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Sample records for ieee singapore section

  1. Atypical Fractures are Mainly Subtrochanteric in Singapore and Diaphyseal in Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Schilcher, Jörg; Howe, Tet Sen; Png, Meng Ai; Aspenberg, Per; Koh, Joyce S B

    2015-11-01

    We have previously noted a dichotomy in the location of atypical fractures along the femoral shaft in Swedish patients, and a mainly subtrochanteric location of atypical fractures in descriptions of patients from Singapore. These unexpected differences were now investigated by testing the following hypotheses in a cross-sectional study: first, that there is a dichotomy also in Singapore; second, that the relation between subtrochanteric and diaphyseal location is different between the two countries; third, that the location is related to femoral bow. The previously published Swedish sample (n = 151) was re-measured, and a new Singaporean sample (n = 75) was established. Both samples were based on radiographic classification of all femoral fractures in women above 55 years of age. The distance between the fracture line and the lesser trochanter was measured. Femoral bow was classified as present or absent on frontal radiographs. Frequency distribution of the measured distances was analyzed using the Bayesian information criterion to choose the best description of the observed variable distribution in terms of a compilation of normally distributed subgroups. The analysis showed a clear dichotomy of the fracture location: either subtrochanteric or diaphyseal. Subtrochanteric fractures comprised 48% of all fractures in Singapore, and 17% in Sweden (p = 0.0001). In Singapore, femoral bow was associated with more fractures in the diaphyseal subgroup (p = 0.0001). This was not seen in Sweden. A dichotomous location of atypical fractures was confirmed, because it was found also in Singapore. The fractures showed a different localization pattern in the two countries. This difference may be linked to anatomical variations, but might also be related to cultural differences between the two populations that influence physical activity.

  2. Singapore Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Singapore Math" is a collection of math curricula originally developed by Singapore's Ministry of Education and private textbook publishers for use in Singapore schools. "Singapore Math" curricula were developed under a national framework centered on problem solving that emphasizes computational skills as well as conceptual and strategic thinking…

  3. Associations of sedentary behavior and physical activity with psychological distress: a cross-sectional study from Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests the adverse association between sedentary behaviour (SB) with physical and mental health, but few studies have investigated the relationship between volume of physical activity and psychological distress. The present study examined the independent and interactive associations of daily SB and weekly level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with psychological distress in a multi-ethnic Asian population. Methods De-identified data of 4,337 adults (18–79 years old) on sedentary behaviors, physical activity patterns, psychological distresses, and other relevant variables were obtained from the Singapore Ministry of Health’s 2010 National Health Survey. Psychological distress was assessed using General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), whereas total daily SB and total weekly volume (MET/minutes) of MVPA were estimated using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire version 2 (GPAQ v2). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to estimate the odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the independent and interactive relationships of SB and MVPA with prevalence of psychological distress. Results The category of high SB was positively associated with increased odds (OR = 1.29, 1.04-1.59) for psychological distress, whereas the category of active was inversely associated with lower odds (OR = 0.73, 0.62-0.86) for psychological distress. Multivariate analyses for psychological distress by combined daily SB and weekly MVPA levels showed inverse associations between middle SB and active categories (OR = 0.58, 0.45 - 0.74) along with low SB and active categories (OR = 0.61, 0.47-0.80). Conclusions The present population-based cross-sectional study indicated that in the multi-ethnic Asian society of Singapore, a high level of SB was independently associated with psychological distress and meeting the recommended guidelines for physical activity along with ≤ 5 h/day of SB was associated with the lowest

  4. Cholesterol-raising diterpenes in types of coffee commonly consumed in Singapore, Indonesia and India and associations with blood lipids: A survey and cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To measure the content of cholesterol-raising diterpenes in coffee sold at the retailer level in Singapore, Indonesia and India and to determine the relationship of coffee consumption with lipid levels in a population-based study in Singapore. Methods Survey and cross-sectional study in local coffee shops in Singapore, Indonesia and India to measure the diterpene content in coffee, and a population-based study in Singapore to examine the relationship of coffee consumption and blood lipid levels. Interviews and coffee samples (n = 27) were collected from coffee shops in Singapore, Indonesia and India. In addition, 3000 men and women who were Chinese, Malay, and Indian residents of Singapore participated in a cross-sectional study. Results and Discussion The traditional 'sock' method of coffee preparation used in Singapore resulted in cafestol concentrations comparable to European paper drip filtered coffee (mean 0.09 ± SD 0.064 mg/cup). This amount would result in negligible predicted increases in serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Similarly low amounts of cafestol were found in Indian 'filter' coffee that used a metal mesh filter (0.05 ± 0.05 mg/cup). Coffee samples from Indonesia using the 'sock' method (0.85 ± 0.41 mg/cup) or a metal mesh filter (0.98 mg/cup) contained higher amounts of cafestol comparable to espresso coffee. Unfiltered coffee from Indonesia contained an amount of cafestol (4.43 mg/cup) similar to Scandinavian boiled, Turkish and French press coffee with substantial predicted increases in serum cholesterol (0.33 mmol/l) and triglycerides (0.20 mmol/l) concentrations for consumption of 5 cups per day. In the Singaporean population, higher coffee consumption was not substantially associated with serum lipid concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [LDL-cholesterol: 3.07 (95% confidence interval 2.97-3.18) for <1 cup/week versus 3.12 (2.99-3.26) for ≥ 3 cups/day; p trend 0.12]. Conclusions Based on

  5. Singapore, Malaysia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of the Malay Peninsula shows the city state of Singapore, Malaysia (1.5N, 104.0E) with all its urban, industrial and commercial land use areas. Singapore is located at the south tip of the Malay peninsula separated by the Johor Strait. The prosporous island state, once Asia's major trade center, is now highly industrialized despite its small size and its ideal location has made this island a hub of trade, shipping and service industries.

  6. Singapore: population.

    PubMed

    1980-08-01

    The population of Singapore reached 2,381,993 as of May, 1980. Singapore's population growth reached replacement level in 1975 thanks to the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board, which has maintained the demographic goal of a 2-child family, ultimately to reach zero population growth. Women have more opportunity to join the labor force. 21.2% of the working force in 1957 were women, compared to 48.1% in 1978. The government will impose restrictions on foreigners buying property in Singapore to protect local buyers from artificially inflated prices. Rentals of private and luxury apartments increased by 30% from 1979-80. The gross national product went up 8.5% to S$5,600 per year. The population estimates by ethnic groups in thousands are as follows: 180.4 Malay males, 174.7 females; 905.2 Chinese males, 893.9 females; 93.4 Indian males, 67.6 females; and 24.3 male others, 23.2 females. The majority of the population is aged 15-24. PMID:12233387

  7. Association of Maternal Vitamin D Status with Glucose Tolerance and Caesarean Section in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes Study

    PubMed Central

    Loy, See Ling; Lek, Ngee; Yap, Fabian; Soh, Shu E.; Padmapriya, Natarajan; Tan, Kok Hian; Biswas, Arijit; Yeo, George Seow Heong; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Saw, Seang Mei; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological studies relating maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and mode of delivery have shown controversial results. We examined if maternal 25OHD status was associated with plasma glucose concentrations, risks of GDM and caesarean section in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study. Methods Plasma 25OHD concentrations, fasting glucose (FG) and 2-hour postprandial glucose (2HPPG) concentrations were measured in 940 women from a Singapore mother-offspring cohort study at 26–28 weeks’ gestation. 25OHD inadequacy and adequacy were defined based on concentrations of 25OHD ≤75nmol/l and >75nmol/l respectively. Mode of delivery was obtained from hospital records. Multiple linear regression was performed to examine the association between 25OHD status and glucose concentrations, while multiple logistic regression was performed to examine the association of 25OHD status with risks of GDM and caesarean section. Results In total, 388 (41.3%) women had 25OHD inadequacy. Of these, 131 (33.8%), 155 (39.9%) and 102 (26.3%) were Chinese, Malay and Indian respectively. After adjustment for confounders, maternal 25OHD inadequacy was associated with higher FG concentrations (β = 0.08mmol/l, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.01, 0.14), but not 2HPPG concentrations and risk of GDM. A trend between 25OHD inadequacy and higher likelihood of emergency caesarean section (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.95, 2.05) was observed. On stratification by ethnicity, the association with higher FG concentrations was significant in Malay women (β = 0.19mmol/l, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.33), while risk of emergency caesarean section was greater in Chinese (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.06, 3.43) and Indian women (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.01, 5.73). Conclusions 25OHD inadequacy is prevalent in pregnant Singaporean women, particularly among the Malay and Indian women. This is associated with higher FG concentrations in Malay

  8. IEEE Smart Grid Series of Standards IEEE 2030 (Interoperability) and IEEE 1547 (Interconnection) Status: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2012-04-01

    The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.

  9. Counseling in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Soo Yin; Neihart, Maureen F.

    2012-01-01

    Singapore, a tiny island nation, rose from 3rd- to 1st-world status in just 3 decades. Unlike in most developed countries, counseling in Singapore has a short history with faith-based beginnings and currently faces challenges to remain culturally relevant. The authors trace the development of Singapore's counseling services, provide an update…

  10. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Singapore. 10.570 Section 10.570 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  11. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Singapore. 10.570 Section 10.570 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  12. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Singapore. 10.570 Section 10.570 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  13. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Singapore. 10.570 Section 10.570 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  14. 19 CFR 10.570 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Singapore. 10.570 Section 10.570 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.570 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Singapore. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  15. Indonesia, Sumatra, Singapore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view shows the area around Northeastern Sumatra, Indonesia (1.0N, 104.0E). The city of Singapore and the Singapore Strait is in the center at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. The Singapore Strait is the eastern extension of the Strait of Malacca and separates the Malay Peninsula from Sumatra. Large sediment plumes from the rivers attest to the local soil erosion and industrial dumping ofd wastes.

  16. Racialised Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    The Singapore education system plays a central role in the mythology of the young country's nation building project. The education system is portrayed as the cradle of Singapore's multiracialism, fostering racial harmony and understanding. Yet this historical study of primary school English textbooks from the 1970s to the present reveals that…

  17. "Crossing" in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti; Roslan, Mardiana

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the way a group of pre-teens in Singapore use Malay, Chinese and English to perform identity. It is based on one case study of a Malay girl, Syafiqah, from a larger project called The Sociolinguistic Survey of Singapore 2006, and does not claim to be generalizable. The data are transcripts of recordings made on the speech…

  18. IEEE Conference Publications in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1984-01-01

    Conclusions of surveys (63 libraries, OCLC database, University of Rhode Island users) assessing handling of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) conference publications indicate that most libraries fully catalog these publications using LC cataloging, and library patrons frequently require series access to publications. Eight…

  19. Prehospital Trauma Care in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Chew, David; Wong, Ting Hway; Ng, Yih Yng; Pek, Pin Pin; Lim, Swee Han; Anantharaman, Venkataraman; Hock Ong, Marcus Eng

    2015-01-01

    Prehospital emergency care in Singapore has taken shape over almost a century. What began as a hospital-based ambulance service intended to ferry medical cases was later complemented by an ambulance service under the Singapore Fire Brigade to transport trauma cases. The two ambulance services would later combine and come under the Singapore Civil Defence Force. The development of prehospital care systems in island city-state Singapore faces unique challenges as a result of its land area and population density. This article defines aspects of prehospital trauma care in Singapore. It outlines key historical milestones and current initiatives in service, training, and research. It makes propositions for the future direction of trauma care in Singapore. The progress Singapore has made given her circumstances may serve as lessons for the future development of prehospital trauma systems in similar environments. Key words: Singapore; trauma; prehospital emergency care; emergency medical services.

  20. Instructional Leadership Practices in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…

  1. Peer Crowds in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yeo, Geck Hong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined peer crowds in the Singapore context. A total of 598 Secondary 1 and 2 adolescents were asked to identify the crowds they perceived to exist in their schools and to describe these crowds' characteristics. The adolescents had no difficulty identifying crowds, generating a total of 1,534 crowds. Among the crowds identified, seven…

  2. Singapore Chooses Teachers Carefully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sclafani, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    At the heart of the plans and programs that launched Singapore's rise to the top of international education comparisons are the tiny nation-state's commitments to its teaching force beginning with its highly competitive selection process and carrying through its teacher training, its career-long professional development, and even an enhanced…

  3. "Right" in Singapore English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Singapore English has been, and still is, an enigma for many scholars and researchers. In recent years, much attention has been given to the analysis of its particles. However, rather than focusing on the analysis of one particle or several particles and how they operate at the level of the sentence, this paper looks at a particular phenomenon in…

  4. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted.

  5. MEMS in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Francis E.

    2001-03-01

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) can be termed as a crossroad technology. Cross road in the sense that it is an amalgamation of various disciplines to produce a solution. Cross road also, in the sense that it is disruptive to the way that solutions used to be provided. At the crossroad, a decision needs to be made either to do things the old way or to embrace the new technology. In this paper, a review is made to the research and development of MEMS technology with potentially widespread applications in Singapore. In most cases, these are preparations to a possible acceleration of MEMS related industry in this part of the world. However, the author also noted that the transfer of MEMS technology from the laboratory to the industry is not a trivial matter. A major decision has to be made due to the high capital outlay and the high operational costs involved. Further, many production related issues such as yield and packaging have to be considered. A large number of MEMS commercial outfits such as Bosch are serving internal customers. As a small country with limited resources, Singapore places great emphasis on building up MEMS research and development activities to support future high value-added design and fabrication. In this paper, some of the MEMS activities in the national universities and institutes in Singapore are introduced, and some recent progress and development of MEMS technology in Singapore are presented.

  6. Hoarding in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Choo, Kenneth Wei-Qiang; Lee, Wei Liang; How, Choon How; Ng, Beng Yeong

    2015-09-01

    Hoarding refers to an excessive acquisition of objects and inability to part with apparently valueless possessions. While it can lead to excessive clutter, distress and disability, it is important to note that not all cases of hoarding are pathological. This article aims to suggest how one can make recommendations to patients and families when they encounter someone exhibiting hoarding behaviour. It also introduces the Hoarding Task Force and relevant legislation in Singapore to address the issue of hoarding in the community.

  7. Hoarding in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Kenneth Wei-Qiang; Lee, Wei Liang; How, Choon How; Ng, Beng Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Hoarding refers to an excessive acquisition of objects and inability to part with apparently valueless possessions. While it can lead to excessive clutter, distress and disability, it is important to note that not all cases of hoarding are pathological. This article aims to suggest how one can make recommendations to patients and families when they encounter someone exhibiting hoarding behaviour. It also introduces the Hoarding Task Force and relevant legislation in Singapore to address the issue of hoarding in the community. PMID:26464529

  8. A Pandora's Box in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Martha Ann

    2007-01-01

    Singapore is no longer content to produce only engineers and technocrats, says Tharman Shanmugaratnam, minister for education. The government wants to foster a dynamic environment that can attract thinkers and leaders in many fields, not just science. Singapore's planners envision their city as the "Boston of the East"--where the alchemy between…

  9. Family planning in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kanagaratnam, K

    1968-01-01

    Since the initial voluntary efforts of the Singapore Family Planning Association in 1949, family planning in Singapore has made important progress. This effort extended over the years until the end of 1965 when the government accepted full responsibility for family planning on a national scale. In September 1965, the government announced a 5-year National Family Planning Program with the goal of reducing the birthrate from 32/1000 in 1964 to below 20/1000 by 1970. This would result in a growth rate of not more than 1.5%. The government program aims at reaching 60% of married women in the reproductive age range of 15-45. It is estimated that out of 450,000 in this age range, some 300,000 are married. The target is 180,000 in 5 years. The Singapore Family Planning & Population Board was established by an Act of Parliament and charged with responsibility for the implementation of the 5-year plan. The national program offers a menu card of all family planning methods except abortion. Initial focus was on the IUD as the method of choice for 80%. Oral contraception (OC) was the preferred alternative for the remaining 20%. Other conventonal methods also were available. A few months after the plan began in 1966, the IUD became unacceptable to Singapore women. Its side effects of bleeding, cramps, perforation, and pregnancy were exaggerated by rumors. By the middle of 1966, attendance and acceptors in the national program had declined. Emphasis in the national program was changed to OCs, which now are the mainstay of family planning. Currently, nearly 65% of the acceptors use OCs. The program also demonstrates the importance, especially in urban areas, of the tremendous impact of a postpartum family planning service. Over 70% of the births in Singapore take place at the Kandang Kerbau Maternity Hospitals. Government midwives deliver another 5%. All these women are contacted by a team of family planning workers in the postpartum period and are offered family planning. Nearly

  10. Dietary guidelines in singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin Lc

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens. PMID:21859669

  11. Occupational health in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Koh, D; Jeyaratnam, J

    1998-07-01

    Singapore, a newly industrializing country in Southeast Asia, has a resident population of 3 million and a work force of 1.75 million. Most workers are employed in the manufacturing, services, and commerce sectors. Agricultural and mining activities are negligible. In 1996 the infant mortality rate was 3.8 per 1,000 live births and the life expectancy at birth was 77 years. In 1996 the total industrial accident rate was 2.7 per million man-hours worked and the severity rate was 353 industrial man-days lost per million man-hours worked. The shipbuilding and construction industries had the most frequent and most severe accidents. In the same year, 1,521 cases of occupational disease were notified to, and confirmed by, the Ministry of Labor. The majority of cases involved noise-induced hearing loss. There is substantial underreporting of cases. New cases that are expected to appear will be work-related illnesses such as musculoskeletal or psychosocial disorders. The principal occupational health legislation in Singapore is the Factories Act. Although it selectively targets workers at highest risk of developing occupational illness, its main limitation is the exclusion of nonfactory workers, who comprise 63% of the working population. Labor regulations are enforced by the Ministry of Labor. Workmen's compensation paid in 1995 amounted to S $46.6 million (U.S. $1=S $1.75). Education and training in occupational health is provided by employer federations, employee unions, and various government agencies. Occupational health is taught to medical students during their undergraduate training. Postgraduate-diploma and Masters programs in occupational medicine are also available. About 600 doctors in Singapore have some form of postgraduate training in occupational health. Health care for workers is offered either through the private sector or through government clinics and hospitals. Although Singapore has made great strides in protecting and promoting the health of its

  12. Higher Education and Entrepreneurial Citizenship in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Soren

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on Singapore's "Global Schoolhouse" project, this article discusses how efforts to transform Singapore into a "world class" knowledge economy entail changes to the status of citizenship in Singapore. The project of wooing top foreign universities to Singapore is permeated with an entrepreneurial ideal of Singapore…

  13. Academic geriatrics in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chek Hooi; Landefeld, C Seth

    2011-11-01

    Singapore is one of the fastest-aging countries in the world. The proportion of adults aged 65 and older is projected to increase from 8.7% to 20% over the next 20 years. The country has developed various strategies to meet the needs of this increase in older adults. There is an acute shortage of geriatricians and a need to train more healthcare workers to care for older adults. Geriatric medicine is a relatively new specialty, and a small number of geriatricians have been tasked with providing an increasing load of clinical service, education, and research. Hence, there is a need to develop a cohesive structure of support for faculty development and retention, advanced specialty trainee recruitment, leadership in medical education, research, and clinical service to care for the rapidly aging population. In addition, geriatric medicine is primarily a hospital-based specialty in Singapore. There is still opportunity to collaborate and improve the academic and practice integration of geriatric medicine into primary care and intermediate and long-term care where it is most needed. PMID:22091794

  14. Mammoth order for Singapore project.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Two new hospitals in Singapore that form a new integrated healthcare hub, that feature a range of innovations in patient treatment and care, and are reportedly the country's first such healthcare facilities built together as an integrated development to complement each other's capabilities and services, were officially opened by Singapore's Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong, last October. Operated by Jurong Health, a public healthcare 'cluster' formed to facilitate the integration of healthcare services in the west of Singapore, the Ng Teng Fong Hospital and Jurong Community Hospital feature an extensive array of Gerflor flooring, selected, as the company explains in this article, for a combination of outstanding aesthetics, durability, safety, and hard wear.

  15. Health technology assessment in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Pwee, Keng Ho

    2009-07-01

    The Republic of Singapore is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. Its population enjoys good health and the Singapore Ministry of Health's mission is to promote good health and reduce illness, ensure access to good and affordable health care, and pursue medical excellence. This is achieved through a healthcare system that includes both private and public sector elements. The financing philosophy of Singapore's healthcare delivery system is based on individual responsibility and community support. Health care in Singapore is financed by a combination of taxes, employee medical benefits, compulsory health savings, insurance, and out-of-pocket payment. The capability for health technology assessment in Singapore was developed concurrently with its medical device regulation system in the 1990s. The first formal unit with health technology assessment (HTA) functions was established in September 1995. Today, HTA features in decision making for the Standard Drug List, licensing of medical clinics, the Health Service Development Programme, healthcare subsidies, and policy development. The public sector healthcare delivery clusters have also recently started health services research units with HTA functions. Singapore is organizing the 6th Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Annual Meeting in June 2009. Bringing this prestigious international conference to Asia for the first time will help raise awareness of HTA in the region.

  16. Metal allergy in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goon, Anthony T J; Goh, C L

    2005-03-01

    This is a clinical epidemiologic study to determine the frequency of metal allergy among patch-tested patients in the years 2001-2003. The results are compared with those of previous studies. All patients diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from January 2001 to December 2003 were studied retrospectively. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were nickel 19.9%, chromate 5.6%, cobalt 8.2% and gold 8.3%. The frequency of nickel allergy has been steadily rising over the last 20 years. The most common sources of nickel allergy are costume jewelry, belt buckles, wrist watches and spectacle frames. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have also been steadily increasing subsequently. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003, which is difficult to explain because the relevance and sources of such positive patch tests can rarely be determined with certainty. There has been an overall rise in the frequency of metal allergy in the last 20 years.

  17. Misidentifying Factors Underlying Singapore's High Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2012-01-01

    Singapore students have scored exceedingly well on international tests in mathematics. In response, there has been a desire in the United States--both at the policy level and at the school level--to emulate Singapore. Because what can be identified most easily about Singapore's school mathematics can be gleaned from curriculum documents from the…

  18. English Literatures in Post-Colonial Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dass, Rozita

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of a vibrant literary, culture and arts scene promotes Singapore's claims as a hub for arts and culture in the Asian region, and as a global arts city by the 21st century. The richness and variety of Singapore literature from the early post-colonial years are evident in the evolution of a Singapore literary culture. The diaspora of…

  19. The IEEE Software Engineering Standards Process

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Fletcher J.

    1984-01-01

    Software Engineering has emerged as a field in recent years, and those involved increasingly recognize the need for standards. As a result, members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) formed a subcommittee to develop these standards. This paper discusses the ongoing standards development, and associated efforts.

  20. Verification of IEEE Compliant Subtractive Division Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.; Leathrum, James F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A parameterized definition of subtractive floating point division algorithms is presented and verified using PVS. The general algorithm is proven to satisfy a formal definition of an IEEE standard for floating point arithmetic. The utility of the general specification is illustrated using a number of different instances of the general algorithm.

  1. Mammoth order for Singapore project.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Two new hospitals in Singapore that form a new integrated healthcare hub, that feature a range of innovations in patient treatment and care, and are reportedly the country's first such healthcare facilities built together as an integrated development to complement each other's capabilities and services, were officially opened by Singapore's Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong, last October. Operated by Jurong Health, a public healthcare 'cluster' formed to facilitate the integration of healthcare services in the west of Singapore, the Ng Teng Fong Hospital and Jurong Community Hospital feature an extensive array of Gerflor flooring, selected, as the company explains in this article, for a combination of outstanding aesthetics, durability, safety, and hard wear. PMID:26946579

  2. Singapore approaches next development phase

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.

    1997-02-19

    Singapore is pinning its hopes on Jurong Island for maintaining its status as a world-class petrochemical hub. Because of a scarcity of industrial land, the Singapore government has initiated a land reclamation program to create Jurong Island as a base for industrial development. The aim is to attract overseas petrochemical companies with the promise of being able to channel their investments into an area where the proximity of other production units, plus services and utility providers, make for a totally integrated manufacturing complex. Plants will range from refineries to specialty chemicals.

  3. Singapore Language Enhancer: Identity Included

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Desmond

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the rhetoric of the four official languages (English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil) in Singapore and the domestic aversion towards Chinese "dialects" and colloquial "Singlish". The "Speak Mandarin Campaign" alongside the "Speak Good English Movement" represent a display of intercultural and transcultural ideologies which…

  4. Spinal Injury Rehabilitation in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, H. L.; Chua, K.; Chan, W.

    1998-01-01

    This study reviewed 231 cases of spinal cord injury treated in Singapore. Data on demographic characteristics, common causes (mostly falls and traffic accidents), types of spinal damage, and outcomes are reported. Following rehabilitation, 68 patients were able to ambulate independently and 45 patients achieved independence in activities of daily…

  5. Image of the Singapore Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Warrier, Sheela

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the contents of one of the leading newspapers of Singapore in an effort to identify the public image of the children of the nation. Newspaper clippings of news/articles, pictures/photographs and advertisements featuring children below 15 years of age were collected over a one-week period and the content…

  6. Defining the IEEE-854 floating-point standard in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.

    1995-01-01

    A significant portion of the ANSI/IEEE-854 Standard for Radix-Independent Floating-Point Arithmetic is defined in PVS (Prototype Verification System). Since IEEE-854 is a generalization of the ANSI/IEEE-754 Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, the definition of IEEE-854 in PVS also formally defines much of IEEE-754. This collection of PVS theories provides a basis for machine checked verification of floating-point systems. This formal definition illustrates that formal specification techniques are sufficiently advanced that is is reasonable to consider their use in the development of future standards.

  7. Station characteristics of the Singapore Infrasound Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perttu, Anna; Taisne, Benoit; Caudron, Corentin; Garces, Milton; Avila Encillo, Jeffrey; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon

    2016-04-01

    Singapore, located in Southeast Asia, presents an ideal location for an additional regional infrasound array, with diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional infrasound sources, including ~750 active or potentially active volcanoes within 4,000 kilometers. Previous studies have focused on theoretical and calculated regional signal detection capability improvement with the addition of a Singapore array. The Earth Observatory of Singapore installed a five element infrasound array in northcentral Singapore in late 2014, and this station began consistent real-time data transmission mid-2015. The Singapore array uses MB2005s microbarometers and Nanometrics Taurus digitizers. Automated array processing is carried out with the INFrasonic EneRgy Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite, and PMCC (Progressive MultiChannel Correlation). The addition of the Singapore infrasound array to the existing International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in the region has increased regional infrasound detection capability, which is illustrated with the preliminary work on three observed meteor events of various sizes in late 2015. A meteor observed in Bangkok, Thailand in early September, 2015 was picked up by the CTBTO, however, another meteor observed in Bangkok in November was only recorded on the Singapore array. Additionally, another meteor observed over Sumatra was only recorded by one IMS station and the Singapore array. This study uses array processing and Power Spectral Density results for both the Singapore and publicly available regional IMS stations to examine station characteristics and detection capability of the Singapore array in the context of the regional IMS network.

  8. Imported communicable diseases in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goh, K T

    1984-04-01

    Most communicable diseases in Singapore have been brought under control and some eliminated. In recent years, an increasing proportion of the reported cases turned out to be imported. Between the period 1977 and 1982, 96% of malaria, 44% of paratyphoid, 32% of typhoid, 20% of leprosy, 11% of acute viral hepatitis, 7% of dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever and 7% of cholera were imported. About 10% of the notified tuberculosis cases were non-residents while all the sporadic cases of poliomyelitis (except in 1977) and diphtheria (except in 1982) were contracted outside Singapore. The majority of the infections originated from Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent. The main groups of population with imported infections were local residents who travelled to the endemic areas without taking adequate preventive measures, foreign contract workers, and foreign seeking medical treatment in Singapore. Whether or not these imported cases would spread the infection to others in the community and cause epidemics depend on the virulence of the pathogen introduced, the susceptibility of the population and the environmental conditions which favour transmission of infection. Measures taken to reduce the risk of transmission include provision of a high standard of environmental sanitation, epidemiological surveillance to detect and eliminate the focus of infection; maintenance of a high level of herd immunity through immunisation; health education of the medical practitioners and of the public on the need for personal prophylaxis when travelling overseas; and screening of foreign contract workers and returning residents in special situations.

  9. Singapore's anatomical future: quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Ang, Eng-Tat; Sugand, Kapil; Hartman, Mikael; Seow, Choon-Sheong; Bay, Boon-Huat; Abrahams, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The disciplines of anatomy and surgery are not dichotomous since one is dependent on the other. Traditionally, surgeons predominantly taught gross and clinical anatomy. In this review, we examine the context of how human anatomy is taught nowadays. In essence, we discovered that there are certain discernable trends consistently observable between the American and British systems. In Singapore, the British Russell Group first influenced its education landscape but now more so by the American Ivy League. Singapore now has three medical schools all offering differing anatomy curricula, which serves as an opportune time for it to consider if there is a best approach given that the practice of surgery is also evolving in parallel. This review discusses the various pedagogies and issues involved, and will serve as a forum and stimulus for discussion. By tweaking the curriculum correctly and the lessons learnt, future doctors and surgeons in training will receive a better anatomical education, not just in Singapore but the world in general. Key recommendations include the use of body painting, clay, plasticine to facilitate the learning of anatomy, and the implementation of a body donation program. Furthermore, strategic mergers with key stakeholders will also ensure the survival of the discipline. PMID:22566391

  10. Deep Culture Matters: Multiracialism in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Multiculturalism is more accurately described as "multiracialism" in Singapore as the government classifies everyone based on four racial identities according to one's paternal line: Chinese, Malay, Indian, and others. Exploring the principle and practice of multiracialism in Singapore schools, this article points out that the surface culture…

  11. The Singapore state's response to migration.

    PubMed

    Yap, M T

    1999-04-01

    Migration trends in Singapore are traced since 1819. Immigration has been encouraged to advance economic development. Local and international factors fuel migration to Singapore. Singapore depends upon foreign labor. Population growth has been mainly due to migration from China, India, Malaysia, and countries surrounding Singapore. Independence in 1965 led to policies aimed at controlling high population growth. Policies became pronatalist after 1987. Foreigners in 1998 were over 18% of the total population, which was six times the number in 1970. About 2000 Singaporeans per year emigrated during the 1990s. Singapore is encouraging overseas industrial development. In 1997, the Prime Minister called for recruitment of foreign talent in order to meet the challenges of an increasingly globalized world, low fertility, and an aging society. Economic planners recommend short-term migration of unskilled foreign workers who would be a revolving pool to fill jobs natives do not want. Singapore is promoting arts and culture in order to keep people in Singapore. The government has issued assurances that natives will have first priority on jobs, education, and training. Singapore's ability to absorb workers will depend upon its economic performance.

  12. Integration of ICT into Education in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Horn Mun; Koh, Thiam Seng

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Singapore's use of information and communication technologies (ICT) to enhance its economic competitiveness and quality of life in the knowledge-based economy, describing the IT Masterplan in education; Singapore's education system; integration of ICT in primary through university education; preparing teachers for the ICT environment;…

  13. Teacher Perceptions of Games in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Elizabeth; Kin, Yeo Gee; Wadhwa, Bimlesh; Lim, John

    2012-01-01

    With the proliferation of entertainment games, supported by heavy investment in the underlying technologies, educators are now examining the educational values of gaming and attempting to incorporate games into their teaching. In Singapore, the game sector is worth many million Singapore dollars (SGDs), and gaming is an engaging activity of the…

  14. Innovation and Enterprise in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Ng Pak

    2004-01-01

    Schools in Singapore are now tasked to develop the spirit of innovation and enterprise in their students. This is in line with the national vision of "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation". This policy initiative, which began in 2004, is set to change the fundamental nature of education in Singapore. This article discusses the innovation and…

  15. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  16. Singapore's E(Si)nglish-Knowing Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, Siew Kheng Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Singapore's bilingual policy and looks at how the government's top-down and structured language policy has transformed the country into an English-knowing society. Education and language-in-education planning in Singapore are linked closely to the country's economic development and nation-building process. This pair of…

  17. Singapore's Literacy Policy and Its Conflicting Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, Catherine Siew Kheng

    2004-01-01

    Singapore's leading literacy policy is affected by a tension between the ideologies associated with English and those attached to Singapore's mother tongues. Singaporeans must safeguard their heritages, keeping themselves open to the places where their ancestors came from by learning their designated mother tongues. At the same time, Singaporeans…

  18. Family Medicine Specialty in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Santosh Lional

    2013-01-01

    Family Medicine in Singapore has its roots in a generalist ethos and found its origin as a counter culture movement to the increasing sub-specialisation of medicine which resulted in a complex healthcare system where that patients are often cared for by multiple specialists potentially resulting in fragmentation of care. The aim of the discipline of Family Medicine was to train and develop more generalist physicians so as to promote holistic care. Family physicians are the largest pool of generalists who are trained to provide general medical care to patients in the context of the person, the family and the community that they live in. PMID:24479066

  19. IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY.

    This dictionary, prepared by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE), defines 13,000 technical words from every area of electrical and electronics engineering. The dictionary contains hundreds of new terms as well as revisions of earlier ones. Each definition is an official standard of IEEE. The definitions are arranged…

  20. Sine-Fitting Software for IEEE Standard 1057

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Jerome

    1999-05-01

    Software application that performs the calculations related to the sine-fit tests of IEEE Standard 1057/94. Example outputs and explainations of these outputs to determine the important characteristics of the device under test. This application performs the calculations related to sine-fit tests and uses 4-parameter sine fit from IEEE Standard 1057-1994.

  1. IEEE 1547 Standards Advancing Grid Modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, Thomas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Hoke, Andy; Coddington, Michael

    2015-06-14

    Technology advances including development of advanced distributed energy resources (DER) and grid-integrated operations and controls functionalities have surpassed the requirements in current standards and codes for DER interconnection with the distribution grid. The full revision of IEEE Standards 1547 (requirements for DER-grid interconnection and interoperability) and 1547.1 (test procedures for conformance to 1547) are establishing requirements and best practices for state-of-the-art DER including variable renewable energy sources. The revised standards will also address challenges associated with interoperability and transmission-level effects, in addition to strictly addressing the distribution grid needs. This paper provides the status and future direction of the ongoing development focus for the 1547 standards.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of heart disease among adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and it has been well established that it is associated with both mental and physical conditions. This paper describes the prevalence of heart disease with mental disorders and other chronic physical conditions among the Singapore resident population. Data were from the Singapore Mental Health Study which was a representative, cross-sectional epidemiological survey undertaken with 6616 Singapore residents, between December 2009 and December 2010. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 was used to establish the diagnosis of mental disorders, while a chronic medical conditions checklist was used to gather information on 15 physical conditions, including various forms of heart disease. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Euro-Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D). The lifetime prevalence of heart disease was 2.8%. Socio-demographic correlates of heart disease included older age, Indian ethnicity, secondary education (vs. tertiary) and being economically inactive. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and other comorbid physical and mental disorders, the prevalence of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder were significantly higher among those with heart disease, as were diabetes, arthritis, kidney failure and lung disease. These findings highlight important associations between heart disease and various socio-demographic correlates, mental disorders and physical conditions. Given the high prevalence of mood disorders among heart disease patients, timely and appropriate screening and treatment of mental disorders among this group is essential.

  3. Common environmental contact allergens in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, S K

    1990-12-01

    Contact allergens produce three types of reactions. The commonest reaction is allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The commonest contactants in Singapore causing ACD are, in decreasing order of importance, nickel, fragrances, neomycin, lanolin, colophony, flavine, rubber chemicals, paraphenylenediamine, clioquinol and chromates. Another type of allergic contact reaction is immunologic contact urticaria (ICU). ICU is an IgE mediated mechanisms. Contact allergens causing ICU in Singapore are proteinaceous foodstuffs and rubber latex products. Photoallergic contact dermatitis is occasionally seen in Singapore. The commonest agent is Musk Ambrette, a perfume fixature found in male colognes.

  4. Teacher led school-based surveillance can allow accurate tracking of emerging infectious diseases - evidence from serial cross-sectional surveys of febrile respiratory illness during the H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Schools are important foci of influenza transmission and potential targets for surveillance and interventions. We compared several school-based influenza monitoring systems with clinic-based influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance, and assessed the variation in illness rates between and within schools. Methods During the initial wave of pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) infections from June to Sept 2009 in Singapore, we collected data on nation-wide laboratory confirmed cases (Sch-LCC) and daily temperature monitoring (Sch-DTM), and teacher-led febrile respiratory illness reporting in 6 sentinel schools (Sch-FRI). Comparisons were made against age-stratified clinic-based influenza-like illness (ILI) data from 23 primary care clinics (GP-ILI) and proportions of ILI testing positive for pdmH1N1 (Lab-ILI) by computing the fraction of cumulative incidence occurring by epidemiological week 30 (when GP-ILI incidence peaked); and cumulative incidence rates between school-based indicators and sero-epidemiological pdmH1N1 incidence (estimated from changes in prevalence of A/California/7/2009 H1N1 hemagglutination inhibition titers ≥ 40 between pre-epidemic and post-epidemic sera). Variation in Sch-FRI rates in the 6 schools was also investigated through a Bayesian hierarchical model. Results By week 30, for primary and secondary school children respectively, 63% and 79% of incidence for Sch-LCC had occurred, compared with 50% and 52% for GP-ILI data, and 48% and 53% for Sch-FRI. There were 1,187 notified cases and 7,588 episodes in the Sch-LCC and Sch-DTM systems; given school enrollment of 485,723 children, this represented 0.24 cases and 1.6 episodes per 100 children respectively. Mean Sch-FRI rate was 28.8 per 100 children (95% CI: 27.7 to 29.9) in the 6 schools. We estimate from serology that 41.8% (95% CI: 30.2% to 55.9%) of primary and 43.2% (95% CI: 28.2% to 60.8%) of secondary school-aged children were infected. Sch-FRI rates were similar across the 6 schools

  5. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, H B

    1981-01-01

    The history of dengue haemorrhagic fever as distinct from dengue fever in South-East Asia is traced. The epidemiology of the disease in the various countries is contrasted with that in Singapore since DHF first appeared on the scene in South-East Asia. From this survey, it is concluded that the dengue haemorrhagic fever is a new disease presentation, and its fate in SE Asia depends on the immunological state of the community, attempts at vector control, and probably antigenic variation in the various types of dengue virus. The pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed in detail. Diagnosis is presented with a detailed discussion of diagnosis of the pre-shock stage. Finally, the management of dengue haemorrhagic fever is discussed.

  6. The evolution of sports medicine in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, Benedict

    2013-10-01

    Sports medicine is a relatively new subspecialty in Singapore. This commentary chronicles its evolution in Singapore from 1969, through various milestones, to the present day. The first sports medicine clinic in Singapore was established in 1971 at Farrer Park. Notable institutions that followed include the Sports Medicine and Research Centre (1973), Soldier Performance Centre, Changi Sports Medicine Centre (2003), Singapore Sports Medicine Centre (2006), and other multidisciplinary centres of restructured hospitals. Formal groundwork to establish sports medicine as a subspecialty began in 2005, with its first trainee commencing traineeship at the Changi Sports Medicine Centre in 2007, and culminated in the subspecialty register at the beginning of 2011. Also captured in this discussion are the broader scopes of sports medicine, including military sports medicine, the sports sciences, exercise medicine, and event medical coverage.

  7. Assessment Issues in Singapore. NCME International News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poh, Sui Hoi

    1999-01-01

    Describes educational assessment in Singapore and discusses changes planned to focus assessment on more real-life situations while taking into account research on learning and critical thinking. (SLD)

  8. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  9. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  10. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  11. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.706(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  12. Proceedings of the 1987 IEEE particle accelerator conference: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, E.R.; Taylor, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains papers from the IEEE particle accelerator conference. This second volume of three covers the following main topics: Instrumentation and control, accelerators for medium energies and nuclear physics, high current accelerators, and beam dynamics. (LSP)

  13. Mass Communication in Singapore: An Annotated Bibliography. Asian Mass Communication Bibliography Series 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espejo, Cristina Y., Ed.; Fontgalland, Guy de, Ed.

    This bibliography lists and describes published and unpublished material relating to mass communications in Singapore, from 1945 to 1973. Most of the items listed are written in English; a limited number are in Chinese. The bibliography is divided into 18 sections: bibliography and reference material; communication theory and research methods;…

  14. Delay Analysis of GTS Bridging between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11 Networks for Healthcare Applications.

    PubMed

    Misić, Jelena; Sherman Shen, Xuemin

    2009-01-01

    We consider interconnection of IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled network cluster with IEEE 802.11b network. This scenario is important in healthcare applications where IEEE 802.15.4 nodes comprise patient's body area network (BAN) and are involved in sensing some health-related data. BAN nodes have very short communication range in order to avoid harming patient's health and save energy. Sensed data needs to be transmitted to an access point in the ward room using wireless technology with higher transmission range and rate such as IEEE 802.11b. We model the interconnected network where IEEE 802.15.4-based BAN operates in guaranteed time slot (GTS) mode, and IEEE 802.11b part of the bridge conveys GTS superframe to the 802.11b access point. We then analyze the network delays. Performance analysis is performed using EKG traffic from continuous telemetry, and we discuss the delays of communication due the increasing number of patients.

  15. Occupational respiratory diseases in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, H S; Phoon, W H; Wang, S Y; Tan, K P

    1996-04-01

    Occupational respiratory disease statistics in Singapore from 1970 to 1993 were reviewed. Silicosis was the most common occupational respiratory disease in the 1970s and 1980s. About 78% of the cases were from granite quarries. With progressive reduction in dust levels and the closure of some quarries, there has been a decline in cases. From 1990 to 1993, occupational asthma was the most common occupational respiratory disease and more cases are expected with increasing awareness of the condition. The most common causative agent was isocyanates accounting for about 34% of cases. Of the asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma cases, about 70%-80% were from the one and only asbestos cement factory. With the closure of this factory and the increasing restrictions on the use of asbestos, cases of asbestosis are expected to decline in the long term. However, malignant mesothelioma cases may continue to surface because of the long latent period and the potential risk with low and brief exposures to asbestos. It is important to probe for possible occupational exposures (both present and past) in a patient with respiratory symptoms or disease.

  16. Chronic kidney disease prevention in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Sylvia P B

    2008-03-01

    In consideration of the epidemiologic basis for screening and surveillance, a comprehensive program for chronic kidney disease prevention was initiated in Singapore by the National Kidney Foundation Singapore (NKF Singapore) in 1997. Reasons for developing this include the rising rate of end-stage renal disease in the country, and the projected escalation because of the increase in chronic diseases that lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Presented are progress and preliminary findings of this program, as well as that of the parallel initiative of Singapore's Ministry of Health. The NKF Singapore program incorporates primary, secondary and tertiary approaches to the prevention of chronic kidney disease. These include the population-based screening for early chronic kidney disease and chronic diseases that are associated with kidney disease and the implementation of disease management programs that aim to improve the multi-faceted care of patients with chronic diseases that lead to ESRD, including the development of community-based "Prevention Centers." The screening program identified risk factors for proteinuria, including the Malay race, increasing age, family history of kidney disease, and higher levels of systolic and diastolic BP even within the normal ranges. Longitudinal follow-up of both prevention programs are critical to provide evidence for the efficacy of such screening and intervention programs in improving chronic kidney disease outcomes, while reducing the cost of care.

  17. A Features-Based Approach for Teaching Singapore English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaetzel, Kirsten; Lim, Beng Soon; Low, Ee Ling

    2010-01-01

    Research into Singapore English (SgE) has undergone many paradigm shifts from the 1970s to the present. This paper first begins with a consideration of how variation in the English language used in Singapore has been studied. It then identifies the two main varieties of English commonly described in Singapore, namely, Standard SgE (SSE) and…

  18. Mother Tongue Education in Singapore: Concerns, Issues and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In 1966, the Singapore Government implemented the English-knowing bilingual policy which made it mandatory for all Chinese students to study English as a "First Language" and the Chinese language (CL) as a "Mother Tongue Language" in Singapore schools. Using key literature relevant to Singapore's bilingual educational…

  19. 76 FR 60100 - The Singapore Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... COMMISSION The Singapore Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application September 22, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). Applicant: The Singapore Fund, Inc. (the ``Fund''). ACTION: Notice of... objective is to seek long-term capital appreciation through investment primarily in Singapore...

  20. Islam and Citizenship Education in Singapore: Challenges and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    The religious diversity of Singapore, coupled with the current phenomenon of Islamic revivalism, makes the management of religion a paramount concern for the Singapore government. By examining the developments of Islam in Singapore, this article explores the challenges and implications these developments have on citizenship education in the…

  1. Moving towards Quality Physical Education: Physical Education Provision in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Michael; Lim, Boon San Coral; Wang, Chee Keng John; Tan, Wee Keat Clara; MacPhail, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the provision of physical education (PE) in Singapore. Singapore is a small island city state of approximately 699 square kilometres with a population of about 4 million people. This article aims to highlight the current status of PE in Singapore schools and compare it against suggested international standards and…

  2. Suicide trends in Singapore: 1955-2004.

    PubMed

    Chia, Boon-Hock; Chia, Audrey; Yee, Ng Wai; Choo, Tai Bee

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate suicide trends in Singapore between 1955 and 2004. Suicide cases were identified from the Registry of Birth and Death, Singapore, and analyzed using Poisson regression. Overall, suicide rates in Singapore remained stable between 9.8-13.0/100,000 over the last 5 decades. Rates remain highest in elderly males, despite declines among the elderly and middle-aged males in recent years. Rates in ethnic Chinese and Indians were consistently higher than in Malays. While the rates among female Indians and Chinese have declined significantly between 1995 and 2004, some increase was noted in female Malays. Although there was no increase in overall suicide rates, risk within certain population segments has changed over time. PMID:20658381

  3. Singapore's conservative attitude toward AIDS discussed.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    871 of Singapore's 3.1 million people have been diagnosed with HIV since 1985. 90% of these people are male and more than 70% of them report that they were infected through unprotected heterosexual sex. In the context of a growing number of people with AIDS, the government of Singapore plans to begin promoting condom use rather than rely simply upon campaigns stressing the need to remain sexually faithful to one partner. The government plans to increase awareness of HIV/AIDS at the grassroots, and gradually include condom use in public campaigns which now focus upon avoiding casual sex. At Singapore's first national AIDS conference, participants shared studies which showed that although a majority of Singaporeans know that HIV/AIDS is largely transmitted through sex or the sharing of injection equipment in IV drug use, up to 40% worry that they can become infected in other ways, such as from a diseased person sneezing or coughing upon them. PMID:12294479

  4. National Cancer Center Singapore: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Teo, Melissa; Soo, Khee Chee

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Singapore, comprising almost 30% of annual deaths. The incidence and prevalence continue to rise, resulting in Singapore having the highest age-standardized rate of cancer in southeast Asia. A review of national health policies in 1992 resulted in the creation of a National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS) in 1999. The current NCCS, with its three pillars of clinical service, research and education, manages about 70% of all new cancer cases in the countries public healthcare system. As it outgrows its current outfit and looks to the new NCCS building in 2020, the goal must be for strategic planning to attract and retain the best minds and heart in the field of cancer if it were to continue to be successful in achieving its vision and mission. This article chronicles the NCCS's history and details the foundation of its strategic plans.

  5. National Cancer Center Singapore: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Teo, Melissa; Soo, Khee Chee

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Singapore, comprising almost 30% of annual deaths. The incidence and prevalence continue to rise, resulting in Singapore having the highest age-standardized rate of cancer in southeast Asia. A review of national health policies in 1992 resulted in the creation of a National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS) in 1999. The current NCCS, with its three pillars of clinical service, research and education, manages about 70% of all new cancer cases in the countries public healthcare system. As it outgrows its current outfit and looks to the new NCCS building in 2020, the goal must be for strategic planning to attract and retain the best minds and heart in the field of cancer if it were to continue to be successful in achieving its vision and mission. This article chronicles the NCCS's history and details the foundation of its strategic plans. PMID:26776828

  6. DENGUE-TYPE VIRUSES ISOLATED IN SINGAPORE.

    PubMed

    LIM, K A; CHAN, Y C; PHOON, W O; HANAM, E

    1964-01-01

    A dengue-like illness with marked haemorrhagic manifestations appeared in Singapore in 1960. Its similarity in many respects to the haemorrhagic fevers of Thailand and the Philippines led to its being described as "Singapore haemorrhagic fever".This paper describes the isolation and identification of dengue-type viruses from patients in Singapore between 1960 and 1962. In addition to the conventional complement-fixation and neutralization tests, a new test, called the "sensitized erythrocyte agglutination test", was employed; this test method is described.Altogether 21 dengue-type viruses were isolated, including dengue types 1, 2 and 4. Chikungunya virus, prominent in the Thailand disease, was not detected.The author suggests that study of the epidemiology of haemorrhagic fevers in South-East Asia would cast further light on the transmission of arboviruses.

  7. 1991 IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Singapore, Nov. 18-21, 1991, Proceedings. Vols. 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The present conference the application of neural networks to associative memories, neurorecognition, hybrid systems, supervised and unsupervised learning, image processing, neurophysiology, sensation and perception, electrical neurocomputers, optimization, robotics, machine vision, sensorimotor control systems, and neurodynamics. Attention is given to such topics as optimal associative mappings in recurrent networks, self-improving associative neural network models, fuzzy activation functions, adaptive pattern recognition with sparse associative networks, efficient question-answering in a hybrid system, the use of abstractions by neural networks, remote-sensing pattern classification, speech recognition with guided propagation, inverse-step competitive learning, and rotational quadratic function neural networks. Also discussed are electrical load forecasting, evolutionarily stable and unstable strategies, the capacity of recurrent networks, neural net vs control theory, perceptrons for image recognition, storage capacity of bidirectional associative memories, associative random optimization for control, automatic synthesis of digital neural architectures, self-learning robot vision, and the associative dynamics of chaotic neural networks.

  8. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  9. Implicit Block ACK Scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    PubMed Central

    Sthapit, Pranesh; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    The throughput of IEEE 802.11 standard is significantly bounded by the associated Medium Access Control (MAC) overhead. Because of the overhead, an upper limit exists for throughput, which is bounded, including situations where data rates are extremely high. Therefore, an overhead reduction is necessary to achieve higher throughput. The IEEE 802.11e amendment introduced the block ACK mechanism, to reduce the number of control messages in MAC. Although the block ACK scheme greatly reduces overhead, further improvements are possible. In this letter, we propose an implicit block ACK method that further reduces the overhead associated with IEEE 802.11e’s block ACK scheme. The mathematical analysis results are presented for both the original protocol and the proposed scheme. A performance improvement of greater than 10% was achieved with the proposed implementation.

  10. IEEE 1547 Series of Standards: Interconnection Issues; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2003-09-01

    IEEE 1547TM 2003 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems is the first in the 1547 series of planned interconnection standards. Major issues and a wealth of constructive dialogue arose during 1547 development. There was also a perceived increased vitality in updating complementary IEEE standards and developing additional standards to accommodate modern electrical and electronics systems and improved grid communications and operations. Power engineers and other stakeholders looking to the future are poised to incorporate 1547 into their knowledge base to help transform our nation's aging distribution systems while alleviating some of the burden on existing transmission systems.

  11. Television Ads in Singapore: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehman, Sharaf N.; Aw, Annette; Kennan, William

    1999-01-01

    Appraises the information content of Singapore television advertising, and makes a comparison with relevant United States findings. Research reported in this paper is a replication of two empirical studies of the informational content of television advertising in the United States from 1977. (Author/LRW)

  12. Singapore Students' Misconceptions of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chew-Hung; Pascua, Liberty

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is an important theme in the investigation of human-environment interactions in geographic education. This study explored the nature of students' understanding of concepts and processes related to climate change. Through semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 27 Secondary 3 (Grade 9) students from Singapore. The data…

  13. Emerging Education Hubs: The Case of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder; Ho, K.-C.; Yeoh, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    In anticipation of a globalising post-Fordist political economy, countries and universities are increasingly pursuing strategic transnational education and research alliances. This article analyses the Global Schoolhouse, a key education policy platform that aims to transform Singapore into a knowledge and innovation hub by establishing networks…

  14. The teaching of anaesthesia in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Liu, E H C; Lee, T L

    2005-07-01

    This article describes the development of undergraduate and postgraduate anaesthesia teaching and training in Singapore. Anaesthesia teaching has evolved from art and apprenticeship to become systematic, scientific and evidence-based, while retaining an emphasis on hands-on practical training. Simulator training provides unique advantages, which the University Department of Anaesthesia has utilised in integrated medical student teaching.

  15. Language and Language Policy in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, William H., III

    1985-01-01

    Singapore's language policy must balance the wishes of the various ethnic groups, the political situation in the regions, and the needs of economic development. Malay, Mandarin Chinese, English, and Tamil are all recognized as official languages. Malay has special symbolic status as the national language. (RM)

  16. Stakeholders' Perceptions of School Counselling in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Poi Kee

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study that set out to understand stakeholders' perception of the school counselling service in Singapore. Using semi-structured interviews, this study explored the perceptions of three main stakeholder groups, namely teachers and counsellors working within the schools and those working in the communities.…

  17. Education and Intergenerational Mobility in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Irene Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    International research on the effects of educational regimes on intergenerational mobility suggests that Singapore's education system possesses characteristics that tend to decrease intergenerational mobility. These characteristics include ability-based and school-based streaming, privatization of basic and tertiary education, expansion of…

  18. Studying Overseas: Mainland Chinese Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Leong, Jason Ong Soon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study aimed at developing a substantive theory on the perspectives of Mainland Chinese studying in Singaporean universities. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) Why do university students from Mainland China choose to study in Singapore? and (2) How do Mainland Chinese university students manage the experience…

  19. Teachers' Experience with Inclusive Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Chong, Wan Har; Neihart, Maureen F.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' positive attitude is most critically and consistently associated with successful inclusion. However, little is known about teachers' first-hand encounters with inclusive education in Singapore. We present findings from a qualitative study on inclusion based on focus group interviews with 202 teachers from 41 resourced primary schools.…

  20. Globalisation of Language and Culture in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti

    2007-01-01

    What are the effects of globalisation on patterns of language use in the domain of media in Singapore? Rather than only cultural imperialism of hegemonic English, which is no doubt the case, the use of languages in the "mediascap" also shows the consumption of non-English languages and cultures. Though English may be the main language of the…

  1. Listening to Estuary English in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deterding, David

    2005-01-01

    In Singapore, many people are not familiar with Estuary English (EE), the variety of English becoming popular in much of southern England. In the current study, when students listened to interviews with EE speakers and were asked to transcribe orthographically what they heard, most of them had severe problems. Features of pronunciation that…

  2. Creative Destruction: Singapore's Speak Good English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubdy, Rani

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to show that the move to stem the popularity of Singlish (Singapore English) is another manifestation of the notion of creative destruction, currently being proposed as a strategy to improve partial destruction of existing economic ideas and structures that rapidly obsolesce with the emergence of new ones. Argues that attempts to replace…

  3. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  4. Physical Education and Health in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Michael C.; Fry, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    As a school subject, physical education (PE) in Singapore took on its own shape with the introduction of a conceptual games teaching approach in response to the national government's "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation" policy of the late 1990s. With the recent media attention on hosting two main international events (Asian Youth Games and the…

  5. Compulsory Education in Singapore--Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Compulsory education was legislated in Singapore in 2000. This came several decades after the attainment of universal primary education and after numerous assertions on the part of the government that such legislation was unnecessary. Also interesting is that the period of compulsory education was limited to six years. The article discusses the…

  6. Research on Vocational Behavior: The Singapore Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Esther

    1998-01-01

    This review of vocational psychology research in Singapore, 1985 to 1997, addresses career development, interests, sex stereotypes, work values, job satisfaction, and home/family influence. The review shows an increase in research on school-aged populations and a need to study the vocational behavior of the work force. (SK)

  7. Environmental concerns and diet in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Jeitner, Chris; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-08-01

    Many factors affect how people perceive the world and their environment, and how such perceptions affect lifestyle decisions, yet the relationship between personal perceptions about environmental hazards and diet is rarely examined. In this study, environmental concerns on a local and global scale were examined, along with dietary patterns, to determine if there were associations and age-related differences. The hypothesis that concerns about water pollution might be reflected in choices about seafood consumption was examined. Many aspects of dietary choices varied significantly by age, including (1) younger people ate more "fast food" than others, (2) subjects aged 22-32 yr ate more meals in restaurants than older or younger people, (3) older individuals drank more tea than younger subjects, while younger people drank more soda than older people, and (4) there were few significant differences in total fish and shellfish meals, although young people ate more meals of other types of meat. Individuals who rated their health the best reported significantly fewer seafood meals than others. People who listed pollution as the major environmental problem did not consume seafood less often than others. While pollution was listed as the most important environmental problem globally, people distinguished between air and water pollution only for Singapore. Although Singapore, with its rapidly expanding economy, has reason to be concerned about both water and air pollution, only 14% of those listing pollution as the main Singapore environmental problem mentioned "water pollution." Singapore has been able to take measures to reduce water pollution from internal sources. Respondents considered air pollution a greater problem, perhaps reflecting recent haze disasters from deliberately set forest fires in Indonesia, which are beyond the direct control of Singapore or Singaporeans. PMID:12857632

  8. Environmental concerns and diet in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Jeitner, Chris; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-08-01

    Many factors affect how people perceive the world and their environment, and how such perceptions affect lifestyle decisions, yet the relationship between personal perceptions about environmental hazards and diet is rarely examined. In this study, environmental concerns on a local and global scale were examined, along with dietary patterns, to determine if there were associations and age-related differences. The hypothesis that concerns about water pollution might be reflected in choices about seafood consumption was examined. Many aspects of dietary choices varied significantly by age, including (1) younger people ate more "fast food" than others, (2) subjects aged 22-32 yr ate more meals in restaurants than older or younger people, (3) older individuals drank more tea than younger subjects, while younger people drank more soda than older people, and (4) there were few significant differences in total fish and shellfish meals, although young people ate more meals of other types of meat. Individuals who rated their health the best reported significantly fewer seafood meals than others. People who listed pollution as the major environmental problem did not consume seafood less often than others. While pollution was listed as the most important environmental problem globally, people distinguished between air and water pollution only for Singapore. Although Singapore, with its rapidly expanding economy, has reason to be concerned about both water and air pollution, only 14% of those listing pollution as the main Singapore environmental problem mentioned "water pollution." Singapore has been able to take measures to reduce water pollution from internal sources. Respondents considered air pollution a greater problem, perhaps reflecting recent haze disasters from deliberately set forest fires in Indonesia, which are beyond the direct control of Singapore or Singaporeans.

  9. Eleanor McElwee and the Formation of IEEE PCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the historical professional project that created the Institute of Radio Engineers' Professional Group on Engineering Writing an Speech (IRE PGEWS)--now called the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' Professional Communication Society (IEEE PCS)--and recounts the group's early history in detail. It also traces…

  10. Proceedings of the 1987 IEEE particle accelerator conference: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, E.R.; Taylor, L.S.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers from the IEEE conference on particle accelerators. The general areas covered in this first of three volumes are: high energy accelerators; colliders; novel methods; free electron lasers; low energy accelerators; ion sources; synchrotron light source; radiation sources; instrumentation and control. Individual papers are separately indexed.

  11. Suicide in the island of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kua, E H; Tsoi, W F

    1985-03-01

    In a study of suicide in Singapore in 1980 there were 230 cases and the suicide rate for the general population was 9.5 per 100,000. The age-specific rates increased steeply after 50 years and there was a male preponderance especially in the age group 60 years and over. Comparing the three major ethnic groups in Singapore, the highest rate was seen in the Indians and Chinese, whereas the Malays had the lowest. Amongst the suicides there were 59 (25.7%) with mental illness, mainly schizophrenia, and they were of a younger age group, 20-39 years. The commonest method of suicide was jumping from high-rise flats. PMID:3984765

  12. Microplastics in Singapore's coastal mangrove ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Nor, Nur Hazimah Mohamed; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    2014-02-15

    The prevalence of microplastics was studied in seven intertidal mangroves habitats of Singapore. Microplastics were extracted from mangrove sediments via a floatation method, and then counted and categorized according to particle shape and size. Representative microplastics from Berlayar Creek, Sungei Buloh, Pasir Ris and Lim Chu Kang were isolated for polymer identification using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Microplastics were identified in all seven habitats, with the highest concentration found in sediments at Lim Chu Kang in the northwest of Singapore. The majority of microplastics were fibrous and smaller than 20 μm. A total of four polymer types were identified, including polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon and polyvinyl chloride. The relationship between abundance of microplastics and sediment grain size was also investigated, but no relationship was apparent. The presence of microplastics is likely due to the degradation of marine plastic debris accumulating in the mangroves.

  13. Muslim divorce trends and patterns in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Saw, S

    1992-01-01

    "This paper attempts to discuss the general trends in the incidence of divorce among the Muslim population in Singapore since 1921 and the patterns of divorce in the 1980s when detailed statistics were made available.... The Singapore Muslims experienced an extremely high and steady incidence of divorce during the period up to 1958 when the procedures for processing divorce petitions were not well organised. Following the introduction of new legislation and the creation of the Syariah Court to handle marital disputes in 1958, there occurred an immediate and dramatic downturn in the rate of Muslim divorce. By 1970 the decline appeared to have stalled and a slight upturn has even taken place in the 1980s." The impact of rapid social and economic development is assessed. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA)

  14. An IEEE 1451.1 Architecture for ISHM Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Jon A.; Turowski, Mark; Schmalzel, John L.; Figueroa, Jorge F.

    2007-01-01

    The IEEE 1451.1 Standard for a Smart Transducer Interface defines a common network information model for connecting and managing smart elements in control and data acquisition networks using network-capable application processors (NCAPs). The Standard is a network-neutral design model that is easily ported across operating systems and physical networks for implementing complex acquisition and control applications by simply plugging in the appropriate network level drivers. To simplify configuration and tracking of transducer and actuator details, the family of 1451 standards defines a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) that is associated with each physical element. The TEDS contains all of the pertinent information about the physical operations of a transducer (such as operating regions, calibration tables, and manufacturer information), which the NCAP uses to configure the system to support a specific transducer. The Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) group at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has been developing an ISHM architecture that utilizes IEEE 1451.1 as the primary configuration and data acquisition mechanism for managing and collecting information from a network of distributed intelligent sensing elements. This work has involved collaboration with other NASA centers, universities and aerospace industries to develop IEEE 1451.1 compliant sensors and interfaces tailored to support health assessment of complex systems. This paper and presentation describe the development and implementation of an interface for the configuration, management and communication of data, information and knowledge generated by a distributed system of IEEE 1451.1 intelligent elements monitoring a rocket engine test system. In this context, an intelligent element is defined as one incorporating support for the IEEE 1451.x standards and additional ISHM functions. Our implementation supports real-time collection of both measurement data (raw ADC counts and

  15. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers. PMID:26808468

  16. Selective Bibliography about Education and Training in Library and Information Science in PR China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, H.-R.; Meis, Nicola

    This selective bibliography lists 66 items published from 1980 until 1989 on education, training, and continuing education in library and information science and documentation in the Chinese-speaking countries, i.e., the People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore. The document is divided into 10 sections: (1) a preface (in…

  17. IEEE P1547 Series of Standards for Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T. S.; DeBlasio, R.

    2003-05-01

    The IEEE P1547 Standard For Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems is the first in the P1547 series of planned interconnection standards, and additional standards are needed. There are major issues and obstacles to an orderly transition to the use and integration of distributed power resources with electric power systems (grid or utility grid). The lack of uniform national interconnection standards and tests for interconnection operation and certification-as well as the lack of uniform national building, electrical, and safety codes-is understood, and resolving this needs reasonable lead time to develop and promulgate consensus. The P1547 standard is a benchmark milestone for the IEEE standards consensus process and successfully demonstrates a model for ongoing success in the development of further national standards and for moving forward in modernizing our nation's electric power system.

  18. Proceedings of the 1994 ASME/IEEE joint railroad conference

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, K.L.; Hill, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The proceedings contains 22 papers from the IEEE/ASME Joint Railroad Conference. Topics discussed include flange bearing crossing frogs; rapid transit; vehicle on-board computer systems; total transport system control functions; automated train dispatching system; wheel thermal damage limits; AC propulsion; AC traction drives; electric power supplies; failure detection and identification; cargo transportation; and critical speed for railroad vehicles. Papers within the scope of the data base have been processed separately.

  19. SERI preprints for the 21st IEEE photovoltaic specialists conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This document contains conference papers prepared by SERI staff members for the 21st Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, which was held in Kissimmee, Florida, on May 21--25, 1990. The papers presented here have been reproduced as submitted for the conference proceedings. They cover a wide range of SERI photovoltaic research areas. Each report will be individually cataloged.

  20. "Thinking Schools, Learning Nations" Implementation of Curriculum Review in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    2005-01-01

    "Thinking schools" will be sites of learning for everyone declared the Singapore Prime Minister, Goh Chok and Minister of Education Teo Chee Hean's in 1997 also spoke on the model of "thinking schools, learning nation". Gardner's model was used for the thinking school model in Singapore, in order to develop critical and creative thinking in…

  1. IT Integration and Online Learning in the Singapore Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Tan, Seng Chee; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2003-01-01

    Reviews technology integration efforts in Singapore. Discusses examples of online learning in schools under four broad categories: cyber conferencing, e-learning services providers, e-publication, and wireless technology. Describes ways information technology is being used at the National Institute of Education in Singapore, as a tool for…

  2. Growing Up in Singapore: The Pre-School Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Ko Peng, Ed.; Kam, Ho Wah, Ed.

    Derived from the first phase of a research study entitled "The Cognitive and Social Development of Pre-School Children in Singapore" (the IE-BvLF study), the essays in this collection focus on the language, numeracy, cognitive, and social development of approximately 3,000 Singapore children between 1983 and 1986. Following a prologue offering an…

  3. Distributed Leadership to Support PLCs in Asian Pragmatic Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairon, Salleh; Goh, Jonathan Wee Pin; Lin, Tzu-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Nation states around the world, including Singapore, are endeavouring to reform their education systems in order to successfully compete in the global economy (Carnoy, 1999). With human capital as Singapore's primary resource, it is unsurprising that the state has placed great emphasis on strengthening the economic-education nexus. This tight…

  4. Constructing the Cosmopolitan Subject: Teaching Secondary School Literature in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Angelia Mui Cheng

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the ambitious educational reforms of the Singapore government in response to the challenges of globalization vis-a-vis the specific issues arising from the case of teaching Literature in secondary schools. It shows how the Singapore state is invested in a particular view of globalization and argues how recent scholarly moves…

  5. Bridging East and West Educational Divides in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Prem

    2013-01-01

    In Asia, we are witnessing an era where the pendulum of power is swaying towards the East with the rising economic strength of China and India. Singapore is at the "crossroads" between the East and West of these most populous nations on earth. Although Singapore may appear the most Westernised country in Asia, she is nevertheless a multicultural…

  6. Children's Rights: Television Programmes Aired in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…

  7. Parental Perspectives and Challenges in Inclusive Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Meng Ee; Poon, Kenneth K.; Kaur, Sarinajit; Ng, Zi Jia

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little work has focused on inclusive education in Singapore. This study examines the experiences and perceptions of parents whose children with disabilities are attending mainstream secondary schools in Singapore. Data was drawn from interviews with 13 parents of children with mild disabilities. Our findings reveal that parental…

  8. Mathematics Education in Singapore--An Insider's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Berinderjeet

    2014-01-01

    Singapore's Education System has evolved over time and so has Mathematics Education in Singapore. The present day School Mathematics Curricula can best be described as one that caters for the needs of every child in school. It is based on a framework that has mathematical problem solving as its primary focus. The developments from 1946 to 2012…

  9. Singapore's Global Schoolhouse Strategy: Retreat or Recalibration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In 2002 a high-level economic review committee recommended that Singapore position itself as a "global schoolhouse". An ambitious target was set to attract 150,000 international students to Singapore by 2015 and to lift the education sector's contribution to GDP from 1.9% to 5% in the same timeframe. The global schoolhouse was…

  10. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  11. University Restructuring in Singapore: Amazing or a Maze?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Michael H.; Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2008-01-01

    The Singapore government has put forward a comprehensive restructuring program of university education since the 1990s. Public universities in Singapore are going to be developed as world-class universities through a series of university education policies and reforms. This article reviews major developments of university education policies and…

  12. English in Singapore: Culture, Capital and Identity in Linguistic Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsagoff, Lubna

    2010-01-01

    Singapore is placed in the Outer Circle of the Kachru's Three Circles Model, and has over the years developed an English which is uniquely Singaporean. This paper argues that in order to understand the ways in which Singapore English is developing its own standards and ways of speaking, a new model needs to be developed that takes culture, capital…

  13. Creating Thinking Schools through Authentic Assessment: The Case in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Kim H.; Tan, Charlene; Ng, Pak Tee

    2012-01-01

    Using Singapore as an example, we argue that schools need to equip and encourage teachers to adopt authentic assessment in teaching and learning so as to develop the students' higher-order thinking. The importance of teaching and assessing higher-order thinking in Singapore classrooms is encapsulated in the vision of "Thinking Schools" launched by…

  14. A Review of Singapore Principals' Leadership Qualities, Styles, and Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, David Foo Seong; Nguyen, Dong Thanh; Wong, Benjamin Koon Siak; Choy, William Kim Weng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a review of empirical studies on principal leadership in Singapore. It seeks to provide a general picture of Singapore principals' leadership qualities, styles, and roles. Design/methodology/approach: This is a systematic review of empirical studies, using a "bounded" approach with a focus…

  15. "Countability Not Answerability?" Accountability in Hong Kong and Singapore Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Jan; Vidovich, Lesley; Yang, Rui

    2008-01-01

    Singapore and Hong Kong are vying to be the principal educational hub for the Asia-Pacific region and have begun to compete with Australia, Britain, Canada and the USA in providing cross-border education. Although these four Anglo-American countries still dominate cross-border education, Singapore and Hong Kong hope to make inroads into this…

  16. Attitudes towards Literary Tamil and Standard Spoken Tamil in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    2007-01-01

    This is the first empirical study that focused on attitudes towards two varieties of Tamil, Literary Tamil (LT) and Standard Spoken Tamil (SST), with the multilingual state of Singapore as the backdrop. The attitudes of 46 Singapore Tamil teachers towards speakers of LT and SST were investigated using the matched-guise approach along with…

  17. Trend of Vocational Training in Singapore. VITB Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Law Song

    Prior to 1960 vocational and technical education in Singapore received little attention. After Singapore attained self-government in 1959, a policy of diversification to accelerate economic growth through industrialization was adopted. The emphasis then shifted to technical education and training. In 1964 there was a significant move towards the…

  18. The development of hyperbaric and diving medicine in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chng, J; Low, C T; Kang, W L

    2011-12-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a noninvasive therapy used in the treatment of diving-related medical illnesses. It is an important adjunct in the management of a variety of medical conditions. The Republic of Singapore Navy Medical Service (NMS) is the main driver of the development of hyperbaric and diving medicine in Singapore. The practice of hyperbaric medicine has inherent risks, and unregulated application of this therapy may do more harm than good. NMS and Singapore General Hospital (SGH) signed a Memorandum of Understanding to combine NMS' experience with the clinical expertise of SGH to provide holistic care for diving and clinical hyperbaric treatment patients. This collaboration would increase the profile of this clinical specialty in Singapore, and help to establish safe clinical practice guidelines, training and accreditation requirements for diving and hyperbaric medicine practitioners in Singapore, thus ensuring that the practice of bona fide hyperbaric medicine is safeguarded and patient care is not compromised.

  19. West Meets East in Malaysia and Singapore. Participants' Papers. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program 1999 (Malaysia and Singapore).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    These projects were completed by participants in the Fulbright-Hays summer seminar in Malaysia and Singapore in 1999. The participants represented various regions of the U.S. and different grade levels and subject areas. The seminar offered a comprehensive overview of how the people of Malaysia and Singapore live, work, and strive towards their…

  20. Chemical characterization of rainwater at Singapore.

    PubMed

    Hu, G P; Balasubramanian, R; Wu, C D

    2003-06-01

    A short term study of the chemical composition of rainwater was carried out from November 1999 to October 2000 in Singapore. The rainwater was typically acidic with a mean pH of 4.2. Sulfate was the most abundant ion and comparable to the results reported for other industrialized regions. The concentrations of major ions (NH(4)(+), Ca(2+), K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), SO(4)(2+), NO(3)(2-), Cl(-), HCOO(-), CH(3)COO(-)) varied monthly. Results show that local meteorological conditions influence the chemical compositions to a significant extent. The pollutants in rainwater were derived from long range and local (industry and traffic) sources.

  1. Extending Service Area of IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2012-06-01

    According to the current IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN standards, IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks have the limitation that all STAs (Stations) are in the one-hop transmission range of each other. In this paper, to alleviate the limitation of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks we propose the efficient method for selecting the most appropriate pseudo AP (Access Point) from among the set of ad hoc STAs and extending the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks by the pseudo AP's relaying the internal traffic of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Numerical examples show that the proposed method significantly extends the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks.

  2. Obesity prevention and management: Singapore's experience.

    PubMed

    Foo, L L; Vijaya, K; Sloan, R A; Ling, A

    2013-11-01

    Singapore's obesity prevalence among adult Singapore residents aged 18-69 increased from 6.9% (2004) to 10.8% (2010). Among school-going children, the prevalence of overweight and severely overweight (body weight > 120% standard weight for height) increased from 1.4% (1976) to 12.7% (2006) for primary 1 students, and 2.2% to 15.9% for primary 6 students. Fundamentally, obesity is a function of excess energy intake (food consumption) and insufficient energy expenditure (physical activity). In 2010, about 40% did not have sufficient physical activity, and about 60% consumed excess energy. For students in the mainstream schools, only a fifth consumed at least two servings of fruits and vegetables every day, and a tenth were physically active for at least 60 min on 5 or more days a week. From a public health perspective, the most powerful levers for influencing population health lie in interventions that make healthy living convenient and an unconscious choice by targeting the social and environmental context. Recognizing this, the Health Promotion Board has in recent years made a strategic shift away from just public education campaigns aimed at individual behaviours, to focus on creating a ground-up social movement to enable and empower individuals to live out a healthy lifestyle. PMID:24102951

  3. Catastrophic extinctions follow deforestation in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Ng, Peter K L

    2003-07-24

    The looming mass extinction of biodiversity in the humid tropics is a major concern for the future, yet most reports of extinctions in these regions are anecdotal or conjectural, with a scarcity of robust, broad-based empirical data. Here we report on local extinctions among a wide range of terrestrial and freshwater taxa from Singapore (540 km2) in relation to habitat loss exceeding 95% over 183 years. Substantial rates of documented and inferred extinctions were found, especially for forest specialists, with the greatest proportion of extinct taxa (34-87%) in butterflies, fish, birds and mammals. Observed extinctions were generally fewer, but inferred losses often higher, in vascular plants, phasmids, decapods, amphibians and reptiles (5-80%). Forest reserves comprising only 0.25% of Singapore's area now harbour over 50% of the residual native biodiversity. Extrapolations of the observed and inferred local extinction data, using a calibrated species-area model, imply that the current unprecedented rate of habitat destruction in Southeast Asia will result in the loss of 13-42% of regional populations over the next century, at least half of which will represent global species extinctions.

  4. A survey of air quality in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y. K.; Tang, S. M.

    1993-04-01

    Ambient aerosol samples were collected near an industrial area in Singapore during the period of July 91 to January 92. The sampling site was a highway at a height of about 20 m. PIXE analysis of these samples was carried out using 1.8 MeV protons. Thirteen trace elements were observed, ranging from Si to Pb. Among these, Cl and S had the highest concentrations. The former was attributed to the sea-salt particles and the latter could be due to the presence of oil refineries in the vicinity. Pb was found to be below the detection limit of 30 ngm -3 in most of the samples analysed. This is likely due to the fact that unleaded petrol was used by many cars in Singapore and that the sampling point was quite a distance away from the ground level. The observed variations in concentration for most of the trace elements were well-correlated with traffic intensity and meteorological conditions. Time variation patterns on weekdays and during weekends were also observed. A higher level of pollutants was detected during the period when there were prolonged forest fires in the nearby islands in Indonesia.

  5. Obesity prevention and management: Singapore's experience.

    PubMed

    Foo, L L; Vijaya, K; Sloan, R A; Ling, A

    2013-11-01

    Singapore's obesity prevalence among adult Singapore residents aged 18-69 increased from 6.9% (2004) to 10.8% (2010). Among school-going children, the prevalence of overweight and severely overweight (body weight > 120% standard weight for height) increased from 1.4% (1976) to 12.7% (2006) for primary 1 students, and 2.2% to 15.9% for primary 6 students. Fundamentally, obesity is a function of excess energy intake (food consumption) and insufficient energy expenditure (physical activity). In 2010, about 40% did not have sufficient physical activity, and about 60% consumed excess energy. For students in the mainstream schools, only a fifth consumed at least two servings of fruits and vegetables every day, and a tenth were physically active for at least 60 min on 5 or more days a week. From a public health perspective, the most powerful levers for influencing population health lie in interventions that make healthy living convenient and an unconscious choice by targeting the social and environmental context. Recognizing this, the Health Promotion Board has in recent years made a strategic shift away from just public education campaigns aimed at individual behaviours, to focus on creating a ground-up social movement to enable and empower individuals to live out a healthy lifestyle.

  6. IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference: Notes on the Early Conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper gathers the remembrances of several key contributors who participated in the earliest Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conferences (NSREC).

  7. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ang, Shin Yuh; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of <33). In multivariable analysis, age, job grade, and neuroticism were significantly associated with each of the 3 components of the MBI. Staff nurses less than 30 years with high to very high neuroticism were more likely to experience high EE, high DP, and low PA. Conclusion. Younger nurses in Singapore are at increased risk of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout. PMID:27478835

  8. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of <33). In multivariable analysis, age, job grade, and neuroticism were significantly associated with each of the 3 components of the MBI. Staff nurses less than 30 years with high to very high neuroticism were more likely to experience high EE, high DP, and low PA. Conclusion. Younger nurses in Singapore are at increased risk of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout. PMID:27478835

  9. Stress and burnout among healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yang, Suyi; Meredith, Pamela; Khan, Asaduzzaman

    2015-06-01

    International literature suggests that the experience of high levels of stress by healthcare professionals has been associated with decreased work efficiency and high rates of staff turnover. The aims of this study are to identify the extent of stress and burnout experienced by healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore and to identify demographic characteristics and work situations associated with this stress and burnout. A total of 220 Singaporean mental health professionals completed a cross-sectional survey, which included measures of stress, burnout (exhaustion and disengagement), participants' demographic details, and working situation. Independent t-tests and one-way ANOVAs were used to examine between-group differences in the dependent variables (stress and burnout). Analyses revealed that healthcare professionals below the age of 25, those with less than five years experience, and those with the lowest annual income, reported the highest levels of stress and burnout. No significant differences were found with other demographic or work situation variables. Findings suggest that healthcare professionals working in a mental health setting in Singapore are experiencing relatively high levels of stress and burnout. It is important that clinicians, administrators and policy makers take proactive steps to develop programs aimed at reducing stress and burnout for healthcare professionals. These programs are likely to also increase the well-being and resilience of healthcare professionals and improve the quality of mental health services in Singapore.

  10. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ang, Shin Yuh; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of <33). In multivariable analysis, age, job grade, and neuroticism were significantly associated with each of the 3 components of the MBI. Staff nurses less than 30 years with high to very high neuroticism were more likely to experience high EE, high DP, and low PA. Conclusion. Younger nurses in Singapore are at increased risk of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout.

  11. Food allergy in Singapore: opening a new chapter.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi

    2014-05-01

    With the exception of shellfish, the overall food allergy rates in Singapore have not reached the epidemic proportions of the West. The rates of egg, milk and fish allergies remain low. However, the patterns of some food allergies in Singapore have changed over the last decade. For example, peanut allergy, once rare in Singapore, is now the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children. Studies analysing lifestyle practices, particularly with respect to prevention of food allergy, are necessary in order for practitioners to understand global differences and maintain this low prevalence.

  12. Food allergy in Singapore: opening a new chapter

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi

    2014-01-01

    With the exception of shellfish, the overall food allergy rates in Singapore have not reached the epidemic proportions of the West. The rates of egg, milk and fish allergies remain low. However, the patterns of some food allergies in Singapore have changed over the last decade. For example, peanut allergy, once rare in Singapore, is now the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children. Studies analysing lifestyle practices, particularly with respect to prevention of food allergy, are necessary in order for practitioners to understand global differences and maintain this low prevalence. PMID:24862746

  13. DNA-based analyses of molds in Singapore public buildings results in a proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index.

    PubMed

    Goh, V; Yap, H M; Gutiérrez, R A; Ng, L C; Vesper, S S

    2014-12-01

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/36) occur at similar rates in Singapore and the United States. A Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (SERMI) is proposed which might be divided into low (<18), medium (18 to 28) and high (>28) mold burden categories but more samples will help to refine these categories.

  14. DNA-based analyses of molds in Singapore public buildings results in a proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index.

    PubMed

    Goh, V; Yap, H M; Gutiérrez, R A; Ng, L C; Vesper, S S

    2014-12-01

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/36) occur at similar rates in Singapore and the United States. A Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (SERMI) is proposed which might be divided into low (<18), medium (18 to 28) and high (>28) mold burden categories but more samples will help to refine these categories. PMID:25776591

  15. Smoking restrictions in private workplaces in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Koh, Y H; Voo, Y O; Yong, L S

    1994-06-01

    This survey aims to determine the number and profile of private workplaces in Singapore which have a smoking restriction policy. The response rate was 43%. Of the companies which responded, 59% had some form of smoking restriction. Private companies are more likely to have a smoking restriction policy: (a) where smoking poses inherent fire risks, such as those dealing with inflammable chemicals or gases; (b) where smoking poses inherent detrimental effects to the quality of the products, such as those dealing with precision electronic microcomponents, where a smoke-free and dust-free environment is essential; (c) are larger companies; and (d) have strong management support in initiating and enforcing smoking restriction. Future programmes should give more emphasis to the service industries such as construction, insurance, banking and finance, and smaller companies (with fewer than 100 employees). They should involve the management who play an important role in implementing smoking restriction at their workplace. PMID:7997897

  16. Regionalization, economic restructuring and labour migration in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Hui, W T

    1997-01-01

    "This paper documents the impact of economic development on changes in employment and labour migration in Singapore. High export-led growth and the relaxation of immigration policies in the late 1960s enabled employment of substantial numbers of unskilled foreign labour in manufacturing, construction and domestic service sectors....Economic development in the 1990s, characterized by the regionalization drive which relocates relatively resource-intensive operations of Singapore-based companies overseas, has led to increased retrenchments and a moderation of demand for foreign workers. The upgrading of remaining production operations in Singapore is expected to increase demand for workers with higher skill levels. Emigration of highly educated and skilled professionals from Singapore became a national concern in the late 1980s. However, with regionalization, the new challenge in the 1990s has become one of encouraging Singaporeans to temporarily take up overseas positions." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA)

  17. Dengue Prevention and 35 Years of Vector Control in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Kee-Tai; Gubler, Duane J.

    2006-01-01

    After a 15-year period of low incidence, dengue has reemerged in Singapore in the past decade. We identify potential causes of this resurgence. A combination of lowered herd immunity, virus transmission outside the home, an increase in the age of infection, and the adoption of a case-reactive approach to vector control contribute to the increased dengue incidence. Singapore's experience with dengue indicates that prevention efforts may not be sustainable. For renewed success, Singapore needs to return to a vector control program that is based on carefully collected entomologic and epidemiologic data. Singapore's taking on a leadership role in strengthening disease surveillance and control in Southeast Asia may also be useful in reducing virus importation. PMID:16707042

  18. Benefits of IEEE-754 features in modern symmetric tridiagonaleigensolvers

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Osni; Riedy, Jason E.; Vomel, Christof

    2006-03-12

    Bisection is one of the most common methods used to compute the eigenvalues of symmetric tridiagonal matrices. Bisection relies on the Sturm count: For a given shift a, the number of negative pivots in the factorization T - {sigma}I = LDL{sup T} equals the number of eigenvalues of T that are smaller than a. In IEEE-754 arithmetic, the value oo permits the computation to continue past a zero pivot, producing a correct Sturm count when T is unreduced. Demmel and Li showed that using oo rather than testing for zero pivots within the loop could significantly improve performance on certain architectures. When eigenvalues are to be computed to high relative accuracy, it is often preferable to work with LDL{sup T} factorizations instead of the original tridiagonal T. One important example is the MRRR algorithm. When bisection is applied to the factored matrix, the Sturm count is computed from LDL{sup T} which makes differential stationary and progressive qds algorithms the methods of choice. While it seems trivial to replace T by LDL{sup T}, in reality these algorithms are more complicated: In IEEE-754 arithmetic, a zero pivot produces an overflow followed by an invalid exception (NaN, or 'Not a Number') that renders the Sturm count incorrect. We present alternative, safe formulations that are guaranteed to produce the correct result. Benchmarking these algorithms on a variety of platforms shows that the original formulation without tests is always faster provided that no exception occurs. The transforms see speed-ups of up to 2.6x over the careful formulations. Tests on industrial matrices show that encountering exceptions in practice is rare. This leads to the following design: First, compute the Sturm count by the fast but unsafe algorithm. Then, if an exception occurs, recompute the count by a safe, slower alternative. The new Sturm count algorithms improve the speed of bisection by up to 2x on our test matrices. Furthermore, unlike the traditional tiny

  19. Singapore's foreign workforce: some reflections on its benefits and costs.

    PubMed

    Stahl, C W

    1984-01-01

    "This article provides some empirical information pertaining to the benefits and costs of foreign labor to Singapore and subjects to critical analysis some of Pang and Lim's hypotheses concerning the costs of labor importation presented in a previous article.... The article concludes with a discussion of the real cost to Malaysia of Singapore's labor importation policies and its potential for disruption of Malaysia's development plans." PMID:12312927

  20. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Security White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    King, J

    2001-10-22

    Given the increased productivity and growing popularity of wireless communications in general, and wireless data communications in particular, this paper outlines the protocols, security implications, and architectures of IEEE Std. 802.11-1999 wireless LANs (WLANs) and makes recommendations regarding a phased implementation of WLANs at LLNL. This project is driven by the need for convenient and secure access to the Internet for Laboratory visitors and to the internal network for Laboratory employees. A solid architecture designed with a priority on security will allow LLNL to offer network access in areas where it is traditionally hard to deploy wired networks. It will also enable such services as wireless access for inventory control and convenient network access for conference rooms around LLNL. Wireless network access has the potential to increase productivity by enabling instant access to information.

  1. WIH-based IEEE 802.11 ECG monitoring implementation.

    PubMed

    Moein, A; Pouladian, M

    2007-01-01

    New wireless technologies make possible the implementation of high level integration wireless devices which allow the replacement of traditional large wired monitoring devices. It offers new functionalities to physicians and will reduce the costs. Among these functionalities, biomedical signals can be sent to other devices (PDA, PC . . . ) or processing centers, without restricting the patients' mobility. This article discusses the WIH (Ward-In-Hand) structure and the software required for its implementation before an operational example is presented with its results. The aim of this project is the development and implementation of a reduced size electrocardiograph based on IEEE 802.11 with high speed and more accuracy, which allows wireless monitoring of patients, and the insertion of the information into the Wi-Fi hospital networks. PMID:18002795

  2. Primary healthcare system and practice characteristics in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hwee Sing; Lim, Yee Wei; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Jm

    2014-01-01

    It is crucial to adapt and improve the (primary) health care systems of countries to prepare for future patient profiles and their related needs. The main aim of this study was to acquire a comprehensive overview of the perceptions of primary care experts in Singapore about the state of primary care in Singapore, and to compare this with the state of primary care in other countries. Notwithstanding ranked 2(nd) in terms of efficiency of health care, Singapore is facing significant health care challenges. Emails were sent to 85 experts, where they were asked to rate Singapore's primary care system based on nine internationally adopted health system characteristics and six practice characteristics (response rate = 29%). The primary care system in Singapore received an average of 10.9 out of 30 possible points. Lowest ratings were given to: earnings of primary care physicians compared to specialists, requirement for 24 hr accessibility of primary care services, standard of family medicine in academic departments, reflection of community served by practices in patient lists, and the access to specialists without needing to be referred by primary care physicians. Singapore was categorized as a 'low' primary care country according to the experts. PMID:25120380

  3. Workforce education and manpower development: a road map for Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Tuan-Kay

    2002-05-01

    In recognition of the rapid growth potential of the world market in optics and photonics Singapore is determined to establish itself as an optics hub. Indeed, Singapore's strong industry base in electronics, electrical devices, and semiconductors will complement well the multidisciplinary characteristics of optics and photonics, and will serve as an excellent foundation to develop more optical applications. In addition, Singapore's excellent infrastructure and appropriate industry mix, coupled with its close proximity to the emerging Asian markets would also give it an advantage for undertaking R&D and incubation of new technologies. However, a critical factor for realizing the rapid growth of the optics industry is the adequate and steady supply of qualified personnel at all levels. In this paper, a plan for developing a comprehensive, integrated education and training system is proposed. It is pointed out that the development and implementation of such a system requires the collaboration and dedication of the whole optics and photonics community in Singapore, as well as the support of a global network of optics clusters. In particular, the important roles of the Singapore Centre of Photonics Excellence (SCOPE) and the Photonics Association, Singapore) [PA(S)] is emphasized.

  4. Singapore refiners in midst of huge construction campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that Singapore's downstream capacity continues to mushroom. Singapore refiners, upbeat about long term prospects for petroleum products demand in the Asia-Pacific region, and are pressing plans to boost processing capacity. Their plans go beyond capacity expansions. They are proceeding with projects to upgrade refineries to emphasize production of higher value products and to further integrate refining capabilities wit the region's petrochemical industry. Planned expansion and upgrading projects at Singapore refineries call for outlays of more than $1 billion to boost total capacity to about 1.1 million b/d in 1993 and 1.27 million b/d by 1995. That would be the highest level since the mid-1980s, when refiners such as Shell Singapore cut capacity amid an oil glut. Singapore refineries currently are running at effective full capacity of 1.04 million b/d. Meanwhile, Singapore refiners are aggressively courting customers in the Indochina subcontinent, where long isolated centrally planned economies are turning gradually to free markets.

  5. Review of the IEEE Standard for Computerized Operating Procedure Systems

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J.

    2010-02-26

    Increasingly nuclear power plant procedures, such as emergency operating procedures, are being presented in computer form with functionality to support operator use and management of the procedures. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently has guidance for the review of computer-based procedures (CBPs); however, there remain CBP functions and human performance issues for which up-to-date guidance is lacking. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has initiated a standard development effort to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of CBP systems. When completed, it may provide guidance to supplement the NRC staff's review criteria. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the suitability of the IEEE Standard for use in the NRC's HFE safety reviews of CBP systems and to ensure that the guidance meets the NRC's standard for scientific and engineering rigor used in its own guidance development efforts. We established the following criteria with which to evaluate the Standard: (1) it should meet an existing need of NRC reviewers, (2) it should be based in sound HFE principles, (3) it should be thoroughly peer-reviewed, and (4) it should address CBP-related human performance issues identified in the literature. This report describes the methodology we used to evaluate each criterion. Our evaluation concluded that the Standard generally does meet these criteria, however several areas were identified for which additional clarifications are needed. Thus consideration of the Standard's use by the NRC is supported. The standard evaluation methodology developed in this study can be generally applied to the review of other HFE standards being considered for possible use or endorsement by the NRC.

  6. Sex work and risky sexual behaviors among foreign entertainment workers in urban Singapore: findings from Mystery Client Survey.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mee-Lian; Chan, Roy; Tan, Hiok Hee; Yong, Eunice; Lee, Lionel; Cutter, Jeffrey; Tay, Joanne; Koh, David

    2012-12-01

    Globalization has led to a rapid influx of female workers from Asian countries with high prevalence of HIV to Singapore, with many entering the entertainment industry. We assessed the prevalence of sexual services, condom use, and self-initiated screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated variables among foreign female entertainment workers in Singapore. A cross-sectional survey of 317 female entertainment workers, using mystery clients, was conducted on a two-stage proportional cluster sample of 93 entertainment establishments stratified by geographical zone in Singapore. We found a high prevalence (71 %) of sexual services in entertainment establishments with 53 % of the female entertainment workers reporting selling sex. Consistent condom use for sex with paying clients in a usual week in the past 3 months was low, ranging from 37.9 % for oral sex, 46.9 % for anal sex, to 51.9 % for vaginal sex. On multivariate logistic regression, consistent condom use for vaginal sex with clients showed a significant independent association with the entertainment worker's behavior of asking clients to use condoms and a borderline association with entertainment worker being a Chinese national. Less than half (48.9 %) of the sex workers had ever been screened for STIs either locally or in their home country. The only independent factor significantly associated with STI screening was having to support one's family. In summary, a high percentage of foreign female entertainment workers in Singapore reported selling sex. Condom use and STI screening were low among them. Access to STI screening, treatment, and education services should be enhanced for foreign female entertainment workers in Singapore.

  7. Incense Use and Cardiovascular Mortality among Chinese in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Maggie L.; Ang, Li-Wei; Yu, Mimi C.; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2014-01-01

    Background: Incense burning is common in many parts of the world. Although it is perceived that particulate matter from incense smoke is deleterious to health, there is no epidemiologic evidence linking domestic exposure to cardiovascular mortality. Objective: We examined the association between exposure to incense burning and cardiovascular mortality in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Methods: We enrolled a total of 63,257 Singapore Chinese 45–74 years of age during 1993–1998. All participants were interviewed in person to collect information about lifestyle behaviors, including the practice of burning incense at home. We identified cardiovascular deaths via record linkage with the nationwide death registry through 31 December 2011. Results: In this cohort, 76.9% were current incense users, and most of the current users (89.9%) had burned incense daily for ≥ 20 years. Relative to noncurrent users, current users had a 12% higher risk of cardiovascular mortality [multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.20]. The HR was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.37) for mortality due to stroke and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.21) for mortality due to coronary heart disease. The association between current incense use and cardiovascular mortality appeared to be limited to participants without a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.26) but not linked to those with a history (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.17). In addition, the association was stronger in never-smokers (HR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23) and former smokers (HR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.42) than in current smokers (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.22). Conclusions: Long-term exposure to incense burning in the home environment was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in the study population. Citation: Pan A, Clark ML, Ang LW, Yu MC, Yuan JM, Koh WP. 2014. Incense use and cardiovascular mortality among Chinese in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health

  8. Numerical Modelling of Circulation and Exchange through Singapore Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Xu, M.; Chua, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    The circulation in the Singapore coastal region is complicated and influenced by the combination of tidal forcing of the surrounding seas, complex bathymetry, irregular coastlines, and seasonal monsoon and local winds. An unstructured-grid SUNTANS (Stanford Unstructured Nonhydrostatic Terrain-following Adaptive Navier-Stokes Simulator) model is employed to perform three-dimensional simulations of flow in Singapore coastal waters. The unstructured-grid has an average resolution of 50 - 100 m around Singapore and in areas close to the shoreline, while a coarse grid resolution is employed in the open waters. The model is tidally forced at the three open boundaries, located to the west, south and east of Singapore, using the 8 main tidal constituents as derived from the OSU Tidal Prediction Software (OTPS). A detailed calibration is performed, and the model-predicted water levels and currents compare well with observed data throughout the model domain. We examine the individual and combined effects of tidal and wind forcing by performing simulations with (1) tides only, (2) winds only and (3) both tides and wind. The exchange through Singapore Strait is investigated by computing volume fluxes and transport pathways at four transects, namely the Malacca Strait, Java Sea, South China Sea and Singapore transects. The transport pathways are computed by releasing particles on each side of the transects, and identifying the spatial distribution of the particles over one tidal cycle. Our results show that tidal forcing is predominant in Singapore Strait, and wind forcing is an important mechanism during the monsoon season. The residual effects, attributed to nonlinear interactions between tidal and wind forcing, is dominant during the inter-monsoon season.

  9. The sexual profile of rapists in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Gwee, K P; Lim, L E C; Woo, M

    2002-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first paper that examines the sexual profile of rapists in Singapore. A semi-structured interview based on a questionnaire about sexual habits was conducted on 62 convicted rapists and a control group of 63 prisoners comprising 32 convicted for violent non-sexual offences and 31 for non-violent non-sexual offences. Significantly more rapists masturbated at least once a month and were exposed to pornography within six months before the offence when compared to non-violent controls. Violent controls did not differ significantly from rapists in any aspect of the sexual history. The greater similarity between rapists and violent controls lends support to the concept of rape as a violent rather than sexual offence. A subgroup of 17 'hypersexual' rapists were identified who were either having sex or masturbating very frequently but had still resorted to rape. Compared to the other 46 rapists, the 'hypersexual' rapists were more likely to have fantasised predominantly about rape or bondage and to cite domination, aggression or hostility as reasons for committing rape, suggesting an even stronger element of power and aggression than in their less sexually active counterparts. PMID:11858209

  10. Epidemiology of viral infections in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Doraisingham, S; Goh, K T; Ling, A E

    1987-04-01

    As Singapore is a densely populated island, and also a major air and sea port, the importation and dissemination of viral infections is facilitated. Respiratory viral infections have the highest prevalence rates, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) being the most important ones. Seasonal variation occurs with influenza, RSV and parainfluenza virus type 1 infections. The age distribution and clinical picture associated with infections due to the various respiratory viruses are similar to those reported in other countries. Carrier rates for hepatitis B are high, but differ in the three major ethnic groups, vertical transmission from infected mothers being an important mode of transmission. Outbreaks of hepatitis A have been associated with the consumption of inadequately cooked shellfish. Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections are acquired early in life and herpes simplex, more slowly. Genital herpes is increasing in incidence. Coxsackievirus A24 and enterovirus 70 have caused major epidemics of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis at 5-10 year intervals. Outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease due to coxsackievirus A16 have also occurred. With the declining incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever, the percentage of susceptible individuals in children under 10 years, has increased markedly. Epidemics of rubella which occurred during the past decade, together with immunisation, have increased herd immunity to this virus. PMID:2825585

  11. Atmospheric fluxes of nutrients onto Singapore Strait.

    PubMed

    Sundarambal, P; Balasubramanian, R; Tkalich, P

    2009-01-01

    In view of recurring forest fires in Southeast Asia (SEA) on a large scale and the abundant rainfall in this tropical region, atmospheric fallout of airborne particles i.e. dry atmospheric deposition (DAD) and wet atmospheric deposition (WAD) of nutrients to the ocean surface are thought to be significant. Currently, limited data sets of atmospheric deposition (AD) exist for tropical ecosystems in the region. Furthermore, there is a lack of reliable experimental data on AD of nitrogen (N) & phosphorus (P) in tropical environments. It is therefore imperative to quantify the AD of macro-nutrients, N and P species in order to estimate their impacts on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, field measurements of nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, total N (TN), phosphate and total P (TP) were made, in both airborne particulate matter and precipitation, from January 2006 to July 2006 in Singapore. These measurements were done to characterize and estimate the difference between DAD and WAD fluxes of N & P to coastal waters. The estimated loadings from DAD and WAD (g/m(2)/year) of TN were 1.011 +/- 0.441 and 7.052 +/- 4.34 and those of TP were 0.187 +/- 0.16 and 0.532 +/- 0.524, respectively. This investigation represents a baseline study to access environmental effects of AD of nutrients on the coastal aquatic ecosystem.

  12. The sexual profile of rapists in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Gwee, K P; Lim, L E C; Woo, M

    2002-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first paper that examines the sexual profile of rapists in Singapore. A semi-structured interview based on a questionnaire about sexual habits was conducted on 62 convicted rapists and a control group of 63 prisoners comprising 32 convicted for violent non-sexual offences and 31 for non-violent non-sexual offences. Significantly more rapists masturbated at least once a month and were exposed to pornography within six months before the offence when compared to non-violent controls. Violent controls did not differ significantly from rapists in any aspect of the sexual history. The greater similarity between rapists and violent controls lends support to the concept of rape as a violent rather than sexual offence. A subgroup of 17 'hypersexual' rapists were identified who were either having sex or masturbating very frequently but had still resorted to rape. Compared to the other 46 rapists, the 'hypersexual' rapists were more likely to have fantasised predominantly about rape or bondage and to cite domination, aggression or hostility as reasons for committing rape, suggesting an even stronger element of power and aggression than in their less sexually active counterparts.

  13. Control of dengue vectors in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wang, N C

    1994-12-01

    Singapore has a well-established system for the surveillance, research and control of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Control of these vectors comes under the jurisdiction of the Environmental Public Health Division of the Ministry of the Environment. The strategy for Aedes control is an integrated approach incorporating case detection, source reduction, health education and law enforcement. This is done through the Quarantine & Epidemiology Department (dengue surveillance and research), Vector Control & Research Department (Aedes surveillance, control and research), Environmental Health Department (environmental sanitation and hygiene) and Public Education Department (health education on dengue prevention and control). Despite its success in reducing the Aedes population to a house index of around 1%, the incidence of dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever has increased sharply during the last 5 years. The Ministry realises that the dengue problem can only be tackled on a regional basis and it is with this objective in mind that the Institute of Environmental Epidemiology has been formed to collaborate with other international agencies in operational research and training projects.

  14. Epidemiology of viral infections in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Doraisingham, S; Goh, K T; Ling, A E

    1987-04-01

    As Singapore is a densely populated island, and also a major air and sea port, the importation and dissemination of viral infections is facilitated. Respiratory viral infections have the highest prevalence rates, influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) being the most important ones. Seasonal variation occurs with influenza, RSV and parainfluenza virus type 1 infections. The age distribution and clinical picture associated with infections due to the various respiratory viruses are similar to those reported in other countries. Carrier rates for hepatitis B are high, but differ in the three major ethnic groups, vertical transmission from infected mothers being an important mode of transmission. Outbreaks of hepatitis A have been associated with the consumption of inadequately cooked shellfish. Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections are acquired early in life and herpes simplex, more slowly. Genital herpes is increasing in incidence. Coxsackievirus A24 and enterovirus 70 have caused major epidemics of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis at 5-10 year intervals. Outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease due to coxsackievirus A16 have also occurred. With the declining incidence of dengue haemorrhagic fever, the percentage of susceptible individuals in children under 10 years, has increased markedly. Epidemics of rubella which occurred during the past decade, together with immunisation, have increased herd immunity to this virus.

  15. Disincentives to fertility: the Singapore program.

    PubMed

    Hall, P

    1974-01-01

    Singapore's first 5-year national family planning program saw a dramatic drop in all fertility rates including a drop in the crude birthrate from 28.6 per thousand in 1966 to 22.1 in 1970. However, the 1970 figure represents a slight increase over the preceding year, and the government, in its new plan begun in 1972, has undertaken several measures to significantly reduce fertility among younger families and "hard-core" risisters. The aim is a crude birthrate of 18/1000 by 1975. In addition to widespread publicity and motivational campaigns, tough new measures were introduced to discourage couples from having more than 2 children. These include: 1) reduction of future income tax relief from 5 to the first 3 children: 2) reduction in paid maternity leave from 3 to 2 confinements; 3) lower priority of allocation of government apartments to families of 3 or more children; and 4) increase in accouchement fees in government hospitals. The measures are largely regressive in nature, affecting lower income families who would feel the economic pinch the most. Some politicians have considered the measures too drastic.

  16. Biogeography of bacterioplankton in the tropical seawaters of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lau, Stanley C K; Zhang, Rui; Brodie, Eoin L; Piceno, Yvette M; Andersen, Gary; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge about the biogeography of marine bacterioplankton on the global scale in general and in Southeast Asia in particular has been scarce. This study investigated the biogeography of bacterioplankton community in Singapore seawaters. Twelve stations around Singapore island were sampled on different schedules over 1 year. Using PCR-DNA fingerprinting, DNA cloning and sequencing, and microarray hybridization of the 16S rRNA genes, we observed clear spatial variations of bacterioplankton diversity within the small area of the Singapore seas. Water samples collected from the Singapore Strait (south) throughout the year were dominated by DNA sequences affiliated with Cyanobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria that were believed to be associated with the influx of water from the open seas in Southeast Asia. On the contrary, water in the relatively polluted Johor Strait (north) were dominated by Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and that were presumably associated with river discharge and the relatively eutrophic conditions of the waterway. Bacterioplankton diversity was temporally stable, except for the episodic surge of Pseudoalteromonas, associated with algal blooms. Overall, these results provide valuable insights into the diversity of bacterioplankton communities in Singapore seas and the possible influences of hydrological conditions and anthropogenic activities on the dynamics of the communities.

  17. The Quest for Global Competitiveness: Promotion of Innovation and Entrepreneurial Universities in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2015-01-01

    The economy of Singapore has been continuously reforming since its independence. In the late 1980s, the economy of Singapore depended heavily on the vibrant manufacturing sector formed by foreign direct investment and multinational companies. This article critically reviews the policies and reform measures adopted by the Singapore government in…

  18. Dynamics and Challenges of a Vocational Training System--The Singapore Experience. ITE Paper No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Song Seng

    Vocational and technical training in Singapore has a relatively short history. Only after Singapore became independent did the need to formalize a national system of training to support the labor force needs of industrialization become evident. Singapore's first vocational institute was established in 1964. The system has experienced several…

  19. Trends in Income Disparity and Equality Enhancing (?) Education Policies in the Development Stages of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukhopadhaya, P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the trends in income diversity in Singapore at the total and disaggregated level using Labour Force Survey data. The income inequality in Singapore is found to be significantly high. One reason is the selective migration policy of the government of Singapore. The government has made conscious efforts to bring equality in…

  20. Effective Island, Effective Schools: Repairing and Restructuring in the Singapore School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Leslie; Gopinathan, S.

    1996-01-01

    In Singapore, national survival necessitated an early fundamental restructuring of the educational system, followed by a period of fine tuning, or repair. By the early 1980s, Singapore had developed a highly efficient education system that met the needs of a rapidly industrializing economy. Since the mid-1980s' recession, Singapore has redefined…

  1. 76 FR 55347 - Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission at Singapore Air Show

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... International Trade Administration Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission at Singapore Air Show AGENCY... organizing an Aerospace Executive Service Trade Mission (AESTM) to Singapore in conjunction with the Singapore Airshow 2012 ( http://www.singaporeairshow.com.sg ). The AESTM is designed to include...

  2. Towards Evidence-Based Initial Teacher Education in Singapore: A Review of Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Ee-Ling; Hui, Chenri; Taylor, Peter G.; Ng, Pak Tee

    2012-01-01

    Initial teacher education (ITE) in Singapore is shifting towards evidence-based practice. Despite a clear policy orientation, ITE in Singapore has not yet produced the evidence base that it is anticipating. This paper presents an analytical review of previous research into ITE in Singapore and makes comparisons to the larger international context.…

  3. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United... Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010: Deadline for filing written submissions. December 13, 2010: Transmittal of...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  4. Singapore Math®. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated December 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report on "Singapore Math®" updates the 2009 WWC review of the curriculum to include seven new studies. Despite the additional research, no studies meet WWC design standards and therefore, no conclusions can be made about the effectiveness of "Singapore Math®." [For the 2009 report, "Singapore Math," see…

  5. The Bilingual Education Policy in Singapore: Implications for Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin

    This paper examines assumptions about second language acquisition, bilingualism, and language planning that underlie Singapore's bilingual education policy, noting how the experience in Singapore illuminates current theories in second language acquisition and language planning. In Singapore, English is promoted as the "working language," while…

  6. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11e (EDCF) and IEEE 802.11(DCF) WLAN Incorporating Different Physical Layer Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V.; Singh, H.; Malhotra, J.

    2012-12-01

    Medium access coordination function basically implements the distributed coordination function (DCF) which provides support to best effort services but limited to QoS services. Subsequently, a new standard, namely enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) is reported. The IEEE 802.11e (EDCA) defines MAC procedures to support QoS requirements which specifies distributed contention based access scheme to access the shared wireless media. This paper evaluates the performance of EDCA based IEEE 802.11 WLAN for various access categories (ACs) using OPNET™ Modeller 14.5. Further, the computed results are compared with DCF protocols in terms of QoS parameters. Furthermore, the simulative observation is reported at data rate of 54 Mbps using different physical layer protocols such as IEEE 802.11a/b/g to stumble on the best one to be implemented with EDCF to achieve improved QoS.

  7. Developing IEEE medical device standards: a case study, wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices.

    PubMed

    Carey, Carole C; Zhang, Yuang-Ting

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standards Association (IEEE-SA) is a leading standards developing organization of global industry standards in a wide-range of industries, including biomedical and healthcare.

  8. Validation of IEEE P1547.1 Interconnection Test Procedures: ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Englebretson, S.; Pink, C.; Daley, J.; Siciliano, R.; Hinton, D.

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of testing the ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System according to IEEE P1547.1 procedures. The ASCO system interconnects synchronous generators with the electric power system and provides monitoring and control for the generator and grid connection through extensive protective functions. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate and give feedback on the contents of IEEE Draft Standard P1547.1 Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  9. University students and mental health. Canada, Britain and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Gold, J H

    1979-01-01

    There are many crucial determinants of the individual outcome and benefit of a university education including the stressful interplay of cultural and socioeconomic factors which are of growing importance in the inflationary 1970's. An epidemiological study of university students from 1969-1972 in Canada, 1973-1974 in Britain, and 1975 in Singapore, attempted to identify stresses leading to mental ill-health in these students. Singapore was chosen as an example of a culture bridging the developed Northern and developing Southern nations of the world. Cultural differences affecting the results of the study are discussed as is the role of social change. PMID:511452

  10. [Present situation and development of acupuncture and moxibustion in Singapore].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Jun; Zhu, An-Ning; Liao, Xiu-Lian; Ouyang, Qiang-Bo

    2013-10-01

    The development history, education, legislation, charge and institutes of acupuncture and moxibustion in Singapore are introduced in this article. Acupuncture and moxibustion has been developed in Singapore since 1840. Nowadays there are three universities that set up standard Chinese medicine courses and two acupuncture-moxibustion associations. Legislation of acupuncture and moxibustion is published in 2000. The acupuncture and moxibustion is applied for approximately 50 kinds of diseases. The acupuncture and moxibustion is at one's own expense in public or private institutions, but cheap or completely free in charity.

  11. Ethnic fertility differentials in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Saw, S H

    1990-01-01

    Differences in fertility between the three major ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore have existed since before the onset of fertility decline in the late 1950s and remain today, although the relative positions and the actual differences have changed due to the varying rates of decline. By 1987, the Malays experienced the highest fertility and the Chinese the lowest in both countries but in Singapore the Malay fertility was lower than the Chinese fertility in Peninsular Malaysia. The fertility differentials will lead to changes in the ethnic composition in both countries but more so in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:2298755

  12. Survey of dental fees charged by dentists in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, K J; Lim, L P; Karunakaran, A

    2000-02-01

    A survey on dental fees was conducted among all private dental clinics registered with the Medical Audit and Accreditation Unit of the Ministry of Health in Singapore. Replies were received from 74 dental clinics. Analysis of results showed that there was a general increase in the median of fees charged in 1998 compared to the fees listed in the Minimum Fee Schedule issued by the Singapore Dental Association in 1994. 93% of the respondents indicated that there is a need to revise the Minimum Fee Schedule.

  13. Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Grobe, Lars; Wittkopf, Stephen; Pandey, Anupama Rana; Xiaoming, Yang; Seng, Ang Kian; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-02-28

    A setup to monitor the daylighting performance of different glazing types in Singapore is presented. The glazing is installed in the facade of four dedicated testing chambers in BCAA's Zero Energy Building in Singapore. These test rooms are equipped with sensors that both record illuminances on the work plane, and luminances as seen by occupants. The physical and logical design of the monitoring system is presented. Criteria to assess the daylighting performance are introduced, and initial results of the work in progress are presented.

  14. Gravitraps for management of dengue clusters in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Caleb; Vythilingam, Indra; Chong, Chee-Seng; Abdul Razak, Muhammad Aliff; Tan, Cheong-Huat; Liew, Christina; Pok, Kwoon-Yong; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2013-05-01

    Although Singapore has an intensive dengue control program, dengue remains endemic with regular outbreaks. We report development and use of a novel adult oviposition trap, the Gravitrap, in managing dengue cluster areas. The Gravitrap is a simple, hay infusion-filled cylindrical trap with a sticky inner surface to serve as an oviposition site for gravid female Aedes mosquitoes. Wire gauze fitted above the water level minimizes the risk of it being an unwanted breeding habitat. The Gravitrap was deployed in 11 dengue cluster areas throughout Singapore. Aedes aegypti was the predominant mosquito caught in the trap and some (5.73%) were found to be positive for dengue virus.

  15. Dengue Seroprevalence of Healthy Adults in Singapore: Serosurvey among Blood Donors, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Low, Swee-Ling; Lam, Sally; Wong, Wing-Yan; Teo, Diana; Ng, Lee-Ching; Tan, Li-Kiang

    2015-01-01

    Routine national notifications of dengue cases typically do not reflect the true dengue situation due to large proportion of unreported cases. Serosurveys, when conducted periodically, could shed light on the true dengue infections in the population. To determine the magnitude of dengue infections of the adult population in Singapore following the outbreak in 2007, we performed a cross-sectional study on blood donor samples from December 2009 to February 2010. The residual blood of 3,995 donors (aged 16–60 years) was screened for the presence of dengue-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The age-weighted IgG prevalence of residents was 50.8% (N = 3,627, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 49.4–52.3%). Dengue IgG prevalence increased with age, with the lowest in 16–20 years age group (16.1%) and the highest in 56–60 years age group (86.6%). Plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) on samples of young resident adults (aged 16–30 years) revealed lower prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to each serotype, ranging from 5.4% to 20.3% compared with the older age groups. The level of exposure to dengue among the young adults is relatively low despite the endemicity of the disease in Singapore. It partially explains the population’s susceptibility to explosive outbreaks and the high incidence rate among young adults. PMID:26013376

  16. Dengue seroprevalence of healthy adults in Singapore: serosurvey among blood donors, 2009.

    PubMed

    Low, Swee-Ling; Lam, Sally; Wong, Wing-Yan; Teo, Diana; Ng, Lee-Ching; Tan, Li-Kiang

    2015-07-01

    Routine national notifications of dengue cases typically do not reflect the true dengue situation due to large proportion of unreported cases. Serosurveys, when conducted periodically, could shed light on the true dengue infections in the population. To determine the magnitude of dengue infections of the adult population in Singapore following the outbreak in 2007, we performed a cross-sectional study on blood donor samples from December 2009 to February 2010. The residual blood of 3,995 donors (aged 16-60 years) was screened for the presence of dengue-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The age-weighted IgG prevalence of residents was 50.8% (N = 3,627, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 49.4-52.3%). Dengue IgG prevalence increased with age, with the lowest in 16-20 years age group (16.1%) and the highest in 56-60 years age group (86.6%). Plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) on samples of young resident adults (aged 16-30 years) revealed lower prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to each serotype, ranging from 5.4% to 20.3% compared with the older age groups. The level of exposure to dengue among the young adults is relatively low despite the endemicity of the disease in Singapore. It partially explains the population's susceptibility to explosive outbreaks and the high incidence rate among young adults.

  17. Testing (HIV). Quick test receives Singapore approval.

    PubMed

    1996-04-22

    Hema-Strip HIV 1/2 is a rapid HIV antibody immunoassay developed by Saliva Diagnostic Systems, Inc. (SDS) which can be used by anyone who can read the product insert. The test kit is comprised of a small lancet for a finger stick, a cylindrical tube with a capillary tip and a SDS diagnostic strip inside, and a vial of buffer. Once blood is drawn by the lancet, the capillary tip is placed upon the blood droplet and the blood is automatically drawn into the tube. The tube is then inserted tip first into the vial of buffer. The buffer and blood migrate over the diagnostic strip inside, yielding stable results within 15 minutes. Studies have found Hema-Strip HIV 1/2 to have a sensitivity and specificity greater than 99.4%, as accurate as most conventional HIV tests which require the use of laboratory equipment and trained staff, and possibly hours to produce results. Moreover, the test kit requires neither refrigeration nor special storage. Hema-Strip HIV 1/2 has received a certificate of free sale from the Ministry of Health in Singapore and is now being submitted for regulatory approval in Brazil, China, Russia, India, Malaysia, Thailand, and the UK. SDS products in production include Sero-Strip HIV 1/2, a rapid serum-based HIV antibody test; Omni-SAL, a saliva collector which is the principal sample collection device used by British insurance companies for HIV testing with other confirmatory tests; Omni-Swab, a serrated swab which collects body fluids or cells; Saliva-Sampler, a saliva collection device used for general testing purposes; and Saliva Check, a test which checks the composition of saliva samples. SDS is in the final stages of developing Saliva-Strip HIV-1/2, a rapid saliva-based HIV antibody test. The company also intends to complete development in 1996 of a rapid blood-based antibody test for the Helicobacter pylori bacteria, a pathogen linked to 80% of peptic ulcers and gastric cancers. PMID:12290908

  18. Vocational Education in Singapore: Meritocracy and Hidden Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Terence

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a broad overview of vocational education in Singapore. Looking at vocational education from Independence, it argues that the development of a skilled labour force was not only crucial in the age of globalisation and the dominance of multinational companies, but also an empirical litmus test of the newly elected post-colonial…

  19. Musical Behaviours of Primary School Children in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2009-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, the musical behaviours of 28 primary school children in Singapore were examined for their meaning and diversity as they engaged in the school day. A large part of these children's musical behaviours stemmed from their exposure to the mass media. Children's musical inventions emerged in the context of play, occasionally…

  20. Seeking Resilience and Sustainability: Outdoor Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Ho, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor education is not a universal value. Rather, outdoor education's contributions need to be grounded in time, place and culture. In this paper we describe the historical and cultural milieu that has enabled the emergence of outdoor education in Singapore and report on exploratory survey research into Singaporean teachers' conceptions of…

  1. United States Replaces Britain as Singapore's Higher-Education Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes how universities in Singapore, although long based on British organizational patterns, are forging partnerships with U.S. institutions, copying curricula, and even trying to duplicate an American college town. Examples are offered of partnerships by the National University (with Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and the new…

  2. Teacher Appraisal and Its Outcomes in Singapore Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Khim Ong; Ang, Shi Yun Angela; Chong, Wei Ling; Hu, Wei Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the performance appraisal system used for primary school teachers in Singapore, and how those attributes affect satisfaction with the appraisal system, stress experienced with the appraisal system, attitudes towards performance bonus, job satisfaction and motivation, and perceived…

  3. The energy cost of water independence: the case of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Lenouvel; Michel, Lafforgue; Catherine, Chevauché; Pauline, Rhétoré

    2014-01-01

    Finding alternative resources to secure or increase water availability is a key issue in most urban areas. This makes the research of alternative and local water resources of increasing importance. In the context of political tension with its main water provider (Malaysia), Singapore has been implementing a comprehensive water policy for some decades, which relies on water demand management and local water resource mobilisation in order to reach water self-sufficiency by 2060. The production of water from alternative resources through seawater desalination or water reclamation implies energy consumptive technologies such as reverse osmosis. In the context of increasing energy costs and high primary energy dependency, this water self-sufficiency objective is likely to be an important challenge for Singapore. The aim of this paper is to quantify the long-term impact of Singapore's water policy on the national electricity bill and to investigate the impact of Singapore's projects to reduce its water energy footprint. We estimate that 2.0% of the Singaporean electricity demand is already dedicated to water and wastewater treatment processes. If its water-energy footprint dramatically increases in the coming decades, ambitious research projects may buffer the energy cost of water self-sufficiency.

  4. Libraries in West Malaysia and Singapore; A Short History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Edward Lim Huck

    An attempt is made to trace the history of every major library in Malay and Singapore. Social and recreational club libraries are not included, and school libraries are not extensively covered. Although it is possible to trace the history of Malaysia's libraries back to the first millenium of the Christian era, there are few written records…

  5. Creating Polyphony with Exploratory Web Documentation in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Sirene; Hoo, Lum Chee

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and reflect on "Images of Teaching", an ongoing web documentation research project on preschool teaching in Singapore. This paper discusses the project's purpose, methodological process, and our learning points as researchers who aim to contribute towards inquiry-based professional learning. The website offers a window into some…

  6. Supporting Inclusive Education: Negotiating Home-School Partnership in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Meng Ee; Ng, Zi Jia; Poon, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    While there has been growing theoretical and policy interest in the areas of homeschool partnership and inclusive education, relatively little work has linked the two fields. Where there have been studies, these have focused primarily on parent or school perspective. With inclusive education in its nascent stage in Singapore, this study examines…

  7. Organisational Legitimacy of the Singapore Ministry of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the perceived organisational legitimacy of the Singapore Ministry of Education (MOE) in preparing the population for work in the knowledge-based economy (KBE). It is argued that challenges to MOE's legitimacy are emerging with ramifications that are difficult to ignore. These challenges relate to equipping the population…

  8. How to Assemble a Knowledge Economy: Singapore's Transnational Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2006-01-01

    This article takes Singapore, an emerging education hub, as a focal point from which to investigate its attempts to become a global city and knowledge-based economy. It outlines how discourses of the knowledge economy are used to rationalise particular policy interventions and the transnational education forms arising from them. It speculates on…

  9. The Talent Development of a Musically Gifted Adolescent in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Pauline S. K.; Chong, Sylvia N. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Using Gagne's Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (DMGT) as a conceptual model, this study investigated the factors that influenced the talent development process of a musically gifted adolescent in Singapore. Five macro themes emerged as key catalysts that impacted the adolescent's talent growth: (1) natural abilities; (2) early musical…

  10. Numeracy of Young Children in Singapore, Beijing and Helsinki

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ee, Jessie; Wong, Khoon Yoong; Aunio, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Young children's number sense is essential for the acquisition of higher number skills in later years. Most recent studies focus on children over 6 years of age only. To extend the scope, this study dealt with the performance of children aged 4-7 years in 3 cities: Singapore, Beijing and Helsinki (This study is an extension of the research of…

  11. STR data for the 13 CODIS loci in Singapore Malays.

    PubMed

    Ang, H C; Sornarajah, R; Lim, S E S; Syn, C K C; Tan-Siew, W F; Chow, S T; Budowle, Bruce

    2005-03-10

    Allele frequencies for the 13 CODIS (Combined DNA Index System, USA) STR loci included in the AmpFISTR Profiler Plus and AmpFISTR Cofiler kits (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, USA) were determined in a sample of 197 unrelated Malays in Singapore.

  12. They Play Soccer Too!--"Madrasah" Education in Multicultural Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Ooi Giok; Fui, Chee Min

    2007-01-01

    Muslim education, particularly in rapidly globalising Singapore, has had to negotiate changes which both the education sector specifically and society generally have faced. Some of these changes have challenged "madrasahs", which provide Muslim religious education, to introduce new curriculum. Yet other changes are challenging the nature of the…

  13. Tongue-Tied in Singapore: A Language Policy for Tamil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Harold F.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the Tamil language situation in Singapore, which lends itself ideally to the study of minority-language maintenance. Examines attempts to maintain Tamil, a highly diglossic language in emigration and concludes that the well-meaning bilingual education system actually produces a situation of subtractive bilingualism. (Author/VWL)

  14. University 2.0: A View from Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Daniel; Lee, Chye Seng; Chan, Lay Kock; Lu, Adrian Din How

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights the processes and best practices adopted by Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in Singapore in implementing their mission-critical e-learning services for a population of 28,000 students and 1,100 faculty members. The various phases of this rapid growth in e-learning from the initial genesis in achieving mass buy-in by…

  15. Theoretical Discussion on Forms of Cultural Capital in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion on five forms of cultural resources that constitute cultural capital for children in the meritocratic yet stratified society of Singapore. These five forms of cultural capital are namely "academic" tastes and leisure preferences, use of Standard English, access to and dispositions toward…

  16. Addressing the Needs of the Gifted in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neihart, Maureen; Teo, Chua Tee

    2013-01-01

    The tiny, multicultural nation of Singapore has a long history of provisions for gifted students. Beliefs about ability and talent development are strongly influenced by traditional Confucian perspectives that view environmental factors as dominant in the development of talent. Early identification is not stressed and working hard is emphasized at…

  17. Bilingualism without Diglossia: The Indian Community in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti

    2007-01-01

    This paper tells a tentative story from the preliminary findings of The Sociolinguistic Survey of Singapore, 2006 (SSS 2006). Though the main study reports on language use amongst Chinese, Malay and Indian communities, my focus is only on Indian homes. The paper reports results from five domains: school, family and friends, media, public space and…

  18. Action Research in Singapore Education: Constraints and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salleh, Hairon

    2006-01-01

    Action research has received increasing attention, especially by school leaders, as a result of the Singapore Ministry of Education's push for greater autonomy, diversity and innovation at the school level. It is also perceived as a means for teacher professional development and professionalism. The Teachers Network, which has its own brand of…

  19. The Language Attitudes of Bilingual Youth in Multilingual Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhorst-Heng, Wendy D.; Caleon, Imelda Santos

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about the language attitudes that bilingual youth in Singapore have towards their Mother Tongue and English, and towards codeswitching between the two. The language attitudes of 443 primary school students were investigated using a variation of the matched-guise technique. Status and solidarity dimensions of attitudes, with ethnicity…

  20. Computer Habits and Behaviours among Young Children in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karuppiah, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…

  1. Assessing Impacts of "Math in Focus," a "Singapore Math" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaciw, Andrew P.; Hegseth, Whitney Michelle; Lin, Li; Toby, Megan; Newman, Denis; Ma, Boya; Zacamy, Jenna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates, through a cluster randomized trial, the impact of "Math in Focus," a core mathematics program modeled after instructional approaches used in Singapore, on third- through fifth-grade students' achievement in mathematics. The program is currently being used in more than 400 school districts in the United States.…

  2. Changing Conceptualization of the Role of Educational Psychologists in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kit, Phey Ling; Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra; Burgetova, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Psychology is a young discipline in Singapore. Hence, perceptions of the roles and responsibilities of an educational psychologist (EP) are still constantly being negotiated and redefined. This qualitative study examined how role negotiations and redefinitions could be actively facilitated through an experiential and intensive two-day Basic…

  3. Fourth Way in Action? The Evolution of Singapore's Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Hargreaves and Shirley's "The Fourth Way" offers a valuable framework for considering the challenges and dilemmas that confront education change practitioners. In this article, I consider how well their framework fits the evolution and more recent changes in Singapore education. History, context culture and aspirations are seen as providing for…

  4. Educational Leadership in Singapore: Tight Coupling, Sustainability, Scalability, and Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: While Singapore's outstanding educational achievements are well known worldwide, there is a disproportionate paucity of literature on school leadership practices that contribute to and support pedagogical initiatives that--along with socio-cultural factors--are normally considered responsible for its educational success. The aim of this…

  5. Instituting Change in Early Childhood Education: Recent Developments in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Chan, Yvonne Yoke Yin

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to improve preschool education, the Singapore government has embraced the need for change by identifying needed policies related to preschool education. These changes require teachers to rethink their approach to learning and teaching. A proposed tool suggested in this paper that may help facilitate curriculum change is the use of…

  6. Elite Schools, Postcolonial Chineseness and Hegemonic Masculinities in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Daniel P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The educational reproduction of elite masculinity in postcolonial societies has not been properly studied. This is partly because the postcolonial masculinities of non-western elites are accomplished through the cultivation of naturalized practices signifying the body politic of the nation-state. In Singapore, same-sex elite schools of colonial…

  7. Developing Teacher Leadership in Singapore: Multiple Pathways for Differentiated Journeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, A. Lin; Low, Ee Ling; Ng, Pak Tee

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine quality teachers through teacher leadership development. Using Singapore as an illustrative case, we describe the redefinition of the teaching profession to include deliberate structures and multiple pathways designed to nurture teacher leaders, and the role of teacher leaders in supporting education reform. We go on to…

  8. Special Education Teacher Preparation in Singapore's Dual Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Global comparisons of teacher education programs should start with an understanding of the school systems that teachers are being prepared for in their local contexts. The purpose of this article is to describe Singapore's dual education system as well as teacher preparation in a country that educates many students with disabilities in a separate…

  9. "Inculcating" Creativity: Culture as Public Pedagogy in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Terence

    2014-01-01

    The Singapore government has long relied on the inherent public pedagogical qualities of culture in the forms of official cultural and media policies and in the unscripted signifiers of cultural conduct, such as in the public's attitude towards the arts. The prime objective is to instrumentalise citizens on how they should become both…

  10. Nurturing Bilingual Learners: Challenges and Concerns in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan; Sun, Baoqi

    2016-01-01

    Singapore's bilingual policy legitimises English not only as the language of governmental administration and interethnic communication, but also as the medium of instruction in all schools on all levels and across all subjects except mother tongues (MTs). As a result of these politics of language recognition, a visible shift has occurred in all…

  11. Successful School Leadership: Case Studies of Four Singapore Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Loke Heng; Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics and practices of principals in four successful Singapore primary schools. Design/Methodology/Approach: Multiple perspective case studies were used which included semi-structured interviews with the principal, teaching and non-teaching staff, students, parents and school board…

  12. Contesting Reform: Bernstein's Pedagogic Device and Madrasah Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the active role played by various pedagogic agents in contesting the state educational reforms for madrasahs in Singapore. Drawing upon Basil Bernstein's pedagogic device, the paper identifies tensions and challenges that arise from the attempts by the state to implement curriculum reforms. The paper contends that the stakes…

  13. Toward a Cosmopolitan Vision of English Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Suzanne S.

    2014-01-01

    English education has played a vital role in facilitating Singapore's global city ambitions since the country's independence. While the state has prioritized English education's cognitive objective emphasizing information processing and effective communication skills, it has given insufficient attention to the role of English in…

  14. Mathematics Attitudes and Achievement of Junior College Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Lim Siew

    2010-01-01

    Studies that investigated students' attitudes toward mathematics and its relationships with achievement are scarce in Singapore. To address this issue, the mathematics attitudes and achievement of 984 junior college students were measured. Results indicated that students had positive attitudes toward mathematics but lacked intrinsic motivation to…

  15. Suicide Methods in Singapore (2000-2004): Types and Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Boon-Hock; Franzco, Audrey Chia; Ng, Wai-Yee; Tai, Bee-Choo

    2011-01-01

    The choice of suicide methods varies between countries. Common methods used in Singapore between 2000 and 2004 were jumping (72.4%), hanging (16.6%), and poisoning (5.9%). Those who jumped were more likely to be young, single, female, and to have had a major mental illness. By comparison, those who hung themselves were more likely to be older (OR…

  16. Teaching Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Building on the Singapore Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Turner, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Is it possible to teach someone to be an entrepreneur? Is innovation something that can be assessed and taught in a classroom? Teaching Innovation and Entrepreneurship answers these and other questions by focusing on a teaching experiment in Singapore at Nanyang Technological University, wherein classes of English-speaking Singaporeans and…

  17. Use of Facebook: A Case Study of Singapore Students' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2012-01-01

    Facebook has become one of the most popular social network sites among many students. However, current research on Facebook use has focused mainly on Anglo-American students. Relatively little is known about Facebook use in Singapore. Data were collected from 83 students (ages ranged from 15 to 23). This study uses a naturalistic case study…

  18. Combining Education and Work; Experiences in Asia and Oceania: Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education (Singapore).

    Since Singapore achieved partial self-government in 1955, economic and political considerations have reshaped educational policy and programs to support the transformation to an industrialized country. Changes in the educational systems include: more facilities for technical education and training; a reorganized secondary school system phasing out…

  19. Possibilities for an Inclusive Society in Singapore: Becoming Inclusive within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Levan

    2009-01-01

    The envisioning of Singapore as an inclusive society has witnessed the most progressive systemic and policy developments concerning people with disabilities in recent years. The building of "heartware" in society (as in the will, values, and attitudes of its citizens) in order to realize the vision of an inclusive society, however, requires both…

  20. Wireless Laptops in English Classrooms: A SWOT Analysis from Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towndrow, Phillip A.; Vaish, Viniti

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents illustrative findings from a one-year pilot study undertaken in the English department of a high school in Singapore that was in the first year of implementing a one-to-one wireless laptop programme. The findings show that learning was often constrained by lecture-style presentations and overt test preparation. Despite…

  1. Lifelong Learning, Income Inequality and Social Mobility in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Millie; Morris, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singapore has been assigned the role of a "model" nation state primarily for two reasons: its rapid rate of economic growth and its outstanding performance on cross-national tests of educational achievement, such as PISA. This has resulted in advocates of reform citing it as illustrating "best practices", especially in the…

  2. What Provokes Young People to Get into Trouble: Singapore Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Kai Yung; Heng, Mary Anne; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors address correctional education and juvenile delinquency. The authors examined the case files of 54 juvenile offenders incarcerated in the Kaki Bukit Center Prison School in Singapore to analyze the antecedents that provoked these young offenders to commit the offenses. The juveniles reported that peer influence and…

  3. A hypothesis for the 2007 dengue outbreak in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Massad, E; Coutinho, F A B; Ma, S; Burattini, M N

    2010-07-01

    A previous mathematical model explaining dengue in Singapore predicted a reasonable outbreak of about 6500 cases for 2006 and a very mild outbreak with about 2000 cases for 2007. However, only 3051 cases were reported in 2006 while more than 7800 were reported in the first 44 weeks of 2007. We hypothesized that the combination of haze with other local sources of particulate matter had a significant impact on mosquito life expectancy, significantly increasing their mortality rate. To test the hypothesis a mathematical model based on the reproduction number of dengue fever and aimed at comparing the impact of several possible alternative control strategies was proposed. This model also aimed at contributing to the understanding of the causes of dengue resurgence in Singapore in the last decade. The model's simulation demonstrated that an increase in mosquito mortality in 2006 and either a reduction in mortality or an increase in the carrying capacity of mosquitoes in 2007 explained the patterned observed in Singapore. Based on the model's simulation we concluded that the fewer than expected number of dengue cases in Singapore in 2006 was caused by an increase in mosquito mortality due to the disproportionate haze affecting the country that year and that particularly favourable environmental conditions in 2007 propitiated mosquitoes with a lower mortality rate, which explains the greater than expected number of dengue cases in 2007. Whether our hypothesis is plausible or not should be debated further.

  4. Youth Temporalities and the Cost of Singapore's Educational Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Yen Yen Joyceln

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a different portrait of Singapore's educational success, using data collected from a qualitative in-depth interview study of a group of Singaporean youths, showing the cost of its education policies in terms of youth subjectivities. How the participants categorise their temporalities, that is, their lived experiences of time,…

  5. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  6. Framing Educational Success: A Comparative Study of Shanghai and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2011-01-01

    In the light of the global trends towards international assessment, inter-country comparison and policy convergence, this article critically discusses the contextual factors that influence educational success in Shanghai and Singapore. Focussing on the structural and cultural frames, this article maintains that the educational achievement in…

  7. Reviving Polya's "Look Back" in a Singapore School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Yew Hoong; Tay, Eng Guan; Toh, Tin Lam; Quek, Khiok Seng; Dindyal, Jaguthsing

    2011-01-01

    This study is based on the stance that Polya's "Look Back," though understudied, remains relevant to Mathematics curricula that place emphasis on problem solving. Although the Singapore Mathematics curriculum adopts the goal of teaching Look Back, research about how it is carried out in actual classroom practice is rare. In our project, we focus…

  8. Musical Memories: Snapshots of a Chinese Family in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines music in the home of a Chinese family in Singapore with specific attention to the children (aged five and seven) of the household: an exploration of what constitutes the lived 'musical' memory of a family enmeshed in the technology and media of a globalised world. The study is part of a larger ethnographic study on the musical…

  9. High rates of inapparent dengue in older adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yap, Grace; Li, Chenny; Mutalib, Adeliza; Lai, Yee-Ling; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2013-06-01

    Although the dengue iceberg phenomenon is well known, there is a paucity of data on inapparent dengue. Results from a seroepidemiological study conducted during a dengue epidemic in 2007 in Singapore showed a seroprevalence of 65.9% and an inapparent dengue rate of 78%. Older adults (> 45 years old) had significantly higher rates of inapparent dengue infections (P < 0.05).

  10. Principals' Engagement of Low Ability Students in Singapore Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Chye Hin; Dimmock, Clive

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a grounded theory constructed from a study of Singapore neighbourhood secondary school principals' engagement of their lowest stream, the Normal Technical students, in their schools. This substantive theory is labelled the "theory of selective engagement". It implies that how principals engage their lowest streamed students…

  11. Multiculturalism in Environmental Science: A Snapshot of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Bryan; Harbor, Jonathan M.; Shepardson, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    Students' perceptions of the environment can differ based on sociocultural factors and experiences. Understanding how students develop environmental perceptions is an important step toward developing an inclusive environmental science curriculum. This article presents preliminary data from a study conducted in Singapore in which students'…

  12. The energy cost of water independence: the case of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Lenouvel; Michel, Lafforgue; Catherine, Chevauché; Pauline, Rhétoré

    2014-01-01

    Finding alternative resources to secure or increase water availability is a key issue in most urban areas. This makes the research of alternative and local water resources of increasing importance. In the context of political tension with its main water provider (Malaysia), Singapore has been implementing a comprehensive water policy for some decades, which relies on water demand management and local water resource mobilisation in order to reach water self-sufficiency by 2060. The production of water from alternative resources through seawater desalination or water reclamation implies energy consumptive technologies such as reverse osmosis. In the context of increasing energy costs and high primary energy dependency, this water self-sufficiency objective is likely to be an important challenge for Singapore. The aim of this paper is to quantify the long-term impact of Singapore's water policy on the national electricity bill and to investigate the impact of Singapore's projects to reduce its water energy footprint. We estimate that 2.0% of the Singaporean electricity demand is already dedicated to water and wastewater treatment processes. If its water-energy footprint dramatically increases in the coming decades, ambitious research projects may buffer the energy cost of water self-sufficiency. PMID:25225924

  13. Journeys in the Learning Sciences: The Singapore Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Thiam Seng; Huang, David; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.; Chen, Victor; Hung, David

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research in the Learning Sciences from a Design Research perspective, as it has been framed in Singapore by the National Institute of Education (NIE). The initial research agenda is considered in the light of challenges and the subsequent re-casting of objectives, based on the working out of a tripartite…

  14. Understanding Critical Reading in an ESL Class in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macknish, Cynthia Jean

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the understandings and practice of critical reading in a postsecondary English as a second language (ESL) reading class for mainland Chinese students in Singapore. Despite the challenges of defining critical reading in practice and overcoming assumptions about Chinese students' lack of criticality, as well as the lack of…

  15. The Design of Secondary Schools--A Case Study, Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew Kok-Pun, Michael; And Others

    Land scarcity dominates the thinking of school planners in Singapore. Techniques for optimizing the use of land for schools include (1) the construction of multi-storied or high-rise schools; (2) operation of a double-shift system and, in some cases, a triple-shift system; (3) multiple use of educational spaces; and (4) construction of several…

  16. Encouraging a Culture of Research in Practicing Teachers in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Chan, Yvonne Yoke Yin; Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Upgrading the status of early childhood teaching and improving job satisfaction are areas of concern to practitioners, policy makers and other stakeholders in the early childhood field. Ways to upgrade practicing teachers, including their involvement in research, is an on-going challenge. This paper reports on a research in Singapore where a…

  17. English, Language Shift and Values Shift in Japan and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This is a comparative study of English language education in Japan and Singapore and the role English plays in both countries. English language education in Japan has not been very effective. Although the communicative approach to teaching English was introduced in the 1980s, schools still use the grammar-translation method and most Japanese do…

  18. DNA-Based Analyses of Molds in Singapore Public Buildings Results in a Proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction(MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/...

  19. Malaysia/Singapore: Where Asian Cultures Meet. Participants' Papers. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program, 2001 (Malaysia and Singapore).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    The general objective of the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program is to help U.S. educators enhance their international understanding and increase their knowledge of the people and culture of other countries. This particular program offered participants an overview of life in Malaysia and Singapore through seminars and other activities.…

  20. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  1. Investing in Our Future: The Early Years. First Singapore Conference on Preschool Education: Promoting Quality Care and Education for Preschoolers (Singapore, December 2-3, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan-Niam, Carolyn, Ed.; Ling, Quah May, Ed.

    Informed by current thinking and supported by data gathered in Singapore, this volume compiles a selection of papers presented at the First Singapore Conference on Preschool Education: Promoting Quality Care and Education for Preschoolers. The papers are: (1) "Introduction: Issues in Quality Provision for Preschool Care and Education" (Carolyn…

  2. What the United States Can Learn From Singapore's World-Class Mathematics System (and What Singapore Can Learn from the United States): An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Alan; Leinwand, Steven; Anstrom, Terry; Pollock, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study compares key features of the Singapore and U.S. mathematics systems in the primary grades, when students need to build a strong mathematics foundation. It identifies major differences between the mathematics frameworks, textbooks, assessments, and teachers in Singapore and the United States. It also presents initial results…

  3. An analytical model for the performance analysis of concurrent transmission in IEEE 802.15.4.

    PubMed

    Gezer, Cengiz; Zanella, Alberto; Verdone, Roberto

    2014-03-20

    Interference is a serious cause of performance degradation for IEEE802.15.4 devices. The effect of concurrent transmissions in IEEE 802.15.4 has been generally investigated by means of simulation or experimental activities. In this paper, a mathematical framework for the derivation of chip, symbol and packet error probability of a typical IEEE 802.15.4 receiver in the presence of interference is proposed. Both non-coherent and coherent demodulation schemes are considered by our model under the assumption of the absence of thermal noise. Simulation results are also added to assess the validity of the mathematical framework when the effect of thermal noise cannot be neglected. Numerical results show that the proposed analysis is in agreement with the measurement results on the literature under realistic working conditions.

  4. Throughput and delay analysis of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA protocol.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Chen, Min; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-12-01

    The IEEE 802.15.6 is a new communication standard on Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) that focuses on a variety of medical, Consumer Electronics (CE) and entertainment applications. In this paper, the throughput and delay performance of the IEEE 802.15.6 is presented. Numerical formulas are derived to determine the maximum throughput and minimum delay limits of the IEEE 802.15.6 for an ideal channel with no transmission errors. These limits are derived for different frequency bands and data rates. Our analysis is validated by extensive simulations using a custom C+ + simulator. Based on analytical and simulation results, useful conclusions are derived for network provisioning and packet size optimization for different applications.

  5. IEEE 1451.2 based Smart sensor system using ADuc847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejithlal, A.; Ajith, Jose

    IEEE 1451 standard defines a standard interface for connecting transducers to microprocessor based data acquisition systems, instrumentation systems, control and field networks. Smart transducer interface module (STIM) acts as a unit which provides signal conditioning, digitization and data packet generation functions to the transducers connected to it. This paper describes the implementation of a microcontroller based smart transducer interface module based on IEEE 1451.2 standard. The module, implemented using ADuc847 microcontroller has 2 transducer channels and is programmed using Embedded C language. The Sensor system consists of a Network Controlled Application Processor (NCAP) module which controls the Smart transducer interface module (STIM) over an IEEE1451.2-RS232 bus. The NCAP module is implemented as a software module in C# language. The hardware details, control principles involved and the software implementation for the STIM are described in detail.

  6. Performance Analysis of Sleep Mode Operation in IEEE 802.16m Mobile WiMAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sangkyu; Son, Jung Je; Choi, Bong Dae

    We mathematically analyze the sleep mode operation of IEEE 802.16m. The sleep mode operation for downlink traffic is modeled as a 3-dimensional discrete time Markov chain. We obtain the average power consumption of a mobile station and the average delay of a message. Numerical results match simulations very well. Numerical results show that there is a tradeoff between power consumption and message delay. We find the optimal lengths of sleep cycle and close-down time that minimize the power consumption while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) constraint on message delay. The power consumption of the sleep mode in IEEE 802.16m is better than that of sleep modes in legacy IEEE 802.16e standard under the same delay bound.

  7. An Analytical Model for the Performance Analysis of Concurrent Transmission in IEEE 802.15.4

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Cengiz; Zanella, Alberto; Verdone, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Interference is a serious cause of performance degradation for IEEE802.15.4 devices. The effect of concurrent transmissions in IEEE 802.15.4 has been generally investigated by means of simulation or experimental activities. In this paper, a mathematical framework for the derivation of chip, symbol and packet error probability of a typical IEEE 802.15.4 receiver in the presence of interference is proposed. Both non-coherent and coherent demodulation schemes are considered by our model under the assumption of the absence of thermal noise. Simulation results are also added to assess the validity of the mathematical framework when the effect of thermal noise cannot be neglected. Numerical results show that the proposed analysis is in agreement with the measurement results on the literature under realistic working conditions. PMID:24658624

  8. A national study of scientific talent development in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quek, Chwee Geok

    Three cohorts comprising a total of 155 gifted science students who had participated in a research mentorship program, the Science Research Program (SRP) in Singapore, were surveyed in this cross-sectional study. Adapting Gagne's (2003, 2004) Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (DMGT) as a conceptual framework, this study examined the intrapersonal and environmental catalysts that students perceived to have contributed to their talent development in the sciences. It also sought to evaluate the impact of the SRP on the students, and the extent to which it reinforced their passion for the sciences, and decision to pursue careers in science and/or research. Respondents attributed the biggest role to the 'self' in their talent development journey. They perceived that various intrapersonal qualities they had---sense of curiosity, passion for the subject as well as persistence---were most important in nurturing and sustaining their interest and engagement in science. The external catalysts of teachers and the school appeared to have played a bigger role than parents and the home in respondents' perceptions of the influences on their scientific talent development process. Qualitative descriptions of inspiring and memorable teachers were consistent with qualities of effective teachers in the literature. Findings also showed that students felt the SRP had been very effective in enhancing their scientific knowledge and skills, but that it was less impactful in shaping their future course and career decisions. Indeed, except for a handful who reported that the SRP actually helped them discover that science was not really their passion, the majority plan to pursue careers in science, both in research and in applied fields, aspirations they have had since childhood. There appeared to be little attrition of this group from the science pipeline although there are some indications that more might need to be done to attract more gifted females to the field and to help

  9. Rights versus morality: online debate about decriminalization of gay sex in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Detenber, Benjamin H; Cenite, Mark; Zhou, Shuhua; Malik, Shelly; Neo, Rachel L

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a quantitative content analysis of 10,473 comments from two opposing online petitions related to the legal status of a section of the penal code in Singapore used to ban sex between men. Results indicate numerous significant differences in how the two sides discussed the law and its significance. In particular, they used different types of arguments to support their views and expressed different kinds of concerns over the potential impact of changing or maintaining the law. The patterns of language use seem to reflect distinctly different approaches to the debate and suggest the difficulty of finding common ground amid this contentious social issue, but they also reveal similarities to how Western cultures have framed the debate. PMID:24924998

  10. Alcohol consumption in Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K; Yeo, P P; Lun, K C; Thai, A C; Wang, K W; Cheah, J S

    1990-05-01

    A population based survey has measured alcohol consumption by questionnaire in persons aged 18 to 69 years in Singapore. The majority were "occasional/none" drinkers, being males (Chinese 87%, Malays 99% and Indians 80%) and females (Chinese 98%, Malays 100% and Indians 100%). "Heavy" consumption was uncommon in males (Chinese 0.6%, Malays 0% and Indians 1.3%) and absent in females, while "heavy/moderate" drinking was males (Chinese 5.7%, Malays 0.5% and Indians 3.8%) and females (Chinese 0.3%, Malays 0% and Indians 0%). For males, "light" drinking was highest in Indians (15.9%), then Chinese (7.8%) and then Malays (0.5%). This survey indicates that alcohol consumption is not yet a major public health problem in Singapore.

  11. Child health in Singapore--past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Wong, H B

    1982-07-01

    The state of child health in Singapore from 1914 to the present is chronicled. In 1914, there were 225 reported cases of tetanus neonatorum out of 7,420 births and 340 deaths from gastroenteritis with an infant mortality rate (IMR) of 292.9 per 1000 livebirths. In 1936 the infant mortality rate was 167.74, and in 1962, it was still high at 31.2, a figure which exceeded the IMR of USA, UK, Australia and New Zealand. However, by 1976, the IMR had fallen to 11.8 which was lower than that of the above countries and the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) was 8.4 which was also lower than the other four developed countries. In 1981, the IMR fell further still to 10.8 and the NMR was 7.7. The causes of the improvement of child health in Singapore are discussed, and the prospects and priorities for the future are described.

  12. Influenza Pandemics in Singapore, a Tropical, Globally Connected City

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mark I.; Chan, Siew Pang; Wong, Chia Siong; Cutter, Jeffery; Goh, Kee Tai; Tambyah, Paul Anath

    2007-01-01

    Tropical cities such as Singapore do not have well-defined influenza seasons but have not been spared from influenza pandemics. The 1918 epidemic in Singapore, which was then already a major global trading hub, occurred in 2 waves, June–July, and October–November, and resulted in >2,870 deaths. The excess mortality rate was higher than that for industrialized nations in the Northern Hemisphere but lower than that for less industrialized countries in Asia and Africa. The 1957 epidemic occurred in May and resulted in widespread illness. The 1968 epidemic occurred in August and lasted a few weeks, again with widespread illness. Tropical cities may be affected early in a pandemic and have higher mortality rates. With the increase in travel and trade, a future pandemic may reach a globally connected city early and spread worldwide. Preparedness and surveillance plans must be developed to include the megacities of the tropical world. PMID:18214178

  13. Optical packaging activities at Institute of Microelectronics (IME), Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Keng-Hwa; Sudharsanam, Krishnamachari; Pamidighantam, Ramana V.; Yeo, Yongkee; Iyer, Mahadevan K.

    2002-08-01

    The development of optoelectronic components for gigabit Ethernet communications is converging towards access networks where the cost of device makes a significant impact on the market acceptance. Device fabrication and packaging cost have to be brought down with novel assembly and packaging methods. Singapore has established a reputation in semiconductor device development and fabrication with excellent process and packaging facilities. Institute of Microelectronics (IME) was founded in 1991 to add value to the Singapore electronics industry. IME is involved in the development of active and passive photonics components using Silicon and polymer materials. We present a brief report on the development activities taking place in the field of optical component packaging at IME in recent years. We present a review of our competence and some of the optical device packaging activities that are being undertaken.

  14. The potential for a controlled human infection platform in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Balasingam, Shobana; Horby, Peter; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    For over 100 years, controlled human infection (CHI) studies have been performed to advance the understanding of the pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. This methodology has seen a resurgence, as it offers an efficient model for selecting the most promising agents for further development from available candidates. CHI studies are utilised to bridge safety and immunogenicity testing and phase II/III efficacy studies. However, as this platform is not currently utilised in Asia, opportunities to study therapeutics and vaccines for infections that are important in Asia are missed. This review examines the regulatory differences for CHI studies between countries and summarises other regulatory differences in clinical trials as a whole. We found that the regulations that would apply to CHI studies in Singapore closely mirror those in the United Kingdom, and conclude that the regulatory and ethical guidelines in Singapore are compatible with the conduct of CHI studies. PMID:25273928

  15. Vector control and surveillance operations in the republic of singapore.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Minako Jen

    2013-06-01

    Singapore is known for its comprehensive vector control methods that keep mosquito populations at low levels in the urban, tropical, and green city-state. This report describes the measures taken by the National Environment Agency on the basis of observations of vector control and surveillance activities in residential areas, construction sites, and foreign worker quarters. The government-led active operations dealt not only with mosquito control but also social issues in urban residential buildings where people with varying preferences live, the responsibilities of the business sector, and the education of multi-cultural/lingual residents and foreign workers. The public health measures implemented in Singapore offer useful ideas to countries/cities that have not yet established vector control programs against mosquito-borne infectious diseases.

  16. Vector control and surveillance operations in the republic of singapore.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Minako Jen

    2013-06-01

    Singapore is known for its comprehensive vector control methods that keep mosquito populations at low levels in the urban, tropical, and green city-state. This report describes the measures taken by the National Environment Agency on the basis of observations of vector control and surveillance activities in residential areas, construction sites, and foreign worker quarters. The government-led active operations dealt not only with mosquito control but also social issues in urban residential buildings where people with varying preferences live, the responsibilities of the business sector, and the education of multi-cultural/lingual residents and foreign workers. The public health measures implemented in Singapore offer useful ideas to countries/cities that have not yet established vector control programs against mosquito-borne infectious diseases. PMID:23874140

  17. Hand hygiene knowledge and practices of nursing students in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Nasirudeen, A M A; Koh, Josephine W N; Lau, Adeline Lee Chin; Li, Wenjie; Lim, Lay Seng; Ow, Cynthia Yi Xuan

    2012-10-01

    Hand hygiene is an important means of preventing nosocomial infections. Studies have shown a <50% compliance rate for hand hygiene among health care workers. A hand hygiene survey was administered to nursing students in a tertiary institution in Singapore. The results of this survey strongly indicate that nursing students understand the importance of hand hygiene compliance and perceive clinical internship programs and practical laboratory sessions to be effective methods of hand hygiene education.

  18. Overview of legislation and tobacco control in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, A S; Arulanandam, S; Chng, C Y; Vaithinathan, R

    2000-11-01

    Legislative measures against smoking in Singapore began in the early 1970s, and can be said to have been the start of a comprehensive smoking control programme. With the launch of the National Smoking Control Programme (NSCP) in 1986, a National Smoking Control Coordinating Committee was set up to look into legislation and fiscal measures. To further increase the dimension and impact of the programme, a Civic Committee on Smoking Control was formed in 1996. This committee also looks into and recommends legislative measures. The NSCP is an ongoing programme that aims to reduce smoking rates through a combination of strategies, including education, establishment of no-smoking areas and increasing taxation and legislative measures. Existing legislation is regularly and systematically reviewed and revised, and new laws are recommended to strengthen our smoking control efforts. Concurrently, penalties and ways to improve enforcement of the legislation are also updated. The legislative measures that have been implemented in Singapore over the years include prohibition of tobacco advertising and promotion, restrictions on the sale of tobacco products, licensing of sales outlets, use of health warnings on cigarette packets, controlling and labelling of tar and nicotine contents, restriction of smoking in public places and prohibition of smoking in public by the under-eighteens. Several factors have helped make legislative measures work in Singapore. These include political will and support, starting legislation early, comprehensive legislative measures, enforcement measures and continuous review. To sustain these efforts, Singapore needs to continue to stay abreast of world-wide measures on smoking control. PMID:11092711

  19. Moral education in a plural society: A singapore case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinathan, S.

    1980-06-01

    When one looks at the discussion of moral education issues in Singapore today, one cannot fail to be struck by the urgency and earnestness which characterize the debate. In common with many other Asian nations aiming at stability and growth without losing "national character", Singapore too places great faith in the education system. Unlike other countries, however, which are fortunate in having a homogeneous cultural tradition, the complexities of managing moral education in a plural context bedevil Singapore's educators. The very richness of the cultural tradition here imposes the task of selection, and subsequent justification, of the core values to be taught; both the values and the manner of teaching, touching as the latter does upon the school's relationships with the home and, in particular, religious institutions, come under close scrutiny. In addition there is the need to win the benefits of modernization and to implant notions of loyalty and sacrifice while retaining the best virtues of the migrant mentality. The challenges, then, are formidable, but the judgement on current efforts in moral education must be that it is an inadequate response. The authorities seem unable to utilize in full measure the potential of a rich and varied cultural tradition to enrich moral education in the nation's schools. The over-riding concern to ensure political stability, and the need to be sensitive to ethnic sensibilities, have produced a cautious reliance on generalities —when the need, given the youthful nature of the population and the uncertainties of life in the latter half of the twentieth century, is surely for a more forthright acceptance of the challenge. A re-assessment of current moral education ventures is necessary but a useful one will have to await greater clarity in the analysis of Singapore culture and its goals.

  20. Chinese medicine in Malaysia and Singapore: the business of healing.

    PubMed

    Ooi, G L

    1993-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine as it persists in several East and Southeast Asian countries, has undergone major changes. Such changes have reinforced the trading aspects of traditional Chinese medical practice with relatively little advantage for the medical care component. This paper examines the nature of changes in contemporary ethnic Chinese medical practice in Malaysia and Singapore with the aim of understanding their implications for the persistence of this medical tradition.

  1. Clinical update on deep vein thrombosis in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, L H

    2002-03-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is thought to be a rare occurrence in Asian patients. The clinical features of VTE are elusive and the disease often unsuspected. Objective testing such as the duplex ultrasound scans and pulmonary imaging are necessary as clinical diagnosis alone is inaccurate. Fatality can occur in untreated patients not suspected of the disease as shown by our post-mortem studies. Indeed VTE is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in Singapore. There is a rising trend in the incidence of VTE in Asia. Initial studies found an incidence of about 3 per 10,000 hospital admissions in Hong Kong and Malaysia in 1988 and 1990, respectively; rising to 8 and 15.8 per 10,000 hospital admissions in Singapore 1992 and 2000, respectively. The major risk factors for developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in our patients are immobilisation, surgery and malignancy. While Factor V Leiden mutation and mutation at position 20,210 in the prothrombin gene are found to be extremely rare in Chinese, the rest of the thrombophilia has not been formally studied. Studies in Singapore reported rates of 3% to 7% of DVT after general surgery, 9.7% after hip surgery and 14% after total knee replacement surgery. It is difficult to compare with studies from other centres because of differences in patient selection and diagnostic criteria. Studies in Singapore showed that the use of prophylactic low molecular weight heparin completely abolished the occurrence of DVT for patients undergoing total knee replacement and colorectal surgery without an increase in bleeding complications. In conclusion, VTE is not an uncommon problem here. Major acquired risk factors do not differ from the Caucasian populations. VTE is a preventable disease and a better understanding of its epidemiology, patient-risk factors and biological factors will allow better management of this condition.

  2. Ethnic and other factors affecting birthweight in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S; Cole, T J

    1989-08-01

    Data on 1800 term babies, 600 from each of the Chinese, Malay and Indian racial groups, were used to identify the factors affecting birthweight in Singapore. After adjustment for gestation, maternal height and other variables, the mean Indian birthweight was 100 g less than for the Chinese (P less than 0.001), 0.001), while the Malays averaged 33 g less than the Chinese. The shortfall in Indian birthweight is thought to be due, at least partly, to environmental factors.

  3. Regulatory control of Chinese Proprietary Medicines in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yee, Shen-Kuan; Chu, Swee-Seng; Xu, Yi-Min; Choo, Peck-Lin

    2005-02-01

    In Singapore, there has been a growing public interest in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which plays an important role in the healthcare system. With effect from 1 September 1999, the control on Chinese Proprietary Medicines (CPM) was implemented in three phases over a span of 3 years. Under the CPM regulatory framework, CPM importers, wholesalers, manufacturers and re-packers must be licensed and CPM products assessed and listed by the health authority before they are allowed for sale. Product assessment is based on the criteria of safety and quality which include limits of toxic heavy metals and microbial contents. During the 3-year CPM listing exercise, irregularities were detected, including intrinsic toxicity, adulteration, substitution, contamination, misidentification, non-traditional and/or inappropriate usage, incorrect preparation, inappropriate labelling, exaggerated claims and/or advertising. The full implementation of CPM control by September 2001 saw the listing of 7943 CPM products and brought about an improvement in the quality and safety of CPM in Singapore as well as the removal of sub-standard, fake/imitation and adulterated products. The standards of practices by local CPM dealers have also been raised. These improvements have, in turn, increased the level of public confidence in CPM products in Singapore.

  4. Hydrodynamic modeling of Singapore's coastal waters: Nesting and model accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, G. M. Jahid; van Maren, Dirk Sebastiaan; Ooi, Seng Keat

    2016-01-01

    The tidal variation in Singapore's coastal waters is influenced by large-scale, complex tidal dynamics (by interaction of the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea) as well as monsoon-driven low frequency variations, requiring a model with large spatial coverage. Close to the shores, the complex topography, influenced by headlands and small islands, requires a high resolution model to simulate tidal dynamics. This can be achieved through direct nesting or multi-scale nesting, involving multiple model grids. In this paper, we investigate the effect of grid resolution and multi-scale nesting on the tidal dynamics in Singapore's coastal waters, by comparing model results with observations using different statistical techniques. The results reveal that the intermediate-scale model is generally sufficiently accurate (equal to or better than the most refined model), but also that the most refined model is only more accurate when nested in the intermediate scale model (requiring multi-scale nesting). This latter is the result of the complex tidal dynamics around Singapore, where the dominantly diurnal tidal currents are decoupled from the semi-diurnal water level variations. Furthermore, different techniques to quantify model accuracy (harmonic analysis, basic statistics and more complex statistics) are inconsistent in determining which model is more accurate.

  5. Commuter exposure to aerosol pollution on public transport in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.; Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Norford, L.

    2013-12-01

    Personal exposure to aerosol pollutants in the transport microenvironment of Singapore has not been well documented. Studies from many cities suggest that brief periods of exposure to high concentrations of airborne pollutants may have significant health impacts. Thus, a large proportion of aerosol exposure may be experienced during daily commuting trips due to the proximity to traffic. A better understanding of the variability across transport modes is therefore needed to design transport policies that minimize commuters' exposure. In light of this, personal exposure measurements of PM10 and PM2.5, particle number (PN), black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH), and active surface area (SA) were conducted on a selected route in downtown Singapore. Portable and real-time monitoring instruments were carried onto three different modes of public transport (bus, taxi, subway) and by foot. Simultaneous measurements were taken at a nearby park to capture the background concentrations. Large variability was observed amongst the various transport modes investigated. For example, the particle number concentration was on average 1.5, 1.6, 0.8, and 2.2 times higher inside buses, taxis, subway and by foot, respectively, than at the background site. Based on the results, it is possible to come up with a ranking of the 'cleanest' transport mode for Singapore.

  6. The use of law to encourage smaller families in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Smith, T W

    1980-01-01

    To pursue its goal of rapid economic development, Singapore provides family planning services and has vigorously encouraged its citizens to limit family size. The government has legislated disincentives for families to have more than 2 children. This discussion reviews the history of these legal measures and their usefulness as a tool to promote social change and development. Singapore has used the law as a means to encourage family planning in order to supplement the overall thrust for economic development in the late 1960s. Freed from obligations to the Malaysian Federation and lacking the support of the British military as of 1969, Lee Kuan Yew led his people's economic development along a Western model. Reduction of population growth is an essential component of that model. Lee stressed family planning by providing clinics, by advertising, by promoting housing and lifestyles conducive to nuclear families, and by gradually adopting a set of laws favoring small families. These laws were introduced in different sectors of the economy at different times and were revised as social conditions changed. Typically, they set a minor monetary or priority penalty for parents of 3 or more children. The laws discourage additional births rather than prohibit them, guiding rather than forcing family planning decisions. To what extent the laws were the cause of decreasing family size in Singapore is uncertain, but they contributed to some extent to the country's phenomenal progress in income and lifestyle. The Abortion Act of 1969 legalized abortion on nonmedical grounds with the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board (SFPPB) approval. The Act was amended twice in 1974 to make abortions available "on demand." The charging of progressive delivery (accouchement) fees in government hospitals for mothers with 2 or more children might be considered as the focal point of the total disincentives system. The fees placed financial pressure directly on those who violated the

  7. The use of law to encourage smaller families in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Smith, T W

    1980-01-01

    To pursue its goal of rapid economic development, Singapore provides family planning services and has vigorously encouraged its citizens to limit family size. The government has legislated disincentives for families to have more than 2 children. This discussion reviews the history of these legal measures and their usefulness as a tool to promote social change and development. Singapore has used the law as a means to encourage family planning in order to supplement the overall thrust for economic development in the late 1960s. Freed from obligations to the Malaysian Federation and lacking the support of the British military as of 1969, Lee Kuan Yew led his people's economic development along a Western model. Reduction of population growth is an essential component of that model. Lee stressed family planning by providing clinics, by advertising, by promoting housing and lifestyles conducive to nuclear families, and by gradually adopting a set of laws favoring small families. These laws were introduced in different sectors of the economy at different times and were revised as social conditions changed. Typically, they set a minor monetary or priority penalty for parents of 3 or more children. The laws discourage additional births rather than prohibit them, guiding rather than forcing family planning decisions. To what extent the laws were the cause of decreasing family size in Singapore is uncertain, but they contributed to some extent to the country's phenomenal progress in income and lifestyle. The Abortion Act of 1969 legalized abortion on nonmedical grounds with the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board (SFPPB) approval. The Act was amended twice in 1974 to make abortions available "on demand." The charging of progressive delivery (accouchement) fees in government hospitals for mothers with 2 or more children might be considered as the focal point of the total disincentives system. The fees placed financial pressure directly on those who violated the

  8. The founding of the medical school in Singapore in 1905.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y K

    2005-07-01

    This article traces briefly the origins of medical education in the early years of the Straits Settlements (Singapore, Penang and Malacca), which culminated in the founding of Medical School in Singapore in 1905. The first attempt was made in the early 19th century, when boys were recruited from local schools as Medical Apprentices to be trained as "assistant doctors". They were to assist the British doctors and doctors from India in running the medical services. This scheme was not successful. There are 3 landmark years in the evolution of medical education in the Straits Settlements, namely 1852, 1867 and 1904. In 1852, the Governor, to relieve the shortage of staff in the Medical Department, instructed the Principal Civil Medical Officer to organise a proper course of training for Medical Apprentices and to establish a local Medical Service. This scheme was also unsuccessful and the Straits Settlements continued to rely on doctors recruited from India. In 1867, the Straits Settlements were transferred from the India Office to the Colonial Office and became a Crown Colony. The Indian Government requested that all its doctors be sent back. This would have led to the collapse of the Straits Settlements Medical Service. As a stop-gap measure, the Governor offered the Indian doctors appointment in the new Straits Settlements Medical Service, and at the same time arranged with the Madras Government for boys from the Straits Settlements to be trained in its Medical Colleges. The first 2 boys were sent in 1869. In 1889, the Principal Civil Medical Officer proposed to the Governor that a Medical School should be founded in Singapore, but not enough candidates passed the preliminary entrance examination. The plan was shelved and boys continued to be sent to Madras for training. In 1902, the Committee on English Education proposed that a Medical School should be started in Singapore, but senior British doctors opposed this. On 8 September 1904, Mr Tan Jiak Kim and other

  9. Evaluation of the Effects of Hidden Node Problems in IEEE 802.15.7 Uplink Performance.

    PubMed

    Ley-Bosch, Carlos; Alonso-González, Itziar; Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Ramírez-Casañas, Carlos

    2016-02-06

    In the last few years, the increasing use of LEDs in illumination systems has been conducted due to the emergence of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technologies, in which data communication is performed by transmitting through the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum. In 2011, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 802.15.7 standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks based on VLC. Due to limitations in the coverage of the transmitted signal, wireless networks can suffer from the hidden node problems, when there are nodes in the network whose transmissions are not detected by other nodes. This problem can cause an important degradation in communications when they are made by means of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) access control method, which is used in IEEE 802.15.7 This research work evaluates the effects of the hidden node problem in the performance of the IEEE 802.15.7 standard We implement a simulator and analyze VLC performance in terms of parameters like end-to-end goodput and message loss rate. As part of this research work, a solution to the hidden node problem is proposed, based on the use of idle patterns defined in the standard. Idle patterns are sent by the network coordinator node to communicate to the other nodes that there is an ongoing transmission. The validity of the proposed solution is demonstrated with simulation results.

  10. IEEE 1547 National Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Generation: How Could It Help My Facility? Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; Friedman, N. R.

    2003-11-01

    This article summarizes the purpose, development, and impact of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1547 Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems. Also included is a short explanation of supporting standards IEEE P1547.1, P1547.2, and P1547.3.

  11. Evaluation of the Effects of Hidden Node Problems in IEEE 802.15.7 Uplink Performance.

    PubMed

    Ley-Bosch, Carlos; Alonso-González, Itziar; Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Ramírez-Casañas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the increasing use of LEDs in illumination systems has been conducted due to the emergence of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technologies, in which data communication is performed by transmitting through the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum. In 2011, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 802.15.7 standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks based on VLC. Due to limitations in the coverage of the transmitted signal, wireless networks can suffer from the hidden node problems, when there are nodes in the network whose transmissions are not detected by other nodes. This problem can cause an important degradation in communications when they are made by means of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) access control method, which is used in IEEE 802.15.7 This research work evaluates the effects of the hidden node problem in the performance of the IEEE 802.15.7 standard We implement a simulator and analyze VLC performance in terms of parameters like end-to-end goodput and message loss rate. As part of this research work, a solution to the hidden node problem is proposed, based on the use of idle patterns defined in the standard. Idle patterns are sent by the network coordinator node to communicate to the other nodes that there is an ongoing transmission. The validity of the proposed solution is demonstrated with simulation results. PMID:26861352

  12. Evaluation of the Effects of Hidden Node Problems in IEEE 802.15.7 Uplink Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ley-Bosch, Carlos; Alonso-González, Itziar; Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Ramírez-Casañas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the increasing use of LEDs in illumination systems has been conducted due to the emergence of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technologies, in which data communication is performed by transmitting through the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum. In 2011, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 802.15.7 standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks based on VLC. Due to limitations in the coverage of the transmitted signal, wireless networks can suffer from the hidden node problems, when there are nodes in the network whose transmissions are not detected by other nodes. This problem can cause an important degradation in communications when they are made by means of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) access control method, which is used in IEEE 802.15.7 This research work evaluates the effects of the hidden node problem in the performance of the IEEE 802.15.7 standard We implement a simulator and analyze VLC performance in terms of parameters like end-to-end goodput and message loss rate. As part of this research work, a solution to the hidden node problem is proposed, based on the use of idle patterns defined in the standard. Idle patterns are sent by the network coordinator node to communicate to the other nodes that there is an ongoing transmission. The validity of the proposed solution is demonstrated with simulation results. PMID:26861352

  13. Computer Controlled Test Systems. Introduction. A Course Based on the IEEE 488 Bus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Eric J.

    An introductory course in computer automated tests and measurement systems based on the International Test Instrument-Computer Interface Standard, the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)-488, is presented in this study guide. This course is designed to: (1) introduce the electronics engineering technician to the functional…

  14. Evaluation of H.264/AVC over IEEE 802.11p vehicular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozas-Ramallal, Ismael; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Dapena, Adriana; García-Naya, José Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The capacity of vehicular networks to offer non-safety services, like infotainment applications or the exchange of multimedia information between vehicles, have attracted a great deal of attention to the field of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). In particular, in this article we focus our attention on IEEE 802.11p which defines enhancements to IEEE 802.11 required to support ITS applications. We present an FPGA-based testbed developed to evaluate H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) video transmission over vehicular networks. The testbed covers some of the most common situations in vehicle-to-vehicle and roadside-to-vehicle communications and it is highly flexible, allowing the performance evaluation of different vehicular standard configurations. We also show several experimental results to illustrate the quality obtained when H.264/AVC encoded video is transmitted over IEEE 802.11p networks. The quality is measured considering two important parameters: the percentage of recovered group of pictures and the frame quality. In order to improve performance, we propose to substitute the convolutional channel encoder used in IEEE 802.11p for a low-density parity-check code encoder. In addition, we suggest a simple strategy to decide the optimum number of iterations needed to decode each packet received.

  15. Cardiovascular diseases in Chinese, Malays, and Indians in Singapore. II. Differences in risk factor levels.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, K; Yeo, P P; Lun, K C; Thai, A C; Sothy, S P; Wang, K W; Cheah, J S; Phoon, W O; Lim, P

    1990-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to examine cardiovascular risk factors to see how these might explain differences in cardiovascular disease mortality among Chinese, Malays, and Indians in the Republic of Singapore. DESIGN--The study was a population based cross sectional survey. Stratified systematic sampling of census districts, reticulated units, and houses was used. The proportions of Malay and Indian households were increased to improve statistical efficiency, since about 75% of the population is Chinese. SETTING--Subjects were recruited from all parts of the Republic of Singapore. SUBJECTS--2143 subjects aged 18 to 69 years were recruited (representing 60.3% of persons approached). There were no differences in response rate between the sexes and ethnic groups. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Data on cardiovascular risk factors were collected by questionnaire. Measurements were made of blood pressure, serum cholesterol, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting triglycerides and plasma glucose. In males the age adjusted cigarette smoking rate was higher in Malays (53.3%) than in Chinese (37.4%) or Indians (44.5%). In both sexes, Malays had higher age adjusted mean systolic blood pressure: males 124.6 mm Hg v 121.2 mm Hg (Chinese) and 121.2 mm Hg (Indians); females 122.8 mm Hg v 117.3 mm Hg (Chinese) and 118.4 mm Hg (Indians). Serum cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride showed no ethnic differences. Mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol in males (age adjusted) was lower in Indians (0.69 mmol/litre) than in Chinese (0.87 mmol/litre) and Malays (0.82 mmol/litre); in females the mean value of 0.95 mmol/litre in Indians was lower than in Chinese (1.05 mmol/litre) and Malays (1.03 mmol/litre). Rank prevalence of diabetes for males was Indians (highest), Malays and then Chinese; for females it was Malays, Indians, Chinese. CONCLUSIONS--The higher mortality from ischaemic heart disease found in Indians in Singapore

  16. IEEE 802.16J-Relay Fortified Aeromacs Networks; Benefits and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2014-01-01

    Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is an IEEE 802.16 standard-based (WiMAX) broadband aviation transmission technology, developed to provide safety critical communications coverage for airport surface in support of fixed and mobile ground to ground applications and services. We have previously demonstrated that IEEE 802.16j-amendment-based WiMAX is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. The principal argument in favor of application of IEEE 802.16j technology is the flexible and cost effective extension of radio coverage that is afforded by relay fortified WiMAX networks, with virtually no increase in the power requirements. In this article, following introductory remarks on airport surface communications, WiMAX and AeroMACS; the IEEE 802.16j-based WiMAX technology and multihop relay systems are briefly described. The two modes of relay operation supported by IEEE 802.16j amendment; i.e., transparent (TRS) and non-transparent (NTRS) modes, are discussed in some detail. Advantages and disadvantages of using TRS and NTRS in AeroMACS networks are summarized in a table. Practical issues vis--vis the inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks are addressed. It is argued that the selection of relay type may affect a number of network parameters. A discussion on specific benefits and challenges of inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks is provided. The article concludes that in case it is desired or necessary to exclusively employ one type of relay mode for all applications throughout an AeroMACS network, the proper selection would be the non-transparent mode.

  17. Perspectives on development of IEEE 1073: the Medical Information Bus (MIB) standard.

    PubMed

    Kennelly, R J; Gardner, R M

    1997-08-01

    Automated data capture from bedside patient medical devices is now possible using a new Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (IEEE) and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Medical Information Bus (MIB) data communications standard (IEEE 1073). The first two standard documents, IEEE 1073.3.1 (Transportation Profile) and IEEE 1073.4.1 (Physical Layer), define the hardware protocol for bedside device communications. With the above noted IEEE MIB standards in place, hospitals can now start designing customized applications for acquiring data from bedside devices such as bedside monitors, i.v. pumps, ventilators, etc. for multiple purposes. The hardware 'plug and play' features of the MIB will enable nurses and physicians to establish communications with these devices simply and conveniently by plugging them into a bedside data connector. No other action will be necessary to establish identification of the device or communications with the device. Presently to connect bedside devices, technical help from hardware and software experts are required to establish such communications links. As a result of standardization of communications, it will be easy to establish a highly mobile network of bedside devices and more promptly and efficiently collect patient related data. Collection of data automatically should lead to the design of new medical computing applications that will tie in directly with the emerging mission and operations of hospitals. The MIB will permit acquisition of patient data more efficiently with greater accuracy, more completeness and more promptly. The above noted features are all essential to the development of computerized treatment protocols and should lead to improved quality of patient care. This manuscript provides the rational and historical overview of the development of the MIB standard.

  18. Attitudes towards interprofessional collaboration among primary care physicians and nurses in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ruth Mingli; Sim, Yu Fan; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat

    2016-07-01

    Interprofessional collaboration (IPC) has been shown to improve patient outcomes, cost efficiency, and health professional satisfaction, and enhance healthy workplaces. We determined the attitudes of primary care physicians and nurses towards IPC and factors facilitating IPC using a cross-sectional study design in Singapore. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire, based on the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (JSAPNC), was distributed to primary healthcare physicians and nurses working in National Healthcare Group Polyclinics (N = 455). We found that the mean JSAPNC score for physicians was poorer than that for nurses (50.39 [SD = 4.67] vs. 51.61 [SD = 4.19], respectively, mean difference, MD = 1.22, CI = 0.35-2.09, p = .006). Nurses with advanced education had better mean JSAPNC score than nurses with basic education (52.28 [SD = 4.22] vs. 51.12 [SD = 4.11], respectively, MD = 1.16, CI = 0.12-2.20, p = .029). Male participants had poorer mean JSAPNC score compared to females (50.27 [SD = 5.02] vs. 51.38 [SD = 4.22], respectively MD = 1.11, CI = 0.07-2.14, p = .036). With regression analysis, only educational qualification among nurses was independently and positively associated with JSAPNC scores (p = .018). In conclusion, primary care nurses in Singapore had more positive attitudes towards IPC than physicians. Among nurses, those with advanced education had more positive attitudes than those with basic education. Greater emphasis on IPC education in training of physicians and nurses could help improve attitudes further. PMID:27269233

  19. Social Foundations of Public-Private Partnerships in Education: The Historical Cases of Post-War Singapore and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ting-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares public-private partnerships (PPPs) in education in post-war Singapore and Hong Kong. After the Second World War the Singapore government shied away from PPPs, while the state in Hong Kong collaborated extensively with the non-state sector in education. Singapore was a small city-state flanked by two Muslim nations, and its…

  20. Rupture and Adaptation: British Technical Expertise to the Singapore Polytechnic and the Transition to a Nation-State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Loh Kah

    2015-01-01

    The Singapore Polytechnic underwent a period of both rupture and adaptation as British advisers worked with the post-colonial government to facilitate technical education reform and Singapore's transition to a nation-state. Established in 1958 and based on the metropolitan model, the Singapore Polytechnic constituted an imperial project for…

  1. Complexity of Language Ideologies in Transnational Movement: Korean "Jogi Yuhak" Families' Ambivalent Attitudes towards Local Varieties of English in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, So Hee

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the complex and competing language ideologies that Korean educational migrant families in Singapore hold about the normativity and legitimacy of English language varieties. During their educational migration in Singapore, Korean families show ambivalent attitudes toward the local variety of English in Singapore, Singlish.…

  2. Education Hub at a Crossroads: The Development of Quality Assurance as a Competitive Tool for Singapore's Private Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Fion Choon Boey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the development and effectiveness of quality assurance as a competitive tool for Singapore's private tertiary education in an increasingly competitive global market. Design/methodology/approach: A review of the growth of private education in Singapore is presented and issues related to quality and Singapore's…

  3. Assessment and the Logic of Instructional Practice in Secondary 3 English and Mathematics Classrooms in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, David; Chan, Melvin; Rahim, Ridzuan; Kwek, Dennis; Aye, Khin Maung; Loo, Siok Chen; Sheng, Yee Zher; Luo, Wenshu

    2013-01-01

    By any measure, Singapore's educational system has generated an extraordinary record of achievement over the past two or three decades. In this article, we report on one key component of a broader three year investigation into why Singapore has done so well, and explore the logic, strength, resilience and limits of the underlying pedagogical…

  4. The Quest for Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Singapore: Strategies and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2012-01-01

    Innovation and entrepreneurship are two very important ingredients in the continuous economic growth of Singapore. This article describes and analyses how Singapore attempts to develop innovation and entrepreneurship through initiatives at the national level and at the universities and schools level. In particular, the article examines the recent…

  5. Pre-Service Teachers' Reasons for Choosing Teaching as a Career in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Ee Ling; Lim, Suat Khoh; Ch'ng, Alan; Goh, Kim Chuan

    2011-01-01

    As the national teacher education institute in Singapore, the National Institute of Education (NIE) prepares all teachers seeking to be employed within the education service in Singapore. In the last decade, NIE's enrolment for initial teacher preparation programmes has grown significantly, with peaks in numbers during the recession years. There…

  6. An Assessment of the Use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in Teaching Geography in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Lee Yong; Tan, Geok Chin Ivy; Zhu, Xuan; Wettasinghe, Marissa C.

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, geographical information systems (GIS) were introduced to secondary schools in Singapore as a tool for teaching geography at the secondary and junior college levels. However, general observations and feedback from school teachers suggested that only a small number of secondary schools and junior colleges in Singapore were actually using…

  7. Online Learning in Singapore Primary Schools: An Interview with Seng Chee Tan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawthorne, Elizabeth; Tan, Seng Chee

    2005-01-01

    The Southeast Asian country of Singapore comprises a main island and numerous islets between Malaysia and Indonesia. Inhabited by Chinese, Malays, Indians, Eurasians, and other ethnic populations, Singapore is a vibrant mix of different cultures and religions. It is also reputed to be the most wired island in the world. This characteristic--along…

  8. The Role of the School Counsellor in the Singapore Secondary School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kok, Jin Kuan

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study from Singapore. The purpose of the study is to critically enquire into the ways in which school counsellors working in Singapore's secondary school system describe and experience their role, and to identify key themes arising from the study. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 participants, and an adapted grounded…

  9. Why Schools in America Should Not Be Like Schools in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Barbara S. S.

    2014-01-01

    America is not Singapore and Singapore cannot be America. So why are we often comparing ourselves to high-performing countries based on international exams? Despite the educational crisis many U.S. schools are facing, Americans should be cautious not to mimic another country's model within our diverse classrooms. We are largely grounded on…

  10. Is Singapore's School Geography Becoming Too Responsive to the Changing Needs of Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chew-Hung

    2014-01-01

    In understanding the divergences and commonalities in the representations of geography across different national settings, the case of Singapore is examined through the notion of politicisation of school curricula to meet the needs of "significant power groups". In particular, the development of school geography in Singapore and its…

  11. Status of Tamil Language in Singapore: An Analysis of Family Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadakara, Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the phenomenon of Language Maintenance and Language Shift through a qualitative study of Tamil language in the family domain in Singapore. The influence of Singapore's bilingual policy and the institutional support offered for maintenance of Tamil language provide the context in which the central research problem of the status…

  12. Challenging and Co-Opting Globalisation: Singapore's Strategies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopinathan, S.; Lee, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Since its independence in 1965, Singapore has adopted a developmental state orientation and has placed a strong emphasis on education to meet its socio-economic development needs. In line with its aspirations to be a regional education hub, the Singapore higher education system hosts a number of prestigious institutions and international…

  13. Singapore's Response to the Global War for Talent: Politics and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses how Singapore engages in the global war for talent. The paper discusses how Singapore demonstrates a Foucauldian perspective of "governmentality" in trying to mould citizens into a way of thinking that is geared suitably to an engagement in a global talent war. It first examines the social, political and economic…

  14. Reconciling Discourse about Geography and Teaching Geography: The Case of Singapore Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seow, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    This study draws upon a Foucauldian notion of discourse to explore how four pre-service geography teachers in Singapore made decisions about what geography is and how to enact their understandings of geography in their classrooms. This analysis of discursive power is particularly relevant to Singapore because of the high level of state control…

  15. Doing Class Analysis in Singapore's Elite Education: Unravelling the Smokescreen of "Meritocratic Talk"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the specificity of the education-class nexus in an elite independent school in Singapore. It seeks to unravel the puzzle that meritocracy is dogmatically believed in Singapore in spite of evidences that point to the contrary. The paper draws on discursive (analysis of media materials) and institutional (analysis of interview…

  16. How Singapore Junior College Science Teachers Address Curriculum Reforms: A Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Patrick; Pyvis, David

    2012-01-01

    Using grounded theory research methodology, a theory was developed to explain how Singapore junior college science teachers implement educational reforms underpinning the key initiatives of the "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation" policy. The theory suggests Singapore junior college science teachers "deal with" implementing curriculum reforms by…

  17. Doing Business in the Global Village: Japanese Professionals on EL Needs in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoneda, Mitaka

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of English language (EL) education from the perspectives of Japanese and non-Japanese professionals in Singapore, based on their experiences of "doing business" in Singapore. As established career business people, the perspectives of Japanese participants offer a retrospective evaluation of their…

  18. Motivation Beliefs of Secondary School Teachers in Canada and Singapore: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella; Kates, Allison; Hannok, Wanwisa

    2008-01-01

    A mixed methods approach was used to explore secondary teachers' motivation beliefs in Canada and Singapore. Results from Study 1 revealed that socio-economic status (SES) was the strongest predictor of school climate in Canada, and that collective efficacy mediated the effect of SES on school climate in Singapore, but not in Canada. In Study 2,…

  19. The Purposes Outdoor Education Does, Could and Should Serve in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the purposes that outdoor education does, could and should serve in Singapore. Gert Biesta's conceptualisation of three functions of education is adapted to frame deliberations on the purposes of outdoor education in Singapore's socio-political and educational milieu. The author suggests that outdoor education in…

  20. The University-Innovation Nexus in Singapore. Go8 Backgrounder 28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Singapore, like Australia, is one of the world's most prosperous countries. However, the basis for Singapore's prosperity is quite different from that of Australia's and for this reason it provides an interesting and complementary case study. While much of Australia's current affluence flows from its rich endowment of mineral resources,…

  1. Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparison of Student-Teachers in Hong Kong and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Quek Khiok; Keung, Ho Kwok; Cheng, Soh Kay

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to uncover the beliefs regarding various aspects of creativity among trainee-teachers in Hong Kong and Singapore. Trainee-teachers from Hong Kong (N = 188) and Singapore (N = 127) completed a questionnaire on beliefs about creativity. The 30-item questionnaire covering 15 aspects of beliefs regarding creativity was presented to…

  2. A Tale of Two Countries: Comparing Civic Education in the Philippines and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baildon, Mark; Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.; Paculdar, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis of citizenship education in the Philippines and Singapore. Through an analysis of historical contexts, citizenship education policy and curriculum, it examines "Makabayan" in the Philippines and "National Education" in Singapore. It identifies particular policy and curriculum…

  3. Adult Learners Understanding in Learning Islam Using the Andragogy Approach in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadir, Mohd Amin Bin

    2016-01-01

    This study describes adult learners understanding in learning Islam using the andragogy approach in Singapore comprising multicultural and multi-religious society. Singapore is a secular state where freedom of religion is encrypted in the constitution and Malay/Muslim comprises 13.3% of the population. Adults learn Islam to deepen their…

  4. Beyond Electronic Brochures: An Analysis of Singapore Primary School Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chun; Soong, Andrew Kheng Fah

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how Singapore primary schools use their web sites, what kind of information is contained in the web sites, and how the information is presented. Based on an analysis of 176 primary school web sites, which represent all but one of the country's primary schools, findings indicate that most of Singapore's primary school…

  5. "Hottest Brand, Coolest Pedagogy": Approaches to Corporate Branding in Singapore's Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Carl Jon Way

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the corporate branding efforts of Singapore's publicly funded higher education institutions within a context of neoliberal marketization. Adopting a discourse-analytic perspective, it examines the kind of branding approaches employed by Singapore's universities and polytechnics, and how these approaches are realized…

  6. Maximising the Overlapping Area: Multiculturalism and a Muslim Identity for Madrasahs in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent efforts by the Singapore government to construct a Muslim identity for the madrasahs in Singapore. By promoting a prescribed set of desired attributes for the Muslims and introducing new curriculum materials for the madrasahs, the government aspires to construct a Muslim identity that is compatible with the…

  7. Meritocracy, Elitism, and Egalitarianism: A Preliminary and Provisional Assessment of Singapore's Primary Education Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Leonel

    2013-01-01

    Meritocracy functions in Singapore as the key principle of governance and educational distribution. However, the concept of meritocracy itself contains a number of inherent contradictions, most evidently witnessed in the tension between its egalitarian and elitist strands. This tension is documented in the recommendations of Singapore's recent…

  8. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  9. Developing Transnational Higher Education: Comparing the Approaches of Hong Kong and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, David; Ng, Pak Tee

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the approaches that Hong Kong and Singapore have adopted in trying to develop themselves as regional hubs of higher education through their developments of transnational higher education. Hong Kong and Singapore compete for this market share of global higher education because it can be a lucrative business. Adapting a model…

  10. A Comparative Study of Singapore's School Excellence Model with Hong Kong's School-Based Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee; Chan, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine and compare the school excellence model (SEM) approach adopted by Singapore and the school-based management (SBM) approach adopted by Hong Kong. It discusses the implications of such a strategy and the challenges that both Singapore and Hong Kong schools face in navigating a new paradigm of managerialism while…

  11. Research in Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching and Learning in Singapore (2000-2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubdy, Rani; Tupas, T. Ruanni F.

    2009-01-01

    In this review of research in applied linguistics and language teaching and learning in Singapore, more than one hundred national publications for the period 2000-2007 will be reviewed. Since this period encompasses certain changes that were introduced in Singapore schools at the start of the new millennium, it would be appropriate to take stock…

  12. Training School Counselors in Singapore: First Impressions of a Multicultural Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Edil Torres; Nash, Sara; Wah, Bernard Sew Chun; Ibrahim, Surayah Bte

    2008-01-01

    Since the publication of 2 important articles, by E. Tan (2002) on career counseling and by W. H. Chong (2005) on group counseling in schools, changes have taken place in the school counseling field in Singapore. In this article, the authors review these articles and describe the development of the school counseling profession in Singapore based…

  13. Toward an Ecosystem for Innovation in a Newly Industrialized Economy: Singapore and the Life Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Poh-Kam

    2006-01-01

    In the late 1990s the Singapore government embarked on a set of far-reaching strategies intended to develop the city-state into one of the major life science R&D and industrial clusters in Asia. Besides efforts to attract leading overseas life science companies to establish operations in Singapore, the government has developed new life science…

  14. Service Learning Using English Language Teaching in Pre-Service Teacher Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Rozario, Vilma; Low, Ee Ling; Avila, Ava Patricia; Cheung, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    In line with the Ministry of Education's vision of the delivery of twenty-first century competencies amongst all students in Singapore, the National Institute of Education in Singapore employs service learning as a pedagogical tool to develop community outreach and engagement. This paper begins with a review of related literature on service…

  15. Bilingual Education Policy in Singapore: An Analysis of Its Sociohistorical Roots and Current Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin

    2005-01-01

    Using available data from Singapore's national census and economic reports, national exams, international comparison studies and small-scale studies, this paper examines the sociohistorical circumstances that led to the creation of Singapore's bilingual education policy, the results of this policy on recent academic achievement and implications…

  16. Imagining the Singapore "Nation" and "Identity": The Role of the Media and National Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of two state ideological apparatuses in Singapore to understand how the city-state constructs its sense of nationhood and national identity. The analysis shows how Singapore uses the media to represent its impoverished national identity, and through a state-led curriculum intervention, uses National Education to…

  17. An Evaluation of Learning Objects in Singapore Primary Education: A Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Tay Pei Lyn; Suan, Ng Peck; Wanzhen, Liaw

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the usability and interface design of e-learning portal developed for primary schools in Singapore. Design/methodology/approach: Using Singapore-based learning EDvantage (LEAD) portal as a case study, this paper reviews and analyses the usability and usefulness of embedded learning objects (LOs)…

  18. Epidemiology of burn injuries in Singapore from 1997 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Song, Colin; Chua, Alvin

    2005-01-01

    The Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burn Centre receives more than 93% of burn cases occurring in Singapore. The Centre also received patients from the Southeast Asian region. The collection and analysis of burn epidemiology data in recent years from Singapore would provide insights into new prevention/management strategies in terms of population profile and economic activities. Data pertaining to burn patients admitted to SGH Burn Centre between January 1997 and December 2003 were studied retrospectively in terms of admissions' demographics, extent of burn (TBSA), causes of burns, length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality. A total of 2019 burn patients were admitted with an annual admission of 288. This presented an incidence rate for burn injury (with admission) of 0.07 per 1000 general population. The male to female ratio is 2.2:1 and the mean age of admission is 32.5years. The mean extent of burn was 11.5% and patients with burn size 10% TBSA and less made up the majority of admissions at 70.7% while patients with burn size 30% TBSA and more made up 8.2%. The most common cause of burn injury is scald at 45.6% followed by flame at 35.2%. The overall mean LOS and mortality are 10.8days and 4.61%, respectively. An annual trend of falling mortality rate for admissions with burn size >30% TBSA was observed-60% in year 2000 to 30% in 2003. This is a result of massive early excision and grafting of severe burn patients. 17.6% of patients were children of 12years and below, showing a 11.9% reduction from previous study in the 80s. This is consistent with the city's demographics of falling fertility rate and improved living and social conditions. Occupational burn admissions account for 33.4% of total admissions, a reduction of 11.6% from a study in the early 90s. Occurrence of occupational flame burns decreased by 9.5% due to an improvement in fire prevention and management of the industrial sectors. However, chemical burns increased by 12.6% as the chemical sector

  19. Epidemiology of burn injuries in Singapore from 1997 to 2003.

    PubMed

    Song, Colin; Chua, Alvin

    2005-01-01

    The Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Burn Centre receives more than 93% of burn cases occurring in Singapore. The Centre also received patients from the Southeast Asian region. The collection and analysis of burn epidemiology data in recent years from Singapore would provide insights into new prevention/management strategies in terms of population profile and economic activities. Data pertaining to burn patients admitted to SGH Burn Centre between January 1997 and December 2003 were studied retrospectively in terms of admissions' demographics, extent of burn (TBSA), causes of burns, length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality. A total of 2019 burn patients were admitted with an annual admission of 288. This presented an incidence rate for burn injury (with admission) of 0.07 per 1000 general population. The male to female ratio is 2.2:1 and the mean age of admission is 32.5years. The mean extent of burn was 11.5% and patients with burn size 10% TBSA and less made up the majority of admissions at 70.7% while patients with burn size 30% TBSA and more made up 8.2%. The most common cause of burn injury is scald at 45.6% followed by flame at 35.2%. The overall mean LOS and mortality are 10.8days and 4.61%, respectively. An annual trend of falling mortality rate for admissions with burn size >30% TBSA was observed-60% in year 2000 to 30% in 2003. This is a result of massive early excision and grafting of severe burn patients. 17.6% of patients were children of 12years and below, showing a 11.9% reduction from previous study in the 80s. This is consistent with the city's demographics of falling fertility rate and improved living and social conditions. Occupational burn admissions account for 33.4% of total admissions, a reduction of 11.6% from a study in the early 90s. Occurrence of occupational flame burns decreased by 9.5% due to an improvement in fire prevention and management of the industrial sectors. However, chemical burns increased by 12.6% as the chemical sector

  20. The fading links between tradition and oral health in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Y H

    1984-12-01

    Singapore is an island republic of 616 km2. Four main ethnic groups make up its population of 2.4 million; these are the Chinese, Malays, Indians and others. Singapore's successful housing, industrialization and modernization programmes have caused tremendous changes in the lifestyles and expectations of the people. This very success has rendered some traditional customs impractical and irrelevant. Older Indians and Malay women still chew betel-nut. During the Hindu Thaipusam ceremony a traditional practice of dental interest is the piercing of devotees' cheeks and tongues with slivers of silver. There is no pain, bleeding or permanent tissue damage. The Chinese pick their teeth, crack melon seeds and scrape their tongues every morning. They also drink large quantities of unsweetened tea. Yet they remain caries-prone. Singaporeans have recently adopted the practice of eating at all hours of the day and night. This may have a bearing on their future caries state. Singapore has two categories of dental practitioner: the graduate and the registered but unqualified dentist who is invariably of Chinese descent. The swaged metal crown over sound and diseased tooth structure is frequently the unfortunate trademark of the latter. Often abscesses and cysts develop beneath these crowns. Successful dental health programmes have produced a DMFT of 2.8 in 12-year-old children, which betters the DMF target of 3.0 set by WHO for the year 2000. The progressive outlook of Singaporeans may eventually reduce further the number of traditional practices which are harmful to oral health.

  1. Organotin and Irgarol-1051 contamination in Singapore coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Basheer, C; Tan, K S; Lee, H K

    2002-07-01

    The seas surrounding Singapore are principally utilized by the shipping industry but are now also increasingly used for a variety of other purposes, including desalination for supplies of drinking water and intensive aquaculture of food fish. While stringent environmental pollution standards are in place for industrial effluents, there is currently no legislative control over pollution from anti-fouling paints in Singapore. In this study, the concentrations of toxic antifouling agents tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and Irgarol-1051 (2-methylthio-4-tert-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine) were determined from seawater obtained from 26 locations along and off the coast of Singapore in October and November 2000. These compounds were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction derivatized under controlled microwave heating and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. TBT concentrations in seawater ranged between 0.43 and 3.20 microg 1(-1) with a mean value of 1.40 +/- 0.60 micro 1(-1). The mean values of DBT and MBT were 1.07 +/- 0.80 microg 11(-1) and 0.34 +/- 0.50 microg 1(-1) respectively, while TPhT concentrations of up to 0.40 microg 1(-1) were found. Monophenyltin and diphenyltin were not detected in all samples analysed. Irgarol-1051 was found to be present at concentrations of between 3.02 microg 1(-1) and 4.20 microg 1(-1) in seawater with a mean value of 2.00 +/- 1.20 microg 1(-1).

  2. The fading links between tradition and oral health in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Y H

    1984-12-01

    Singapore is an island republic of 616 km2. Four main ethnic groups make up its population of 2.4 million; these are the Chinese, Malays, Indians and others. Singapore's successful housing, industrialization and modernization programmes have caused tremendous changes in the lifestyles and expectations of the people. This very success has rendered some traditional customs impractical and irrelevant. Older Indians and Malay women still chew betel-nut. During the Hindu Thaipusam ceremony a traditional practice of dental interest is the piercing of devotees' cheeks and tongues with slivers of silver. There is no pain, bleeding or permanent tissue damage. The Chinese pick their teeth, crack melon seeds and scrape their tongues every morning. They also drink large quantities of unsweetened tea. Yet they remain caries-prone. Singaporeans have recently adopted the practice of eating at all hours of the day and night. This may have a bearing on their future caries state. Singapore has two categories of dental practitioner: the graduate and the registered but unqualified dentist who is invariably of Chinese descent. The swaged metal crown over sound and diseased tooth structure is frequently the unfortunate trademark of the latter. Often abscesses and cysts develop beneath these crowns. Successful dental health programmes have produced a DMFT of 2.8 in 12-year-old children, which betters the DMF target of 3.0 set by WHO for the year 2000. The progressive outlook of Singaporeans may eventually reduce further the number of traditional practices which are harmful to oral health. PMID:6597130

  3. The influence of climate variables on dengue in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Edna; Coelho, Micheline; Oliver, Leuda; Massad, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    In this work we correlated dengue cases with climatic variables for the city of Singapore. This was done through a Poisson Regression Model (PRM) that considers dengue cases as the dependent variable and the climatic variables (rainfall, maximum and minimum temperature and relative humidity) as independent variables. We also used Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to choose the variables that influence in the increase of the number of dengue cases in Singapore, where PC₁ (Principal component 1) is represented by temperature and rainfall and PC₂ (Principal component 2) is represented by relative humidity. We calculated the probability of occurrence of new cases of dengue and the relative risk of occurrence of dengue cases influenced by climatic variable. The months from July to September showed the highest probabilities of the occurrence of new cases of the disease throughout the year. This was based on an analysis of time series of maximum and minimum temperature. An interesting result was that for every 2-10°C of variation of the maximum temperature, there was an average increase of 22.2-184.6% in the number of dengue cases. For the minimum temperature, we observed that for the same variation, there was an average increase of 26.1-230.3% in the number of the dengue cases from April to August. The precipitation and the relative humidity, after analysis of correlation, were discarded in the use of Poisson Regression Model because they did not present good correlation with the dengue cases. Additionally, the relative risk of the occurrence of the cases of the disease under the influence of the variation of temperature was from 1.2-2.8 for maximum temperature and increased from 1.3-3.3 for minimum temperature. Therefore, the variable temperature (maximum and minimum) was the best predictor for the increased number of dengue cases in Singapore.

  4. Performance of the Sleep-Mode Mechanism of the New IEEE 802.16m Proposal for Correlated Downlink Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Turck, Koen; de Vuyst, Stijn; Fiems, Dieter; Wittevrongel, Sabine; Bruneel, Herwig

    There is a considerable interest nowadays in making wireless telecommunication more energy-efficient. The sleep-mode mechanism in WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e) is one of such energy saving measures. Recently, Samsung proposed some modifications on the sleep-mode mechanism, scheduled to appear in the forthcoming IEEE 802.16m standard, aimed at minimizing the signaling overhead. In this work, we present a performance analysis of this proposal and clarify the differences with the standard mechanism included in IEEE 802.16e. We also propose some special algorithms aimed at reducing the computational complexity of the analysis.

  5. The changing demography of diabetes mellitus in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, W R

    2000-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been on the rise in Singapore, while Singaporeans are becoming more affluent, our lifestyles are more sedentary and our population is ageing rapidly. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus rose from 2% in 1975 to 4.7% in 1984, 8.6% in 1992 and 9.0% of adults 18-69 years old in 1998. Malay and Indian women and Indian men were at higher risk, with 14.3, 14.9 and 16.7% prevalence rates, respectively. A further 15% of the adult population have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Diabetes was a factor in 39.7% of strokes and in 9.3% of all deaths in Singapore, and is the sixth most common cause of death. In the Diabcare Singapore 1998 Study, 91% of participants were diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, with mean BMI of 25.1+/-4.4 kg/m(2). The incidence of Type 1 diabetes in childhood is 2.46 per 100000 children 0-12 years of age, while Type 2 diabetes in childhood is an emerging problem. The prevalence of obesity (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) among persons aged 18-69 years rose to 6% in 1998, up from 5.1% in 1992. The prevalence of obesity was highest among the Malays (16.2%) followed by the Indians (12.2%) and the Chinese (3.8%). About 12% of schoolchildren are obese. Increased efforts must be made to change lifestyle and eating patterns in our society, reduce childhood obesity and encourage adults to make lifelong sports and exercise part of the Singaporean way of life. Singapore has one of the world's fastest ageing populations, and even now, 32.4% of Singaporeans 60-69 years of age have diabetes. We should consider screening for diabetes in obese schoolchildren and seek to improve quality of care for people with diabetes, including enlisting the aid of community organisations to improve access to diabetes education, monitoring, support and complications screening services. PMID:11024582

  6. Singapore's economic internationalization and its effects on work and family.

    PubMed

    Chia, A

    2000-04-01

    There are tensions between Singapore's economic strategy of internationalization and the emphasis on family life. Frequent travelers, unaccompanied expatriates, and their families experience these tensions. The frequent or extended absences of frequent travelers and expatriates make it difficult for them to fulfill their family roles and obligations, and may lead to estrangement from their families. Families who are left behind may face role conflict and role strain, but actually draw closer in their efforts to cope with the absence of their absent members. Researchers, policy-makers, and employers can contribute towards reducing the tensions between internationalization and family togetherness.

  7. Identifying information technology competencies needed in Singapore nursing education.

    PubMed

    Yee, Chia Choon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify Singapore's healthcare industry's minimum information technology (IT) performance standard expectations for nurses' competencies. A needs assessment was conducted with a panel representing nursing education, nursing management and nursing practice. The findings in this study would provide suggestions to improve the current diploma and advanced diploma nursing programs curricula to meet the present workforce demands. The experts agreed that information technology is necessary and there were two main categories of IT skills identified, basic IT skills and work-related IT skills.

  8. Pre- and postnatal drivers of childhood intelligence: evidence from Singapore.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Gail; Hedges, Mary; Schilling, Chris; Morton, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to investigate what influences intelligence in early childhood. The Singapore Cohort Study of the Risk Factors of Myopia (SCORM) is used to assess determinants of childhood IQ and changes in IQ. This longitudinal data set, collected in 1999, includes a wealth of demographic, socioeconomic and prenatal characteristics. The richness of the data allows various econometric approaches to be employed, including the use of ordered and multinomial logit analysis. Mother's education is found to be a consistent and key determinant of childhood IQ. Father's education and school quality are found to be key drivers for increasing IQ levels above the average sample movement.

  9. Three decades of breast-feeding trends in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chua, S; Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S

    1990-03-01

    In 1985, about 60% of well-to-do mothers in Singapore initiated breastfeeding (BF). This value compares favorably with the 36% of poor mothers BF, but is still unacceptably low compared with the 85-95% of well-to-do mothers and 90% of poor mothers who were BF their babies during the 1950s. There has been a general decline in the incidence and duration of BF in Singapore over the last 36 years, however, in the last decade, a larger proportion of well-to-do mothers had initiated and continued BF. Whilst the overall decline probably reflects increasing affluence and "westernization" of the population, the variation between these 2 economic groups is probably a result of differences in education. Among the 3 major ethnic communities, the Chinese favor BF the least and the Malays favor it the most. The differences are also believed to be related to cultural variations and the ability of the ethnic groups to resist the trend towards BF in favor of traditional practices and beliefs. In 1951, over 80% of infants were BF for 4 or more weeks, but by 1978 only 37% were being breast fed. In 1985, 39% of the well-to-do mothers chose to breastfed their infants. Differences between well-to-do and poor groups were originally small. During the 1960-1970 period, the differences widened. In the 1980s, they seem to have narrowed, however. Among the poor population, the proportion seems to be leveling off, while it is going up for well-to-do mothers. These changes are not unique to Singapore. The ethnic community has, and continues to have, a strong influence on the choice of feeding method. Ethnic Chinese throughout Southeast Asia are poor breast feeders. The most important traditional practice for the Malay and Indian mothers is support from relatives. Their religion may play an important role, too. Islam tells them to breastfeed. Chinese mothers often have false ideas about BF. They feel that it will ruin their figures, or that artificial formulas are better because they are more

  10. Role of the state in population planning: Singapore and Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, R

    1984-01-01

    in 1965. Singapore's leadership has supported family planning actively and consistently since 1966, and the country's socioeconomic development has contributed to its remarkable fertility decline. A 1975 survey of 864 persons in Singapore and a 1981 survey of 584 persons in Pakistan included questions on opinions of the appropriate role of the state in population planning. In Singapore and Pakistan respectively, 31 and 17% felt that the government should have a strict role in controlling family size, 32 and 10% felt that the government should primarily provide advice and pass laws, 18 and 18% felt the government should provide advice only, 17 and 37% felt it should be left to the married couple, and 2 and 18% didn't know. The empirical evidence suggests that the political legitimacy of the state and public policies to promote distributive justice, are both more developed in Singapore than Pakistan, have significant influence on the degree of public acceptance of state intervention in family planning.

  11. Three decades of breast-feeding trends in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chua, S; Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S

    1990-03-01

    In 1985, about 60% of well-to-do mothers in Singapore initiated breastfeeding (BF). This value compares favorably with the 36% of poor mothers BF, but is still unacceptably low compared with the 85-95% of well-to-do mothers and 90% of poor mothers who were BF their babies during the 1950s. There has been a general decline in the incidence and duration of BF in Singapore over the last 36 years, however, in the last decade, a larger proportion of well-to-do mothers had initiated and continued BF. Whilst the overall decline probably reflects increasing affluence and "westernization" of the population, the variation between these 2 economic groups is probably a result of differences in education. Among the 3 major ethnic communities, the Chinese favor BF the least and the Malays favor it the most. The differences are also believed to be related to cultural variations and the ability of the ethnic groups to resist the trend towards BF in favor of traditional practices and beliefs. In 1951, over 80% of infants were BF for 4 or more weeks, but by 1978 only 37% were being breast fed. In 1985, 39% of the well-to-do mothers chose to breastfed their infants. Differences between well-to-do and poor groups were originally small. During the 1960-1970 period, the differences widened. In the 1980s, they seem to have narrowed, however. Among the poor population, the proportion seems to be leveling off, while it is going up for well-to-do mothers. These changes are not unique to Singapore. The ethnic community has, and continues to have, a strong influence on the choice of feeding method. Ethnic Chinese throughout Southeast Asia are poor breast feeders. The most important traditional practice for the Malay and Indian mothers is support from relatives. Their religion may play an important role, too. Islam tells them to breastfeed. Chinese mothers often have false ideas about BF. They feel that it will ruin their figures, or that artificial formulas are better because they are more

  12. A note on bound constraints handling for the IEEE CEC'05 benchmark function suite.

    PubMed

    Liao, Tianjun; Molina, Daniel; de Oca, Marco A Montes; Stützle, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The benchmark functions and some of the algorithms proposed for the special session on real parameter optimization of the 2005 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC'05) have played and still play an important role in the assessment of the state of the art in continuous optimization. In this article, we show that if bound constraints are not enforced for the final reported solutions, state-of-the-art algorithms produce infeasible best candidate solutions for the majority of functions of the IEEE CEC'05 benchmark function suite. This occurs even though the optima of the CEC'05 functions are within the specified bounds. This phenomenon has important implications on algorithm comparisons, and therefore on algorithm designs. This article's goal is to draw the attention of the community to the fact that some authors might have drawn wrong conclusions from experiments using the CEC'05 problems.

  13. Performance Evolution of IEEE 802.11b Wireless Local Area Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Deepak; Singhal, Ankur

    2011-12-01

    The Wireless network can be employed to connect wired network to the wireless network. Wireless local area networks (WLAN) are more bandwidth limited as compared to the wired networks because they rely on an inexpensive, but error prone, physical medium (air). Hence it is important to evaluate their performance. This paper presents a study of IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN (WLAN). The performance evaluation has been presented via a series of test with different parameters such as data rate, different number of nodes and physical characteristics. The different qualities of service parameter are chosen to be throughput, media access delay and dropped data packets. The simulation results show that an IEEE 802.11b WLAN can support up to 60 clients with modest throughput. Finally the results are compared to evaluate the performance of wireless local networks.

  14. A network architecture for precision formation flying using the IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, Loren P.; Gao, Jay L.; Jennings, Esther H.; Okino, Clayton

    2005-01-01

    Precision Formation Flying missions involve the tracking and maintenance of spacecraft in a desired geometric formation. The strong coupling of spacecraft in formation flying control requires inter-spacecraft communication to exchange information. In this paper, we present a network architecture that supports PFF control, from the initial random deployment phase to the final formation. We show that a suitable MAC layer for the application protocol is IEEE's 802.11 MAC protocol. IEEE 802.11 MAC has two modes of operations: DCF and PCF. We show that DCF is suitable for the initial deployment phase while switching to PCF when the spacecraft are in formation improves jitter and throughput. We also consider the effect of routing on protocol performance and suggest when it is profitable to turn off route discovery to achieve better network performance.

  15. Integration of IEEE 1451 and HL7 Exchanging Information for Patients’ Sensor Data

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Suyoung; Ahn, Jinsoo; Nah, Jiyoung; Kim, Namhyun

    2009-01-01

    HL7 (Health Level 7) is a standard developed for exchanging incompatible healthcare information generated from programs or devices among heterogenous medical information systems. At present, HL7 is growing as a global standard. However, the HL7 standard does not support effective methods for treating data from various medical sensors, especially from mobile sensors. As ubiquitous systems are growing, HL7 must communicate with various medical transducers. In the area of sensor fields, IEEE 1451 is a group of standards for controlling transducers and for communicating data from/to various transducers. In this paper, we present the possibility of interoperability between the two standards, i.e., HL7 and IEEE 1451. After we present a method to integrate them and show the preliminary results of this approach. PMID:20703604

  16. A nomadic access mechanism for enabling dynamic video surveillance over IEEE 802.15.4 networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Losilla, Fernando; Garcia-Haro, Joan

    2010-12-01

    IEEE 802.15.4 networking technology is designed to be the common standard for integrating WSN applications in heterogeneous environments. However, applications considering mobile nodes along with strict temporal requirements, such as those required for video transmission, are an unexplored field for this technology. These applications involve different challenges and issues that the direct employment of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard does not resolve. Therefore, in this paper a cross-layer mechanism consisting of application and medium access arbitration is presented, enabling the efficient connection and operation of mobile nodes together with the transmission of video flows. The proposed mechanism is evaluated via simulation and its feasibility checked by means of a first prototype. The study of power consumption is also taken into account and so are the quality of service parameters and the human quality perception of the received video stream. The results obtained are presented and further discussed.

  17. Integration of IEEE 1451 and HL7 exchanging information for patients' sensor data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooshik; Lim, Suyoung; Ahn, Jinsoo; Nah, Jiyoung; Kim, Namhyun

    2010-12-01

    HL7 (Health Level 7) is a standard developed for exchanging incompatible healthcare information generated from programs or devices among heterogenous medical information systems. At present, HL7 is growing as a global standard. However, the HL7 standard does not support effective methods for treating data from various medical sensors, especially from mobile sensors. As ubiquitous systems are growing, HL7 must communicate with various medical transducers. In the area of sensor fields, IEEE 1451 is a group of standards for controlling transducers and for communicating data from/to various transducers. In this paper, we present the possibility of interoperability between the two standards, i.e., HL7 and IEEE 1451. After we present a method to integrate them and show the preliminary results of this approach.

  18. A Fast MAC-Layer Handover for an IEEE 802.16e-Based WMAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sayan K.; Pawlikowski, Krzysztof; Sirisena, Harsha

    We propose a modification of the IEEE 802.16e hard handover (HHO) procedure, which significantly reduces the handover latency constraint of the original HHO procedure in IEEE 802.16e networks. It allows a better handling of the delay-sensitive traffic by avoiding unnecessary time-consuming scanning and synchronization activity as well as simplifies the network re-entry procedure. With the help of the backhaul network, it reduces the number of control messages in the original handover policy, making the handover latency acceptable also for real-time streaming traffic. Preliminary performance evaluation studies show that the modified handover procedure is able to reduce the total handover latency by about 50%.

  19. [Mobile Health: IEEE Standard for Wearable Cuffless Blood Pressure Measuring Devices].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Wu, Wenli; Bao, Shudi

    2015-07-01

    IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details will be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users will be addressed.

  20. Sensor Networking Testbed with IEEE 1451 Compatibility and Network Performance Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurkan, Deniz; Yuan, X.; Benhaddou, D.; Figueroa, F.; Morris, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Design and implementation of a testbed for testing and verifying IEEE 1451-compatible sensor systems with network performance monitoring is of significant importance. The performance parameters measurement as well as decision support systems implementation will enhance the understanding of sensor systems with plug-and-play capabilities. The paper will present the design aspects for such a testbed environment under development at University of Houston in collaboration with NASA Stennis Space Center - SSST (Smart Sensor System Testbed).

  1. On IEEE 802.15.6 IR-UWB receivers - simulations for DBPSK modulation.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Ville; Hämäläinen, Matti; Iinatti, Jari

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was the first in defining regulations for ultra wideband (UWB) communications followed by Europe and Japan some years later. Focusing on impulse radio (IR) UWB, in 2007 was the time for the first published standard targeting in personal area networks, released by the IEEE. The second IEEE released standard including UWB definitions is targeted for wireless body area networks (WBAN) and was published in 2012. As the wireless communications has been and will be passing through almost any levels in society, the natural step with WBAN is using it in different medical, healthcare and wellbeing applications. The arguments for these are related to the modern lifestyle, in which people have increasingly more free time and are more interested in taking care of their health and wellbeing. Another challenge is the population composition, i.e., aging in developed countries which call for new solutions and procedures, particularly from cost wise. In this paper, we are evaluating UWB receivers based on the IEEE 802.15.6 physical layer definitions and capable of detecting differentially encoded modulation. The evaluation is performed using two different WBAN channel models.

  2. Study on additional carrier sensing for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bih-Hwang; Lai, Ruei-Lung; Wu, Huai-Kuei; Wong, Chi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are able to achieve low-power transmissions in the guise of low-rate and short-distance wireless personal area networks (WPANs). The slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is used for contention mechanism. Sensor nodes perform a backoff process as soon as the clear channel assessment (CCA) detects a busy channel. In doing so they may neglect the implicit information of the failed CCA detection and further cause the redundant sensing. The blind backoff process in the slotted CSMA/CA will cause lower channel utilization. This paper proposes an additional carrier sensing (ACS) algorithm based on IEEE 802.15.4 to enhance the carrier sensing mechanism for the original slotted CSMA/CA. An analytical Markov chain model is developed to evaluate the performance of the ACS algorithm. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than IEEE 802.15.4, which in turn significantly improves throughput, average medium access control (MAC) delay and power consumption of CCA detection.

  3. Segmentized Clear Channel Assessment for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks.

    PubMed

    Son, Kyou Jung; Hong, Sung Hyeuck; Moon, Seong-Pil; Chang, Tae Gyu; Cho, Hanjin

    2016-06-03

    This paper proposed segmentized clear channel assessment (CCA) which increases the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 networks by improving carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). Improving CSMA/CA is important because the low-power consumption feature and throughput performance of IEEE 802.15.4 are greatly affected by CSMA/CA behavior. To improve the performance of CSMA/CA, this paper focused on increasing the chance to transmit a packet by assessing precise channel status. The previous method used in CCA, which is employed by CSMA/CA, assesses the channel by measuring the energy level of the channel. However, this method shows limited channel assessing behavior, which comes from simple threshold dependent channel busy evaluation. The proposed method solves this limited channel decision problem by dividing CCA into two groups. Two groups of CCA compare their energy levels to get precise channel status. To evaluate the performance of the segmentized CCA method, a Markov chain model has been developed. The validation of analytic results is confirmed by comparing them with simulation results. Additionally, simulation results show the proposed method is improving a maximum 8.76% of throughput and decreasing a maximum 3.9% of the average number of CCAs per packet transmission than the IEEE 802.15.4 CCA method.

  4. Strategies for Optimal MAC Parameters Tuning in IEEE 802.15.6 Wearable Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2015-09-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) has penetrated immensely in revolutionizing the classical heath-care system. Recently, number of WBAN applications has emerged which introduce potential limits to existing solutions. In particular, IEEE 802.15.6 standard has provided great flexibility, provisions and capabilities to deal emerging applications. In this paper, we investigate the application-specific throughput analysis by fine-tuning the physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) parameters of the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. Based on PHY characterizations in narrow band, at the MAC layer, carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) and scheduled access protocols are extensively analyzed. It is concluded that, IEEE 802.15.6 standard can satisfy most of the WBANs applications throughput requirements by maximum achieving 680 Kbps. However, those emerging applications which require high quality audio or video transmissions, standard is not able to meet their constraints. Moreover, delay, energy efficiency and successful packet reception are considered as key performance metrics for comparing the MAC protocols. CSMA/CA protocol provides the best results to meet the delay constraints of medical and non-medical WBAN applications. Whereas, the scheduled access approach, performs very well both in energy efficiency and packet reception ratio.

  5. Segmentized Clear Channel Assessment for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    PubMed Central

    Son, Kyou Jung; Hong, Sung Hyeuck; Moon, Seong-Pil; Chang, Tae Gyu; Cho, Hanjin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed segmentized clear channel assessment (CCA) which increases the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 networks by improving carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). Improving CSMA/CA is important because the low-power consumption feature and throughput performance of IEEE 802.15.4 are greatly affected by CSMA/CA behavior. To improve the performance of CSMA/CA, this paper focused on increasing the chance to transmit a packet by assessing precise channel status. The previous method used in CCA, which is employed by CSMA/CA, assesses the channel by measuring the energy level of the channel. However, this method shows limited channel assessing behavior, which comes from simple threshold dependent channel busy evaluation. The proposed method solves this limited channel decision problem by dividing CCA into two groups. Two groups of CCA compare their energy levels to get precise channel status. To evaluate the performance of the segmentized CCA method, a Markov chain model has been developed. The validation of analytic results is confirmed by comparing them with simulation results. Additionally, simulation results show the proposed method is improving a maximum 8.76% of throughput and decreasing a maximum 3.9% of the average number of CCAs per packet transmission than the IEEE 802.15.4 CCA method. PMID:27271626

  6. Segmentized Clear Channel Assessment for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks.

    PubMed

    Son, Kyou Jung; Hong, Sung Hyeuck; Moon, Seong-Pil; Chang, Tae Gyu; Cho, Hanjin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed segmentized clear channel assessment (CCA) which increases the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 networks by improving carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). Improving CSMA/CA is important because the low-power consumption feature and throughput performance of IEEE 802.15.4 are greatly affected by CSMA/CA behavior. To improve the performance of CSMA/CA, this paper focused on increasing the chance to transmit a packet by assessing precise channel status. The previous method used in CCA, which is employed by CSMA/CA, assesses the channel by measuring the energy level of the channel. However, this method shows limited channel assessing behavior, which comes from simple threshold dependent channel busy evaluation. The proposed method solves this limited channel decision problem by dividing CCA into two groups. Two groups of CCA compare their energy levels to get precise channel status. To evaluate the performance of the segmentized CCA method, a Markov chain model has been developed. The validation of analytic results is confirmed by comparing them with simulation results. Additionally, simulation results show the proposed method is improving a maximum 8.76% of throughput and decreasing a maximum 3.9% of the average number of CCAs per packet transmission than the IEEE 802.15.4 CCA method. PMID:27271626

  7. Interoperability in digital electrocardiography: harmonization of ISO/IEEE x73-PHD and SCP-ECG.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Chiarugi, Franco; Alesanco, Alvaro; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Serrano, Luis; Chronaki, Catherine E; Escayola, Javier; Martínez, Ignacio; García, José

    2010-11-01

    The ISO/IEEE 11073 (x73) family of standards is a reference frame for medical device interoperability. A draft for an ECG device specialization (ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02) has already been presented to the Personal Health Device (PHD) Working Group, and the Standard Communications Protocol for Computer-Assisted ElectroCardioGraphy (SCP-ECG) Standard for short-term diagnostic ECGs (EN1064:2005+A1:2007) has recently been approved as part of the x73 family (ISO 11073-91064:2009). These factors suggest the coordinated use of these two standards in foreseeable telecardiology environments, and hence the need to harmonize them. Such harmonization is the subject of this paper. Thus, a mapping of the mandatory attributes defined in the second draft of the ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02 and the minimum SCP-ECG fields is presented, and various other capabilities of the SCP-ECG Standard (such as the messaging part) are also analyzed from an x73-PHD point of view. As a result, this paper addresses and analyzes the implications of some inconsistencies in the coordinated use of these two standards. Finally, a proof-of-concept implementation of the draft x73-PHD ECG device specialization is presented, along with the conversion from x73-PHD to SCP-ECG. This paper, therefore, provides recommendations for future implementations of telecardiology systems that are compliant with both x73-PHD and SCP-ECG.

  8. A versatile electrical penetration design qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lankenau, W.; Wetherill, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    Although worldwide demand for new construction of nuclear power stations has been on a decline, the available opportunities for the design and construction of qualified electrical penetrations continues to offer challenges, requiring a highly versatile design. Versatility is necessary in order to meet unique customer requirements within the constraints of a design basis qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983. This paper summarizes such a versatile electrical penetration designed, built and tested to IEEE Std. 317-1983. The principal features are described including major materials of construction. Some of the design constraints such as sealing requirements, and conductor density (including numerical example) are discussed. The requirements for qualification testing of the penetration assembly to IEEE Std. 317-1983 are delineated in a general sense, and some typical test ranges for preconditioning, radiation exposure, and LOCA are provided. The paper concludes by describing ways in which this versatile design has been adapted to meet unique customer requirements in a variety of nuclear power plants.

  9. Preventive Measures to Eliminate Asbestos-Related Diseases in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Koh, David; Khim, Judy Sng Gek; Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD) has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman's Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment. PMID:22953203

  10. The Singapore Tuberculosis Elimination Programme: the first five years.

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Cynthia B. E.; James, Lyn

    2003-01-01

    The Singapore Tuberculosis Elimination Programme (STEP) was launched in 1997 because the incidence of the disease had remained between 49 and 56 per 100,000 resident population for the preceding 10 years. STEP involves the following key interventions: directly observed therapy (DOT) in public primary health care clinics; monitoring of treatment progress and outcome for all cases by means of a National Treatment Surveillance Registry; and preventive therapy for recently infected close contacts of infectious tuberculosis cases. Among other activities are the revamping of the National Tuberculosis Notification Registry, the discontinuation of BCG revaccination for schoolchildren, the tightening up of defaulter tracing, and the education of the medical community and the public. Future plans include an outreach programme for specific groups of patients who are unable to attend their nearest public primary care clinics for DOT, the detention of infectious recalcitrant defaulters for treatment under the Infectious Diseases Act, the molecular fingerprinting of tuberculosis isolates, and targeted screening of high-risk groups. The incidence of tuberculosis fell from 57 per 100,000 population in 1998 to 48 per 100,000 in 1999 and continued to decline to 44 per 100,000 in 2001. With political will and commitment and the support of the medical community and the public it is hoped that STEP will achieve further progress towards the elimination of tuberculosis in Singapore. PMID:12764518

  11. Perinatal mortality with particular reference to the Singapore situation.

    PubMed

    Tan, K L

    1984-04-01

    Perinatal mortality rates have been gradually declining in all countries. The initial decline mainly resulted from improvements in the late foetal mortality rates. Later with improvements in neonatal care, early neonatal mortality rates also improved. The developed countries have consistently shown better results than the developing countries, an indication of the higher standard of living, general health as well as the delivery of health care in these countries. In the Singapore situation, a rapid improvement in perinatal mortality was initially observed due to improvements in the late foetal mortality, followed later by reduction in the early neonatal mortality due to upgrading of neonatal intensive care. The perinatal mortality rate is lowest in the Chinese compared to the Indians and Malays, most likely due to the dietary practices of the three ethnic groups in Singapore; while the Chinese encourage extra nutrition in the pregnant female, the Malays and Indians tend to practise dietary restriction during this period. The improved nutrition of the pregnant mother is a factor in improving the perinatal mortality.

  12. Serving up successful recipes. The menu at CW's Singapore conference

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.

    1993-03-03

    Chemical companies in the US and Europe generally have little enough cause for optimism when examining domestic investment prospects in the short term. But when it comes to looking farther afield, there is no doubt that opportunities abound for companies in Asia/Pacific. The prospects for the region can start to be understood when taking into account that Asian GDP will equal that of North America or Europe by the end of the decade, and it is estimated to be four or five times that by the year 2050, as Eastman Chemical president Earnest Deavenport noted in his keynote speech at Chemical Week's third annual Asia/Pacific conference recently in Singapore. Moreover, consumption of products requiring chemicals, plastics, and synthetic fibers is forecast to rise at roughly twice the pace of economic growth-that is, 10%-12%. Eastman predicts that Asia/Pacific's market share of the chemicals sector will be the world's largest by 2002, increasing from 26% to 35%, with the value of industry production more than doubling, to $604 billion. Recent forecasts for 1993 GDP growth range from 4.7% in Hong Kong and Singapore at the low end to 12% for China at the top.

  13. The Singapore Field Epidemiology Service: Insights Into Outbreak Management

    PubMed Central

    Seetoh, Theresa; Cutter, Jeffery

    2012-01-01

    Field epidemiology involves the implementation of quick and targeted public health interventions with the aid of epidemiological methods. In this article, we share our practical experiences in outbreak management and in safeguarding the population against novel diseases. Given that cities represent the financial nexuses of the global economy, global health security necessitates the safeguard of cities against epidemic diseases. Singapore's public health landscape has undergone a systemic and irreversible shift with global connectivity, rapid urbanization, ecological change, increased affluence, as well as shifting demographic patterns over the past two decades. Concomitantly, the threat of epidemics, ranging from severe acute respiratory syndrome and influenza A (H1N1) to the resurgence of vector-borne diseases as well as the rise of modern lifestyle-related outbreaks, have worsened difficulties in safeguarding public health amidst much elusiveness and unpredictability. One critical factor that has helped the country overcome these innate and man-made public health vulnerabilities is the development of a resilient field epidemiology service, which includes our enhancement of surveillance and response capacities for outbreak management, and investment in public health leadership. We offer herein the Singapore story as a case study in meeting the challenges of disease control in our modern built environment. PMID:23091652

  14. One hundred years of orthopaedic education in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Lee, E H; Wong, H K

    2005-07-01

    The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Malaya (in Singapore) was established in 1952. Prior to this, the teaching of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University was undertaken by the Department of Surgery under the Professor of Surgery and Professor of Clinical Surgery. From a course consisting of 15 weekly classes on fractures for 18 undergraduates in the late 1930s, and the clinical postings in orthopaedic surgery for over 40 students in 1952, the programme now encompasses an exposure to musculoskeletal diseases and trauma in all 5 years of the undergraduate course. Over this time, the spectrum of clinical conditions has also changed, and with it the emphasis on the conditions to be taught; from that dealing primarily with tuberculosis of bones and joints, poliomyelitis, and childhood deformity, to those resulting from degenerative disorders, sports injuries, industrial and motor vehicle accidents, and cancer. The students are now taught orthopaedic surgery in all the major public hospitals. Local postgraduate training programmes for orthopaedic surgery started in the 1980s. From 1993, a more structured training and assessment programme was introduced for basic and advanced training in surgery and orthopaedics. Advanced trainees rotate through the various teaching hospitals to expose them to a wider range of orthopaedic problems as well as teachers. The postgraduate training programme is now well established, and Singapore is accredited by the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh as an orthopaedic training centre for higher surgical training. PMID:16010393

  15. Child development programme in Singapore 1988 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lai-Yun

    2007-11-01

    Early childhood intervention programmes can shift the odds toward more favourable outcomes in development, especially for children at risk. However, there is no quick fix in the world for early childhood interventions. Programmes that work are rarely simple, inexpensive, or easy to implement. Each country must decide its own model and strategies and develop its resources based on existing infrastructures. Since its independence to become a sovereign nation in 1965, Singapore has undergone significant socio-economic changes. The infant and under-5 childhood mortality rates are among the lowest in the world. A number of "new morbidities" have been identified to pose major challenges to child health in the next decades. They are chronic medical illnesses, developmental disabilities, learning problems, injuries and neglect, behavioural disturbances and disorders, sequelae associated with unhealthy life-styles, and social and emotional disorders. The need for a comprehensive child development programme is therefore obvious. The main objectives are identification and treatment of children with developmental and behavioural problems so as to correct developmental dysfunctions, minimise the impact of a child's disability or of prevailing risk factors, strengthen families, and establish the foundations for subsequent development. A child development programme has evolved in Singapore over the last 20 years. The programme is multi-disciplinary, community-based, family-focused, and child-centric, with partnership and integration between government and voluntary community organisations.

  16. Impact assessment of waste management options in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, Reginald B H; Khoo, Hsien H

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes the application of life cycle assessment for evaluating various waste management options in Singapore, a small-island city state. The impact assessment method by SimaPro is carried out for comparing the potential environmental impacts of waste treatment options including landfilling, incineration, recycling, and composting. The inventory data include gases and leachate from landfills, air emissions and energy recovery from incinerators, energy (and emission) savings from recycling, composting gases, and transport pollution. The impact assessment results for climate change, acidification, and ecotoxicity show that the incineration of materials imposes considerable harm to both human health and the environment, especially for the burning of plastics, paper/cardboard, and ferrous metals. The results also show that, although some amount of energy can be derived from the incineration of wastes, these benefits are outweighed by the air pollution (heavy metals and dioxins/furans) that incinerators produce. For Singapore, landfill gases and leachate generate minimal environmental damage because of the nation's policy to landfill only 10% of the total disposed wastes. Land transportation and separation of waste materials also pose minimal environmental damage. However, sea transportation to the landfill could contribute significantly to acidification because of the emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from barges. The composting of horticultural wastes hardly imposes any environmental damage. Out of all the waste strategies, the recycling of wastes offers the best solution for environmental protection and improved human health for the nation. Significant emission savings can be realized through recycling. PMID:16573187

  17. Beverage alcohol spending in Singapore: an empirical update.

    PubMed

    Curry, R L

    1994-04-01

    Data on Singapore suggest strongly that consumer spending on imported and locally produced beverage alcohol was on the rise from 1986 through 1991 just as it had been from 1978 through 1986. Although not alarming in contrast to countries such as South Korea, the rise could signal an emerging problem with both public health and economic growth implications. In terms of economic growth, Singapore's continued economic success and its future plans require a highly skilled labor force, but skilled local workers are in very short supply. Continued rises in spending on beverage alcohol could pose a potential constraint to labor availability and therefore continued material progress. On the public health side, a rise in spending on beverage alcohol could lead to illness and accidents that cause chronic absenteeism, decrease on-the-job productivity, and lead to the permanent loss of valuable workers through alcohol-related motor car and other fatal accidents. A minimalist intervention strategy featuring education and rehabilitation might therefore be a reasonable policy option for government to consider pursuing, both on economic development and public health grounds.

  18. Modelling the control strategies against dengue in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burattini, M N; Chen, M; Chow, A; Coutinho, F A B; Goh, K T; Lopez, L F; Ma, S; Massad, E

    2008-03-01

    Notified cases of dengue infections in Singapore reached historical highs in 2004 (9459 cases) and 2005 (13,817 cases) and the reason for such an increase is still to be established. We apply a mathematical model for dengue infection that takes into account the seasonal variation in incidence, characteristic of dengue fever, and which mimics the 2004-2005 epidemics in Singapore. We simulated a set of possible control strategies and confirmed the intuitive belief that killing adult mosquitoes is the most effective strategy to control an ongoing epidemic. On the other hand, the control of immature forms was very efficient in preventing the resurgence of dengue epidemics. Since the control of immature forms allows the reduction of adulticide, it seems that the best strategy is to combine both adulticide and larvicide control measures during an outbreak, followed by the maintenance of larvicide methods after the epidemic has subsided. In addition, the model showed that the mixed strategy of adulticide and larvicide methods introduced by the government seems to be very effective in reducing the number of cases in the first weeks after the start of control.

  19. Impact assessment of waste management options in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, Reginald B H; Khoo, Hsien H

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes the application of life cycle assessment for evaluating various waste management options in Singapore, a small-island city state. The impact assessment method by SimaPro is carried out for comparing the potential environmental impacts of waste treatment options including landfilling, incineration, recycling, and composting. The inventory data include gases and leachate from landfills, air emissions and energy recovery from incinerators, energy (and emission) savings from recycling, composting gases, and transport pollution. The impact assessment results for climate change, acidification, and ecotoxicity show that the incineration of materials imposes considerable harm to both human health and the environment, especially for the burning of plastics, paper/cardboard, and ferrous metals. The results also show that, although some amount of energy can be derived from the incineration of wastes, these benefits are outweighed by the air pollution (heavy metals and dioxins/furans) that incinerators produce. For Singapore, landfill gases and leachate generate minimal environmental damage because of the nation's policy to landfill only 10% of the total disposed wastes. Land transportation and separation of waste materials also pose minimal environmental damage. However, sea transportation to the landfill could contribute significantly to acidification because of the emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from barges. The composting of horticultural wastes hardly imposes any environmental damage. Out of all the waste strategies, the recycling of wastes offers the best solution for environmental protection and improved human health for the nation. Significant emission savings can be realized through recycling.

  20. Modelling the control strategies against dengue in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    BURATTINI, M. N.; CHEN, M.; CHOW, A.; COUTINHO, F. A. B.; GOH, K. T.; LOPEZ, L. F.; MA, S.; MASSAD, E.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Notified cases of dengue infections in Singapore reached historical highs in 2004 (9459 cases) and 2005 (13 817 cases) and the reason for such an increase is still to be established. We apply a mathematical model for dengue infection that takes into account the seasonal variation in incidence, characteristic of dengue fever, and which mimics the 2004–2005 epidemics in Singapore. We simulated a set of possible control strategies and confirmed the intuitive belief that killing adult mosquitoes is the most effective strategy to control an ongoing epidemic. On the other hand, the control of immature forms was very efficient in preventing the resurgence of dengue epidemics. Since the control of immature forms allows the reduction of adulticide, it seems that the best strategy is to combine both adulticide and larvicide control measures during an outbreak, followed by the maintenance of larvicide methods after the epidemic has subsided. In addition, the model showed that the mixed strategy of adulticide and larvicide methods introduced by the government seems to be very effective in reducing the number of cases in the first weeks after the start of control. PMID:17540051

  1. HIV in Singapore--past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Cutter, Jeffery L; Lim, Wei-Yen; Ang, Li-Wei; Tun, Ye; James, Lyn; Chew, Suok-Kai

    2004-06-01

    The first case of HIV infection in Singapore was reported in 1985. Between 1991 and 1998, the number of reported cases of HIV and AIDS increased rapidly before stabilizing from 1999. The epidemiology of the AIDS epidemic in Singapore is characterized by a predominance of male cases (seven to one) and heterosexual transmission. A multipronged control program comprising public education and education of high-risk groups, legislation, protection of the national blood supply, management of cases, and epidemiological surveillance has been put in place. The promotion of condom use among local sex workers has been fairly successful, with very low rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, freelance and potential indirect sex workers such as masseuses and lounge hostesses are a concern in view of their higher prevalence of HIV and STIs. Another concern is the high proportion of cases who are diagnosed only when they develop AIDS. A better understanding of sexual networks among men who have sex with men will enable more effective intervention programs for this group. Fresh innovative approaches are needed to encourage safe sex practices and early screening. PMID:15262570

  2. Test Methodology for Characterizing the SEE Sensitivity of a Commercial IEEE 1394 Serial Bus (FireWire)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidleck, C.; Kim, H.; Buchner, S.; Marshall, P. W.; LaBel, K.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Single Event Effect (SEE) responses of two FireWire serial buses based on the IEEE 1394 standard were tested with heavy ions and protons. A unique approach to testing and categorizing the SEEs is presented.

  3. Developing Singapore Driving Cycle for passenger cars to estimate fuel consumption and vehicular emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Sze-Hwee; Wong, Yiik-Diew; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

    2014-11-01

    Singapore has pledged to attain 7-11% Business-As-Usual carbon emissions reduction by 2020. Road transport sector is a significant source of carbon emissions, estimated to be the third largest sector in Singapore. A current gap in environmental evaluation for road transport activities in Singapore is the lack of a representative driving cycle for passenger cars (64% of the total population of 974,170 vehicles). This Singapore Driving Cycle (SDC) is hence developed for Singapore roads and traffic conditions. A chase-car (instrumented vehicle) was used to collect on-road data along 12 designed routes, and circulation driving on highly utilized arterial roads (including those in Central Business District (CBD) and both inner and outer ring roads fringing the CBD area). The SDC was thus hence constructed, with consideration of road type proportions, time periods and desired distance, duration and peak-lull proportion. In essence, the SDC is a 2400-s speed-time profile to represent the driving pattern for passenger car in Singapore. Microscopic estimation model (CMEM) shows that, as compared to SDC, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) underestimates most of the vehicular emissions (fuel, CO2, HC and NOx by 5%, 5%, 22% and 47%, respectively) and overestimates CO by 8%. The SDC is thus more suitable than the NEDC that is currently in use in Singapore; the SDC can be used to generate more accurate fuel consumption and emissions ratings for various uses (for example, inventory of vehicular emissions and fuel economy labelling).

  4. Enhancing the earth-science content and inquiry basis of physical geography education in Singapore schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, J.; Chong, E.

    2011-12-01

    Singapore has a long tradition of geography education at the secondary and Junior College levels (ages 12-18). Although most geography teachers teach both human and physical geography, many of them have received more extensive university training in human geography. The Earth Obervatory of Singapore (EOS), a newly established research institute at Nanyang Technological University (NTU), is building an education and outreach program to integrate its research across formal and informal education. We are collaborating with the Singapore Ministry of Education to enhance the earth-science content and inquiry basis of physical geography education in Singapore classrooms. EOS is providing input to national curriculum, textbook materials, and teaching resources, as well as providing inquiry-based field seminars and workshops for inservice teachers. An upcoming 5-year "Our Dynamic Earth" exhibit at the Science Centre Singapore will be a centerpoint of outreach to younger students, their teachers and parents, and to the community at large. On a longer time scale, the upcoming undergraduate program in earth science at NTU, the first of its kind in Singapore, will provide a stream of earth scientists into the geography teaching workforce. Developing ties between EOS and the National Institute of Education will further enhance teacher training. With a highly centralized curriculum, small land area, high-performing student population, and key stakeholders eager to collaborate with EOS, Singapore presents an unusual opportunity to impact classrooms on a national scale.

  5. Outband Sensing-Based Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) Algorithm without Full DFS Test in IEEE 802.11h Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeung, Jaemin; Jeong, Seungmyeong; Lim, Jaesung

    We propose an outband sensing-based IEEE 802.11h protocol without a full dynamic frequency selection (DFS) test. This scheme has two features. Firstly, every station performs a cooperative outband sensing, instead of inband sensing during a quiet period. And secondly, as soon as a current channel becomes bad, every station immediately hops to a good channel using the result of outband sensing. Simulation shows the proposed scheme increases network throughput against the legacy IEEE 802.11h.

  6. Days Out of Role Due to Mental and Physical Conditions: Results from the Singapore Mental Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdin, Edimansyah; Ong, Clarissa; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relative contributions of mental and physical conditions to days out of role among adults aged 18 years and above in Singapore. Methods The Singapore Mental Health Study was a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of a nationally representative sample of residents aged 18 years or older. Diagnosis of mental disorders was established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview; while chronic physical conditions were established using a checklist. Days out of role were assessed using a WHO Disability Assessment Schedule item. Multivariate regression analyses were used to estimate individual-level and societal-level effects of disorders. Results Overall, 8.7% of respondents reported at least one day out of role, with a mean of 5.8 days. The most disabling conditions at the individual level were cancer (118.9 additional days), cardiovascular diseases (93.5), and bipolar disorder (71.0). At the societal level, cardiovascular diseases contributed the highest population attributable risk proportion (45%), followed by cancer (39.3%), and hypertension (13.5%). Conclusions Mental and physical conditions are linked to significant losses in productivity for society as well as role disability for individuals, underscoring the need to enhance prevention and intervention efforts to increase overall productivity and improve individual functioning. PMID:26840741

  7. Seroepidemiology of Coxsackievirus A6, Coxsackievirus A16, and Enterovirus 71 Infections among Children and Adolescents in Singapore, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Ang, Li Wei; Tay, Joanne; Phoon, Meng Chee; Hsu, Jung Pu; Cutter, Jeffery; James, Lyn; Goh, Kee Tai; Chow, Vincent Tak-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Coxsackieviruses A6 (CV-A6) and A16 (CV-A16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) have caused periodic epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children in Singapore. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the seroprevalence of these enteroviruses among Singapore children and adolescents. The study was conducted between August 2008 and July 2010. It involved 700 Singapore residents aged 1-17 years whose residual sera were obtained following the completion of routine biochemical investigations in two public acute-care hospitals. The levels of neutralizing antibodies (NtAb) against CV-A6, CV-A16 and EV-A71 were analyzed by the microneutralization test. The age-specific geometric mean titer (GMT) of antibodies against each of the three enteroviruses and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The seroprevalence of CV-A6 and CV-A16 was high at 62.7% (95% CI: 59.1-66.2%) and 60.6% (95% CI: 56.9-64.1%), respectively. However, the seroprevalence of EV-A71 was significantly lower at 29.3% (95% CI: 26.0-32.8%). About 89.7% of the children and adolescents had been infected by at least one of the three enteroviruses by 13-17 years of age. About half (52.3%) were seropositive for two or all three enteroviruses, while only 16.1% had no NtAb against any of the three enteroviruses. High NtAb levels were observed in the younger age groups. CV-A6 and CV-A16 infections are very common among Singapore children and adolescents, while EV-A71 infections are less common. Infection is continually acquired from early childhood to adolescent age.

  8. Seroepidemiology of Coxsackievirus A6, Coxsackievirus A16, and Enterovirus 71 Infections among Children and Adolescents in Singapore, 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Li Wei; Tay, Joanne; Phoon, Meng Chee; Hsu, Jung Pu; Cutter, Jeffery; James, Lyn; Goh, Kee Tai; Chow, Vincent Tak-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Coxsackieviruses A6 (CV-A6) and A16 (CV-A16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) have caused periodic epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children in Singapore. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the seroprevalence of these enteroviruses among Singapore children and adolescents. The study was conducted between August 2008 and July 2010. It involved 700 Singapore residents aged 1–17 years whose residual sera were obtained following the completion of routine biochemical investigations in two public acute-care hospitals. The levels of neutralizing antibodies (NtAb) against CV-A6, CV-A16 and EV-A71 were analyzed by the microneutralization test. The age-specific geometric mean titer (GMT) of antibodies against each of the three enteroviruses and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The seroprevalence of CV-A6 and CV-A16 was high at 62.7% (95% CI: 59.1–66.2%) and 60.6% (95% CI: 56.9–64.1%), respectively. However, the seroprevalence of EV-A71 was significantly lower at 29.3% (95% CI: 26.0–32.8%). About 89.7% of the children and adolescents had been infected by at least one of the three enteroviruses by 13–17 years of age. About half (52.3%) were seropositive for two or all three enteroviruses, while only 16.1% had no NtAb against any of the three enteroviruses. High NtAb levels were observed in the younger age groups. CV-A6 and CV-A16 infections are very common among Singapore children and adolescents, while EV-A71 infections are less common. Infection is continually acquired from early childhood to adolescent age. PMID:26011735

  9. Migration and Singapore: implications for the Asia Pacific.

    PubMed

    Low, L

    1994-01-01

    Regarding immigration and emigration issues, there is a need for greater and more detailed data collection, an emphasis on data on illegal as well as legal migration, an examination of the impact of direct foreign investment on job creation and new labor market entrants, and a strengthening of international conventions for protection of foreign workers. The Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC), Human Resource Development Task Force, is the source for projections of labor demand and supply for 18 PECC countries in 1993 and 1994. These projections indicate labor shortages in 1993 in Canada, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. The greatest labor supplier will be China. Japan and Korea are expected to have economic downturns, which will increase excess labor. The extent of excess labor is estimated to be 8.01 million in 1993 and 12.43 in 1994. The nature of the calculations could potentially exaggerate existing demand. A variety of theories are used to determine the direction and flow of migration, capital, goods and services, and technology. Estimates of migration flows indicate an increase to 100 million migrants in 1992, or 1.8% of world population (35 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 15 million in Asia and the Middle East, and almost 13 million in Western Europe and North America). The value of remittances is estimated at $66 million (US dollars), which is slightly less than the value of oil trade and exceeds the $46 million in foreign aid. It is hypothesized that wider spatial and income inequalities with expanding globalization will increase migration flows. The case of Singapore illustrates how manipulation of the labor market reduces potential problems. Immigration policy historically encouraged migration of skilled and professional workers. In 1990 foreign workers in Singapore constituted 12% of the labor force. Since 1982 a monthly foreign worker levy has been imposed. The levy is increased when needed in order to slow demand. In 1992

  10. Migration and Singapore: implications for the Asia Pacific.

    PubMed

    Low, L

    1994-01-01

    Regarding immigration and emigration issues, there is a need for greater and more detailed data collection, an emphasis on data on illegal as well as legal migration, an examination of the impact of direct foreign investment on job creation and new labor market entrants, and a strengthening of international conventions for protection of foreign workers. The Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC), Human Resource Development Task Force, is the source for projections of labor demand and supply for 18 PECC countries in 1993 and 1994. These projections indicate labor shortages in 1993 in Canada, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. The greatest labor supplier will be China. Japan and Korea are expected to have economic downturns, which will increase excess labor. The extent of excess labor is estimated to be 8.01 million in 1993 and 12.43 in 1994. The nature of the calculations could potentially exaggerate existing demand. A variety of theories are used to determine the direction and flow of migration, capital, goods and services, and technology. Estimates of migration flows indicate an increase to 100 million migrants in 1992, or 1.8% of world population (35 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 15 million in Asia and the Middle East, and almost 13 million in Western Europe and North America). The value of remittances is estimated at $66 million (US dollars), which is slightly less than the value of oil trade and exceeds the $46 million in foreign aid. It is hypothesized that wider spatial and income inequalities with expanding globalization will increase migration flows. The case of Singapore illustrates how manipulation of the labor market reduces potential problems. Immigration policy historically encouraged migration of skilled and professional workers. In 1990 foreign workers in Singapore constituted 12% of the labor force. Since 1982 a monthly foreign worker levy has been imposed. The levy is increased when needed in order to slow demand. In 1992

  11. Uncertainties in modelling of tidal flows off Singapore Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riddle, A. M.

    1996-09-01

    A hydrodynamic model has been constructed for predicting the tidal currents off the south west coast of Singapore Island and has been verified against survey data from the area. A study examining the sensitivity of the model to changes in the input parameters has been undertaken and a statistical experimental design technique has been employed to determine the minimum number of computer runs required to quantify the sensitivity of the model. The uncertainty in predicting the time of the turn of tide is estimated from the statistical results as is the uncertainty in the predicted movement of drogues in both simple and complex tidal flows. The method is extended to estimate the uncertainties in the spread and concentration of a dye patch using a particle tracking random walk model and allowing for the uncertainties in the wind and in horizontal and vertical mixing rates as determined from a series of experimental studies of dye patch spread.

  12. Dental technician training in Singapore--a survey.

    PubMed

    Teoh, K H; Chua, E K

    2001-06-01

    This postal survey was carried out in 1999 amongst dental technicians in Singapore to assess their status of training, interest towards a local dental technology course and national certification. A hundred and seven questionnaires were sent to technicians of 37 private and two institutional laboratories. Sixty technicians responded giving a response rate of 56.1%. Half of the respondents were above 40 years and more than 40% were not formally trained. Ninety-five percent (95%) agreed that there was a need for national certification. The preferred duration of a structured dental technology course was three years part-time followed by two years full-time. This study has shown that there is a need to train new and existing technicians through introduction of a local structured dental technology course and continuing education. National certification could be introduced when more technicians are formally trained.

  13. Calibration of FRESIM for Singapore expressway using genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Cheu, R.L.; Jin, X.; Srinivasa, D.; Ng, K.C.; Ng, Y.L.

    1998-11-01

    FRESIM is a microscopic time-stepping simulation model for freeway corridor traffic operations. To enable FRESIM to realistically simulate expressway traffic flow in Singapore, parameters that govern the movement of vehicles needed to be recalibrated for local traffic conditions. This paper presents the application of a genetic algorithm as an optimization method for finding a suitable combination of FRESIM parameter values. The calibration is based on field data collected on weekdays over a 5.8 km segment of the Ayer Rajar Expressway. Independent calibrations have been made for evening peak and midday off-peak traffic. The results show that the genetic algorithm is able to search for two sets of parameter values that enable FRESIM to produce 30-s loop-detector volume and speed (averaged across all lanes) closely matching the field data under two different traffic conditions. The two sets of parameter values are found to produce a consistently good match for data collected in different days.

  14. Chemical and physical defenses of Singapore gorgonians (Octocorallia: Gorgonacea).

    PubMed

    Koh; Goh; Chou; Tan

    2000-08-23

    Gorgonians are abundant in tropical waters and their polyps are seldom predated on. This study investigates how gorgonians defend themselves chemically and physically against fish predation. Gorgonian extracts and sclerites were incorporated into fish feed and tested on reef fishes. Laboratory bioassays using Greyhead wrasses, Halichoeres purpurescens, as well as field bioassays showed five gorgonian species from the family Ellisellidae and three from the family Plexauridae collected from Singapore reefs to be deterrent towards fishes. Bioassays of fractions obtained from subsequent fractionation suggested synergistic or additive effects between compounds present in gorgonians. Sclerites incorporated into fish feed in their natural concentrations were also tested for fish deterrence and were positive for only two gorgonian species from the family Ellisellidae.

  15. Training incidents in armored vehicles in the Singapore Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Seng, Kok-Yong; Ng, Yih-Yng; Ying, Meng-Fai

    2003-02-01

    Training in armored vehicles presents occupational hazards. Since the inception of armored units in the Singapore Armed Forces in 1969, there has been no scientific study of the demographics of the trauma patterns. A review of existing literature also indicated a paucity of data on this subject. This article qualified and quantified the proportion of trauma during peacetime armored vehicle training during a 5-year period. Most of the 100 documented incidences of injuries occurred on the head and body limbs. Many injuries were caused by minor lacerations, abrasions, and crush injuries. Although fractures accounted for 24%, 65% of the total injury count could be classified as "minor." A diurnal pattern of injuries was noted in the study. The injury patterns could be used to analyze morbidity and mortality trends and facilitate subsequent evaluation of efficacy of affirmative action. New challenges facing further research in training injuries were also discussed. PMID:12636148

  16. Hantavirus infections in humans and commensal rodents in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, T W; Chan, Y C; Joo, Y G; Lee, H W; Lee, P W; Yanagihara, R

    1989-01-01

    To determine the extent of hantavirus infection in Singapore, serological studies using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test were conducted on commensal rodents and on human patients in 4 diagnostic groups. Virus isolation using a Vero E6 cell line was performed on hantaviral antigen-positive rodent lung tissue. Of 142 rodents and 3 insectivores studied, 37 (26%) were seropositive for IFA. Rattus norvegicus was the predominant species captured, with the highest species-specific seropositive rate of 32% (36 of 113). A hantavirus strain, R36, was isolated from one R. norvegicus. Seropositive rates for human patients were: 8% respectively for dengue haemorrhagic fever suspects and for non-A non-B hepatitis patients, 3% for leptospirosis suspects and 2% for acute nephritis patients. 2 patients had marked liver dysfunction but mild renal involvement. This hepatitis-like manifestation appears to be a clinical variant of hantavirus infection.

  17. PAIR UP for primary care excellence: perspectives from a primary healthcare provider in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ngiap Chuan

    2014-03-01

    Singapore is facing an increasing noncommunicable disease burden due to its ageing population. Singapore's primary healthcare services, provided by both polyclinic physicians and private general practitioners, are available to the public at differential fees for service. The resultant disproportionate patient loads lead to dissatisfaction for both healthcare providers and consumers. This article describes the 'PAIR UP' approach as a potential endeavour to facilitate primary care physicians (PCPs) in public and private sectors to collaborate to deliver enhanced primary care in Singapore. PAIR UP is an acronym referring to Policy, Academic development, Integration of healthcare information system, Research in primary care, Utility and safety evaluation, and Practice transformation. The current healthcare landscape is favourable to test out this multipronged approach. PCPs in both sectors can ride on it and work together synergistically to provide quality primary care in Singapore.

  18. One hundred years of the teaching of medicine in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ong, B K C

    2005-07-01

    The Medical School was founded in 1905 in response to the need to train doctors for Singapore. In 2005, this School, now the Faculty of Medicine in the National University of Singapore, will celebrate her 100th year. This brief review attempts to chronicle the way in which the medical course has been designed over the years to address the principal aims of undergraduate medical education. From the inception of the Straits and Federated Malay States Government Medical School to the present, strong clinically based teaching was the key element, although there was some distinction between the foundational preclinical years and the clinical phases of training. Initially, this was necessitated by the fact that students were too poorly equipped in the sciences to have a more integrated curriculum. Over time, the structure of the course, learning objectives and teaching pedagogy and techniques became better developed. Of late, many of these elements have been revised and better articulated by the Faculty following a review. The method, frequency and emphasis of student evaluations have also changed as medical knowledge grows and the population becomes developed, with attendant disease pattern changes. The clinical relevance of the course and the need to train competent doctors remain the main mission of the Faculty of Medicine even in this age of molecular medicine and a technology-enhanced practice setting. Competency alone is, however, incomplete without good role models in the art of the practice of medicine. It is heartening to note that medical ethics and communications skills continue to be emphasised in the modern curriculum.

  19. Entomological Investigation and Control of a Chikungunya Cluster in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheong Huat; Wong, Pei Sze Jeslyn; Li, Mei Zhi Irene; Tan, Siok Yin Sharon; Lee, Tze Kwang Caleb; Pang, Sook Cheng; Lam-Phua, Sai Gek; Maideen, Nasir; Png, Ah Bah; Koou, Sin Ying; Lu, Deng

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In August 2008, a team from the National Environmental Agency conducted an entomological investigation of a chikungunya cluster in Singapore, with the primary aim of identifying the vector responsible for the outbreak and to assess the vector control operation. A total of 173 adult mosquitoes were caught using both the sweep-net method and the BG Sentinel Traps in and around the affected workers' quarters. Of these, 120 (69.4%) were Aedes albopictus and the rest were Culex quinquefasciatus. More than 2700 Ae. albopictus larvae were also collected from 33 breeding habitats detected. No Aedes aegypti was found. During the preintervention period, 6 (8.4%) out of 71 adult female Ae. albopictus were found positive for the chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Vector control measures resulted in a 90% reduction of adult Ae. albopictus caught by BG Sentinel Traps. Postintervention surveillance revealed the presence of CHIKV-positive mosquitoes. These findings led to continued intensive vector control operation in the affected area that further reduced vector population and interrupted the transmission of the disease. The E1 gene sequence of the CHIKV was identical to those of CHIKV isolated from human chikungunya cases working in the affected area, and contained the A226V mutation. The incrimination of Ae. albopictus as a major vector involved in the transmission of A226V CHIKV had led to the revision of chikungunya control strategy in Singapore. This study suggests the benefit of a vector control program that includes the evaluation of control measures in conjunction to virological surveillance in vector population. PMID:21395419

  20. Robotic hepatectomy: initial experience of a single institution in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Juinn Huar; Goh, Brian KP; Chan, Chung-Yip; Wong, Jen-San; Lee, Ser-Yee; Cheow, Peng-Chung; Chung, Alexander YF; Ooi, London LPJ

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In this study, we report our initial experience with robotic hepatectomy. METHODS Consecutive patients who underwent robotic hepatectomy at Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, from February 2013 to February 2015 were enrolled in this study. The difficulty level of operations was graded using a novel scoring system for laparoscopic hepatectomies. RESULTS During the two-year period, five consecutive robotic hepatectomies were performed (one left lateral sectionectomy, one non-anatomical segment II/III resection, one anatomical segment V resection with cholecystectomy, one extended right posterior sectionectomy and one non-anatomical segment V/VI resection). Two hepatectomies were performed for suspected hepatocellular carcinoma, two for solitary liver metastases and one for a large symptomatic haemangioma. The median age of the patients was 53 (range 38–66) years and the median tumour size was 2.5 (range 2.1–7.3) cm. The median total operation time was 340 (range 155–825) minutes and the median volume of blood loss was 300 (range 50–1,200) mL. There were no open conversions and no mortalities or major morbidities (> Clavien-Dindo Grade II). The difficulty level of the operations was graded as low in one case (Score 2), intermediate in three cases (Score 5, 6 and 6) and high in one case (Score 10). There was one minor morbidity, where the patient experienced Grade A bile leakage, which resolved spontaneously. The median length of postoperative hospital stay was 5 (range 4–7) days. CONCLUSION Our initial experience confirmed the feasibility and safety of robotic hepatectomy. PMID:26843059

  1. Comprehensive characterization of PM2.5 aerosols in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, R.; Qian, W.-B.; Decesari, S.; Facchini, M. C.; Fuzzi, S.

    2003-08-01

    A comprehensive characterization of PM2.5 aerosols collected in Singapore from January through December 2000 is presented. The annual average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 27.2 μg/m3. The atmospheric loading of PM2.5 was elevated sporadically from March through May, mainly due to advection of biomass burning (deliberate fires to clear plantation areas) impacted air masses from Sumatra, Indonesia. Satellite images of the area, trajectory calculations, and surface wind direction data are in support of the transport of pyrogenic products from Sumatra toward Singapore. Aerosol samples collected during the dry season were analyzed for water-soluble ions, water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC), elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon, and trace elements using a number of analytical techniques. The major components were sulfate, EC, water-soluble carbonaceous materials, and water-insoluble carbonaceous materials. Aerosol WSOC were characterized based on a combination of chromatographic separations by ion exchange chromatography, functional group investigation by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and total organic carbon determination. The comprehensive chemical characterization of PM2.5 particles revealed that both non-sea-salt sufate (nss-SO42-) and carbonaceous aerosols mainly contributed to the increase in the mass concentration of aerosols during the smoke haze period. Using a mass closure test (a mass balance), we determined whether the physical measurement of gravimetric fine PM concentration of a sample is equal to the summed concentrations of the individually identified chemical constituents (measured or inferred) in the sample. The sum of the determined groups of aerosol components and the gravimetrically determined mass agreed reasonably well. Principal component analysis was performed from the combined data set, and five factors were observed: a soil dust component, a metallurgical industry factor, a factor representing emissions from biomass burning and

  2. Contribution of forest fires to concentrations of particulate matter in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spracklen, D. V.; Reddington, C.; Yoshioka, M.; Arnold, S.; Balasubramanian, R.

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is regularly exposed to substantial levels of transboundary air pollution arising from uncontrolled forest and peat fires from specific regions within Southeast Asia. This air pollution has detrimental impacts on the lives of Singapore residents and on sensitive ecosystems. In June 2013, forest fires resulted in concentrations of particulate matter greatly exceeding levels recommended for human health, causing substantial public concern. We apply two different methods to quantify the impact of forest fires on the concentrations of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5) in Singapore. Firstly, we use a global aerosol model (GLOMAP) in combination with fire emissions from GFED3 to simulate PM2.5 concentrations over the period 1998-2009. We evaluate simulated PM2.5 concentrations against long-term observations from Singapore. To identify the contributions of fires from different source regions to PM2.5 concentrations we run multiple simulations with and without fire emissions from specific regions across Southeast Asia. Secondly, we apply an atmospheric back trajectory model in combination with the GFED3 fire emissions to calculate exposure of air masses arriving in Singapore to fire emissions. Both methods use meteorology from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and are consistent with the large-scale atmospheric flow from the assimilated observations. We find that both methods give consistent results, with forest fires increasing PM2.5 concentrations in Singapore predominately during April to October. Forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan cause the greatest degradation of air quality in Singapore. The contribution of fires to PM2.5 concentrations in Singapore exhibits strong interannual variability. During years with a strong contribution from fires, our simulations show that the prevention of fires in southern Sumatra would reduce regional PM2.5 concentrations around Singapore by more than a factor

  3. 2013 dengue outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia caused by different viral strains.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lee-Ching; Chem, Yu-Kie; Koo, Carmen; Mudin, Rose Nani Binti; Amin, Faridah Mohd; Lee, Kim-Sung; Kheong, Chong Chee

    2015-06-01

    Characterization of 14,079 circulating dengue viruses in a cross-border surveillance program, UNITEDengue, revealed that the 2013 outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia were associated with replacement of predominant serotype. While the predominant virus in Singapore switched from DENV2 to DENV1, DENV2 became predominant in neighboring Malaysia. Dominance of DENV2 was most evident on the southern states where higher fatality rates were observed.

  4. 2013 Dengue Outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia Caused by Different Viral Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Lee-Ching; Chem, Yu-kie; Koo, Carmen; Mudin, Rose Nani Binti; Amin, Faridah Mohd; Lee, Kim-Sung; Kheong, Chong Chee

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of 14,079 circulating dengue viruses in a cross-border surveillance program, UNITEDengue, revealed that the 2013 outbreaks in Singapore and Malaysia were associated with replacement of predominant serotype. While the predominant virus in Singapore switched from DENV2 to DENV1, DENV2 became predominant in neighboring Malaysia. Dominance of DENV2 was most evident on the southern states where higher fatality rates were observed. PMID:25846296

  5. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes.

    PubMed

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel's bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm.

  6. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes.

    PubMed

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel's bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  7. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes

    PubMed Central

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel’s bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  8. Dengue virus surveillance in Singapore reveals high viral diversity through multiple introductions and in situ evolution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kim-Sung; Lo, Sharon; Tan, Sharon Siok-Yin; Chua, Rachel; Tan, Li-Kiang; Xu, Helen; Ng, Lee-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever, a vector-borne disease, has caused tremendous burden to countries in the tropics and sub tropics. Over the past 20 years, dengue epidemics have become more widespread, severe and frequent. This study aims to understand the dynamics of dengue viruses in cosmopolitan Singapore. Envelope protein gene sequences of all four dengue serotypes (DENV-1-DENV-4) obtained from human sera in Singapore (2008-2010) revealed that constant viral introductions and in situ evolution contribute to viral diversity in Singapore and play important roles in shaping the epidemiology of dengue in the island state. The diversity of dengue viruses reported here could be a reflection of the on-going dengue situation in the region given Singapore's location in a dengue hyperendemic region and its role as the regional hub for travels and trade. Though cosmopolitan genotype of DENV-2 has remained as the predominant strain circulating in Singapore, we uncovered evidence of in situ evolution which could possibly result in viruses with improved fitness. While we have previously shown that a switch in the predominant dengue serotype could serve as a warning for an impending outbreak, our current data shows that a replacement of a predominant viral clade, even in the absence of a switch in predominant serotype, could signal a possible increase in dengue transmission. The circulating dengue viruses in Singapore are highly diverse, a situation which could offer ample opportunities for selection of strains of higher fitness, thus increasing the risk of outbreaks despite a low Aedes population.

  9. Building smart sensor nodes according to IEEE 1451.3 standard.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Murilo N J; Neto, Olegario C S; Ferreira, José O; da Rocha, Adson F; de A Barbosa, Talles M G

    2011-01-01

    A Body Sensor Network (BSN) application requires many software and hardware adaptations to support correctly data exchanges between different sensor node architectures. However, these customizations demand extra time, cost and components. This paper introduces a simple development process in order to customize off-the-shelf BSN sensor nodes according to Transducer Bus Interface Modules (TBIM) standard. IEEE 1451.3 offers technical solutions for interfacing multiple and physically separated transducer allowing self-identification, self-configuration, plug and play and hot swapping capabilities. These are important requirements relating to most BSN applications.

  10. Throughput Analysis of IEEE 802.11 DCF in the Presence of Transmission Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshanyour, Ahed; Agarwal, Anjali

    This paper introduces an accurate analysis using three- dimensional Markov chain modeling to compute the IEEE 802.11 DCF throughput under heavy traffic conditions and absence of hidden terminals for both access modes, basic and rts/cts. The proposed model considers the impact of retry counts of control and data frames jointly on the saturated throughput. Moreover, It considers the impact of transmission errors by taking into account the strength of the received signal and using the BER model to convert the SNR to a bit error probability.

  11. Design and implementation of IEEE 802.11ac MAC controller in 65 nm CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng; Bin, Wu; Yong, Hei

    2016-02-01

    An IEEE-802.11ac-1*1 wireless LAN system-on-a-chip (SoC) that integrates an analog front end, a digital base-band processor and a media access controller has been implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology. It can provide significantly increased throughput, high efficiency rate selection, and fully backward compatibility with the existing 802.11a/n WLAN protocols. Especially the measured maximum throughput of UDP traffic can be up to 267 Mbps. Project supported by the National Great Specific Project of China (No. 2012ZX03004004_001).

  12. Suitability of the IEEE 802.15.4e Extensions for Spacecraft and Launcher Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallemagne, Ph.; Decotignie, J.-D.; Piguet, D.; Pelissou, P.; Patte, M.; Dufour, J.-F.

    2014-08-01

    Spacecraft currently use wires to support communication between sensors, controllers and actuators. Replacing the wires by wireless networks is appealing for a number of reasons. This paper presents an analysis of recent extensions to the wireless standard IEEE 802.15.4 as a possible solution to support robust and timely wireless communications inside and between spacecraft. In particular, it shows that with proper tuning and adaptation of the retransmission protocol, it can be used to increase the robustness and determinism of the wireless link.

  13. Impact of electric vehicles on the IEEE 34 node distribution infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Zeming; Shalalfel, Laith; Beshir, Mohammed J.

    2014-10-01

    With the growing penetration of the electric vehicles to our daily life owing to their economic and environmental benefits, there will be both opportunities and challenges to the utilities when adopting plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) to the distribution network. In this study, a thorough analysis based on real-world project is conducted to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles infrastructure on the grid relating to system load flow, load factor, and voltage stability. IEEE 34 node test feeder was selected and tested along with different case scenarios utilizing the electrical distribution design (EDD) software to find out the potential impacts to the grid.

  14. Impact of electric vehicles on the IEEE 34 node distribution infrastructure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jiang, Zeming; Shalalfel, Laith; Beshir, Mohammed J.

    2014-10-01

    With the growing penetration of the electric vehicles to our daily life owing to their economic and environmental benefits, there will be both opportunities and challenges to the utilities when adopting plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) to the distribution network. In this study, a thorough analysis based on real-world project is conducted to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles infrastructure on the grid relating to system load flow, load factor, and voltage stability. IEEE 34 node test feeder was selected and tested along with different case scenarios utilizing the electrical distribution design (EDD) software to find out the potential impacts tomore » the grid.« less

  15. The risk factors for hospital re-admission in medical patients in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chan, Moon Fai; Wong, Frances K Y

    2014-09-01

    Unplanned hospital re-admissions are common, expensive and often unpreventable in the community. The study aimed to identify risk factors associated with unplanned hospital re-admission in Singapore. In a cross-sectional survey, 1509 patients admitted to the medical wards of a large acute hospital in Singapore during 2010 were recruited (78.8% response rate), data being collected using a structured questionnaire based on the Andersen behavioural model underlying healthcare use. The dependent variable was re-admission within 28 days, with independent variables in the four areas of predisposing characteristics, needs, enabling resources and health behaviour. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with unplanned hospital re-admission. There were 222 inpatients re-admitted (14.7%) within 28 days and the final model showed that patients who were unemployed (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.1) and had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.1-3.7) with abnormal respiratory patterns (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1-2.2) were more likely to be re-admitted. Less likely to be re-admitted were patients doing regular daily activities (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.5-0.9), those assisted by a social worker (OR = 0.3; 95% CI = 0.2-0.6), those referred to other health professionals when sick (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4-0.7) and those who had received health education programmes before discharge in the previous admission (OR = 0.7; 95% CI = 0.4-0.9). Unplanned re-admissions are a concern to healthcare providers because this suggests that patients are discharged with unresolved problems that reflect ineffective care in hospital. This study provides evidence to prompt more effective discharge educational care programmes that incorporate patients' enabling and need outcomes, thereby reducing re-admission rates. Community-based healthcare should play an important role in reducing patients' re-admission rates.

  16. Health-seeking behaviour of male foreign migrant workers living in a dormitory in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Foreign workers’ migrant status may hinder their utilisation of health services. This study describes the health-seeking behaviour and beliefs of a group of male migrant workers in Singapore and the barriers limiting their access to primary healthcare. Methods A cross-sectional study of 525 male migrant workers, ≥21 years old and of Indian, Bangladeshi or Myanmar nationality, was conducted at a dormitory via self-administered questionnaires covering demographics, prevalence of medical conditions and health-seeking behaviours through hypothetical scenarios and personal experience. Results 71% (95%CI: 67 to 75%) of participants did not have or were not aware if they had healthcare insurance. 53% (95%CI: 48 to 57%) reported ever having had an illness episode while in Singapore, of whom 87% (95%CI: 82 to 91%) saw a doctor. The number of rest days was significantly associated with higher probability of having consulted a doctor for their last illness episode (p = 0.026), and higher basic monthly salary was associated with seeing a doctor within 3 days of illness (p = 0.002). Of those who saw a doctor, 84% (95%CI: 79 to 89%) responded that they did so because they felt medical care would help them to work better. While 55% (95%CI: 36 to 73%) said they did not see a doctor because the illness was not serious, those with lower salaries were significantly more likely to cite inadequate finances (55% of those earning < S$500/month). In hypothetical injury or illness scenarios, most responded that they would see the doctor, but a sizeable proportion (15% 95%CI: 12 to 18%) said they would continue to work even in a work-related injury scenario that caused severe pain and functional impairment. Those with lower salaries were significantly more likely to believe they would have to pay for their own healthcare or be uncertain about who would pay. Conclusions The majority of foreign workers in this study sought healthcare when they fell ill. However

  17. Childhood Abuse and Delinquency: A Descriptive Study of Institutionalized Female Youth in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chi Meng; Thomas, Stuart D. M.; Ng, Vivienne P. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood abuse experiences appear prevalent in institutionalized children and youth, but research to date has been limited. Moreover, there is no published study that has examined the issue of childhood abuse and delinquency within institutionalized children and youth in Singapore. This study was cross-sectional in design with follow-up criminal record checks. Data were collected from multiple data sources including official records, structured clinical interviews, and self-report questionnaires on 79 adolescent female residential youth. Two thirds reported having experienced childhood abuse and a higher proportion reported having previously engaged in self-harming behaviours. Participants with multiple types of abuse reported being abused at a younger age, were more likely to be subjected to repeated physical abuse, to have overdosed on medication, and to have reported more health and sexual concerns and trauma symptomatology than those who reported either experiencing one or no previous types of abuse. Fourteen (18%) of the sample had been convicted of further criminal offences over a 6½-year follow-up. The adolescents with histories of multiple types of abuse in childhood presented with more health concerns and traumatic symptomatology, self-reported delinquency, as well as past self-harming behaviour during their institutional stay. Identification of these additionally vulnerable adolescents has important clinical implications for identification, assessment and intervention planning. PMID:25892943

  18. Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Singapore and Its Association with Dietary, Lifestyle, and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Siah, Kewin T H; Wong, Reuben K; Chan, Yiong H; Ho, Khek Y; Gwee, Kok-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has risen considerably over the past decade in Singapore. We aim to explore the contribution of changes in diet, lifestyle and habits that may contribute to the increased prevalence and development of IBS. Methods This is a survey-based cross-sectional population study aimed to gather demographic, socio-economical, lifestyle, dietary, antibiotic usage and other related information. Subjects were adult male or female Singaporeans aged 21 years or above. Association of the factors gathered with the presence or absence of IBS (by Rome III criteria) was assessed using chi-square or Fisher’s exact test. Variables with a level of statistical significance of 0.1 or less in the univariate analysis were entered into a stepwise logistic regression model. Results A total of 297 subjects participated in the study (female 60.3%). Overall, 20.9% subjects fulfilled the Rome III IBS criteria. Univariate analysis showed that IBS was associated with pet ownership, antibiotic usage, late dinner, (> 9 PM) and consumption of Western meals, coffee, and bread. The multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IBS was independently associated with being a pet owner (P = 0.008; OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.278–5.037). Conclusions The prevalence of IBS was 20.9% using the Rome III criteria in our study. The association between IBS and pet ownership will need further investigation. PMID:26951047

  19. Predictable and reliable ECG monitoring over IEEE 802.11 WLANs within a hospital.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; Kang, Kyungtae

    2014-09-01

    Telecardiology provides mobility for patients who require constant electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. However, its safety is dependent on the predictability and robustness of data delivery, which must overcome errors in the wireless channel through which the ECG data are transmitted. We report here a framework that can be used to gauge the applicability of IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN) technology to ECG monitoring systems in terms of delay constraints and transmission reliability. For this purpose, a medical-grade WLAN architecture achieved predictable delay through the combination of a medium access control mechanism based on the point coordination function provided by IEEE 802.11 and an error control scheme based on Reed-Solomon coding and block interleaving. The size of the jitter buffer needed was determined by this architecture to avoid service dropout caused by buffer underrun, through analysis of variations in transmission delay. Finally, we assessed this architecture in terms of service latency and reliability by modeling the transmission of uncompressed two-lead electrocardiogram data from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and highlight the applicability of this wireless technology to telecardiology.

  20. Investigating the efficiency of IEEE 802.15.4 for medical monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Pelegris, P; Banitsas, K

    2011-01-01

    Recent advancements in wireless communications technologies bring us one step closer to provide reliable Telecare services as an alternative to patients staying in a hospital mainly for monitoring purposes. In this research we investigate the efficiency of IEEE 802.15.4 in a simple scenario where a patient is being monitored using an ECG and a blood analysis module. This approach binds well with assisted living solutions, by sharing the network infrastructure for both monitoring and control while taking advantage of the low power features of the protocol. Such applications are becoming more and more realistic to implement as IEEE 802.15.4 compatible hardware becomes increasingly available. Our aim is to examine the impact of Beacon and Superframe Order in the medium access delay, dropped packets, end to end delay, average retransmission attempts and consumed power focusing on this bandwidth demanding situation where the network load does not allow low duty cycles, in order to draw some conclusions on the effect that this will have to telemonitoring applications.

  1. On the seamless, harmonized use of ISO/IEEE11073 and openEHR.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Kohl, Christian D; Eguzkiza, Aitor; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Alesanco, Álvaro; Serrano, Luis; García, José; Knaup, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Standardized exchange of clinical information is a key factor in the provision of high quality health care systems. In this context, the openEHR specification facilitates the management of health data in electronic health records (EHRs), while the ISO/IEEE11073 (also referred to as X73PHD) family of standards provides a reference framework for medical device interoperability. Hospitals and health care providers using openEHR require flawless integration of data coming from external sources, such as X73PHD. Hence, a harmonization process is crucial for achieving a seamless, coherent use of those specifications in real scenarios. Such harmonization is the aim of this paper. Thus, the classes and attributes of a representative number of X73PHD specializations for medical devices--weight, temperature, blood pressure, pulse and heart rate, oximetry, and electrocardiograph--along with the X73PHD core document--ISO/IEEE11073-20601--have been analyzed and mapped to openEHR archetypes. The proposed methodology reuses the existing archetypes when possible and suggests new ones--or appropriate modifications--otherwise. As a result, this paper analyzes the inconsistencies found and the implications thereof in the coordinated use of these two standards. The procedure has also shown how existing standards are able to influence the archetype development process, enhancing the existing archetype corpus.

  2. Predictable and reliable ECG monitoring over IEEE 802.11 WLANs within a hospital.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; Kang, Kyungtae

    2014-09-01

    Telecardiology provides mobility for patients who require constant electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. However, its safety is dependent on the predictability and robustness of data delivery, which must overcome errors in the wireless channel through which the ECG data are transmitted. We report here a framework that can be used to gauge the applicability of IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN) technology to ECG monitoring systems in terms of delay constraints and transmission reliability. For this purpose, a medical-grade WLAN architecture achieved predictable delay through the combination of a medium access control mechanism based on the point coordination function provided by IEEE 802.11 and an error control scheme based on Reed-Solomon coding and block interleaving. The size of the jitter buffer needed was determined by this architecture to avoid service dropout caused by buffer underrun, through analysis of variations in transmission delay. Finally, we assessed this architecture in terms of service latency and reliability by modeling the transmission of uncompressed two-lead electrocardiogram data from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and highlight the applicability of this wireless technology to telecardiology. PMID:25083792

  3. Implementing ISO/IEEE 11073: proposal of two different strategic approaches.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Espronceda, M; Serrano, L; Martínez, I; Escayola, J; Led, S; Trigo, J; García, J

    2008-01-01

    This paper explains the challenges encountered during the ISO/IEEE 11073 standard implementation process. The complexity of the standard and the consequent heavy requirements, which have not encouraged software engineers to adopt the standard. The developing complexity evaluation drives us to propose two possible implementation strategies that cover almost all possible use cases and eases handling the standard by non-expert users. The first one is focused on medical devices (MD) and proposes a low-memory and low-processor usage technique. It is based on message patterns that allow simple functions to generate ISO/IEEE 11073 messages and to process them easily. In this way a framework for MDs can be obtained. Second one is focused on more powerful machines such as data loggers or gateways (aka. computer engines (CE)), which do not have the MDs' memory and processor usage constraints. For CEs a more intelligent and adaptative Plug&Play (P&P) solution is provided. It consists on a general platform that can access to any device supported by the standard. Combining both strategies will cut developing time for applications based on ISO/EEE 11073.

  4. Throughput analysis of the IEEE 802.4 token bus standard under heavy load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Joseph; Tobagi, Fouad

    1987-01-01

    It has become clear in the last few years that there is a trend towards integrated digital services. Parallel to the development of public Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is service integration in the local area (e.g., a campus, a building, an aircraft). The types of services to be integrated depend very much on the specific local environment. However, applications tend to generate data traffic belonging to one of two classes. According to IEEE 802.4 terminology, the first major class of traffic is termed synchronous, such as packetized voice and data generated from other applications with real-time constraints, and the second class is called asynchronous which includes most computer data traffic such as file transfer or facsimile. The IEEE 802.4 token bus protocol which was designed to support both synchronous and asynchronous traffic is examined. The protocol is basically a timer-controlled token bus access scheme. By a suitable choice of the design parameters, it can be shown that access delay is bounded for synchronous traffic. As well, the bandwidth allocated to asynchronous traffic can be controlled. A throughput analysis of the protocol under heavy load with constant channel occupation of synchronous traffic and constant token-passing times is presented.

  5. Service design projects sponsored by the Kansas State University Student Chapter of the IEEE EMBS.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Connor; Gruber, Lucinda; Young, Ethan; Humphrey, Jason; Warren, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Service projects offer volunteer student organizations a means to generate interest and focus activity outside of the context of the classroom. This paper addresses efforts by the Kansas State University (KSU) Student Chapter of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) to initiate and guide service projects in two primary areas: (1) research to aid persons with disabilities (RAPD) and (2) hands-on efforts to interest young women in the quantitative fields of science and engineering. Three RAPD projects are presented: a computer mouse design that helps to alleviate productivity problems associated with Parkinson's tremors, a battery removal tool for arthritic individuals with limited dexterity, and a wireless door control and communication system to assist mobility-limited individuals. Service projects to garner science and engineering interest in young women are co-sponsored by the KSU Women in Engineering and Science Program (WESP). The most recent activity, entitled 'Vital Signs Shirts,' is presented in this paper, along with a summary of pending interactive laboratories designed to interest participants in engineering as applied to the human body. These service projects encourage IEEE EMBS student chapter members to explore their biomedical engineering interests and make a positive impact in the community.

  6. Multiple Power-Saving MSSs Scheduling Methods for IEEE802.16e Broadband Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes two enhanced multiple mobile subscriber stations (MSSs) power-saving scheduling methods for IEEE802.16e broadband wireless networks. The proposed methods are designed for the Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS) of IEEE802.16e. To reduce the active periods of all power-saving MSSs, the base station (BS) allocates each MSS fewest possible transmission frames to retrieve its data from the BS. The BS interlaces the active periods of each MSS to increase the amount of scheduled MSSs and splits the overflowing transmission frames to maximize the bandwidth utilization. Simulation results reveal that interlacing the active periods of MSSs can increase the number of scheduled MSSs to more than four times of that in the Direct scheduling method. The bandwidth utilization can thus be improved by 60%–70%. Splitting the overflowing transmission frames can improve bandwidth utilization by more than 10% over that achieved using the method of interlacing active periods, with a sacrifice of only 1% of the sleep periods in the interlacing active period method. PMID:24523656

  7. Software Aspects of IEEE Floating-Point Computations for Numerical Applications in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Floating-point computations are at the heart of much of the computing done in high energy physics. The correctness, speed and accuracy of these computations are of paramount importance. The lack of any of these characteristics can mean the difference between new, exciting physics and an embarrassing correction. This talk will examine practical aspects of IEEE 754-2008 floating-point arithmetic as encountered in HEP applications. After describing the basic features of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, the presentation will cover: common hardware implementations (SSE, x87) techniques for improving the accuracy of summation, multiplication and data interchange compiler options for gcc and icc affecting floating-point operations hazards to be avoided About the speaker Jeffrey M Arnold is a Senior Software Engineer in the Intel Compiler and Languages group at Intel Corporation. He has been part of the Digital->Compaq->Intel compiler organization for nearly 20 years; part of that time, he worked on both low- and high-level math libraries. Prior to that, he was in the VMS Engineering organization at Digital Equipment Corporation. In the late 1980s, Jeff spent 2½ years at CERN as part of the CERN/Digital Joint Project. In 2008, he returned to CERN to spent 10 weeks working with CERN/openlab. Since that time, he has returned to CERN multiple times to teach at openlab workshops and consult with various LHC experiments. Jeff received his Ph.D. in physics from Case Western Reserve University.

  8. A High Throughput Medium Access Control Implementation Based on IEEE 802.11e Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min Li; Lee, Jin; Setiawan, Hendra; Ochi, Hiroshi; Park, Sin-Chong

    With the growing demand for high-performance multimedia applications over wireless channels, we need to develop a Medium Access Control (MAC) system that supports high throughput and quality of service enhancements. This paper presents the standard analysis, design architecture and design issues leading to the implementation of an IEEE 802.11e based MAC system that supports MAC throughput of over 100Mbps. In order to meet the MAC layer timing constraints, a hardware/software co-design approach is adopted. The proposed MAC architecture is implemented on the Xilinx Virtex-II Pro Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (XC2VP70-5FF1704C) prototype, and connected to a host computer through an external Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface. The total FPGA resource utilization is 11, 508 out of 33, 088 (34%) available slices. The measured MAC throughput is 100.7Mbps and 109.2Mbps for voice and video access categories, transmitted at a data rate of 260Mbps based on IEEE 802.11n Physical Layer (PHY), using the contention-based hybrid coordination function channel access mechanism.

  9. A strategy for implementation of experience based seismic equipment qualification in IEEE and ASME industry standards

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.M.

    1996-12-01

    In the past 20 years, extensive data on the performance of mechanical and electric equipment during actual strong motion earthquakes and seismic qualification tests has been accumulated. Recognizing that an experience based approach provides a technically sound and cost effective method for the seismic qualification of some or certain equipment, the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee and the ASME Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment established a Special Working Group to investigate the incorporation of experienced based methods into the industry consensus codes and standards currently used in the seismic qualification of Seismic Category Nuclear Power Plant equipment. This paper presents the strategy (course of action) which was developed by the Special Working Group for meeting this objective of incorporation of experience based seismic qualification standards used in the design and seismic qualification of seismic category nuclear power plant equipment. This strategy was recommended to both chartering organizations, the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee and the ASME Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment for their consideration and implementation. The status of the review and implementation of the Special Working Group`s recommended strategy by the sponsoring organization is also discussed.

  10. Software Aspects of IEEE Floating-Point Computations for Numerical Applications in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-11

    Floating-point computations are at the heart of much of the computing done in high energy physics. The correctness, speed and accuracy of these computations are of paramount importance. The lack of any of these characteristics can mean the difference between new, exciting physics and an embarrassing correction. This talk will examine practical aspects of IEEE 754-2008 floating-point arithmetic as encountered in HEP applications. After describing the basic features of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, the presentation will cover: common hardware implementations (SSE, x87) techniques for improving the accuracy of summation, multiplication and data interchange compiler options for gcc and icc affecting floating-point operations hazards to be avoided About the speaker Jeffrey M Arnold is a Senior Software Engineer in the Intel Compiler and Languages group at Intel Corporation. He has been part of the Digital->Compaq->Intel compiler organization for nearly 20 years; part of that time, he worked on both low- and high-level math libraries. Prior to that, he was in the VMS Engineering organization at Digital Equipment Corporation. In the late 1980s, Jeff spent 2½ years at CERN as part of the CERN/Digital Joint Project. In 2008, he returned to CERN to spent 10 weeks working with CERN/openlab. Since that time, he has returned to CERN multiple times to teach at openlab workshops and consult with various LHC experiments. Jeff received his Ph.D. in physics from Case Western Reserve University.

  11. On the seamless, harmonized use of ISO/IEEE11073 and openEHR.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Kohl, Christian D; Eguzkiza, Aitor; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Alesanco, Álvaro; Serrano, Luis; García, José; Knaup, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Standardized exchange of clinical information is a key factor in the provision of high quality health care systems. In this context, the openEHR specification facilitates the management of health data in electronic health records (EHRs), while the ISO/IEEE11073 (also referred to as X73PHD) family of standards provides a reference framework for medical device interoperability. Hospitals and health care providers using openEHR require flawless integration of data coming from external sources, such as X73PHD. Hence, a harmonization process is crucial for achieving a seamless, coherent use of those specifications in real scenarios. Such harmonization is the aim of this paper. Thus, the classes and attributes of a representative number of X73PHD specializations for medical devices--weight, temperature, blood pressure, pulse and heart rate, oximetry, and electrocardiograph--along with the X73PHD core document--ISO/IEEE11073-20601--have been analyzed and mapped to openEHR archetypes. The proposed methodology reuses the existing archetypes when possible and suggests new ones--or appropriate modifications--otherwise. As a result, this paper analyzes the inconsistencies found and the implications thereof in the coordinated use of these two standards. The procedure has also shown how existing standards are able to influence the archetype development process, enhancing the existing archetype corpus. PMID:24132031

  12. An Efficient Power Saving Mechanism for Delay-Guaranteed Services in IEEE 802.16e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yunju; Hwang, Gang Uk

    As the IEEE 802.16e Wireless Metropolitan Access Network (WMAN) supports the mobility of a mobile station (MS), increasing MS power efficiency has become an important issue. In this paper, we analyze the sleep-mode operation for an efficient power saving mechanism for delay-guaranteed services in the IEEE 802.16e WMAN and observe the effects of the operating parameters related to this operation. For the analysis we use the M/GI/1/K queueing system with multiple vacations, exhaustive services and setup times. In the analysis, we consider the power consumption during the wake-mode period as well as the sleep-mode period. As a performance measure for the power consumption, we propose the power consumption per unit time per effective arrival which considers the power consumption and the packet blocking probability simultaneously. In addition, since we consider delay-guaranteed services, the average packet response delay is also considered as a performance measure. Based on the performance measures, we obtain the optimal sleep-mode operation which minimizes the power consumption per unit time per effective arrival with a given delay requirement. Numerical studies are also provided to investigate the system performance and to show how to achieve our objective.

  13. A distributed scheme to manage the dynamic coexistence of IEEE 802.15.4-based health-monitoring WBANs.

    PubMed

    Deylami, Mohammad N; Jovanov, Emil

    2014-01-01

    The overlap of transmission ranges between wireless networks as a result of mobility is referred to as dynamic coexistence. The interference caused by coexistence may significantly affect the performance of wireless body area networks (WBANs) where reliability is particularly critical for health monitoring applications. In this paper, we analytically study the effects of dynamic coexistence on the operation of IEEE 802.15.4-based health monitoring WBANs. The current IEEE 802.15.4 standard lacks mechanisms for effectively managing the coexistence of mobile WBANs. Considering the specific characteristics and requirements of health monitoring WBANs, we propose the dynamic coexistence management (DCM) mechanism to make IEEE 802.15.4-based WBANs able to detect and mitigate the harmful effects of coexistence. We assess the effectiveness of this scheme using extensive OPNET simulations. Our results indicate that DCM improves the successful transmission rates of dynamically coexisting WBANs by 20%-25% for typical medical monitoring applications.

  14. Recruitment constraints in Singapore's fluted giant clam (Tridacna squamosa) population--a dispersal model approach.

    PubMed

    Neo, Mei Lin; Erftemeijer, Paul L A; van Beek, Jan K L; van Maren, Dirk S; Teo, Serena L-M; Todd, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment constraints on Singapore's dwindling fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, population were studied by modelling fertilisation, larval transport, and settlement using real-time hydrodynamic forcing combined with knowledge of spawning characteristics, larval development, behaviour, and settlement cues. Larval transport was simulated using a finite-volume advection-diffusion model coupled to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Three recruitment constraint hypotheses were tested: 1) there is limited connectivity between Singapore's reefs and other reefs in the region, 2) there is limited exchange within Singapore's Southern Islands, and 3) there exist low-density constraints to fertilisation efficacy (component Allee effects). Results showed that connectivity among giant clam populations was primarily determined by residual hydrodynamic flows and spawning time, with greatest chances of successful settlement occurring when spawning and subsequent larval dispersal coincided with the period of lowest residual flow. Simulations suggested poor larval transport from reefs located along the Peninsular Malaysia to Singapore, probably due to strong surface currents between the Andaman Sea and South China Sea combined with a major land barrier disrupting larval movement among reefs. The model, however, predicted offshore coral reefs to the southeast of Singapore (Bintan and Batam) may represent a significant source of larvae. Larval exchange within Singapore's Southern Islands varied substantially depending on the locations of source and sink reefs as well as spawning time; but all simulations resulted in low settler densities (2.1-68.6 settled individuals per 10,000 m(2)). Poor fertilisation rates predicted by the model indicate that the low density and scattered distribution of the remaining T. squamosa in Singapore are likely to significantly inhibit any natural recovery of local stocks.

  15. Recruitment constraints in Singapore's fluted giant clam (Tridacna squamosa) population—A dispersal model approach

    PubMed Central

    Neo, Mei Lin; Erftemeijer, Paul L. A.; van Beek, Jan K. L.; van Maren, Dirk S.; Teo, Serena L-M.; Todd, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment constraints on Singapore's dwindling fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, population were studied by modelling fertilisation, larval transport, and settlement using real-time hydrodynamic forcing combined with knowledge of spawning characteristics, larval development, behaviour, and settlement cues. Larval transport was simulated using a finite-volume advection-diffusion model coupled to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Three recruitment constraint hypotheses were tested: 1) there is limited connectivity between Singapore's reefs and other reefs in the region, 2) there is limited exchange within Singapore's Southern Islands, and 3) there exist low-density constraints to fertilisation efficacy (component Allee effects). Results showed that connectivity among giant clam populations was primarily determined by residual hydrodynamic flows and spawning time, with greatest chances of successful settlement occurring when spawning and subsequent larval dispersal coincided with the period of lowest residual flow. Simulations suggested poor larval transport from reefs located along the Peninsular Malaysia to Singapore, probably due to strong surface currents between the Andaman Sea and South China Sea combined with a major land barrier disrupting larval movement among reefs. The model, however, predicted offshore coral reefs to the southeast of Singapore (Bintan and Batam) may represent a significant source of larvae. Larval exchange within Singapore's Southern Islands varied substantially depending on the locations of source and sink reefs as well as spawning time; but all simulations resulted in low settler densities (2.1–68.6 settled individuals per 10,000 m2). Poor fertilisation rates predicted by the model indicate that the low density and scattered distribution of the remaining T. squamosa in Singapore are likely to significantly inhibit any natural recovery of local stocks. PMID:23555597

  16. Integration versus segregation: ethnic minorities and urban politics in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Van Grunsven, L

    1992-01-01

    The population of Singapore is very heterogenous. The main groups distinguished are the Chinese, the Malays, the Indians, and others. Since the end of the 1950s these groups have remained stable: Chinese make up 76%, Malays 15%, Indians 6%, and others 3% of the total population. In the mid-1960s almost 25% of the Chinese were working in commerce as opposed to only 10% of the Malays. More than 50% of Malays held low-paying jobs in services compared to less than 30% of the Chinese. The backward position of the Malays during the 1960s was reinforced by residential location in the peripheries. In the 1950s and 1960s the city center was exclusively inhabited by the Chinese. Malays were living in small clusters across the city and in 1 large cluster in the eastern part of the city. The ruling People's Action Party government during the 1960s adopted the New Economic Policy which granted economic and social privileges to the Malays. In 1969 the decision was made to disperse the Malay community across the city. In the early 1960s the state launched a large-scale public housing program through the newly created Housing and Development Board (H.D.B.). Between 1970 and 1982 Malay households living in H.D.B. apartments increased from 23% to 77%. Between 1970 and 1980 substantial declustering of the malay community and desegregation of the ethnic groups had occurred. In 24 areas out of 51 subdivisions of Singapore the Malay quotient decreased between 1970 and 1980. In 1980 the location quotient for Malay settlement areas was significantly lower (varying between 0.07 and 2.18) than the highest quotient in 1970 (varying between 0.06 and 3.7). During the 1980s the economic participation of the Malays increased steadily, they became gradually incorporated into industry, and increasingly moved upward within the public housing sector. Between 1980 and 1990 the Malay households living in H.D.B. dwellings increased from 72% to 97%. Notwithstanding residential integration, ethnic

  17. Composite Measures of Individual and Area-Level Socio-Economic Status Are Associated with Visual Impairment in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wah, Win; Earnest, Arul; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Wong, Tien Y.; Lamoureux, Ecosse L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the independent relationship of individual- and area-level socio-economic status (SES) with the presence and severity of visual impairment (VI) in an Asian population. Methods Cross-sectional data from 9993 Chinese, Malay and Indian adults aged 40–80 years who participated in the Singapore Epidemiology of eye Diseases (2004–2011) in Singapore. Based on the presenting visual acuity (PVA) in the better-seeing eye, VI was categorized into normal vision (logMAR≤0.30), low vision (logMAR>0.30<1.00), and blindness (logMAR≥1.00). Any VI was defined as low vision/blindness in the PVA of better-seeing eye. Individual-level low-SES was defined as a composite of primary-level education, monthly income<2000 SGD and residing in 1 or 2-room public apartment. An area-level SES was assessed using a socio-economic disadvantage index (SEDI), created using 12 variables from the 2010 Singapore census. A high SEDI score indicates a relatively poor SES. Associations between SES measures and presence and severity of VI were examined using multi-level, mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of any VI was 19.62% (low vision = 19%, blindness = 0.62%). Both individual- and area-level SES were positively associated with any VI and low vision after adjusting for confounders. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of any VI was 2.11(1.88–2.37) for low-SES and 1.07(1.02–1.13) per 1 standard deviation increase in SEDI. When stratified by unilateral/bilateral categories, while low SES showed significant associations with all categories, SEDI showed a significant association with bilateral low vision only. The association between low SES and any VI remained significant among all age, gender and ethnic sub-groups. Although a consistent positive association was observed between area-level SEDI and any VI, the associations were significant among participants aged 40–65 years and male. Conclusion In this

  18. Infant, neonatal and perinatal mortality rates in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tan, K L

    1982-07-01

    Infant, neonatal and perinatal mortality rates are reliable indices of the health status and delivery of health care in a country. These rates have been declining in Singapore since World War II, and presently have become comparable to those of many developing countries. The pattern has also changed; postneonatal mortality has fallen markedly, resulting in neonatal mortality accounting for 75% of infant mortality, and first week mortality for 85% of neonatal mortality. Perinatal mortality rates have also declined over the years, due mainly to a decline in the first week mortality rates though a slight fall in stillbirth rates has also occurred. Further improvements can be expected in the perinatal and neonatal mortality rates. As neonatal intensive care improves, the prognosis of the very small and feeble infants will be brighter even though the efforts required might be very much greater. Such a challenge will prove to be very exciting and stimulating, and be an impetus to the raising of neonatal intensive care to a much higher level.

  19. Needlestick injuries at a tertiary teaching hospital in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Seng, M; Sng, G K J; Zhao, X; Venkatachalam, I; Salmon, S; Fisher, D

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the incidence and risk to staff groups for sustaining needlestick injuries (NSIs) in the National University Hospital (NUH), Singapore. A retrospective cohort review of incident NSI cases was undertaken to determine the injury rate, causation, and epidemiological profile of such injuries. Analysis of the risk of sustaining recurrent NSI by occupation and location was done using the Cox proportional hazards model. There were 244 NSI cases in 5957 employees in NUH in 2014, giving an incidence rate of 4·1/100 healthcare workers (HCWs) per year. The incidence rate was highest for doctors at 21·3, and 2·7 for nurses; 40·6% of injuries occurred in wards, and 32·8% in operating theatres. There were 27 cases of repeated NSI cases. The estimated cost due to NSIs in NUH ranged from US$ 109 800 to US$ 563 152 in 2014. We conclude that creating a workplace environment where top priority is given to prevention of NSIs in HCWs, is essential to address the high incidence of reported NSIs. The data collected will be of value to inform the design of prevention programmes to reduce further the risk of NSIs in HCWs. PMID:27151164

  20. Ecosystem Carbon Stocks of Intertidal Wetlands in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phang, V. X. H.; Friess, D.; Chou, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Mangrove forests and seagrass meadows provide numerous ecosystem services, with huge recent interest in their carbon sequestration and storage value. Mangrove forests and seagrass meadows as well as mudflats and sandbars form a continuum of intertidal wetlands, but studies that consider these spatially-linked habitats as a whole are limited. This paper presents the results of a field-based and remote sensing carbon stock assessment, including the first study of the ecosystem carbon stocks of these adjacent habitats in the tropics. Aboveground, belowground and soil organic carbon pools were quantified at Chek Jawa, an intertidal wetland in Singapore. Total ecosystem carbon stocks averaged 499 Mg C ha-1 in the mangrove forest and 140 Mg C ha-1 in the seagrass meadow. Soil organic carbon dominated the total storage in both habitats. In the adjacent mudflats and sandbars, soil organic carbon averaged 143 and 124 Mg C ha-1 respectively. High amount of carbon stored in soil demonstrate the role of intertidal wetlands in sequestering large amount of carbon in sediments accumulated over millennia. High-resolution remote sensing imagery was used to create spatial models that upscaled field-based carbon measurements to the national scale. Field-based data and spatial modeling of ecosystem carbon stocks to the entire island through remote sensing provides a large-scale and holistic carbon stock value, important for the understanding and management of these threatened intertidal ecosystems.

  1. Temporal dynamics of the urban heat island of Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Winston T. L.; Roth, Matthias

    2006-12-01

    The temporal variability of the canopy-level urban heat island (UHI) of Singapore is examined for different temporal scales on the basis of observations during a 1-year period. Temperature data obtained from different urban areas (commercial, Central Business District (CBD), high-rise and low-rise housing) are compared with rural reference data and analysed with respect to meteorological variables and differences in land use. The results indicate that the peak UHI magnitude occurs 3-4 h (>6 h) after sunset in the commercial area, (at other urban sites). Higher UHI intensities generally occur during the southwest monsoon period of May-August, with a maximum of 7 °C observed in the commercial area under ideal meteorological conditions. Variations in seasonal precipitation explain some of the differences in urban-rural cooling. No clear relationship between urban geometry and UHI intensity can be seen, and intra-urban variations of temperature are also shown to be influenced by other site factors, e.g. the extent of green space and anthropogenic heat. Lastly, results from the present study are compared with UHI data from other tropical and mid-latitude cities.

  2. Cluster fusion-fission dynamics in the Singapore stock exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Boon Kin; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the cross-correlations between stocks in the Singapore stock exchange (SGX) evolve over 2008 and 2009 within overlapping one-month time windows. In particular, we examine how these cross-correlations change before, during, and after the Sep-Oct 2008 Lehman Brothers Crisis. To do this, we extend the complete-linkage hierarchical clustering algorithm, to obtain robust clusters of stocks with stronger intracluster correlations, and weaker intercluster correlations. After we identify the robust clusters in all time windows, we visualize how these change in the form of a fusion-fission diagram. Such a diagram depicts graphically how the cluster sizes evolve, the exchange of stocks between clusters, as well as how strongly the clusters mix. From the fusion-fission diagram, we see a giant cluster growing and disintegrating in the SGX, up till the Lehman Brothers Crisis in September 2008 and the market crashes of October 2008. After the Lehman Brothers Crisis, clusters in the SGX remain small for few months before giant clusters emerge once again. In the aftermath of the crisis, we also find strong mixing of component stocks between clusters. As a result, the correlation between initially strongly-correlated pairs of stocks decay exponentially with average life time of about a month. These observations impact strongly how portfolios and trading strategies should be formulated.

  3. Observing the Vertical Dimensions of Singapore's Urban Heat Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, W. T. L.; Ho, D. X. Q.

    2015-12-01

    In numerous cities, measurements of urban warmth in most urban heat island (UHI) studies are generally constrained towards surface or near-surface (<2 m above ground) levels across horizontal variations in land use and land cover. However, there has been hitherto limited attention towards the measurement of vertical temperature profiles extending from the urban surface through to the urban boundary layer. Knowledge of these profiles, through how they vary over different local urban morphologies, and develop with respect to synoptic meteorological conditions, are important towards several aspects of UHI research; these include validating modelling urban canopy lapse rate profiles or estimating the growth of urban plumes. In this study, we utilised temperature sensors attached onto remote controlled aerial quadcopter platforms to measure urban temperature and humidity profiles in Singapore, which is a rapidly urbanizing major tropical metropolis. These profiles were measured from the surface to ~100 m above ground level, a height which includes all of the urban canopy and parts of the urban boundary layer. Initial results indicate significant variations in stability measured over different land uses (e.g. urban park, high-rise residential, commercial); these profiles are also temporally dynamic, depending on the time of day and larger-scale weather conditions.

  4. Sharing Singapore's experience in dietetic practice and school nutrition programmes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yen-Peng

    2008-01-01

    Dietetic practice in Singapore is mainly applied at the clinical settings, such as hospitals. The main scope of practice is in providing medical nutrition therapy to patients in a multidisciplinary team approach at both inpatient and outpatient clinics. This is delivered in the form of nutrition counseling and nutrition support. Dietitians are also involved in other areas such as conducting nutrition workshops and talks and provide consultation to the hospital's food service department. They set dietary guidelines for inpatient meal services and equip the food service personnel with the knowledge to plan and prepare healthier menus and therapeutic diets. In the schools, all the students are taught the basic principles of nutrition in the school curriculum. Healthy eating messages are reinforced through various interesting activities in schools. Nutrition guidelines on creating healthy and nutritious menus in the school tuckshops are available for schools to implement the Model School Tuckshop Programme. This programme is aimed at cultivating healthy eating habits among school children. For overweight students, they are referred to the students health centre for medical screening, assessment and for regular nutrition counseling at the Nutrition Clinic. PMID:18296379

  5. Prevention of intellectual and other disabilities: the Singapore experience.

    PubMed

    Lyen, K R

    1989-01-01

    In Singapore, first level prevention, aimed at reducing the occurrence of disabilities, has included neonatal screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, a programme of universal vaccination, screening for congenital hypothyroidism, and improvements in obstetric and neonatal care. Non-specific measures, such as improved housing, better nutrition and higher standards of education, have also contributed to the reduction in serious illnesses that can potentially cause disabilities. Second level prevention, designed to limit or reverse a disability, has included a developmental screening programme carried out in the primary health care sector. Centralised multi-disciplinary developmental assessment clinics have been established to define better the disabilities and to advise on rehabilitation. An early intervention programme has been started, and special schools are being upgraded. Third level prevention, aimed at preventing a disability from becoming a handicap, has included the setting up of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, provision of aids and appliances, vocational training, and job opportunities. The integration of the handicapped back into society is currently being promoted.

  6. Migrant female domestic workers: debating the economic, social and political impacts in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, B S; Huang, S; Gonzalez, J

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of migrant female domestic workers on the socioeconomic and political context in Singapore. Although Singapore state policy opposes long-term immigration, there is a labor shortage which permits a transient work force of low-skilled foreign workers. In the late 1990s, Singapore had over 100,000 foreign maids, of whom 75% were from the Philippines, 20% were from Indonesia, and the rest were from Sri Lanka. Legislation ensures their short-term migrant status, restricts their numbers, and governs their employment. Migrant workers are also regulated through a stringent allocation system based on household income of employers and the need for caregivers for children. Work permits are conditioned on non-marriage to citizens of Singapore or pregnancy. Terms and conditions of migrant employment are not specified, which permits long hours of work and potential for inhumane treatment. Migrant women fulfill jobs not desired by natives and accept these jobs at lower wages. There is disagreement about the motivation for the maid levy and its need, fairness, and effectiveness in reducing demand for foreign maids. Most public discussion focuses on social values and morality of foreign maids. Politically, tensions arise over the legality of migration, which results from tourist worker migration to Singapore and circumvents Filipino labor controls. Most of the adjustment cases that come to the attention of OWWA are tourist workers. Policies should be gender sensitive. PMID:12294976

  7. From Prejudice to Evidence: The Case of Rhizoma Coptidis in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Rhizoma Coptidis (RC), commonly known as huanglian, is a herb frequently used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) prescriptions. Known to have “clearing damp-heat, quenching fire and counteracting poison” properties, it was widely used in the Chinese community in Singapore. Berberine, an alkaloid isolated from RC, is known to have a wide array of therapeutic effects including antimicrobial, antineoplastic, and hepatoprotective effects. In 1978, RC was implicated in causing neonatal jaundice (NNJ) and kernicterus in neonates suffering from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, leading to the banning of RC and berberine in Singapore. More than three decades later, accumulating evidence-based studies pointing to the safety of RC for general public and better understanding of G6PD deficiency, the Health Sciences Authority (HSA) in Singapore reviewed and lifted the prohibition on RC and berberine, turning a brand new chapter in the history of TCM in Singapore. This paper aims to review the safety of RC and berberine, using the prohibition of use and subsequent lifting of ban on RC and berberine in Singapore as an illustration to highlight the importance of evidence-based studies in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). PMID:25610485

  8. Water systems and urban sanitation: a historical comparison of Tokyo and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Otaki, Yurina; Otaki, Masahiro; Sakura, Osamu

    2007-06-01

    The importance of a water supply and sewage treatment for urban sanitation is recognized in the modern world. Their contributions to public health have not, however, been well demonstrated by historical data, especially in Asian cities. In this research, we focused on the Asian cities of Tokyo and Singapore, which both developed significantly in the 20th century. We analysed their development processes statistically to determine what the key elements for the protection of urban sanitation have been. Although both cities constructed modern water supply systems at almost same time (Tokyo in 1898 and Singapore in 1878), and similarly modern wastewater treatment systems (Tokyo in 1922 and Singapore in 1913), the prevalence of water-borne diseases in Tokyo was more serious than it was in Singapore, in spite of Singapore's high infant mortality rate. The main reason for this was the differences in the systems of night-soil transport. We found that the water supply system in itself was not enough to resolve all urban sanitation problems, and appropriate night-soil removal was also crucial. In addition, historical trends and water consumption vary by city, so the appropriate technology and system are also different according to the unique characteristics and needs of each.

  9. Development of a Coupled Ocean-Hydrologic Model to Simulate Pollutant Transport in Singapore Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, V. P.

    2015-12-01

    Intensive agricultural, economic and industrial activities in Singapore and Malaysia have made our coastal areas under high risk of water pollution. A coupled ocean-hydrologic model is employed to perform three-dimensional simulations of flow and pollutant transport in Singapore coastal waters. The hydrologic SWAT model is coupled with the coastal ocean SUNTANS model by outputting streamflow and pollutant concentrations from the SWAT model and using them as inputs for the SUNTANS model at common boundary points. The coupled model is calibrated with observed sea surface elevations and velocities, and high correlation coefficients that exceed 0.97 and 0.91 are found for sea surface elevations and velocities, respectively. The pollutants are modeled as Gaussian passive tracers, and are released at five upstream locations in Singapore coastal waters. During the Northeast monsoon, pollutants released in Source 1 (Johor River), Source 2 (Tiram River), Source 3 (Layang River) and Source 4 (Layau River) enter the Singapore Strait after 4 days of release and reach Sentosa Island within 9 days. Meanwhile, pollutants released in Source 5 (Kallang River) reach Sentosa Island after 4 days. During the Southwest monsoon, the dispersion time is roughly doubled, with pollutants from Sources 1 - 4 entering the Singapore Strait only after 12 days of release due to weak currents.

  10. Characterization of extreme flood and drought events in Singapore and investigation of their relationships with ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Babovic, Vladan

    2016-04-01

    Flood and drought are hydrologic extreme events that have significant impact on human and natural systems. Characterization of flood and drought in terms of their start, duration and strength, and investigation of the impact of natural climate variability (i.e., ENSO) and anthropogenic climate change on them can help decision makers to facilitate adaptions to mitigate potential enormous economic costs. To date, numerous studies in this area have been conducted, however, they are primarily focused on extra-tropical regions. Therefore, this study presented a detailed framework to characterize flood and drought events in a tropical urban city-state (i.e., Singapore), based on daily data from 26 precipitation stations. Flood and drought events are extracted from standardized precipitation anomalies from monthly to seasonal time scales. Frequency, duration and magnitude of flood and drought at all the stations are analyzed based on crossing theory. In addition, spatial variation of flood and drought characteristics in Singapore is investigated using ordinary kriging method. Lastly, the impact of ENSO condition on flood and drought characteristics is analyzed using regional regression method. The results show that Singapore can be prone to extreme flood and drought events at both monthly and seasonal time scales. ENSO has significant influence on flood and drought characteristics in Singapore, but mainly during the South West Monsoon season. During the El Niño phase, drought can become more extreme. The results have implications for water management practices in Singapore.

  11. 2005 Distinguished Academician Lecture: Evolution of postgraduate medical education in Singapore--role of professional associations.

    PubMed

    Shanmugaratnam, K

    2005-12-01

    From 1910 to 1945, doctors in Singapore received postgraduate training through apprenticeship. During the early post-war period, some doctors in the public service were given scholarships to study in Britain and to obtain higher professional qualifications from the British Royal Colleges. The events that most influenced subsequent development of postgraduate education in Singapore occurred between 1956 and 1969: the formation of the Academy of Medicine and the Singapore Medical Association (SMA); organisation of courses for candidates preparing for examinations of the Royal Australasian and British Colleges; competition between the Academy and the University over responsibility for postgraduate medical education; the inauguration of the School of Postgraduate Medical Studies (SPMS); and the introduction of Master of Medicine (M Med) degrees in various medical specialties. From 1970 to 1999, there was expansion in several aspects of postgraduate medical education: SPMS awarded more than 2000 M Med degrees; the Singapore Medical Council (SMC) established a Register of Specialists and formed a Specialist Accreditation Board; the Academy formed Chapters in 10 specialties and developed Advanced Specialty Training programmes leading to Fellowship of the Academy of Medicine Singapore (FAMS); the SMA formed Societies in some 20 specialties; and a College of Family Physicians was inaugurated. There have been more developments from 2000 to 2005: the University restructured SPMS as a Division of Graduate Medical Studies within the Faculty of Medicine; the SMC implemented compulsory Continuing Medical Education; and the Academy converted 6 of its 10 Chapters into Colleges. PMID:16453040

  12. Migrant female domestic workers: debating the economic, social and political impacts in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, B S; Huang, S; Gonzalez, J

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of migrant female domestic workers on the socioeconomic and political context in Singapore. Although Singapore state policy opposes long-term immigration, there is a labor shortage which permits a transient work force of low-skilled foreign workers. In the late 1990s, Singapore had over 100,000 foreign maids, of whom 75% were from the Philippines, 20% were from Indonesia, and the rest were from Sri Lanka. Legislation ensures their short-term migrant status, restricts their numbers, and governs their employment. Migrant workers are also regulated through a stringent allocation system based on household income of employers and the need for caregivers for children. Work permits are conditioned on non-marriage to citizens of Singapore or pregnancy. Terms and conditions of migrant employment are not specified, which permits long hours of work and potential for inhumane treatment. Migrant women fulfill jobs not desired by natives and accept these jobs at lower wages. There is disagreement about the motivation for the maid levy and its need, fairness, and effectiveness in reducing demand for foreign maids. Most public discussion focuses on social values and morality of foreign maids. Politically, tensions arise over the legality of migration, which results from tourist worker migration to Singapore and circumvents Filipino labor controls. Most of the adjustment cases that come to the attention of OWWA are tourist workers. Policies should be gender sensitive.

  13. Cross-Cultural Studies of Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparative Analysis between the United States and the Main Ethnic Groups in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…

  14. 3 CFR 8682 - Proclamation 8682 of May 23, 2011. To Modify the Rules of Origin for the United States-Singapore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Rules of Origin for the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, and for Other Purposes 8682... the Rules of Origin for the United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, and for Other PurposesBy the... United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (USSFTA). The USSFTA was approved by the Congress in...

  15. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-01

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as ‘high priority’ by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  16. Development of a low mobility IEEE 802.15.4 compliant VANET system for urban environments.

    PubMed

    Nazabal, Juan Antonio; Falcone, Francisco; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Matías, Ignacio Raúl

    2013-05-29

    The use of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) is growing nowadays and it includes both roadside-to-vehicle communication (RVC) and inter-vehicle communication (IVC). The purpose of VANETs is to exchange useful information between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures for making an intelligent use of them. There are several possible applications for this technology like: emergency warning system for vehicles, cooperative adaptive cruise control or collision avoidance, among others. The objective of this work is to develop a VANET prototype system for urban environments using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant devices. Simulation-based values of the estimated signal strength and radio link quality values are obtained and compared with measurements in outdoor conditions to validate an implemented VANET system. The results confirm the possibility of implementing low cost vehicular communication networks operating at moderate vehicular speeds.

  17. Integration of heterogeneous biomedical sensors into an ISO/IEEE 11073 compliant application.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, A; Fico, G; Arredondo, M T; Salvi, D; Villalar, J L

    2010-01-01

    Current trends in healthcare technology include mobile-based applications. Relevant advances in the integration of vital signs monitoring devices with mobile platforms are widely reported nowadays. In this context, conceiving and designing an interoperable application is essential due to the growing necessity of integrating a huge and heterogeneous amount of biomedical data, coming from a wide range of devices and sensors. In this paper the key research issues associated with such integration are presented as well as a specific proposal to solve these problems. It is based on a middleware architecture for the integration of biomedical sensors with mobile devices, derived from the ISO/IEEE 11073 standards family. The application has been developed in the framework of an EU-funded R&D project called METABO.

  18. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-21

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as 'high priority' by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  19. 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest winner: Visualizing unsteady vortical behavior of a centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Otto, Mathias; Kuhn, Alexander; Engelke, Wito; Theisel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    In the 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest, the dataset represented a high-resolution simulation of a centrifugal pump operating below optimal speed. The goal was to find suitable visualization techniques to identify regions of rotating stall that impede the pump's effectiveness. The winning entry split analysis of the pump into three parts based on the pump's functional behavior. It then applied local and integration-based methods to communicate the unsteady flow behavior in different regions of the dataset. This research formed the basis for a comparison of common vortex extractors and more recent methods. In particular, integration-based methods (separation measures, accumulated scalar fields, particle path lines, and advection textures) are well suited to capture the complex time-dependent flow behavior. This video (http://youtu.be/oD7QuabY0oU) shows simulations of unsteady flow in a centrifugal pump.

  20. Beamforming transmission in IEEE 802.11ac under time-varying channels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Heejung; Kim, Taejoon

    2014-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11ac wireless local area network (WLAN) standard has adopted beamforming (BF) schemes to improve spectral efficiency and throughput with multiple antennas. To design the transmit beam, a channel sounding process to feedback channel state information (CSI) is required. Due to sounding overhead, throughput increases with the amount of transmit data under static channels. Under practical channel conditions with mobility, however, the mismatch between the transmit beam and the channel at transmission time causes performance loss when transmission duration after channel sounding is too long. When the fading rate, payload size, and operating signal-to-noise ratio are given, the optimal transmission duration (i.e., packet length) can be determined to maximize throughput. The relationship between packet length and throughput is also investigated for single-user and multiuser BF modes.

  1. Beamforming transmission in IEEE 802.11ac under time-varying channels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Heejung; Kim, Taejoon

    2014-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11ac wireless local area network (WLAN) standard has adopted beamforming (BF) schemes to improve spectral efficiency and throughput with multiple antennas. To design the transmit beam, a channel sounding process to feedback channel state information (CSI) is required. Due to sounding overhead, throughput increases with the amount of transmit data under static channels. Under practical channel conditions with mobility, however, the mismatch between the transmit beam and the channel at transmission time causes performance loss when transmission duration after channel sounding is too long. When the fading rate, payload size, and operating signal-to-noise ratio are given, the optimal transmission duration (i.e., packet length) can be determined to maximize throughput. The relationship between packet length and throughput is also investigated for single-user and multiuser BF modes. PMID:25152927

  2. Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs with Extended Service Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol by which the AP (Access Point) can transmit reliably its multicast data frames to the recipients in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range. The AP uses the STAs (Stations) that are directly associated with itself as the relays for the data delivery to the remote recipients that cannot be reached directly from itself. Based on the connectivity information among the recipients, the reliable multicast MAC protocol optimizes the number of the RAK (Request for ACK) frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol significantly enhances the MAC performance compared with the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC) protocol that is extended to support the recipients that are in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

  3. Development of a Low Mobility IEEE 802.15.4 Compliant VANET System for Urban Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nazabal, Juan Antonio; Falcone, Francisco; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Matías, Ignacio Raúl

    2013-01-01

    The use of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) is growing nowadays and it includes both roadside-to-vehicle communication (RVC) and inter-vehicle communication (IVC). The purpose of VANETs is to exchange useful information between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures for making an intelligent use of them. There are several possible applications for this technology like: emergency warning system for vehicles, cooperative adaptive cruise control or collision avoidance, among others. The objective of this work is to develop a VANET prototype system for urban environments using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant devices. Simulation-based values of the estimated signal strength and radio link quality values are obtained and compared with measurements in outdoor conditions to validate an implemented VANET system. The results confirm the possibility of implementing low cost vehicular communication networks operating at moderate vehicular speeds. PMID:23760089

  4. Heterogeneous voice flows-oriented call admission control in IEEE 802.11e WLANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qi-lin; Huang, Zhen-jin; Wang, Shi-yi

    2014-04-01

    Considering the circumstance of heterogeneous voice flows, first, by applying Markov chain, this paper proposes an unsaturated analytical model for the IEEE 802.11e EDCA protocol, which considers the condition of non-ideal transmission channel and the character of the occurrence of backoff countdown at the beginning of time slot in EDCA protocol. Furthermore, according to the proposed model, the media access delay and throughput of a flow are analysed, and the flow-oriented call admission control (CAC) scheme is proposed. Finally, the simulation results are shown to confirm that the proposed CAC scheme can guarantee the requirements of throughput and delay of voice flows, and can admit more voice flows to improve the utilisation efficiency of network resources by choosing the appropriate values of the minimum contention window or the appropriate varieties of voice flows.

  5. Beamforming Transmission in IEEE 802.11ac under Time-Varying Channels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11ac wireless local area network (WLAN) standard has adopted beamforming (BF) schemes to improve spectral efficiency and throughput with multiple antennas. To design the transmit beam, a channel sounding process to feedback channel state information (CSI) is required. Due to sounding overhead, throughput increases with the amount of transmit data under static channels. Under practical channel conditions with mobility, however, the mismatch between the transmit beam and the channel at transmission time causes performance loss when transmission duration after channel sounding is too long. When the fading rate, payload size, and operating signal-to-noise ratio are given, the optimal transmission duration (i.e., packet length) can be determined to maximize throughput. The relationship between packet length and throughput is also investigated for single-user and multiuser BF modes. PMID:25152927

  6. IEEE 802.21 Assisted Seamless and Energy Efficient Handovers in Mixed Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaiyu; Maciocco, Christian; Kesavan, Vijay; Low, Andy L. Y.

    Network selection is the decision process for a mobile terminal to handoff between homogeneous or heterogeneous networks. With multiple available networks, the selection process must evaluate factors like network services/conditions, monetary cost, system conditions, user preferences etc. In this paper, we investigate network selection using a cost function and information provided by IEEE 802.21. The cost function provides flexibility to balance different factors in decision making and our research is focused on improving both seamlessness and energy efficiency of handovers. Our solution is evaluated using real WiFi, WiMax, and 3G signal strength traces. The results show that appropriate networks were selected based on selection policies, handovers were triggered at optimal times to increase overall network connectivity as compared to traditional triggering schemes, while at the same time the energy consumption of multi-radio devices for both on-going operations as well as during handovers is optimized.

  7. IEEE/NASA Workshop on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margaria, Tiziana (Editor); Steffen, Bernhard (Editor); Hichey, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains the Preliminary Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE ISoLA Workshop on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation, with a special track on the theme of Formal Methods in Human and Robotic Space Exploration. The workshop was held on 23-24 September 2005 at the Loyola College Graduate Center, Columbia, MD, USA. The idea behind the Workshop arose from the experience and feedback of ISoLA 2004, the 1st International Symposium on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods held in Paphos (Cyprus) last October-November. ISoLA 2004 served the need of providing a forum for developers, users, and researchers to discuss issues related to the adoption and use of rigorous tools and methods for the specification, analysis, verification, certification, construction, test, and maintenance of systems from the point of view of their different application domains.

  8. Development of a low mobility IEEE 802.15.4 compliant VANET system for urban environments.

    PubMed

    Nazabal, Juan Antonio; Falcone, Francisco; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Matías, Ignacio Raúl

    2013-01-01

    The use of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) is growing nowadays and it includes both roadside-to-vehicle communication (RVC) and inter-vehicle communication (IVC). The purpose of VANETs is to exchange useful information between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures for making an intelligent use of them. There are several possible applications for this technology like: emergency warning system for vehicles, cooperative adaptive cruise control or collision avoidance, among others. The objective of this work is to develop a VANET prototype system for urban environments using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant devices. Simulation-based values of the estimated signal strength and radio link quality values are obtained and compared with measurements in outdoor conditions to validate an implemented VANET system. The results confirm the possibility of implementing low cost vehicular communication networks operating at moderate vehicular speeds. PMID:23760089

  9. Antenna Efficiency and the Genius of the IEEE Standard for Antenna Terms [Education Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, Karl F.

    2012-08-01

    At a 2007 Square Kilometre Array Design Studies (SKADS) workshop in Dwingeloo, Wim van Cappellen of the Nether lands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON) gave a presentation on figures of merit, in which he memorably compared antenna terms to apples. What seems like a simple, homogeneous fruit comes in all colors and varieties. Similarly, a survey of antenna literature and textbooks shows that authors use a wide variety of antenna figures of merit, often not in compliance with the relevant IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms for Antennas [1]. Since this standard is now in the process of revision by the Antennas and Propagation Society Antenna Standards Committee, it seems worth while to consider the standard, and clarify some common misunderstandings and inconsistent usages.

  10. Experimental video signals distribution MMF network based on IEEE 802.11 standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin; Maksymiuk, Lukasz; Siuzdak, Jerzy

    2014-11-01

    The article was focused on presentation the achievements in a scope of experimental research on transmission of digital video streams in the frame of specially realized for this purpose ROF (Radio over Fiber) network. Its construction was based on the merge of wireless IEEE 802.11 network, popularly referred as Wi-Fi, with a passive optical network PON based on multimode fibers MMF. The proposed approach can constitute interesting proposal in area of solutions in the scope of the systems monitoring extensive, within which is required covering of a large area with ensuring of a relatively high degree of immunity on the interferences transmitted signals from video IP cameras to the monitoring center and a high configuration flexibility (easily change the deployment of cameras) of such network.

  11. Improved Power Saving Mechanism to Increase Unavailability Interval in IEEE 802.16e Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyunghye; Mun, Youngsong

    To manage limited energy resources efficiently, IEEE 802.16e specifies sleep mode operation. Since there can be no communication between the mobile station (MS) and the serving base station (BS) during the unavailability interval, the MS can power down its physical operation components. We propose an improved power saving mechanism (iPSM) which effectively increases the unavailability interval of Type I and Type II power saving classes (PSCs) activated in an MS. After investigating the number of frames in the unavailability interval of each Type II PSC when used with Type I PSC, the iPSM chooses the Type II PSC that yields the maximum number of frames in the unavailability interval. Performance evaluation confirms that the proposed scheme is very effective.

  12. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-21

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as 'high priority' by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications. PMID:27223463

  13. IEEE 1394/firewire a low cost, high speed, digital serial bus

    SciTech Connect

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    Does the world need yet another 1/0 bus standard? If you need fast and cheap serial video communication, then the answer is yes. As technology advances, so too must data transport mechanisms advance. You can`t expect RS-232 to support real-time digital video, and if you can`t afford expensive professional serial video interfaces, (such as Sony`s Serial Digital Interface), Firewire may be a good solution. IEEE 1394, or commonly known as Firewire, is a general purpose serial bus that meets many of the 1/0 needs of today`s video and multimedia developers. For those of you who only read the first paragraph, here`s Firewire in a nutshell: It provides a guaranteed transfer rate of 10OMbps or 20OMbps of digital data (such as video direct from camera to computer), over an inexpensive, non-proprietary serial bus. Here is a list of its features.

  14. Reflections on 12 Years of Research into ICT-in-Education and the Learning Sciences in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Huang, Jun Song

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on the landscape of ICT-mediated learning research in Singapore schools over the past 12 years. This ICT (information and communications technology) journey is situated in the context of the Singapore education Masterplans and the inception of substantive research funding in this area of work since 2003. The article questions…

  15. The Technology of Technology Transfer. The Case of the Japan-Singapore Technical Institute. Discussion Paper No. 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo e Oliveira, Joao Batista; Pillay, Gerald F.

    The new economic and industrial policies of the 1980s called for a major restructuring of the industrial profile of Singapore. The government decided to set up three new technical institutes to prepare and supply skilled workers to new investors: French-, German-, and Japan-Singapore Technical Institutes with the collaboration of the government…

  16. Education in the Information Age--A Preliminary Study of the Changing Roles of School Teachers in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtar, Intan Azura

    2005-01-01

    With the global information boom, and rapid developments in electronic media and the World Wide Web (Web) within the last two decades, the Singapore government envisioned a need for Singapore to be Information Technology (IT) equipped and competent in every industry, beginning most importantly with the education sector. Taking its cue, the…

  17. Student Teachers' Intentions and Actions on Integrating Technology into Their Classrooms during Student Teaching: A Singapore Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Doris; Wong, Angela F. L.; Gao, Ping

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore student teachers' intentions and actions in technology integration in their classrooms. A postgraduate teacher education cohort of 118 Singapore student teachers participated in the study. The results suggested that student teachers in Singapore showed positive intentions to integrate technology to facilitate…

  18. The Use of Literacy Materials in Early Childhood English Language and Literacy Programmes in Singapore: Local Responses to Global Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Alice

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores local responses by Singapore pre-school teachers to the global trend towards English as the medium of instruction at the early childhood level of education. The paper reports research into how teachers have responded to the national literacy agenda, as outlined in the Curriculum Framework for Kindergartens in Singapore, using…

  19. Sex, Grade-Level and Stream Differences in Learning Environment and Attitudes to Science in Singapore Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peer, Jarina; Fraser, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Learning environment research provides a well-established approach for describing and understanding what goes on in classrooms and has attracted considerable interest in Singapore. This article reports the first study of science classroom environments in Singapore primary schools. Ten scales from the What Is Happening In this Class?,…

  20. The Relationship between Civic Attitudes and Voting Intention: An Analysis of Vocational Upper Secondary Schools in England and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Christine; Hoskins, Bryony; Sim, Jasmine Boon-Yee

    2014-01-01

    From 2009 to 2011, a team from the Centre for Learning and Life Chances in Knowledge Economies and Societies carried out a mixed-methods study of young people in England and Singapore. With regard to civic attitudes, the study showed that there was a greater sense of political self-efficacy and collective (school) efficacy in Singapore than in…

  1. 75 FR 6169 - Request for Public Comment on a Commercial Availability Request Under the U.S.-Singapore Free...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... implement textile trade agreements. 37 FR 4699 (March 4, 1972). On October 29, 2008, the Government of the....S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement February 2, 2010. AGENCY: Committee for the Implementation of... the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement (USSFTA) rules of origin for certain apparel articles...

  2. 76 FR 47144 - In the Matter of: Jianwei Ding, 51 Bukit Batok Crescent, #0828 Unity Centre, Singapore 658077...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... been extended by successive Presidential Notices, the most recent being that of August 12, 2010 (75 FR... Centre, Singapore 658077, and Registration : 29603-050, FCI La Tuna, Federal Correction Institution, P.O...., a.k.a. FirmSpace Pte. Ltd. (``FirmSpace''), and Far Eastron Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore-based...

  3. Interventions with Young Female Offenders and Teenage Girls at Risk: Alternative Educational Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping

    2009-01-01

    This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…

  4. A Professional Learning Community for the New Teacher Professionalism: The Case of a State-Led Initiative in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Daphnee; Lee, Wing On

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the empirical fit of two PLC models, using Singapore as a case. Insights emerged from documentary analyses and interviews with state-affiliated agents from the Academy of Singapore Teachers. The proposed DuFour--Fullan model, despite policy aspirations, remains largely DuFour-predominant in practice. Aspirations for a…

  5. The Tongue in Between: Some Thoughts on the Teaching of Chinese as a Second Language in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Chee Lay

    2014-01-01

    In Singapore's unique and complex linguistic environment, it is common to have Chinese-language learners from many different backgrounds in the same school classroom, which is why Singapore is nicknamed as a "language laboratory." In this paper, I hope to examine our linguistic environment and response strategies from different angles,…

  6. The Use of English Textbooks for Teaching English to "Vocational" Students in Singapore Secondary Schools: A Survey of Teachers' Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Rachel N. F.; Bathmaker, Ann-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This study explores teachers' beliefs in the use of English textbooks for teaching English in the upper secondary Normal Technical (NT) stream in Singapore. The NT stream in Singapore is a form of "vocational" pathway; pupils streamed into the NT classes are considered to be academically "weakest" amongst all three streams in the secondary level.…

  7. Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.

    2011-01-01

    Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly, over the past…

  8. Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization, Regional English Language Centre, Singapore: Program of Activities, 1972-1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional English Center (Singapore).

    This brochure describes the work of the Regional English Language Centre (RELC), located in Singapore and established by the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO); Indonesia, Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam are the member countries. The fundamental purpose of the Centre is…

  9. A study of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Shahnaz; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE) applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical) information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent malicious interaction with the system. In this paper, we first highlight major security requirements and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks in WBAN at Physical, Medium Access Control (MAC), Network, and Transport layers. Then we discuss the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework and identify the security vulnerabilities and major attacks in the context of WBAN. Different types of attacks on the Contention Access Period (CAP) and Contention Free Period (CFP) parts of the superframe are analyzed and discussed. It is observed that a smart attacker can successfully corrupt an increasing number of GTS slots in the CFP period and can considerably affect the Quality of Service (QoS) in WBAN (since most of the data is carried in CFP period). As we increase the number of smart attackers the corrupted GTS slots are eventually increased, which prevents the legitimate nodes to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. This means that the direct adaptation of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for WBAN is not totally secure for certain WBAN applications. New solutions are required to integrate high level security in WBAN.

  10. A Study of IEEE 802.15.4 Security Framework for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Shahnaz; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE) applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical) information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent malicious interaction with the system. In this paper, we first highlight major security requirements and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks in WBAN at Physical, Medium Access Control (MAC), Network, and Transport layers. Then we discuss the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework and identify the security vulnerabilities and major attacks in the context of WBAN. Different types of attacks on the Contention Access Period (CAP) and Contention Free Period (CFP) parts of the superframe are analyzed and discussed. It is observed that a smart attacker can successfully corrupt an increasing number of GTS slots in the CFP period and can considerably affect the Quality of Service (QoS) in WBAN (since most of the data is carried in CFP period). As we increase the number of smart attackers the corrupted GTS slots are eventually increased, which prevents the legitimate nodes to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. This means that the direct adaptation of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for WBAN is not totally secure for certain WBAN applications. New solutions are required to integrate high level security in WBAN. PMID:22319358

  11. Architectural and Functional Design and Evaluation of E-Learning VUIS Based on the Proposed IEEE LTSA Reference Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Droma, Mairtin S.; Ganchev, Ivan; McDonnell, Fergal

    2003-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Learning Technology Standards Committee's (LTSC) of the architectural and functional design of e-learning delivery platforms and applications, e-learning course authoring tools, and learning management systems (LMSs), with a view of assessing how…

  12. Performance of the IEEE 802.11a Wireless Lan Standard Over Frequency-Selective, Slow, Ricean Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Chi-han

    2002-09-01

    With the rapidly growing demand for more reliable and higher data rate wireless communications, the Institute of the Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 working group approved a standard for 5-GHz band, Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) in 1999. This standard, IEEE 802.lla, supports data rates from 6 up to 54 Mbps and uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) for transmission in indoor wireless environments. This thesis examines the performance of the IEEE 802.lla standard for different combinations of sub-carrier modulation type and code rate and determines the signal-to-noise ratio required to obtain a probability of bit error P(b) of 10-5. The channel is modeled as frequency-selective, slow, Ricean fading channel with Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). Contrary to expectations, for the combinations of sub-carrier modulation type and code rate utilized by the IEEE 802.11a standard, some of the higher data rate combinations outperform some of the lower data rate combinations. On the other hand, the results also show significant coding gain when applying convolutional coding with Viterbi decoding, and hence highlight the importance of Forward Error Correction (FEC) coding to the performance of wireless communications systems.

  13. Analyzing the Engineering Educational Research in Spain: A Global Vision through the Awards of CESEI-IEEE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaza, I.; Arcega, F.; Castro, M.; Llamas, M.

    2011-01-01

    CESEI is the acronym of the Spanish Chapter of the Education Society of IEEE (the Institute of Electric and Electronics Engineers). Every year, the CESEI awards a prize for the best doctoral thesis and FDP (final (master) degree projects) about education. The thesis or the project must be developed in the areas of electrical engineering,…

  14. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape.

    PubMed

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J

    2011-05-01

    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore. PMID:21633764

  15. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape.

    PubMed

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J

    2011-05-01

    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore.

  16. Saving for hospital care costs in Singapore: are there lessons for Australia? [corrected].

    PubMed

    Barraclough, S; Morrow, M

    1995-01-01

    Australian political leaders and policy analysts have increasingly sought to learn from Singapore, a nation which, despite its small size and lack of natural resources, has enjoyed rapid economic growth. Of particular interest to Australian policymakers has been Singapore's compulsory superannuation system, which has provided high levels of domestic savings and high levels of home ownership; it has also incorporated a scheme to enable Singaporeans to save for the costs of health care. In this article, Singapore's Medisave policy is described within its broader socioeconomic context. Saving for health care costs has been a largely neglected option in recent policy debate about reforming funding arrangements for hospital care in Australia. The potential for a formalised scheme for medical savings in Australia, subsidised by taxation concessions, is explored in terms of its socioeconomic policy implications, its congruence with Australian values, and the logistical ramifications of such a scheme. PMID:10144335

  17. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Screening Strategies in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin Yu; Finkelstein, Eric A; Ng, Mor Jack; Yap, Fabian; Yeo, George S H; Rajadurai, Victor Samuel; Chong, Yap Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Saw, Seang Mei; Kwek, Kenneth Y C; Tan, Kok Hian

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis from the payer's perspective in Singapore of 3 gestational diabetes mellitus screening strategies: universal, targeted, or no screening. A decision tree model assessed the primary outcome: incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Probabilities, costs, and utilities were derived from the literature, the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study, and the KK Women's and Children's Hospital's database. Relative to targeted screening using risk factors, universal screening generates an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $USD10,630/QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses show that disease prevalence rates and intervention effectiveness of glycemic management have the biggest impacts on the ICERs. Based on the model and best available data, universal screening is a cost-effective approach for reducing the complications of gestational diabetes mellitus in Singapore as compared with the targeted screening approach or no screening. PMID:26512030

  18. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Screening Strategies in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin Yu; Finkelstein, Eric A; Ng, Mor Jack; Yap, Fabian; Yeo, George S H; Rajadurai, Victor Samuel; Chong, Yap Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Saw, Seang Mei; Kwek, Kenneth Y C; Tan, Kok Hian

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis from the payer's perspective in Singapore of 3 gestational diabetes mellitus screening strategies: universal, targeted, or no screening. A decision tree model assessed the primary outcome: incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Probabilities, costs, and utilities were derived from the literature, the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study, and the KK Women's and Children's Hospital's database. Relative to targeted screening using risk factors, universal screening generates an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $USD10,630/QALY gained. Sensitivity analyses show that disease prevalence rates and intervention effectiveness of glycemic management have the biggest impacts on the ICERs. Based on the model and best available data, universal screening is a cost-effective approach for reducing the complications of gestational diabetes mellitus in Singapore as compared with the targeted screening approach or no screening.

  19. The Teaching of Religious Knowledge in a Plural Society: The Case for Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Charlene

    2008-03-01

    This paper discusses the issues and challenges involved in the teaching of religious knowledge in Singapore schools, where it is taught in a historical, descriptive and non-evaluative fashion, adopting the phenomenological approach. The government in Singapore hopes that the teaching of religious knowledge will help to inculcate moral values and promote religious harmony in the students. This paper points out the problems associated with the phenomenological approach to the teaching of religious knowledge in Singapore schools. It argues that such an approach may not be effective in helping the government achieve its educational objectives. The discussion adds to the existing literature on the concerns and problems faced by governments in plural societies in their attempts to teach religious knowledge in schools.

  20. A numerical study on flow and pollutant transport in Singapore coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Chua, Vivien P

    2016-10-15

    Intensive economic and shipping activities in Singapore Strait have caused Singapore coastal waters to be under high risk of water pollution. A nested three-dimensional unstructured-grid SUNTANS model is applied to Singapore coastal waters to simulate flow and pollutant transport. The small domain (~50m resolution) Singapore coastal model is nested within a large domain (~200m resolution) regional model. The nested model is able to predict water surface elevations and velocities with high R(2) values of 0.96 and 0.91, respectively. Model results delineate the characteristics of circulation pattern in Singapore coastal waters during the Northeast and Southwest monsoons. The pollutants are modeled as passive tracers, and are released at six key sailing locations Points 1-6 in Singapore coastal waters and are named as Passive Tracers 1-6, respectively. Our results show that the rate of dispersion is twice as large for the Northeast monsoon compared to the Southwest monsoon due to differences in large-scale monsoons and small-scale local winds. The volume averaged concentration (VAC) diminishes faster and the local flushing time is shorter during the Northeast monsoon than the Southwest monsoon. Dispersion coefficients K and the VAC decreasing rate are maximum for Tracers 2 and 3 with shortest local flushing time due to the strong surrounding currents and abrupt bathymetry changes near Senang and St. John Islands. Dispersion coefficients K and the VAC decreasing rate are minimum for Tracer 1 due to weak currents induced by the semi-enclosed coastline near Tuas. It is found that both the lateral dispersion coefficient Ky and the compound dispersion coefficient K obey a "4/3-law", which defines a linear correlation between dispersion coefficients and 4/3-power of selected length scale. PMID:27431749