How Could It Help My Facility? Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; Friedman, N. R.

    2003-11-01

    This article summarizes the purpose, development, and impact of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1547 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems. Also included is a short explanation of supporting standards IEEE P1547.1, P1547.2, and P1547.3.

  19. Evaluation of the Effects of Hidden Node Problems in IEEE 802.15.7 Uplink Performance.

    PubMed

    Ley-Bosch, Carlos; Alonso-González, Itziar; Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Ramírez-Casañas, Carlos

    2016-02-06

    In the last few years, the increasing use of LEDs in illumination systems has been conducted due to the emergence of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technologies, in which data communication is performed by transmitting through the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum. In 2011, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 802.15.7 standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks based on VLC. Due to limitations in the coverage of the transmitted signal, wireless networks can suffer from the hidden node problems, when there are nodes in the network whose transmissions are not detected by other nodes. This problem can cause an important degradation in communications when they are made by means of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) access control method, which is used in IEEE 802.15.7 This research work evaluates the effects of the hidden node problem in the performance of the IEEE 802.15.7 standard We implement a simulator and analyze VLC performance in terms of parameters like end-to-end goodput and message loss rate. As part of this research work, a solution to the hidden node problem is proposed, based on the use of idle patterns defined in the standard. Idle patterns are sent by the network coordinator node to communicate to the other nodes that there is an ongoing transmission. The validity of the proposed solution is demonstrated with simulation results.

  20. Computer Controlled Test Systems. Introduction. A Course Based on the IEEE 488 Bus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Eric J.

    An introductory course in computer automated tests and measurement systems based on the International Test Instrument-Computer Interface Standard, the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)-488, is presented in this study guide. This course is designed to: (1) introduce the electronics engineering technician to the functional…

  1. IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium Student Awards Support Request: 2010-2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    System for E-GSM900 and DCS1800 Cellular Phone Networks for Search and Rescue Applications, IEEE WiSNET (09 2011) A. Cagri Ulusoy , Gang Liu, Andreas...Receiver for Multi-Gigabit Wireless Communications Cagri Ulusoy *, Gang Liu*, Andreas Trasser*, S´ebastien Chartier# and Hermann Schumacher* Ulm University

  2. The Marketisation of Education in Singapore: Policies and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jason

    1998-01-01

    This article focuses on the marketisation of education in Singapore since the mid-1980s. It describes and analyses two major manifestations of this phenomenon: the encouragement of greater school autonomy and the fostering of competition among schools. The article argues that the Singapore case does not involve a free market, but rather a regulated market. The promotion of such a quasi-market threatens to exacerbate not only the disparities between schools in terms of educational outcomes but also social inequalities. At the same time, it is not entirely clear whether the desired policy goals will be successfully attained. The discussion adds to the existing literature on the marketisation of education and its accompanying policy implications.

  3. Prevention and control of avian influenza in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Leong, Hon Keong; Goh, Cheryl S; Chew, Siang Thai; Lim, Chee Wee; Lin, Yueh Nuo; Chang, Siow Foong; Yap, Him Hoo; Chua, Sin Bin

    2008-06-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus was first detected in 1996 in Guangdong, China. Since 2003, H5N1 outbreaks have been reported in parts of Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. It is currently entrenched among poultry in parts of Asia and poses a major challenge to animal and human health. Singapore is free from HPAI. Given Singapore's need to import food, the Agri-Food and Veterinary Authority (AVA) has adopted a pro-active risk management system to prevent the introduction of HPAI. AVA's approach maybe described as a multi-layered control strategy for the prevention and control of HPAI. The strategy includes control measures at source, border control measures, local control measures and emergency preparedness.

  4. Optical packaging activities at Institute of Microelectronics (IME), Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Keng-Hwa; Sudharsanam, Krishnamachari; Pamidighantam, Ramana V.; Yeo, Yongkee; Iyer, Mahadevan K.

    2002-08-01

    The development of optoelectronic components for gigabit Ethernet communications is converging towards access networks where the cost of device makes a significant impact on the market acceptance. Device fabrication and packaging cost have to be brought down with novel assembly and packaging methods. Singapore has established a reputation in semiconductor device development and fabrication with excellent process and packaging facilities. Institute of Microelectronics (IME) was founded in 1991 to add value to the Singapore electronics industry. IME is involved in the development of active and passive photonics components using Silicon and polymer materials. We present a brief report on the development activities taking place in the field of optical component packaging at IME in recent years. We present a review of our competence and some of the optical device packaging activities that are being undertaken.

  5. Influenza Pandemics in Singapore, a Tropical, Globally Connected City

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mark I.; Chan, Siew Pang; Wong, Chia Siong; Cutter, Jeffery; Goh, Kee Tai; Tambyah, Paul Anath

    2007-01-01

    Tropical cities such as Singapore do not have well-defined influenza seasons but have not been spared from influenza pandemics. The 1918 epidemic in Singapore, which was then already a major global trading hub, occurred in 2 waves, June–July, and October–November, and resulted in >2,870 deaths. The excess mortality rate was higher than that for industrialized nations in the Northern Hemisphere but lower than that for less industrialized countries in Asia and Africa. The 1957 epidemic occurred in May and resulted in widespread illness. The 1968 epidemic occurred in August and lasted a few weeks, again with widespread illness. Tropical cities may be affected early in a pandemic and have higher mortality rates. With the increase in travel and trade, a future pandemic may reach a globally connected city early and spread worldwide. Preparedness and surveillance plans must be developed to include the megacities of the tropical world. PMID:18214178

  6. Cadaveric & living organ donation. Natural limitations. Possible solutions. Singapore experience.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, K S

    2004-01-01

    Singapore is a country with different cultures and beliefs. Over the last thirty eight years since independance, it has blossomed close to being a developed nation. Having performed the first cadaver donor renal transplantation in 1970, there has been a tremendous amount of health literacy injected into the Singaporeans, with the able support of the National Kidney Foundation. Never ending waiting list for organ donation has facilitated a march of events from Volunatary Organ Pledging under the Medical Therapy, Education and Research Act to passing the Human Organ Transplant Act to extension of the presumed consent law to include Heart, Liver and Cornea and non-accidental brain deaths. In the years to come, Singapore will certainly see an increase in the number of organ transplantations both Cadaveric and Living related.

  7. The potential for a controlled human infection platform in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Balasingam, Shobana; Horby, Peter; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    For over 100 years, controlled human infection (CHI) studies have been performed to advance the understanding of the pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. This methodology has seen a resurgence, as it offers an efficient model for selecting the most promising agents for further development from available candidates. CHI studies are utilised to bridge safety and immunogenicity testing and phase II/III efficacy studies. However, as this platform is not currently utilised in Asia, opportunities to study therapeutics and vaccines for infections that are important in Asia are missed. This review examines the regulatory differences for CHI studies between countries and summarises other regulatory differences in clinical trials as a whole. We found that the regulations that would apply to CHI studies in Singapore closely mirror those in the United Kingdom, and conclude that the regulatory and ethical guidelines in Singapore are compatible with the conduct of CHI studies. PMID:25273928

  8. Organochlorine compounds in the marine atmosphere of Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurl, Oliver; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in high-volume air samples collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) over the sea surface of Singapore during the summer monsoon period of 2004. A novel and quality assured microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) procedure for PUF was developed as an alternative to conventional Soxhlet extraction for the analysis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). Average concentrations of ΣPCBs, ΣHCHs and ΣDDTs in air samples were 32, 311 and 8 pg m -3, respectively. Overall, a decline in the ocean atmospheric concentration of DDTs was noted relative to data obtained from the early 1990s, but current data are in a similar range for HCH and PCBs. Levels of OCs in the equatorial atmosphere were compared to equivalent data from temperate regions available in the literature. On a global scale, the levels of DDTs and PCBs in the atmosphere of Singapore are low, but moderate for HCHs.

  9. Vector Control and Surveillance Operations in the Republic of Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Minako Jen

    2013-01-01

    Singapore is known for its comprehensive vector control methods that keep mosquito populations at low levels in the urban, tropical, and green city-state. This report describes the measures taken by the National Environment Agency on the basis of observations of vector control and surveillance activities in residential areas, construction sites, and foreign worker quarters. The government-led active operations dealt not only with mosquito control but also social issues in urban residential buildings where people with varying preferences live, the responsibilities of the business sector, and the education of multi-cultural/lingual residents and foreign workers. The public health measures implemented in Singapore offer useful ideas to countries/cities that have not yet established vector control programs against mosquito-borne infectious diseases. PMID:23874140

  10. 77 FR 39320 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Singapore Memorandum of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Environmental Cooperation, (3) the U.S.-Singapore FTA Environment Chapter, and (4) the Environmental Review of... use of innovative and climate friendly environmental technology and pollution management...

  11. Footwear characteristics in people with inflammatory arthritis in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Carter, K; Lahiri, M; Cheung, P P; Santosa, A; Rome, K

    2016-01-01

    Foot problems are common in people with inflammatory arthritis. Despite suitable footwear having the potential to alleviate pain, improve mobility and maintain independence, previous studies have found many people with inflammatory arthritis wearing poorly fitting and inappropriate footwear. Footwear styles and characteristics have not been reported in a Singapore inflammatory arthritis population. The objective of this study was to identify current footwear styles and characteristics of footwear worn by people with inflammatory arthritis in Singapore. One-hundred-and-one participants with inflammatory arthritis were recruited from the rheumatology outpatient clinic of a large public hospital in Singapore. Disease and clinical characteristics were recorded. A patient-reported outcome included current foot pain. An objective footwear assessment of style, age of shoe, fit and construction was conducted. The majority of participants were Chinese women with a mean (SD) age was 52.0 (15.0) years old and a mean (SD) disease duration of 9.3 (0.3) years. We found 50 % of participants (n = 51) reported footwear problems. Sandals (n = 27, 26 %), flip-flops (n = 19, 19 %) and moccasin type (n = 19, 19 %) was the most common footwear choice. Evaluation of footwear characteristics found that there was a lack of motion control features. Only 32 (32 %) participants had correctly fitting footwear with regard to length, width and depth. No participant was wearing therapeutic footwear. This study provides the first insight into footwear preferences of people with inflammatory arthritis in Singapore. Use of slip-on and poorly fitting footwear was found to be common in people with inflammatory arthritis. Further research on footwear preferences in Southeast-Asian communities needs to take into account cultural habit and preference, socio-economic status, footwear options and affordability.

  12. The Straits of Malacca and Singapore, the Neglected Choke Point

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    Product JDW Jane’s Defense Weekly LOS Law of the Sea MADGE Malaysian Air Defense System MCM Mine Countermeasures NEP New Economic Program PDR Pacific...Defense Reporter . RMAF Royal Malaysian Air Force * RMN Royal Malaysian Navy SAM Surface to Air Missile SSM Surface to Surface Missile O TSS Traffic...The English retained control of the Malay peninsula and what became the Straits settlements. Penang , Malacca and Singapore were valued for their

  13. Singapore’s Strategic Dilemma: US or China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    Speech-17-Feb- 2009. pdf . 12 population and has three of the five largest armed forces in the world—China, India and North Korea.32 It also...20RCEP%20(June%202014). pdf . 95 Kian Beng Kor, “Third Singapore-China joint project to be based in Chongqing,” The Straits Times, November 6, 2015...Condoleezza Rice , Germany Unified and Europe Transformed: A Study in Statecraft (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995), 206- 207. 147 Ibid

  14. Managing hearing loss in children and adults: Singapore context.

    PubMed

    Low, W K

    2005-05-01

    Hearing loss is common in Singapore, with as many as 360,000 persons affected. With Singapore's ageing population, this prevalence is expected to increase. Modern hearing devices have the potential to restore hearing in most patients. Cochlear implants can restore hearing in those with even profound total hearing loss, by stimulating the auditory nerve directly without the need for viable cochlear hair cells. A holistic approach to managing deafness is necessary, including addressing psychosocial issues. Many of the problems experienced by the hearing-impaired are caused by the ignorance and lack of understanding from other people around him/her. "Reverse education therapy" refers to the effective education of these people, to directly benefit the hearing-impaired. In children, hearing restoration together with early detection and effective rehabilitation enable up to 80% to 90% of those born with significant hearing loss to cope well in mainstream education. The infrastructure to support them and facilitate their integration into mainstream society is necessary, and some of these are in place in Singapore. Leisure time noise-induced hearing loss in children is becoming increasingly important. In adults, societal support and understanding are just as important, particularly towards the elderly and pre-lingually deafened adults. Public education in Singapore is necessary, including that on the recognition of the abilities of successfully treated individuals, as well as that on showing more compassion, support and patience towards those who have not benefited sufficiently from treatment. In the future, there is potential for the clinical application of cochlear hair cell/auditory nerve preservation and regeneration.

  15. Ethnic and other factors affecting birthweight in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S; Cole, T J

    1989-08-01

    Data on 1800 term babies, 600 from each of the Chinese, Malay and Indian racial groups, were used to identify the factors affecting birthweight in Singapore. After adjustment for gestation, maternal height and other variables, the mean Indian birthweight was 100 g less than for the Chinese (P less than 0.001), 0.001), while the Malays averaged 33 g less than the Chinese. The shortfall in Indian birthweight is thought to be due, at least partly, to environmental factors.

  16. Moral education in a plural society: A singapore case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinathan, S.

    1980-06-01

    When one looks at the discussion of moral education issues in Singapore today, one cannot fail to be struck by the urgency and earnestness which characterize the debate. In common with many other Asian nations aiming at stability and growth without losing "national character", Singapore too places great faith in the education system. Unlike other countries, however, which are fortunate in having a homogeneous cultural tradition, the complexities of managing moral education in a plural context bedevil Singapore's educators. The very richness of the cultural tradition here imposes the task of selection, and subsequent justification, of the core values to be taught; both the values and the manner of teaching, touching as the latter does upon the school's relationships with the home and, in particular, religious institutions, come under close scrutiny. In addition there is the need to win the benefits of modernization and to implant notions of loyalty and sacrifice while retaining the best virtues of the migrant mentality. The challenges, then, are formidable, but the judgement on current efforts in moral education must be that it is an inadequate response. The authorities seem unable to utilize in full measure the potential of a rich and varied cultural tradition to enrich moral education in the nation's schools. The over-riding concern to ensure political stability, and the need to be sensitive to ethnic sensibilities, have produced a cautious reliance on generalities —when the need, given the youthful nature of the population and the uncertainties of life in the latter half of the twentieth century, is surely for a more forthright acceptance of the challenge. A re-assessment of current moral education ventures is necessary but a useful one will have to await greater clarity in the analysis of Singapore culture and its goals.

  17. Certification of poliomyelitis eradication in Singapore and the challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwee Ching; Tay, Joanne; Kwok, Cynthia Y H; Wee, Moi Kim; Ang, Li Wei; Kita, Yuske; Cutter, Jeffery L; Chan, Kwai Peng; Chew, Suok Kai; Goh, Kee Tai

    2012-11-01

    This study reviewed the epidemiological trends of poliomyelitis from 1946 to 2010, and the impact of the national immunisation programme in raising the population herd immunity against poliovirus. We also traced the efforts Singapore has made to achieve certification of poliomyelitis eradication by the World Health Organisation. Epidemiological data on all reported cases of poliomyelitis were obtained from the Communicable Diseases Division of the Ministry of Health as well as historical records. Coverage of the childhood immunisation programme against poliomyelitis was based on the immunisation data maintained by the National Immunisation Registry, Health Promotion Board. To assess the herd immunity of the population against poliovirus, 6 serological surveys were conducted in 1962, 1978, 1982 to 1984, 1989, 1993 and from 2008 to 2010. Singapore was among the fi rst countries in the world to introduce live oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) on a mass scale in 1958. With the comprehensive coverage of the national childhood immunisation programme, the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis declined from 74 cases in 1963 to 5 cases from 1971 to 1973. The immunisation coverage for infants, preschool and primary school children has been maintained at 92% to 97% over the past decade. No indigenous poliomyelitis case had been reported since 1978 and all cases reported subsequently were imported. Singapore was certified poliomyelitis free along with the rest of the Western Pacific Region in 2000 after fulfilling all criteria for poliomyelitis eradication, including the establishment of a robust acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system. However, post-certification challenges remain, with the risk of wild poliovirus importation. Furthermore, it is timely to consider the replacement of OPV with the inactivated poliovirus vaccine in Singapore's national immunisation programme given the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis and circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses.

  18. China in International Institutions: Challenges and Opportunities for Singapore

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-16

    other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...Opportunities for Singapore 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) MAJ Lin Yuanfeng Joseph 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Command and General Staff College

  19. IEEE 802.16J-Relay Fortified Aeromacs Networks; Benefits and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2014-01-01

    Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is an IEEE 802.16 standard-based (WiMAX) broadband aviation transmission technology, developed to provide safety critical communications coverage for airport surface in support of fixed and mobile ground to ground applications and services. We have previously demonstrated that IEEE 802.16j-amendment-based WiMAX is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. The principal argument in favor of application of IEEE 802.16j technology is the flexible and cost effective extension of radio coverage that is afforded by relay fortified WiMAX networks, with virtually no increase in the power requirements. In this article, following introductory remarks on airport surface communications, WiMAX and AeroMACS; the IEEE 802.16j-based WiMAX technology and multihop relay systems are briefly described. The two modes of relay operation supported by IEEE 802.16j amendment; i.e., transparent (TRS) and non-transparent (NTRS) modes, are discussed in some detail. Advantages and disadvantages of using TRS and NTRS in AeroMACS networks are summarized in a table. Practical issues vis--vis the inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks are addressed. It is argued that the selection of relay type may affect a number of network parameters. A discussion on specific benefits and challenges of inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks is provided. The article concludes that in case it is desired or necessary to exclusively employ one type of relay mode for all applications throughout an AeroMACS network, the proper selection would be the non-transparent mode.

  20. Perspectives on development of IEEE 1073: the Medical Information Bus (MIB) standard.

    PubMed

    Kennelly, R J; Gardner, R M

    1997-08-01

    Automated data capture from bedside patient medical devices is now possible using a new Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Medical Information Bus (MIB) data communications standard (IEEE 1073). The first two standard documents, IEEE 1073.3.1 (Transportation Profile) and IEEE 1073.4.1 (Physical Layer), define the hardware protocol for bedside device communications. With the above noted IEEE MIB standards in place, hospitals can now start designing customized applications for acquiring data from bedside devices such as bedside monitors, i.v. pumps, ventilators, etc. for multiple purposes. The hardware 'plug and play' features of the MIB will enable nurses and physicians to establish communications with these devices simply and conveniently by plugging them into a bedside data connector. No other action will be necessary to establish identification of the device or communications with the device. Presently to connect bedside devices, technical help from hardware and software experts are required to establish such communications links. As a result of standardization of communications, it will be easy to establish a highly mobile network of bedside devices and more promptly and efficiently collect patient related data. Collection of data automatically should lead to the design of new medical computing applications that will tie in directly with the emerging mission and operations of hospitals. The MIB will permit acquisition of patient data more efficiently with greater accuracy, more completeness and more promptly. The above noted features are all essential to the development of computerized treatment protocols and should lead to improved quality of patient care. This manuscript provides the rational and historical overview of the development of the MIB standard.