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Sample records for ife fusion test

  1. Small Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) demonstration reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W.J.

    1991-10-03

    ICF target design studies done for the Nova Upgrade have identified conditions under which the target ignition ``cliff`` is shifted to much lower drive energy albeit with the penalty that the gain achieved at a given energy is also smaller. These targets would repeatedly produce the output and spectra of a higher gain targets at low yield. They should, thus, allow building much smaller R&D reactors with full thermonuclear effects. Demonstration reactor at the 1 to 100 MW{sub e} level appear to be feasible with driver energies of 0.5 to 2.0 MJ per pulse. These smaller, less expensive test and demonstration facilities should result in lower IFE development cost. If the U.S. government builds a driver and target factory, it is also conceivable that commercial organizations could build their own scaled concepts of IFE reactors using the beams and targets supplied by the government`s facilities.

  2. MULTI-IFE-A one-dimensional computer code for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

    2016-06-01

    The code MULTI-IFE is a numerical tool devoted to the study of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) microcapsules. It includes the relevant physics for the implosion and thermonuclear ignition and burning: hydrodynamics of two component plasmas (ions and electrons), three-dimensional laser light ray-tracing, thermal diffusion, multigroup radiation transport, deuterium-tritium burning, and alpha particle diffusion. The corresponding differential equations are discretized in spherical one-dimensional Lagrangian coordinates. Two typical application examples, a high gain laser driven capsule and a low gain radiation driven marginally igniting capsule are discussed. In addition to phenomena relevant for IFE, the code includes also components (planar and cylindrical geometries, transport coefficients at low temperature, explicit treatment of Maxwell's equations) that extend its range of applicability to laser-matter interaction at moderate intensities (<1016 W cm-2). The source code design has been kept simple and structured with the aim to encourage user's modifications for specialized purposes.

  3. A Concept for a Low Pressure Noble Gas Fill Intervention in the IFE Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Target Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C. A.; Blanchard, W. R.; Kozub, T. A.; Aristova, M.; McGahan, C.; Natta, S.; Pagdon, K.; Zelenty, J.

    2010-01-14

    An engineering evaluation has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering methods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber. The employment of a low pressure noble gas in the target chamber to thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall could dramatically increase the useful life of the first wall in the FTF reactor1. For the purpose of providing flexibility, two target chamber configurations are addressed: a five meter radius sphere and a ten meter radius sphere. Experimental studies at Nike have indicated that a low pressure, ambient gas resident in the target chamber during laser pulsing does not appear to impair the ability of laser light from illuminating targets2. In addition, current investigations into delivering, maintaining, and processing low pressure gas appear to be viable with slight modification to current pumping and plasma exhaust processing technologies3,4. Employment of a gas fill solution for protecting the dry wall target chamber in the FTF may reduce, or possibly eliminate the need for other attenuating technologies designed for keeping He ions from implanting in first wall structures and components. The gas fill concept appears to provide an effective means of extending the life of the first wall while employing mostly commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. Although a gas fill configuration may provide a methodology for attenuating damage inflicted on chamber surfaces, issues associated with target injection need to be further analyzed to ensure that the gas fill concept is viable in the integrated FTF design5. In the proposed system, the ambient noble gas is heated via the energetic helium ions produced by target detonation. The gas is subsequently cooled by the chamber wall to approximately 800oC, removed from the chamber, and processed by the chamber gas processing system (CGPS). In an optimized scenario of the above stated concept, the chamber

  4. Testing IFE materials on Z.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Craig Lee; Rochau, Gregory Alan; Peterson, Robert R.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-12-01

    On a single-pulse basis, the tungsten armor for the chamber walls in a laser inertial fusion energy power plant must withstand X-ray fluences of 0.4-1.2 J/cm{sup 2} with almost no mass loss, and preferably no surface changes. We have exposed preheated tungsten samples to 0.27 and 0.9 J/cm{sup 2} X-ray fluence from the Z accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories to determine the single-shot X-ray damage threshold. Earlier focused ion beam analysis has shown that rolled powdered metal formed tungsten and tungsten alloys, will melt when exposed to 2.3 J/cm{sup 2} on Z, but not at 1.3 J/cm{sup 2}. Three forms of tungsten single-crystal (SING), chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD), and rolled powdered metal (PWM) were exposed to fluence levels of 0.9 J/cm{sup 2} without any apparent melting. However, the CVD and PWM sample surfaces were rougher after exposure than the SING sample, which was not roughened. BUCKY (1D) calculations show a threshold of 0.5 J/cm{sup 2} for melting on Z. The present experiments indicate no melting but limited surface changes occur with polycrystalline samples (PWM and CVD) at 0.9 J/cm{sup 2} and no surface changes other than debris for samples at 0.27 J/cm{sup 2}.

  5. Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) concepts, target physics subgroup

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, M

    1999-07-01

    The target physics subgroup met for three days of three hour sessions and discussed several questions: Session 1A: What are the key scientific issues for validating each target concept and how can they be resolved; Session 1B: How can existing (and new?) facilities be used to test each concept; Session 1C: (1) What IFE target physics issues will not be resolved on NIF; (2) What is required to get to high yield; and (3) What is the significance to IFE of experimentally demonstrating high yield/high gain? During the discussions, the third question actually turned into a debate concerning the related question of whether or not a single-shot high yield facility is necessary prior to the ETF.

  6. The High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE)-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant concept and implications for IFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1995-06-01

    In the High-Yield Lithium-Injection Fusion-Energy (HYLIFE) power plant design, lithium is replaced by molten salt. HYLIFE-II [Fusion Technol. 25, 5 (1994)] is based on nonflammable, renewable-liquid-wall fusion target chambers formed with Li2BeF4 molten-salt jets, a heavy-ion driver, and single-sided illumination of indirect-drive targets. Building fusion chambers from existing materials with life-of-plant structural walls behind the liquid walls, while still meeting non-nuclear grade construction and low-level waste requirements, has profound implications for inertial fusion energy (IFE) development. Fluid-flow work and computational fluid dynamics predict chamber clearing adequate for 6 Hz pulse rates. Predicted electricity cost is reduced about 30% to 4.4¢/kWh at 1 GWe and 3.2¢/kWh at 2 GWe. Development can be foreshortened and cost reduced by obviating expensive neutron sources to develop first-wall materials. The driver and chamber can be upgraded in stages, avoiding separate and sequential facilities. Important features of a practical IFE power plant are ignition and sufficient gain in targets; low-cost, efficient, rep-ratable driver; and low-cost targets.

  7. Edge-pumped multi-slab amplifier for inertial fusion energy (IFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiaomin; Li, Mingzhong; Cui, Xudong; Wang, Zhenguo; Yan, Xiongwei; Jiang, Xinying; Zheng, Jiangang

    2016-11-01

    We proposed a novel laser amplifier for inertial fusion energy (IFE) based on an edge-pumped, gas-cooled multi-slab architecture. Compared to the face-pumped laser amplifiers for IFE, this architecture enables the pump, coolant and laser propagating orthogonally in the amplifier, thereby decoupling them in space and being beneficial to construction of the amplifier. To satisfy the high efficiency required for IFE, high-irradiance rectangle-waveguide coupled diode laser arrays are employed in the edge-pumped architecture and the pump light will be homogenized by total internal reflection. A traverse gradient doping profile is applied to the gain media, thus the pump absorption and gain uniformity can be separately optimized. Furthermore, the laser beam normal to the surfaces of the gas-cooled slabs will experience minimum thermal wavefront distortions in the amplifier head and ensure high beam quality. Since each slab has its own pump source and uniform gain in the aperture, power scaling can be easily achieved by placing identical slabs along the laser beam axis. Our investigations might provide an efficient and convenient way to design and optimize the amplifiers for IFE.

  8. Progress and critical issues for IFE blanket and chamber research

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Meier, W.R.; Moir, R.W.; Nobile, A.; Peterson, P.F.; Petti, D.; Schultz, K.R.; Tillack, M.S.

    1999-06-23

    Advances in high gain target designs for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), and the initiation of construction of large megajoule-class laser facilities in the U.S. (National Ignition Facility) and France (Laser-Megajoule) capable of testing the requirements for inertial fusion ignition and propagating burn, have improved the prospects for IFE. Accordingly, there have recently been modest increases in the US fusion research program related to the feasibility of IFE. These research areas include heavy-ion accelerators, Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) gas lasers, diode-pumped, solid-state (DPSSL) lasers, IFE target designs for higher gains, feasibility of low cost IFE target fabrication and accurate injection, and long-lasting IFE fusion chambers and final optics. Since several studies of conceptual IFE power plant and driver designs were completed in 1992-1996 [1-5], U.S. research in the IFE blanket, chamber, and target technology areas has focused on the critical issues relating to the feasibility of IFE concepts towards the goal of achieving economically-competitive and environmentally-attractive fusion energy. This paper discusses the critical issues in these areas, and the approaches taken to address these issues. The U.S. research in these areas, called IFE Chamber and Target Technologies, is coordinated through the Virtual Laboratory for Technology (VLT) formed by the Department of Energy in December 1998.

  9. The HYLIFE-2 inertial fusion energy power plant concept and implications for IFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, Ralph W.

    1994-11-01

    HYLIFE-II is based on nonflammable, renewable-liquid-wall fusion target chambers formed with Li2BeF4 molten-salt jets, a heavy-ion driver, and single-sided illumination of indirect-drive targets. Building fusion chambers from existing materials with life-of-plant structural walls behind the liquid walls, while still meeting non-nuclear grade construction and low-level waste requirements, has profound implications for IFE development. Fluid-flow work and computational fluid dynamics predict chamber clearing adequate for 6-Hz pulse rates. Predicted electricity cost is reduced about 30% to 4.4 cents/kWh at 1 GWe. Development can be foreshortened and cost reduced by obviating expensive neutron sources to develop first-wall materials. The driver and chamber can be upgraded in stages, avoiding separate and sequential facilities. The most important features of a practical inertial fusion power plant are sufficient ignition and gain in targets; a low-cost, efficient, rep-ratable driver; and low-cost targets.

  10. Hydro*Star: A Directed Water-Cooled DD-Fueled IFE Fusion-Chamber Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C D

    2001-04-01

    We introduce a new IFE fusion-chamber concept called Hydro*Star that uses DT-ignited DD targets and a water blanket. The driver can be either a 13 to 16-MJ diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) with fast ignition, or a 4-MJ heavy-ion accelerator operating at a reprate 10 times faster than the fusion chamber to accumulate sufficient energy in storage rings to direct 40 MJ at the target. The driver employs a prepulse system to burn an ionized path through the ambient fusion-chamber vapors, whose operating pressure is about 20 atm. We assume that the targets, which have a yield of about 2800 MJ, can be indirectly driven with two-sided illumination. The blanket, which is 1 to 2-m thick and placed immediately inside the structural wall, is operated just over 100 C either in a liquid or frothed-liquid state, the latter being preferred to reduce stresses in the structural wall. The structural wall, at a radius of 4 to 5 m, is composed of low-carbon steels to avoid the stress-corrosion cracking problems that have plagued certain light-water-reactor (LWR) systems. The functions of the blanket are (1) to shield the structural wall and exterior components from neutron and gamma-ray target emissions, and (2) to supply water for the direct generation of steam. Each fusion pulse vaporizes nearly one-half centimeter of the inside surface of the water blanket, thereby creating hot steam which is vented directly from the fusion chamber into ordinary steam turbines. Thus, Hydro*Star operates just like a simple steam engine, with a basic reprate of only 0.8 Hz per GWe of net output. Because the steam temperature is 900 to 1200 K, the plant thermal efficiency is nearly 50%. This efficiency is much better than the typical 35-40% now being achieved in commercial reactors, and much better than the efficiencies estimated for previous fusion-chamber concepts except CASCADE (55%). Other advantages for the new concept include reduced plant radioactivity (reduced radionuclides inventory

  11. Diode-pumped solid state lasers (DPSSLs) for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE)

    SciTech Connect

    Krupke, W.F.

    1996-10-01

    The status of diode-pumped, transverse-gas-flow cooled, Yb-S-FAP slab lasers is reviewed. Recently acquired experimental performance data are combined with a cost/performance IFE driver design code to define a cost-effective development path for IFE DPSSL drivers. Specific design parameters are described for the Mercury 100J/10 Hz, 1 kW system (first in the development scenario).

  12. Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Robin Arthur; Kingsep, Alexander S. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Smith, David Lewis; Olson, Craig Lee; Ottinger, Paul F. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Schumer, Joseph Wade (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Kim, Alexander (High Currents Institute, Tomsk, Russia); Kulcinski, Gerald L. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kammer, Daniel C. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rose, David Vincent (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Nedoseev, Sergei L. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Pointon, Timothy David; Smirnov, Valentin P.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Kalinin, Yuri G. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Bruner, Nichelle "Nicki" (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Barkey, Mark E. (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL); Guthrie, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Thoma, Carsten (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Genoni, Tom C. (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Langston, William L.; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos

    2007-01-01

    Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy (Z-IFE) complements and extends the single-shot z-pinch fusion program on Z to a repetitive, high-yield, power plant scenario that can be used for the production of electricity, transmutation of nuclear waste, and hydrogen production, all with no CO{sub 2} production and no long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Z-IFE concept uses a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) accelerator, and a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the LTD driver to a high-yield fusion target inside a thick-liquid-wall power plant chamber. Results of RTL and LTD research are reported here, that include: (1) The key physics issues for RTLs involve the power flow at the high linear current densities that occur near the target (up to 5 MA/cm). These issues include surface heating, melting, ablation, plasma formation, electron flow, magnetic insulation, conductivity changes, magnetic field diffusion changes, possible ion flow, and RTL mass motion. These issues are studied theoretically, computationally (with the ALEGRA and LSP codes), and will work at 5 MA/cm or higher, with anode-cathode gaps as small as 2 mm. (2) An RTL misalignment sensitivity study has been performed using a 3D circuit model. Results show very small load current variations for significant RTL misalignments. (3) The key structural issues for RTLs involve optimizing the RTL strength (varying shape, ribs, etc.) while minimizing the RTL mass. Optimization studies show RTL mass reductions by factors of three or more. (4) Fabrication and pressure testing of Z-PoP (Proof-of-Principle) size RTLs are successfully reported here. (5) Modeling of the effect of initial RTL imperfections on the buckling pressure has been performed. Results show that the curved RTL offers a much greater buckling pressure as well as less sensitivity to imperfections than three other RTL designs. (6) Repetitive operation of a 0.5 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavity with gas purging between shots and automated operation is

  13. Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, B. G.

    1993-12-01

    A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to $12.5 billion to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at $8/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway.

  14. IFE Chamber Technology - Status and Future Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Raffray, A.R.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Latowski, J.F.; Najmabadi, F.; Olson, C.L.; Peterson, P.F.; Ying, A.; Yoda, M.

    2003-07-15

    Significant progress has been made on addressing critical issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE) chambers for heavy-ion, laser and Z-pinch drivers. A variety of chamber concepts are being investigated including drywall (currently favored for laser IFE), wetted-wall (applicable to both laser and ion drivers), and thick-liquid-wall (favored by heavy ion and z-pinch drivers). Recent progress and remaining challenges in developing IFE chambers are reviewed.

  15. IFE Chamber Technology - Status and Future Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Raffrary, A R; Abdel-Khalik, S; Kulcinski, G; Latkowski, J F; Najmabadi, F; Olson, C L; Peterson, P F; Ying, A; Yoda, M

    2002-11-15

    Significant progress has been made on addressing critical issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE) chambers for heavy-ion, laser and Z-pinch drivers. A variety of chamber concepts are being investigated including dry-wall (currently favored for laser IFE), wetted-wall (applicable to both laser and ion drivers), and thick-liquid-wall favored by heavy ion and z-pinch drivers. Recent progress and remaining challenges in developing IFE chambers are reviewed.

  16. Yb:YAG ceramic-based laser driver for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrovec, John; Copeland, Drew A.; Litt, Amardeep S.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a new class of laser amplifiers for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers based on a Yb:YAG ceramic disk in an edge-pumped configuration and cooled by a high-velocity gas flow. The Yb lasant offers very high efficiency and low waste heat. The ceramic host material has a thermal conductivity nearly 15-times higher than the traditionally used glass and it is producible in sizes suitable for a typical 10- to 20-kJ driver beam line. The combination of high lasant efficiency, low waste heat, edge-pumping, and excellent thermal conductivity of the host, enable operation at 10 to 20 Hz at over 20% wall plug efficiency while being comparably smaller and less costly than recently considered face-pumped alternative drivers using Nd:glass, Yb:S-FAP, and cryogenic Yb:YAG. Scalability of the laser driver over a broad range of sizes is presented.

  17. Dry-Wall Survival Under IFE Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; El-Guebaly, L.; Federici, G.; Haynes, D.; Najmabadi, F.; Petti, D.

    2004-11-15

    The chamber wall armor is subject to demanding conditions in inertial fusion energy (IFE) chambers. IFE operation is cyclic in nature, and key issues are (a) chamber evacuation to ensure that after each shot the chamber returns to a quiescent state in preparation for the target injection and the firing of the driver for the subsequent shot and (b) armor lifetime that requires that the armor accommodate the cyclic energy deposition while providing the required lifetime. Armor erosion would impact both of these requirements. Tungsten and carbon are considered as armor for IFE dry-wall chambers based on their high-temperature and high-heat-flux accommodation capabilities. This paper assesses the requirements on armor imposed by the operating conditions in IFE, including energy deposition density, time of deposition, and frequencies; describes their impact on the performance of the candidate armor materials; and discusses the major issues.

  18. Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Meier, W. R.; Sawan, M.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent progress in the area of inertial fusion energy (IFE) safety and environment (S&E) in the US. Over the past several years, a significant effort has been devoted towards the development of S&E analyses for future IFE power plants. We have completed the safety assessment of various baseline IFE power plant concepts, including simulation of accident scenarios and accident consequences analyses, S&E studies of candidate target materials and discussions on waste management issues. The results from this work have allowed for a better understanding of the behaviour of radioactive sources and hazardous materials within the IFE power plant, identification of the energy sources that could mobilize those materials in case of an accident and assessment of waste management options for IFE. Currently, ongoing S&E studies for IFE are focusing on emerging design concepts, which include support to the high average power laser (HAPL) program for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant and collaboration with the Z-pinch IFE program for the production of an economically attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. In this paper, the main safety issues related to the HAPL and Z-IFE programs are reviewed, some recent safety highlights are presented and future directions in the IFE S&E area are proposed.

  19. Developing inertial fusion energy - Where do we go from here?

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, G.

    1996-06-11

    Development of inertial fusion energy (IFE) will require continued R&D in target physics, driver technology, target production and delivery systems, and chamber technologies. It will also require the integration of these technologies in tests and engineering demonstrations of increasing capability and complexity. Development needs in each of these areas are discussed. It is shown how IFE development will leverage off the DOE Defense Programs funded inertial confinement fusion (ICF) work.

  20. Statistical tests and chemical quality of shallow groundwater from a metamorphic terrain, Ile-Ife/Modakeke, S. W. Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ako, B. D.; Adeniyi, F. I.; Adepoju, J. F.

    This study characterises the physico-chemical quality of shallow groundwater obtained from 51 hand-dug wells in Ile-Ife/Modakeke area of South-Western Nigeria in relation to underlying bedrock types using statistical tests and chemical plots. Results of one-way analysis of variance of the groundwater quality above the four different bedrock types (gneisses, pegmatites, pegmatite schist, and undifferentiated schists) are significantly different in 12 of 28 parameters considered. Significant differences (P 0.05) also occur between groundwater quality and surface water quality of the area for all parameters determined except for colour and alkalinity. This is probably as a result of infiltration through the overburden or long contact with the bedrock. The overall mean nitrate level of 4.55 ± 0.79 ppm) and the relatively high sulphate level (30.14 ± 4.46 ppm) indicate not only probable pollution from raw sewage and/or sewage effluent but the effect of limited groundwater replenishment and poor uniform aquifer conditions irrespective of bedrock type. Statistics seem to provide better correlation between groundwater quality and bedrock types than chemical plots irrespective of anthropogeneous influences.

  1. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes >1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa (“displacement-per-atom”, the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  2. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes > 1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa ("displacement-per-atom", the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  3. Summary of IFE Activities at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W; Barnard, J; Callahan-Miller, B D; Payne, S

    2001-05-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in a broad range of activities that support the development of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). These include (1) the construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF); (2) target design for both laser and heavy ion drivers, including work on fast ignition; (3) heavy ion driver development; (4) diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) development; and (5) chamber and power plant design and assessment activities. These efforts are summarized in this report.

  4. The role of the NIF in the development of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1995-03-16

    Recent decisions by DOE to proceed with the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the first half of the Induction Systems Linac Experiments (ILSE) can provide the scientific basis for inertial fusion ignition and high-repetition heavy-ion driver physics, respectively. Both are critical to Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). A conceptual design has been completed for a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW, 0.35-{micro}m-solid-state laser system, the NIF. The NIF will demonstrate inertial fusion ignition and gain for national security applications, and for IFE development. It will support science applications using high-power lasers. The demonstration of inertial fusion ignition and gain, along with the parallel demonstration of the feasibility of an efficient, high-repetition-rate driver, would provide the basis for a follow-on Engineering Test Facility (ETF) identified in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The ETF would provide an integrated testbed for the development and demonstration of the technologies needed for IFE power plants. In addition to target physics of ignition, the NIF will contribute important data on IFE target chamber issues, including neutron damage, activation, target debris clearing, operational experience in many areas prototypical to future IFE power plants, and an opportunity to provide tests of candidate low-cost IFE targets and injection systems. An overview of the NIF design and the target area environments relevant to conducting IFE experiments are described in Section 2. In providing this basic data for IFE, the NIF will provide confidence that an ETF can be successful in the integration of drivers, target chambers, and targets for IFE.

  5. Thin Liquid Wall Behavior Under IFE Cyclic Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Haynes, D.; Najmabadi, F.; Sharpe, J.P.

    2003-07-15

    An inertial fusion energy (IFE) wetted wall configuration provides the advantage of a renewable armor to accommodate the threat spectra. Key issues are the re-establishment of the thin liquid armor and the state of the chamber environment prior to each shot relative to the requirements imposed by the driver and target thermal and injection control.

  6. Preliminary Identification of Accident Initiating Events for IFE Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Latkowsk, J. F.

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents initial results of a task to identify accident initiating events for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant designs. Initiating events (IEs) are a fundamental building block of a probabilistic risk assessment; they are the ‘accident starters’ that are analyzed to determine the risks posed to members of the public in the vicinity of the power plant. The IE results for the SOMBRERO design are presented in tabular form. The SOMBRERO design was analyzed since it is representative of dry chamber wall, laser driven designs. This work is used to characterize IFE plant risk and to identify potential design changes that would mitigate the plant risk.

  7. The role of the National Ignition Facility in the development of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1996-06-01

    The authors have completed a conceptual design for a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW, 0.35-{mu}m solid-state laser system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), which will demonstrate inertial fusion ignition and gain for national security, energy, and science applications. The technical goal of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program as stated in the current ICF Five-Year Program Plan is {open_quotes}to produce pure fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, with fusion yields of 200 to 1000 MJ, in support of three missions: (1) to play an essential role in accessing physics regimes of interest in nuclear weapon design...; (2) to provide an above-ground simulation capability for nuclear weapon effects...; and (3) to develop inertial fusion energy for civilian power production.{close_quotes} This article addresses the third goal-- the development of inertial fusion energy (IFE). This article reports a variety of potential contributions the NIF could make to the development of IFE, drawn from a nationally attended workshop held at the University of California at Berkeley in Feb, 1994. In addition to demonstrating fusion ignition as a fundamental basis for IFE, the findings of the workshop, are that the NIF could also provide important data for target physics and fabrication technology, for IFE target chamber phenomena such as materials responses to target emissions, and for fusion power technology-relevant tests.

  8. Rugged Packaging for Damage Resistant Inertial Fusion Energy Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Stelmack, Larry

    2003-11-17

    The development of practical fusion energy plants based on inertial confinement with ultraviolet laser beams requires durable, stable final optics that will withstand the harsh fusion environment. Aluminum-coated reflective surfaces are fragile, and require hard overcoatings resistant to contamination, with low optical losses at 248.4 nanometers for use with high-power KrF excimer lasers. This program addresses the definition of requirements for IFE optics protective coatings, the conceptual design of the required deposition equipment according to accepted contamination control principles, and the deposition and evaluation of diamondlike carbon (DLC) test coatings. DLC coatings deposited by Plasma Immersion Ion Processing were adherent and abrasion-resistant, but their UV optical losses must be further reduced to allow their use as protective coatings for IFE final optics. Deposition equipment for coating high-performance IFE final optics must be designed, constructed, and operated with contamination control as a high priority.

  9. Effect of Multi-Shot X-Ray Exposures in IFE Armor Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Schmitt, R C; Bell, B K

    2004-12-10

    As part of the High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program the performance of tungsten as an armor material is being studied. While the armor would be exposed to neutrons, x-rays and ions within an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, the thermomechanical effects are believed to dominate. Using a pulsed x-ray source, long-term exposures of tungsten have been completed at fluences that are of interest for the IFE application. Modeling is used in conjunction with experiments on the XAPPER x-ray damage facility in an effort to recreate the effects that would be expected in an operating IFE power plant. X-ray exposures have been completed for a variety of x-ray fluences and number of shots. Analysis of the samples suggests that surface roughening has a threshold that is very close to the fluences that reproduce the peak temperatures expected in an IFE armor material.

  10. IFE14 and OSI Technologies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, R. H.; Macleod, G.

    2013-12-01

    The On-Site Inspection (OSI) regime is the final verification pillar of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Unlike the International Monitoring System (IMS) and the International Data Centre (IDC) which are under interim operations during the CTBTO Preparatory Commission an OSI cannot occur until after entry into force of the treaty. The Preparatory Commission has been charged with developing the methodologies and the training curricula and determining the equipment required for conducting an OSI. An Integrated Field Exercise (IFE) of all the technologies and techniques following Treaty guidelines and structures is utilized to determine the progress being made by the Preparatory Commission in completing its OSI mandate. IFE14 will be conducted in a 1000 km2 area near the Dead Sea in Jordan next year. In order to adequately test the verification regimes the data utilized from the triggering event throughout the five weeks of the inspection must be scientifically credible and internally consistent so that the inspection team members performing the OSI remain immersed in the exercise and not distracted unrealistic or scientifically improbable data. This means the data simulation starts at the beginning with the triggering event(s) and carries on through the OSI techniques of visual observation including MSIR, measurement of seismic aftershocks, measurement of radioactivity fields, collection and analysis of environmental samples (solids, liquids, and gases, utilization of geophysical techniques: active seismic, resonance seismometry, gravimetry, magnetometry, and electrical conductivity measurements and lastly drilling to obtain radioactive samples. IFE14 will not utilize resonance seismometry or drilling to obtain radioactive samples for cost and time reasons but all other techniques will be utilized. A full understanding of the triggering event and the geologic and geophysical regime of the inspection area needs to be in place to ensure the scientifically credible

  11. Validation test of fusion grade superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, U.; Pradhan, S.; Raj, P.; Varmora, P.; Panchal, A.; Bano, A.; Ghate, M.

    2017-02-01

    The need of high magnetic field for long pulse operation of Tokamaks and future fusion reactors is an essential requirement. The superconducting magnets operating at low temperature, high current and produce high magnetic field for long time can certainly full-fill this requirement. Three types of magnets namely central solenoid, toroidal filed and poloidal filed are used for initiation, confinement and equilibrium of plasma. The presently available basic conductors for these magnets are Nb3Sn, Nb3Al, NbTi and MgB2. The presently operating SST-1 Tokamak has superconducting magnets made up of NbTi as basic conductor. The design and prototype initiative for SST-2 magnets has also begun at IPR. The low temperature and high magnetic field characterization of in-house developed and commercial superconducting strands have also been initiated in the custom made standard test facility at IPR. Encouraging results on testing of Nb3Sn, NbTi and MgB2 have been found for suitability of these conductors for magnets and current leads. The basic test set up and test results of fusion grade conductors will be discussed in this presentation.

  12. The light ion LMF and its relevance to IFE

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.E.; Allshouse, G.O.; Cook, D.L.; Lockner, T.R.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Olson, C.L.; Smith, D.L.

    1993-12-01

    The inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is directed toward validating light ions as an efficient driver for ICF defense and energy applications. The light ion laboratory microfusion facility (LMF) is envisioned as a facility in which high gain ICF targets could be developed and utilized in defense-related experiments. The relevance of LMF technology to eventual inertial fusion energy (IFE) applications is assessed via a comparison of LMF technologies with those projected in the Light Ion Beam Reactor Assessment (LIBRA) conceptual reactor design study.

  13. Contributions of the National Ignition Facility to the development of Inertial Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, M.; Logan, G.; Diazdelarubia, T.; Schrock, V.; Schultz, K.; Tokheim, Robert E.; Abdou, M.; Bangerter, R.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to construct the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to embark on a program to achieve ignition and modest gain in the laboratory early in the next century. The NIF will use a (ge) 1.8-MJ, 0.35-mm laser with 192 independent beams, a fifty-fold increase over the energy of the Nova laser. System performance analyses suggest yields as great as 20 MJ may be achievable. The benefits of a micro-fusion capability in the laboratory include: essential contributions to defense programs, resolution of important Inertial Fusion Energy issues, and unparalleled conditions of energy density for basic science and technology research. We have begun to consider the role the National Ignition Facility will fill in the development of Inertial Fusion Energy. While the achievement of ignition and gain speaks for itself in terms of its impact on developing IFE, we believe there are areas of IFE development such as fusion power technology, IFE target design and fabrication, and understanding chamber dynamics, that would significantly benefit from NIF experiments. In the area of IFE target physics, ion targets will be designed using the NIF laser, and feasibility of high gain targets will be confirmed. Target chamber dynamics experiments will benefit from x-ray and debris energies that mimic in-IFE-chamber conditions. Fusion power technology will benefit from using single-shot neutron yields to measure spatial distribution of neutron heating, activation, and tritium breeding in relevant materials. IFE target systems will benefit from evaluating low-cost target fabrication techniques by testing such targets on NIF. Additionally, we believe it is feasible to inject up to four targets and engage them with the NIF laser by triggering the beams in groups of approximately 50 separated in time by approximately 0.1 s. Sub-ignition neutron yields would allow an indication of symmetry achieved in such proof-of-principle rep-rate experiments.

  14. Contributions of the National Ignition Facility to the development of Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, M.; Logan, G.; Diaz De La Rubia, T.; Schrock, V.; Schultz, K.; Tokheim, R.; Abdou, M.; Bangerter, R.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to construct the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to embark on a program to achieve ignition and modest gain in the laboratory early in the next century. The NIF will use a {ge} 1.8-MJ, 0.35-mm laser with 192 independent beams, a fifty-fold increase over the energy of the Nova laser. System performance analyses suggest yields as great as 20 MJ may be achievable. The benefits of a micro-fusion capability in the laboratory include: essential contributions to defense programs, resolution of important Inertial Fusion Energy issues, and unparalleled conditions of energy density for basic science and technology research. We have begun to consider the role the National Ignition Facility will fill in the development of Inertial Fusion Energy. While the achievement of ignition and gain speaks for itself in terms of its impact on developing IFE, we believe there are areas of IFE development such as fusion power technology, IFE target design and fabrication, and understanding chamber dynamics, that would significantly benefit from NIF experiments. In the area of IFE target physics, ion targets will be designed using the NIF laser, and feasibility of high gain targets will be confirmed. Target chamber dynamics experiments will benefit from x-ray and debris energies that mimic in-IFE-chamber conditions. Fusion power technology will benefit from using single-shot neutron yields to measure spatial distribution of neutron heating, activation, and tritium breeding in relevant materials. IFE target systems will benefit from evaluating low-cost target fabrication techniques by testing such targets on NIF. Additionally, we believe it is feasible to inject up to four targets and engage them with the NIF laser by triggering the beams in groups of {approximately}50 separated in time by {approximately}0.1 s. Sub-ignition neutron yields would allow an indication of symmetry achieved in such proof-of-principle rep-rate experiments.

  15. Contributions of the National Ignition Facility to the development of inertial fusion energy. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, M.; Logan, G.; Diaz De La Rubia, T.; Schrock, V.; Schultz, K.; Tokheim, R.; Abdou, M.; Bangerter, R.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to construct the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to embark on a program to achieve ignition and modest gain in the laboratory early in the next century. The NM will use a {ge}1.8-MJ, 0.35-mm laser with 192 independent beams, a fifty-fold increase over the energy of the Nova laser. System performance analyses suggest yields as great as 20 MJ may be achievable. NIF will conduct more than 600 shots per year. The benefits of a micro-fusion capability in the laboratory include: Essential contributions to defense programs, resolution of important Inertial Fusion Energy issues, and unparalleled conditions of energy density for basic science and technology research. We have begun to consider the role the National Ignition Facility will fill in the development of Inertial Fusion Energy. While the achievement of ignition and gain speaks for itself in terms of its impact on developing IFE, we believe there are areas of IFE development, such as fusion power technology, IFE target design and fabrication, and understanding chamber dynamics, that would significantly benefit from NIF experiments. In the area of IFE target physics, ion targets will be designed using the NIF laser, and feasibility of high gain targets will be confirmed. Target chamber dynamics experiments will benefit from x-ray and debris energies that mimic in-IFE-chamber conditions. Fusion power technology will benefit from using single-shot neutron yields to measure spatial distribution of neutron heating, activation, and tritium breeding in relevant materials. IFE target systems will benefit from evaluating low-cost target fabrication techniques by testing such targets on NIF.

  16. Design of a fusion engineering test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    The fusion Engineering Test Facility (ETF) is being designed to provide for engineering testing capability in a program leading to the demonstration of fusion as a viable energy option. It will combine power-reactor-type components and subsystems into an integrated tokamak system and provide a test bed to test blanket modules in a fusion environment. Because of the uncertainties in impurity control two basic designs are being developed: a design with a bundle divertor (Design 1) and one with a poloidal divertor (Design 2). The two designs are similar where possible, the latter having somewhat larger toroidal field (TF) coils to accommodate removal of the larger torus sectors required for the single-null poloidal divertor. Both designs have a major radius of 5.4 m, a minor radius of 1.3 m, and a D-shaped plasma with an elongation of 1.6. Ten TF coils are incorporated in both designs, producing a toroidal field of 5.5 T on-axis. The ohmic heating and equilibrium field (EF) coils supply sufficient volt-seconds to produce a flat-top burn of 100 s and a duty cycle of 135 s, including a start of 12 s, a burn termination of 10 s, and a pumpdown of 13 s. The total fusion power during burn is 750 MW, giving a neutron wall loading of 1.5 MW/m/sup 2/. In Design 1 of the poloidal field (PF) coils except the fast-response EF coils are located outside the FT coils and are superconducting. The fast-response coils are located inside the TF coil bore near the torus and are normal conducting so that they can be easily replaced.In Design 2 all of the PF coils are located outside the TF coils and are superconducting. Ignition is achieved with 60 MW of neutral beam injection at 150 keV. Five megawatts of radio frequency heating (electron cyclotron resonance heating) is used to assist in the startup and limit the breakdown requirement to 25 V.

  17. Progress in the Extension of Free-Standing Target Technologies on IFE Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Koresheva, E.R.; Aleksandrova, I.V.; Osipov, I.E.; Bazdenkov, S.V.; Chtcherbakov, V.I.; Koshelev, E.L.; Nikitenko, A.I.; Tolokonnikov, S.M.; Yaguzinskiy, L.S.; Baranov, G.D.; Safronov, A.I.; Timofeev, I.D.; Kuteev, B.V.; Kapralov, V.G

    2003-05-15

    Lebedev Physical Institute conducts a wide research and development program to supply targets for inertial fusion energy (IFE) research. Current essential results in that area include the following: (a) A free-standing target (FST) system has been created, which allows the filling, layering, characterizing, and placing of targets into a test optical chamber by injection at a rate of 0.1 Hz, (b) a special physical layout has been developed to carry out the layering experiments in a wide range of target diameters including reactor scaled ones, and (c) the reconstruction algorithms and scan system are under way to complete the FST system with a new subsystem for univalent target characterization based on microtomography. Specific issues for future IFE target technology and injection research are discussed, which include (a) adding a small doping to the fuel to form a cryogenic layer in a glassy state, (b) using large shells with a metallic layer onto the outer surface to shorten the layering time for reactor targets, (c) the cell for target motion driving application to FST technology, and (d) designing a prototypical facility for repeatable target fabrication and injection.

  18. Relevance of the U.S. National Ignition Facility for driver and target options to next-step inertial fusion test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1995-04-10

    Achievement of inertial fusion ignition and energy gain in the proposed U.S. National Ignition Facility is a prerequisite for decisions to build next-step U.S. inertial fusion facilities for either high yield or high pulse-rate. There are a variety of target and driver options for such next-step inertial fusion test facilities, and this paper discusses possible ways that the NIF, using a 1.8 MJ glass laser in both direct and indirect-drive configurations, can provide target physics data relevant to several next-step facility options. Next step facility options include the Engineering Test Facility (ETF), which needs several-Hz pulse-rates for testing relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) development. An option for high yield, called the Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF), does not require such high pulse-rates, but may still benefit from driver technologies capable of much higher shot rates than possible with glass lasers. A high-pulse-rate driver could also be used for a combined ETF/LMF facility, driving multiple target chambers with a common driver. Driver technologies that could support high-pulse rates for next-step options include heavy-ion and light-ion accelerators, diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL), and krypton-flouride gas lasers. The NIF could be used to provide important data for IFE in generic areas of target chamber damage and materials responses, neutron activation and heating, tritium recovery and safety, and in performance tests of prototypical IFE targets and injection systems. In the study of ignition in both direct and indirect-drive, the NIF would explore generic ICF fuel capsule implosion physics common to all driver and target options for next-step facilities. In the following, we point out specific ways in which the NIF could be used to study target physics specifically relevant to the above-mentioned driver options for such next-step facilities, as well as how the NIF laser system itself could be relevant to the DPSSL option.

  19. Fusion energy calorimeter for the tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.; Imel, G.R.

    1981-04-01

    One and two-dimensional neutronic analyses treating the transport and scattering of neutrons and the production and transport of gamma rays in the TFTR demonstrate that the fusion energy production in a D-T pulse in the TFTR can be determined with an uncertainty of +- 15% or less, simply by integrating the measured profile of temperature increase along the central radial axis of a large hydrocarbon moderator that fills the bay between adjacent toroidal-field coils, just outside the vacuum vessel. Limitations in thermopile temperature measurements dictate a minimum fusion-neutron fluence at the vacuum vessel of the order of 10/sup 12/ n/cm/sup 2/ per pulse (a source strength of 10/sup 18/ n/pulse in TFTR), in order that this simple calorimeter can provide useful accuracy.

  20. Target production for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, J.G.; Meier, W.

    1995-03-01

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require the ignition and burn of 5-10 fusion fuel targets every second. The technology to economically mass produce high-quality, precision targets at this rate is beyond the current state of the art. Techniques that are scalable to high production rates, however, have been identified for all the necessary process steps, and many have been tested in laboratory experiments or are similar to current commercial manufacturing processes. In this paper, we describe a baseline target factory conceptual design and estimate its capital and operating costs. The result is a total production cost of {approximately}16{cents} per target. At this level, target production represents about 6% of the estimated cost of electricity from a 1-GW{sub e} IFE power plant. Cost scaling relationships are presented and used to show the variation in target cost with production rate and plant power level.

  1. Overview of IFE chamber and target technologies R&D in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Abdou, M A; Kulcinski, G L; Moir, R W; Nobile, A; Peterson, P F; Petti, D A; Schultz, K R; Tillack, M S; Yoda, M

    2000-09-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Science (OFES) formed the Virtual Laboratory for Technology (VLT) to develop the technologies needed to support near term fusion experiments and to provide the basis for future magnetic and inertial fusion energy power plants. The scope of the inertial fusion energy (IFE) element of the VLT includes the fusion chamber, driver/chamber interface, target fabrication and injection, and safety and environmental assessment for IFE. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in conjunction with other laboratories, universities and industry, has written an R&D plan to address the critical issues in these areas over the next 5 years in a coordinated manner. This paper provides an overview of the US. research activities addressing these critical issues.

  2. Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    E. Perry; J. Chrzanowski; C. Gentile; R. Parsells; K. Rule; R. Strykowsky; M. Viola

    2003-10-28

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was operated from 1982 until 1997. The last several years included operations with mixtures of deuterium and tritium. In September 2002, the three year Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Project for TFTR was successfully completed. The need to deal with tritium contamination as well as activated materials led to the adaptation of many techniques from the maintenance work during TFTR operations to the D&D effort. In addition, techniques from the decommissioning of fission reactors were adapted to the D&D of TFTR and several new technologies, most notably the development of a diamond wire cutting process for complex metal structures, were developed. These techniques, along with a project management system that closely linked the field crews to the engineering staff who developed the techniques and procedures via a Work Control Center, resulted in a project that was completed safely, on time, and well below budget.

  3. Test design description for the Fusion Materials Open Test Assembly (Fusion MOTA-2A): Volume 1A, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, R.E.

    1988-11-01

    This document encompasses the test requirements, hardware design, fabrication, and safety analysis for the Fusion Materials Open Test Assembly experiment for irradiation in FFTF Cycle 11 (Fusion MOTA-2A). Fusion MOTA is equally shared by the US Fusion Material (DOE), Japanese Fusion Materials (MONBUSHO), and BEATRIX-II (IEA) programs. In the interest of providing optimum use of the irradiation space in the Fusion MOTA-2A and LMR MOTA-1G, eight of the Fusion MOTA canisters will be placed in MOTA-1G and an equal number of LMR canisters placed in Fusion MOTA-2A (Powell/Doran 1988). This eliminates the need to process Fusion MOTA-2A through the IEM cell prior to insertion for FFTF Cycle 11A. The LMR MOTA design and safety analysis (Greenslade 1984) is the basis for much of this design and safety analysis report. This design description and safety analysis for the Fusion MOTA-2A is presented per the outline given in Chapter IV of the FTR User`s Guide (Taylor 1978). 35 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. IFE Final Optics and Chamber Dynamics Modeling and Experiments Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    F. Najmabadi; M. S. Tillack

    2006-01-11

    Our OFES-sponsored research on IFE technology originally focused on studies of grazing-incidence metal mirrors (GIMM's). After the addition of GIMM research to the High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program, our OFES-sponsored research evolved to include laser propagation studies, surface material evolution in IFE wetted-wall chambers, and magnetic intervention. In 2003, the OFES IFE Technology program was terminated. We continued to expend resources on a no-cost extension in order to complete student research projects in an orderly way and to help us explore new research directions. Those explorations led to funding in the field of extreme ultraviolet lithography, which shares many issues in common with inertial fusion chambers, and the field of radiative properties of laser-produced plasma.

  5. Pulsed X-Ray Exposures and Modeling for Tungsten as an IFE First Wall Material

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Schmitt, R C

    2004-09-21

    Dry-wall inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants must survive repeated exposure to target threats that include x-rays, ions, and neutrons. While this exposure may lead to sputtering, exfoliation, transmutation, and swelling, more basic effects are thermomechanical in nature. In the present work, we use the newly developed RadHeat code to predict time-temperature profiles in a tungsten armor, which has been proposed for use in an IFE power plant. The XAPPER x-ray damage experiment is used to simulate thermal effects by operating at fluences that produce similar peak temperatures, temperature gradients, or thermomechanical stresses. Soft x-ray fluences in excess of 1 J/cm{sup 2} are possible. Using RadHeat, we determine the XAPPER x-ray fluence needed to simulate thermomechanical effects expected in a typical IFE case of interest. Here, we report our findings and detail directions for future experiments and modeling.

  6. Research in Inertial Fusion Sciences: Now and in the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H T; Campbell, E M; Hogan, W J; Orth, C D

    2001-04-10

    We review the current and future state of research in inertial fusion sciences. We describe the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the IFE development plan, applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to various high-energy sciences, uses of petawatt laser systems, and concepts for the ICF integrated research experiment (IRE) and IFE power plants.

  7. Construction and testing of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kozman, T.; Shimer, D.; VanSant, J.; Zbasnik, J.

    1986-08-01

    This paper describes the construction and testing of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility superconducting magnet set. Construction of the first Yin Yang magnet was started in 1978. And although this particular magnet was later modified, the final construction of these magnets was not completed until 1985. When completed these 42 magnets weighed over 1200 tonnes and had a maximum stored energy of approximately 1200 MJ at full field. Together with power supplies, controls and liquid nitrogen radiation shields the cost of the fabrication of this system was over $100M. General Dynamics/Convair Division was responsible for the system design and the fabrication of 20 of the magnets. This contract was the largest single procurement action at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. During the PACE acceptance tests, the 26 major magnets were operated at full field for more than 24 hours while other MFTF subsystems were tested. From all of the data, the magnets operated to the performance specifications. For physics operation in the future, additional helium and nitrogen leak checking and repair will be necessary. In this report we will discuss the operation and testing of the MFTF Magnet System, the world's largest superconducting magnet set built to date. The topics covered include a schedule of the major events, summary of the fabrication work, summary of the installation work, summary of testing and test results, and lessons learned.

  8. PLANS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER EXPERIMENTS AND IFE TARGET EXPERIMENTS ON NDCX-II

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Friedman, A.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Ni, P.A.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.

    2008-09-22

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently developing design concepts for NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use ion beams to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will consist of a new short pulse injector and induction cells from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). To fit within an existing building and to meet the energy and temporal requirements of various target experiments, an aggressive beam compression and acceleration schedule is planned. WDM physics and ion-driven direct drive hydrodynamics will initially be explored with 30 nC of lithium ions in experiments involving ion deposition, ablation, acceleration and stability of planar targets. Other ion sources which may deliver higher charge per bunch will be explored. A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. Another test stand is being used to develop and characterize lithium-doped aluminosilicate ion sources. The first experiments will include heating metallic targets to 10,000 K and hydrodynamics studies with cryogenic hydrogen targets.

  9. New cold nuclear fusion theory and experimental tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeong E.

    1990-12-01

    A theory of neutron-induced tritium-deuterium fusion at room temperature is developed, based entirely on previously measured cross-sections of known nuclear reactions. The fusion process involves self-sustaining chain reactions: (1) n+6Li →4He+T and/or n+7Li→4He+T+ n, and (2) T+D →4He+n, in Li-D plasma or pellet surrounded by Li and other blankets and by neutron reflectors. The recent results of cold deuterium fusion reported by Fleischmann, Pons, and Hawkins are described in terms of this fusion process. Experimental evidence and tests of the chain reaction hypothesis are described.

  10. Experimental Test of the Polarization Persistence in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didelez, J. P.; Deutsch, C.; Fujiwara, M.; Nakai, M.; Utsuro, M.

    2016-03-01

    The complete deuteron and triton polarization in the DT fusion increases the reactivity by 50%. For Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), due to the dynamics of the fusion reaction process, the fusion rate could even be further increased. It has been argued that the polarization would survive as well in magnetic as in inertial confinements. Recently, we have proposed an experiment to test the persistence of the polarization in a fusion process, using a powerful laser hitting a polarized HD target.The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse. The corresponding reaction is: D + D → 3He + n. The angular distribution of the emitted neutrons and the change in the corresponding total cross section are signatures to estimate the polarization persistency. A proposal to test the persistence of the polarization in ICF has been accepted at ILE: the POLAF project (POlarization in LAser Fusion Process). It uses the polarized HD targets produced at RCNP and the powerful ILE lasers, as well as the neutron detectors existing there. Both institutions are on the same campus at Osaka University. The description of the POLAF experiment and of the corresponding set-up is given.

  11. Evaluation of Fluidized Beds for Mass Production of IFE Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Vermillion, B.A.; Brown, L.C.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Goodin, D.T.; Stemke, R.W.; Stephens, R.B.

    2005-01-15

    Of the building blocks of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) plant, target fabrication remains a significant credibility issue. For this reason, an extensive parametric study has been conducted on mass production of glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells in a vertical fluidized bed. Trans-2-butene was used as a reactant gas with hydrogen as a diluting and etching agent. Coating rates in the range of 1 to 2 {mu}m/h were demonstrated on batches of 30 shells where National Ignition Facility-quality surfaces were obtained for 3- to 5-{mu}m-thick coatings. Thick coatings up to 325 {mu}m were also demonstrated that are visually transparent, without void and stress fracture. A phenomenological understanding of the GDP growth mechanisms to guide future experiments was further established. Specifically, gas-phase precipitation and high-impact collisions were identified as the main surface-roughening mechanisms. The former produces dense cauliflower-like surface patterns that can be eliminated by adjusting the gas flow rates and the flow ratio. The latter produces isolated domelike surface defects that can be reduced by introducing concerted motion between the shells. By converting from a vertical to a horizontal configuration, fully transparent coatings were obtained on 350 shells. Collisions in a fluidized bed have been identified as the limiting factor in meeting IFE specifications, and a related-rotary kiln technique is recommended for scale-up.

  12. Process Model of the Gas Recovery System in an IFE reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, Charles; Aristova, Maria

    2007-11-01

    It is necessary to develop a detailed representative model for the fuel recovery system (FRS) in the prospective direct drive inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactor. In order to observe the interaction of all components, a chemical process model is developed as part of the conceptual design phase of the project. Initially, the reactants, system structure, and processes are defined using the known contents of the vacuum vessel exhaust. The output, which will include physical properties and chemical content of the products, is analyzed to determine the most efficient and productive system parameters. The results of the modeling will be presented in this paper. This modeling exercise will be instrumental in optimizing and closing the fusion fuel cycle in the IFE power reactor.

  13. Low cost, high yield IFE reactors: Revisiting Velikhov's vaporizing blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1992-03-06

    The performance (efficiency and cost) of IFE reactors using MHD conversion is explored for target blanket shells of various materials vaporized and ionized by high fusion yields (5 to 500 GJ). A magnetized, prestressed reactor chamber concept is modeled together with previously developed models for the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine II (CFARII) MHD Balance-of-Plant (BoP). Using conservative 1-D neutronics models, high fusion yields (20 to 80 GJ) are found necessary to heat Flibe, lithium, and lead-lithium blankets to MHD plasma temperatures, at initial solid thicknesses sufficient to capture most of the fusion yield. Advanced drivers/targets would need to be developed to achieve a Bang per Buck'' figure-of-merit {approx gt} 20 to 40 joules yield per driver $ for this scheme to be competitive with these blanket materials. Alternatively, more realistic neutronics models and better materials such as lithium hydride may lower the minimum required yields substantially. The very low CFARII BoP costs (contributing only 3 mills/kWehr to CoE) allows this type of reactor, given sufficient advances that non-driver costs dominate, to ultimately produce electricity at a much lower cost than any current nuclear plant.

  14. Plasma Physics Lab and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, 1989

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    From the Princeton University Archives: Promotional video about the Plasma Physics Lab and the new Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), with footage of the interior, machines, and scientists at work. This film is discussed in the audiovisual blog of the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, which holds the archives of Princeton University.

  15. Tritium experience in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.; Hosea, J.; Mueller, D.; Nagy, A.; Brooks, J.N.; Hogan, J.

    1998-07-01

    Tritium management is a key enabling element in fusion technology. Tritium fuel was used in 3.5 years of successful deuterium-tritium (D-T) operations in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The D-T campaign enabled TFTR to explore the transport, alpha physics, and MHD stability of a reactor core. It also provided experience with tritium retention and removal that highlighted the importance of these issues in future D-T machines. In this paper, the authors summarize the tritium retention and removal experience in TFTR and its implications for future reactors.

  16. Chamber and target technology development for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M; Besenbruch, G; Duke, J; Forman, L; Goodin, D; Gulec, K; Hoffer, J; Khater, H; Kulcinsky, G; Latkowski, J F; Logan, B G; Margevicious, B; Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Morley, N; Nobile, A; Payne, S; Peterson, P F; Peterson, R; Petzoldt, R; Schultz, K; Steckle, W; Sviatoslavsky, L; Tillack, M; Ying, A

    1999-04-07

    Fusion chambers and high pulse-rate target systems for inertial fusion energy (IFE) must: regenerate chamber conditions suitable for target injection, laser propagation, and ignition at rates of 5 to 10 Hz; extract fusion energy at temperatures high enough for efficient conversion to electricity; breed tritium and fuel targets with minimum tritium inventory; manufacture targets at low cost; inject those targets with sufficient accuracy for high energy gain; assure adequate lifetime of the chamber and beam interface (final optics); minimize radioactive waste levels and annual volumes; and minimize radiation releases under normal operating and accident conditions. The primary goal of the US IFE program over the next four years (Phase I) is to develop the basis for a Proof-of-Performance-level driver and target chamber called the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE will explore beam transport and focusing through prototypical chamber environment and will intercept surrogate targets at high pulse rep-rate. The IRE will not have enough driver energy to ignite targets, and it will be a non-nuclear facility. IRE options are being developed for both heavy ion and laser driven IFE. Fig. 1 shows that Phase I is prerequisite to an IRE, and the IRE plus NIF (Phase II) is prerequisite to a high-pulse rate. Engineering Test Facility and DEMO for IFE, leading to an attractive fusion power plant. This report deals with the Phase-I R&D needs for the chamber, driver/chamber interface (i.e., magnets for accelerators and optics for lasers), target fabrication, and target injection; it is meant to be part of a more comprehensive IFE development plan which will include driver technology and target design R&D. Because of limited R&D funds, especially in Phase I, it is not possible to address the critical issues for all possible chamber and target technology options for heavy ion or laser fusion. On the other hand, there is risk in addressing only one approach to each technology

  17. Status of the irradiation test vehicle for testing fusion materials in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.; Palmer, A.J.; Ingram, F.W.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1998-09-01

    The design of the irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been completed. The main application for the ITV is irradiation testing of candidate fusion structural materials, including vanadium-base alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low-activation steels. Construction of the vehicle is underway at the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO). Dummy test trains are being built for system checkout and fine-tuning. Reactor insertion of the ITV with the dummy test trains is scheduled for fall 1998. Barring unexpected difficulties, the ITV will be available for experiments in early 1999.

  18. The Dynamic Response of Thick-Liquid Shielding in Z-IFE Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, R P

    2005-10-05

    A major concern in the design of thick-liquid protected inertial fusion reactors of all types is the dynamic response of the shielding liquid to the pulsed explosions. Induced liquid motion can stress and damage solid chamber structures such as the firstwall. In a z-pinch based inertial fusion (Z-IFE) reactor this issue becomes particularly critical due to the relatively large proposed target yields of several GJ. In this paper we summarize an analysis of the liquid response taking into account ablation of target facing surfaces, pocket venting, and neutron isochoric heating. The impact of varying several reactor parameters is also discussed.

  19. Rep-Rated X-ray Damage and Ablation Experiments for IFE and ICF Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Payne, S A; Reyes, S; Schmitt, R C; Speth, J A

    2003-09-08

    The response of materials to high-dose x-ray exposures needs to be understood for inertial fusion energy (IFE) and inertial confinement fusion applications, where the requirements for IFE are considerably more stringent. In the IFE context, x-ray damage and/or small levels of ablation are of importance for component survivability, generation of debris, and contamination. Ablation quantities of even 1 angstrom per shot would result in material removal of more than 1 cm per year of operation. If even one part in a million of this material made its way to the final optics, it would coat them with a thickness equivalent to several waves of the laser light. Also, small-scale melting and thermomechanical effects, such as fatigue, can result from x-ray heating. These effects potentially become important when multiple shots are considered, and thus, their study requires use of rep-rated experiments. As a part of the High-Average Power Laser Program, the XAPPER experiment has been initiated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. XAPPER produces high doses of low-energy x-rays at repetition rates of up to 10 Hz. Study of x-ray damage is underway. An overview of facility capabilities, results to date, and future plans are provided.

  20. Beryllium pressure vessels for creep tests in magnetic fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Neef, W.S.

    1990-07-20

    Beryllium has interesting applications in magnetic fusion experimental machines and future power-producing fusion reactors. Chief among the properties of beryllium that make these applications possible is its ability to act as a neutron multiplier, thereby increasing the tritium breeding ability of energy conversion blankets. Another property, the behavior of beryllium in a 14-MeV neutron environment, has not been fully investigated, nor has the creep behavior of beryllium been studied in an energetic neutron flux at thermodynamically interesting temperatures. This small beryllium pressure vessel could be charged with gas to test pressures around 3, 000 psi to produce stress in the metal of 15,000 to 20,000 psi. Such stress levels are typical of those that might be reached in fusion blanket applications of beryllium. After contacting R. Powell at HEDL about including some of the pressure vessels in future test programs, we sent one sample pressure vessel with a pressurizing tube attached (Fig. 1) for burst tests so the quality of the diffusion bond joints could be evaluated. The gas used was helium. Unfortunately, budget restrictions did not permit us to proceed in the creep test program. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the lessons learned to date, including photographs of the test pressure vessel that show the tooling necessary to satisfactorily produce the diffusion bonds. This document can serve as a starting point for those engineers who resume this task when funds become available.

  1. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  2. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  3. Electrical energy and cost for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pence, G.A.

    1983-02-01

    An operational scenario for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility has been developed based on System Requirements, experience with existing systems, and discussions with project engineers and designers who are responsible for the systems. This scenario was used to project the electrical energy required for the facility. Each system is listed showing the equipment that has been considered, the amount of power requested, and in most cases, the power that it is now connected.

  4. The solenoidal transport option: IFE drivers, near term research facilities, and beam dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.; Briggs, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    Solenoidal magnets have been used as the beam transport system in all the high current electron induction accelerators that have been built in the past several decades. They have also been considered for the front end transport system for heavy ion accelerators for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) drivers, but this option has received very little attention in recent years. The analysis reported here was stimulated mainly by the recent effort to define an affordable {open_quotes}Integrated Research Experiment{close_quotes} (IRE) that can meet the near term needs of the IFE program. The 1996 FESAC IFE review panel agreed that an integrated experiment is needed to fully resolve IFE heavy ion driver science and technology issues; specifically, {open_quotes}the basic beam dynamics issues in the accelerator, the final focusing and transport issues in a reactor-relevant beam parameter regime, and the target heating phenomenology{close_quotes}. The development of concepts that can meet these technical objectives and still stay within the severe cost constraints all new fusion proposals will encounter is a formidable challenge. Solenoidal transport has a very favorable scaling as the particle mass is decreased (the main reason why it is preferred for electrons in the region below 50 MeV). This was recognized in a recent conceptual study of high intensity induction linac-based proton accelerators for Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies, where solenoidal transport was chosen for the front end. Reducing the ion mass is an obvious scaling to exploit in an IRE design, since the output beam voltage will necessarily be much lower than that of a full scale driver, so solenoids should certainly be considered as one option for this experiment as well.

  5. Tritium Breeding Blanket for a Commercial Fusion Power Plant - A System Engineering Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Wayne R.

    2014-04-14

    The goal of developing a new source of electric power based on fusion has been pursued for decades. If successful, future fusion power plants will help meet growing world-wide demand for electric power. A key feature and selling point for fusion is that its fuel supply is widely distributed globally and virtually inexhaustible. Current world-wide research on fusion energy is focused on the deuterium-tritium (DT for short) fusion reaction since it will be the easiest to achieve in terms of the conditions (e.g., temperature, density and confinement time of the DT fuel) required to produce net energy. Over the past decades countless studies have examined various concepts for TBBs for both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE). At this time, the key organizations involved are government sponsored research organizations world-wide. The near-term focus of the MFE community is on the development of TBB mock-ups to be tested on the ITER tokamak currently under construction in Caderache France. TBB concepts for IFE tend to be different from MFE primarily due to significantly different operating conditions and constraints. This report focuses on longer-term commercial power plants where the key stakeholders include: electric utilities, plant owner and operator, manufacturer, regulators, utility customers, and in-plant subsystems including the heat transfer and conversion systems, fuel processing system, plant safety systems, and the monitoring control systems.

  6. Model year 2010 Ford Fusion Level-1 testing report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, E.; Bocci, D.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-23

    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Ford Fusion was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of vehicle-level testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network information, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles, and A/C usage cycles were conducted. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database. The major results are shown in this report. Given the benchmark nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and sought to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from an exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current/voltage from a DC power analyzer, and CAN bus data such as engine speed, engine load, and electric machine operation. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Fusion and provide insight into unique features of its operation and design.

  7. Tandem mirror magnet system for the mirror fusion test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bulmer, R.H.; Van Sant, J.H.

    1980-10-14

    The Tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) will be a large magnetic fusion experimental facility containing 22 supercounducting magnets including solenoids and C-coils. State-of-the-art technology will be used extensively to complete this facility before 1985. Niobium titanium superconductor and stainless steel structural cases will be the principle materials of construction. Cooling will be pool boiling and thermosiphon flow of 4.5 K liquid helium. Combined weight of the magnets will be over 1500 tonnes and the stored energy will be over 1600 MJ. Magnetic field strength in some coils will be more than 8 T. Detail design of the magnet system will begin early 1981. Basic requirements and conceptual design are disclosed in this paper.

  8. Sexual assault in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Badejoko, Olusegun Olalekan; Anyabolu, Henry Chineme; Badejoko, Bolaji Olusola; Ijarotimi, Adebimpe Omotade; Kuti, Oluwafemi; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual assault (SA) is a shattering malevolence against women. This study determined the burden, periodicity, presentation and management of SA in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 76 SA survivors managed over a 5-year period (2007-2011) in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife. Results: Sexual assault accounted for 0.69% of all female and 5.2% of all gynaecological emergencies in OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. The survivors’ ages ranged from 4 to 50 years (mean = 17.7 ± 8.8years) and adolescents made up for 48%. The peak prevalence of SA was in February and December and among adults and under-16-year-old survivors, respectively. Daytime and weekday SA were significantly more common among the under-16-year-old survivors (P = 0.008). Majority of the survivors (62%) knew their assailant(s). Neighbours were the commonest perpetrators identified (28.2%) and the assailants’ house was the commonest location (39.4%). Weapons were involved in 29.6% of cases and various injuries were identified in 28.2% of the survivors. Hospital presentation was within 24 hours in majority (76.1%) of the survivors, but rape kit examinations were not performed as the kits were not available. Although appropriate medical management was routinely commenced, only 12.7% of survivors returned for follow-up. Conclusions: Seasonal and diurnal patterns exist in the prevalence of SA in Ile-Ife and most survivors that reported in the hospital presented early. Rape kit examinations were, however, not executed, due to non-availability. Personnel training, protocol development, provision of rape kits and free treatment of SA survivors are, therefore, recommended. Public enlightenment on preventive strategies based on the observed periodicity and age patterns is also suggested. PMID:25013260

  9. Deuterium-tritium experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hosea, J.; Adler, J.H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J.L.; Anderson, J.W.; Arunasalam, V.; Ascione, G.; Ashcroft, D.

    1994-09-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) experimental program on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is underway and routine tritium operations have been established. The technology upgrades made to the TFTR facility have been demonstrated to be sufficient for supporting both operations and maintenance for an extended D-T campaign. To date fusion power has been increased to {approx}9 MW and several physics results of importance to the D-T reactor regime have been obtained: electron temperature, ion temperature, and plasma stored energy all increase substantially in the D-T regime relative to the D-D regime at the same neutral beam power and comparable limiter conditioning; possible alpha electron heating is indicated and energy confinement improvement with average ion mass is observed; and alpha particle losses appear to be classical with no evidence of TAE mode activity up to the PFUS {approx}6 MW level. Instability in the TAE mode frequency range has been observed at PFUS > 7 MW and its effect on performance in under investigation. Preparations are underway to enhance the alpha particle density further by increasing fusion power and by extending the neutral beam pulse length to permit alpha particle effects of relevance to the ITER regime to be more fully explored.

  10. Diamond Wire Cutting of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Rule; Erik Perry; Robert Parsells

    2003-01-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a-kind, tritium-fueled fusion research reactor that ceased operation in April 1997. As a result, decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The 100 cubic meter volume of the donut-shaped reactor makes it the second largest fusion reactor in the world. The deuterium-tritium experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 MeV neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies, while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the tokamak present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Engineers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) decided to investigate an alternate, innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR vacuum vessel: diamond wire cutting technology. In August 1999, this technology was successfully demonstrated and evaluated on vacuum vessel surrogates. Subsequently, the technology was improved and redesigned for the actual cutting of the vacuum vessel. Ten complete cuts were performed in a 6-month period to complete the removal of this unprecedented type of D&D (Decontamination and Decommissioning) activity.

  11. DIAMOND WIRE CUTTING OF THE TOKAMAK FUSION TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, Keith; Perry, Erik; Parsells, Robert

    2003-02-27

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a-kind, tritium-fueled fusion research reactor that ceased operation in April 1997. As a result, decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The 100 cubic meter volume of the donut-shaped reactor makes it the second largest fusion reactor in the world. The deuterium-tritium experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Engineers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) decided to investigate an alternate, innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR vacuum vessel: diamond wire cutting technology. In August 1999, this technology was successfully demonstrated and evaluated on vacuum vessel surrogates. Subsequently, the techno logy was improved and redesigned for the actual cutting of the vacuum vessel. 10 complete cuts were performed in a 6-month period to complete the removal of this unprecedented type of D&D activity.

  12. Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

    1998-12-14

    Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

  13. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) as an irradiation test bed for fusion materials and components

    SciTech Connect

    Greenslade, D.L.; Puigh, R.J.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Grover, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    The relatively large irradiation volume, instrumentation capabilities, and fast neutron flux associated with the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) make this reactor an ideal test bed for fusion materials and components irradiations. Significant fusion materials irradiations are presently being performed in the Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA) in FFTF. The MOTA is providing a controlled temperature and high neutron flux environment for such materials as the low activation alloys, copper alloys, ceramic insulators, and high heat flux materials. Conceptual designs utilizing the versatile MOTA irradiation vehicle have been developed to investigate irradiation effects on the mechanical and tritium breeding behaviors of solid breeder materials. More aggressive conceptual designs have also been developed to irradiate solid breeder blanket submodules in the FFTF. These specific component test designs will be presented and their potential roles in the development of fusion technology discussed.

  14. Use of the National Ignition Facility for the development of inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, M.; Logan, G.; Anderson, A.; Delarubiadiaz, T.

    1994-06-01

    The primary purpose of the workshop was to gather input from the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) laboratories, private industry, and universities on the potential use of the NIF to conduct experiments in support of the development of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). To accomplish this, we asked over 60 workshop participants to identify key credibility and development issues for IFE in four areas: Target Physics --Issues related to the design and performance of targets for IFE; Chamber Dynamics -- Issues in IFE chambers resulting from the deposition of x-rays and debris; Inertial Fusion Power Technology -- Issues for energy conversion, tritium breeding and processing, and radiation shielding; interactions of neutrons with materials; and chamber design; Target System -- Issues related to automated, high-production-rate manufacture of low-cost targets for IFE, target handling and transport, target injection, tracking, and beam pointing. These topics are discussed in this report.

  15. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  16. Conceptual Engineering Method for Attenuating He Ion Interactions on First Wall Components in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Employing a Low-Pressure Noble Gas

    SciTech Connect

    C.A.Gentile, W.R.Blanchard, T.Kozub, C.Priniski, I.Zatz, S.Obenschain

    2009-09-21

    It has been shown that post detonation energetic helium ions can drastically reduce the useful life of the (dry) first wall of an IFE reactor due to the accumulation of implanted helium. For the purpose of attenuating energetic helium ions from interacting with first wall components in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber, several concepts have been advanced. These include magnetic intervention (MI), deployment of a dynamically moving first wall, use of a sacrificial shroud, designing the target chamber large enough to mitigate the damage caused by He ions on the target chamber wall, and the use of a low pressure noble gas resident in the target chamber during pulse power operations. It is proposed that employing a low-pressure (~ 1 torr equivalent) noble gas in the target chamber will thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall. The principle benefit of this concept is the simplicity of the design and the utilization of (modified) existing technologies for pumping and processing the noble ambient gas. Although the gas load in the system would be increased over other proposed methods, the use of a "gas shield" may provide a cost effective method of greatly extending the first wall of the target chamber. An engineering study has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering metmethods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the FTF.

  17. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    DOE PAGES

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well asmore » to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.« less

  18. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well as to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.

  19. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-10-01

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well as to directly driven laser fusion. This synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.

  20. Transient getter scheme for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cecchi, J.L.; Cohen, S.A.; Sredniawski, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to attain the largest fusion power gain depends critically on minimizing plasma contamination and controlling the densities of the reacting deuterium and tritium. Experiments on a number of tokamaks have demonstrated that gettering over an appreciable surface area (> or = 10%) of the vacuum vessel greatly facilitates both of these objectives. One particular problem in implementing a surface pumping system in TFTR, however, is a restriction on the maximum allowable tritium content of the getter. This restriction could require regeneration of the absorbed tritium after as few as 50 machine pulses. We have developed a scheme utilizing SAES Zr/Al getter modules which obviates the need for such frequent interruptions of machine operation by taking advantage of the pulsed operation of TFTR. With the Zr/Al getter at temperatures between 500/sup 0/--600/sup 0/C it is possible to achieve a quasisteady state in the tritium loading where the quantity of tritium desorbed between pulses is equal to the quantity which is absorbed during a pulse. Since frequent thermal cycling is not required, this scheme also reduces the possibility of Zr/Al getter material fatigue.

  1. Transient getter scheme for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cecchi, J.L.; Cohen, S.A.; Sredniawski, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) to attain the largest fusion power gain depends critically on minimizing plasma contamination and controlling the densities of the reacting deuterium and tritium. Experiments on a number of tokamaks have demonstrated that gettering over an appreciable surface area (greater than or equal to 10%) of the vacuum vessel greatly facilitates both of these objectives. One particular problem in implementing a surface pumping system in TFTR, however, is a restriction on the maximum allowable tritium content of the getter. This restriction could require regeneration of the absorbed tritium after as few as 50 machine pulses. We have developed a scheme utilizing SAES Zr/Al getter modules which obviates the need for such frequent interruptions of machine operation by taking advantage of the pulsed operation of TFTR. With the Zr/Al getter at temperatures between 500/sup 0/C to 600/sup 0/C it is possible to achieve a quasi-steady state in the tritium loading where the quantity of tritium desorbed between pulses is equal to the quantity which is absorbed during a pulse. Since frequent thermal cycling is not required, this scheme also reduces the possibility of Zr/Al getter material fatigue.

  2. Tritium pellet injector design for tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Baylor, L.R.; Bryan, W.E.; Combs, S.K.; Easterly, C.E.; Lunsford, R.V.; Milora, S.L.; Schuresko, D.D.; White, J.A.; Williamson, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    A tritium pellet injector (TPI) system has been designed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Q approx. 1 phase of operation. The injector gun utilizes a radial design with eight independent barrels and a common extruder to minimize tritium inventory. The injection line contains guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations and fast valves to minimize propellant leakage to the torus. The vacuum system is designed for tritium compatibility. The entire injector system is contained in a glove box for secondary containment protection against tritium release. Failure modes and effects have been analyzed, and structural analysis has been performed for most intense predicted earthquake conditions. Details of the design and operation of this system are presented in this paper.

  3. Plasma source development for fusion-relevant material testing

    DOE PAGES

    Caughman, John B. O.; Goulding, Richard H.; Biewer, Theodore M.; ...

    2017-05-01

    Plasma facing materials in the divertor of a magnetic fusion reactor will have to tolerate steady-state plasma heat fluxes in the range of 10 MW/m2 for ~107 sec, in addition to fusion neutron fluences, which can damage the plasma facing materials to high displacements per atom (dpa) of ~50 dpa . Material solutions needed for the plasma facing components are yet to be developed and tested. The Materials Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) is a newly proposed steady state linear plasma device that is designed to deliver the necessary plasma heat flux to a target for this material testing, including themore » capability to expose a-priori neutron damaged material samples to those plasmas. The requirements of the plasma source needed to deliver this plasma heat flux are being developed on the Proto-MPEX device, which is a linear high-intensity radio frequency (RF) plasma source that combines a high-density helicon plasma generator with electron and ion heating sections. It is being used to study the physics of heating over-dense plasmas in a linear configuration. The helicon plasma is operated at 13.56 MHz with RF power levels up to 120 kW. Microwaves at 28 GHz (~30 kW) are coupled to the electrons in the over-dense helicon plasma via Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW), and ion cyclotron heating at 7-9 MHz (~30 kW) is via a magnetic beach approach. High plasma densities >6x1019/m3 have been produced in deuterium, with electron temperatures that can range from 2 to >10 eV. Operation with on-axis magnetic field strengths between 0.6 and 1.4 T is typical. The plasma heat flux delivered to a target can be > 10 MW/m2, depending on the operating conditions.« less

  4. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    importance for the fusion power plant research programmes. The objective of this Technical Meeting was to examine in an integrated way all the safety aspects anticipated to be relevant to the first fusion power plant prototype expected to become operational by the middle of the century, leading to the first generation of economically viable fusion power plants with attractive S&E features. After screening by guest editors and consideration by referees, 13 (out of 28) papers were accepted for publication. They are devoted to the following safety topics: power plant safety; fusion specific operational safety approaches; test blanket modules; accident analysis; tritium safety and inventories; decommissioning and waste. The paper `Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants' by W. Gulden et al (EU) highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants with magnetic confinement (off-site dose acceptance criteria, consequences of accidents inside and outside the design basis, occupational radiation exposure, and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories) on the basis of the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study. Ongoing S&E studies within the US inertial fusion energy (IFE) community are focusing on two design concepts. These are the high average power laser (HAPL) programme for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant, and the Z-pinch IFE programme for the production of an economically-attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. The main safety issues related to these programmes are reviewed in the paper `Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US' by S. Reyes et al (USA). The authors propose future directions of research in the IFE S&E area. In the paper `Recent accomplishments and future directions in the US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program' D. Petti et al (USA) state that the US fusion programme has long recognized that the S

  5. Developments in inertial fusion energy and beam fusion at magnetic confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, Heinrich

    2004-10-01

    The 70-year anniversary of the first nuclear fusion reaction of hydrogen isotopes by Oliphant, Harteck, and Rutherford is an opportunity to realize how beam fusion is the path for energy production, including both branches, the magnetic confinement fusion and the inertial fusion energy (IFE). It is intriguing that Oliphant's basic concept for igniting controlled fusion reactions by beams has made a comeback even for magnetic confinement plasma, after this beam fusion concept was revealed by the basically nonlinear processes of the well-known alternative of inertial confinement fusion using laser or particle beams. After reviewing the main streams of both directions some results are reported—as an example of possible alternatives—about how experiments with skin layer interaction and avoiding relativistic self-focusing of clean PW ps laser pulses for IFE may possibly lead to a simplified fusion reactor scheme without the need for special compression of solid deuterium tritium fuel.

  6. Hybrid Kinetic-Fluid Electromagnetic Simulations of Imploding High Energy Density Plasmas for IFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Dale; Rose, Dave; Thoma, Carsten; Genoni, Thomas; Bruner, Nichelle; Clark, Robert; Stygar, William; Leeper, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    A new simulation technique is being developed to study high current and moderate density-radius product (ρR) z-pinch plasmas relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). Fully kinetic, collisional, and electromagnetic simulations of the time evolution of up to 40-MA current (deuterium and DT) z-pinches, but with relatively low ρR, have yielded new insights into the mechanisms of neutron production. At fusion relevant conditions (ρR > 0.01 gm/cm2) , however, this technique requires a prohibitively large number of cells and particles. A new hybrid implicit technique has been developed that accurately describes high-density and magnetized imploding plasmas. The technique adapts a recently published algorithm, that enables accurate descriptions of highly magnetized particle orbits, to high density plasmas and also makes use of an improved kinetic particle remap technique. We will discuss the new technique, stable range of operation, and application to an IFE relevant z-pinch design at 60 MA. Work supported by Sandia National Laboratories.

  7. Flux-fusion anomaly test and bosonic topological crystalline insulators

    DOE PAGES

    Hermele, Michael; Chen, Xie

    2016-10-13

    Here, we introduce a method, dubbed the flux-fusion anomaly test, to detect certain anomalous symmetry fractionalization patterns in two-dimensional symmetry-enriched topological (SET) phases. We focus on bosonic systems with Z2 topological order and a symmetry group of the form G=U(1)xG', where G' is an arbitrary group that may include spatial symmetries and/or time reversal. The anomalous fractionalization patterns we identify cannot occur in strictly d=2 systems but can occur at surfaces of d=3 symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases. This observation leads to examples of d=3 bosonic topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) that, to our knowledge, have not previously been identified. In somemore » cases, these d=3 bosonic TCIs can have an anomalous superfluid at the surface, which is characterized by nontrivial projective transformations of the superfluid vortices under symmetry. The basic idea of our anomaly test is to introduce fluxes of the U(1) symmetry and to show that some fractionalization patterns cannot be extended to a consistent action of G' symmetry on the fluxes. For some anomalies, this can be described in terms of dimensional reduction to d=1 SPT phases. We apply our method to several different symmetry groups with nontrivial anomalies, including G=U(1)×ZT2 and G=U(1)×ZP2, where ZT2 and ZP2 are time-reversal and d=2 reflection symmetry, respectively.« less

  8. Flux-Fusion Anomaly Test and Bosonic Topological Crystalline Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermele, Michael; Chen, Xie

    2016-10-01

    We introduce a method, dubbed the flux-fusion anomaly test, to detect certain anomalous symmetry fractionalization patterns in two-dimensional symmetry-enriched topological (SET) phases. We focus on bosonic systems with Z2 topological order and a symmetry group of the form G =U (1 )⋊G' , where G' is an arbitrary group that may include spatial symmetries and/or time reversal. The anomalous fractionalization patterns we identify cannot occur in strictly d =2 systems but can occur at surfaces of d =3 symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases. This observation leads to examples of d =3 bosonic topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) that, to our knowledge, have not previously been identified. In some cases, these d =3 bosonic TCIs can have an anomalous superfluid at the surface, which is characterized by nontrivial projective transformations of the superfluid vortices under symmetry. The basic idea of our anomaly test is to introduce fluxes of the U(1) symmetry and to show that some fractionalization patterns cannot be extended to a consistent action of G' symmetry on the fluxes. For some anomalies, this can be described in terms of dimensional reduction to d =1 SPT phases. We apply our method to several different symmetry groups with nontrivial anomalies, including G =U (1 )×Z2T and G =U (1 )×Z2P , where Z2T and Z2P are time-reversal and d =2 reflection symmetry, respectively.

  9. Initial testing of the tritium systems at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Sissingh, R.A.P.; Gentile, C.A.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Walters, R.T.; Voorhees, D.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton will start its D-T experiments in late 1993, introducing and operating the tokamak with tritium in order to begin the study of burning plasma physics in D-T. Trace tritium injection experiments, using small amounts of tritium will begin in the fall of 1993. In preparation for these experiments, a series of tests with low concentrations of tritium inn deuterium have been performed as an initial qualification of the tritium systems. These tests began in April 1993. This paper describes the initial testing of the equipment in the TFTR tritium facility.

  10. Recent Contributions to the Use of Polyimide in the Fabrication of ICF and IFE Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Forbes R

    2004-03-15

    This paper discusses some recent contributions to the use of polyimide in the fabrication of targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). Polyimide has many desirable properties, including much higher strength and the ability to withstand much higher temperatures than similar polymer films. Recent research efforts have focused on the use of polyimide in a number of applications including gasbag targets, hohlraum windows, spherical target capsules, anti-convection baffles and various shaped membranes such as target capsule supports and cylindrical z-pinch targets where polyimide's advantages contribute to superior target performance. Also covered are the fabrication of thick-wall target capsules and the potential production of thin-wall spherical capsules by a fully automated process.

  11. Tritium pellet injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the CY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

  12. Tritium pellet injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.

    1992-11-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the CY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

  13. Charge-exchange and fusion reaction measurements during compression experiments with neutral beam heating in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hammett, G.W.; Chan, A.A.; England, A.C.; Hendel, H.W.; Medley, S.S.; Nieschmidt, E.; Roquemore, A.L.; Scott, S.D.

    1986-04-01

    Adiabatic toroidal compression experiments were performed in conjunction with high power neutral beam injection in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Acceleration of beam ions to energies nearly twice the injection energy was measured with a charge-exchange neutral particle analyzer. Measurements were also made of 2.5 MeV neutrons and 15 MeV protons produced in fusion reactions between the deuterium beam ions and the thermal deuterium and /sup 3/He ions, respectively. When the plasma was compressed, the d(d,n)/sup 3/He fusion reaction rate increased a factor of five, and the /sup 3/He(d,p)/sup 4/He rate by a factor of twenty. These data were simulated with a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck program, which assumed conservation of angular momentum and magnetic moment during compression. The results indicate that the beam ion acceleration was consistent with adiabatic scaling.

  14. Ion cyclotron transmission spectroscopy in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.J.

    1993-09-01

    The propagation of waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies has been investigated experimentally in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. A small, broadband, radiofrequency (rf) magnetic probe located outside the plasma limiter, at a major radius near that of the plasma center, was excited with a low power, frequency swept source (1--200 MHz). Waves propagating to a distant location were detected with a second, identical probe. The rf transmission spectrum revealed a region of attenuation over a band of frequencies for which the minority fundamental resonance was located between the outer plasma edge and the major radius of the probe location. Distinct, non-overlapping attenuation bands were observed from hydrogen and helium-3 minority species; a distinct tritium band should be observed in future DT experiments. Rapid spectrum acquisition during a helium-3 gas puff experiment showed that the wave attenuation involved the plasma core and was not a surface effect. A model in which the received power varied exponentially with the minority density, averaged over the resonance region, fit the time evolution of the probe signal relatively well. Estimation of a 1-d tunneling parameter from the experimental observations is discussed. Minority concentrations of less than 0.5 % can be resolved with this measurement.

  15. Modeling Laser Effects on the Final Optics in Simulated IFE Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nasr Ghoniem

    2004-08-14

    When laser light interacts with a material's surface, photons rapidly heat the electronic system, resulting in very fast energy transfer to the underlying atomic crystal structure. The intense rate of energy deposition in the shallow sub-surface layer creates atomic defects, which alter the optical characteristics of the surface itself. In addition, the small fraction of energy absorbed in the mirror leads to its global deformation by thermal and gravity loads (especially for large surface area mirrors). The aim of this research was to model the deformation of mirror surfaces at multiple length and time scales for applications in advanced Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) systems. The goal is to control micro- and macro-deformations by material system and structural design. A parallel experimental program at UCSD has been set up to validate the modeling efforts. The main objective of the research program was to develop computer models and simulations for Laser-Induced Damage (LID) in reflective and transmissive final optical elements in IFE laser-based systems. A range of materials and material concepts were investigated and verified by experiments at UCSD. Four different classes of materials were considered: (1) High-reflectivity FCC metals (e.g. Cu, Au, Ag, and Al), (2) BCC metals (e.g. Mo, Ta and W), (3) Advanced material concepts (e.g. functionally graded material systems, amorphous coatings, and layered structures), and (4) Transmissive dielectrics (e.g. fused SiO2). In this report, we give a summary of the three-year project, followed by details in three areas: (1) Characterization of laser-induced damage; (2) Theory development for LIDT; and (3) Design of IFE reflective laser mirrors.

  16. The Seismic Aftershock Monitoring System (SAMS) for OSI - Experiences from IFE14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestermann, Nicolai; Sick, Benjamin; Häge, Martin; Blake, Thomas; Labak, Peter; Joswig, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    An on-site inspection (OSI) is the third of four elements of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The sole purpose of an OSI is to confirm whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the treaty and to gather any facts which might assist in identifying any possible violator. It thus constitutes the final verification measure under the CTBT if all other available measures are not able to confirm the nature of a suspicious event. The Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) carried out the Integrated Field Exercise 2014 (IFE14) in the Dead Sea Area of Jordan from 3 November to 9. December 2014. It was a fictitious OSI whose aim was to test the inspection capabilities in an integrated manner. The technologies allowed during an OSI are listed in the Treaty. The aim of the Seismic Aftershock Monitoring System (SAMS) is to detect and localize aftershocks of low magnitudes of the triggering event or collapses of underground cavities. The locations of these events are expected in the vicinity of a possible previous explosion and help to narrow down the search area within an inspection area (IA) of an OSI. The success of SAMS depends on the main elements, hardware, software, deployment strategy, the search logic and not least the effective use of personnel. All elements of SAMS were tested and improved during the Built-Up Exercises (BUE) which took place in Austria and Hungary. IFE14 provided more realistic climatic and hazardous terrain conditions with limited resources. Significant variations in topography of the IA of IFE14 in the mountainous Dead Sea Area of Jordan led to considerable challenges which were not expected from experiences encountered during BUE. The SAMS uses mini arrays with an aperture of about 100 meters and with a total of 4 elements. The station network deployed during IFE14 and results of the data analysis will be presented. Possible aftershocks of

  17. ILSE: The next step toward a heavy ion induction accelerator for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.; Bangerter, R.; Berners, D.; Chew, J.; Eylon, S.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.; Fong, C.; Fong, M.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; Judd, D.; Lee, E.; Lionberger, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Peters, C.; Pike, C.; Raymond, G.; Reginato, L.; Rutkowski, H.; Seidl, P.; Smith, L.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S. ); Deadrick, F.; Friedman, A.; Griffith, L.; Hewett, D.; Newton, M.; Shay, H. (Lawrence Liver

    1992-07-01

    LBL and LLNL propose to build, at LBL, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive'' inertial-confinement fusion targets. ILSE, although much smaller than a driver, will be the first experiment at full driver scale in several important parameters. Most notable among these are line charge density and beam cross section. Many other accelerator components and beam manipulations needed for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) driver will be tested. The ILSE accelerator and research program will permit experimental study of those beam manipulations required of an induction linac inertial fusion driver which have not been tested sufficiently in previous experiments, and will provide a step toward driver technology.

  18. ILSE: The next step toward a heavy ion induction accelerator for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.; Bangerter, R.; Berners, D.; Chew, J.; Eylon, S.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.; Fong, C.; Fong, M.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; Judd, D.; Lee, E.; Lionberger, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Peters, C.; Pike, C.; Raymond, G.; Reginato, L.; Rutkowski, H.; Seidl, P.; Smith, L.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S.; Deadrick, F.; Friedman, A.; Griffith, L.; Hewett, D.; Newton, M.; Shay, H.

    1992-07-01

    LBL and LLNL propose to build, at LBL, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or ``drive`` inertial-confinement fusion targets. ILSE, although much smaller than a driver, will be the first experiment at full driver scale in several important parameters. Most notable among these are line charge density and beam cross section. Many other accelerator components and beam manipulations needed for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) driver will be tested. The ILSE accelerator and research program will permit experimental study of those beam manipulations required of an induction linac inertial fusion driver which have not been tested sufficiently in previous experiments, and will provide a step toward driver technology.

  19. Target Injector and Sabot Remover for IFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroki; Kameyama, Nobukazu

    2012-10-01

    Target injectors for IFE are required to inject targets to the reactor center at a velocity of over 100 m/s with accuracy of several millimeters. A target injector system with a magnetic sabot remover is developed to demonstrate injection of polystyrene targets. A typical target used in this study is 4.0 mm in diameter and 0.8 mg in weight. It is inserted in to an aluminum sabot that is 9.2 mm in outer diameter and 40 mm in length. They are accelerated together by a pneumatic gun. Before injection into the reactor, the sabot is removed for laser irradiation. The sabot remover is composed of Neodymium magnets array that generates Lorentz force as a result of interaction between the magnets' field and induced current on the sabot. The Neodymium magnets are 14 mm at inner diameter and 316 mT on its surface. The magnetic array is designed and optimized its magnets number for complete target extraction. The theoretically and experimentally confirmed deceleration rate of the sabot is 60.2 m/s/s per one meter. The targets are shot into the vacuum chamber after extraction from the sabot at accelerated velocity of 30 m/s. The experimentally obtained injection accuracy is 5.3 mm in horizontal direction and 4.8 mm in vertical direction.

  20. Radiological Issues for the Thin Liquid Walls of ARIES-IFE Study

    SciTech Connect

    El-Guebaly, L.; Wilson, P.; Henderson, D.; Waganer, L.; Raffray, R.

    2003-09-15

    Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants employ liquid wall materials to protect the structure against the energetic x-rays, ions, and debris emitted from the target following each shot. The objective of this assessment is to identify the radiological issues of the candidate liquid wall materials (Pb, LiPb, Sn, and Flibe) using the ARIES-IFE radiation chamber environment. The issues to be addressed include the radioactivity level and liquid waste minimization for waste management. Specifically, the liquids are evaluated with regard to the Class C limitation for waste disposal, a top-level requirement for all ARIES power plant designs. Two extreme cases were analyzed; the worst case is separation of the liquid wall material (highest radiation exposure) and the breeder (lowest radiation exposure), and the best case is the mixing of the two liquid streams. Both tangential and porous wall injection schemes were examined. Pb and LiPb are more radioactive than Sn and Flibe. For the liquid breeder system, the porous wall injection scheme with mixed liquid flows results in the lowest waste disposal rating and smallest waste stream achieved in our study.

  1. Mechanical response and fatigue analysis of the first wall of the prometheus IFE reactor

    SciTech Connect

    El-Azab, A.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1994-12-31

    Following the micro explosions in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactor, the first wall structures are subjected to time-dependent mechanical and thermal loads, which result in stresses and displacements that vary with time. In the Prometheus IFE reactor the first wall is protected by a flowing thin film of liquid lead. The mechanical loading on the first wall includes two different mechanisms: (1) surface ablation momentum due to the early deposition of x-rays and the instantaneous evaporation of the protecting film, at the instant of the micro explosion, and (2) time dependent pressure due to propagating pressure waves that travel between the first wall and the center of the reactor chamber. Careful determination of the resulting stresses in the first wall structures helps choose and design these structures for maximum fatigue life time. In the present work, a solution of the equation of motion of the first wall structural elements and the associated stresses and displacements is presented. It is found that segmentation of the first wall into smaller plates minimizes the resulting stresses and, in turn, prolongs the fatigue life time of the first wall.

  2. Inertial Fusion Energy Studies on an Earth Simulator-Class Computer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Stephens, R

    2002-08-13

    The U.S. is developing fusion energy based on inertial confinement of the burning fusion fuel, as a complement to the magnetic confinement approach. DOE's Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program within the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) is coordinated with, and gains leverage from, the much larger Inertial Confinement Fusion program of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Advanced plasma and particle beam simulations play a major role in the IFE effort, and the program is well poised to benefit from an Earth Simulator-class resource. Progress in all key physics areas of IFE, including heavy-ion ''drivers'' which impart the energy to the fusion fuel, the targets for both ion- and laser-driven approaches, and an advanced concept known as fast ignition, would be dramatically accelerated by an Earth Simulator-class resource.

  3. Target Properties Effects on Central versus Peripheral Vertical Fusion Interaction Tested on a 3D Platform.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Di; Neveu, Pascaline; Fattakhova, Yulia; Ferragut, Stéphanie; Lamard, Mathieu; Cochener, Béatrice; de Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, Jean-Louis

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the impact of target properties on vertical fusion amplitude (VFA) using a 3D display platform; the performance of the subjects allowed us to assess how central and peripheral retina regions interact during the fusion process. Fourteen subjects were involved in the test. VFA was recorded by varying the viewing distance, target complexity, disparity velocity, lighting condition and background luminance. Base-up prisms were introduced to create vertical disparity in the peripheral retinal area, whereas an offset compensation was added in the central area. Data were analyzed in JMP software using T-test and repeated-measures ANOVA tests. VFA is significantly affected by target properties including viewing distance, target complexity and disparity velocity; the impact from lighting condition and background luminance is not significant. Although central retina plays a crucial role in the fusion process, peripheral regions also affect the fusion performance when stimulus size on retina and contents disparity values are modified between central and peripheral vision. Vertical fusion is affected by various target properties. For the first time, peripheral vertical disparity direction effects on central fusion and eye motion response have been explored. Besides, a quantitative interaction of central and peripheral fusion is observed, which could be applied in clinical measurement on binocular disease concerning central and peripheral vision conflict.

  4. Radioactivation characteristics for the tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, L.; Kolibal, J.G.

    1983-11-01

    Activation analysis has been conducted for several primary fusion blanket materials based on a model of a commercial tokamak fusion reactor design, STARFIRE. The blanket materials studied include two solid tritium breeders, viz., Li/sub 2/O and ..cap alpha..-LiAlO/sub 2/, and four candidate structural materials, viz., PCA stainless steel, V15Cr5Ti, Ti6Al4V, and Al-6063 alloys. The importance of breeder material activation is identified in terms of its impurity contents such as potassium, iron, nickel, molybdenum, and zirconium trace elements. The breeder activation is also discussed with regard to its potential for recycling and its impact on the lithium resource requirements. The structural material activation is analyzed based on two measures, volumetric radioactivity concentration and contact biological dose due to decay gamma emission. Using the radioactivity concentration measure, it is revealed that a substantial advantage exists from a viewpoint of radwaste management, which is inherent in fusion reactor designs based on potential low-activation alloys such as V15Cr5Ti, Ti6Al4V, and Al-6063. On the other hand, from the dose standpoint, the V15Cr5Ti alloy is found to be the only alloy for which one could realize a significant dose reduction (below 2.5 mrem/h) within about 100 yr after shutdown, possibly by some extrapolation on alloy purification techniques.

  5. Low cost, high yield IFE reactors: Revisiting Velikhov`s vaporizing blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1992-03-06

    The performance (efficiency and cost) of IFE reactors using MHD conversion is explored for target blanket shells of various materials vaporized and ionized by high fusion yields (5 to 500 GJ). A magnetized, prestressed reactor chamber concept is modeled together with previously developed models for the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine II (CFARII) MHD Balance-of-Plant (BoP). Using conservative 1-D neutronics models, high fusion yields (20 to 80 GJ) are found necessary to heat Flibe, lithium, and lead-lithium blankets to MHD plasma temperatures, at initial solid thicknesses sufficient to capture most of the fusion yield. Advanced drivers/targets would need to be developed to achieve a ``Bang per Buck`` figure-of-merit {approx_gt} 20 to 40 joules yield per driver $ for this scheme to be competitive with these blanket materials. Alternatively, more realistic neutronics models and better materials such as lithium hydride may lower the minimum required yields substantially. The very low CFARII BoP costs (contributing only 3 mills/kWehr to CoE) allows this type of reactor, given sufficient advances that non-driver costs dominate, to ultimately produce electricity at a much lower cost than any current nuclear plant.

  6. COST-EFFECTIVE TARGET FABRICATION FOR INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    GOODIN,D.T; NOBILE,A; SCHROEN,D.G; MAXWELL,J.L; RICKMAN,W.S

    2004-03-01

    A central feature of an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant is a target that has been compressed and heated to fusion conditions by the energy input of the driver. The IFE target fabrication programs are focusing on methods that will scale to mass production, and working closely with target designers to make material selections that will satisfy a wide range of required and desirable characteristics. Targets produced for current inertial confinement fusion experiments are estimated to cost about $2500 each. Design studies of cost-effective power production from laser and heavy-ion driven IFE have found a cost requirement of about $0.25-0.30 each. While four orders of magnitude cost reduction may seem at first to be nearly impossible, there are many factors that suggest this is achievable. This paper summarizes the paradigm shifts in target fabrication methodologies that will be needed to economically supply targets and presents the results of ''nth-of-a-kind'' plant layouts and concepts for IFE power plant fueling. Our engineering studies estimate the cost of the target supply in a fusion economy, and show that costs are within the range of commercial feasibility for laser-driven and for heavy ion driven IFE.

  7. Economic Systems Modeling for Laser IFE and the Potential advantages of Fast Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2006-06-06

    An updated systems code for a laser-driven IFE power plant has been developed as part of the U.S. High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program. The cost of electricity (COE) is calculated using standardized methods for fusion reactor studies. In this paper, we describe the systems code and present results for capital cost and COE as a function of key design variables and parameters. We show how the COE varies as a function of driver energy and pulse repetition rate for different lasers. We examine the dependence of COE on other parameters such as laser cost ($/J), laser efficiency, plant efficiency, and net power output of the plant. Finally we compare results for a plant using direct-drive central ignition targets to results with fast ignition targets and note the potential advantages of fast ignition for various assumptions.

  8. Safety Issues of HG and PB as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Cadwallader, L C; Moir, R W; Rio, G. D; Sanz, J

    2002-11-11

    We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the USDOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.

  9. Selection of IFE target materials from a safety and environmental perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latkowski, J. F.; Sanz, J.; Reyes, S.; Gomez del Rio, J.

    2001-05-01

    Target materials for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant designs might be selected for a wide variety of reasons including wall absorption of driver energy, material opacity, cost and ease of fabrication. While each of these issues are of great importance, target materials should also be selected based upon their safety and environmental (S&E) characteristics. The present work focuses on the recycling, waste management and accident dose characteristics of potential target materials. If target materials are recycled so that the quantity is small, isotopic separation may be economically viable. Therefore, calculations have been completed for all stable isotopes for all elements from lithium to polonium. The results of these calculations are used to identify specific isotopes and elements that are most likely to be offensive as well as those most likely to be acceptable in terms of their S&E characteristics.

  10. Selection of IFE target materials from a safety and environmental perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Sanz, J; Gomez del Rio, J

    2000-03-01

    Target materials for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant designs might be selected for a wide variety of reasons including wall absorption of driver energy, material opacity, cost, and ease of fabrication. While each of these issues are of great importance, target materials should also be selected based upon their safety and environmental (S and E) characteristics. The present work focuses on the recycling, waste management, and accident dose characteristics of potential target materials. If target materials are recycled so that the quantity is small, isotopic separation may be economically viable. Therefore, calculations have been completed for all stable isotopes for all elements from lithium to polonium. The results of these calculations are used to identify specific isotopes and elements that are most likely to be offensive as well as those most likely to be acceptable in terms of their S and E characteristics.

  11. Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory:. The National Ignition Facility, Inertial Fusion Energy, 100-1000 TW Lasers, and the Fast Igniter Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard Lowdermilk, W.

    The ultimate goal of worldwide research in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to develop fusion as an inexhaustible, economic, environmentally safe source of electric power. Following nearly thirty years of laboratory and underground fusion experiments, the next step toward this goal is to demonstrate ignition and propagating burn of fusion fuel in the laboratory. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project is being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for just this purpose. NIF will use advanced Nd-glass laser technology to deliver 1.8 MJ of 0.35 μm laser light in a shaped pulse, several nanoseconds in duration, achieving a peak power of 500 TW. A national community of U.S. laboratories is participating in this project, now in its final design phase. France and the United Kingdom are collaborating on development of required technology under bilateral agreements with the US. This paper presents key aspects of the laser design, and descriptions of principal laser and optical components. Follow-on development of lasers to meet the demands of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant is reviewed. In parallel with the NIF Project and IFE developments, work is proceeding on ultrashort pulse lasers with peak power in the range of 100-1000 TW. A beamline on the Nova laser at LLNL recently delivered nearly 600 J of 1 μm light in a 0.5 ps duration pulse, for a peak power in excess of a petawatt (1015 W). This beamline, with advanced adaptive optics, will be capable of focused intensities in excess of 1021 W/cm2. Its primary purpose will be to test technological and scientific aspects of an alternate ignition concept, called the "Fast Igniter", that has the potential to produce higher fusion gain than conventional ICF.

  12. A wavelet transformation approach for multi-source gravity fusion: Applications and uncertainty tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yongliang; Dong, Dongdong; Wu, Shiguo; Liu, Zhan; Zhang, Guangxu; Xu, Kaijun

    2016-05-01

    Gravity anomalies detected by different measurement platforms have different characteristics and advantages. There are different kinds of gravity data fusion methods for generating single gravity anomaly map with a rich and accurate spectral content. Former studies using wavelet based gravity fusion method which is a newly developed approach did not pay more attention to the fusion uncertainties. In this paper, we firstly introduce the wavelet based gravity fusion method, and then apply this method to one synthetic model and also to the northern margin of the South China Sea. Wavelet type and the decomposition level are two input parameters for this fusion method, and the uncertainty tests show that fusion results are more sensitive to wavelet type than the decomposition level. The optimal application result of the fusion methodology on the synthetic model is closer to the true anomaly field than either of the simulated shipborne anomaly and altimetry-based anomaly grid. The best fusion result on the northern margin of the South China Sea is based on the 'rbio1.3' wavelet and four-level decomposition. The fusion result contains more accurate short-wavelength anomalies than the altimetry-based gravity anomalies along ship tracks, and it also has more accurate long wavelength characteristics than the shipborne gravity anomalies between ship tracks. The real application case shows that the fusion result has better correspondences to the seafloor topography variations and sub-surface structures than each of the two input gravity anomaly maps (shipborne based gravity anomaly map and altimetry based gravity anomaly map). Therefore, it is possible to map and detect more precise seafloor topography and geologic structures by the new gravity anomaly map.

  13. Self-pinched beam transport experiments Relevant to Heavy Ion Driven inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Fessenden, T.J.; Lee, E.P.; Yu, S.S.; Olson, C.L.; Welch, D.R.; Barnard, J.J.; Friedman, A.; Logan, B.G.; Moir, R.W.; Haber, I.; Ottinger, P.F.; Young, F.C.; Peterson, R.R.; Briggs, R.J.

    1998-02-06

    An attractive feature of the inertial fusion energy (IFE) approach to commercial energy production is that the fusion driver is well separated from the fusion confinement chamber. This ''standoff'' feature means the driver is largely isolated from fusion reaction products. Further, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target ignition (with modest gain) is now scheduled to be demonstrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using a laser driver system. The NIF program will, to a considerable extent, validate indirectly-driven heavy-ion fusion (HIF) target designs for IFE. However, it remains that HIF standoff between the final focus system and the fusion target needs to be seriously addressed. In fact, there now exists a timely opportunity for the Office of Fusion Energy Science (OFES) to experimentally explore the feasibility of one of the attractive final transport options in the fusion chamber: the self-pinched transport mode. Presently, there are several mainline approaches for HIF beam transport and neutralization in the fusion chamber. These range from the (conservative) vacuum ballistic focus, for which there is much experience from high energy research accelerators, to highly neutralized ballistic focus, which matches well to lower voltage acceleration with resulting lower driver costs. Alternatively, Z-discharge channel transport and self-pinched transport in gas-filled chambers may relax requirements on beam quality and final focusing systems, leading to even lower driver cost. In any case, these alternative methods of transport, especially self-pinched transport, are unusually attractive from the standpoint of chamber design and neutronics. There is no requirement for low chamber pressure. Moreover, only a minuscule fraction of the fusion neutrons can escape from the chamber. Therefore, it is relatively easy to shield sensitive components, e-g., superconducting magnets from any significant neutron flux. Indeed, self-pinched transport and liquid wall

  14. Development and testing of the improved focusing quadrupole for heavy ion fusion accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Manahan, R R; Martovetsky, N N; Meinke, R B; Chiesa, L; Lietzke, A F; Sabbi, G L; Seidl, P A

    2003-10-23

    An improved version of the focusing magnet for a Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerator was designed, built and tested in 2002-2003. This quadrupole has higher focusing power and lower error field than the previous version of the focusing quadrupoles successfully built and tested in 2001. We discuss the features of the new design, selected fabrication issues and test results.

  15. Concept for testing fusion first wall/blanket systems in existing nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.Y.S.; Bohn, T.S.; Deis, G.A.; Judd, J.L.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Millsap, D.A.; Scott, A.J.; Wessol, D.E.

    1980-10-01

    A novel concept to produce a reasonable simulation of a fusion first wall/blanket test environment (except the 14 MeV neutron component) employing an existing nuclear facility is presented. Preliminary results show that an asymmetric, nuclear test environment with surface and volumetric heating rates similar to those expected in a fusion first wall/blanket or divertor chamber surface appears feasible. The proposed concept takes advantage of nuclear reactions within the annulus of a test space (15 cm in diameter and approximately 100 cm high) to provide an energy flux to the surface of a test module.

  16. Geometric and blast effects of thin film cavity protection schemes for IFE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Morley, N.B.; Ying, A.A.

    1995-12-31

    The flow of thin liquid films of liquids in geometric orientations and under blast conditions of an IFE reactor chamber is investigated. A inertial jet on an inverted hemispherical surface, indicative of the PROMETHEUS design, is modeled with a 1-D analysis. The behavior of the film and the conditions for adhesion of the jet are explored. Also, vertical film flow is modeled with a 2-D fluid code that tracts the free surface. A test case is presented where the development of a wavy surface is seen. This surface is subjected to pressure pulses typical of reactor cavity gas fluctuations and the surface is seen to be disrupted.

  17. Analyses in Support of Z-Pinch IFE and Actinide Transmutation - LLNL Progress Report for FY-06

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Abbott, R

    2006-09-19

    This report documents results of LLNL's work in support of two studies being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL): the development of the Z-pinch driven inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE), and the use of Z-pinch driven inertial fusion as a neutron source to destroy actinides from fission reactor spent fuel. LLNL's efforts in FY06 included: (1) Development of a systems code for Z-IFE and use of the code to examine the operating parameter space in terms of design variables such as the Z-pinch driver energy, the chamber pulse repetition rate, the number of chambers making up the power plant, and the total net electric power of the plant. This is covered in Section 3 with full documentation of the model in Appendix A. (2) Continued development of innovative concepts for the design and operation of the recyclable transmission line (RTL) and chamber for Z-IFE. The work, which builds on our FY04 and FY05 contributions, emphasizes design features that are likely to lead to a more attractive power plant including: liquid jets to protect all structures from direct exposure to neutrons, rapid insertion of the RTL to maximize the potential chamber rep-rate, and use of cast flibe for the RTL to reduce recycling and remanufacturing costs and power needs. See Section 4 and Appendix B. (3) Description of potential figures of merit (FOMs) for actinide transmutation technologies and a discussion of how these FOMs apply and can be used in the ongoing evaluation of the Z-pinch actinide burner, referred to as the In-Zinerator. See Section 5. (4) A critique of, and suggested improvements to, the In-Zinerator chamber design in response to the SNL design team's request for feedback on its preliminary design. This is covered in Section 6.

  18. Multi-Sensor Fusion with Interaction Multiple Model and Chi-Square Test Tolerant Filter

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chun; Mohammadi, Arash; Chen, Qing-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the key importance of multi-sensor information fusion algorithms in the state-of-the-art integrated navigation systems due to recent advancements in sensor technologies, telecommunication, and navigation systems, the paper proposes an improved and innovative fault-tolerant fusion framework. An integrated navigation system is considered consisting of four sensory sub-systems, i.e., Strap-down Inertial Navigation System (SINS), Global Navigation System (GPS), the Bei-Dou2 (BD2) and Celestial Navigation System (CNS) navigation sensors. In such multi-sensor applications, on the one hand, the design of an efficient fusion methodology is extremely constrained specially when no information regarding the system’s error characteristics is available. On the other hand, the development of an accurate fault detection and integrity monitoring solution is both challenging and critical. The paper addresses the sensitivity issues of conventional fault detection solutions and the unavailability of a precisely known system model by jointly designing fault detection and information fusion algorithms. In particular, by using ideas from Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filters, the uncertainty of the system will be adjusted adaptively by model probabilities and using the proposed fuzzy-based fusion framework. The paper also addresses the problem of using corrupted measurements for fault detection purposes by designing a two state propagator chi-square test jointly with the fusion algorithm. Two IMM predictors, running in parallel, are used and alternatively reactivated based on the received information form the fusion filter to increase the reliability and accuracy of the proposed detection solution. With the combination of the IMM and the proposed fusion method, we increase the failure sensitivity of the detection system and, thereby, significantly increase the overall reliability and accuracy of the integrated navigation system. Simulation results indicate that the

  19. Multi-Sensor Fusion with Interaction Multiple Model and Chi-Square Test Tolerant Filter.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Mohammadi, Arash; Chen, Qing-Wei

    2016-11-02

    Motivated by the key importance of multi-sensor information fusion algorithms in the state-of-the-art integrated navigation systems due to recent advancements in sensor technologies, telecommunication, and navigation systems, the paper proposes an improved and innovative fault-tolerant fusion framework. An integrated navigation system is considered consisting of four sensory sub-systems, i.e., Strap-down Inertial Navigation System (SINS), Global Navigation System (GPS), the Bei-Dou2 (BD2) and Celestial Navigation System (CNS) navigation sensors. In such multi-sensor applications, on the one hand, the design of an efficient fusion methodology is extremely constrained specially when no information regarding the system's error characteristics is available. On the other hand, the development of an accurate fault detection and integrity monitoring solution is both challenging and critical. The paper addresses the sensitivity issues of conventional fault detection solutions and the unavailability of a precisely known system model by jointly designing fault detection and information fusion algorithms. In particular, by using ideas from Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filters, the uncertainty of the system will be adjusted adaptively by model probabilities and using the proposed fuzzy-based fusion framework. The paper also addresses the problem of using corrupted measurements for fault detection purposes by designing a two state propagator chi-square test jointly with the fusion algorithm. Two IMM predictors, running in parallel, are used and alternatively reactivated based on the received information form the fusion filter to increase the reliability and accuracy of the proposed detection solution. With the combination of the IMM and the proposed fusion method, we increase the failure sensitivity of the detection system and, thereby, significantly increase the overall reliability and accuracy of the integrated navigation system. Simulation results indicate that the

  20. Inertial fusion experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, Kunioki; Tikhonchuk, V.; Perlado, M.

    2011-09-01

    Inertial fusion research is approaching a critical milestone, namely the demonstration of ignition and burn. The world's largest high-power laser, the National Ignition Facility (NIF), is under operation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the USA. Another ignition machine, Laser Mega Joule (LMJ), is under construction at the CEA/CESTA research centre in France. In relation to the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) at LLNL, worldwide studies on inertial fusion applications to energy production are growing. Advanced ignition schemes such as fast ignition, shock ignition and impact ignition, and the inertial fusion energy (IFE) technology are under development. In particular, the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, and the OMEGA-EP project at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University Rochester, and the HiPER project in the European Union (EU) for fast ignition and shock ignition are progressing. The IFE technology research and development are advanced in the frameworks of the HiPER project in EU and the LIFE project in the USA. Laser technology developments in the USA, EU, Japan and Korea were major highlights in the IAEA FEC 2010. In this paper, the status and prospects of IFE science and technology are described.

  1. Principles of data-fusion in multi-sensor systems for non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chioclea, Shmuel; Dickstein, Phineas

    2000-05-01

    In recent years, there has been progress in the application of measurement and control systems that engage multi-sensor arrays. Several algorithms and techniques have been developed for the integration of the information obtained from the sensors. The fusion of the data may be complicated due to the fact that each sensor has its own performance characteristics, and because different sensors may detect different physical phenomena. As a result, data fusion turns out to be a multidisciplinary field, which applies principles adopted from other fields such as signal processing, artificial intelligence, statistics, and The Theory of Information. The data fusion machine tries to imitate the human brain, in combining data from numerous sensors and making optimal inferences about the environment. The present paper provides a critical review of data fusion algorithms and techniques and a trenchant summary of the experience gained to date from the several preliminary NDT studies which have been applying multi-sensor data fusion systems. Consequently, this paper provides a list of rules and criteria to be followed in future applications of data fusion to nondestructive testing.

  2. Gas dynamics and radiative heat transfer in IFE chambers with emphasis on the HYLIFE-II design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jantzen, Caron Ann

    Gas dynamics in a heavy-ion inertial-fusion energy power plant have been modeled using the two-dimensional code, TSUNAMI. After fusion, approximately 2/3 of the yield energy will be given off as 14 Mev neutrons and the remaining third partitioned between target x-rays and debris energy. The chamber dynamic events which follow the fusion event occur over three distinct time periods, permitting separation of the underlying phenomena. Simulations of the HYLIFE-II reactor design were then run and results compared using both ideal-gas and partialionization equations of state. Results from a cylindrically symmetric simulation indicate that an initial, low density, burst of high-energy particles enters the final focus section of the heavy ion driver within 120mus of the blast and a second, larger, density rise occurs approximately 100mus later. Uncertainty in IFE target design motivated a parametric study of the x-ray to debris kinetic energy. Increasing this ratio lead to more jet ablation by target x-rays and, therefore, higher chamber densities. Chamber averaged temperature remained high, around 2.1 eV. Therefore, a subsequent study considered secondary radiation emitted by this hot vapor. The photon transport equation was applied in a finite difference model to both the target and ablation regions. Result indicated that radiation from the expanding target debris supplies 15MJ of energy to the liquid jets within the first 12mus of target ignition and becomes negligible beyond that time. In an inertial fusion energy (IFE) target chamber using thick-liquid protection, placing liquid surfaces close to the fusion target helps reduce pumping cost and final-focus stand-off distance. An additional issue then becomes the impulse load delivered to protective jets by target debris and x-ray ablated material since this pressure load provides the most important boundary condition for the subsequent liquid hydraulic response, pocket disruption, droplet generation, and pocket

  3. TEST FUSION IN ADULT FORAMINIFERA: A REVIEW WITH NEW OBSERVATIONS OF AN EARLY EOCENE NUMMULITES SPECIMEN

    PubMed Central

    Ferràndez-Cañadell, Carles; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Wöger, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In foraminifera, so-called “double tests” usually arise due to abnormal growth originating mainly from twinning, but may also be caused by irregularities in the early chambers and by regeneration after test injury that modifies the direction of growth. A fourth cause of double tests has only rarely been reported: the fusion of the tests of two adult individuals. We studied an early Eocene Nummulites double test consisting of two adult individuals that fused after an extended period of independent growth. The specimen was studied using computed tomography with micrometric resolution (micro-CT) that allowed bi- and three-dimensional visualization of the internal structure. Before fusion each individual test had 30–36 chambers, which, by comparison with growth rates in recent nummulitids, implies at least three months of independent growth. After fusion, the compound test grew in two spirals that fused after about one whorl and then continued in a single spiral. To fuse their tests, either adult individuals have to be forced to do so or the allorecognition (ability to distinguish between self and another individual) mechanisms must fail. A possible explanation for the merged Nummulites tests in this study is forced fusion in attached individuals after surviving ingestion and digestion by a metazoan. Alternatively, environmental stress could lead to a failure of allorecognition mechanisms and/or foraminiferal motility. Once fused, subsequent growth seems to be determined mainly by the relative orientation of individual tests. In any case, the frequency in which adult fusion occurs remains unknown. PMID:26166916

  4. Sequential testing over multiple stages and performance analysis of data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Gaurav

    2013-05-01

    We describe a methodology for modeling the performance of decision-level data fusion between different sensor configurations, implemented as part of the JIEDDO Analytic Decision Engine (JADE). We first discuss a Bayesian network formulation of classical probabilistic data fusion, which allows elementary fusion structures to be stacked and analyzed efficiently. We then present an extension of the Wald sequential test for combining the outputs of the Bayesian network over time. We discuss an algorithm to compute its performance statistics and illustrate the approach on some examples. This variant of the sequential test involves multiple, distinct stages, where the evidence accumulated from each stage is carried over into the next one, and is motivated by a need to keep certain sensors in the network inactive unless triggered by other sensors.

  5. Experimental studies of laser target interactions in an ambient gas, under IFE conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamper, J. A.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Lehecka, T.; Deniz, A. V.; McLean, E. A.; Sethian, J. D.

    2004-07-01

    Studies of reactor designs for inertial fusion energy (IFE) have indicated that some of the material requirements can be alleviated if the target chamber is filled with a low-pressure inert gas (<1 Torr). The experiments described in this paper examine the effects of such an ambient gas on the laser-target interactions relevant to laser-driven IFE. These experiments used the Nike KrF laser facility at the Naval Research Laboratory to irradiate uncoated 78 µm thick polystyrene (CH) foil targets at focal intensities around 1014 W cm-2. They compared the laser-target interactions in different inert gases (xenon, argon or krypton) at several ambient pressures up to 1 Torr with that of the vacuum (reference) case. The diagnostics included streaked rear-surface emission at wavelengths 460-540 nm and side-on shadowgraphy at 263 nm. The results of this study were encouraging. In spite of initial concerns about resonantly enhanced nonlinear optical effects in the Xe gas, we found no evidence of laser beam break-up, spreading, or attenuation. The shock breakout profiles (from emitted light) and the front and rear surface plasma profiles (from shadowgraphy) remained smooth and symmetric in all cases. The central shock breakout times, and thus the central laser irradiances, were about the same for the target in an inert gas as in vacuum. Our analysis indicates that the large nonlinear optical processes in atomic Xe are self-limiting because the converging beam ionizes the gas, thereby removing the atoms from the most intense part.

  6. Z-inertial fusion energy: power plant final report FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Kulcinski, Gerald; Zhao, Haihua; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Sierra, Dannelle P.; Meier, Wayne; McConnell, Paul E.; Ghiaasiaan, M. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kern, Brian (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Tajima, Yu (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Campen, Chistopher (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Sketchley, Tomas (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Moir, R (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories); Bardet, Philippe M. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Durbin, Samuel; Morrow, Charles W.; Vigil, Virginia L (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Modesto-Beato, Marcos A.; Franklin, James Kenneth; Smith, James Dean; Ying, Alice; Cook, Jason T.; Schmitz, Lothar (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Abdel-Khalik, S. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Sridharan, Kumar (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rochau, Gary Eugene; Gudmundson, Jesse; Peterson, Per F.; Marriott, Ed; Oakley, Jason

    2006-10-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted for the Z-inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) late start Laboratory Directed Research Project. A major area of focus was on creating a roadmap to a z-pinch driven fusion power plant. The roadmap ties ZIFE into the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative through the use of high energy fusion neutrons to burn the actinides of spent fuel waste. Transmutation presents a near term use for Z-IFE technology and will aid in paving the path to fusion energy. The work this year continued to develop the science and engineering needed to support the Z-IFE roadmap. This included plant system and driver cost estimates, recyclable transmission line studies, flibe characterization, reaction chamber design, and shock mitigation techniques.

  7. Experimental Test in a Tokamak of Fusion with Spin-Polarized D and 3He

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, Arnold; Sandorfi, Andrew

    2007-06-13

    An experiment to test polarization retention of highly polarized D and 3He fusion fuels prior to their fusion reactions in a tokamak is in preparation. The fusion reaction rate with 100% vector polarized reactants is expected from simple theory to increase by a factor of 1.5. With presently available polarizations, fusion reaction enhancements of {approx}15% are achievable and of significant interest, while several avenues for obtaining higher polarizations are open. The potential for survival of initial fusion fuel polarizations at {approx}108 K plasma core temperatures ({approx}5KeV) throughout the time interval preceding fusion burn was addressed in a seminal paper in 1982. While the positive conclusion from those calculations suggests that reaction enhancements are indeed feasible, this crucial factor has never been tested in a high temperature plasma core because of difficulties in preparation and injection of sufficiently polarized fusion fuels into a high temperature reactor fusion plasma. Our solution to these problems employs a new source of highly polarized D in the form of solid HD which has been developed and used in our laboratories. Solid HD is compatible with fusion physics in view of its simplicity of elemental composition and very long (weeks) relaxation times at 4K temperature, allowing efficient polarization-preserving cold-transfer operations. Containment and polarization of the HD within polymer capsules, similar to those used in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), is an innovation which simplifies the cold-transfer of polarized fuel from the dilution refrigerator polarization-production apparatus to other liquid helium temperature cryostats, for storage, transport and placement into the barrel of a cryogenic pellet gun for firing at high velocity into the reactor. The other polarized fuel partner, 3He, has been prepared as a polarized gas for applications including high-energy polarized targets and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. It

  8. Evaluating and planning the radioactive waste options for dismantling the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, K.; Scott, J.; Larson, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a kind tritium fusion research reactor, and is planned to be decommissioned within the next several years. This is the largest fusion reactor in the world and as a result of deuterium-tritum reactions is tritium contaminated and activated from 14 Mev neutrons. This presents many unusual challenges when dismantling, packaging and disposing its components and ancillary systems. Special containers are being designed to accommodate the vacuum vessel, neutral beams, and tritium delivery and processing systems. A team of experienced professionals performed a detailed field study to evaluate the requirements and appropriate methods for packaging the radioactive materials. This team focused on several current and innovative methods for waste minimization that provides the oppurtunmost cost effective manner to package and dispose of the waste. This study also produces a functional time-phased schedule which conjoins the waste volume, weight, costs and container requirements with the detailed project activity schedule for the entire project scope. This study and project will be the first demonstration of the decommissioning of a tritium fusion test reactor. The radioactive waste disposal aspects of this project are instrumental in demonstrating the viability of a fusion power reactor with regard to its environmental impact and ultimate success.

  9. International radiation damage tests in fusion materials: The oak ridge and beatrix exchange schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von der Hardt, P.

    1988-07-01

    A number of R&D projects related to fusion energy have been launched under the auspices of the International Energy Agency. Annex II of the "Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Radiation Damage in fusion Materials" assigns the role of the Operating Agent to the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for two large series of irradiations in fission reactors, viz. — the so-called "Oak Ridge Test Matrix" (ORTM), covering a variety of in-pile tests on candidate first wall austenitic steel specimens; — the Breeder Experiment Matrix (BEATRIX), concerning solid breeder material irradiation testing. Both schemes define about 20 tests each. The number of laboratories involved is 7 for the Oak Ridge and 11 for the BEATRIX test matrix. 10 test reactors in Canada, Japan, the United States, and Europe are used for the irradiations. The paper updates the present status of both schemes. An extensive list of publications is appended.

  10. Review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-03-29

    Igniting fusion fuel in the laboratory remains an alluring goal for two reasons: the desire to study matter under the extreme conditions needed for fusion burn, and the potential of harnessing the energy released as an attractive energy source for mankind. The inertial confinement approach to fusion involves rapidly compressing a tiny spherical capsule of fuel, initially a few millimeters in radius, to densities and temperatures higher than those in the core of the sun. The ignited plasma is confined solely by its own inertia long enough for a significant fraction of the fuel to burn before the plasma expands, cools down and the fusion reactions are quenched. The potential of this confinement approach as an attractive energy source is being studied in the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, which is the subject of this report. A complex set of interrelated requirements for IFE has motivated the study of novel potential solutions. Three types of “drivers” for fuel compression are presently studied: high-averagepower lasers (HAPL), heavy-ion (HI) accelerators, and Z-Pinches. The three main approaches to IFE are based on these drivers, along with the specific type of target (which contains the fuel capsule) and chamber that appear most promising for a particular driver.

  11. Data Fusion Analysis for Range Test Validation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-14

    for species-specific column densities of chemical clouds to be determined. A low-order, tunable Fabry - Perot 6 etalon provides the spectral...simulants Chemical agent detection Point sensors Standoff sensors A range test validation system (RTVS) was developed under the sponsorship of the...Defense Threat Reduction Agency as a means for validating point and standoff chemical sensors with releases of chemical agent simulants over a test grid

  12. Approach to testing fusion components in existing nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.Y.; Miller, L.G.; Longhurst, G.R.; Masson, L.S.; Kulcinski, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The concept presented makes use of the fast spectrum in the Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Preliminary results show that an asymmetric, nuclear test environment with particle and radiant energy fluxes impinging on a first wall/blanket or divertor surface appears feasible in a neutron/gamma field not greatly different from that seen by a representative first wall/blanket module.

  13. Intelligent Front-end Electronics for Silicon photodetectors (IFES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerzopf, Clemens; Gruber, Lukas; Suzuki, Ken; Zmeskal, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard

    2016-05-01

    While high channel density can be easily achieved for big experiments using custom made microchips, providing something similar for small and medium size experiments imposes a challenge. Within this work we describe a novel and cost effective solution to operate silicon photodetectors such as silicon photo multipliers (SiPM). The IFES modules provide the bias voltage for the detectors, a leading edge discriminator featuring time over threshold and a differential amplifier, all on one printed circuit board. We demonstrate under realistic conditions that the module is usable for high resolution timing measurements exploiting both charge and time information. Furthermore we show that the modules can be easily used in larger detector arrays. All in all this confirms that the IFES modules are a viable option for a broad range of experiments if cost-effectiveness and small form factor are required.

  14. Experimental Test in a Tokamak of Fusion with Spin-Polarized D and 3He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honig, Arnold; Sandorfi, Andrew

    2007-06-01

    An experiment to test polarization retention of highly polarized D and 3He fusion fuels prior to their fusion reactions in a tTokamak is in preparation. The fusion reaction rate with 100% vector polarized reactants is expected from simple theory to increase by a factor of 1.5. With presently available polarizations, fusion reaction enhancements of ˜15% are achievable and of significant interest, while several avenues for obtaining higher polarizations are open. The potential for survival of initial fusion fuel polarizations at ˜108 K plasma core temperatures (˜5KeV) throughout the time interval preceding fusion burn was addressed in a seminal paper in 1982. While the positive conclusion from those calculations suggests that reaction enhancements are indeed feasible, this crucial factor has never been tested in a high temperature plasma core because of difficulties in preparation and injection of sufficiently polarized fusion fuels into a high temperature reactorfusion plasma. Our solution to these problems employs a new source of highly polarized D in the form of solid HD which has been developed and used in our laboratories. Solid HD is compatible with fusion physics in view of its simplicity of elemental composition and very long (weeks) relaxation times at 4K temperature, allowing efficient polarization-preserving cold-transfer operations. Containment and polarization of the HD within polymer capsules, similar to those used in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), is an innovation which simplifies the cold-transfer of polarized fuel from the dilution refrigerator polarization-production apparatus to other liquid helium temperature cryostats, for storage, transport and placement into the barrel of a cryogenic pellet gun for firing at high velocity into the reactor. The other polarized fuel partner, 3He, has been prepared as a polarized gas for applications including high-energy polarized targets and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. It will be introduced

  15. The development of a universal diagnostic probe system for Tokamak fusion test reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastronardi, R.; Cabral, R.; Manos, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), the largest such facility in the U.S., is discussed with respect to instrumentation in general and mechanisms in particular. The design philosophy and detailed implementation of a universal probe mechanism for TFTR is discussed.

  16. Information fusion in regularized inversion of tomographic pumping tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohling, G.C.; ,

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate a simple approach to incorporating geophysical information into the analysis of tomographic pumping tests for characterization of the hydraulic conductivity (K) field in an aquifer. A number of authors have suggested a tomographic approach to the analysis of hydraulic tests in aquifers - essentially simultaneous analysis of multiple tests or stresses on the flow system - in order to improve the resolution of the estimated parameter fields. However, even with a large amount of hydraulic data in hand, the inverse problem is still plagued by non-uniqueness and ill-conditioning and the parameter space for the inversion needs to be constrained in some sensible fashion in order to obtain plausible estimates of aquifer properties. For seismic and radar tomography problems, the parameter space is often constrained through the application of regularization terms that impose penalties on deviations of the estimated parameters from a prior or background model, with the tradeoff between data fit and model norm explored through systematic analysis of results for different levels of weighting on the regularization terms. In this study we apply systematic regularized inversion to analysis of tomographic pumping tests in an alluvial aquifer, taking advantage of the steady-shape flow regime exhibited in these tests to expedite the inversion process. In addition, we explore the possibility of incorporating geophysical information into the inversion through a regularization term relating the estimated K distribution to ground penetrating radar velocity and attenuation distributions through a smoothing spline model. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  17. Nuclear Design Considerations for Z-IFE Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Schmitt, R C; Abbott, R P; Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S

    2005-02-02

    Z-pinch driven IFE (Z-IFE) requires the design of a repetitive target insertion system that allows coupling of the pulsed power to the target with adequate standoff, and a chamber that can withstand blast and radiation effects from large yield targets. The present strategy for Z-IFE is to use high yield targets ({approx}2-3 GJ/shot), low repetition rate per chamber ({approx}0.1 Hz), and 10 chambers per power plant. In this study, we propose an alternative power plant configuration that uses very high yield targets (20 GJ/shot) in a single chamber operating at 0.1 Hz. A thick-liquid-wall chamber is proposed to absorb the target emission (x-rays, debris and neutrons) and mitigate the blast effects on the chamber wall. The target is attached to the end of a conical shaped Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) made from a solid coolant (e.g., frozen flibe), or a material that is easily separable from the coolant (e.g., steel). The RTL/target assembly is inserted through a single opening at the top of the chamber for each shot. This study looks at the RTL material choice from a safety and environmental point of view. Materials were assessed according to waste disposal rating (WDR) and contact dose rate (CDR). Neutronics calculations, using the TART2002 Monte Carlo code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), were performed for the RTL and Z-IFE chamber, and key results reported here.

  18. Obstetric hysterectomy: trend and outcome in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Badejoko, O O; Awowole, I O; Ijarotimi, A O; Badejoko, B O; Loto, O M; Ogunniyi, S O

    2013-08-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of obstetric hysterectomy is expected to be on the decline due to improvements in obstetric care. This hospital-based 10-year review (2001-10) was performed to determine its incidence and outcome in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The trend was determined by comparing the current incidence with that from two previous studies from the same centre. There were 58 obstetric hysterectomies and 15,194 deliveries during the review period, giving a rate of 3.8/1,000 deliveries. A rising trend was observed in the obstetric hysterectomy rate in Ile-Ife over two decades (1990-2010). Uterine rupture was the commonest indication (60%). Postoperative complications such as sepsis, vesico-vaginal fistula and renal failure affected 34.5% of the patients. Maternal and fetal case fatality rates were 18.2% and 43.6%, respectively. The obstetric hysterectomy rate in Ile-Ife is high and the trend is rising. Universal access to skilled birth attendance is advocated to reduce uterine rupture and consequently obstetric hysterectomy.

  19. The operator interface for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, N.C.

    1986-12-01

    The uncertain and most likely changing nature of a large experimental facility like MFTF, as well as its large number of control and monitor points, ruled against the traditional hardware approach involving walls of knobs, dials, oscilloscopes, and strip chart recorders. Rather, from the beginning, project management specified computer control of all systems, and operation of the complete MFTF under an integrated computer control system became a major engineering goal. The Integrated Controls and Diagnostics (ICADS) group was charged with the design and implementation of this control system. We designed a control system with an extremely flexible operator interface which uses computer generated CRT displays for output and pointing devices such as touch sensitive CRT overlays, mice, and joysticks for input. Construction of MFTF was completed at the end of 1985 within the project budget of $241.6M and was followed immediately by a 5 month long acceptance test. During this period (known as PACE test) operators, engineers, and physicists successfully used our computer control system daily to test MFTF. Much of their willingness to forsake the traditional hands-on hardware approach to testing was a result of the powerful and flexible operator interface to the MFTF control system. In this paper, we describe the operator interface with emphasis on the displays, the touch screens, and the mouse. We also report the experiences of users and, in particular, stress those aspects of the user interface they strongly liked and disliked.

  20. Model for collisional fast ion diffusion into Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor loss cone

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.S. |; Zweben, S.J.; Schivell, J.; Budny, R.; Scott, S.

    1994-08-01

    An analytic model is developed to estimate the classical pitch angle scattering loss of energetic fusion product ions into prompt loss orbits in a tokamak geometry. The result is applied to alpha particles produced by deutrium-tritium fusion reactions in a plasma condition relevant to Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). A poloidal angular distribution of collisional fast ion loss at the first wall is obtained and the numerical result from the TRANSP code is discussed. The present model includes the effect that the prompt loss boundary moves away from the slowing-down path due to reduction in banana thickness, which enables us to understand, for the first time. the dependence of the collisional loss rate on Z{sub eff}.

  1. Progress in Z-pinch inertial fusion energy.

    SciTech Connect

    Weed, John Woodruff

    2010-03-01

    The goal of z-pinch inertial fusion energy (IFE) is to extend the single-shot z-pinch inertial confinement fusion (ICF) results on Z to a repetitive-shot z-pinch power plant concept for the economical production of electricity. Z produces up to 1.8 MJ of x-rays at powers as high as 230 TW. Recent target experiments on Z have demonstrated capsule implosion convergence ratios of 14-21 with a double-pinch driven target, and DD neutron yields up to 8x10exp10 with a dynamic hohlraum target. For z-pinch IFE, a power plant concept is discussed that uses high-yield IFE targets (3 GJ) with a low rep-rate per chamber (0.1 Hz). The concept includes a repetitive driver at 0.1 Hz, a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the driver to the target, high-yield targets, and a thick-liquid wall chamber. Recent funding by a U.S. Congressional initiative for $4M for FY04 is supporting research on RTLs, repetitive pulsed power drivers, shock mitigation, full RTL cycle planned experiments, high-yield IFE targets, and z-pinch power plant technologies. Recent results of research in all of these areas are discussed, and a Road Map for Z-Pinch IFE is presented.

  2. FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF) BEFORE UPGRADE TO COMPONENT TEST FACILITY (CTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin; Canik, John; Diem, Stephanie J; Milora, Stanley L; Park, J. M.; Sontag, Aaron C; Fogarty, P. J.; Lumsdaine, Arnold; Murakami, Masanori; Burgess, Thomas W; Cole, Michael J; Katoh, Yutai; Korsah, Kofi; Patton, Bradley D; Wagner, John C; Yoder, III, Graydon L

    2011-01-01

    The compact (R0~1.2-1.3m) Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is aimed at providing a fully integrated, continuously driven fusion nuclear environment of copious fusion neutrons. This facility would be used to test, discover, and understand the complex challenges of fusion plasma material interactions, nuclear material interactions, tritium fuel management, and power extraction. Such a facility properly designed would provide, initially at the JET-level plasma pressure (~30%T2) and conditions (e.g., Hot-Ion H-Mode, Q<1)), an outboard fusion neutron flux of 0.25 MW/m2 while requiring a fusion power of ~19 MW. If and when this research is successful, its performance can be extended to 1 MW/m2 and ~76 MW by reaching for twice the JET plasma pressure and Q. High-safety factor q and moderate-plasmas are used to minimize or eliminate plasma-induced disruptions, to deliver reliably a neutron fluence of 1 MW-yr/m2 and a duty factor of 10% presently anticipated for the FNS research. Success of this research will depend on achieving time-efficient installation and replacement of all internal components using remote handling (RH). This in turn requires modular designs for the internal components, including the single-turn toroidal field coil center-post. These device goals would further dictate placement of support structures and vacuum weld seals behind the internal and shielding components. If these goals could be achieved, the FNSF would further provide a ready upgrade path to the Component Test Facility (CTF), which would aim to test, for 6 MW-yr/m2 and 30% duty cycle, the demanding fusion nuclear engineering and technologies for DEMO. This FNSF-CTF would thereby complement the ITER Program, and support and help mitigate the risks of an aggressive world fusion DEMO R&D Program. The key physics and technology research needed in the next decade to manage the potential risks of this FNSF are identified.

  3. Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) before Upgrade to Component Test Facility (CTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    2010-01-01

    The compact (R0~1.2-1.3m) Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is aimed at providing a fully integrated, continuously driven fusion nuclear environment of copious fusion neutrons. This facility would be used to test, discover, understand, and innovate scientific and technical solutions for the challenges facing DEMO, by addressing the multi-scale synergistic interactions involving fusion plasma material interactions, tritium fuel cycle, power extraction, and the nuclear effects on materials. Such a facility properly designed would provide, initially at the JET-level plasma pressure (~30%T2) and conditions (e.g., Hot-Ion H-Mode), an outboard fusion neutron flux of 0.25 MW/m2 while requiring a fusion power of 19 MW. If and when this research operation is successful, its performance can be extended to 1 MW/m2 and 76 MW by reaching for twice the JET plasma pressure and Q. High-safety factor q and moderate- plasmas would minimize plasma-induced disruptions, helping to deliver reliably a neutron fluence of 1 MW-yr/m2 and a duty factor of 10% presently anticipated for the FNS research. Success of this research will depend on achieving time-efficient installation and replacement of all components using extensive remote handling (RH). This in turn requires modular designs for all internal components, including the single-turn toroidal field coil center-post with RH-compatible bi-directional sliding joints. Such device goals would further dictate placement of support structures and vacuum seal welds behind the internal and shielding components. If these further goals could be achieved, the FNSF would provide a ready upgrade path to the Component Test Facility (CTF), which would aim to test, at higher neutron fluence and duty cycle, the demanding fusion nuclear engineering and technologies for DEMO. This FNSF-CTF strategy would be complementary to the ITER and the Broader Approach programs, and thereby help mitigate the risks of an aggressive world fusion DEMO R&D Program

  4. TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) neutral beam injected power measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Dudek, L.E.; Gammel, G.M.; Johnson, G.A.; Kugel, H.W.; Lagin, L.; O'Connor, T.E.; Shah, P.A.; Sichta, P.

    1989-05-01

    Energy flow within TFTR neutral beamlines is measured with a waterfall calorimetry system capable of simultaneously measuring the energy deposited within four heating beamlines (three ion sources each), or of measuring the energy deposited in a separate neutral beam test stand. Of the energy extracted from the ion source in the well instrumented test stand, 99.5 +- 3.5% can be accounted for. When the ion deflection magnet is energized, however, 6.5% of the extracted energy is lost. This loss is attributed to a spray of devious particles onto unmonitored surfaces. A 30% discrepancy is also observed between energy measurements on the internal beamline calorimeter and energy measurements on a calorimeter located in the test stand target chamber. Particle reflection from the flat plate calorimeter in the target chamber, which the incident beam strikes at a near-grazing angle of 12/degree/, is the primary loss of this energy. A slight improvement in energy accountability is observed as the beam pulse length is increased. This improvement is attributed to systematic error in the sensitivity of the energy measurement to small fluctuations on the supply water temperature. An overall accuracy of 15% is estimated for the total power injected into TFTR. Contributions to this error are uncertainties in the beam neutralization efficiency, reionization and beam scrape-off in the drift duct, and fluctuations in the temperature of the supply water. 28 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Assessment of NDE Methods on Inspection of HDPE Butt Fusion Piping Joints for Lack of Fusion with Validation from Mechanical Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Moran, Traci L.; Watts, Michael W.

    2010-12-01

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provides information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from preliminary assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high-speed tensile impact test and the side-bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-in. IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack-of-fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), phased-array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer-diameter weld beads were removed for the microwave inspection. In two of the four pipes, both the outer and inner weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. The pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the side-bend test by cutting portions of the fusion joint into slices that were planed and bent. The last step in this limited study will be to correlate the fusion parameters, nondestructive, and destructive evaluation results to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. The results of the correlation will be used in identifying any future work that is needed.

  6. Test technology on divergence angle of laser range finder based on CCD imaging fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Sheng-bing; Chen, Zhen-xing; Lv, Yao

    2016-09-01

    Laser range finder has been equipped with all kinds of weapons, such as tank, ship, plane and so on, is important component of fire control system. Divergence angle is important performance and incarnation of horizontal resolving power for laser range finder, is necessary appraised test item in appraisal test. In this paper, based on high accuracy test on divergence angle of laser range finder, divergence angle test system is designed based on CCD imaging, divergence angle of laser range finder is acquired through fusion technology for different attenuation imaging, problem that CCD characteristic influences divergence angle test is solved.

  7. Irradiation capsule for testing magnetic fusion reactor first-wall materials at 60 and 200/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Conlin, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    A new type of irradiation capsule has been designed, and a prototype has been tested in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) for low-temperature irradiation of Magnetic Fusion Reactor first-wall materials. The capsule meets the requirements of the joint US/Japanese collaborative fusion reactor materials irradiation program for the irradiation of first-wall fusion reactor materials at 60 and 200/sup 0/C. The design description and results of the prototype capsule performance are presented.

  8. The operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Tritium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C.A.; LaMarche, P.H.; Anderson, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    The TFTR tritium operations staff has successfully received, stored, handled, and processed over five hundred thousand curies of tritium for the purpose of supporting D-T (Deuterium-Tritium) operations at TFTR. Tritium operations personnel nominally provide continuous round the clock coverage (24 hours/day, 7 days/week) in shift complements consisting of I supervisor and 3 operators. Tritium Shift Supervisors and operators are required to have 5 years of operational experience in either the nuclear or chemical industry and to become certified for their positions. The certification program provides formal instruction, as well as on the job training. The certification process requires 4 to 6 months to complete, which includes an oral board lasting up to 4 hours at which time the candidate is tested on their knowledge of Tritium Technology and TFTR Tritium systems. Once an operator is certified, the training process continues with scheduled training weeks occurring once every 5 weeks. During D-T operations at TFTR the operators must evacuate the tritium area due to direct radiation from TFTR D-T pulses. During `` time operators maintain cognizance over tritium systems via a real time TV camera system. Operators are able to gain access to the Tritium area between TFTR D-T pulses, but have been excluded from die tritium area during D-T pulsing for periods up to 30 minutes. Tritium operators are responsible for delivering tritium gas to TFRR as well as processing plasma exhaust gases which lead to the deposition of tritium oxide on disposable molecular sieve beds (DMSB). Once a DMSB is loaded, the operations staff remove the expended DMSB, and replace it with a new DMSB container. The TFIR tritium system is operated via detailed procedures which require operator sign off for system manipulation. There are >300 procedures controlling the operation of the tritium systems.

  9. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF NDE METHODS ON INSPECTION OF HDPE BUTT FUSION PIPING JOINTS FOR LACK OF FUSION WITH VALIDATION FROM MECHANICAL TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Watts, Michael W.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2010-07-22

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provides information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from preliminary assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high speed tensile impact test and the bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12 inch (30.5 cm) IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack of fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time of flight diffraction (TOFD), phased array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer diameter (OD) weld beads were removed for microwave evaluation and the pipes ultrasonically re-evaluated. In two of the six pipes both the outer and inner diameter (ID) weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. Several of the pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the following techniques: high speed tensile test, bend test, and focused immersion ultrasound on a joint section removed from the pipe coupled with slicing through the joint and examining the revealed surfaces. The fusion parameters, nondestructive, and destructive evaluation results will be correlated to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. This is an initial limited study which will aid in identifying key future work.

  10. Fusion power demonstration - a baseline for the mirror engineering test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Neef, W.S.; Dorn, D.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.; Gordon, J.D.; Campbell, R.B.; Hsu, P.; Nelson, D.

    1983-12-02

    Developing a definition of an engineering test reactor (ETR) is a current goal of the Office of Fusion Energy (OFE). As a baseline for the mirror ETR, the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) concept has been pursued at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in cooperation with Grumman Aerospace, TRW, and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Envisioned as an intermediate step to fusion power applications, the FPD would achieve DT ignition in the central cell, after which blankets and power conversion would be added to produce net power. To achieve ignition, a minimum central cell length of 67.5 m is needed to supply the ion and alpha particles radial drift pumping losses in the transition region. The resulting fusion power is 360 MW. Low electron-cyclotron heating power of 12 MW, ion-cyclotron heating of 2.5 MW, and a sloshing ion beam power of 1.0 MW result in a net plasma Q of 22. A primary technological challenge is the 24-T, 45-cm bore choke coil, comprising a copper hybrid insert within a 15 to 18 T superconducting coil.

  11. Transmutation behaviour of Eurofer under irradiation in the IFMIF test facility and fusion power reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, U.; Simakov, S. P.; Wilson, P. P. H.

    2004-08-01

    The transmutation behaviour of the low activation steel Eurofer was analysed for irradiation simulations in the high flux test module (HFTM) of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) neutron source and the first wall of a typical fusion power reactor (FPR) employing helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) and pebble bed (HCPB) blankets. The transmutation calculations were conducted with the analytical and laplacian adaptive radioactivity analysis (ALARA) code and IEAF-2001 data for the IFMIF and the EASY-2003 system for the fusion power reactor (FPR) irradiations. The analyses showed that the transmutation of the main constituents of Eurofer, including iron and chromium, is not significant. Minor constituents such as Ti, V and Mn increase by 5-15% per irradiation year in the FPR and by 10-35% in the IFMIF HFTM. Other minor constituents such as B, Ta, and W show a different transmutation behaviour resulting in different elemental compositions of the Eurofer steel after high fluence irradiations in IFMIF and fusion power reactors.

  12. Towards a programme of testing and qualification for structural and plasma-facing materials in ‘fusion neutron’ environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, D.; Heidinger, R.; Muroga, T.; Zinkle, S. J.; Moeslang, A.; Porton, M.; Boutard, J.-L.; Gonzalez, S.; Ibarra, A.

    2017-09-01

    Materials damage by 14.1MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactions can only be characterised definitively by subjecting a relevant configuration of test materials to high-intensity ‘fusion-neutron spectrum sources’, i.e. those simulating closely D-T fusion-neutron spectra. This provides major challenges to programmes to design and construct a demonstration fusion reactor prior to having a large-scale, high-intensity source of such neutrons. In this paper, we discuss the different aspects related to these ‘relevant configuration’ tests, including: • generic issues in materials qualification/validation, comparing safety requirements against those of investment protection; • lessons learned from the fission programme, enabling a reduced fusion materials testing programme; • the use and limitations of presently available possible irradiation sources to optimise a fusion neutron testing program including fission-neutron irradiation of isotopically and chemically tailored steels, ion damage by high-energy helium ions and self-ion beams, or irradiation studies with neutron sources of non-fusion spectra; and • the different potential sources of simulated fusion neutron spectra and the choice using stripping reactions from deuterium-beam ions incident on light-element targets.

  13. Ultra-Lightweight Borosilicate Gas-Fusion Mirror for Cryogenic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voevodsky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Hextek Corporation fabricated a 250 mm diameter ultra-lightweight borosilicate mirror substrate for cryogenic testing at NASA MSFC XRCF facility in Huntsville AL under contract# H-34475D. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate that the Hextek Gas-Fusion technology is capable of meeting the 15kg/sq m areal density target required for future space missions, and to provide a demonstration substrate for NASA MSFC to finish and test at cryogenic temperature. This presentation reviews company background and capabilities, features and benefits of the Gas-Fusion technology, historical data on cryogenic performance of borosilicate glass showing near zero cte at 30-35 degrees Kelvin, design and fabrication results of the 250 mm 15kg/sq m areal density substrate, and finally, projected scaling, lightweighing and fabrication lead-times for meter class segments.

  14. Ultra-Lightweight Borosilicate Gas-Fusion Mirror for Cryogenic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voevodsky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Hextek Corporation fabricated a 250 mm diameter ultra-lightweight borosilicate mirror substrate for cryogenic testing at NASA MSFC XRCF facility in Huntsville AL under contract# H-34475D. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate that the Hextek Gas-Fusion technology is capable of meeting the 15kg/sq m areal density target required for future space missions, and to provide a demonstration substrate for NASA MSFC to finish and test at cryogenic temperature. This presentation reviews company background and capabilities, features and benefits of the Gas-Fusion technology, historical data on cryogenic performance of borosilicate glass showing near zero cte at 30-35 degrees Kelvin, design and fabrication results of the 250 mm 15kg/sq m areal density substrate, and finally, projected scaling, lightweighing and fabrication lead-times for meter class segments.

  15. Progress at LLNL toward DPSSL-Driven Intertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C D; Rothenberg, J E; Payne, S A; Powell, H T

    2002-02-19

    We describe research indicating that a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) can serve as a viable driver for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The ongoing construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sets the stage for a new era to start in the next decade for target research aimed at achieving the high gains necessary for both defense and energy applications. In addition, advances in DPSSL research show that this type of laser can have adequate efficiency and reliability, and can achieve the effective beam smoothness required for direct-drive IFE.

  16. 2010 Ford Fusion VIN 4757 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Ford Fusion HEV (VIN: 3FADP0L34AR144757). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Impact of Fast Ignition on Laser Fusion Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirna, Kunioki

    2016-10-01

    Reviewed are the early history of Japanese laser fusion research and the recent achievement of fast ignition research at Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University. After the achievement of high density compression at Osaka University, LLE of University Rochester, and LLNL, the critical issue of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) research became the formation of hot spark in a compressed plasma. In this lecture, the history of the fast ignition research will be reviewed and future prospects are presented.

  18. Development of a small specimen test machine to evaluate irradiation embrittlement of fusion reactor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, T.; Ohmi, M.; Saito, J.; Hoshiya, T.; Ooka, N.; Jitsukawa, S.; Eto, M.

    2000-12-01

    Small specimen test techniques (SSTT) are essential to use an accelerator-driven deuterium-lithium stripping reaction neutron source for the study of fusion reactor materials because of the limitation of the available irradiation volume. A remote-controlled small punch (SP) test machine was developed at the hot laboratory of the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). This report describes the SP test method and machine for use in a hot cell, and test results on irradiated ferritic steels. The specimen was either a coupon 10×10×0.25 mm 3 or a TEM disk 3 mm in diameter by 0.25 mm in thickness. Tests can be performed at temperatures ranging from 93 to 1123 K in a vacuum or in an inert gas environment. The ductile to brittle transition temperature of the irradiated ferritic steel as determined by the SP test is also evaluated.

  19. Management of primary dysmenorrhea by school adolescents in ILE-IFE, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Babatunde, Oluwayemisi A

    2010-04-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a problem that girls and women face and often manage themselves with or without support from health professionals. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescents with dysmenorrhea (N = 150) in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The aims of the study were to determine their knowledge of menstruation and primary dysmenorrhea, assess the severity of pain they experienced during an episode of primary dysmenorrhea, and determine the management strategies they adopted. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings revealed the adolescents had a knowledge deficit regarding menstruation and dysmenorrhea, 58% of respondents reported pain between face 4 and face 10 on the Faces Pain Scale and the majority used inappropriate methods to manage primary dysmenorrhea. School nurses are able to assist adolescents and their mothers in proper management of primary dysmenorrhea.

  20. The LLNL HFTF (High-Field Test Facility): A flexible superconducting test facility for fusion magnet development

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.R.; Chaplin, M.R.; Leber, R.L.; Rosdahl, A.R.

    1987-09-17

    The High-Field Test Facility (HFTF) is a flexible and, in many ways, unique facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for providing the test capabilities needed to develop the superconducting magnet systems of the next generation fusion machines. The superconducting coil set in HFTF has been operated successfully at LLNL, but in its original configuration, its utility as a test facility was somewhat restricted and cryogenic losses were intolerable. A new cryostat for the coil set allows the magnet system to remain cold indefinitely so the system is available on short notice to provide high fields (about 11 T) inside a reasonably large test volume (0.3-m diam). The test volume is physically and thermally isolated from the coil volume, allowing test articles to be inserted and removed without disturbing the coil cryogenic volume, which is maintained by an on-line refrigerator. Indeed, with the proper precautions, it is even unnecessary to drop the field in the HFTF during such an operation. The separate test volume also allows reduced temperature operation without the expense and complication of subcooling the entire coil set (about 20-t cold mass). The HFTF has thus become a key facility in the LLNL magnet development program, where the primary goal is to demonstrate the technology for producing fields to 15 T with winding-pack current densities of 40 A.mm/sup -2/ in coils sized for fusion applications. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 2: Designs, Assessments, and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C. D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability, economics, and technology development needs.

  2. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 1: Executive Summary & Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C.D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability economics, and technology development needs.

  3. Complexity versus availability for fusion: The potential advantages of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.J.,

    1996-09-05

    Probably the single largest advantage of the inertial route to fusion energy (IFE) is the perception that its power plant embodiments could achieve acceptable capacity factors. This is a result of its relative simplicity, the decoupling of the driver and reactor chamber, and the potential to employ thick liquid walls. We examine these issues in terms of the complexity, reliability, maintainability and, therefore, availability of both magnetic and inertial fusion power plants and compare these factors with corresponding scheduled and unscheduled outage data from present day fission experience. We stress that, given the simple nature of a fission core, the vast majority of unplanned outages in fission plants are due to failures outside the reactor vessel itself Given we must be prepared for similar outages in the analogous plant external to a fusion power core, this puts severe demands on the reliability required of the fusion core itself. We indicate that such requirements can probably be met for IFE plants. We recommend that this advantage be promoted by performing a quantitative reliability and availability study for a representative IFE power plant and suggest that databases are probably adequate for this task.

  4. Simulations of Ion Coupling Experiments on NDCX-II relevant to IFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, J. J.; More, R. M.; Terry, M.

    2012-10-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment II (NDCX-II) is an induction accelerator for which the construction project was completed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in March, 2012, and is presently being commissioned. The baseline design for NDCX-II will accelerate ˜0.03 μC of singly charged lithium ions to 1.2 MeV (with possible upgrades up to 3.1 MeV), delivered in sub-ns pulses with sub-mm rms beam radii. The purpose of NDCX-II is to carry out beam and target interaction experiments relevant to IFE. We have carried out detailed hydrodynamic simulations of planar targets having several configurations. In this poster we will focus on experiments that maximize shock strength by traveling wave deposition (i.e. by varying ion beam energy in a velocity chirp) and/or by varying intensity profile, and we will also explore methods to optimize shock strengths in composite materials where shocks can be formed at material boundaries and at end-of-range. These results will be discussed in the context of heavy ion fusion direct drive targets.

  5. Design and testing of the 2 MV heavy ion injector for the Fusion Energy Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, W.; Benjegerdes, R.; Reginato, L.; Stoker, J.; Hipple, R.; Peters, C.; Pruyn, J.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S.

    1995-04-01

    The Fusion Energy Research Group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed and tested a pulsed 2 MV injector that produces a driver size beam of potassium ions. This paper describes the engineering aspects of this development which were generated in a closely coupled effort with the physics staff. Details of the ion source and beam transport physics are covered in another paper at this conference. This paper discusses the design details of the pulse generator, the ion source, the extractor, the diode column, and the electrostatic quadrupole column. Included will be the test results and operating experience of the complete injector.

  6. Industrial Hygiene Concerns during the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Lumia; C.A. Gentile

    2002-01-18

    A significant industrial hygiene concern during the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was the oxidation of the lead bricks' surface, which were utilized for radiation shielding. This presented both airborne exposure and surface contamination issues for the workers in the field removing this material. This paper will detail the various protection and control methods tested and implemented to protect the workers, including those technologies deployed to decontaminate the work surfaces. In addition, those techniques employed to recycle the lead for additional use at the site will be discussed.

  7. A tritium-compatible piezoelectric valve for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Coffin, D.O.; Cole, S.P.; Wilhelm, R.C.

    1988-09-01

    A commercial piezoelectric valve has been modified to enhance its tritium compatibility, enabling it to provide about 125 tritium gas injections planned for Princeton's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The valve was modified at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), exposed to progressively higher concentrations to tritium gas, and repeatedly tested for performance with tritium. The modified valve meets the basic TFTR flow requirements (50 torr L/s), and it survived 3400 torr hr exposure to tritium with neither decrease in performance nor significant leakage across the closed valve. A totally tritium-compatible piezo valve, containing no organic materials, is also proposed and described.

  8. Fusion Nuclear Schience Facility-AT: A Material And Component Testing Device

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C. P.; Chan, V. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Stambaugh, Ron; Sawan, M.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Merrill, Brad

    2012-07-01

    A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a necessary complement to ITER, especially in the area of materials and components testing, needed for DEMO design development. FNSF-AT, which takes advantage of advanced tokamak (AT) physics should have neutron wall loading of 1-2 MW/m2, continuous operation for periods of up to two weeks, a duty factor goal of 0.3 per year and an accumulated fluence of 3-6 MW-yr/m2 (~30-60 dpa) in ten years to enable the qualification of structural, blanket and functional materials, components and corresponding ancillary equipment necessary for the design and licensing of a DEMO. Base blankets with a ferritic steel structure and selected tritium blanket materials will be tested and used for the demonstration of tritium sufficiency. Additional test ports at the outboard mid-plane will be reserved for test blankets with advanced designs or exotic materials, and electricity production for integrated high fluence testing in a DT fusion spectrum. FNSF-AT will be designed using conservative implementations of all elements of AT physics to produce 150-300 MW fusion power with modest energy gain (Q<7) in a modest sized normal conducting coil device. It will demonstrate and help to select the DEMO plasma facing, structural, tritium breeding, functional materials and ancillary equipment including diagnostics. It will also demonstrate the necessary tritium fuel cycle, design and cooling of the first wall chamber and divertor components. It will contribute to the knowledge on material qualification, licensing, operational safety and remote maintenance necessary for DEMO design

  9. High-flux source of fusion neutrons for material and component testing

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D. E.; Hooper, E. B.; Ryutov, D. D.; Thomassen, K. I.

    1999-01-07

    The inner part of a fusion reactor will have to operate at very high neutron loads. In steady-state reactors the minimum fluence before the scheduled replacement of the reactor core should be at least l0-15 Mw.yr/m2. A more frequent replacement of the core is hardly compatible with economic constraints. A most recent summary of the discussions of these issues is presented in Ref. [l]. If and when times come to build a commercial fusion reactor, the availability of information on the behavior of materials and components at such fluences will become mandatory for making a final decision. This makes it necessary an early development and construction of a neutron source for fusion material and component testing. In this paper, we present information on one very attractive concept of such a source: a source based on a so called Gas Dynamic Trap. This neutron source was proposed in the mid 1980s (Ref. [2]; see also a survey [3] with discussion of the early stage of the project). Since then, gradual accumulation of the relevant experimental information on a modest-scale experimental facility GDT at Novosibirsk, together with a continuing design activity, have made initial theoretical considerations much more credible. We believe that such a source can be built within 4 or 5 years. Of course, one should remember that there is a chance for developing steady-state reactors with a liquid (and therefore continuously renewable) first wall [4], which would also serve as a tritium breeder. In this case, the need in the neutron testing will become less pressing. However, it is not clear yet that the concept of the flowing wall will be compatible with all types of steady-state reactors. It seems therefore prudent to be prepared to the need of a quick construction of a neutron source. It should also be mentioned that there exist projects of the accelerator-based neutron sources (e.g., [5]). However, they generally have two major disadvantages: a wrong neutron spectrum

  10. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, A.; Fratoni, M.

    2015-09-22

    , low electrical conductivity and therefore low MHD pressure drop, low chemical reactivity, and extremely low tritium inventory; the addition of sodium (FLiNaBe) has been considered because it retains the properties of FliBe but also lowers the melting point. Although many of these blanket concepts are promising, challenges still remain. The limited amount of beryllium available poses a problem for ceramic breeders such as the HCPB. FLiBe and FLiNaBe are highly viscous and have a low thermal conductivity. Lithium lead possesses a poor thermal conductivity which can cause problems in both DCLL and LiPb blankets. Additionally, the tritium permeation from these two blankets into plant components can be a problem and must be reduced. Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is attempting to develop a lithium-based alloy—most likely a ternary alloy—which maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns for use in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The LLNL concept employs inertial confinement fusion (ICF) through the use of lasers aimed at an indirect-driven target composed of deuterium-tritium fuel. The fusion driver/target design implements the same physics currently experimented at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The plant uses lithium in both the primary coolant and blanket; therefore, lithium-related hazards are of primary concern. Although reducing chemical reactivity is the primary motivation for the development of new lithium alloys, the successful candidates will have to guarantee acceptable performance in all their functions. The scope of this study is to evaluate the neutronics performance of a large number of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of the IFE engine and assess their properties upon activation. This manuscript is organized as follows: Section 12 presents the models and methodologies used for the analysis; Section

  11. Calculations of alpha particle loss for reversed magnetic shear in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, M.H.; White, R.B.; Batha, S.H.; Levinton, F.M.; McCune, D.C.

    1997-03-01

    Hamiltonian coordinate, guiding center code calculations of the toroidal field ripple loss of alpha particles from a reversed shear plasma predict both total alpha losses and ripple diffusion losses to be greater than those from a comparable non-reversed magnetic shear plasma in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Fusion Technol. 21, 1324 (1992)]. High central q is found to increase alpha ripple losses as well as first orbit losses of alphas in the reversed shear simulations. A simple ripple loss model, benchmarked against the guiding center code, is found to work satisfactorily in transport analysis modelling of reversed and monotonic shear scenarios. Alpha ripple transport on TFTR affects ions within r/a=0.5, not at the plasma edge. The entire plasma is above threshold for stochastic ripple loss of alpha particles at birth energy in the reversed shear case simulated, so that all trapped 3.5 MeV alphas are lost stochastically or through prompt losses. The 40% alpha particle loss predictions for TFTR suggest that reduction of toroidal field ripple will be a critical issue in the design of a reversed shear fusion reactor.

  12. Anomalous fast ion losses at high β on the tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Bell, M. G.; Budny, R. V.; Darrow, D. S.; White, R.

    2015-03-15

    This paper describes experiments carried out on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [R. J. Hawryluk et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 33, 1509 (1991)] to investigate the dependence of β-limiting disruption characteristics on toroidal field strength. The hard disruptions found at the β-limit in high field plasmas were not found at low field, even for β's 50% higher than the empirical β-limit of β{sub n} ≈ 2 at high field. Comparisons of experimentally measured β's to TRANSP simulations suggest anomalous loss of up to half of the beam fast ions in the highest β, low field shots. The anomalous transport responsible for the fast ion losses may at the same time broaden the pressure profile. Toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes, fishbone instabilities, and Geodesic Acoustic Modes are investigated as possible causes of the enhanced losses. Here, we present the first observations of high frequency fishbones [F. Zonca et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 085009 (2009)] on TFTR. The interpretation of Axi-symmetric Beam-driven Modes as Geodesic Acoustic Modes and their possible correlation with transport barrier formation are also presented.

  13. Analysis of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Prototype of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)‡

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Tim; Maglich, Bogdan; Scott, Dan; Calsec Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    TFTR produced world record of 10 million watts of controlled fusion power1 (CFP-1994) was summarized in Review1. We present evidence3 that: (1) TFTR input vs. output was 40 to 10 MW i.e. a power loss. (2) Review claims no experimental evidence for thermonuclear CFP production (only a calculation). (3) Ultra-high vacuum (UHV) required for τE = 0.2 s is 10-9 torr. TFTR had no UHV pumps, resulting in 10-3 torr, restricting τE <10-6 s, << thermalization time; 0.1 s., hence DT plasma did not occur. (4) Carbon ions were presented as D-T plasma. (5) Unknown neutron detector on unexplained neutron diamagnetic effect, measured ``fusion neutron power'' without particle energy identification, energy or coincidence. (6) 8 of 9 parameters claimed were inferred not measured. Quadratic test of TFTR data results2 in zero thermonuclear fusion power contribution to 10 MW: SFP = (0 +/- 1)%. ‡ Submitted to Physics of Plasmas†

  14. Anomalous fast ion losses at high β on the tokamak fusion test reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Bell, M. G.; Budny, R. V.; Darrow, D. S.; White, R.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes experiments carried out on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [R. J. Hawryluk et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 33, 1509 (1991)] to investigate the dependence of β-limiting disruption characteristics on toroidal field strength. The hard disruptions found at the β-limit in high field plasmas were not found at low field, even for β's 50% higher than the empirical β-limit of βn ≈ 2 at high field. Comparisons of experimentally measured β's to TRANSP simulations suggest anomalous loss of up to half of the beam fast ions in the highest β, low field shots. The anomalous transport responsible for the fast ion losses may at the same time broaden the pressure profile. Toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes, fishbone instabilities, and Geodesic Acoustic Modes are investigated as possible causes of the enhanced losses. Here, we present the first observations of high frequency fishbones [F. Zonca et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 085009 (2009)] on TFTR. The interpretation of Axi-symmetric Beam-driven Modes as Geodesic Acoustic Modes and their possible correlation with transport barrier formation are also presented.

  15. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Garrison, L M; Zenobia, S J; Egle, B J; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10(14) ions/(cm(2) s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  16. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, Samuel J.; Egle, Brian J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Santarius, John F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000°C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. In conclusion, the MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  17. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, S. J.; Egle, B. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  18. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, L. M. Egle, B. J.; Zenobia, S. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.

    2016-08-15

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10{sup 14} ions/(cm{sup 2} s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  19. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, Samuel J.; Egle, Brian J.; ...

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000°C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ionmore » gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. In conclusion, the MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.« less

  20. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, Samuel J.; Egle, Brian J.; Kulcinski, Gerald L.; Santarius, John F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000°C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. In conclusion, the MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  1. Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion: Summary Report of the Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.A.; Barnard, J.J.

    2011-04-29

    The Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory May 23-26, 2011. The workshop began with plenary sessions to review the state of the art in HIF (heavy ion fusion), followed by parallel working groups, and concluded with a plenary session to review the results. There were five working groups: IFE (inertial fusion energy) targets, RF approach to HIF, induction accelerator approach to HIF, chamber and driver interface, ion sources and injectors.

  2. Preparations for deuterium tritium experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J.W.; Arunasalam, V.; Ascione, G.; Ashcroft, D.; Barnes, G.

    1994-04-01

    The final hardware modifications for tritium operation have been completed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). These activities include preparation of the tritium gas handling system, installation of additional neutron shielding, conversion of the toroidal field coil cooling system from water to a Fluorinet{sup {trademark}} system, modification of the vacuum system to handle tritium, preparation and testing of the neutral beam system for tritium operation and a final deuterium-deuterium (D-D) run to simulate expected deuterium-tritium (D-T) operation. Testing of the tritium system with low concentration tritium has successfully begun. Simulation of trace and high power D-T experiments using D-D have been performed. The physics objectives of D-T operation are production of {approximately} 10 megawatts (MW) of fusion power, evaluation of confinement and heating in deuterium-tritium plasmas, evaluation of {alpha}-particle heating of electrons, and collective effects driven by alpha particles and testing of diagnostics for confined {alpha}-particles. Experimental results and theoretical modeling in support of the D-T experiments are reviewed.

  3. Sustaining neutral beam power supply system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eckard, R.D.; Wilson, J.H.; Van Ness, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    In late August 1978, a fixed price procurement contract for $25,000,000 was awarded to Aydin Energy Division, Palo Alto, California, for the design, manufacture, installation and acceptance testing of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) Sustaining Neutral Beam Power Supply System (SNBPSS). This system of 24 power supply sets will provide the conditioned power for the 24 neutral beam source modules. Each set will provide the accel potential the arc power, the filament power, and the suppressor power for its associated neutral beam source module. The design and development of the SNBPSS has progressed through the final design phase and is now in production. Testing of the major sub-assembly power supply is proceeding at Aydin and the final acceptance testing of the first two power supplies at LLNL is expected to be completed this year.

  4. Alpha particle losses from Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor deuterium-tritium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, D.S.; Zweben, S.J.; Batha, S.

    1996-01-01

    Because alpha particle losses can have a significant influence on tokamak reactor viability, the loss of deuterium-tritium alpha particles from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been measured under a wide range of conditions. In TFTR, first orbit loss and stochastic toroidal field ripple diffusion are always present. Other losses can arise due to magnetohydrodynamic instabilities or due to waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. No alpha particle losses have yet been seen due to collective instabilities driven by alphas. Ion Bernstein waves can drive large losses of fast ions from TFTR, and details of those losses support one element of the alpha energy channeling scenario.

  5. Design and testing of the magnetic quadrupole for the Heavy Ion Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Benjegerdes, R.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.; Peters, C.; Reginato, L.; Stuart, M.

    1995-04-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is conducting experiments in the transport and acceleration of ``driverlike`` beams. The single beam coming from the four-to-one beam combiner will be transported in a lattice of pulsed magnetic quadrupoles. The present beam transport consists of high field, short aspect ratio magnetic quadrupoles to maximize the transportable current. This design could also be converted to be superconducting for future uses in a driver. The pulsed quadrupole will develop a maximum field of two Tesla and will be housed within the induction accelerator cells at the appropriate lattice period. Hardware implementation of the physics requirements and full parameter testing is described.

  6. Analyses in Support of Z-IFE: LLNL Progress Report for FY-04

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W; Abbott, R; Latkowski, J; Moir, R; Reyes, S; Schmitt, R

    2004-10-06

    During the last quarter of FY2004, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a brief study of power plant options for a z-pinch-based inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) power plant. Areas that were covered include chamber design, thick-liquid response, neutronics and activation, and systems studies. This report summarizes the progress made in each of these areas, provides recommendations for improvements to the basic design concept, and identifies future work that is needed. As a starting point to the LLNL studies, we have taken information provided in several publications and presentations. In particular, many of the basic parameters were taken from the ZP-3 study, which is described in reference 4. The ZP-3 design called for 12 separate target chambers, with any 10 of them operating at a given time. Each chamber would be pulsed at a repetition rate of 0.1 Hz with a target yield of 3 GJ. Thus, each chamber would have a fusion power of 300 MW for a power plant total of 3000 MW. The ZP-3 study considered several options for the recyclable transmission lines (RTL). Early in the study, the LLNL group questioned the use of many chambers as well as the yield limitation of 3 GJ. The feeling was that a large number of chambers would invariably lead to a considerably higher system cost than for a system with fewer chambers. Naturally, this trend would be somewhat offset by the increased availability that might be possible with many chambers. Reference 4 points out that target yields as high as 20 GJ would be possible with currently available manufacturing technology. The LLNL team considered yields ranging from 3 to 20 GJ. Our findings indicate that higher yields, which lead one to fewer chambers, make the most sense from an economic point of view. Systems modeling, including relative economics, is covered in Section 2. Regardless of the number of chambers of the fusion yield per target, a Z-IFE power plant would make use of a thick-liquid wall protection scheme

  7. Systems Modeling for Z-IFE Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2006-11-08

    A preliminary systems model has been developed for Z-IFE power plants. The model includes cost and performance scaling for the target physics, z-pinch driver, chamber, power conversion system and target/RTL manufacturing plant. As the base case we consider the dynamic hohlraum target and a thick liquid wall chamber with flibe as the working fluid. Driver cost and efficiency are evaluated parametrically since various options are still being considered. The model allows for power plants made up of multiple chambers and power conversion units supplied by a central target/RTL manufacturing plant. Initial results indicate that plants with few chambers operating at high yield are economically more attractive than the 10-unit plant previously proposed. Various parametric and sensitivity studies have been completed and are discussed.

  8. Urinary schistosomiasis among school children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Amole, B O; Jinadu, M K

    1994-09-01

    A study of urinary schistosomiasis among 553 randomly selected primary and secondary school children in Ile-Ife township in 1988 shows that nearly half (48.5%) of the school children were infected. There was a sharp increase in both the prevalence and intensity of the infection up to age 13 years which then declined slightly by age 14. About 50% of the infected school children had gross hematuria. There was an association between the intensity of the infection and the presence of hematuria. The main strategies recommended for the control of the infection were regular disinfection of ponds and streams in the town and adequate treatment of infected school children, backed up with school health education programme.

  9. Childhood intussusception in Ile-ife: what has changed?

    PubMed

    Talabi, Ademola Olusegun; Sowande, Oludayo Adedapo; Etonyeaku, Chiduziem Amarachukwu; Adejuyigbe, Olusanya

    2013-01-01

    Intussusception is one of the most common causes of intestinal obstruction in children. While the outcome has improved in the developed nations, the same cannot be said of the developing countries, more especially in the sub-Saharan region. This study aims to review our current experience in the management of childhood intussusception and factors affecting surgical outcome at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile-Ife. This was a retrospective study of 78 patients treated for intussusception at paediatric surgical unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile-Ife between January 1993 and December 2011. The case notes of the patients were retrieved and the following information was recorded: Demographic characteristics, month of occurrence, clinical presentation, investigations, and management as well as the post-operative outcome. The patients were divided into two groups in terms of outcome. There were 58 males and 20 females (M:F = 2.9-1). The age of most of the patients was between 3 months and 9 months with peak incidence at 6 months. Most patients 46 (58.9%) were seen during the dry season of December to April. Only six patients (7.7%) presented within 24 hours of onset of illness. More than half of the patients presented after 24 hours. Passage of red currant stool, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, and abdominal distension, passage of watery stool, anal protrusion and palpable abdominal mass in various combinations were the clinical features. All the patients had surgical operations. The most common type of intussusception was ileo-colic type in 64 patients (82.1%). Intestinal resection rate was 41%. The overall mortality rate was 15.4%. There was a delay in presentation of children with intussusception with high post-operative mortality.

  10. Indication for eye removal in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeoye, A O; Onakpoya, O H

    2007-12-01

    The indication for surgical eye removal reflects the pattern of severe ocular diseases in a given community and gives insight into the causes of uniocular blindness. It is an unfortunate end to certain ocular morbidities. In instances where the fellow eye is already blind, it then becomes even more grievous. The aim of the study is to find out the reasons for surgical eye removal in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC) Ile-Ife. Nigeria. Retrospective analytic study of records of all patients who had their eyes removed in the Ophthalmic theatre of OAUTHC Ile-Ife from January 1994 - December 2003 were reviewed without prejudice to method of such removal. A total of 94 eyes were removed during this 10 year period, out of which 92 records were available for inclusion in this study. 30.4% of the patients were below 10 years of age. The male to female ratio was 2.1:1. All cases of eye removal were uniocular. Trauma was the leading cause of eye removal (43.4%) while orbito-ocular tumour was next (30.4%). Tumour was the leading cause of eye removal in the paediatric age group (87.2%) with Retinoblastoma being the commonest indication. Six out of the 92 (6.5%) patients studied unfortunately were already blind in the second eye; in this group of individuals the reason for eye removal was preventable in 83.3%. Most of the indications for eye removal were avoidable. Eye health education is needful for the general populace and particularly for individuals with an 'only' eye.

  11. Deuterium-tritium plasmas in novel regimes in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.G.; Beer, M.; Batha, S.

    1997-02-01

    Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have explored several novel regimes of improved tokamak confinement in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas, including plasmas with reduced or reversed magnetic shear in the core and high-current plasmas with increased shear in the outer region (high-l{sub i}). New techniques have also been developed to enhance the confinement in these regimes by modifying the plasma-limiter interaction through in-situ deposition of lithium. In reversed-shear plasmas, transitions to enhanced confinement have been observed at plasma currents up to 2.2 MA (q{sub a} {approx} 4.3), accompanied by the formation of internal transport barriers, where large radial gradients develop in the temperature and density profiles. Experiments have been performed to elucidate the mechanism of the barrier formation and its relationship with the magnetic configuration and with the heating characteristics. The increased stability of high-current, high-l{sub i} plasmas produced by rapid expansion of the minor cross-section, coupled with improvement in the confinement by lithium deposition has enabled the achievement of high fusion power, up to 8.7 MW, with D-T neutral beam heating. The physics of fusion alpha-particle confinement has been investigated in these regimes, including the interactions of the alphas with endogenous plasma instabilities and externally applied waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. In D-T plasmas with q{sub 0} > 1 and weak magnetic shear in the central region, a toroidal Alfven eigenmode instability driven purely by the alpha particles has been observed for the first time. The interactions of energetic ions with ion Bernstein waves produced by mode-conversion from fast waves in mixed-species plasmas have been studied as a possible mechanism for transferring the energy of the alphas to fuel ions.

  12. Tools and methods for implementing the control systems on the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, E.G.; Labiak, W.G.

    1981-09-29

    Installation of the major hardware subsystems for MFTF is nearing completion. These subsystems include the Fusion Chamber System, the eighty KV Neutral Beam System, the Superconducting Magnet System, and the Personnel Safety System. The Local Controls group has undertaken a uniform aproach to implementing the control systems for all of these hardware subsystems. This approach has two major aspects: (1) to provide a stand-alone computer control system with a remote, portable terminal so that computer control can be provided at the site of the hardware for initial testing, (2) to provide hardware simulators so that the complicated MFTF computer control system can be tested independent of the hardware. The software and hardware tools which were developed to carry out this plan will be described. Our experiences with bringing up subsystems containing up to 900 separate channels of control and status will also be described.

  13. Outgassing tests on materials used in the DIII-D magnetic fusion tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Holtrop, K.L.; Hansink, M.; Kellman, A.G.

    1998-12-01

    In order to achieve high performance plasma discharges in the DIII-D magnetic fusion tokamak, impurity levels must be carefully controlled. Since first wall materials can desorb volatile impurities during these discharges, it is important to characterize and control the outgassing of these materials. An outgassing chamber was built to measure the outgassing properties of various materials used in the DIII-D vessel. The results of pump-down tests performed on ATJ graphite, thin Grafoil {reg_sign} gaskets, and MgO coaxial cables will be presented. In addition to pumpdown tests it was desired to study the behavior of the materials at temperatures up to 400 C, which is the maximum temperature to which the DIII-D vessel is baked. The station was modified to include independent heating control of the sample and a simple load-lock chamber.

  14. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-15

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster–Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  15. Ion cyclotron range of frequency heating on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Bell, M.G.; Biglari, H.; Bitter, M.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.; Chen, L.; Darrow, D.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ernst, D.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.Y.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L.; Hammett, G.; Hosea, J.C.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.K.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S.S.; Mueller, D.; Nazikian, R.; Owens, D.K.; Paul, S.; Park, H.; Phillips, C.K.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; Schivell, J.; Schmidt, G.L.; Stevens, J.E.; Stratton, B.C.; Strachan, J.D.; Synakowski, E.; Wilson, J.R.; Wong, K.L.; Zweben, S.J.; Baylor, L.; Bush, C.E.; Goldfinger, R.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Murakami, M.; Qualls, A.L.; Rasmussen, D.; Machuzak, J.; Rimini, F.; Chang, Z.

    1993-06-01

    The complete ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating system for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), consisting of four antennas and six generators designed to deliver 12.5 MW to the TFTR plasma, has now been installed. Recently a series of experiments has been conducted to explore the effect of ICRF heating on the performance of low recycling, Supershot plasmas in minority and non-resonant electron heating regimes. The addition of up to 7.4 MW of ICRF power to full size (R {approximately} 2.6 m, a {approximately} 0.95 m), helium-3 minority, deuterium Supershots heated with up to 30 MW of deuterium neutral beam injection has resulted in a significant increase in core electron temperature ({delta}T{sub e}=3--4 key). Simulations of equivalent deuterium-tritium (D-T) Supershots predict that such ICRF heating should result in an increase in {beta}{sub alpha}(O) {approximately} 30%. Direct electron heating has been observed and has been found to be in agreement with theory. ICRF heating has also been coupled to neutral beam heated plasmas fueled by frozen deuterium pellets. In addition ICRF heated energetic ion tails have been used to simulate fusion alpha particles in high recycling plasmas. Up to 11.4 MW of ICRF heating has been coupled into a hydrogen minority, high recycling helium plasma and the first observation of the toroidal Alfven eigenmode (TAE) instability driven by the energetic proton tail has been made in this regime.

  16. Deuterium-Tritium Simulations of the Enhanced Reversed Shear Mode in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Manickam, J.; Scott, S.D.; Zarnstorff

    1997-04-01

    The potential performance, in deuterium-tritium plasmas, of a new enhanced con nement regime with reversed magnetic shear (ERS mode) is assessed. The equilibrium conditions for an ERS mode plasma are estimated by solving the plasma transport equations using the thermal and particle dif- fusivities measured in a short duration ERS mode discharge in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [F. M. Levinton, et al., Phys. Rev. Letters, 75, 4417, (1995)]. The plasma performance depends strongly on Zeff and neutral beam penetration to the core. The steady state projections typically have a central electron density of {approx}2:5x10 20 m{sup -3} and nearly equal central electron and ion temperatures of {approx}10 keV. In time dependent simulations the peak fusion power, {approx} 25 MW, is twice the steady state level. Peak performance occurs during the density rise when the central ion temperature is close to the optimal value of {approx} 15 keV. The simulated pressure profiles can be stable to ideal MHD instabilities with toroidal mode number n = 1, 2, 3, 4 and {infinity} for {beta}{sub norm} up to 2.5; the simulations have {beta}{sub norm} {le} 2.1. The enhanced reversed shear mode may thus provide an opportunity to conduct alpha physics experiments in conditions imilar to those proposed for advanced tokamak reactors.

  17. A spheromak ignition experiment reusing Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.K.

    1993-09-28

    Based on available experimental results and theory, a scenario is presented to achieve ohmic ignition in a spheromak by slow ({approximately} 10 sec.) helicity injection using power from the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) substation. Some of the other parts needed (vacuum vessel, coils, power supplies, pumps, shielded building space) might also be obtained from MFTF or other salvage, as well as some components needed for intermediate experiments for additional verification of the concept (especially confinement scaling). The proposed ignition experiment would serve as proof-of-principle for the spheromak DT fusion reactor design published by Hagenson and Krakowski, with a nuclear island cost about ten times less than a tokamak of comparable power. Designs at even higher power density and lower cost might be possible using Christofilos` concept of a liquid lithium blanket. Since all structures would be protected from neutrons by the lithium blanket and the tritium inventory can be reduced by continuous removal from the liquid blanket, environmental and safety characteristics appear to be favorable.

  18. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  19. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  20. A miniaturized test method for the mechanical characterization of structural materials for fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondi, P.; Donato, A.; Montanari, R.; Sili, A.

    1996-10-01

    This work deals with a non-destructive method for mechanical tests which is based on the indentation of materials at a constant rate by means of a cylinder with a small radius and penetrating flat surface. The load versus penetration depth curves obtained using this method have shown correspondences with those of tensile tests and have given indications about the mechanical properties on a reduced scale. In this work penetration tests have been carried out on various kinds of Cr martensitic steels (MANET-2, BATMAN and modified F82H) which are of interest for first wall and structural applications in future fusion reactors. The load versus penetration depth curves have been examined with reference to data obtained in tensile tests and to microhardness measurements. Penetration tests have been performed at various temperature (from -180 to 100°C). Conclusions, which can be drawn for the ductile to brittle transition, are discussed for MANET-2 steel. Preliminary results obtained on BATMAN and modified F82H steels are reported. The characteristics of the indenter imprints have been studied by scanning electron microscopy.

  1. [Assessment of central auditory processes in Spanish in children with dyslexia and controls. Binaural Fusion Test and Filtered Word Test].

    PubMed

    Peñaloza-López, Yolanda Rebeca; Olivares García, María del Rosario; Jiménez de la Sancha, Sabino; García-Pedroza, Felipe; Pérez Ruiz, Santiago J

    2009-01-01

    The aim is to assess the ability to discriminate words, using two psychoacoustic verbal tests of central auditory processes in Spanish: Binaural Fusion Test (BFT in its Spanish version) and Filtered Word Test (FWT in its Spanish version) in children with dyslexia and controls. One group of 40 dyslexic children was receiving therapy for dyslexia at the time of the tests. 40 children without dyslexia were selected as controls, out of 298 children who attended a public school. The rate of males to females was 2/1 in the dyslexic group. The average correct answers for the BFT were 65-66% in dyslexic group and 75-80% in the control group. For the FWT they were 50-54% in the dyslexic group and 67-71% in the control group (student t <0.05). These results contribute to make evident disorders in central auditory processing in children with dyslexia. We suggest using the tests with each patient in order to elaborate a rehabilitation plan.

  2. Ion temperature from tangential charge exchange neutral analysis on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, C.L.; Medley, S.S.; Hammett, G.W.; Kaita, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Scott, S.D.

    1987-09-01

    Fokker-Planck simulations of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) energetic ion mode discharges were performed to evaluate the utility of deriving the central ion temperature, T/sub i/, from deuterium neutral beam charge exchange spectra above the neutral beam injection energy. The T/sub i/ values obtained from fitting the calculated spectra obtained from sightlines nearly tangent to the neutral beam injection radius reproduce the central ion temperature within +-10% over the full range of TFTR energetic ion mode parameters. The code simulations demonstrate that the ion temperature obtained from the high energy tangential deuterium charge exchange spectrum is insensitive to variations in the plasma density, Z/sub eff/, plasma current, loop voltage, and injected neutral beam power and energy. Use of this method to reduce charge exchange data from TFTR energetic ion mode plasmas is demonstrated. 17 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Initial confinement studies of ohmically heated plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Bell, M.; Blanchard, W.R.; Bretz, N.; Cecchi, J.L.; Coonrod, J.; Davis, S.; Dylla, H.F.; Fonck, R.; Furth, H.P.

    1984-06-01

    Initial operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has concentrated upon confinement studies of ohmically heated hydrogen and deuterium plasmas. Total energy confinement times (tau/sub E/) are 0.1 to 0.2 s for a line-average density range (anti n/sub e/) of 1 to 2.5 x 10/sup 19/ m/sup -3/ with electron temperatures of T/sub e/(o) approx. 1.2 to 2.2 keV, ion temperatures of T/sub i/(o) approx. 0.9 to 1.5 keV, and Z/sub eff/ approx. 3. A comparison of PLT, PDX, and TFTR plasma confinement supports a dimension-cubed scaling law.

  4. Ultra-lightweight borosilicate gas-fusion mirror for cryogenic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voevodsky, Michael; Wortley, Richard W.

    2003-12-01

    Hextek Corporation (Hextek) is under contract to fabricate an ultra-lightweight borosilicate mirror using its Gas-Fusion technology for cryogenic testing at NASA MSFC. Not widely known, borosilicate glass has a CTE approaching zero at the proposed cryogenic operating temperature of 30-35 degrees Kelvin. The mirror specifications are for a 250 mm diameter closed-back honeycomb sandwich mirror, slumped to a 2500 mm ROC, and a target areal density of 15 kg/m2. The paper/presentation will review the proposal objectives, technical data, and the prototype mirror. Expected significance to NASA include dramatic schedule enhancement and cost reduction for ultra-lightweight mirrors in sizes up to and beyond 1 meter for operation at cryogenic temperatures.

  5. Supervisory control and diagnostics system for the mirror fusion test facility: overview and status 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McGoldrick, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a complex facility requiring a highly-computerized Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) to monitor and provide control over ten subsystems; three of which require true process control. SCDS will provide physicists with a method of studying machine and plasma behavior by acquiring and processing up to four megabytes of plasma diagnostic information every five minutes. A high degree of availability and throughput is provided by a distributed computer system (nine 32-bit minicomputers on shared memory). Data, distributed across SCDS, is managed by a high-bandwidth Distributed Database Management System. The MFTF operators' control room consoles use color television monitors with touch sensitive screens; this is a totally new approach. The method of handling deviations to normal machine operation and how the operator should be notified and assisted in the resolution of problems has been studied and a system designed.

  6. Inertial Confinement Fusion: Quarterly report, April-June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D.

    1996-06-01

    The lead article, `Ion-beam propagation in a low-density reactor chamber for heavy-ion inertial fusion` (p. 89), explores the ability of heavy-ion beams to be adequately transported and focused in an IFE reactor. The next article, `Efficient production and applications of 2- to 10-keV x rays by laser-heated underdense radiators` (p. 96), explores the ability of the NIF to produce sufficient high-energy x rays for diagnostic backlighting, target preheating, or uniform irradiation of large test objects for Nuclear Weapons Effects Testing. For capsule implosion experiments, the increasing energies and distances involved in the NIF compared to Nova require the development of new diagnostics methods. The article `Fusion reaction-rate measurements--Nova and NIF` (p. 115) first reviews the use of time-resolved neutron measurements on Nova to monitor fusion burn histories and then explores the limitations of that technique, principally Doppler broadening, for the proposed NIF. It also explores the use of gamma rays on Nova, thereby providing a proof-of-principle for using gamma rays for monitoring fusion burn histories on the NIF. The articles `The energetics of gas-filled hohlraums` (p. 110) and `Measurements of laser- speckle-induced perturbations in laser-driven foils` (p. 123) report measurements on Nova of two important aspects of implosion experiments. The first characterizes the amount of energy lost from a hohlraum by stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering as a function of gas fill and laser-beam uniformity. The second of these articles shows that the growth of density nonuniformities implanted on smooth capsule surfaces by laser speckle can be correlated with the effects of physical surface roughness. The article `Laser-tissue interaction modeling with the LATIS computer program` (p. 103) explores the use of modeling to enhance the effectiveness--maximize desired effects and minimize collateral damage--of lasers for medical purposes.

  7. Construction, testing of the 1 MW, 130-260 GHz Fusion-FEM

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanus, W.H.; Bongers, G.; Dijk, C.A.J. van

    1995-12-31

    During the previous 9 months the major part of the Fusion-FEM has been constructed. The 2 MV Insulated Core Transformer, the electron gun, the accelerator, the focusing lenses and the undulator have been tested on-site. In the present - temporary - set-up, the electron beam line consists of a 12 A, 80 keV thermionic electron gun, a 2 MeV dc accelerator, beam transport optics, the undulator and a collector. The gun is mounted in the high voltage terminal, which is now at -2 MV, and the undulator and mm-wave system am at ground potential outside the SF{sub 6}-filled pressure tank. This so-called inverse set-up allows easy access to the larger part of the beam line, the undulator and the mm-wave system, which is important in the conditioning phase. The decelerator and depressed collector am not yet installed. The design of the electron beam line has been optimised using the GPS particle-tracking code and the TOSCA code. The TOSCA code is used for accurate field calculations of the magnetic lenses. The results are used in the GPS code. The combination of these two codes allows optimization of the tens designs with respect to aberations, such as to avoid emittance growth. The mm-wave beam line has been designed, including a Boron-Nitride, Brewster angle, high power, broadband window. The window is designed for transmitting 1 MW of mm-wave power in the frequency range 130 - 260 GHz. Loss power is of the order of a percent. The first major goal is the transport of the electron beam through the undulator with only a small loss current. We report the final design of the electron beam line, the design of the mm-wave beam line, and the status of construction and testing of the Fusion-FEM.

  8. Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2010-04-01

    Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

  9. Analysis of the tritium-water (T-H sub 2 O) system for a fusion material test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.; Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.; Reed, C.B.

    1992-04-01

    The need for a high flux, high energy neutron test facility to evaluate performance of fusion reactor materials is urgent. An accelerator based D-Li source is generally accepted as the most reasonable approach to a high flux neutron source in the near future. The idea is to bombard a high energy (35 MeV) deuteron beam into a lithium target to produce high energy neutrons to simulate the fusion environment. More recently it was proposed to use a 21 MeV triton beam incident on a water jet target to produce the required neutron source for testing and simulating fusion material environments. The advantages of such a system are discussed. Major concerns regarding the feasibility of this system are also highlighted.

  10. Analysis of the tritium-water (T-H{sub 2}O) system for a fusion material test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.; Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.; Reed, C.B.

    1992-04-01

    The need for a high flux, high energy neutron test facility to evaluate performance of fusion reactor materials is urgent. An accelerator based D-Li source is generally accepted as the most reasonable approach to a high flux neutron source in the near future. The idea is to bombard a high energy (35 MeV) deuteron beam into a lithium target to produce high energy neutrons to simulate the fusion environment. More recently it was proposed to use a 21 MeV triton beam incident on a water jet target to produce the required neutron source for testing and simulating fusion material environments. The advantages of such a system are discussed. Major concerns regarding the feasibility of this system are also highlighted.

  11. Development of a Dry Wall Concept for Laser IFE Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, James P.; Martin, Carl J.

    2005-04-15

    The first wall of a laser fusion chamber will experience high heat loads pulsed at 5-10 Hz with pulse widths on the order of a few microseconds. This poses a challenging problem for dry wall designs, as the wall will be susceptible to a variety of failure modes. The primary design concept of the High Average Power Laser (HAPL) project is a ferritic steel first wall coated with tungsten armor. Due to the extreme heat loads, the armor will experience high temperatures, extensive yielding, and surface cracking. In order to evaluate the ability of this design to provide a suitable lifetime, a series of experiments to simulate chamber conditions using ions, x-rays, infrared heating, and lasers is under way. These experimental efforts have been coupled with numerical modeling to help determine likely failure modes and establish design criteria for chambers. This paper compares models for the thermomechanical effects seen in the tests to those expected in a full power chamber, in order to assess the ability of the tests to mimic the actual chamber performance. The tests are found to have some limitations, but they still offer excellent approximations of the true behavior.

  12. Diode-pumped solid-state-laser drivers and the competitiveness of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C.D.

    1993-12-01

    Based on five technical advances at LLNL and a new systems-analysis code that we have written, we present conceptual designs for diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) drivers for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plants. Such designs are based on detailed physics calculations for the drive, and on generic scaling relationships for the reactor and balance of plant (BOP). We describe the performance and economics of such power plants, show how sensitive these results are to changes in the major parameters, and indicate how technological improvements can make DPSSL-driven IFE plants more competitive.

  13. Anomalous Loss of DT Alpha Particles in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Hans W.

    1997-06-01

    Princeton's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is the first experimental fusion device to routinely use tritium to study the deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reaction,allowing the first systematic study of DT alpha particles in tokamak plasmas. A crucial aspect of alpha-particle physics is the fraction of alphas that escape from the plasma, particularly since these energetic particles can do severe damage to the first wall of a reactor. An escaping alpha collector probe has been developed for TFTR's DT phase. Energy distributions of escaping alphas have been determined by measuring the range of alpha-particles implanted into nickel foils located within the alpha collector. Results at 1.0 MA of plasma current are in good agreement with predictions for first orbit alpha loss. Results at 1.8 MA, however, show a significant anomalous loss of partially thermalized alphas (in addition to the expected first orbit loss), which is not observed with the lost alpha scintillator detectors in DT plasmas, but does resemble the anomalous "delayed" loss seen in DD plasmas. None of the candidate explanations proposed thus far are fully consistent with the anomalous loss observations. An experiment designed to study the effect of plasma major radius shifts on alpha-particle loss has led to a better understanding of alpha-particle dynamics in tokamaks. Intuitively, one might suppose that confined marginally passing alpha-particles forced to move toward higher magnetic field during an inward major radius shift (i.e. compression) would mirror and become trapped particles, leading to increased alpha loss. Such an effect was looked for during the shift experiment, however, no significant changes in alpha loss to the 90 degree lost alpha scintillator detector were observed during the shifts. It is calculated that the energy gained by an alpha-particle during the inward shift is sufficient to explain this result. However, an unexpected loss of partially thermalized alpha-particles near the

  14. Perspectives on Magnetized Target Fusion Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. L.

    2007-06-01

    One approach to Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) builds upon the ongoing experimental effort (FRX-L) to generate a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) target plasma suitable for translation and cylindrical-liner (i.e., converging flux conserver) implosion. Numerical modeling is underway to elucidate key performance drivers for possible future power-plant extrapolations. The fusion gain, Q (ratio of DT fusion yield to the sum of initial liner kinetic energy plus plasma formation energy), sets the power-plant duty cycle for a nominal design electric power [ e.g. 1,000 MWe(net)]. A pulsed MTF power plant of this type derives from the historic Fast Liner Reactor (FLR) concept and shares attributes with the recent Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Z-pinch and laser-driven pellet HYLIFE-II conceptual designs.

  15. Copper benchmark experiment for the testing of JEFF-3.2 nuclear data for fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelone, M.; Flammini, D.; Loreti, S.; Moro, F.; Pillon, M.; Villar, R.; Klix, A.; Fischer, U.; Kodeli, I.; Perel, R. L.; Pohorecky, W.

    2017-09-01

    A neutronics benchmark experiment on a pure Copper block (dimensions 60 × 70 × 70 cm3) aimed at testing and validating the recent nuclear data libraries for fusion applications was performed in the frame of the European Fusion Program at the 14 MeV ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG). Reaction rates, neutron flux spectra and doses were measured using different experimental techniques (e.g. activation foils techniques, NE213 scintillator and thermoluminescent detectors). This paper first summarizes the analyses of the experiment carried-out using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code and the European JEFF-3.2 library. Large discrepancies between calculation (C) and experiment (E) were found for the reaction rates both in the high and low neutron energy range. The analysis was complemented by sensitivity/uncertainty analyses (S/U) using the deterministic and Monte Carlo SUSD3D and MCSEN codes, respectively. The S/U analyses enabled to identify the cross sections and energy ranges which are mostly affecting the calculated responses. The largest discrepancy among the C/E values was observed for the thermal (capture) reactions indicating severe deficiencies in the 63,65Cu capture and elastic cross sections at lower rather than at high energy. Deterministic and MC codes produced similar results. The 14 MeV copper experiment and its analysis thus calls for a revision of the JEFF-3.2 copper cross section and covariance data evaluation. A new analysis of the experiment was performed with the MCNP5 code using the revised JEFF-3.3-T2 library released by NEA and a new, not yet distributed, revised JEFF-3.2 Cu evaluation produced by KIT. A noticeable improvement of the C/E results was obtained with both new libraries.

  16. Construction and operation of the 12-T superconducting coils for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zbasnik, J.P.; Kozman, T.A.; Shimer, D.W.; Hathaway, D.R.

    1986-09-25

    We have successfully constructed and tested a pair of high-field coils that is part of the magnet set of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Each coil consists of a multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn magnet nested inside a multifilamentary NbTi magnet. During our test, these coils produced a central field of 12 T, with a peak conductor field of 12.5 T. The dimensions of the Nb/sub 3/Sn insert coil are: 1.34-m bore, 2.57-m outer diameter, and 1.14-m overall length. These coils were designed to be fully cryogenically stabilized and cooled by pool-boiling liquid helium. The operating current density of the Nb/sub 3/Sn coils is 2000 A/cm/sup 2/ and 2400 A/cm/sup 2/ for the NbTi magnet. In this paper, we present design considerations and details, construction techniques, and operational results of these coils.

  17. Tests of local transport theory and reduced wall impurity influx with highly radiative plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. W.; Scott, S. D.; Bell, M.; Budny, R.; Bush, C. E.; Clark, R. E. H.; Denne-Hinnov, B.; Ernst, D. R.; Hammett, G. W.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mueller, D.; Ongena, J.; Park, H. K.; Ramsey, A. T.; Synakowski, E. J.; Taylor, G.; Zarnstorff, M. C.

    1999-03-01

    The electron temperature (Te) profile in neutral beam-heated supershot plasmas (Te0˜6-7 keV ion temperature Ti0˜15-20 keV, beam power Pb˜16 MW) was remarkably invariant when radiative losses were increased significantly through gas puffing of krypton and xenon in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [McGuire et al., Phys. Plasmas 2, 2176 (1995)]. Trace impurity concentrations (nz/ne˜10-3) generated almost flat and centrally peaked radiation profiles, respectively, and increased the radiative losses to 45%-90% of the input power (from the normal ˜25%). Energy confinement was not degraded at radiated power fractions up to 80%. A 20%-30% increase in Ti, in spite of an increase in ion-electron power loss, implies a factor of ˜3 drop in the local ion thermal diffusivity. These experiments form the basis for a nearly ideal test of transport theory, since the change in the beam heating power profile is modest, while the distribution of power flow between (1) radiation and (2) conduction plus convection changes radically and is locally measurable. The decrease in Te was significantly less than predicted by two transport models and may provide important tests of more complete transport models. At input power levels of 30 MW, the increased radiation eliminated the catastrophic carbon influx (carbon "bloom") and performance (energy confinement and neutron production) was improved significantly relative to that of matched shots without impurity gas puffing.

  18. Activation Cross Sections Improvements needed for IFE Power Reactors Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, A; Cabellos, O; Sanz, J; FalQuina, R; Latkowski, J; Reyes, S

    2003-10-02

    Uncertainties in the prediction of the neutron induced long-lived activity in the natural elements from H to Bi due to activation cross section uncertainties are estimated assuming as neutron environment those of the HYLIFE-II and Sombrero vessel structures. The latest available activation cross section data are employed. The random variables used in the uncertainty analysis have been the concentration limits (CL's) corresponding to hands-on recycling, remote recycling and shallow land burial, quantities typically considered in ranking elements under waste management considerations. The CL standard value (CL{sub nom}), i.e. without uncertainties, is compared with the 95th percentile CL value (CL95). The results of the analysis are very helpful in assessing the quality of the current activation data for IFE applications, providing a rational basis for programmatic priority assignments for new cross sections measurements or evaluations. The HYLIFE-II results shown that a significant error is estimated in predicting the activation of several elements. The estimated errors in the Sombrero case are much less important.

  19. Preliminary experience with laparoscopic surgery in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adisa, A O; Arowolo, O A; Salako, A A; Lawal, O O

    2009-12-01

    This study presents a pioneer experience with laparoscopic operations in a General Surgical unit of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Consecutive patients who had laparoscopic operations from April through December 2008 were prospectively studied. Following clinical diagnosis, initial diagnostic laparoscopy was undertaken in all patients, followed by therapeutic open or laparoscopic procedures. All procedures were done under general anaesthesia. Duration of operation and outcome including complications were recorded. In all, there were 12 patients (8 males, 4 females), aged 15 to 50 years. Eight patients had clinical diagnoses of acute appendicitis, one each had undetermined right lower abdominal pain suspected ectopic gestation, adhesive intestinal obstruction and metastatic liver disease. The first 4 patients with inflammed appendix confirmed at laparoscopy had open appendicectomy. Of the next cohort of 5 patients, laparoscopic appendicectomy was completed in four but converted to open procedure in one. Normal findings were noted in the lady with suspected ectopic gestation. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis was done for adhesive intestinal obstruction while a laparoscopic liver biopsy was done for the patient with metastatic liver disease. Operative time ranged from 55-105 minutes with marked reduction in operation time as confidence and experience grew. No intraoperative complication was observed but one patient had superficial port site infection postoperatively. We conclude that with good patient selection and some improvisation, laparoscopic general surgical operations are feasible with acceptable outcome even in a poor resource setting.

  20. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-09-02

    Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Conference Report on the 2nd International Symposium on Lithium Applications for Fusion Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M. G.; Hirooka, Y.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Mazzitelli, G.; Menard, J. E.; Mirnov, S. V.; Shimada, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Tabares, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    The 2nd International Symposium on Lithium Applications for Fusion Devices (ISLA-2011) was held on 27-29 April 2011 at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) with broad participation from the community working on aspects of lithium research for fusion energy development. This community is expanding rapidly in many areas including experiments in magnetic confinement devices and a variety of lithium test stands, theory and modeling and developing innovative approaches. Overall, 53 presentations were given representing 26 institutions from 10 countries. The latest experimental results from nine magnetic fusion devices were given in 24 presentations, from NSTX (PPPL, USA), LTX (PPPL, USA), FT-U (ENEA, Italy), T-11M (TRINITY, RF), T-10 (Kurchatov Institute, RF), TJ-II (CIEMAT, Spain), EAST (ASIPP, China), HT-7 (ASIPP, China), and RFX (Padova, Italy). Sessions were devoted to: I. Lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (facility overviews), II. Lithium in magnetic confinement experiments (topical issues), III. Special session on liquid lithium technology, IV. Lithium laboratory test stands, V. Lithium theory/modeling/comments, VI. Innovative lithium applications and VII. Panel discussion on lithium PFC viability in magnetic fusion reactors. There was notable participation from the fusion technology communities, including the IFE, IFMIF and TBM communities providing productive exchanges with the physics oriented magnetic confinement lithium research groups. It was agreed to continue future exchanges of ideas and data to help develop attractive liquid lithium solutions for very challenging magnetic fusion issues, such as development of a high heat flux steady-state divertor concept and acceptable plasma disruption mitigation techniques while improving plasma performance with lithium. The next workshop will be held at ENEA, Frascati, Italy in 2013.

  2. Challenges Surrounding the Injection and Arrival of Targets at LIFE Fusion Chamber Center

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, R; Spaeth, M; Manes, K; Amendt, P; Tabak, M; Bond, T; Kucheyev, S; Latkowski, J; Loosmore, G; Bliss, E; Baker, K; Bhandarkar, S; Petzoldt, R; Alexander, N; Tillack, M; Holdener, D

    2010-12-01

    IFE target designers must consider several engineering requirements in addition to the physics requirements for successful target implosion. These considerations include low target cost, high manufacturing throughput, the ability of the target to survive the injection into the fusion chamber and arrive in a condition and physical position consistent with proper laser-target interaction and ease of post-implosion debris removal. This article briefly describes these considerations for the Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) targets currently being designed.

  3. SELF-SIMILAR SKELETAL STRUCTURES IN FUSION AND MATERIAL TEST DEVICES: NUMERICAL MODELING AND NEW OBSERVATIONAL DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kukushkin, A. B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V. A.

    2009-07-26

    The hypotheses for self-assembling of a fractal condensed matter in electric discharges and the probable role of a skeletal matter in the long-lived filamentary structures in fusion devices is studied in two directions. First, we append previous collection of respective data with recent evidences for skeletal structuring in peripheral plasmas and dust deposits in fusion and material test devices. Second, we demonstrate, via numerical modelling, the possibility of coaxial tubular structuring formation in a system of electric current filaments composed of magnetized, electrically conducting thin rods (nanodust), with an accent on self-reduction of spatial dimensionality of structuring and on the role of magnetic in such systems.

  4. Alpha Particle-Driven Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Deuterium-Tritium Plasmas: Theory and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.; Chang, Z.; Fu, G.Y.; Nazikian, R.

    1998-07-09

    The toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE) in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [K. Young, et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 11 (1984)]deuterium-tritium plasmas are analyzed using the NOVA-K code [C.Z. Cheng, Phys. Reports 211, 1 (1992)]. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental measurements in detail. In most cases, the theory agrees with the observations in terms of mode frequency, mode structure, and mode stability. However, one mode with toroidal mode number n = 2 is observed to be poloidally localized on the high field side of the magnetic axis with a mode frequency substantially below the TAE frequency.

  5. Self-Similar Skeletal Structures in Fusion and Material Test Devices: Numerical Modeling and New Observational Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, A. B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V. A.

    2009-07-01

    The hypotheses for self-assembling of a fractal condensed matter in electric discharges and the probable role of a skeletal matter in the long-lived filamentary structures in fusion devices is studied in two directions. First, we append previous collection of respective data with recent evidences for skeletal structuring in peripheral plasmas and dust deposits in fusion and material test devices. Second, we demonstrate, via numerical modelling, the possibility of coaxial tubular structuring formation in a system of electric current filaments composed of magnetized, electrically conducting thin rods (nanodust), with an accent on self-reduction of spatial dimensionality of structuring and on the role of magnetic in such systems.

  6. Modeling and testing miniature torsion specimens for SiC joining development studies for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henager, C. H.; Nguyen, B. N.; Kurtz, R. J.; Roosendaal, T. J.; Borlaug, B. A.; Ferraris, M.; Ventrella, A.; Katoh, Y.

    2015-11-01

    The international fusion community has designed a miniature torsion specimen for neutron irradiation studies of joined SiC and SiC/SiC composite materials. Miniature torsion joints based on this specimen design were fabricated using displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti3SiC2 + SiC joints with SiC and tested in torsion-shear prior to and after neutron irradiation. However, many miniature torsion specimens fail out-of-plane within the SiC specimen body, which makes it problematic to assign a shear strength value to the joints and makes it difficult to compare unirradiated and irradiated strengths to determine irradiation effects. Finite element elastic damage and elastic-plastic damage models of miniature torsion joints are developed that indicate shear fracture is more likely to occur within the body of the joined sample and cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The model results are compared and discussed with regard to unirradiated and irradiated test data for a variety of joint materials. The unirradiated data includes Ti3SiC2 + SiC/CVD-SiC joints with tailored joint moduli, and includes steel/epoxy and CVD-SiC/epoxy joints. The implications for joint data based on this sample design are discussed.

  7. Modeling and testing miniature torsion specimens for SiC joining development studies for fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Henager, Jr., C. H.; Nguyen, Ba N.; Kurtz, Richard J.; ...

    2015-08-05

    The international fusion community has designed a miniature torsion specimen for neutron irradiation studies of joined SiC and SiC/SiC composite materials. For this research, miniature torsion joints based on this specimen design were fabricated using displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti3SiC2 + SiC joints with SiC and tested in torsion-shear prior to and after neutron irradiation. However, many miniature torsion specimens fail out-of-plane within the SiC specimen body, which makes it problematic to assign a shear strength value to the joints and makes it difficult to compare unirradiated and irradiated strengths to determine irradiation effects. Finite elementmore » elastic damage and elastic–plastic damage models of miniature torsion joints are developed that indicate shear fracture is more likely to occur within the body of the joined sample and cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The model results are compared and discussed with regard to unirradiated and irradiated test data for a variety of joint materials. The unirradiated data includes Ti3SiC2 + SiC/CVD-SiC joints with tailored joint moduli, and includes steel/epoxy and CVD-SiC/epoxy joints. Finally, the implications for joint data based on this sample design are discussed.« less

  8. Modeling and Testing Miniature Torsion Specimens for SiC Joining Development Studies for Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Borlaug, Brennan A.; Ferraris, Monica; Ventrella, Andrea; Katoh, Yutai

    2015-08-19

    The international fusion community has designed a miniature torsion specimen for neutron irradiation studies of joined SiC and SiC/SiC composite materials. Miniature torsion joints based on this specimen design were fabricated using displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti3SiC2 + SiC joints with CVD-SiC and tested in torsion-shear prior to and after neutron irradiation. However, many of these miniature torsion specimens fail out-of-plane within the CVD-SiC specimen body, which makes it problematic to assign a shear strength value to the joints and makes it difficult to compare unirradiated and irradiated joint strengths to determine the effects of the irradiation. Finite element elastic damage and elastic-plastic damage models of miniature torsion joints are developed that indicate shear fracture is likely to occur within the body of the joined sample and cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The model results are compared and discussed with regard to unirradiated and irradiated joint test data for a variety of joint materials. The unirradiated data includes Ti3SiC2 + SiC/CVD-SiC joints with tailored joint moduli, and includes steel/epoxy and CVD-SiC/epoxy joints. The implications for joint data based on this sample design are discussed.

  9. Fused Silica Final Optics for Inertial Fusion Energy: Radiation Studies and System-Level Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Kubota, Alison; Caturla, Maria J.; Dixit, Sham N.; Speth, Joel A.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2003-06-15

    The survivability of the final optic, which must sit in the line of sight of high-energy neutrons and gamma rays, is a key issue for any laser-driven inertial fusion energy (IFE) concept. Previous work has concentrated on the use of reflective optics. Here, we introduce and analyze the use of a transmissive final optic for the IFE application. Our experimental work has been conducted at a range of doses and dose rates, including those comparable to the conditions at the IFE final optic. The experimental work, in conjunction with detailed analysis, suggests that a thin, fused silica Fresnel lens may be an attractive option when used at a wavelength of 351 nm. Our measurements and molecular dynamics simulations provide convincing evidence that the radiation damage, which leads to optical absorption, not only saturates but that a 'radiation annealing' effect is observed. A system-level description is provided, including Fresnel lens and phase plate designs.

  10. Prospects for inertial fusion energy based on a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) driver: Overview and development path

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    It is now known with certainty that the type of fusion known as inertial fusion will work with sufficient energy input, so inertial fusion is really beyond the ``scientific breakeven`` point in many respects. The most important question that remains for inertial fusion energy (IFE) is whether this type of fusion can operate with sufficiently low input energy to make it economically feasible for energy production. The constraint for low input energy demands operation near the inertial fusion ignition threshold, and such operation creates enormous challenges to discover a target design that will produce sufficient energy gain. There are also multiple issues relating to the scientific feasibility of using a laboratory-type ``driver`` to energize a target, such as those concerning bandwidth and beam smoothing for ``direct drive,`` and extension of hohlraum plasma physics to the IFE scale for ``indirect drive.`` One driver that appears as though it will be able to meet the IFE requirements, assuming modest development and sufficient target gain, is a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL). We give an overview of this type of laser system, and explain what development remains for the economic production of electricity using this type of driver for IFE.

  11. Flux effects on defect production and damage accumulation in cu and fe exposed to IFE-like conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, E A; Caturla, M; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Perlado, J M; Stoller, R E

    1999-08-26

    Radiation damage production and accumulation in solids can be divided into two stages. In the production stage, the impinging particle gradually gives off its kinetic energy to lattice atoms in the form of energetic recoils. These deposit their energy by generating secondary and higher order recoils that result in a displacement collision cascade. The outcome of this stage, of the time scale of a few to 100 picoseconds, is a population of point or clustered defects known as the primary state of damage. In the second stage, which can extend over seconds, defects that survive recombination within their nascent cascade migrate over long distances, interacting with the microstructure. These freely migrating defects (FMD) are responsible for the changes in the macroscopic properties of metals under irradiation, such as void swelling, embrittlement, radiation enhanced diffusion, etc. Such changes in mechanical properties are most often detrimental and severely limit the flexibility in materials choice and operating temperature when designing a fusion power plant. Under most conditions, such as those that would be present in a magnetic fusion energy plant, or when bombarding with fission or spallation neutrons, irradiation takes place at a certain dose rate and temperature, but in a continuous manner. However, in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactor, or when using a pulsed neutron source such as that recently proposed by Perkins [1], the irradiation flux is pulsed and the interplay between temperature, flux and pulse frequency controls the kinetics of damage accumulation. For sufficiently low pulse frequency, and at elevated temperature where the defects migrate fast, it may be expected that annealing between pulses may result in a significantly decreased rate of damage accumulation compared to that seen under steady state conditions. On the other hand, very high neutron fluxes in the pulse itself may severely limit recombination therefore leading to extremely fast

  12. Test of 60 kA coated conductor cable prototypes for fusion magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglietti, D.; Bykovsky, N.; Sedlak, K.; Stepanov, B.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

    2015-12-01

    Coated conductors could be promising materials for the fabrication of the large magnet systems of future fusion devices. Two prototype conductors (flat cables in steel conduits), each about 2 m long, were manufactured using coated conductor tapes (4 mm wide) from Super Power and SuperOx, with a total tape length of 1.6 km. Each flat cable is assembled from 20 strands, each strand consisting of a stack of 16 tapes surrounded by two half circular copper profiles, twisted and soldered. The tapes were measured at 12 T and 4.2 K and the results of the measurements were used for the assessment of the conductor electromagnetic properties at low temperature and high field. The two conductors were assembled together in a sample that was tested in the European Dipole (EDIPO) facility. The current sharing temperatures of the two conductors were measured at background fields from 8 T up to 12 T and for currents from 30 kA up to 70 kA: the measured values are within a few percent of the values expected from the measurements on tapes (short samples). After electromagnetic cycling, T cs at 12 T and 50 kA decreased from about 12 K to 11 K (about 10%), corresponding to less than 3% of I c.

  13. The effect of limiter conditioning on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor edge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, S.J.; Manos, D.M.; Nyberg, I.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.C.; Timberlake, J.; Ulrickson, M.J.; Pitcher, C.S.; Dylla, H.F.

    1991-07-01

    Measurements by moveable Langmuir probes and edge spectroscopy diagnostics have documented the conditioning effect of low density helium-initiated discharge sequences on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) edge plasma. Langmuir probe measurements show in general that the edge electron density n{sub e} decreases by less than a factor of 2 while the edge electron temperature T{sub e} doubles. Radial profiles to the plasma boundary show that the density scrape-off length increases somewhat while the temperature scrape-off length decreases substantially. The particle flux density is unaffected. The spectral emission of C 2 decreases by a factor of 2, a much smaller change than that exhibited by the D{sub {alpha}} signal. These results complement previous accounts of the conditioning technique. Comparisons of these He conditioning measurements are made to edge measurements during a deuterium density scan experiment, showing many similarities, and to an existing edge model of the conditioning process, showing qualitative agreement. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Energy confinement time and electron density profile shape in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.K.; Bell, M.G.; Goldston, R.J.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Johnson, D.W.; Scott, S.D.; Wieland, R.M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Bitter, M.; Bretz, N.; Budny, R.; Dylla, H.F.; Grek, B.; Howell, R.B.; Hsuan , H.; Johnson, L.C.; Mansfield, D.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Schivell, J.; Taylor, G.; Ulrickson, M.

    1989-11-01

    The electron density profiles of intense deuterium neutral-beam- heated plasmas (P{sub tot}/P{sub ohm} {gt} 10) are characterized as a peakedness parameter (F{sub ne} = n{sub eo}/{l angle}n{sub e}{r angle}) in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The gross energy confinement time ({tau}{sub E} = E{sub tot}/P{sub tot}) at the time of maximum stored energy is found to be a weak function of the plasma current and total heating power but depends strongly on the peakedness parameter. A regression study showed {tau}{sub E} = 2.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}F{sub ne}{sup 0.76}I{sub P}{sup 0.18}P{sub tot}{sup {minus}0.12} for a data set of 561 discharges in the TFTR. Also {tau}{sub E} can be represented as {tau}{sub E} = {tau}{sub E}{sup L}f(F{sub ne}), where {tau}{sub E}{sup L} is the empirical L-mode scaling result. A similar scaling applies to an appropriately defined incremental energy confinement time ({tau}{sub inc} = dE{sub tot}/dP{sub tot}{vert bar}{sub F{sub ne} = constant}). 14 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Stand alone computer system to aid the development of Mirror Fusion Test Facility rf heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) control system architecture requires the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) to communicate with a LSI-11 Local Control Computer (LCC) that in turn communicates via a fiber optic link to CAMAC based control hardware located near the machine. In many cases, the control hardware is very complex and requires a sizable development effort prior to being integrated into the overall MFTF-B system. One such effort was the development of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) system. It became clear that a stand alone computer system was needed to simulate the functions of SCDS. This paper describes the hardware and software necessary to implement the SCDS Simulation Computer (SSC). It consists of a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) LSI-11 computer and a Winchester/Floppy disk operating under the DEC RT-11 operating system. All application software for MFTF-B is programmed in PASCAL, which allowed us to adapt procedures originally written for SCDS to the SSC. This nearly identical software interface means that software written during the equipment development will be useful to the SCDS programmers in the integration phase.

  16. Testing nonlocal models of electron thermal conduction for magnetic and inertial confinement fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodrick, J. P.; Kingham, R. J.; Marinak, M. M.; Patel, M. V.; Chankin, A. V.; Omotani, J. T.; Umansky, M. V.; Del Sorbo, D.; Dudson, B.; Parker, J. T.; Kerbel, G. D.; Sherlock, M.; Ridgers, C. P.

    2017-09-01

    Three models for nonlocal electron thermal transport are here compared against Vlasov-Fokker-Planck (VFP) codes to assess their accuracy in situations relevant to both inertial fusion hohlraums and tokamak scrape-off layers. The models tested are (i) a moment-based approach using an eigenvector integral closure (EIC) originally developed by Ji, Held, and Sovinec [Phys. Plasmas 16, 022312 (2009)]; (ii) the non-Fourier Landau-fluid (NFLF) model of Dimits, Joseph, and Umansky [Phys. Plasmas 21, 055907 (2014)]; and (iii) Schurtz, Nicolaï, and Busquet's [Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] multigroup diffusion model (SNB). We find that while the EIC and NFLF models accurately predict the damping rate of a small-amplitude temperature perturbation (within 10% at moderate collisionalities), they overestimate the peak heat flow by as much as 35% and do not predict preheat in the more relevant case where there is a large temperature difference. The SNB model, however, agrees better with VFP results for the latter problem if care is taken with the definition of the mean free path. Additionally, we present for the first time a comparison of the SNB model against a VFP code for a hohlraum-relevant problem with inhomogeneous ionisation and show that the model overestimates the heat flow in the helium gas-fill by a factor of ˜2 despite predicting the peak heat flux to within 16%.

  17. Differential-phase reflectometry for edge profile measurements on Tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.R.; Wilgen, J.B.; Bigelow, T.S.; Collazo, I.; England, A.C.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Wilson, J.R. )

    1995-01-01

    Edge electron density profile measurements, including the scrape-off layer, have been made during ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating with the two-frequency differential-phase reflectometer installed on an ICRF antenna on the Tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR). This system probes the plasma using the extraordinary mode with two signals swept from 90 to 118 GHz, while maintaining a fixed-difference frequency of 125 MHz. The extraordinary mode is used to obtain density profiles in the range of 1[times]10[sup 11]--3[times]10[sup 13] cm[sup [minus]3] in high-field (4.5--4.9 T) full-size ([ital R][sub 0]=2.62 m, [ital a]=0.96 m) TFTR plasmas. The reflectometer launcher is located in an ICRF antenna and views the plasma through a small penetration in the center of the Faraday shield. A 26-m-long overmoded waveguide run connects the launcher to the reflectometer microwave electronics. Profile measurements made with this reflectometer system will be presented along with a discussion of the characteristics of this differential phase reflectometer and data analysis.

  18. The effect of limiter conditioning on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor edge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kilpatrick, S.J.; Pitcher, C.S.; Dylla, H.F.; Manos, D.M.; Nyberg, I.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stratton, B.C.; Timberlake, J.; Ulrickson, M.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Measurements by moveable Langmuir probes and edge spectroscopy diagnostics have documented the conditioning effect of low-density helium-initiated discharge sequences on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor edge plasma. Langmuir probe measurements shown in general that the edge electron density {ital n}{sub {ital e}} decreases by less than a factor of 2 while the edge electron temperature {ital T}{sub {ital e}} doubles. Radial profiles to the plasma boundary show that the density scrape-off length increases somewhat while the temperature scrape-off length decreases substantially. The particle flux density is unaffected. The spectral emission of C II decreases by a factor of 2, a much smaller change than that exhibited by the {ital D}{sub {alpha}} signal. These results complement previous accounts of the conditioning technique. Comparisons of these He conditioning measurements are made to edge measurements during a deuterium density scan experiment, showing many similarities, and to an existing edge model of the conditioning process, showing qualitative agreement.

  19. Testing nonlocal models of electron thermal conduction for magnetic and inertial confinement fusion applications

    DOE PAGES

    Brodrick, Jonathan P.; Kingham, R. J.; Marinak, M. M.; ...

    2017-09-06

    Three models for nonlocal electron thermal transport are here compared against Vlasov-Fokker-Planck (VFP) codes to assess their accuracy in situations relevant to both inertial fusion hohlraums and tokamak scrape-off layers. The models tested are (i) a moment-based approach using an eigenvector integral closure (EIC) originally developed by Ji, Held, and Sovinec [Phys. Plasmas 16, 022312 (2009)]; (ii) the non-Fourier Landau-fluid (NFLF) model of Dimits, Joseph, and Umansky [Phys. Plasmas 21, 055907 (2014)]; and (iii) Schurtz, Nicolaï, and Busquet’s [Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] multigroup diffusion model (SNB). We find that while the EIC and NFLF models accurately predict the dampingmore » rate of a small-amplitude temperature perturbation (within 10% at moderate collisionalities), they overestimate the peak heat flow by as much as 35% and do not predict preheat in the more relevant case where there is a large temperature difference. The SNB model, however, agrees better with VFP results for the latter problem if care is taken with the definition of the mean free path. Additionally, we present for the first time a comparison of the SNB model against a VFP code for a hohlraum-relevant problem with inhomogeneous ionisation and show that the model overestimates the heat flow in the helium gas-fill by a factor of ~2 despite predicting the peak heat flux to within 16%.« less

  20. Facility for high heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans, Jim; Harper, David C; Snead, Lance Lewis; Schaich, Charles Ross

    2014-01-01

    A new high-heat flux testing facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. It can handle irradiated plasma facing component materials and mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at ORNL can provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over a heated area of 9x12 and 1x10 cm2, respectively, which are fusion-prototypical steady state heat flux conditions. The facility will be described and the main differences between the photon-based high-heat flux testing facilities, such as PALs, and the e-beam and particle beam facilities more commonly used for fusion HHF testing are discussed. The components of the test chamber were designed to accommodate radiation safety and materials compatibility requirements posed by high-temperature exposure of low levels irradiated tungsten articles. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing are presented and discussed.

  1. Modeling and testing miniature torsion specimens for SiC joining development studies for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Jr., C. H.; Nguyen, Ba N.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Roosendaal, T. J.; Borlaug, B. A.; Ferraris, Monica; Ventrella, A.; Katoh, Yutai

    2015-08-05

    The international fusion community has designed a miniature torsion specimen for neutron irradiation studies of joined SiC and SiC/SiC composite materials. For this research, miniature torsion joints based on this specimen design were fabricated using displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti3SiC2 + SiC joints with SiC and tested in torsion-shear prior to and after neutron irradiation. However, many miniature torsion specimens fail out-of-plane within the SiC specimen body, which makes it problematic to assign a shear strength value to the joints and makes it difficult to compare unirradiated and irradiated strengths to determine irradiation effects. Finite element elastic damage and elastic–plastic damage models of miniature torsion joints are developed that indicate shear fracture is more likely to occur within the body of the joined sample and cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The model results are compared and discussed with regard to unirradiated and irradiated test data for a variety of joint materials. The unirradiated data includes Ti3SiC2 + SiC/CVD-SiC joints with tailored joint moduli, and includes steel/epoxy and CVD-SiC/epoxy joints. Finally, the implications for joint data based on this sample design are discussed.

  2. End points in discharge cleaning on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Dylla, H.F.; Bell, M.G.; Blanchard, W.R.; Bush, C.E.; Gettelfinger, G.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Janos, A.C.; Jobes, F.C.

    1989-07-01

    It has been found necessary to perform a series of first-wall conditioning steps prior to successful high power plasma operation in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This series begins with glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and is followed by pulse discharge cleaning (PDC). During machine conditioning, the production of impurities is monitored by a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). PDC is made in two distinct modes: Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), where the plasma current is kept low (15--50 kA) and of short duration (50 ms) by means of a relatively high prefill pressure and aggressive PDC, where lower prefill pressure and higher toroidal field result in higher current (200--400 kA) limited by disruptions at q(a) /approx/ 3 at /approx/ 250 ms. At a constant repetition rate of 12 discharges/minute, the production rate of H/sub 2/O, CO, or other impurities has been found to be an unreliable measure of progress in cleaning. However, the ability to produce aggressive PDC with substantial limiter heating, but without the production of x-rays from runaway electrons, is an indication that TDC is no longer necessary after /approx/ 10/sup 5/ pulses. During aggressive PDC, the uncooled limiters are heated by the plasma from the bakeout temperature of 150/degree/C to about 250/degree/C over a period of three to eight hours. This limiter heating is important to enhance the rate at which H/sub 2/O is removed from the graphite limiter. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Design of a separator/neutralizer to limit impurities and non-primary species in the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, A.I.

    1983-11-30

    The optimum plasma for the tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is very sensitive to heavy contaminates, such as oxygen and metals. Unfortunately the current neutral beam sources generate not only high energy deuterium particles but also high energy oxygen particles. A new MFTF-B separator/neutralizer has been designed to filter out the unwanted oxygen and allow only primary species neutrals to reach the plasma.

  4. Next-generation laser for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C; Bibeau, C; Bayramian, A; Beach, R; Ebbers, C A; Emanuel, M; Freitas, B; Fulkerson, S; Honea, E; Krupke, B; Lawson, J; Orth, C; Payne, S; Petty, C; Powell, H; Schaffers, K; Skidmore, J; Smith, L; Sutton, S; Telford, S

    1998-03-13

    We are developing and building the ''Mercury'' laser system as the first in a series of a new generation of diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSL) for advanced high energy density (HED) physics experiments at LLNL. Mercury will be the first integrated demonstration of a scalable laser architecture compatible with advanced Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) goals. Primary performance goals include 10% efficiencies at 10 Hz and a <10 ns pulse with l {omega} energies of 100 J and with 2 {omega}/3 {omega} frequency conversion. Achieving this performance will provide a near term capability for HED experiments and prove the potential of DPSSLs for inertial fusion energy (IFE).

  5. Management of Primary Dysmenorrhea by School Adolescents in ILE-IFE, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Babatunde, Oluwayemisi A.

    2010-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a problem that girls and women face and often manage themselves with or without support from health professionals. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescents with dysmenorrhea (N = 150) in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The aims of the study were to determine their knowledge of menstruation and primary dysmenorrhea,…

  6. Management of Primary Dysmenorrhea by School Adolescents in ILE-IFE, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Babatunde, Oluwayemisi A.

    2010-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a problem that girls and women face and often manage themselves with or without support from health professionals. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescents with dysmenorrhea (N = 150) in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The aims of the study were to determine their knowledge of menstruation and primary dysmenorrhea,…

  7. Simulations of 3D LPI's relevant to IFE using the PIC code OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.; Winjum, B. J.

    2014-10-01

    We will study three dimensional effects of laser plasma instabilities, including backward raman scattering, the high frequency hybrid instability, and the two plasmon instability using OSIRIS in 3D Cartesian geometry and cylindrical 2D OSIRIS with azimuthal mode decompositions. With our new capabilities we hope to demonstrate that we are capable of studying single speckle physics relevant to IFE in an efficent manner.

  8. Diffusion and Focusing: Phonological Variation and Social Networks in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salami, L. Oladipo

    1991-01-01

    Reports on the application of the concept of social network to the process of language usage among Yoruba-speaking city dwellers in Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. The study focuses on phonetic/phonological variation within common spoken Yoruba. (41 references) (GLR)

  9. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A J; Deri, R J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-02-24

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  10. Generating High-Brightness Light Ion Beams for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.; Cuneno, M.E.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Filuk, A.B.; Hanson, D.L.; Johnson, D.J.; Mehlohorn, T.A.; Menge, P.R.; Olson, C.L.; Pointon, T.D. Slutz, S.A.; Vesey, R.A.; Welch, D.R.; Wenger, D.F.

    1998-10-22

    Light ion beams may be the best option for an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) driver from the standpoint of ei%ciency, standoff, rep-rate operation and cost. This approach uses high-energy-density pulsed power to efficiently accelerate ions in one or two stages at fields of 0.5 to 1.0 GV/m to produce a medium energy (30 MeV), high-current (1 MA) beam of light ions, such as lithium. Ion beams provide the ability for medium distance transport (4 m) of the ions to the target, and standofl of the driver from high- yield implosions. Rep-rate operation of' high current ion sources has ako been demonstrated for industrial applications and couId be applied to IFE. Although (hese factors make light ions the best Iong-teml pulsed- power approach to IFE, light-ion research is being suspended this year in favor of a Z-pinch-driven approach which has the best opport lnity to most-rapidly achieve the U.S. Department of Energy sponsor's goal of high-yield fusion. This paper will summarize the status and most recent results of the light-ion beam program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and document the prospects of light ions for future IFE driver development.

  11. Integrated systems for pulsed-power driven inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuneo, M. E.; Slutz, S. A.; Stygar, W. A.; Herrmann, M. C.; Sinars, D. B.; McBride, R. D.; Vesey, R. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Vandevender, J. P.; Waisman, E. M.; Hansen, D. L.; Owen, A. C.; Jones, J. F.; Romero, J. A.; McKenney, J.

    2011-10-01

    Pulsed power fusion concepts integrate: (i) directly-magnetically-driven fusion targets that absorb large energies (10 MJ), (ii) efficient, rep-rated driver modules, (iii) compact, scalable, integrated driver architectures, (iv) driver-to-target coupling techniques with standoff and driver protection, and (v) long lifetime fusion chambers shielded by vaporizing blankets and thick liquid walls. Large fusion yields (3-30 GJ) and low rep-rates (0.1-1 Hz) may be an attractive path for IFE. Experiments on the ZR facility are validating physics issues for magnetically driven targets. Scientific breakeven (fusion energy = fuel energy) may be possible in the next few years. Plans for system development and integration will be discussed. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Multisensor data fusion and visualization for impact echo testing of bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiangmin; Xie, Zhenhua; Zhang, Ying

    2012-04-01

    An effective multisensor data fusion and visualization framework is proposed for accurate localization and effective visualization of delamination in concrete bridge decks based on impact echo (IE) nondestructive evaluation method. The fusion rules are developed by analyzing the spatial distribution of surface motion resulting from mechanical impacts applied at different locations based on numerical simulation. The proposed approach can process, integrate and interpret the data from a series IE source-receiver arrays to improve the accuracy and reliability of delamination characterization for bridge decks. The visualization approach provides an intuitive way for users to visualize the internal defects of concrete bridge decks.

  13. Renewing Aristotelian Theory: The Cold Fusion Controversy as a Test Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Alan G.

    1995-01-01

    Exhibits the strength and flexibility of science as a rhetorical enterprise via a rhetorical analysis of cold fusion which reveals science under considerable stress. Assumes the continuing viability of classical rhetoric as an explanation for the persuasiveness of texts, while acknowledging the need to reexamine its central concepts. (SR)

  14. Renewing Aristotelian Theory: The Cold Fusion Controversy as a Test Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Alan G.

    1995-01-01

    Exhibits the strength and flexibility of science as a rhetorical enterprise via a rhetorical analysis of cold fusion which reveals science under considerable stress. Assumes the continuing viability of classical rhetoric as an explanation for the persuasiveness of texts, while acknowledging the need to reexamine its central concepts. (SR)

  15. Fusion of wireless and non-contact technologies for the dynamic testing of a historic RC bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Rosalba; Pioldi, Fabio; Rizzi, Egidio; Gentile, Carmelo; Chatzi, Eleni N.; Serantoni, Eugenio; Wieser, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a dynamic testing and corresponding signal processing methodology is presented for condition assessment of bridge structures, via use of a diverse and potentially dense grid of low-cost and easily deployable monitoring technologies. In particular, wireless and non-contact sensors are simultaneously deployed on a historic reinforced concrete bridge in order to record acceleration and dynamic displacement response, under operational loading conditions. An innovative monitoring approach is proposed on both the hardware (sensors) and software (algorithmic) front, in which an effective data fusion procedure is adopted for fusing these alternative technologies for vibration-based monitoring in terms of both acceleration and displacement information. The demonstrated efficacy of the fusion procedure on the case-study of an actual operating system, the historic Brivio bridge, reveals the potential of this approach within the context of structural monitoring, where acquisition of heterogeneous information certainly proves advantageous.

  16. Modeling of divertor geometry effects in China fusion engineering testing reactor by SOLPS/B2-Eirene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, M. L.; Chen, Y. P.; Li, G. Q.; Luo, Z. P.; Guo, H. Y.; Ye, M. Y.; Tendler, M.

    2014-05-15

    The China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) is currently under design. The SOLPS/B2-Eirene code package is utilized for the design and optimization of the divertor geometry for CFETR. Detailed modeling is carried out for an ITER-like divertor configuration and one with relatively open inner divertor structure, to assess, in particular, peak power loading on the divertor target, which is a key issue for the operation of a next-step fusion machine, such as ITER and CFETR. As expected, the divertor peak heat flux greatly exceeds the maximum steady-state heat load of 10 MW/m{sup 2}, which is a limit dictated by engineering, for both divertor configurations with a wide range of edge plasma conditions. Ar puffing is effective at reducing divertor peak heat fluxes below 10 MW/m{sup 2} even at relatively low densities for both cases, favoring the divertor configuration with more open inner divertor structure.

  17. Hot and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-08-01

    This article presents an overview of research in cold fusion research and development in cold fusion at the Tokomak Fusion Test Reactor at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, and at the inertial containment facility at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. is described.

  18. High-heat-flux testing of irradiated tungsten-based materials for fusion applications using infrared plasma arc lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; Schaich, Charles R.; Ueda, Yoshio; Harper, David C.; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance L.; Byun, Thak S.

    2014-11-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat-flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research, has proved to be quite challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat-flux–testing (HHFT) facility based on water-wall plasma arc lamps (PALs) is now introduced for materials and small-component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12 000°C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over areas of 9×12 and 1×10 cm2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design and implementation of a PAL-based irradiated material target station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interest, such as those for plasma-facing components. Temperature results are shown for thermal cycling under HHFT of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in HFIR. Finally, radiological surveys indicated minimal contamination of the 36×36×18 cm test section, demonstrating the capability of the new facility to handle irradiated specimens at high temperature.

  19. High-heat-flux testing of irradiated tungsten-based materials for fusion applications using infrared plasma arc lamps

    DOE PAGES

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; ...

    2014-11-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat-flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research, has proved to be quite challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat-flux–testing (HHFT) facility based on water-wall plasma arc lamps (PALs) is now introduced for materials and small-component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12 000°C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over areas of 9×12 and 1×10 cm2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design andmore » implementation of a PAL-based irradiated material target station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interest, such as those for plasma-facing components. Temperature results are shown for thermal cycling under HHFT of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in HFIR. Finally, radiological surveys indicated minimal contamination of the 36×36×18 cm test section, demonstrating the capability of the new facility to handle irradiated specimens at high temperature.« less

  20. Initial progress in the first wall, blanket, and shield Engineering Test Program for magnetically confined fusion-power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, H.; Baker, C.C.; Maroni, V.A.

    1981-10-01

    The first wall/blanket/shield (FW/B/S) Engineering Test Program (ETP) progressed from the planning stage into implementation during July, 1981. The program, generic in nature, comprises four Test Program Elements (TPE's), the emphasis of which is on defining the performance parameters for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) and the major fusion device to follow FED. These elements are: (1) nonnuclear thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing of first wall and component facsimiles with emphasis on surface heat loads and heat transient (i.e., plasma disruption) effects; (2) nonnuclear and nuclear testing of FW/B/S components and assemblies with emphasis on bulk (nuclear) heating effects, integrated FW/B/S hydraulics and mechanics, blanket coolant system transients, and nuclear benchmarks; (3) FW/B/S electromagnetic and eddy current effects testing, including pulsed field penetration, torque and force restraint, electromagnetic materials, liquid metal MHD effects and the like; and (4) FW/B/S Assembly, Maintenance and Repair (AMR) studies focusing on generic AMR criteria, with the objective of preparing an AMR designers guidebook; also, development of rapid remote assembly/disassembly joint system technology, leak detection and remote handling methods.

  1. Comparison of SPE, IFE, and FLC in Monitoring Patients with Multiple Myeloma After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Jia-Zi; Chang, Hui-Rong; Dai, Li-Jun; Zhu, Zi-Ling; Feng, Yu-Feng; Gong, Fei-Ran; Wu, De-Pei

    2015-12-01

    Conventionally, serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and serum immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) are used as primary methods to diagnose and monitor multiple myeloma (MM). Recently, serum-free light chain (FLC) assay has been incorporated into hematological screening programs for myeloma. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of the three methods in monitoring MM patients after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). SPE, serum IFE and serum FLC assay were performed on 38 MM patients who underwent ASCT. In total, four patients had unexpected protein bands (UPBs) and 13 patients had relapsed after ASCT. Our results indicate that IFE is more sensitive than SPE and FLC assay in detection of UPBs and relapse. The results of IFE may provide useful information in advance of patient relapse.

  2. TBM/MTM for HTS-FNSF: An innovative testing strategy to qualify/validate fusion technologies for U.S. DEMO

    SciTech Connect

    El-Guebaly, Laila; Rowcliffe, Arthur; Menard, Jonathan; Brown, Thomas

    2016-08-11

    The qualification and validation of nuclear technologies are daunting tasks for fusion demonstration (DEMO) and power plants. This is particularly true for advanced designs that involve harsh radiation environment with 14 MeV neutrons and high-temperature operating regimes. This paper outlines the unique qualification and validation processes developed in the U.S., offering the only access to the complete fusion environment, focusing on the most prominent U.S. blanket concept (the dual cooled PbLi (DCLL)) along with testing new generations of structural and functional materials in dedicated test modules. The venue for such activities is the proposed Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), which is viewed as an essential element of the U.S. fusion roadmap. A staged blanket testing strategy has been developed to test and enhance the DCLL blanket performance during each phase of FNSF D-T operation. A materials testing module (MTM) is critically important to include in the FNSF as well to test a broad range of specimens of future, more advanced generations of materials in a relevant fusion environment. Here, the most important attributes for MTM are the relevant He/dpa ratio (10–15) and the much larger specimen volumes compared to the 10–500 mL range available in the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) and European DEMO-Oriented Neutron Source (DONES).

  3. TBM/MTM for HTS-FNSF: An innovative testing strategy to qualify/validate fusion technologies for U.S. DEMO

    DOE PAGES

    El-Guebaly, Laila; Rowcliffe, Arthur; Menard, Jonathan; ...

    2016-08-11

    The qualification and validation of nuclear technologies are daunting tasks for fusion demonstration (DEMO) and power plants. This is particularly true for advanced designs that involve harsh radiation environment with 14 MeV neutrons and high-temperature operating regimes. This paper outlines the unique qualification and validation processes developed in the U.S., offering the only access to the complete fusion environment, focusing on the most prominent U.S. blanket concept (the dual cooled PbLi (DCLL)) along with testing new generations of structural and functional materials in dedicated test modules. The venue for such activities is the proposed Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), whichmore » is viewed as an essential element of the U.S. fusion roadmap. A staged blanket testing strategy has been developed to test and enhance the DCLL blanket performance during each phase of FNSF D-T operation. A materials testing module (MTM) is critically important to include in the FNSF as well to test a broad range of specimens of future, more advanced generations of materials in a relevant fusion environment. Here, the most important attributes for MTM are the relevant He/dpa ratio (10–15) and the much larger specimen volumes compared to the 10–500 mL range available in the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) and European DEMO-Oriented Neutron Source (DONES).« less

  4. (Experimental development, testing and research work in support of the inertial confinement fusion program)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Luckhardt, R.; Terry, N.; Drake, D.; Gaines, J.

    1990-04-27

    This KMS Fusion Semi-Annual Technical Report covers the period October 1989 through March 1990. It contains a review of work performed by KMS Fusion, Inc. (KMSF), in support of the national program to achieve inertially confined fusion (ICF). A major section of the report is devoted to target technology, a field which is expected to play an increasingly important role in the overall KMSF fusion effort. Among the highlights of our efforts in this area covered in this report are: improvements and new developments in target fabrication techniques, including a discussion of techniques for introducing gaussian bumps and bands on target surfaces. Development of a single automated system for the interferometric characterization of transparent shells. Residual gas analysis of the blowing gases contained in glass shells made from xerogels. These usually include CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, and are objectionable because they dilute the fuel. Efforts to observe the ice layers formed in the {beta}-layering process in cryogenic targets, and to simulate the formation of these layers. In addition to our work on target technology, we conducted experiments with the Chroma laser and supported the ICF effort at other labs with theoretical and computational support as well as diagnostic development. Included in the work covered in this report are: experiments on Chroma to study interpenetration of and ionization balance in laser generated plasmas. Diagnostic development, including an optical probe for the Aurora laser at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a high energy x-ray continuum spectrograph for Aurora. Investigation of the radiation cooling instability as a possible mechanism for the generation of relatively cold, dense jets observed in ICF experiments.

  5. Cathode cooling by expansion of hydrogen in calorimetric tests for cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Gammon, B.E. )

    1993-05-01

    Expansion of hydrogen and its isotopes from hydrogen-absorbing cathodes can transfer significant amounts of energy to the surrounding aqueous media. In calorimetric efforts to confirm cold fusion, allowance must be made for thermal conduction along electrical leads. In conjunction with consideration of the extent of cathode cooling by expansion of hydrogen, the rupturing of the cavities within the cathodes and limitations to charging of the electrode by hydrogen flowing from fresh cracks are briefly addressed. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Experimental development, testing and research work in support of the inertial confinement fusion program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Roy; Luckhardt, Ruth; Terry, Nancy; Drake, Douglas; Gaines, James

    1990-04-01

    This KMS Fusion Semi-Annual Technical Report covers the period October 1989 through March 1990. It contains a review of work performed by KMS Fusion, Inc. (KMSF), in support of the national program to achieve inertially confined fusion (ICF). A major section of the report is devoted to target technology, a field which is expected to play an increasingly important role in the overall KMSF fusion effort. Among the highlights of our efforts in this area covered in this report are: improvements and new developments in target fabrication techniques, including a discussion of techniques for introducing Gaussian bumps and bands on target surfaces; development of a single automated system for the interferometric characterization of transparent shells; residual gas analysis of the blowing gases contained in glass shells made from xerogels. These usually include CO2, O2 and N2, and are objectionable because they dilute the fuel. Efforts to observe the ice layers formed in the beta-layering process in cryogenic targets, and to simulate the formation of these layers. In addition to our work on target technology, we conducted experiments with the Chroma laser and supported the ICF effort at other labs with theoretical and computational support as well as diagnostic development. Included in the work covered in this report are: experiments on Chroma to study interpenetration of and ionization balance in laser generated plasmas; diagnostic development, including an optical probe for the Aurora laser at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a high energy x ray continuum spectrograph for Aurora; investigation of the radiation cooling instability as a possible mechanism for the generation of relatively cold, dense jets observed in ICF experiments.

  7. A Unique Opportunity To Test Whether Cell Fusion Is a Mechanism of Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    collagen gels more rapidly and at greater distances than unfused counterparts. In addition , the transcriptome of fusion products was highly diverse...the receptor family for lipid engagement. Such targets could prove quite useful for the development of a new class of pharmaceutical agent capable...cancer cells, including removal of the cell type. In addition , future studies could identify the specific receptor-ligand interactions necessary

  8. Design and testing for a nontagged F1-V fusion protein as vaccine antigen against bubonic and pneumonic plague.

    PubMed

    Powell, Bradford S; Andrews, Gerard P; Enama, Jeffrey T; Jendrek, Scott; Bolt, Chris; Worsham, Patricia; Pullen, Jeffrey K; Ribot, Wilson; Hines, Harry; Smith, Leonard; Heath, David G; Adamovicz, Jeffrey J

    2005-01-01

    A two-component recombinant fusion protein antigen was re-engineered and tested as a medical counter measure against the possible biological threat of aerosolized Yersinia pestis. The active component of the proposed subunit vaccine combines the F1 capsular protein and V virulence antigen of Y. pestis and improves upon the design of an earlier histidine-tagged fusion protein. In the current study, different production strains were screened for suitable expression and a purification process was optimized to isolate an F1-V fusion protein absent extraneous coding sequences. Soluble F1-V protein was isolated to 99% purity by sequential liquid chromatography including capture and refolding of urea-denatured protein via anion exchange, followed by hydrophobic interaction, concentration, and then transfer into buffered saline for direct use after frozen storage. Protein identity and primary structure were verified by mass spectrometry and Edman sequencing, confirming a purified product of 477 amino acids and removal of the N-terminal methionine. Purity, quality, and higher-order structure were compared between lots using RP-HPLC, intrinsic fluorescence, CD spectroscopy, and multi-angle light scattering spectroscopy, all of which indicated a consistent and properly folded product. As formulated with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant and administered in a single subcutaneous dose, this new F1-V protein also protected mice from wild-type and non-encapsulated Y. pestis challenge strains, modeling prophylaxis against pneumonic and bubonic plague. These findings confirm that the fusion protein architecture provides superior protection over the former licensed product, establish a foundation from which to create a robust production process, and set forth assays for the development of F1-V as the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the next plague vaccine.

  9. The Inverse Z-Pinch as a Physics Test Bed, and a Possible Target Plasma for Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemuth, Irvin; Bauer, Bruno; Fuelling, Stephen; Kirkpatrick, Ronald; Makhin, Volodymyr; Presura, Radu; Sheehey, Peter; Siemon, Richard

    2002-12-01

    From an overall fusion system perspective, there remains an untested and interesting possibility of compressing a magnetized target plasma with beta greater than unity by a magnetically driven imploding liner, or other target pusher driver. This approach, known as Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF), operates in an intermediate density regime and time scale between magnetic and inertial fusion, which are separated by twelve orders of magnitude. Even if magnetized plasma transport is Bohm-like, fusion gain in the MTF parameter space appears accessible with existing drivers, which means MTF does not require a major financial investment in driver technology. The physics of plasma confinement by material walls, and the thermal transport of magnetized high-beta plasma in the MTF regime, has received relatively little study theoretically, computationally, or experimentally. This paper describes a proposed experiment to test wall confinement in a regime of plasma parameters relevant to MTF. The geometry being considered is an inverse pinch designed to heat plasma to 100-eV temperatures. By using a current crowbar, the plasma formed in the pinch can be held against an outer wall (the return conductor) and the rate of cooling can be measured and compared with predictions from theory and numerical models. The well-benchmarked two-dimensional radiation-MHD code MHRDR is being used to guide the design activity. The existing 2-terawatt Zebra generator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility is the power supply under consideration. Results from the code show adequate heating, formation of a quasi-static magnetic equilibrium, and a near-classical cooling rate to a room temperature boundary, even in the presence of substantial plasma convection.

  10. Facility for high-heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; Harper, David C.; Snead, Lance L.; Schaich, Charles R.

    2014-04-01

    A new high-heat flux testing (HHFT) facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon plasma arc lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. It can accommodate irradiated plasma facing component materials and sub-size mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at Oak Ridge National Laboratory can provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW m-2, which are prototypic of fusion steady state heat flux conditions, over a heated area of 9 × 12 and 1 × 10 cm2, respectively. The use of PAL permits the heat source to be environmentally separated from the components of the test chamber, simplifying the design to accommodate safe testing of low-level irradiated articles and materials under high-heat flux. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing of tungsten samples are presented and discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of this photon-based HHFT facility are compared to existing e-beam and particle beam facilities used for similar purposes.

  11. Measurements of electromagnetic properties of LCT (Large Coil Task) coils in IFSMTF (International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, S.S.; Baylor, L.R.; Dresner, L.; Fehling, D.T.; Lubell, M.S.; Lue, J.W.; Luton, J.N.; McManamy, T.J.; Wilson, C.T.; Wintenberg, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Participants in the international Large Coil Task (LCT) have designed, built, and tested six different toroidal field coils. Each coil has a 2.5- by 3.5-m, D-shaped bore and a current between 10 and 18 kA and is designed to demonstrate stable operation at 8 T, with a superimposed averaged pulsed field of 0.14 T in 1.0 s and simulated nuclear heating. Testing of the full six-coil toroidal array began early in 1986 and was successfully completed on September 3, 1987, in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper summarizes electromagnetic properties of LCT coils measured in different modes of energization and fast dump. Effects of mutual coupling and induced eddy currents are analyzed and discussed. Measurements of the ac loss caused by the superimposed pulsed fields are summarized. Finally, the interpretation of the test results and their relevance to practical fusion are presented. 11 refs., 10 figs., 4 tab.

  12. Implementing agreement on a co-operative program on inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J; Hogan, W; Meier, W

    2000-01-04

    The Programme to be carried out by the Contracting Parties within the framework of this Agreement shall consist of co-operative research, development, demonstrations and exchanges of information regarding inertial fusion energy (IFE). This shall include: (1) Nuclear Technology, (2) Fusion Materials, (3) Environment, Safety and Economics, (4) Laser Drivers, (5) Ion Beam Drivers and Beam/Plasma Interactions, (6) Target Production, Injection and Tracking, (7) Fusion Diagnostics, (8) Driver/Plasma Interactions, (9) Fast Ignition and (10) Power Plant Design Studies. Annexes to this agreement will describe specific tasks in each area.

  13. Integrated operations plan for the MFTF-B Mirror Fusion Test Facility. Volume II. Integrated operations plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This document defines an integrated plan for the operation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B). The plan fulfills and further delineates LLNL policies and provides for accomplishing the functions required by the program. This plan specifies the management, operations, maintenance, and engineering support responsibilities. It covers phasing into sustained operations as well as the sustained operations themselves. Administrative and Plant Engineering support, which are now being performed satisfactorily, are not part of this plan unless there are unique needs.

  14. Hot electrons in the anchor region of the axicell design of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, J.W.

    1982-09-14

    The axicell design of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) requires electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) up to average electron energies of as high as 450 keV. These temperatures, plus the magnetic field and plasma beta profiles, lead to the requirement for three frequencies-28, 35, and 56 (or 60) GHz. Power balance studies include the effects of scattering, drag, synchrotron radiation, and cold electron production, and they predict that about 600 kW of ECRH power is needed at each end of MFTF.

  15. New interpretation of alpha-particle-driven instabilities in deuterium-tritium experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor.

    PubMed

    Nazikian, R; Kramer, G J; Cheng, C Z; Gorelenkov, N N; Berk, H L; Sharapov, S E

    2003-09-19

    The original description of alpha particle driven instabilities in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor in terms of toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) remained inconsistent with three fundamental characteristics of the observations: (i) the variation of the mode frequency with toroidal mode number, (ii) the chirping of the mode frequency for a given toroidal mode number, and (iii) the antiballooning density perturbation of the modes. It is now shown that these characteristics can be explained by observing that cylindrical-like modes can exist in the weak magnetic shear region of the plasma that then make a transition to TAEs as the central safety factor decreases in time.

  16. Inertial fusion energy development approaches for direct and indirect-drive

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Lindl, J.D.; Meier, W.R.

    1996-08-20

    Consideration of different driver and target requirements for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants together with the potential energy gains of direct and indirect-drive targets leads to different optimal combinations of driver and target options for each type of target. In addition, different fusion chamber concepts are likely to be most compatible with these different driver and target combinations. For example, heavy-ion drivers appear to be well matched to indirect=drive targets with all-liquid-protected-wall chambers requiring two-sided illuminations, while diode-pumped, solid- state laser drivers are better matched to direct-drive targets with chambers using solid walls or flow-guiding structures to allow spherically symmetric illuminations. R&D on the critical issues of drivers, targets, and chambers for both direct and indirect-drive options should be pursued until the ultimate gain of either type of target for IFE is better understood.

  17. Neutronics issues and inertial fusion energy: a summary of findings

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J. F., LLNL

    1998-05-29

    We have analyzed and compared five major inertial fusion energy (IFE) and two representative magnetic fusion energy (MFE) power plant designs for their environment, safety, and health (ES&H) characteristics. Our work has focussed upon the neutronics of each of the designs and the resulting radiological hazard indices. The calculation of a consistent set of hazard indices allows comparisons to be made between the designs. Such comparisons enable identification of trends in fusion ES&H characteristics and may be used to increase the likelihood of fusion achieving its full potential with respect to ES&H characteristics. The present work summarizes our findings and conclusions. This work emphasizes the need for more research in low-activation materials and for the experimental measurement of radionuclide release fractions under accident conditions.

  18. Solar wind plasma profiles during interplanetary field enhancements (IFEs): Consistent with charged-dust pickup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H. R.; Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-06-01

    The solar wind contains many magnetic structures, and most of them have identifiable correlated changes in the flowing plasma. However, the very characteristic rise and fall of the magnetic field in an interplanetary field enhancement has no clear solar wind counterpart. It appears to be a pure magnetic ``barrier'' that transfers solar wind momentum to charged dust produced in collisions of interplanetary bodies in the size range of tens to hundreds of meters. This transfer lifts the fine scale dust out of the Sun's gravitational well. We demonstrate the lack of field-plasma correlation with several examples from spacecraft records as well as show an ensemble average velocity profile during IFEs which is consistent with our IFE formation hypothesis.

  19. The IfE Global Gravity Field Model Recovered from GOCE Orbit and Gradiometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hu; Muiller, Jurgen; Brieden, Phillip

    2015-03-01

    An independent global gravity field model is computed from the GOCE orbit and gradiometer data using our own IfE software. We analysed the same data period that were considered for the first released GOCE models. The Acceleration Approach is applied to process the orbit data. The gravity gradients are processed in the framework of the remove-restore technique by which the low-frequency noise of the original gradients are removed. For the combined solution, the normal equations are summed by the Variance Component Estimation Approach. The result in terms of accumulated geoid height error calculated from the coefficient difference w.r.t. EGM2008 is about 11 cm at D/O 200, which corresponds to the accuracy level of the first released TIM and DIR solutions. This indicates that our IfE model has a comparable performance as the other official GOCE models.

  20. Heavy ion fusion: Prospects and status

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1995-10-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to review the status of HIF as it was presented at Princeton, and also to try to deduce something about the prospects for HIF in particular, and fusion in general, from the world and US political scene. The status of the field is largely, though not entirely, expressed through presentations from the two leading HIF efforts: (1) the US program, centered at LBNL and LLNL, is primarily concerned with applying induction linac technology for HIF drivers; (2) the European program, centered at GSI, Darmstadt, but including several other laboratories, is primarily directed towards the rf linac approach using storage rings for energy compression. Several developments in the field of HIF should be noted: (1) progress towards construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) gives strength to the whole rational for developing a driver for Inertial Fusion Energy; (2) the field of accelerator science has matured far beyond the status that it had in 1976; (3) Heavy Ion Fusion has passed some more reviews, including one by the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC), and has received the usual good marks; (5) as the budgets for Magnetic Fusion have fallen, the pressures on the Office of Fusion energy (OFE) have intensified, and a move is underway to shift the HIF program out of the IFE program and back into the ICF program in the Defense Programs (DP) side of the DOE.

  1. Spatial and temporal translational control of germ cell mRNAs mediated by the eIF4E isoform IFE-1.

    PubMed

    Friday, Andrew J; Henderson, Melissa A; Morrison, J Kaitlin; Hoffman, Jenna L; Keiper, Brett D

    2015-12-15

    Regulated mRNA translation is vital for germ cells to produce new proteins in the spatial and temporal patterns that drive gamete development. Translational control involves the de-repression of stored mRNAs and their recruitment by eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) to ribosomes. C. elegans expresses five eIF4Es (IFE-1-IFE-5); several have been shown to selectively recruit unique pools of mRNA. Individual IFE knockouts yield unique phenotypes due to inefficient translation of certain mRNAs. Here, we identified mRNAs preferentially translated through the germline-specific eIF4E isoform IFE-1. Differential polysome microarray analysis identified 77 mRNAs recruited by IFE-1. Among the IFE-1-dependent mRNAs are several required for late germ cell differentiation and maturation. Polysome association of gld-1, vab-1, vpr-1, rab-7 and rnp-3 mRNAs relies on IFE-1. Live animal imaging showed IFE-1-dependent selectivity in spatial and temporal translation of germline mRNAs. Altered MAPK activation in oocytes suggests dual roles for IFE-1, both promoting and suppressing oocyte maturation at different stages. This single eIF4E isoform exerts positive, selective translational control during germ cell differentiation.

  2. Regulation of sperm-specific proteins by IFE-1, a germline-specific homolog of eIF4E, in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Ichiro; Jeong, Myung-Hwan; Shim, Yhong-Hee

    2011-02-01

    ABSTEACT: IFE-1 is one of the five C. elegans homologs of eIF4E, which is the mRNA 5' cap-binding component of the translation initiation complex eIF4F. Depletion of IFE-1 causes defects in sperm, suggesting that IFE-1 regulates a subset of genes required for sperm functions. To further understand the molecular function of IFE-1, proteomic analysis was performed to search for sperm proteins that are downregulated in ife-1(ok1978); fem-3(q20) mutants relative to the fem-3(q20) control. The fem-3(q20) mutant background was used because it only produces sperm at restrictive temperature. Total worm proteins were subjected to 2D-DIGE, and differentially expressed protein spots were further identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Among the identified proteins, GSP-3 and Major Sperm Proteins (MSPs) were found to be significantly down-regulated in the ife-1(ok1978) mutant. Moreover, RNAi of gsp-3 caused an ife-1-like phenotype. These results suggest that IFE-1 is required for efficient expression of some sperm-specific proteins, and the fertilization defect of ife-1 mutant is caused mainly by a reduced level of GSP-3.

  3. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  4. Damage parameter comparison for candidate intense neutron test facilities for fusion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, D.G.; Greenwood, L.R. ); Mann, F.M. )

    1990-07-31

    It is recognized worldwide that an intense source of fusion energy neutrons is needed to evaluate candidate fusion materials. At an International Energy Agency (IEA) workshop held in San Diego in February 1989, an Evaluation Panel recommended that three neutron source concepts be developed further. The panel also recommended that further comparisons were needed of their irradiation environments. In this paper, a comparison is made of damage parameters for beryllium, carbon, silicon, vanadium, iron, copper, molybdenum, and tungsten irradiated in spectra characteristic of di-Li, spallation, and beam-plasma (d-t) neutron sources and in a reference DEMO first wall spectrum. The treatment of neutron-induced displacement reactions is confined to the region below 20 MeV and transmutation reactions to below 50 MeV by the limited availability of calculational tools. The spallation spectrum is relatively soft; less than 2% of the neutrons are above 50 MeV. The transmutation results emphasize the need to define the neutron spectra at low, as well as high, energies; only the DEMO spectrum is adequate in this respect. Recommendations are given for further work to be performed under an international working group. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Systems modeling and analysis of heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.

    1998-06-03

    A computer model for systems analysis of heavy ion drivers based on induction linac technology has been used to evaluate driver designs for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Design parameters and estimated costs have been determined for drivers with various ions, different charge states, different front-end designs, with and without beam merging, and various pulse compression and acceleration schedules. We have examined the sensitivity of the results to variations in component cost assumptions, design constraints, and selected design parameters

  6. Utility of the National Ignition Facility for inertial fusion energy and radiation sciences experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, M.; Karpenko, V.; Kauffman, R.; Anderson, A.; Simonson, G.; Kruger, H.; Davis, J.; Hoover, J.

    1996-06-14

    NIF is being configured so as to not preclude conduct of radiation experiments that will contribute to evaluating the readiness of military systems and components to withstand radiation environments. The range of possible experimental environments and the flexibility to introduce various types of experimental packages suggests synergism with experiments related to Inertial Fusion Energy development on NIF. Design status of NIF features to support radiation experiments is described, and a relationship to their applicability to IFE experimentation on NIF is discussed.

  7. Low Activation Joining of SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Applications: Modeling Miniature Torsion Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Borlaug, Brennan A.; Ferraris, Monica; Ventrella, Andrea; Katoh, Yutai

    2014-06-30

    The use of SiC and SiC-composites in fission or fusion environments appears to require joining methods for assembling systems. The international fusion community has designed miniature torsion specimens for joint testing and for irradiation in HFIR. Therefore, miniature torsion joints were fabricated using displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti3SiC2 + SiC joints with CVD-SiC that were tested in shear prior to and after HFIR irradiation. However, these torsion specimens fail out-of-plane, which causes difficulties in determining a shear strength for the joints or for comparing unirradiated and irradiated joints. A finite element damage model has been developed that indicates fracture is likely to occur within the joined pieces to cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The implications for torsion shear joint data based on this sample design are discussed.

  8. FEASIBILITY OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING LASER INERTIAL FUSION AS THE PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M

    2006-11-03

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is developing technology for Laser IFE with the goal of producing electricity from the heat generated by the implosion of deuterium-tritium (DT) targets. Alternatively, the Laser IFE device could be coupled to a hydrogen generation system where the heat would be used as input to a water-splitting process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. The production of hydrogen in addition to electricity would allow fusion energy plants to address a much wider segment of energy needs, including transportation. Water-splitting processes involving direct and hybrid thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis are currently being developed as means to produce hydrogen from high temperature nuclear fission reactors and solar central receivers. This paper explores the feasibility of this concept for integration with a Laser IFE plant, and it looks at potential modifications to make this approach more attractive. Of particular interest are: (1) the determination of the advantages of Laser IFE hydrogen production compared to other hydrogen production concepts, and (2) whether a facility of the size of FTF would be suitable for hydrogen production.

  9. The technology benefits of inertial confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H T

    1999-05-26

    The development and demonstration of inertial fusion is incredibly challenging because it requires simultaneously controlling and precisely measuring parameters at extreme values in energy, space, and time. The challenges range from building megajoule (10{sup 6} J) drivers that perform with percent-level precision to fabricating targets with submicron specifications to measuring target performance at micron scale (10{sup {minus}6} m) with picosecond (10{sup {minus}12} s) time resolution. Over the past 30 years in attempting to meet this challenge, the inertial fusion community around the world has invented new technologies in lasers, particle beams, pulse power drivers, diagnostics, target fabrication, and other areas. These technologies have found applications in diverse fields of industry and science. Moreover, simply assembling the teams with the background, experience, and personal drive to meet the challenging requirements of inertial fusion has led to spin-offs in unexpected directions, for example, in laser isotope separation, extreme ultraviolet lithography for microelectronics, compact and inexpensive radars, advanced laser materials processing, and medical technology. The experience of inertial fusion research and development of spinning off technologies has not been unique to any one laboratory or country but has been similar in main research centers in the US, Europe, and Japan. Strengthening and broadening the inertial fusion effort to focus on creating a new source of electrical power (inertial fusion energy [IFE]) that is economically competitive and environmentally benign will yield rich rewards in technology spin-offs. The additional challenges presented by IFE are to make drivers affordable, efficient, and long-lived while operating at a repetition rate of a few Hertz; to make fusion targets that perform consistently at high-fusion yield; and to create target chambers that can repetitively handle greater than 100-MJ yields while producing minimal

  10. Scenarios for multi-unit inertial fusion energy plants producing hydrogen fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1993-12-01

    This work describes: (a) the motivation for considering fusion in general, and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) in particular, to produce hydrogen fuel powering low-emission vehicles; (b) the general requirements for any fusion electric plant to produce hydrogen by water electrolysis at costs competitive with present consumer gasoline fuel costs per passenger mile, for advanced car architectures meeting President Clinton`s 80 mpg advanced car goal, and (c) a comparative economic analysis for the potential cost of electricity (CoE) and corresponding cost of hydrogen (CoH) from a variety of multi-unit IFE plants with one to eight target chambers sharing a common driver and target fab facility. Cases with either heavy-ion or diode-pumped, solid-state laser drivers are considered, with ``conventional`` indirect drive target gains versus ``advanced, e.g. Fast Ignitor`` direct drive gain assumptions, and with conventional steam balance-of-plant (BoP) versus advanced MHD plus steam combined cycle BoP, to contrast the potential economics under ``conventional`` and ``advanced`` IFE assumptions, respectively.

  11. Need for and requirements for neutron irradiation facility for fusion materials testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ishino, S.; Schiller, P.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    The construction and operation of an intense 14MeV neutron source is essential for the development and eventual qualification of structural materials for a fusion reactor demonstration plant (DEMO). Because of the time required for materials developed and the scale-up of materials to commercial production, a decision to build a neutron source should precede engineering design activities for a DEMO by at least 20 years. The characteristic features of 14MeV neutron damage are summarized including effects related to cascade structure, transmutation production, and dose rate. The importance of a 14MeV neutron source for addressing fundamental radiation damage issues, alloy development activities and the development of an engineering data bases is discussed. From these considerations the basic requirements and machine parameters are derived. 14 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Nuclear aspects of tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR) diagnostics and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    There are five principal aspects of the nuclear radiation from the high temperature plasmas of TFTR on its plasma diagnostic equipment. i) Important information about the plasma properties to be obtained from measurement of the neutrons, or other fusion reaction products. ii) Experimental studies to give design data for future tokamak devices and their instrumentation. iii) Transient noise or damage effects on the array of detectors for the collection of physics data about the plasma. iv) The effect of tritium on detectors that necessarily are in vacuum, directly connected to the tokamak vacuum vessel. v) Damage of diagnostic components mounted close to the vacuum vessel. Each of these topics will be addressed after a brief description of the TFTR tokamak and its radiation environment.

  13. Big fusion, little fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Frank; ddtuttle

    2016-08-01

    In reply to correspondence from George Scott and Adam Costley about the Physics World focus issue on nuclear energy, and to news of construction delays at ITER, the fusion reactor being built in France.

  14. Idiopathic Focal Eosinophilic Enteritis (IFEE), an Emerging Cause of Abdominal Pain in Horses: The Effect of Age, Time and Geographical Location on Risk

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Debra C.; Costain, Deborah A.; Sherlock, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic focal eosinophilic enteritis (IFEE) is an emerging cause of abdominal pain (colic) in horses that frequently requires surgical intervention to prevent death. The epidemiology of IFEE is poorly understood and it is difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. The aetiology of this condition and methods of possible prevention are currently unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate temporal and spatial heterogeneity in IFEE risk and to ascertain the effect of horse age on risk. Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective, nested case-control study was undertaken using data from 85 IFEE cases and 848 randomly selected controls admitted to a UK equine hospital for exploratory laparotomy to investigate the cause of colic over a 10-year period. Generalised additive models (GAMs) were used to quantify temporal and age effects on the odds of IFEE and to provide mapped estimates of ‘residual’ risk over the study region. The relative risk of IFEE increased over the study period (p = 0.001) and a seasonal pattern was evident (p<0.01) with greatest risk of IFEE being identified between the months of July and November. IFEE risk decreased with increasing age (p<0.001) with younger (0–5 years old) horses being at greatest risk. The mapped surface estimate exhibited significantly atypical sub-regions (p<0.001) with increased IFEE risk in horses residing in the North-West of the study region. Conclusions/Significance IFEE was found to exhibit both spatial and temporal variation in risk and is more likely to occur in younger horses. This information may help to identify horses at increased risk of IFEE, provide clues about the aetiology of this condition and to identify areas that require further research. PMID:25463382

  15. The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Simonen, T C

    2009-07-17

    This report summarizes discussions and conclusions of the workshop to 'Assess The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification'. The workshop was held at LBNL, Berkeley, CA on March 12, 2009. Most workshop attendees have worked on magnetic mirror systems, several have worked on similar neutron source designs, and others are knowledgeable of materials, fusion component, and neutral beams The workshop focused on the gas dynamic trap DT Neutron Source (DTNS) concept being developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk, Russia. The DTNS may be described as a line source of neutrons, in contrast to a spallation or a D-Lithium source with neutrons beaming from a point, or a tokamak volume source. The DTNS is a neutral beam driven linear plasma system with magnetic mirrors to confine the energetic deuterium and tritium beam injected ions, which produce the 14 MeV neutrons. The hot ions are imbedded in warm-background plasma, which traps the neutral atoms and provides both MHD and micro stability to the plasma. The 14 MeV neutron flux ranges typically at the level of 1 to 4 MW/m2.

  16. The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A; Kulcinski, J; Molvik, A; Ryutov, D; Santarius, J; Simonen, T; Wirth, B D; Ying, A

    2009-11-23

    The successful operation (with {beta} {le} 60%, classical ions and electrons with Te = 250 eV) of the Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) device at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk, Russia, extrapolates to a 2 MW/m{sup 2} Dynamic Trap Neutron Source (DTNS), which burns only {approx}100 g of tritium per full power year. The DTNS has no serious physics, engineering, or technology obstacles; the extension of neutral beam lines to steady state can use demonstrated engineering; and it supports near-term tokamaks and volume neutron sources. The DTNS provides a neutron spectrum similar to that of ITER and satisfies the missions specified by the materials community to test fusion materials (listed as one of the top grand challenges for engineering in the 21st century by the U.S. National Academy of Engineering) and subcomponents (including tritium-breeding blankets) needed to construct DEMO. The DTNS could serve as the first Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), called for by ReNeW, and could provide the data necessary for licensing subsequent FSNFs.

  17. Static and dynamic analyses on the MFTF (Mirror Fusion Test Facility)-B Axicell Vacuum Vessel System: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1986-09-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a large-scale, tandem-mirror-fusion experiment. MFTF-B comprises many highly interconnected systems, including a magnet array and a vacuum vessel. The vessel, which houses the magnet array, is supported by reinforced concrete piers and steel frames resting on an array of foundations and surrounded by a 7-ft-thick concrete shielding vault. The Pittsburgh-Des Moines (PDM) Corporation, which was awarded the contract to design and construct the vessel, carried out fixed-base static and dynamic analyses of a finite-element model of the axicell vessel and magnet systems, including the simulation of various loading conditions and three postulated earthquake excitations. Meanwhile, LLNL monitored PDM's analyses with modeling studies of its own, and independently evaluated the structural responses of the vessel in order to define design criteria for the interface members and other project equipment. The assumptions underlying the finite-element model and the behavior of the axicell vessel are described in detail in this report, with particular emphasis placed on comparing the LLNL and PDM studies and on analyzing the fixed-base behavior with the soil-structure interaction, which occurs between the vessel and the massive concrete vault wall during a postulated seismic event. The structural members that proved sensitive to the soil effect are also reevaluated.

  18. Local transport barrier formation and relaxation in reverse-shear plasmas on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synakowski, E. J.; Batha, S. H.; Beer, M. A.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Budny, R. V.; Bush, C. E.; Efthimion, P. C.; Hahm, T. S.; Hammett, G. W.; LeBlanc, B.; Levinton, F.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H.; Ramsey, A. T.; Schmidt, G.; Rewoldt, G.; Scott, S. D.; Taylor, G.; Zarnstorff, M. C.

    1997-05-01

    The roles of turbulence stabilization by sheared E×B flow and Shafranov shift gradients are examined for Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [D. J. Grove and D. M. Meade, Nucl. Fusion 25, 1167 (1985)] enhanced reverse-shear (ERS) plasmas. Both effects in combination provide the basis of a positive-feedback model that predicts reinforced turbulence suppression with increasing pressure gradient. Local fluctuation behavior at the onset of ERS confinement is consistent with this framework. The power required for transitions into the ERS regime are lower when high power neutral beams are applied earlier in the current profile evolution, consistent with the suggestion that both effects play a role. Separation of the roles of E×B and Shafranov shift effects was performed by varying the E×B shear through changes in the toroidal velocity with nearly steady-state pressure profiles. Transport and fluctuation levels increase only when E×B shearing rates are driven below a critical value that is comparable to the fastest linear growth rates of the dominant instabilities. While a turbulence suppression criterion that involves the ratio of shearing to linear growth rates is in accord with many of these results, the existence of hidden dependencies of the criterion is suggested in experiments where the toroidal field was varied. The forward transition into the ERS regime has also been examined in strongly rotating plasmas. The power threshold is higher with unidirectional injection than with balance injection.

  19. Artifact reduction in non-destructive testing by means of complementary data fusion of x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic pulse-echo testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrapp, Michael; Scharrer, Thomas; Goldammer, Matthias; Rupitsch, Stefan J.; Sutor, Alexander; Ermert, Helmut; Lerch, Reinhard

    2013-12-01

    In industrial non-destructive testing, x-ray computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonic pulse-echo testing play an important role in the investigation of large-scale samples. One major artifact arises in CT, when the x-ray absorption in specific directions is too intense, so that the material cannot be fully penetrated. Due to different physical interaction principles, ultrasonic imaging is able to show features which are not visible in the CT image. In this contribution, we present a novel fusion method for the complementary data provided by x-ray CT and ultrasonic testing. The ultrasonic data are obtained by an adapted synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) and complement the missing edge information in the CT image. Subsequently, the full edge map is incorporated as a priori information in a modified simultaneous iterative reconstruction method (SIRT) and allows a significant reduction of artifacts in the CT image.

  20. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, Jonathan L.; Miley, Harry S.; Milbrath, Brian D.

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook the Integrated Field Exercise (IFE) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5 – 2 kT underground explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research evaluates two of the OSI techniques, including laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in situ gamma-spectrometry for 17 particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear weapon tests. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and OSI timeframes.

  1. Fabrication and integrity test preparation of HIP-joined W and ferritic-martensitic steel mockups for fusion reactor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Shin, Kyu In; Kim, Suk Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae Sung; Choi, Bo Guen; Moon, Se Youn; Hong, Bong Guen

    2014-10-01

    Tungsten (W) and ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) as armor and structural materials, respectively, are the major candidates for plasma-facing components (PFCs) such as the blanket first wall (BFW) and the divertor, in a fusion reactor. In the present study, three W/FMS mockups were successfully fabricated using a hot isostatic pressing (HIP, 900 °C, 100 MPa, 1.5 hrs) with a following post-HIP heat treatment (PHHT, tempering, 750 °C, 70 MPa, 2 hrs), and the W/FMS joining method was developed based on the ITER BFW and the test blanket module (TBM) development project from 2004 to the present. Using a 10-MHz-frequency flat-type probe to ultrasonically test of the joint, we found no defects in the fabricated mockups. For confirmation of the joint integrity, a high heat flux test will be performed up to the thermal lifetime of the mockup under the proper test conditions. These conditions were determined through a preliminary analysis with conventional codes such as ANSYS-CFX for thermal-hydraulic conditions considering the test facility, the Korea heat load test facility with an electron beam (KoHLT-EB), and its water coolant system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI).

  2. Turbulent Liquid Sheets for Protecting IFE Reactor Chamber First Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, S.G.; Yoda, M.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Sadowski, D.L.

    2003-09-15

    Turbulent liquid sheets have been proposed to protect solid structures in fusion power plants by absorbing damaging radiation. Establishing an experimental design database for this flow would therefore be valuable in various thick liquid protection schemes. The effect of initial conditions on the flow free-surface fluctuation was studied experimentally for vertical turbulent sheets of water issuing downwards from nozzles of thickness (small dimension) {delta} = 1 - 1.5 cm into ambient air. Sheets issuing from nozzles with both two- and three-dimensional fifth-order polynomial contractions with exit aspect ratios of 6.7 and 10 were investigated at Reynolds numbers ranging from 2 x 10{sup 4} to 1 x 10{sup 5}. Mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles were measured just upstream of the nozzle exit using laser-Doppler velocimetry to quantify initial conditions. Planar laser-induced fluorescence was used to visualize the free surface geometry of the liquid sheet in the near-field region up to 25 {delta} downstream of the nozzle exit. Fluctuations of the free surface, or surface ripple, are characterized by the standard deviation in the position of the gas/liquid interface.

  3. Low Activation Joining of SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Applications: Miniature Torsion Specimen Shear Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Ventrella, Andrea; Ferraris, Monica

    2011-04-17

    The use of SiC composites in fusion environments likely requires joining of plates using reactive joining or brazing. One promising reactive joining method uses solid-state displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti3SiC2 + SiC. We continue to explore the processing envelope for this joint for the TITAN collaboration in order to produce optimal joints to undergo irradiation studies in HFIR. The TITAN collaboration has designed miniature torsion joints for preparation, testing, and irradiation in HFIR. PNNL synthesized 40 miniature torsion joints and several were tested for shear strength prior to irradiation testing in HFIR. The resulting tests indicated that (1) joint fixture alignment problems cause joint strengths to be lower than optimal, (2) that non-planar torsion test failures limit the effectiveness of the miniature specimen design, and (3) that several joints that were well aligned had high shear strengths and promising mechanical properties. In summary, we now show conclusively that high joint strengths cause non-planar shear fracture and complicate strength analysis for miniature torsion specimens.

  4. Magnetized Plasma Compression for Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, James; Grabowski, Christopher; Domonkos, Matthew; Amdahl, David

    2013-10-01

    Magnetized Plasma Compression (MPC) uses magnetic inhibition of thermal conduction and enhancement of charge particle product capture to greatly reduce the temporal and spatial compression required relative to un-magnetized inertial fusion (IFE)--to microseconds, centimeters vs nanoseconds, sub-millimeter. MPC greatly reduces the required confinement time relative to MFE--to microseconds vs minutes. Proof of principle can be demonstrated or refuted using high current pulsed power driven compression of magnetized plasmas using magnetic pressure driven implosions of metal shells, known as imploding liners. This can be done at a cost of a few tens of millions of dollars. If demonstrated, it becomes worthwhile to develop repetitive implosion drivers. One approach is to use arrays of heavy ion beams for energy production, though with much less temporal and spatial compression than that envisioned for un-magnetized IFE, with larger compression targets, and with much less ambitious compression ratios. A less expensive, repetitive pulsed power driver, if feasible, would require engineering development for transient, rapidly replaceable transmission lines such as envisioned by Sandia National Laboratories. Supported by DOE-OFES.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, B. William; Chiu, Ing L.

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  6. The prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sowemimo, Oluyomi A

    2009-03-01

    A study of gastrointestinal parasites in 269 faecal samples from dogs (Canis familiaris) collected from Ile-Ife, Nigeria between January and December 2004, revealed seven helminth species: Toxocara canis 33.8%, Ancylostoma sp. 34.6%, Toxascaris leonina 3.3%, Trichuris vulpis 3.7%, Dipylidium caninum 4.1%, Uncinaria stenocephala 0.7% and Taenia sp. 1.1%. The faecal egg intensities, determined as mean eggs per gram of faeces ( +/- SEM) were: T. canis 393.8 +/- 83.4, Ancylostoma sp. 101.5 +/- 32.8, T. leonina 14.3 +/- 7.9, T. vulpis 3.4 +/- 1.5, D. caninum 2.2 +/- 0.8, U. stenocephala 0.2 +/- 0.2. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in dogs of age 0-6 months than in older age groups. There was no significance difference in overall prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites between male (58.3%) and female (50.0%) dogs (P>0.05). The prevalence of helminth parasites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in free-ranging than in kennelled dogs. The prevalence of helminth parasites was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in African shepherds than in Alsatians and other exotic breeds. Each helminth parasite had similar prevalences and intensities among both genders (P>0.05) except in T. vulpis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for dog care in Ile-Ife. Therefore, there is the need to establish a veterinary facility in Ile-Ife.

  7. Analyses in Support of Z-IFE LLNL Progress Report for FY-05

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R W; Abbott, R P; Callahan, D A; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Reyes, S

    2005-10-17

    The FY04 LLNL study of Z-IFE [1] proposed and evaluated a design that deviated from SNL's previous baseline design. The FY04 study included analyses of shock mitigation, stress in the first wall, neutronics and systems studies. In FY05, the subject of this report, we build on our work and the theme of last year. Our emphasis continues to be on alternatives that hold promise of considerable improvements in design and economics compared to the base-line design. Our key results are summarized here.

  8. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  9. Progress in the Science and Technology of Direct Drive Laser Fusion with the KrF Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    important parameters KrF technology leads) Direct Laser Drive is a better choice for Energy Indirect Drive (initial path for NIF ) Laser Beams x-rays Hohlraum...Pellet Direct Drive (IFE) Laser Beams Pellet .. • ID Ignition being explored on NIF • Providing high enough gain for pure fusion energy is...challenging. • DD Ignition physics can be explored on NIF . • More efficient use of laser light, and greater flexibility in applying drive provides potential for

  10. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 1, Executive summary and overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    Conceptual designs and assessments have been completed for two inertial fusion energy (IFE) electric power plants. The detailed designs and results of the assessment studies are presented in this report. Osiris is a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) driven power plant and SOMBRERO is a Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser-driven power plant. Both plants are sized for a net electric power of 1000 MWe.

  11. Ion distribution in the hot spot of an inertial confinement fusion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xianzhu; Guo, Zehua; Berk, Herb

    2012-10-01

    Maximizing the fusion gain of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for inertial fusion energy (IFE) applications leads to the standard scenario of central hot spot ignition followed by propagating burn wave through the cold/dense assembled fuel. The fact that the hot spot is surrounded by cold but dense fuel layer introduces subtle plasma physics which requires a kinetic description. Here we perform Fokker-Planck calculations and kinetic PIC simulations for an ICF plasma initially in pressure balance but having large temperature gradient over a narrow transition layer. The loss of the fast ion tail from the hot spot, which is important for fusion reactivity, is quantified by Fokker-Planck models. The role of electron energy transport and the ambipolar electric field is investigated via kinetic simulations and the fluid moment models. The net effect on both hot spot ion temperature and the ion tail distribution, and hence the fusion reactivity, is elucidated.

  12. A new method to measure oxygenator oxygen transfer performance during cardiopulmonary bypass: clinical testing using the Medtronic Fusion oxygenator.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Carole; Marin, Denise; Weinbrenner, Frank; Engelhardt, Branka; Rosenzweig, Dow; Beck, Ulrich; Borisov, Pavel; Hohe, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    There is no acceptable method of testing oxygen transfer performance in membrane oxygenators quickly and easily during cardiopulmonary bypass. Pre-clinical testing of oxygenators is performed under controlled situations in the laboratory, correlating oxygen transfer to blood flow using 100% oxygen. This laboratory method cannot be used clinically as oxygen transfer values vary significantly at each blood flow and the FiO2 is not kept at 1. Therefore, a formula was developed which corrects the existing FiO2 to attain a PaO2 of 150 mmHg: the corrected FiO2 at 150 mmHg. In graph form, this corrected FiO2 (x-axis) is correlated to the patient's oxygen consumption levels (y-axis), which determines the membrane oxygenator oxygen transfer performance. Blood gas and hemodynamic parameters taken during cardiopulmonary bypass using the Medtronic Fusion were used to calculate the oxygen consumption (inlet conditions to the oxygenator) and the corrected FiO2 for a PaO2 of 150 mmHg. Validation of the formula "FiO2-PaO2/(Pb-pH2O)+0.21" was carried out by plotting the calculated values on a graph using PaO2 values between 145 to 155 mmHg and then, using the corrected FiO2 for PaO2s outside of this range. All trend-lines correlated significantly to confirm that the Medtronic Fusion had an extrapolated oxygen transfer of 419 milliliters O2/min at an FiO2 of 1 to achieve a PaO2 of 150 mmHg. Use of the corrected FiO2 correlated to the oxygen transfer conditions of the membrane oxygenator can easily be used on a routine basis, providing valuable information clinically. When used by the manufacturer under laboratory conditions, further clinically relevant data is provided in terms of FiO2 and resultant PaO2s instead of the present limitations using blood flow. In this way, a clinically justifiable method has been developed to finally establish a standard in testing membrane oxygenator performance.

  13. A Laser Technology Test Facility for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A J; Campbell, R W; Ebbers, C A; Freitas, B L; Latkowski, J; Molander, W A; Sutton, S B; Telford, S; Caird, J A

    2009-10-06

    A LIFE laser driver needs to be designed and operated which meets the rigorous requirements of the NIF laser system while operating at high average power, and operate for a lifetime of >30 years. Ignition on NIF will serve to demonstrate laser driver functionality, operation of the Mercury laser system at LLNL demonstrates the ability of a diode-pumped solid-state laser to run at high average power, but the operational lifetime >30 yrs remains to be proven. A Laser Technology test Facility (LTF) has been designed to specifically address this issue. The LTF is a 100-Hz diode-pumped solid-state laser system intended for accelerated testing of the diodes, gain media, optics, frequency converters and final optics, providing system statistics for billion shot class tests. These statistics will be utilized for material and technology development as well as economic and reliability models for LIFE laser drivers.

  14. Decision making in surgical treatment of chronic low back pain: the performance of prognostic tests to select patients for lumbar spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Willems, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is one of the main causes of disability in the western world with a huge economic burden to society. As yet, no specific underlying anatomic cause has been identified for CLBP. Imaging often reveals degenerative findings of the disc or facet joints of one or more lumbar motion segments. These findings, however, can also be observed in asymptomatic people. It has been suggested that pain in degenerated discs may be caused by the ingrowth of nerve fibers into tears or clefts of the annulus fibrosus or nucleus pulposus, and by reported high levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. As this so-called discogenic pain is often exacerbated by mechanical loading, the concept of relieving pain by spinal fusion to stabilise a painful spinal segment, has been developed. For some patients lumbar spinal fusion indeed is beneficial, but its results are highly variable and hard to predict for the individual patient. To identify those CLBP patients who will benefit from fusion, many surgeons rely on tests that are assumed to predict the outcome of spinal fusion. The three most commonly used prognostic tests in daily practice are immobilization in a lumbosacral orthosis, provocative discography and trial immobilization by temporary external transpedicular fixation. Aiming for consensus on the indications for lumbar fusion and in order to improve its results by better patient selection, it is essential to know the role and value of these prognostic tests for CLBP patients in clinical practice. The overall aims of the present thesis were: 1) to evaluate whether there is consensus among spine surgeons regarding the use and appreciation of prognostic tests for lumbar spinal fusion; 2) to verify whether a thoracolumbosacral orthosisis (TLSO) truly minimises lumbosacral motion; 3) to verify whether a TLSO can predict the clinical outcome of fusion for CLBP; 4) to assess whether provocative discography of adjacent segments actually predicts the long-term clinical

  15. Impact of intimate partner violence on anxiety and depression amongst women in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mapayi, Boladale; Makanjuola, R O A; Mosaku, S K; Adewuya, O A; Afolabi, O; Aloba, O O; Akinsulore, A

    2013-02-01

    Research into intimate partner violence in the Nigerian environment has been limited. The objective of this study was to determine, amongst a sample of women attending the Enuwa Primary Health Care Center, Ile-Ife, the association between intimate partner violence and anxiety/depression. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 373 women who attended the antenatal clinic and welfare units of a primary health centre in Ile-Ife using the Composite Abuse Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a socio-demographic scale as instruments. Slightly over a third (36.7 %) reported intimate partner violence within the past year, 5.6 % had anxiety and 15.5 % were depressed. Anxiety and depression in the respondents were significantly associated with intimate partner violence. Women were ten times more likely to report being depressed and 17 times more likely to report anxiety if they were in violent relationships. This research has shown that the magnitude of intimate partner violence within the study population is comparable to those found in the developing countries. There are significant associations between intimate partner violence, anxiety and depression amongst the study population and this fact undoubtedly has implications for the mental health of the Nigerian woman.

  16. A Final Focus Model for Heavy Ion Fusion Driver System Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J J; Bangerter, R O; Henestroza, E; Kaganovich, I D; Logan, B G; Meier, W R; Rose, D V; Santhanam, P; Sharp, W M; Welch, D R; Yu, S S

    2004-12-15

    The need to reach high temperatures in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) target (or a target for the study of High Energy Density Physics, HEDP) requires the ability to focus ion beams down to a small spot. System models indicate that within the accelerator, the beam radius will be of order centimeters, whereas at the final focal spot on the target, a beam radius of order millimeters is required, so radial compression factors of order ten are required. The IFE target gain (and hence the overall cost of electricity) and the HEDP target temperature are sensitive functions of the final spot radius on target. Because of this sensitivity, careful attention needs to be paid to the spot radius calculation. We review our current understanding of the elements that enter into a systems model (such as emittance growth from chromatic, geometric, and non-linear space charge forces) for the final focus based on a quadrupolar magnet system.

  17. Damage production and accumulation in SiC structures in inertial and magnetic fusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawan, M. E.; Ghoniem, N. M.; Snead, L.; Katoh, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Radiation damage parameters in SiC/SiC composite structures are determined in both magnetic (MFE) and inertial (IFE) confinement fusion systems. Variations in the geometry, neutron energy spectrum, and pulsed nature of neutron production result in significant differences in damage parameters between the two systems. With the same neutron wall loading, the displacement damage rate in the first wall in an IFE system is ˜10% lower than in an MFE system, while gas production and burnup rates are a factor of 2 lower. Self-cooled LiPb and Flibe blankets were analyzed. While using LiPb results in higher displacement damage, Flibe yields higher gas production and burnup rates. The effects of displacement damage and helium production on defect accumulation in SiC/SiC composites are also discussed.

  18. Tritium experiments on components for fusion fuel processing at the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Konishi, S.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse, Y. ); Carlson, R.V.; Binning, K.E.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Under a collaborative agreement between US and Japan, two tritium processing components, a palladium diffuser and a ceramic electrolysis cell have been tested with tritium for application to a Fuel Cleanup System (FCU) for plasma exhaust processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The fundamental characteristics, compatibility with tritium, impurities effects with tritium, and long-term behavior of the components, were studied over a three year period. Based on these studies, an integrated process loop, JAERI Fuel Cleanup System'' equipped with above components was installed at the TSTA for full scale demonstration of the plasma exhaust reprocessing.

  19. A Study of the Relationship between Previous Exposure to Education and Practice-Teaching Performance at the University of Ife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study to identify relationships between the amount of exposure students have to education (as a discipline) and their student teaching performances is reported. Students attending the University of Ife from 1973-1976 were studied. A positive relationship was discovered, but other factors need to be researched further. (MLW)

  20. Data Fusion in Wind Tunnel Testing; Combined Pressure Paint and Model Deformation Measurements (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2004-01-01

    As the benefit-to-cost ratio of advanced optical techniques for wind tunnel measurements such as Video Model Deformation (VMD), Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP), and others increases, these techniques are being used more and more often in large-scale production type facilities. Further benefits might be achieved if multiple optical techniques could be deployed in a wind tunnel test simultaneously. The present study discusses the problems and benefits of combining VMD and PSP systems. The desirable attributes of useful optical techniques for wind tunnels, including the ability to accommodate the myriad optical techniques available today, are discussed. The VMD and PSP techniques are briefly reviewed. Commonalties and differences between the two techniques are discussed. Recent wind tunnel experiences and problems when combining PSP and VMD are presented, as are suggestions for future developments in combined PSP and deformation measurements.

  1. Fusion safety regulations in the United States: Progress and trends

    SciTech Connect

    DeLooper, J.

    1994-07-01

    This paper explores the issue of regulations as they apply to current and future fusion experimental machines. It addresses fusion regulatory issues, current regulations used for fusion, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor experience with regulations, and future regulations to achieve fusion`s safety and environmental potential.

  2. Fusion Engineering Device design description

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  3. Fusion engineering device design description

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  4. Microinstability properties of negative magnetic shear discharges in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.; Lao, L.L.

    1997-03-01

    The microinstability properties of discharges with negative (reversed) magnetic shear in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and DIII-D experiments with and without confinement transitions are investigated. A comprehensive kinetic linear eigenmode calculation employing the ballooning representation is employed with experimentally measured profile data, and using the corresponding numerically computed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria. The instability considered is the toroidal drift mode (trapped-electron-{eta}{sub i} mode). A variety of physical effects associated with differing q-profiles are explained. In addition, different negative magnetic shear discharges at different times in the discharge for TFTR and DIII-D are analyzed. The effects of sheared toroidal rotation, using data from direct spectroscopic measurements for carbon, are analyzed using comparisons with results from a two-dimensional calculation. Comparisons are also made for nonlinear stabilization associated with shear in E{sub r}/RB{sub {theta}}. The relative importance of changes in different profiles (density, temperature, q, rotation, etc.) on the linear growth rates is considered.

  5. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  6. Spinal Fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... concept of fusion is similar to that of welding in industry. Spinal fusion surgery, however, does not ... bone taken from the patient has a long history of use and results in predictable healing. Autograft ...

  7. Spinal Fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... concept of fusion is similar to that of welding in industry. Spinal fusion surgery, however, does not ... bone taken from the patient has a long history of use and results in predictable healing. Autograft ...

  8. Gas utilization in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Gammel, G.M.; Kugel, H.W.; Grisham, L.R.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1987-08-01

    Measurements of gas utilization in a test TFTR neutral beam injector have been performed to study the feasibility of running tritium neutral beams with existing ion sources. Gas consumption is limited by the restriction of 50,000 curies of T/sub 2/ allowed on site. It was found that the gas efficiency of the present long-pulse ion sources is higher than it was with previous short-pulse sources. Gas efficiencies were studied over the range of 35 to 55%. At the high end of this range the neutral fraction of the beam fell below that predicted by room temperature molecular gas flow. This is consistent with observations made on the JET injectors, where it has been attributed to beam heating of the neutralizer gas and a concomitant increase in conductance. It was found that a working gas isotope exchange from H/sub 2/ to D/sub 2/ could be accomplished on the first beam shot after changing the gas supply, without any intermediate preconditioning. The mechanism believed responsible for this phenomenon is heating of the plasma generator walls by the arc and a resulting thermal desorption of all previously adsorbed and implanted gas. Finally, it was observed that an ion source conditioned to 120 kV operation could produce a beam pulse after a waiting period of fourteen hours by preceding the beam extraction with several hi-pot/filament warm-up pulses, without any gas consumption. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Material behavior and materials problems in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Owens, D.K.; Heifetz, D.B.; Mills, B.E.; Pontau, A.E.; Wampler, W.R.; Doyle, B.L.; Lee, S.R.; Watson, R.D.; Croessmann, C.D.

    1988-05-01

    This paper reviews the experience with first-wall materials over a 20-month period of operation spanning 1985--1987. Experience with the axisymmetric inner wall limiter, constructed of graphite tiles, will be described including the necessary conditioning procedures needed for impurity and particle control of high power ({le}20 MW) neutral injection experiments. The thermal effects in disruptions have been quantified and no significant damage to the bumper limiter has occurred as a result of disruptions. Carbon and metal impurity redeposition effects have been quantified through surface analysis of wall samples. Estimates of the tritium retention in the graphite limiter tiles and redeposited carbon films have been made based on analysis of deuterium retention in removed graphite tiles and wall samples. New limiter structures have been designed using a 2D carbon/carbon (C/C) composite material for RF antenna protection. Laboratory tests of the important thermal, mechanical and vacuum properties of C/C materials will be described. Finally, the last series of experiments in TFTR with in-situ Zr/Al surface pumps will be described. Problems with Ar/Al embrittlement have led to the removal of the getter material from the in-torus environment. 53 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Low Activation Joining of SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Applications: Modeling Miniature Torsion Tests with Elastic and Elastic-Plastic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Borlaug, Brennan A.; Ferraris, Monica; Ventrella, Andrea; Katoh, Yutai

    2015-03-01

    The use of SiC and SiC-composites in fission or fusion environments requires joining methods for assembling systems. The international fusion community designed miniature torsion specimens for joint testing and irradiation in test reactors with limited irradiation volumes. These torsion specimens fail out-of-plane when joints are strong and when elastic moduli are within a certain range compared to SiC, which causes difficulties in determining shear strengths for joints or for comparing unirradiated and irradiated joints. A finite element damage model was developed that indicates fracture is likely to occur within the joined pieces to cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The model was extended to treat elastic-plastic joints such as SiC/epoxy and steel/epoxy joints tested as validation of the specimen design.

  11. Long-term leaching tests with high ash fusion Maryland coal slag

    SciTech Connect

    Browman, M.G. )

    1991-03-01

    The main objective of this project was to investigate the potential environmental impact of the storage or disposal of coal gasification residues. In this regard, this investigation examined the quality of leachate produced during the long-term outdoor storage slag generated at the TVA 200-t/d Texaco gasifier in Muscle Shoals, Alabama. Evaluative laboratory extraction tests were also conducted on both the coarse and fine slag. Leachate quality was tracked in both the surface water and the water at depth after it percolated through the slag pile (leachate well water) by measuring pH and conductivity on a weekly basis and toxic trace elements and other chemical species quarterly or at longer intervals. The major species observed in the leachate well water were Ca and Mg cations as well as sulfate anions. The average electrical conductivity measured in the leachate well water was 2503 {mu}mhos/cm. The measured pH decreased from an initial value of 8.2 and stabilized at about 7.1 with occasional excursions to values as low as 6.3 during dry periods. Concurrently, sulfate concentrations averaged 1083 mg/l with occasional peaks as high as 2600 mg/l. Fe and Mn concentrations measured in the leachate well waters averaged 2.0 and 1.68 mg/l, respectively. Concentrations of species for which Primary Maximum Contaminant Limits (MCLs) for public drinking water supplies have been established were generally below the primary limits with the exception of Se and F which exceeded the limits occasionally. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, sulfate, and total dissolved solids were markedly above the Secondary MCLs set for these species. 35 refs., 2 figs., 21 tabs.

  12. Temporal behavior of neutral particle fluxes in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Gammel, G.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; Medley, S.S.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1989-09-01

    Data from an E {parallel} B charge exchange neutral analyzer (CENA), which views down the axis of a neutral beamline through an aperture in the target chamber calorimeter of the TFTR neutral beam test facility, exhibit two curious effects. First, there is a turn-on transient lasting tens of milliseconds having a magnitude up to three times that of the steady-state level. Second, there is a 720 Hz, up to 20% peak-to-peak fluctuation persisting the entire pulse duration. The turn-on transient occurs as the neutralizer/ion source system reaches a new pressure equilibrium following the effective ion source gas throughput reduction by particle removal as ion beam. Widths of the transient are a function of the gas throughput into the ion source, decreasing as the gas supply rate is reduced. Heating of the neutalizer gas by the beam is assumed responsible, with gas temperature increasing as gas supply rate is decreased. At low gas supply rates, the transient is primarliy due to dynamic changes in the neutralizer line density and/or beam species composition. Light emission from the drift duct corroborate the CENA data. At high gas supply rates, dynamic changes in component divergence and/or spatial profiles of the source plasma are necessary to explain the observations. The 720 Hz fluctuation is attributed to a 3% peak-to-peak ripple of 720 Hz on the arc power supply amplified by the quadratic relationship between beam divergence and beam current. Tight collimation by CENA apertures cause it to accept a very small part of the ion source's velocity space, producing a signal linearly proportional to beam divergence. Estimated fluctuations in the peak power density delivered to the plasma under these conditions are a modest 3--8% peak to peak. The efffects of both phenomena on the injected neutral beam can be ameliorated by careful operion of the ion sources. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Multisensor data fusion algorithm development

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, D.A.; Chadwick, M.D.; Goudy, S.P.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a two-year LDRD research effort into multisensor data fusion. We approached the problem by addressing the available types of data, preprocessing that data, and developing fusion algorithms using that data. The report reflects these three distinct areas. First, the possible data sets for fusion are identified. Second, automated registration techniques for imagery data are analyzed. Third, two fusion techniques are presented. The first fusion algorithm is based on the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Using test images, the wavelet algorithm is compared against intensity modulation and intensity-hue-saturation image fusion algorithms that are available in commercial software. The wavelet approach outperforms the other two fusion techniques by preserving spectral/spatial information more precisely. The wavelet fusion algorithm was also applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery data. The second algorithm is based on a linear-regression technique. We analyzed the technique using the same Landsat and SPOT data.

  14. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Miley, Harry S; Milbrath, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook an Integrated Field Exercise (IFE14) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5-2 kT underground nuclear explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research paper evaluates two of the OSI techniques used during the IFE14, laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in-situ gamma-spectrometry, both of which were implemented to search for 17 OSI relevant particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear explosions. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and within the Treaty/Protocol-specified OSI timeframes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The National Ignition Facility and the Promise of Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I

    2010-12-13

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational. The NIF is the world's most energetic laser system capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in planetary interiors and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, the first integrated ignition experiment was conducted, demonstrating the successful coordination of the laser, cryogenic target system, array of diagnostics and infrastructure required for ignition demonstration. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and international communities are examining the implication of NIF ignition for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a laser with 10% electrical-optical efficiency, as well as further development and advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in the 10- to 15-year time frame. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) concept and examining in detail various technology choices, as well as the advantages of both pure fusion and fusion-fission schemes. This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF and the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition. The paper will conclude with a discussion about the need to build on the progress on NIF to develop an implementable and effective plan to achieve the promise of LIFE as a source of carbon-free energy.

  16. Simulating Intense Ion Beams for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A

    2001-02-20

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program's goal is the development of the body of knowledge needed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) to realize its promise. The intense ion beams that will drive HIF targets are nonneutral plasmas and exhibit collective, nonlinear dynamics which must be understood using the kinetic models of plasma physics. This beam physics is both rich and subtle: a wide range in spatial and temporal scales is involved, and effects associated with both instabilities and non-ideal processes must be understood. Ion beams have a ''long memory'', and initialization of a beam at mid-system with an idealized particle distribution introduces uncertainties; thus, it will be crucial to develop, and to extensively use, an integrated and detailed ''source-to-target'' HIF beam simulation capability. We begin with an overview of major issues.

  17. Simulating Intense Ion Beams for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    2001-02-20

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program's goal is the development of the body of knowledge needed for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) to realize its promise. The intense ion beams that will drive HIF targets are rzonneutral plasmas and exhibit collective, nonlinear dynamics which must be understood using the kinetic models of plasma physics. This beam physics is both rich and subtle: a wide range in spatial and temporal scales is involved, and effects associated with both instabilities and non-ideal processes must be understood. Ion beams have a ''long memory,'' and initialization of a beam at mid-system with an idealized particle distribution introduces uncertainties; thus, it will be crucial to develop, and to extensively use, an integrated and detailed ''source-to-target'' HIF beam simulation capability. We begin with an overview of major issues.

  18. Radioscapholunate Fusions

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Duncan Thomas; Bain, Gregory Ian

    2012-01-01

    Radiocarpal fusions are performed for a variety of indications, most commonly for debilitating painful arthritis. The goal of a wrist fusion is to fuse the painful, diseased joints and to preserve motion through the healthy joints. Depending on the extent of the disease process, radiocarpal fusions may take the form of radiolunate, radioscapholunate, or total wrist fusions. Surgical techniques and instrumentation have advanced over the last few decades, and consequently the functional outcomes have improved and complications decreased. Techniques for partial carpal fusions have improved and now include distal scaphoid and triquetrum excision, which improves range of motion and fusion rates. In this article we discuss the various surgical techniques and fixation methods available and review the corresponding evidence in the literature. The authors' preferred surgical technique of radioscapholunate fusion with distal scaphoid and triquetrum excision is outlined. New implants and new concepts are also discussed. PMID:24179717

  19. Anthropometric Indices Associated with Variation in Cardiovascular Parameters among Primary School Pupils in Ile-Ife.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, Adedeji G; Egwu, Michael O; Adedoyin, Rufus A

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigated the anthropometric indices associated with variations in cardiovascular parameters among primary school pupils in Ile-Ife. Method. One thousand and twenty-six pupils (age range 6-14 years, mean age 10.12 years) from ten schools were recruited with parents' informed consent. Anthropometric (Height (Ht), Weight (Wt), Abdominal Circumference (AC)) and cardiovascular (Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Heart Rate (HR)) parameters were measured using standard instruments and procedures. Blood pressure (BP) was measured after ten minutes of quiet sitting. Body Mass Index (BMI), Rate Pressure Product (RPP) and Pulse Pressure (PP) were estimated. Results. Age, Ht, Wt, BMI, and AC correlated significantly (P < .01) with BP and PP. AC and BMI were predictors of BP, HR, RPP, and PP. Conclusion. Significant correlations exist between age, Ht, Wt, BMI, AC, and BP with weight being a more viable predictor of SBP and age a more viable predictor of DBP.

  20. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy: A case report from ILE-IFE, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Badejoko, Olusegun O; Ajenifuja, Kayode O; Oluborode, Babawale O; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B

    2012-10-01

    Total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) is an advanced gynecological laparoscopic procedure that is widely performed in the developed world. However, its feasibility in resource-poor settings is hampered by obvious lack of equipments and/or skilled personnel. Indeed, TLH has never been reported from any Nigerian hospital. We present a 50-year-old multipara scheduled for hysterectomy on account of pre-malignant disease of the cervix, who had TLH with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria and was discharged home on the first post-operative day. She was seen in the gynecology clinic a week later in stable condition and she was highly pleased with the outcome of her surgery. This case is presented to highlight the attainability of operative gynecological laparoscopy, including advanced procedures like TLH in a resource-constrained setting, through the employment of adequate local adaptation and clever improvisation.

  1. Male involvement in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijadunola, Macellina Y; Abiona, Titilayo C; Ijadunola, Kayode T; Afolabi, Olusegun T; Esimai, Olapeju A; OlaOlorun, Funmilola M

    2010-12-01

    This study assessed men's awareness, attitude, and practice of modern contraceptive methods, determined the level of spousal communication, and investigated the correlates of men's opinion in family planning decision making in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Quantitative methodology was employed in this cross-sectional descriptive design using a structured household questionnaire to collect information from 402 male study participants. A multistage sampling procedure was employed. Eighty-nine percent of men approved of the use of family planning while only about 11 percent disapproved of it. Eighty percent of men had ever used contraception while 56 percent of them were current users. Spousal communication about family planning and other family reproductive goals was quite poor. The socio-demographic correlates of men's opinions included religion, marriage type, educational attainment, and occupation (p < 0.05). The study concluded that male involvement in family planning decision making was poor and their patronage of family planning services was low.

  2. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P; Covo, Kireeff M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.; Prost, L.

    2004-11-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  3. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.

    2005-06-23

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  4. Chronic Airflow Obstruction in a Black African Population: Results of BOLD Study, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obaseki, Daniel O; Erhabor, Gregory E; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Adewole, Olufemi O; Buist, Sonia A; Burney, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Global estimates suggest that Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is emerging as a leading cause of death in developing countries but there are few spirometry-based general population data on its prevalence and risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa. We used the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) protocol to select a representative sample of adults aged 40 years and above in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. All the participants underwent spirometry and provided information on smoking history, biomass and occupational exposures as well as diagnosed respiratory diseases and symptoms. Chronic Airflow Obstruction (CAO) was defined as the ratio of post-bronchodilator (BD) one second Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1) to Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) below the lower limit of normal (LLN) of the population distribution for FEV1/FVC. The overall prevalence of obstruction (post-BD FEV1/FVC < LLN) was 7.7% (2.7% above LLN) using Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) equations. It was associated with few respiratory symptoms; 0.3% reported a previous doctor-diagnosed chronic bronchitis, emphysema or COPD. Independent predictors included a lack of education (OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 6.4) and a diagnosis of either TB (OR 23.4, 95% CI: 2.0, 278.6) or asthma (OR 35.4, 95%CI: 4.9, 255.8). There was no association with the use of firewood or coal for cooking or heating. The vast majority of this population (89%) are never smokers. We conclude that the prevalence of CAO is low in Ile-Ife, Nigeria and unrelated to biomass exposure. The key independent predictors are poor education, and previous diagnosis of tuberculosis or asthma.

  5. Detection of EPO-Fc fusion protein in human blood: screening and confirmation protocols for sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Christian; Thevis, Mario

    2012-11-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) has been under investigation for several years as a pharmaceutical drug target. Clinical studies have shown that fusion proteins consisting of human recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) and the Fc-part of IgG can be transported after pulmonary administration via FcRn across the airway epithelium to the blood stream. So far, no clinically approved pharmaceutical formulation of EPO-Fc is available. Since various forms of recombinant erythropoietins have been frequently misused by athletes as performance-enhancing agents, EPO-Fc might play a similar role in sports in the future. In order to investigate the detectability of EPO-Fc in human blood, different strategies were tested and developed. Only two of them fulfilled the necessary requirements regarding sensitivity and specificity. A rapid protocol useful for screening purposes first enriches EPO-Fc from human serum via high capacity protein A beads and subsequently detects EPO-Fc in the eluate with a commercial EPO ELISA kit. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method is about 5 pg (45 amol) EPO-Fc and is independent of the serum volume used. For screening and/or confirmation purposes a second protocol was evaluated, which consists of a fast EPO immunopurification step followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate or sarcosyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, SAR-PAGE) and Western double-blotting with chemiluminescence detection - a method already established in routine EPO anti-doping control. The latter strategy allows the detection of EPO-Fc in serum together with all other recombinant erythropoietins and with an identical LOD (5 pg/45 amol) as for the rapid screening protocol.

  6. The Physics of Advanced High-Gain Targets for Inertial Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, L. John

    2010-11-01

    In ca. 2011-2012, the National Ignition Facility is poised to demonstrate fusion ignition and gain in the laboratory for the first time. This key milestone in the development of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) can be expected to engender interest in the development of inertial fusion energy (IFE) and expanded efforts on a number of advanced targets that may achieve high fusion energy gain at lower driver energies. In this tutorial talk, we will discuss the physics underlying ICF ignition and thermonuclear burn, examine the requirements for high gain, and outline candidate R&D programs that will be required to assess the performance of these target concepts under various driver systems including lasers, heavy-ions and pulsed power. Such target concepts include those operating by fast ignition, shock ignition, impact ignition, dual-density, magnetically-insulated, one- and two-sided drive, etc., some of which may have potential to burn advanced, non-DT fusion fuels. We will then delineate the role of such targets in their application to the production of high average fusion power. Here, systems studies of IFE economics suggest that we should strive for target fusion gains of around 100 at drive energies of 1MJ, together with corresponding rep-rates of up to 10Hz and driver electrical efficiencies around 15%. In future years, there may be exciting opportunities to study such ``innovative confinement concepts'' with prospects of fielding them on facilities such as NIF to obtain high fusion energy gains on a single shot basis.

  7. Occult Hepatitis B virus infection in previously screened, blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: implications for blood transfusion and stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Olotu, Amadin A; Oyelese, Adesola O; Salawu, Lateef; Audu, Rosemary A; Okwuraiwe, Azuka P; Aboderin, Aaron O

    2016-05-05

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission through blood transfusion is reduced by screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). However this method cannot detect the presence of occult hepatitis B virus infection. This study sought to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. For the first time in Nigeria we employed an automated real-time PCR- method to investigate the prevalence of occult HBV in blood donors. Blood donors screened with HBsAg immunochromatographic rapid test kits at the blood transfusion units of two hospitals and found to be negative were recruited into the study. Questionnaires to elicit risk factors for HBV infection were administered and then 10 ml of blood was collected from each donor. Plasma samples obtained from these HBsAg negative blood donors were screened again for HBsAg using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, and those found negative were screened for the presence of total antibody to the HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) using ELISA method. Those positive to anti-HBc were then tested for HBV DNA, using an automated real-time PCR method. Five hundred and seven blood donors found HBsAg negative by immunochromatographic rapid test kits at both blood transfusion units, were tested for HBsAg using ELISA and 5 (1 %) were HBsAg positive. The 502 found negative were tested for anti-HBc and 354 (70.5 %) were found positive implying previous exposure to HBV and 19 (5.4 %) of the 354 anti-HBc positive had HBV DNA signifying occult HBV infection. No risk factors were found to be associated with the presence of HBV DNA among those who tested positive. Occult HBV infection exists in blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria and the use of HBsAg alone for screening prospective donors will not eliminate the risk of HBV transmission in blood transfusion or stem cell transplantation.

  8. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-04-20

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  9. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-02-22

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  10. Simulation of X-ray Irradiation on Optics and Chamber Wall Materials for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Stein, W

    2003-09-10

    We have used the ABLATOR code to analyze the effect of the x-ray emission from direct drive targets on the optics and the first wall of a conceptual laser Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plant. For this purpose, the ABLATOR code has been modified to incorporate the predicted x-ray spectrum from a generic direct drive target. We have also introduced elongation calculations in ABLATOR to predict the thermal stresses in the optic and first wall materials. These results have been validated with thermal diffusion calculations, using the LLNL heat transfer and dynamic structural finite element codes Topaz3d and Dyna3d. One of the most relevant upgrades performed in the ABLATOR code consists of the possibility to accommodate multi-material simulations. This new feature allows for a more realistic modeling of typical IFE optics and first wall materials, which may have a number of different layers. Finally, we have used the XAPPER facility, at LLNL, to develop our predictive capability and validate the results. The ABLATOR code will be further modified, as necessary, to predict the effects of x-ray irradiation in both the IFE real case and our experiments on the XAPPER facility.

  11. "Polarized" Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

    Increasing energy demand in view of limited supply, as well as environmental and nuclear-safety concerns leading to increased emphasis on renewable energy sources such as solar or wind energy are expected to focus public and scientific interest increasingly also on fusion energy. With the decision to build ITER (low-density magnetic confinement) and also continuing research on (high-density) inertial-confinement fusion (cf. the inauguration of the laser fusion facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) prospects of fusion energy have probably entered a new era.

  12. Particle beam fusion

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-31

    Today, in keeping with Sandia Laboratories` designation by the Department of Energy as the lead laboratory for the pulsed power approach to fusion, its efforts include major research activities and the construction of new facilities at its Albuquerque site. Additionally, in its capacity as lead laboratory, Sandia coordinates DOE-supported pulsed power fusion work at other government operated laboratories, with industrial contractors, and universities. The beginning of Sandia`s involvement in developing fusion power was an outgrowth of its contributions to the nation`s nuclear weapon program. The Laboratories` work in the early 1960`s emphasized the use of pulsed radiation environments to test the resistance of US nuclear weapons to enemy nuclear bursts. A careful study of options for fusion power indicated that Sandia`s expertise in the pulsed power field could provide a powerful match to ignite fusion fuel. Although creating test environments is an achieved goal of Sandia`s overall program, this work and other military tasks protected by appropriate security regulations will continue, making full use of the same pulsed power technology and accelerators as the fusion-for-energy program. Major goals of Sandia`s fusion program including the following: (1) complete a particle accelerator to deliver sufficient beam energy for igniting fusion targets; (2) obtain net energy gain, this goal would provide fusion energy output in excess of energy stored in the accelerator; (3) develop a technology base for the repetitive ignition of pellets in a power reactor. After accomplishing these goals, the technology will be introduced to the nation`s commercial sector.

  13. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor decontamination and decommissioning project and the Tokamak Physics Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-27

    If the US is to meet the energy needs of the future, it is essential that new technologies emerge to compensate for dwindling supplies of fossil fuels and the eventual depletion of fissionable uranium used in present-day nuclear reactors. Fusion energy has the potential to become a major source of energy for the future. Power from fusion energy would provide a substantially reduced environmental impact as compared with other forms of energy generation. Since fusion utilizes no fossil fuels, there would be no release of chemical combustion products to the atmosphere. Additionally, there are no fission products formed to present handling and disposal problems, and runaway fuel reactions are impossible due to the small amounts of deuterium and tritium present. The purpose of the TPX Project is to support the development of the physics and technology to extend tokamak operation into the continuously operating (steady-state) regime, and to demonstrate advances in fundamental tokamak performance. The purpose of TFTR D&D is to ensure compliance with DOE Order 5820.2A ``Radioactive Waste Management`` and to remove environmental and health hazards posed by the TFTR in a non-operational mode. There are two proposed actions evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA). The actions are related because one must take place before the other can proceed. The proposed actions assessed in this EA are: the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR); to be followed by the construction and operation of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Both of these proposed actions would take place primarily within the TFTR Test Cell Complex at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The TFTR is located on ``D-site`` at the James Forrestal Campus of Princeton University in Plainsboro Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey, and is operated by PPPL under contract with the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

  14. Index of the relative importance of fuel efficiency (IFE) in the motor vehicle market. Final report Sep 79-Jan 81

    SciTech Connect

    Hallaq, J.H.; Schaeffer, K.H.; Westenberg, D.

    1981-10-01

    The need for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to understand the importance of vehicle fuel economy in the marketplace has created the requirement for a quantitative measure of consumer attitudes toward fuel efficiency. This paper surveys the currently available measures of consumer attitudes toward fuel efficiency, concludes that they do not adequately meet NHTSA's needs, and develops the Index of the Relative Importance of Fuel Efficiency (IFE) to fill this void.

  15. Plasma fusion and cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hideo, Kozima

    1996-12-31

    Fundamental problems of plasma fusion (controlled thermonuclear fusion) due to the contradicting demands of the magnetic confinement of plasma and suppression of instabilities occurring on and in plasma are surveyed in contrast with problems of cold fusion. Problems in cold fusion due to the complicated constituents and types of force are explained. Typical cold fusion events are explained by a model based on the presence of trapped neutrons in cold fusion materials. The events include Pons-Fleishmann effect, tritium anomaly, helium 4 production, and nuclear transmutation. Fundamental hypothesis of the model is an effectiveness of a new concept--neutron affinity of elements. The neutron affinity is defined and some bases supporting it are explained. Possible justification of the concept by statistical approach is given.

  16. The US ICF Ignition Program and the Inertial Fusion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lindl, J D; Hammel, B A; Logan, B G; Meyerhofer, D D; Payne, S A; Stehian, J D

    2003-07-02

    There has been rapid progress in inertial fusion in the past few years. This progress spans the construction of ignition facilities, a wide range of target concepts, and the pursuit of integrated programs to develop fusion energy using lasers, ion beams and z-pinches. Two ignition facilities are under construction (NIF in the U.S. and LMJ in France) and both projects are progressing toward an initial experimental capability. The LIL prototype beamline for LMJ and the first 4 beams of NIF will be available for experiments in 2003. The full 192 beam capability of NIF will be available in 2009 and ignition experiments are expected to begin shortly after that time. There is steady progress in the target science and target fabrication in preparation for indirect drive ignition experiments on NIF. Advanced target designs may lead to 5-10 times more yield than initial target designs. There has also been excellent progress on the science of ion beam and z-pinch driven indirect drive targets. Excellent progress on direct-drive targets has been obtained on the Omega laser at the University of Rochester. This includes improved performance of targets with a pulse shape predicted to result in reduced hydrodynamic instability. Rochester has also obtained encouraging results from initial cryogenic implosions. There is widespread interest in the science of fast ignition because of its potential for achieving higher target gain with lower driver energy and relaxed target fabrication requirements. Researchers from Osaka have achieved outstanding implosion and heating results from the Gekko XII Petawatt facility and implosions suitable for fast ignition have been tested on the Omega laser. A broad based program to develop lasers and ions beams for IFE is under way with excellent progress in drivers, chambers, target fabrication and target injection. KrF and Diode Pumped Solid-State lasers (DPSSL) are being developed in conjunction with drywall chambers and direct drive targets

  17. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI. PMID:25574161

  18. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oke, Olaide Olutoyin; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Olasode, Olayinka Abimbola; Omisore, Akinlolu Gabriel; Oninla, Olumayowa Abimbola

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI.

  19. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  20. The path to fusion power.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn Smith, Chris; Ward, David

    2007-04-15

    Fusion is potentially an environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe source of essentially limitless power. It should be possible to build viable fusion power stations, and it looks as if the cost of fusion power will be reasonable. But time is needed to further develop the technology and to test in power station conditions the materials that would be used in their construction. Assuming no major adverse surprises, an orderly fusion development programme could lead to a prototype fusion power station putting electricity into the grid within 30 years, with commercial fusion power following some 10 or more years later. In the second half of the century, fusion could therefore be an important part of the portfolio of measures that are needed to cope with rising demand for energy in an environmentally responsible manner. In this paper, we describe the basics of fusion, its potential attractions, the status of fusion R&D, the remaining challenges and how they will be tackled at the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor and the proposed International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, and the timetable for the subsequent commercialization of fusion power.

  1. Interference of daratumumab in monitoring multiple myeloma patients using serum immunofixation electrophoresis can be abrogated using the daratumumab IFE reflex assay (DIRA).

    PubMed

    van de Donk, Niels W C J; Otten, Henny G; El Haddad, Omar; Axel, Amy; Sasser, A Kate; Croockewit, Sandra; Jacobs, Joannes F M

    2016-06-01

    Daratumumab is a fully human anti-CD38 IgG1-κ monoclonal antibody (mAb) currently being evaluated in several Phase 2 and 3 clinical studies for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). In this clinical case study we demonstrate that daratumumab can be detected as an individual monoclonal band in serum immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE). M-protein follow-up by IFE is part of the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria to assess treatment response. Therefore, it is crucial that the daratumumab band is not confused with the endogenous M-protein of the patient during IFE interpretation. Moreover, a significant number of IgG-κ M-proteins co-migrate with daratumumab. Co-migration introduces a bias in the M-protein quantification since pharmacokinetic studies show that daratumumab peak plasma concentrations reach up to 1 g/L. More importantly, co-migration can mask clearance of the M-protein by IFE which is necessary for classification of complete response by IMWG criteria (negative serum IFE). For optimal M-protein monitoring the laboratory specialist needs to be informed when patients receive daratumumab, and it is essential that the laboratory specialist is aware that a slow migrating band in the γ-region in those patients may be derived from the daratumumab. A daratumumab specific IFE reflex assay (DIRA) has been developed and can be utilized to abrogate interference. The here described mAb interference is not limited to daratumumab, and as therapeutic antibodies gain approval and enter into common clinical practice, laboratory specialists will need additional processes to characterize IFE interference and distinguish endogenous M-protein from therapeutic antibodies.

  2. Continuous and scalable polymer capsule processing for inertial fusion energy target shell fabrication using droplet microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Lindley-Start, Jack; Porch, Adrian; Barrow, David

    2017-07-24

    High specification, polymer capsules, to produce inertial fusion energy targets, were continuously fabricated using surfactant-free, inertial centralisation, and ultrafast polymerisation, in a scalable flow reactor. Laser-driven, inertial confinement fusion depends upon the interaction of high-energy lasers and hydrogen isotopes, contained within small, spherical and concentric target shells, causing a nuclear fusion reaction at ~150 M°C. Potentially, targets will be consumed at ~1 M per day per reactor, demanding a 5000x unit cost reduction to ~$0.20, and is a critical, key challenge. Experimentally, double emulsions were used as templates for capsule-shells, and were formed at 20 Hz, on a fluidic chip. Droplets were centralised in a dynamic flow, and their shapes both evaluated, and mathematically modeled, before subsequent shell solidification. The shells were photo-cured individually, on-the-fly, with precisely-actuated, millisecond-length (70 ms), uniform-intensity UV pulses, delivered through eight, radially orchestrated light-pipes. The near 100% yield rate of uniform shells had a minimum 99.0% concentricity and sphericity, and the solidification processing period was significantly reduced, over conventional batch methods. The data suggest the new possibility of a continuous, on-the-fly, IFE target fabrication process, employing sequential processing operations within a continuous enclosed duct system, which may include cryogenic fuel-filling, and shell curing, to produce ready-to-use IFE targets.

  3. Activation and damage of fusion materials and tritium effects in inertial fusion reactors: Strategy for adequate irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlado, J. M.; Sanz, J.; Velarde, M.; Reyes, S.; Caturla, M. J.; Arévalo, C.; Cabellos, O.; Dominguez, E.; Marian, J.; Martinez, E.; Mota, F.; Rodriguez, A.; Salvador, M.; Velarde, G.

    2005-09-01

    Long term research in low activation materials is being pursued in fusion programs and the assessment of allowable elements and/or impurities from safety and repository reasons are being studied at Instituto Fusión Nuclear (DENIM), using ACAB code, for national ignition facility (NIF) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactors. Uncertainties in nuclear data are being considered, and experiments for validation of modeling will be presented. Multiscale simulation of radiation damage is now starting to be compared with experiments, and results on the simplest material can be reported as a function of impurities, temperature, and dose. Molecular dynamics (MD) allows us to identify stress-strain curve of FeCr ferritic steels under irradiation, and macroscopic conclusions can be advanced using simple models. However, a neutron source of enough intensity and adequate energy spectrum is needed which will be very peculiar in the case of pulsed IFE, as we claimed in past years. Development of international fusion materials irradiation facility (IFMIF) will be commented and compared with solutions such as spallation, and others using ultra-intense lasers for obtaining required irradiation magnitudes. Research on radiation damage in SiC composite is being pursued at macroscopic level, but basic knowledge is scarce. A systematic identification of type of stable defects is being presented with a new tight binding MD technique. Our research on simulation of silica irradiation damage will also be presented. The role of tritium, when elemental tritium (HT) and titrated water (HTO) derive in organically bound tritium (OBT) will be explained. The deposition and absorption processes are now being considered in our calculations giving more precision and accuracy to our conclusions of dosimetry effects. The role of HT versus HTO and the importance of re-emission process will be remarked, together with the long-term role of OBT.

  4. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Maternal education, breastfeeding behaviours and lactational amenorrhoea: studies among two ethnic communities in Ile Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Davies-Adetugbo, A A; Ojofeitimi, E O

    1996-01-01

    Breastfeeding is an important child survival strategy. This report aims to describe the unique contributions of education, ethnicity, and other variables to breastfeeding outcomes. The study was conducted among two groups of lactating mothers in Ile Ife, southwestern Nigeria, using structured questionnaires focusing on their breastfeeding history and current practice. Breastfeeding initiation was delayed in both groups, and primary education is the most significant predictor of initiation of breastfeeding within 6 hours of delivery (OR = 3.92, p = 0.0117). Breastfeeding duration (SD) was 13.7 (4.3) months for the Yorubas and 17.5 (3.4) for the Hausas. Its only significant predictors are education (p < = 0.0001), with an average decrease in breastfeeding duration of 3.2 and 6.6 months with mother's education to the primary and post-primary levels respectively, compared with mothers with no education. In turn, breastfeeding duration is the most significant predictor of the duration of lactational amenorrhoea (p = 0.0000). Mothers with some formal education are also more likely to start feeding human milk substitutes at 2 weeks (OR = 3.83, p = 0.024). The most important variable determining breastfeeding in this study is education. The educated mother is more likely to be involved in economic activity away from the home. To protect breastfeeding in these communities, there is a need for programmes to support the breastfeeding mother who works.

  6. Thermomechanical design of the grazing incidence metal mirror of the prometheus-L IFE reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoniem, N.M.; El-Azab, A.

    1994-12-31

    In Laser IFE reactors the reflectivity and absorptivity of the grazing metal mirror depend on the neutron dose received by the mirror surface. In addition to these irradiation effects, the surface deformation due to neutron irradiation-induced swelling and due to thermal loads change the focusing quality of the mirror. In the present work, a thorough review of the irradiation effects on the changes in mirror surface quality is presented. A mirror design methodology, which considers the deformation due to the loads associated with laser beam and the deformation due to neutron-irradiation induced swelling is discussed. The basic philosophy considered in the design is to separate the functions and choose the best possible materials to perform these specific functions. An aluminum thin layer, for the purpose of reflection of the laser beam, is deposited on a SiC substrate. The SiC substrate provides a rigid bulk, through which coolant is provided to remove the heat absorbed during laser pulses, and avoids the need for a thicker aluminum layer that undergoes more swelling than SiC. A concrete frame is designed to provide the ultimate resistance against thermally-induced deformation. Other features of the design will also be presented.

  7. Child-rearing practices among nursing mothers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odebiyi, A I

    1985-01-01

    This study attempts to highlight the relationship between the educational status of mothers in Ile-Ife and their child-rearing practices. It was observed that the educated mothers in good jobs spent less time at home with the children than the illiterates who have their children with them at the farms and in the market places. Thus, a higher proportion of the educated mothers admitted to using more bottle feeding than breast feeding, and forced hand-feeding which was practised by all the illiterate women interviewed. Only one educated woman still practices female circumcision. Of interest in the study is the fact that the children of the different categories of women are exposed to different types of health hazards; while the children of the educated suffer neglect and are deprived of the advantages of breast feeding, the children of the illiterate suffer from undue exposure to unhygienic conditions in the farms and market places and from the implications of forced hand-feeding and female circumcision.

  8. Investigation of Ionospheric Response to Geomagnetic Storms over a Low Latitude Station, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimoh, Oluwaseyi E.; Yesufu, Thomas K.; Ariyibi, Emmanuel A.

    2016-06-01

    Due to several complexities associated with the equatorial ionosphere, and the significant role which the total electron content (TEC) variability plays in GPS signal transmission, there is the need to monitor irregularities in TEC during storm events. The GPS SCINDA receiver data at Ile-Ife, Nigeria, was analysed with a view to characterizing the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms on 9 March and 1 October 2012. Presently, positive storm effects, peaks in TEC which were associated with prompt penetration of electric fields and changes in neutral gas composition were observed for the storms. The maximum percentage deviation in TEC of about 120 and 45% were observed for 9 March and 1 October 2012, respectively. An obvious negative percentage TEC deviation subsequent to sudden storm commencement (SSC) was observed and besides a geomagnetic storm does not necessarily suggest a high scintillation intensity (S4) index. The present results show that magnetic storm events at low latitude regions may have an adverse effect on navigation and communication systems.

  9. Menstruation: knowledge, attitude and practices of students in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Irinoye, O O; Ogungbemi, A; Ojo, A O

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated students' knowledge of, beliefs, attitude to and practices during menstruation. Data was collected from a sample of 200 students from Ile-Ife using the multi-stage sampling technique. Only 5% of respondents could correctly define menstruation. Materials used to manage menstruation include sanitary pad, pieces of cloths, toilet rolls, cotton wool, tampon and shoulder pad foam. Practices vary on menstruating and non-menstruating days with 11(39.3%) of the 28 practices classified as healthy, 6(21.43%) as potentially harmful and 11(39.3%) as uncertain. Three (21.43%) of the listed 14 beliefs and taboos are potentially health-promoting, 5(35.71%) are potentially not health-promoting while 6(42.86%) are potentially harmless. Menstruation is associated with restrictions in diet and social interaction with 8%, 20.5% and 5% seeing menstruation as abnormal, dirty and a disease respectively. Findings from this study would be helpful in planning educational programmes to correct misinformation and promote healthy practices among women during menstruation.

  10. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  11. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  12. Low Activation Joining of SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Applications: Modeling Miniature Torsion Tests with Elastic and Elastic-Plastic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Ferraris, Monica; Katoh, Yutai

    2015-06-30

    The international fusion community designed miniature torsion specimens for joint testing and irradiation in test reactors with limited irradiation volumes since SiC and SiC-composites used in fission or fusion environments require joining methods for assembling systems. Torsion specimens fail out-of-plane when joints are strong and when elastic moduli are comparable to SiC, which causes difficulties in determining shear strengths for many joints or for comparing unirradiated and irradiated joints. A finite element damage model was developed to treat elastic joints such as SiC/Ti3SiC2+SiC and elastic-plastic joints such as SiC/epoxy and steel/epoxy. The model uses constitutive shear data and is validated using epoxy joint data. The elastic model indicates fracture is likely to occur within the joined pieces to cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. Lower modulus epoxy joints always fail in plane and provide good model validation.

  13. Progress in heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.; Bangerter, R.O.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1994-12-22

    Heavy-ion induction accelerators are being developed as fusion drivers for ICF power production in the US Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, in the Office of Fusion Energy of the US Department of Energy. In addition, they represent an attractive driver option for a high-yield microfusion facility for defense research. This paper describes recent progress in induction drivers for Heavy-Ion Fusion (HIF), and plans for future work. It presents research aimed at developing drivers having reduced cost and size, specifically advanced induction linacs and recirculating induction accelerators (recirculators). The goals and design of the Elise accelerator being built at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), as the first stage of the ILSE (Induction Linac Systems Experiments) program, are described. Elise will accelerate, for the first time, space-charge-dominated ion beams which are of full driver scale in line-charge density and diameter. Elise will be a platform on which the critical beam manipulations of the induction approach can be explored. An experimental program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) exploring the recirculator principle on a small scale is described in some detail; it is expected that these studies will result ultimately in an operational prototype recirculating induction accelerator. In addition, other elements of the US HIF program are described.

  14. Geophysics, Remote Sensing, and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Macleod, G.; Labak, P.; Malich, G.; Rowlands, A. P.; Craven, J.; Sweeney, J. J.; Chiappini, M.; Tuckwell, G.; Sankey, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was an event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of an on-site inspection (OSI) within the CTBT verification regime. During an OSI, up to 40 international inspectors will search an area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of a real OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams (which executed the scenario in which the exercise was played) and those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test and integrate Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, suites of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, in addition to other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection using other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials, and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of the goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  15. Organochlorine pesticide residues in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyekunle, J A O; Akindolani, O A; Sosan, M B; Adekunle, A S

    2017-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa produce stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Cocoa beans samples were sun dried to a constant weight, pulverized and soxhlet extracted with dichloromethane to obtain the OCPs. Qualitative identification and quantitative evaluation of the extracted OCPs after clean-up on silica gel were accomplished with the aid of a Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD). Levels of OCPs in cocoa beans from Ondo had a mean range of ND (p, p'-DDE) to 82.17 ± 54.53 ng/g (p, p'-DDT) were higher than the OCPs levels in cocoa beans from Ile-Ife with a mean range of 0.37 ± 0.63 ng/g (Endrin) to 57.76 ± 81.48 ng/g (p, p'-DDT). The higher levels of OCPs detected in the cocoa beans from Ondo could be an indication of higher volume of OCPs application by cocoa farmers in Ondo and its environs since cocoa plantations were more concentrated than Ile-Ife environs. Levels of OCPs determined in the cocoa beans were within the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs) for OCPs set by the World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization. The study established the presence of OCPs in an important crop of Nigeria. Hence, there is the need to keep monitoring ecotoxicological chemical substances in agricultural food products of Nigeria so as to take steps that ensure health safety of end users.

  16. Comparisons of calculated and measured spectral distributions of neutrons from a 14-MeV neutron source inside the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Barnes, J.M.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Emmett, M.B.; Drischler, J.D.

    1985-12-01

    A recent paper presented neutron spectral distributions (energy greater than or equal to0.91 MeV) measured at various locations around the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The neutron source for the series of measurements was a small D-T generator placed at various positions in the TFTR vacuum chamber. In the present paper the results of neutron transport calculations are presented and compared with these experimental data. The calculations were carried out using Monte Carlo methods and a very detailed model of the TFTR and the TFTR test cell. The calculated and experimental fluences per unit energy are compared in absolute units and are found to be in substantial agreement for five different combinations of source and detector positions.

  17. The scientific benefits of inertially confined fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Key, M

    1999-05-14

    A striking feature of 25 years of research into inertially confined fusion (ICF) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) has been its significant impact in other fields of science. Most ICF facilities worldwide are now being used in part to support a wider portfolio of research than simply ICF. Reasons for this trend include the high intrinsic interest of the new science coupled with the relative ease and low marginal cost of adapting the facilities particularly lasers, to carry out experiments with goals other than ICF. The availability at ICF laboratories of sophisticated theory and modeling capability and advanced diagnostics has given added impetus. The expertise of ICF specialists has also triggered more lateral scientific spin-offs leading for example to new types of lasers and to related developments in basic science. In a generic sense, the facilities developed for ICF have made possible study of new regimes of the properties of matter at extremely high-energy density and the interaction of ultraintense light with matter. This general opportunity has been exploited in numerous and diverse specific lines of research. Examples elaborated below include laboratory simulation of astrophysical phenomena; studies of the equation of state (EOS) of matter under conditions relevant to the interior of planets and stars; development of uniquely intense sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard x-ray emission, notably the x-ray laser; understanding of the physics of strong field interaction of light and matter; and related new phenomena such as laser-induced nuclear processes and high-field-electron accelerators. Some of these developments have potential themselves for further scientific exploitation such as the scientific use of advanced light sources. There are also avenues for commercial exploitation, for example the use of laser plasma sources in EUV lithography. Past scientific progress is summarized here and projections are made for new science that may flow from the

  18. Fusion reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  19. Laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

    1980-12-01

    Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

  20. Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, M.R.; Abdou, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics are reviewed and the present status of data are assessed. The discussion is divided into broad categories dealing with data for Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), D-T Fusion Reactors, Alternate Fuel Cycles and the Evaluated Data Files that are available or would be available in the near future.

  1. Modeling for free surface flow with phase change and its application to fusion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xiaoyong

    The development of predictive capabilities for free surface flow with phase change is essential to evaluate liquid wall protection schemes for various fusion chambers. With inertial fusion energy (IFE) concepts such as HYLIFE-II, rapid condensation into cold liquid surfaces is required when using liquid curtains for protecting reactor walls from blasts and intense neutron radiation. With magnetic fusion energy (MFE) concepts, droplets are injected onto the free surface of the liquid to minimize evaporation by minimizing the surface temperature. This dissertation presents a numerical methodology for free surface flow with phase change to help resolve feasibility issues encountered in the aforementioned fusion engineering fields, especially spray droplet condensation efficiency in IFE and droplet heat transfer enhancement on free surface liquid divertors in MFE. The numerical methodology is being conducted within the framework of the incompressible flow with the phase change model. A new second-order projection method is presented in conjunction with Approximate-Factorization techniques (AF method) for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A sub-cell conception is introduced and the Ghost Fluid Method in extended in a modified mass transfer model to accurately calculate the mass transfer across the interface. The Crank-Nicholson method is used for the diffusion term to eliminate the numerical viscous stability restriction. The third-order ENO scheme is used for the convective term to guarantee the accuracy of the method. The level set method is used to capture accurately the free surface of the flow and the deformation of the droplets. This numerical investigation identifies the physics characterizing transient heat and mass transfer of the droplet and the free surface flow. The results show that the numerical methodology is quite successful in modeling the free surface with phase change even though some severe deformations such as breaking and merging occur. The

  2. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-02-23

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work a set of computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) has been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here the authors consider a severe lost of coolant accident (LOCA) producing simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the containment) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and containment building it self). Even though containment failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product release and transport. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 6 mSv (0.6 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  3. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema

    Holland, Chris [UC San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

    2016-07-12

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the “burning plasma” regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  4. Elise: The next step in development of induction heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Bangerter, R. O.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.; Peters, C.; Pickrell, J.; Reginato, L.; Seidl, P.; Yu, S.

    1994-11-01

    LBL, with the participation of LLNL and industry, proposes to build Elise, an electric-focused accelerator as the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction linac powerful enough to implode or 'drive' inertial-confinement fusion targets. Elise will be at full driver scale in several important parameters-most notably line charge density (a function of beam size), which was not explored in earlier experiments. Elise will be capable of accelerating and electrostatically focusing four parallel, full-scale ion beams and will be designed to be extendible, by successive future construction projects, to meet the goal of the USA DOE Inertial Fusion Energy program (IFE). This goal is to address all remaining issues in heavy-ion IFE except target physics, which is currently the responsibility of DOE Defense Programs, and the target chamber. Thus Elise is the first step of a program that will provide a solid foundation of data for further progress toward a driver, as called for in the National Energy Strategy and National Energy Policy Act.

  5. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  6. Calculation of the absolute detection efficiency of a moderated /sup 235/U neutron detector on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, L.P.; Hendel, H.W.; Liew, S.L.

    1989-02-01

    Neutron transport simulations have been carried out to calculate the absolute detection efficiency of a moderated /sup 235/U neutron detector which is used on the TFTR as a part of the primary fission detector diagnostic system for measuring fusion power yields. Transport simulations provide a means by which the effects of variations in various shielding and geometrical parameters can be explored. These effects are difficult to study in calibration experiments. The calculational model, benchmarked against measurements, can be used to complement future detector calibrations, when the high level of radioactivity resulting from machine operation may severely restrict access to the tokamak. We present a coupled forward-adjoint algorithm, employing both the deterministic and Monte Carlo sampling methods, to model the neutron transport in the complex tokamak and detector geometries. Sensitivities of the detector response to the major and minor radii, and angular anisotropy of the neutron emission are discussed. A semi-empirical model based on matching the calculational results with a small set of experiments produces good agreement (+-15%) for a wide range of source energies and geometries. 20 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Spatial and Temporal characterization of plasma properties via emission spectroscopy in fusion materials testing device Proto-MPEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morean, Casey; Biewer, Theodore; Shaw, Guinevere; Beers, Josh; Ray, Holly

    2016-10-01

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear plasma source, and is intended to study plasma-material interactions (PMI) in conditions similar to those found in future fusion reactors. A high-resolution McPherson Czerny-Turner visible range spectrometer has been utilized to study the behavior of ions in the plasma. Analysis of the spectral lines, D_beta, D_gamma, and D_delta yields valuable information regarding the temperature and density of plasma ions at various locations along Proto-MPEX. Spectroscopic temperature and density measurements are compared to double Langmuir probe measurements to determine plasma behavior as a function of radius. Temporal and spatial measurements along the length of Proto-MPEX are constructed and compared to a photomultiplier tube based diagnostic manufactured at ORNL to determine the plasma's axial behavior along Proto-MPEX. Relative emission of beta, gamma, and delta lines are used to assess recycling effects in the device. This work was supported by the U.S. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  8. Interlinked Test Results for Fusion Fuel Processing and Blanket Tritium Recovery Systems Using Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Takumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yasunori; Isobe, Kanetsugu; Uzawa, Masayuki; Nishi, Masataka

    2005-07-15

    A simulated fuel processing (cryogenic distillation columns and a palladium diffuser) and CMSB (cryogenic molecular sieve bed) systems were linked together, and were operated. The validity of the CMSB was discussed through this experiment as an integrated system for the recovery of blanket tritium. A gas stream of hydrogen isotopes and He was supplied to the CMSB as the He sweep gas in blanket of a fusion reactor. After the breakthrough of tritium was observed, regeneration of the CMSB was carried out by evacuating and heating. The hydrogen isotopes were finally recovered by the diffuser. At first, only He gas was sent by the evacuating. The hydrogen isotopes gas was then rapidly released by the heating. The system worked well against the above drastic change of conditions. The amount of hydrogen isotopes gas finally recovered by the diffuser was in good agreement with that adsorbed by the CMSB. The dynamic behaviors (breakthrough and regeneration) of the system were explained well by a set of basic codes.

  9. Effects of alpha stopping power modelling on the ignition threshold in a directly-driven inertial confinement fusion capsule

    DOE PAGES

    Temporal, Mauro; Canaud, Benoit; Cayzac, Witold; ...

    2017-05-25

    The alpha-particle energy deposition mechanism modifies the ignition conditions of the thermonuclear Deuterium-Tritium fusion reactions, and constitutes a key issue in achieving high gain in Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations have been performed with the code Multi-IFE to simulate the implosion of a capsule directly irradiated by a laser beam. The diffusion approximation for the alpha energy deposition has been used to optimize three laser profiles corresponding to different implosion velocities. A Monte-Carlo package has been included in Multi-IFE to calculate the alpha energy transport, and in this case the energy deposition uses both the LP and themore » BPS stopping power models. Homothetic transformations that maintain a constant implosion velocity have been used to map out the transition region between marginally-igniting and high-gain configurations. Furthermore, the results provided by the two models have been compared and it is found that – close to the ignition threshold – in order to produce the same fusion energy, the calculations performed with the BPS model require about 10% more invested energy with respect to the LP model.« less

  10. Use of Clearance Indexes to Assess Waste Disposal Issues for the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2002-01-17

    Traditionally, waste management studies for fusion energy have used the Waste Disposal Rating (WDR) to evaluate if radioactive material from irradiated structures could qualify for shallow land burial. However, given the space limitations and the negative public perception of large volumes of waste, there is a growing international motivation to develop a fusion waste management system that maximizes the amount of material that can be cleared or recycled. In this work, we present an updated assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, using the concept of Clearance Index (CI) for radioactive waste disposal. With that purpose, we have performed a detailed neutronics analysis of the HYLIFE-II design, using the TART and ACAB computer codes for neutron transport and activation, respectively. Whereas the traditional version of ACAB only provided the user with the WDR as an index for waste considerations, here we have modified the code to calculate Clearance Indexes using the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) clearance limits for radiological waste disposal. The results from the analysis are used to perform an assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II IFE design.

  11. Effects of alpha stopping power modelling on the ignition threshold in a directly-driven inertial confinement fusion capsule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temporal, Mauro; Canaud, Benoit; Cayzac, Witold; Ramis, Rafael; Singleton, Robert L.

    2017-05-01

    The alpha-particle energy deposition mechanism modifies the ignition conditions of the thermonuclear Deuterium-Tritium fusion reactions, and constitutes a key issue in achieving high gain in Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations have been performed with the code Multi-IFE [R. Ramis, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, Comput. Phys. Commun. 203, 226 (2016)] to simulate the implosion of a capsule directly irradiated by a laser beam. The diffusion approximation for the alpha energy deposition has been used to optimize three laser profiles corresponding to different implosion velocities. A Monte-Carlo package has been included in Multi-IFE to calculate the alpha energy transport, and in this case the energy deposition uses both the LP [C.K. Li, R.D. Petrasso, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3059 (1993)] and the BPS [L.S. Brown, D.L. Preston, R.L. Singleton Jr., Phys. Rep. 410, 237 (2005)] stopping power models. Homothetic transformations that maintain a constant implosion velocity have been used to map out the transition region between marginally-igniting and high-gain configurations. The results provided by the two models have been compared and it is found that - close to the ignition threshold - in order to produce the same fusion energy, the calculations performed with the BPS model require about 10% more invested energy with respect to the LP model.

  12. Effect of aniseikonia on fusion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, P; Prakash, P

    1991-01-01

    Physiological aniseikonia is the basis of stereopsis but beyond certain limits it becomes an obstacle to fusion. It is not well established as to how much aniseikonia can be tolerated by the fusional mechanism. Different tests under different testing conditions have given a wide range of variation. On the synoptophore we had observed tolerance upto 35% aniseikonia in some cases. Under more physiological conditions on a polaroid dissociation stereoprojector we observed lesser baseline fusional vergences but tolerance in about 70% of the cases upto 30% aniseikonia while 25% could tolerate even 35% aniseikonia. However we realise that these indicate the maximal potential and not the symptom free tolerable limits.

  13. Thermal hydraulic analysis of China fusion engineering test reactor during thermal quenching by comparative approach of Relap5 and THEATRe codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Song, Yuntao; Khan, Shahab Ud-Din

    2016-10-01

    Thermal quenching in Tokamak reactor is the most obvious phenomenon happens during plasma disruption conditions. The current research is focused on the thermal behavior of different parameters of China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) including reactor power, pressure and mass flow rate conditions. The analysis was performed by two thermal hydraulic codes, i.e. THEATRe and Relap5. During the first phase of research, thermal quenching behavior and trends that can be possible during the reactor operation was performed. In the next phase, nodalization diagram of THEATRe and Relap5 codes were developed. The listed parameters were calculated and analyzed for the safety aspects of the reactor. The main objective of the research was to analyze the blanket system of CFETR (Tokamak) for safety concerns during disruption condition. The research will be extended to other components for safe operation of reactor as well.

  14. Is there hope for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.K. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1990-04-12

    From the outset in the 1950's, fusion research has been motivated by environmental concerns as well as long-term fuel supply issues. Compared to fossil fuels both fusion and fission would produce essentially zero emissions to the atmosphere. Compared to fission, fusion reactors should offer high demonstrability of public protection from accidents and a substantial amelioration of the radioactive waste problem. Fusion still requires lengthy development, the earliest commercial deployment being likely to occur around 2025--2050. However, steady scientific progress is being made and there is a wide consensus that it is time to plan large-scale engineering development. A major international effort, called the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is being carried out under IAEA auspices to design the world's first fusion engineering test reactor, which could be constructed in the 1990's. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. A germline-specific isoform of eIF4E (IFE-1) is required for efficient translation of stored mRNAs and maturation of both oocytes and sperm.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Melissa A; Cronland, Elizabeth; Dunkelbarger, Steve; Contreras, Vince; Strome, Susan; Keiper, Brett D

    2009-05-15

    Fertility and embryonic viability are measures of efficient germ cell growth and development. During oogenesis and spermatogenesis, new proteins are required for both mitotic expansion and differentiation. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein synthesis occur by translational control of mRNAs, mediated in part by eIF4E, which binds the mRNAs 5' cap. IFE-1 is one of five eIF4E isoforms identified in C. elegans. IFE-1 is expressed primarily in the germ line and associates with P granules, large mRNPs that store mRNAs. We isolated a strain that lacks IFE-1 [ife-1(bn127)] and demonstrated that the translation of several maternal mRNAs (pos-1, pal-1, mex-1 and oma-1) was inefficient relative to that in wild-type worms. At 25 degrees C, ife-1(bn127) spermatocytes failed in cytokinesis, prematurely expressed the pro-apoptotic protein CED-4/Apaf-1, and accumulated as multinucleate cells unable to mature to spermatids. A modest defect in oocyte development was also observed. Oocytes progressed normally through mitosis and meiosis, but subsequent production of competent oocytes became limiting, even in the presence of wild-type sperm. Combined gametogenesis defects decreased worm fertility by 80% at 20 degrees C; ife-1 worms were completely sterile at 25 degrees C. Thus, IFE-1 plays independent roles in late oogenesis and spermatogenesis through selective translation of germline-specific mRNAs.

  16. Progress in accident analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-10-11

    The present work continues our effort to perform an integrated safety analysis for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design. Recently we developed a base case for a severe accident scenario in order to calculate accident doses for HYLIFE-II. It consisted of a total loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in which all the liquid flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) was lost at the beginning of the accident. Results showed that the off-site dose was below the limit given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for public protection in case of accident, and that his dose was dominated by the tritium released during the accident.

  17. Intense fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  18. Overview of US heavy-ion fusion progress and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    2004-06-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators seek to provide the scientific and technical basis for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX), an integrated source-to-target physics experiment recently included in the list of future facilities planned by the U.S. Department of Energy. To optimize the design of IBX and future inertial fusion energy drivers, current HIF-VNL research is addressing several key issues (representative, not inclusive): gas and electron cloud effects which can exacerbate beam loss at high beam perveance and magnet aperture fill factors; ballistic neutralized and assisted-pinch focusing of neutralized heavy ion beams; limits on longitudinal compression of both neutralized and un-neutralized heavy ion bunches; and tailoring heavy ion beams for uniform target energy deposition for high energy density physics (HEDP) studies.

  19. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  20. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility injector acceptance tests at CEA/Saclay: 140 mA/100 keV deuteron beam characterization.

    PubMed

    Gobin, R; Bogard, D; Cara, P; Chauvin, N; Chel, S; Delferrière, O; Harrault, F; Mattei, P; Mosnier, A; Senée, F; Shidara, H; Okumura, Y

    2014-02-01

    In the framework of the ITER broader approach, the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) deuteron accelerator (2 × 125 mA at 40 MeV) is an irradiation tool dedicated to high neutron flux production for future nuclear plant material studies. During the validation phase, the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc) machine will be tested on the Rokkasho site in Japan. This demonstrator aims to produce 125 mA/9 MeV deuteron beam. Involved in the LIPAc project for several years, specialists from CEA/Saclay designed the injector based on a SILHI type ECR source operating at 2.45 GHz and a 2 solenoid low energy beam line to produce such high intensity beam. The whole injector, equipped with its dedicated diagnostics, has been then installed and tested on the Saclay site. Before shipment from Europe to Japan, acceptance tests have been performed in November 2012 with 100 keV deuteron beam and intensity as high as 140 mA in continuous and pulsed mode. In this paper, the emittance measurements done for different duty cycles and different beam intensities will be presented as well as beam species fraction analysis. Then the reinstallation in Japan and commissioning plan on site will be reported.

  1. The width-tapered double cantilever beam for interlaminar fracture testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, W. D.; Jensen, R. M.; Bullman, G. W.; Hunston, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The width-tapered double-cantilever-beam (WTDCB) specimen configuration used to determine the Mode-I interlaminar fracture energy (IFE) of composites has special advantages for routine development work and for quality-assurance purposes. These advantages come primarily from the simplicity of testing and the fact that the specimen is designed for constant change in compliance with crack length, so that the computation of Mode-I IFE is independent of crack length. In this paper, a simplified technique for fabrication and testing WTDCB specimens is described. Also presented are the effects of fiber orientation and specimen dimensions, a comparison of data obtained using the WTDCB specimens and other specimen geometries, and comparison of data obtained at different laboratories. It is concluded that the WTDCB gives interlaminar Mode-I IFE essentially equal to other type specimens, and that it can be used for rapid screening in resin-development work and for quality assurance of composite materials.

  2. Terascale simulations for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Cohen, R H; Grote, D P; Sharp, W M; Celata, C M; Lee, E P; Vay, J-L; Davidson, R C; Kaganovich, I; Lee, W W; Qin, H; Welch, D R; Haber, I; Kishek, R A

    2000-06-08

    The intense ion beams in a heavy ion Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) driver and fusion chamber are non-neutral plasmas whose dynamics are largely dominated by space charge. We propose to develop a ''source-to-target'' Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) beam simulation capability: a description of the kinetic behavior of this complex, nonlinear system which is both integrated and detailed. We will apply this new capability to further our understanding of key scientific issues in the physics of ion beams for IFE. The simulations will entail self-consistent field descriptions that require interprocessor communication, but are scalable and will run efficiently on terascale architectures. This new capability will be based on the integration of three types of simulations, each requiring terascale computing: (1) simulations of acceleration and confinement of the space-charge-dominated ion beams through the driver (accelerator, pulse compression line, and final focusing system) which accurately describe their dynamics, including emittance growth (phase-space dilution) effects; these are particle-in-cell (PIC) models; (2) electromagnetic (EM) and magnetoinductive (Darwin) simulations which describe the beam and the fusion chamber environment, including multibeam, neutralization, stripping, beam and plasma ionization processes, and return current effects; and (3) highly detailed simulations (6f, multispecies PIC, continuum Vlasov), which can examine electron effects and collective modes in the driver and chamber, and can study halo generation with excellent statistics, to ensure that these effects do not disrupt the focusability of the beams. The code development will involve: (i) adaptation of existing codes to run efficiently on multi-SMP computers that use a hybrid of shared and distributed memory; (ii) development of new and improved numerical algorithms, e.g., averaging techniques that will afford larger timesteps; and (iii) incorporation of improved physics models (e.g., for self

  3. ac Modeling and impedance spectrum tests of the superconducting magnetic field coils for the Wendelstein 7-X fusion experiment.

    PubMed

    Ehmler, Hartmut; Köppen, Matthias

    2007-10-01

    The impedance spectrum test was employed for detection of short circuits within Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) superconducting magnetic field coils. This test is based on measuring the complex impedance over several decades of frequency. The results are compared to predictions of appropriate electrical equivalent circuits of coils in different production states or during cold test. When the equivalent circuit is not too complicated the impedance can be represented by an analytic function. A more detailed analysis is performed with a network simulation code. The overall agreement of measured and calculated or simulated spectra is good. Two types of short circuits which appeared are presented and analyzed. The detection limit of the method is discussed. It is concluded that combined high-voltage ac and low-voltage impedance spectrum tests are ideal means to rule out short circuits in the W7-X coils.

  4. Parametic Study of the current limit within a single driver-scaletransport beam line of an induction Linac for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, Lionel Robert

    2004-01-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ~0.2 μC/m) over long pulse durations (4 μs) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K+ ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (~80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  5. Fusion gamma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, S. S.; Cecil, F. E.; Cole, D.; Conway, M. A.; Wilkinson, F. J., III

    1985-05-01

    Nuclear reactions of interest in fusion research often possess a branch yielding prompt emission of gamma radiation in excess of 15 MeV which can be exploited to provide a new fusion reaction diagnostic having applications similar to conventional neutron emission measurements. Conceptual aspects of fusion gamma diagnostics are discussed with emphasis on application to the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during deuterium neutral beam heating of D-T and D-3He plasmas. Recent measurements of the D (T, γ)5He, D(3He, γ)5Li, and D(D, γ)4He branching ratios at low center-of-mass energy (30-100 keV) and of the response of a large volume Ne226 detector for gamma detection in high neutron backgrounds are presented. Using a well-shielded Ne226 detector during 20 MW-120 kV deuterium beam heating of a tritium plasma in TFTR, the D(T, γ)5He gamma signal level is estimated to be 3.5×105 cps.

  6. Chamber technology concepts for inertial fusion energy: Three recent examples

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Moir, R.W.; Abdou, M.A.

    1997-02-27

    The most serious challenges in the design of chambers for inertial fusion energy (IFE) are 1) protecting the first wall from fusion energy pulses on the order of several hundred megajoules released in the form of x rays, target debris, and high energy neutrons, and 2) operating the chamber at a pulse repetition rate of 5-10 Hz (i.e., re-establishing, the wall protection and chamber conditions needed for beam propagation to the target between pulses). In meeting these challenges, designers have capitalized on the ability to separate the fusion burn physics from the geometry and environment of the fusion chamber. Most recent conceptual designs use gases or flowing liquids inside the chamber. Thin liquid layers of molten salt or metal and low pressure, high-Z gases can protect the first wall from x rays and target debris, while thick liquid layers have the added benefit of protecting structures from fusion neutrons thereby significantly reducing the radiation damage and activation. The use of thick liquid walls is predicted to 1) reduce the cost of electricity by avoiding the cost and down time of changing damaged structures, and 2) reduce the cost of development by avoiding the cost of developing a new, low-activation material. Various schemes have been proposed to assure chamber clearing and renewal of the protective features at the required pulse rate. Representative chamber concepts are described, and key technical feasibility issues are identified for each class of chamber. Experimental activities (past, current, and proposed) to address these issues and technology research and development needs are discussed.

  7. NDCX-II, an Induction Linac for HEDP and IFE Research

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, J.W.; Arbelaez, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Galvin, J.; Greenway, W.; Gilson, E. P.; Grote, D. P.; Jung, J.Y.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S.M.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S. M.; Reginato, L.L.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W. M.; Takakuwa, J.; Waldron, W.L.

    2011-04-20

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory in the USA is constructing a new Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX-II) at LBNL. This facility is being developed for high energy density physics and inertial fusion energy research. The 12 m long induction linac in NDCX-II will produce a Li{sup +} beam pulse, at energies of 1.2-3 MeV, to heat target material to the warm dense matter regime ({approx} 1 eV). By making use of special acceleration voltage waveforms, 2.5T solenoid focusing, and neutralized drift compression, 20 - 50 nC of beam charge from the ion source will be compressed longitudinally and radially to achieve a subnanosecond pulse length and mm-scale target spot size. The original Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-I) has successfully demonstrated simultaneous radial and longitudinal compression by imparting a velocity ramp to the ion beam, which then drifts in a neutralizing plasma to and through the final focussing solenoid and onto the target. At higher kinetic energy and current, NDCX-II will offer more than 100 times the peak energy fluence on target of NDCX-I. NDCX-II makes use of many parts from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL. It includes 27 lattice periods between the injector and the neutralized drift compression section (Figure 1). There are 12 energized induction cells, 9 inactive cells which provide drift space, and 6 diagnostic cells which provide beam diagnostics and pumping. Custom pulsed power systems generate ramped waveforms for the first 7 induction cells, so as to quickly compress the beam from 600 ns at the injector down to 70 ns. After this compression, the high voltages of the ATA Blumleins are then used to rapidly add energy to the beam. The Blumleins were designed to match the ferrite core volt-seconds with pulses up to 250 kV and a fixed FWHM of 70 ns. The machine is limited to a pulse repetition rate of once every 20 seconds due to cooling requirements. The NDCX

  8. (Fusion energy research)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  9. Laser fusion monthly -- August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-08-01

    This report documents the monthly progress for the laser fusion research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. First it gives facilities report for both the Shiva and Argus projects. Topics discussed include; laser system for the Nova Project; the fusion experiments analysis facility; optical/x-ray streak camera; Shiva Dante System temporal response; 2{omega}{sub 0} experiment; and planning for an ICF engineering test facility.

  10. IFE plant technology overview and contribution to HiPER proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlado, J. M.; Sanz, J.; Alvarez, J.; Cereceda, D.; Cuesta, S.; Courtin, S.; del Rio, E.; Fernández, J.; Fraile, A.; Garoz, D.; Gordillo, N.; Guerrero, C.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Moral, N.; Juarez, R.; Ognissanto, F.; Rivera, A.; Sánchez, C.; Suarez, R.; Victoria, M.; Edwards, C.; Collier, J.; Tyldesley, M.; Tolley, M.; Neely, D.; Rus, B.; Le Garrec, B.; Schurtz, G.; Sanders, S.

    2011-06-01

    HiPER is the European Project for Laser Fusion that has been able to join 26 institutions and signed under formal government agreement by 6 countries inside the ESFRI Program of the European Union (EU). The project is already extended by EU for two years more (until 2013) after its first preparatory phase from 2008. A large work has been developed in different areas to arrive to a design of repetitive operation of Laser Fusion Reactor, and decisions are envisioned in the next phase of Technology Development or Risk Reduction for Engineering or Power Plant facilities (or both). Chamber design has been very much completed for Engineering phase and starting of preliminary options for Reactor Power Plant have been established and review here.

  11. Food taboos in maternal and child health: the views of traditional healers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odebiyi, A I

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the interviews with 82 randomly selected healers in Ile-Ife about food taboos in relation to maternal and child health. The healers were asked to list the childhood ailments they treat most often and the food proscriptions and prescriptions associated with these ailments. Of particular interest in the study was the fact that these food proscriptions and prescriptions form an integral part of traditional medical procedures in that relapses or slow rate of recovery are sometimes attributed to a break of these food norms. Moreover, these proscriptions and prescriptions reflect: (i) the healers' concept of the various childhood diseases and (ii) the healers' belief in the respect for the traditional Yoruba gods in health matters. It was further noted that although these taboos reinforce the beliefs in traditional medicine, their relevance from the point of view of the health of the clientele needs further investigation.

  12. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, A.; Fratoni, M.

    2014-11-20

    Pre-conceptual fusion blanket designs require research and development to reflect important proposed changes in the design of essential systems, and the new challenges they impose on related fuel cycle systems. One attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. If the chemical reactivity of lithium could be overcome, the result would have a profound impact on fusion energy and associated safety basis. The overriding goal of this project is to develop a lithium-based alloy that maintains beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns. To minimize the number of alloy combinations that must be explored, only those alloys that meet certain nuclear performance metrics will be considered for subsequent thermodynamic study. The specific scope of this study is to evaluate the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) engine. The results of this study will inform the development of lithium alloys that would guarantee acceptable neutronics performance while mitigating the chemical reactivity issues of pure lithium.

  13. Soy Formula and Epigenetic Modifications: Analysis of Vaginal Epithelial Cells from Infant Girls in the IFED Study.

    PubMed

    Harlid, Sophia; Adgent, Margaret; Jefferson, Wendy N; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Umbach, David M; Xu, Zongli; Stallings, Virginia A; Williams, Carmen J; Rogan, Walter J; Taylor, Jack A

    2017-03-01

    Early-life exposure to estrogenic compounds affects the development of the reproductive system in rodent models and humans. Soy products, which contain phytoestrogens such as genistein, are one source of exposure in infants fed soy formula, and they result in high serum concentrations. Our goal was to determine whether soy exposure is associated with differential DNA methylation in vaginal cells from soy-fed infant girls. Using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, we evaluated epigenome-wide DNA methylation in vaginal cells from four soy formula-fed and six cow formula-fed girls from the Infant Feeding and Early Development (IFED) study. Using pyrosequencing we followed up the two most differentially methylated sites in 214 vaginal cell samples serially collected between birth and 9 months of age from 50 girls (28 soy formula-fed and 22 cow formula-fed). With a mouse model, we examined the effect of neonatal exposure to genistein on gene specific mRNA levels in vaginal tissue. The epigenome-wide scan suggested differences in methylation between soy formula-fed and cow formula-fed infants at three CpGs in the gene proline rich 5 like (PRR5L) (p < 10(4)). Pyrosequencing of the two feeding groups found that methylation levels progressively diverged with age, with pointwise differences becoming statistically significant after 126 days. Genistein-exposed mice showed a 50% decrease in vaginal Prr5l mRNA levels compared to controls. Girls fed soy formula have altered DNA methylation in vaginal cell DNA which may be associated with decreased expression of an estrogen-responsive gene. Citation: Harlid S, Adgent M, Jefferson WN, Panduri V, Umbach DM, Xu Z, Stallings VA, Williams CJ, Rogan WJ, Taylor JA. 2017. Soy formula and epigenetic modifications: analysis of vaginal epithelial cells from infant girls in the IFED study. Environ Health Perspect 125:447-452; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP428.

  14. Groundwater contamination in the basement-complex area of Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria: A case study using the electrical-resistivity geophysical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adepelumi, A. A.; Ako, B. D.; Ajayi, T. R.

    2001-11-01

    Hydrogeoenvironmental studies were carried out at the sewage-disposal site of Obafemi Awolowo University campus, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The objective of the survey was to determine the reliability of the electrical-resistivity method in mapping pollution plumes in a bedrock environment. Fifty stations were occupied with the ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter using the Wenner array. The electrical-resistivity data were interpreted by a computer-iteration technique. Water samples were collected at a depth of 5.0 m in 20 test pits and analyzed for quality. The concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu are moderately above the World Health Organization recommended guidelines. Plumes of contaminated water issuing from the sewage ponds were delineated. The geoelectric sections reveal four subsurface layers, with increasing depth, lateritic clay, clayey sand/sand, and weathered/fractured bedrock, and fresh bedrock. The deepest layers, 3 and 4, constitute the main aquifer, which has a thickness of 3.1-67.1 m. The distribution of the elements in the sewage effluent confirms a hydrological communication between the disposal ponds and groundwater. The groundwater is contaminated, as shown by sampling and the geophysical results. Thus, the results demonstrate the reliability of the direct-current electrical-resistivity geophysical method in sensing and mapping pollution plumes in a crystalline bedrock environment. Résumé. Des études géo-environnementales ont été réalisées sur le site d'épandages du campus universitaire d'Obafemi Awolowo, à Ile-Ife (Nigeria). L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la fiabilité de la méthode des résistivités électriques pour cartographier les panaches de pollution dans un environnement de socle. Cinquante stations ont été soumises à mesures au moyen d'un ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter en utilisant le dispositif de Wenner. Les données de résistivité électrique ont été interprétées au moyen d'une technique de calcul itérative. Des

  15. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  16. Future of Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J H; Wood, L L

    2002-09-04

    In the past 50 years, fusion R&D programs have made enormous technical progress. Projected billion-dollar scale research facilities are designed to approach net energy production. In this century, scientific and engineering progress must continue until the economics of fusion power plants improves sufficiently to win large scale private funding in competition with fission and non-nuclear energy systems. This economic advantage must be sustained: trillion dollar investments will be required to build enough fusion power plants to generate ten percent of the world's energy. For Inertial Fusion Energy, multi-billion dollar driver costs must be reduced by up to an order of magnitude, to a small fraction of the total cost of the power plant. Major cost reductions could be achieved via substantial improvements in target performance-both higher gain and reduced ignition energy. Large target performance improvements may be feasible through a combination of design innovations, e.g., ''fast ignition,'' propagation down density gradients, and compression of fusion fuel with a combination of driver and chemical energy. The assumptions that limit projected performance of fusion targets should be carefully examined. The National Ignition Facility will enable development and testing of revolutionary targets designed to make possible economically competitive fusion power plants.

  17. Tritium and workers in fusion devices-lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Elbez-Uzan, Joelle; Alejaldre, Carlos

    2009-09-01

    Fusion machines from all over the world have contributed to the knowledge accumulated in fusion science. This knowledge has been applied to design new experimental fusion machines and in particular ITER. Only two fusion devices based on magnetic confinement have used deuterium and tritium fuels to-date-the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, in Princeton, USA, and JET, the European tokamak. These machines have demonstrated that the fusion reaction is achievable with these fuels, and have provided valuable lessons on radioprotection-related issues as concerns tritium and workers. Dedicated tritium installations for fusion research and development have also contributed to this knowledge base.

  18. National Imagery and Mapping Agency Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Utility Software Environment (NIMAMUSE) Fusion V2.1 Test Plan and Test Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data...Washington, DC 20503. 1 . AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE June 25, 1998 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND...Ramsey, Planning Systems Incorporated 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 OVERVIEW 1 3 TEST PREPARATIONS 1 4 TEST DESCRIPTIONS 2 4.1 GENERAL GUIDELINES 2 4.2 SPECIAL

  19. The Fusion Energy Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    2004-06-01

    Presentations from a Fusion Power Associates symposium, The Fusion Energy Option, are summarized. The topics include perspectives on fossil fuel reserves, fusion as a source for hydrogen production, status and plans for the development of inertial fusion, planning for the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, status and promise of alternate approaches to fusion and the need for R&D now on fusion technologies.

  20. Experimental Studies of High-Speed Liquid Films on Downward-Facing Surfaces for Inertial Fusion Energy Wet Wall Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jonathan K.; Durbin, Samuel G. II; Sadowski, Dennis L.; Yoda, Minami; Abdel-Khalik, Said I.

    2003-05-15

    The fusion event in inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactors creates neutrons, photons, and charged particles that can damage the chamber first walls. The Prometheus design study used a high-speed thin film of molten lead injected tangential to the wall to protect the upper endcap of the reactor chamber from damaging X rays and target debris. To assure full chamber coverage, the film must remain attached. Film detachment under the influence of gravity is most likely to occur on the downward-facing surfaces over the upper endcap of the reactor chamber. Accurate numerical predictions of detachment length are effectively impossible in this turbulent flow because of difficulties in determining appropriate boundary conditions near the detachment point.As part of the ARIES-IFE study, experimental investigations of high-speed water films injected onto downward-facing planar surfaces at angles of inclination up to 45 deg below the horizontal were therefore performed. The initial growth and subsequent detachment of films with initial thickness up to 2 mm and injection speed up to 11 m/s were measured. To our knowledge, these experiments are the first to investigate the detachment of turbulent liquid films on downward-facing surfaces. The implications of these initial results on thin liquid protection and the 'wet wall' concept are discussed.

  1. Use of system code to estimate equilibrium tritium inventory in fusion DT machines, such as ARIES-AT and components testing facilities

    SciTech Connect

    C.P.C. Wong; B. Merrill

    2014-10-01

    ITER is under construction and will begin operation in 2020. This is the first 500 MWfusion class DT device, and since it is not going to breed tritium, it will consume most of the limited supply of tritium resources in the world. Yet, in parallel, DT fusion nuclear component testing machines will be needed to provide technical data for the design of DEMO. It becomes necessary to estimate the tritium burn-up fraction and corresponding initial tritium inventory and the doubling time of these machines for the planning of future supply and utilization of tritium. With the use of a system code, tritium burn-up fraction and initial tritium inventory for steady state DT machines can be estimated. Estimated tritium burn-up fractions of FNSF-AT, CFETR-R and ARIES-AT are in the range of 1–2.8%. Corresponding total equilibrium tritium inventories of the plasma flow and tritium processing system, and with the DCLL blanket option are 7.6 kg, 6.1 kg, and 5.2 kg for ARIES-AT, CFETR-R and FNSF-AT, respectively.

  2. Test of CP invariance in vector-boson fusion production of the Higgs boson using the Optimal Observable method in the ditau decay channel with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdinov, O.; ...

    2016-11-28

    A test of CP invariance in Higgs boson production via vector-boson fusion using the method of the Optimal Observable is presented. The analysis exploits the decay mode of the Higgs boson into a pair of τ leptons and is based on 20.3 fb–1 of proton–proton collision data at √s = 8 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Contributions from CP-violating interactions between the Higgs boson and electroweak gauge bosons are described in an effective field theory framework, in which the strength of CP violation is governed by a single parameter d~. The mean values and distributions ofmore » CP-odd observables agree with the expectation in the Standard Model and show no sign of CP violation. The CP-mixing parameter d~ is constrained to the interval (–0.11,0.05) at 68% confidence level, consistent with the Standard Model expectation of d~=0.« less

  3. Design and operation of the pellet charge exchange diagnostic for measurement of energetic confined α particles and tritons on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, S. S.; Mansfield, D. K.; Roquemore, A. L.; Fisher, R. K.; Duong, H. H.; McChesney, J. M.; Parks, P. B.; Petrov, M. P.; Khudoleev, A. V.; Gorelenkov, N. N.

    1996-09-01

    Radially resolved energy and density distributions of the confined α particles in D-T experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) are being measured with the pellet charge exchange (PCX) diagnostic. Other energetic ion species can be detected as well, such as tritons produced in D-D plasmas and H, He3, or tritium rf-driven minority ion tails. The ablation cloud formed by injected low-Z impurity pellets provides the neutralization target for this active charge exchange technique. Because the cloud neutralization efficiency is uncertain, the PCX diagnostic is not absolutely calibrated so only relative density profiles are obtained. A mass and energy resolving E∥B neutral particle analyzer (NPA) is used which has eight energy channels covering the energy range of 0.3-3.7 MeV for α particles with energy resolution ranging from 5.8% to 11.3% and a spatial resolution of ˜5 cm. The PCX diagnostic views deeply trapped ions in a narrow pitch angle range around a mean value of v∥/v=-0.048±10-3. For D-T operation, the NPA was shielded by a polyethylene-lead enclosure providing 100× attenuation of ambient γ radiation and 14 MeV neutrons. The PCX diagnostic technique and its application on TFTR are described in detail.

  4. Method comparison of the Ortho Vitros Fusion 5,1 chemistry analyzer and the Roche COBAS Integra 400 for urine drug screen testing in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L; Thompson, Catherine D; Clark, Chantry J; McMillin, Gwen A; Lehman, Christopher M

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to drugs and toxins is a major cause for the rising number of emergency department visits each year. Immunoassays are commonly used in the emergency department to provide rapid turnaround time for acute care. The purpose of this study was to compare two automated immunoassay chemistry analyzers to determine which platform produced the fewest number of false positive/negative results. Residual patient urine samples were were collected for each of the following drugs/drug classes: cocaine (n = 40), opiates (n = 45), and amphetamines (n = 54) and confirmed either positive or negative by mass spectrometry. Split sample analyses of these specimens were performed on both the Roche COBAS INTEGRA 400 plus and Ortho Vitros 5,1 FS instruments. The results from the two chemistry analyzers were compared to confirmed results. Both immunoassays were prone to false positive results for cocaine and false negative results for opiates and amphetamines. The Vitros Fusion analyzer generated fewer false positive and false negative results for opiate and amphetamine testing than the Roche Integra, but the platforms performed comparably for cocaine.

  5. Test of CP invariance in vector-boson fusion production of the Higgs boson using the Optimal Observable method in the ditau decay channel with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

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    2016-01-01

    A test of CP invariance in Higgs boson production via vector-boson fusion using the method of the Optimal Observable is presented. The analysis exploits the decay mode of the Higgs boson into a pair of [Formula: see text] leptons and is based on 20.3 [Formula: see text] of proton-proton collision data at [Formula: see text] = 8 [Formula: see text] collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Contributions from CP-violating interactions between the Higgs boson and electroweak gauge bosons are described in an effective field theory framework, in which the strength of CP violation is governed by a single parameter [Formula: see text]. The mean values and distributions of CP-odd observables agree with the expectation in the Standard Model and show no sign of CP violation. The CP-mixing parameter [Formula: see text] is constrained to the interval [Formula: see text] at 68% confidence level, consistent with the Standard Model expectation of [Formula: see text].

  6. Non-destructive testing of layer-to-layer fusion of a 3D print using ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israelsen, Niels M.; Maria, Michael; Feuchter, Thomas; Podoleanu, Adrian; Bang, Ole

    2017-06-01

    Within the last decade, 3D printing has moved from a costly approach of building mechanical items to the present state-of-the-art phase where access to 3D printers is now common, both in industry and in private places. The plastic printers are the most common type of 3D printers providing prints that are light, robust and of lower cost. The robustness of the structure printed is only maintained if each layer printed is properly fused to its previously printed layers. In situations where the printed component has to accomplish a key mechanical role there is a need to characterize its mechanical strength. This may only be revealed by in-depth testing in order to discover unwanted air-gaps in the structure. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an in-depth imaging method, that is sensitive to variations in the refractive index and therefore can resolve with high resolution translucid samples. We report on volume imaging of a 3D printed block made with 100% PLA fill. By employing ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR-OCT) we show that some parts of the PLA volume reveal highly scattering interfaces which likely correspond to transitions from one layer to another. In doing so, we document that UHR-OCT can act as a powerful tool that can be used in detecting fractures between layers stemming from insufficient fusion between printed structure layers. UHR-OCT can therefore serve as an useful assessment method of quality of 3D prints.

  7. Test of CP invariance in vector-boson fusion production of the Higgs boson using the Optimal Observable method in the ditau decay channel with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L. M.; Mistry, K. P.; Mitani, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitsou, V. A.; Miucci, A.; Miyagawa, P. S.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Moa, T.; Mochizuki, K.; Mohapatra, S.; Mohr, W.; Molander, S.; Moles-Valls, R.; Monden, R.; Mondragon, M. C.; Mönig, K.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montalbano, A.; Berlingen, J. Montejo; Monticelli, F.; Monzani, S.; Moore, R. W.; Morange, N.; Moreno, D.; Llácer, M. Moreno; Morettini, P.; Mori, D.; Mori, T.; Morii, M.; Morinaga, M.; Morisbak, V.; Moritz, S.; Morley, A. K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morris, J. D.; Mortensen, S. S.; Morvaj, L.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Motohashi, K.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Moyse, E. J. W.; Muanza, S.; Mudd, R. D.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, R. S. P.; Mueller, T.; Muenstermann, D.; Mullen, P.; Mullier, G. A.; Sanchez, F. J. Munoz; Quijada, J. A. Murillo; Murray, W. J.; Murrone, A.; Musheghyan, H.; Muskinja, M.; Myagkov, A. G.; Myska, M.; Nachman, B. P.; Nackenhorst, O.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagai, R.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagata, K.; Nagel, M.; Nagy, E.; Nairz, A. M.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, I.; Namasivayam, H.; Garcia, R. F. Naranjo; Narayan, R.; Villar, D. I. Narrias; Naryshkin, I.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Nechaeva, P. Yu.; Neep, T. J.; Nef, P. D.; Negri, A.; Negrini, M.; Nektarijevic, S.; Nellist, C.; Nelson, A.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Nessi, M.; Neubauer, M. S.; Neumann, M.; Neves, R. M.; Nevski, P.; Newman, P. R.; Nguyen, D. H.; Nickerson, R. B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicquevert, B.; Nielsen, J.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, J. K.; Nilsson, P.; Ninomiya, Y.; Nisati, A.; Nisius, R.; Nobe, T.; Nodulman, L.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nooney, T.; Norberg, S.; Nordberg, M.; Norjoharuddeen, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Nowak, S.; Nozaki, M.; Nozka, L.; Ntekas, K.; Nurse, E.; Nuti, F.; O'grady, F.; O'Neil, D. 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D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Hernandez, D. Paredes; Parker, A. J.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, K. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pascuzzi, V.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N. D.; Pater, J. R.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pearson, B.; Pedersen, L. E.; Pedersen, M.; Lopez, S. Pedraza; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Penc, O.; Peng, C.; Peng, H.; Penwell, J.; Peralva, B. S.; Perego, M. M.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Codina, E. Perez; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petroff, P.; Petrolo, E.; Petrov, M.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Peyaud, A.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pin, A. W. J.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pires, S.; Pirumov, H.; Pitt, M.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M.-A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Poley, A.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Astigarraga, M. E. Pozo; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Puddu, D.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Raine, J. A.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Ratti, M. G.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reichert, J.; Reisin, H.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rifki, O.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Rizzi, C.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Rodina, Y.; Perez, A. Rodriguez; Rodriguez, D. Rodriguez; Roe, S.; Rogan, C. S.; Røhne, O.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Saez, S. M. Romano; Adam, E. Romero; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, J. H. N.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryu, S.; Ryzhov, A.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sadykov, R.; Tehrani, F. Safai; Saha, P.; Sahinsoy, M.; Saimpert, M.; Saito, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Loyola, J. E. Salazar; Salek, D.; De Bruin, P. H. Sales; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sammel, D.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Martinez, V. Sanchez; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Castillo, I. Santoyo; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shaikh, N. W.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Saadi, D. Shoaleh; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidebo, P. E.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simon, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sioli, M.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Slovak, R.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Sokhrannyi, G.; Sanchez, C. A. Solans; Solar, M.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Son, H.; Song, H. Y.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spangenberg, M.; Spanò, F.; Sperlich, D.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Denis, R. D. St.; Stabile, A.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, G. H.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Suchek, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Svatos, M.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Araya, S. Tapia; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Delgado, A. Tavares; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, A. C.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, P. T. E.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Temple, D.; Kate, H. Ten; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Torres, R. E. Ticse; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todome, K.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, B.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Pastor, E. Torró; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Trofymov, A.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsui, K. M.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turgeman, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tyndel, M.; Ucchielli, G.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Santurio, E. Valdes; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Vallecorsa, S.; Ferrer, J. A. Valls; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasquez, J. G.; Vazeille, F.; Schroeder, T. Vazquez; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Boeriu, O. E. Vickey; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Perez, M. Villaplana; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. 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M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Nedden, M. zur; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-12-01

    A test of CP invariance in Higgs boson production via vector-boson fusion using the method of the Optimal Observable is presented. The analysis exploits the decay mode of the Higgs boson into a pair of τ leptons and is based on 20.3 fb^{-1} of proton-proton collision data at √{s} = 8 TeV collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Contributions from CP-violating interactions between the Higgs boson and electroweak gauge bosons are described in an effective field theory framework, in which the strength of CP violation is governed by a single parameter tilde{d}. The mean values and distributions of CP-odd observables agree with the expectation in the Standard Model and show no sign of CP violation. The CP-mixing parameter tilde{d} is constrained to the interval (-0.11,0.05) at 68% confidence level, consistent with the Standard Model expectation of tilde{d}=0.

  8. The Use of Analytic Decision Game (ADG) Methods for Test and Evaluation of Hard and Soft Data Fusion Systems and Education of a New Generation of Data Fusion Analysts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    education of a new generation of data fusion analysts Jacob L. Graham College of Information Sciences & Technology Pennsylvania State University ... University Park, PA, U.S.A. jgraham@ist.psu.edu David L. Hall College of Information Sciences & Technology Pennsylvania State University ... University Park, PA, U.S.A. dhall@ist.psu.edu Abstract The study and practice of human reasoning, has undergone significant change in recent years

  9. Concepts for fabrication of inertial fusion energy targets

    SciTech Connect

    Nobile, A. , Jr.; Hoffer, J. K.; Gobby, P. L.; Steckle, W. P. , Jr.; Goodin, D. T.; Besenbruch, G. E.; Schultz, K. R.

    2001-01-01

    Future inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will have a Target Fabrication Facility (TFF) that must produce approximately 500,000 targets per day. To achieve a relatively low cost of electricity, the cost to produce these targets will need to be less than approximately $0.25 per target. In this paper the status on the development of concepts for a TFF to produce targets for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) reactor, such as HYLIFE II, and a laser direct drive fusion reactor such as Sombrero, is discussed. The baseline target that is produced in the HIF TFF is similar to the close-coupled indirect drive target designed by Callahan-Miller and Tabak at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This target consists of a cryogenic hohlraum that is made of a metal case and a variety of metal foams and metal-doped organic foams. The target contains a DT-filled CH capsule. The baseline direct drive target is the design developed by Bodner and coworkers at Naval Research Laboratory. HIF targets can be filled with DT before or after assembly of the capsule into the hohlraum. Assembly of targets before filling allows assembly operations to be done at room temperature, but tritium inventories are much larger due to the large volume that the hohlraum occupies in the fill system. Assembly of targets cold after filling allows substantial reduction in tritium inventory, but this requires assembly of targets at cryogenic temperature. A model being developed to evaluate the tritium inventories associated with each of the assembly and fill options indicates that filling targets before assembling the capsule into the hohlraum, filling at temperatures as high as possible, and reducing dead-volumes in the fill system as much as possible offers the potential to reduce tritium inventories to acceptable levels. Use of enhanced DT ice layering techniques, such as infrared layering can reduce tritium inventories significantly by reducing the layering time and therefore the number of capsules being layered

  10. Revitalizing Fusion via Fission Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, Wallace

    2001-10-01

    Existing tokamaks could generate significant nuclear fuel. TFTR, operating steady state with DT might generate enough fuel for a 300 MW nuclear reactor. The immediate goals of the magnetic fusion program would necessarily shift from a study of advanced plasma regimes in larger sized devices, to mostly known plasmas regimes, but at steady state or high duty cycle operation in DT plasmas. The science and engineering of breeding blankets would be equally important. Follow on projects could possibly produce nuclear fuel in large quantity at low price. Although today there is strong opposition to nuclear power in the United States, in a 21st century world of 10 billion people, all of whom will demand a middle class life style, nuclear energy will be important. Concern over greenhouse gases will also drive the world toward nuclear power. There are studies indicating that the world will need 10 TW of carbon free energy by 2050. It is difficult to see how this can be achieved without the breeding of nuclear fuel. By using the thorium cycle, proliferation risks are minimized. [1], [2]. 1 W. Manheimer, Fusion Technology, 36, 1, 1999, 2.W. Manheimer, Physics and Society, v 29, #3, p5, July, 2000

  11. Optimizing High-Z Coatings for Inertial Fusion Energy Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Elizabeth H.; Nikroo, Abbas; Goodin, Daniel T.; Petzoldt, Ronald W.

    2003-05-15

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactors require shells with a high-Z coating that is both permeable, for timely filling with deuterium-tritium, and reflective, for survival in the chamber. Previously, gold was deposited on shells while they were agitated to obtain uniform, reproducible coatings. However, these coatings were rather impermeable, resulting in unacceptably long fill times. We report here on an initial study on Pd coatings on shells in the same manner. We have found that these palladium-coated shells are substantially more permeable than gold. Pd coatings on shells remained stable on exposure to deuterium. Pd coatings had lower reflectivity compared to gold that leads to a lower working temperature, and efficiency, of the proposed fusion reactor. Seeking to combine the permeability of Pd coatings and high reflectivity of gold, AuPd-alloy coatings were produced using a cosputtering technique. These alloys demonstrated higher permeability than Au and higher reflectivity than Pd. However, these coatings were still less reflective than the gold coatings. To improve the permeability of gold's coatings, permeation experiments were performed at higher temperatures. With the parameters of composition, thickness, and temperature, we have the ability to comply with a large target design window.

  12. HYLIFE-II: An approach to a long-lived, first-wall component for inertial fusion power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; House, P.A.; Leber, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    The HYLIFE-II concept for IFE (inertial fusion energy) is based on nonflammable, renewable liquid-wall fusion target chambers formed with Flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}) molten-salt jets, a heavy-ion driver, and single-sided illumination of indirect drive targets. As a direct result of using thick renewable liquid walls, the predicted cost of electricity is reduced about 30% to 4.4{cents}/kWh at 1 GWe (3.2{cents}/kWh at 2 GWe). The development program for HYLIFE-II can be shortened and reduced in cost by not requiring expensive neutron sources to develop first-wall materials.

  13. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, D. C.; Boris, D. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Piefer, G. R.

    2013-03-15

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  14. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, D. C.; Boris, D. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Piefer, G. R.

    2013-03-01

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage (˜100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  15. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions.

    PubMed

    Donovan, D C; Boris, D R; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F; Piefer, G R

    2013-03-01

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage (∼100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  16. Cold fusion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hembree, D. M.; Burchfield, L. A.; Fuller, E. L., Jr.; Perey, F. G.; Mamantov, G.

    1990-06-01

    A series of experiments designed to detect the by-products expected from deuterium fusion occurring in the palladium and titanium cathodes of heavy water, D2O, electrolysis cells is reported. The primary purpose of this account is to outline the integrated experimental design developed to test the cold fusion hypothesis and to report preliminary results that support continuing the investigation. Apparent positive indicators of deuterium fusion were observed, but could not be repeated or proved to originate from the electrochemical cells. In one instance, two large increases in the neutron count rate, the largest of which exceeded the background by 27 standard deviations, were observed. In a separate experiment, one of the calorimetry cells appeared to be producing approximately 18 percent more power that the input value, but thermistor failure prevented an accurate recording of the event as a function of time. In general, the tritium levels in most cells followed the slow enrichment expected from the electrolysis of D2O containing a small amount of tritium. However, after 576 hours of electrolysis, one cell developed a tritium concentration approximately seven times greater than expected level.

  17. Neutronics and activation analysis of lithium-based ternary alloys in IFE blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, Alejandra; Kramer, Kevin; Meier, Wayne; DeMuth, James; Reyes, Susana; Fratoni, Massimiliano

    2016-04-09

    Here we report that an attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant in fusion blankets is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is carrying an effort to develop a lithium-based alloy that maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) and at the same time reduces overall flammability concerns. This study evaluates the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy chamber in order to inform such development. 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and the fusion energy multiplication factor (EMF). It was found that elements that exhibit low absorption cross sections and higher q-values such as lead, tin, and strontium, perform well with those that have high neutron multiplication such as lead and bismuth. These elements meet TBR constrains ranging from 1.02 to 1.1. However, most alloys do not reach EMFs greater than 1.15. Additionally, it was found that enriching lithium significantly increases the TBR and decreases the minimum lithium concentration by more than 60%. The amount of enrichment depends on how much total lithium is in the alloy to begin with. Alloys that performed well in the TBR and EMF calculations were considered for activation analysis. Activation simulations were executed with 50 years of irradiation and 300 years of cooling. It was discovered that bismuth is a poor choice due to achieving the highest decay heat, contact dose rates, and accident doses. In addition, it does not meet the waste disposal ratings (WDR). Some of the activation results for alloys with tin, zinc, and gallium were in the higher

  18. Neutronics and activation analysis of lithium-based ternary alloys in IFE blankets

    DOE PAGES

    Jolodosky, Alejandra; Kramer, Kevin; Meier, Wayne; ...

    2016-04-09

    Here we report that an attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant in fusion blankets is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is carrying an effort to develop a lithium-based alloy that maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) and at the same time reduces overall flammability concerns. This study evaluates the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys inmore » the blanket of an inertial fusion energy chamber in order to inform such development. 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and the fusion energy multiplication factor (EMF). It was found that elements that exhibit low absorption cross sections and higher q-values such as lead, tin, and strontium, perform well with those that have high neutron multiplication such as lead and bismuth. These elements meet TBR constrains ranging from 1.02 to 1.1. However, most alloys do not reach EMFs greater than 1.15. Additionally, it was found that enriching lithium significantly increases the TBR and decreases the minimum lithium concentration by more than 60%. The amount of enrichment depends on how much total lithium is in the alloy to begin with. Alloys that performed well in the TBR and EMF calculations were considered for activation analysis. Activation simulations were executed with 50 years of irradiation and 300 years of cooling. It was discovered that bismuth is a poor choice due to achieving the highest decay heat, contact dose rates, and accident doses. In addition, it does not meet the waste disposal ratings (WDR). Some of the activation results for alloys with tin, zinc, and gallium were in

  19. Fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the Max Planck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989 to 1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R and D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R and D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  20. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  1. Construction and operation of parallel electric and magnetic field spectrometers for mass/energy resolved multi-ion charge exchange diagnostics on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, S. S.; Roquemore, A. L.

    1998-07-01

    A novel charge exchange spectrometer using a dee-shaped region of parallel electric and magnetic fields was developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for neutral particle diagnostics on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The E∥B spectrometer has an energy range of 0.5⩽A (amu)E (keV)⩽600 and provides mass-resolved energy spectra of H+, D+, and T+ (or 3He+) ion species simultaneously during a single discharge. The detector plane exhibits parallel rows of analyzed ions, each row containing the energy dispersed ions of a given mass-to-charge ratio. The detector consists of a large area microchannel plate (MCP) which is provided with three rectangular, semicontinuous active area strips, one coinciding with each of the mass rows for detection of H+, D+, and T+ (or 3He+) and each mass row has 75 energy channels. To suppress spurious signals attending operation of the plate in the magnetic fringe field of the spectrometer, the MCP was housed in a double-walled iron shield with a wire mesh ion entrance window. Using an accelerator neutron generator, the MCP neutron detection efficiency was measured to be 1.7×10-3 and 6.4×10-3 counts/neutron/cm2 for 2.5 MeV-DD and 14 MeV-DT neutrons, respectively. The design and calibration of the spectrometer are described in detail, including the effect of MCP exposure to tritium, and results obtained during high performance D-D operation on TFTR are presented to illustrate the performance of the E∥B spectrometer. The spectrometers were not used during D-T plasma operation due to the cost of providing the required radiation shielding.

  2. A politico-medical perspective of induced abortion in a semi-urban community of Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fasubaa, O B; Akindele, S T; Adelekan, A; Okwuokenye, H

    2002-01-01

    This study is designed to document a semi-urban community perspective on induced abortion in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, with a view to estimating community awareness, attitudes and implications of its existence in the community and providing relevant sociopolitical policies and pragmatic educational guidelines for policy makers to solve some of its problems within the Nigerian landscape and beyond. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in April 2000, at Oranfe community in Ile-Ife, South West, Nigeria, which has an estimated population of 5250 inhabitants. We used the survey method with the aid of a well-structured questionnaire. One hundred and eighty residents of the community were sampled as our subjects for this study. We used the cluster random sampling technique. The main outcome measures were the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, knowledge, attitude with perceived solutions to the problems of abortion and relationship of the sociodemographic factors to respondents' knowledge and attitude. The respondents were highly literate, as only 18 (11.04%) had no formal education. Eighty-five (52.79%) had good knowledge of abortion while 45 (27.95%) and 31 (19.25%) had fair and poor knowledge, respectively. Thirty-eight (24.05%) respondents felt that the solution to the problems of induced abortion can be obtained through its legalisation; 31 (19.62%) respondents believed that the solution lies in liberalising laws on abortion; provision of safe abortion services was suggested by 30 (18.98%) respondents. One hundred and seven (66.88%) felt that legalisation of abortion will increase its practice while 53 (31.12%) felt that such legalisation will not increase the practice. Similarly, 55 (34.37%) of the respondents emphasised that legalisation would reduce the problems of induced abortion compared with 82 (51.25%) who felt otherwise. One hundred and twenty (73.61%) of the respondents did not believe that the position of the law in Nigeria can stop the

  3. Sickle cell knowledge, premarital screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyegbade, Olanrewaju; Bello, Ibrahim; Osakwe, Chiddude

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background In Nigeria, as in the rest of equatorial Africa, sickle cell disease (SCD) has its highest incidence and continues to cause high morbidity and early death. The condition is a major public health problem among the black race. The aim of this survey is to determine the level of knowledge about SCD and the factors associated with its prevention among local government workers in Ile-Ife. Method This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of the knowledge about SCD, attitude towards premarital sickle cell screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results 69% of study subjects had poor knowledge of SCD, while attitude towards premarital screening was favourable in 95% of the study subjects. Knowledge and attitude were significantly better among subjects with tertiary education. There was a strong positive association between attitude towards sickle cell screening and a history of undergoing screening or partner screening. Most (86.7%) of the respondents and 74.0% of their partners have had sickle cell screening. One-quarter of married and engaged respondents did not know their partner's sickle cell status. One-third to two-thirds of study subjects will continue the relationship with their partner when either or both have haemoglobinopathy. Conclusion This study showed poor knowledge of SCD among the studied subjects. There is a need for more emphasis on health education through programmes promoting sickle cell education. In addition, the development of multifaceted patient and public health education programmes, the intensification of screening for the control of SCD by heterozygote detection, particularly during routine preplacement and premarital medical examinations, and the provision of genetic counselling to all SCD patients and carriers are vital to the identification and care of the couples at risk. These will enhance the capacity of the intending couples to make

  4. Soy Formula and Epigenetic Modifications: Analysis of Vaginal Epithelial Cells from Infant Girls in the IFED Study

    PubMed Central

    Harlid, Sophia; Adgent, Margaret; Jefferson, Wendy N.; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; Umbach, David M.; Xu, Zongli; Stallings, Virginia A.; Williams, Carmen J.; Rogan, Walter J.; Taylor, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early-life exposure to estrogenic compounds affects the development of the reproductive system in rodent models and humans. Soy products, which contain phytoestrogens such as genistein, are one source of exposure in infants fed soy formula, and they result in high serum concentrations. Objectives: Our goal was to determine whether soy exposure is associated with differential DNA methylation in vaginal cells from soy-fed infant girls. Methods: Using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, we evaluated epigenome-wide DNA methylation in vaginal cells from four soy formula–fed and six cow formula–fed girls from the Infant Feeding and Early Development (IFED) study. Using pyrosequencing we followed up the two most differentially methylated sites in 214 vaginal cell samples serially collected between birth and 9 months of age from 50 girls (28 soy formula–fed and 22 cow formula–fed). With a mouse model, we examined the effect of neonatal exposure to genistein on gene specific mRNA levels in vaginal tissue. Results: The epigenome-wide scan suggested differences in methylation between soy formula–fed and cow formula–fed infants at three CpGs in the gene proline rich 5 like (PRR5L) (p < 104). Pyrosequencing of the two feeding groups found that methylation levels progressively diverged with age, with pointwise differences becoming statistically significant after 126 days. Genistein-exposed mice showed a 50% decrease in vaginal Prr5l mRNA levels compared to controls. Conclusions: Girls fed soy formula have altered DNA methylation in vaginal cell DNA which may be associated with decreased expression of an estrogen-responsive gene. Citation: Harlid S, Adgent M, Jefferson WN, Panduri V, Umbach DM, Xu Z, Stallings VA, Williams CJ, Rogan WJ, Taylor JA. 2017. Soy formula and epigenetic modifications: analysis of vaginal epithelial cells from infant girls in the IFED study. Environ Health Perspect 125:447–452; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP428 PMID

  5. Technical Note: Estimating fusion properties for polyacids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, S.; Ceulemans, K.; Müller, J.-F.

    2011-03-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) components are generally assumed to be liquid-like. Hence, to describe the partitioning of these components, the liquid vapor pressure of these components is desired. Polyacids and functionalized polyacids can be a significant part of OA. But often, measurements are available only for solid state vapor pressure, which can differ by orders of magnitude from their liquid counterparts. To convert such a sublimation pressure to a subcooled liquid vapor pressure, fusion properties (two out of these three quantities: fusion enthalpy, fusion entropy, fusion temperature) are required. Unfortunately, experimental knowledge of fusion properties is sometimes missing in part or totally, hence an estimation method is required. Several fusion data estimation methods are tested here against experimental data of polyacids. Next, we develop a simple estimation method, specifically for this kind of compounds, reducing significantly the estimation error.

  6. Estimating the melting point, entropy of fusion, and enthalpy of fusion of organic compounds via SPARC.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, T S; Hilal, S H; Brenner, A; Carreira, L A

    2016-08-01

    The entropy of fusion, enthalpy of fusion, and melting point of organic compounds can be estimated through three models developed using the SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) platform. The entropy of fusion is modelled through a combination of interaction terms and physical descriptors. The enthalpy of fusion is modelled as a function of the entropy of fusion, boiling point, and flexibility of the molecule. The melting point model is the enthalpy of fusion divided by the entropy of fusion. These models were developed in part to improve SPARC's vapour pressure and solubility models. These models have been tested on 904 unique compounds. The entropy model has a RMS of 12.5 J mol(-1) K(-1). The enthalpy model has a RMS of 4.87 kJ mol(-1). The melting point model has a RMS of 54.4°C.

  7. NAEP Math Performance and Test Accommodations: Interactions with Student Language Background. CSE Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal; Hofstetter, Carolyn; Baker, Eva; Lord, Carol

    This study compared the performance of 946 8th-grade students with different language proficiencies (limited English proficient [LEP], fluent English proficient [FEP], and initially fluent in English [IFE]) and language backgrounds on a 35-item math test (from the 1996 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Grade 8 Bilingual…

  8. Recent theoretical and experimental results on inertial fusion energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, G.; Perlado, J. M.; Alonso, M.; Bravo, E.; Cabellos, O.; Dominguez, E.; Eliezer, S.; Falquina, R.; Rubiano, J. G.; Gil, J. M.; del Rio, J. G.; Gonzalez, A. I.; Leon, P. T.; Lodi, D.; Marian, J.; Martel, P.; Martinez-Val, J. M.; Minguez, E.; Ogando, F.; Piera, M.; Prieto, J.; Relano, A.; Reyes, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Salvador, M.; Sanz, Jose L.; Senz, D. G.; Sauvan, P.; Velarde, M.; Velarde, P.

    2003-12-01

    We study with ARWEN code a target design for ICF based on jet production. ARWEN is 2D Adaptive Mesh Refinement fluid dynamic and multigroup radiation transport. We are designing, by using also ARWEN, a target for laboratory simulation of astrophysical phenomena. We feature an experimental device to reproduce collisions of two shock waves, scaled to roughly represent cosmic supernova remnants. ANALOP code uses parametric potentials fitting to self-consistent potentials, it includes temperature and density effects by linearized Debye-Huckel and it treats excited configurations and H+He-like lines. Other is an average SHM using the parametric potentials above described. H-like emissivities and opacities have been simulated, using both, for Al and F plasmas with density 1023 cm-3 and temperatures higher than 200 eV. Advanced fusion cycles, as the aneutronic proton-boron 11 reaction, require very high ignition temperatures. Plasma conditions for a fusion-burning wave to propagate at such temperatures are rather extreme and complex, because of the overlapping effects of the main energy transport mechanisms. Calculations on the most appropriate ICF regimes for this purpose are presented. A new Monte Carlo procedure estimates effect of activation cross section uncertainties in the accuracy of inventory calculations, based on simultaneous random sampling of all the cross sections; it is implemented in activation code ACAB. We apply, with LLNL, to NIF gunite chamber shielding with reference pulsing operation. Preliminary results show that the 95 percentile of the distribution of the relative error of the contact dose rate can take values up to 1.2. Model is promising for uncertainty analysis of pulsed activation in IFE PP by using a continuous-pulsed model. Neutron intensities versus time after target emission are presented for IFE protections: LiPb/Flibe, including spectral effects. HT evaluation indicates that 90-98% of the total dose comes from ingestion of agriculture

  9. Final focus shielding designs for modern heavy-ion fusion power plant designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latkowski, J. F.; Meier, W. R.

    2001-05-01

    Recent work in heavy-ion fusion accelerators and final focusing systems shows a trend towards less current per beam, and thus, a greater number of beams. Final focusing magnets are susceptible to nuclear heating, radiation damage, and neutron activation. The trend towards more beams, however, means that there can be less shielding for each magnet. Excessive levels of nuclear heating may lead to magnet quench or to an intolerable recirculating power for magnet cooling. High levels of radiation damage may result in short magnet lifetimes and low reliability. Finally, neutron activation of the magnet components may lead to difficulties in maintenance, recycling, and waste disposal. The present work expands upon previous, three-dimensional magnet shielding calculations for a modified version of the HYLIFE-II IFE power plant design. We present key magnet results as a function of the number of beams.

  10. Final Focus Shielding Designs for Modern Heavy-Ion Fusion Power Plant Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R

    2000-07-05

    Recent work in heavy-ion fusion accelerators and final focusing systems shows a trend towards less current per beam, and thus, a greater number of beams. Final focusing magnets are susceptible to nuclear heating, radiation damage, and neutron activation. The trend towards more beams, however, means that there can be less shielding for each magnet, Excessive levels of nuclear heating may lead to magnet quench or an intolerable recirculating power for magnet cooling. High levels of radiation damage may result in short magnet lifetimes and low reliability. Finally, neutron activation of the magnet components may lead to difficulties in maintenance, recycling, and waste disposal. The present work expands upon previous, three-dimensional magnet shielding calculations for a modified version of the HYLIFE-I1 IFE power plant design. We present key magnet results as a function of the number of beams.

  11. Improved Final Focus Shielding Designs for Modern Heavy-Ion Fusion Power Plant Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J.F.; Meier, W.R.

    2000-03-01

    Recent work in heavy-ion fusion accelerators and final focusing systems shows a trend towards less current per beam, and thus, a significantly greater number of beams. Final focusing magnets are susceptible to nuclear heating, radiation damage, and neutron activation. The trend towards more beams, however, means that there can be less shielding for each magnet. Excessive levels of nuclear heating may lead to magnet quench or an intolerable recirculating power for magnet cooling. High levels of radiation damage may result in short magnet lifetimes and low reliability. Finally, neutron activation of the magnet components may lead to difficulties in maintenance, recycling, and waste disposal. The present work expands upon previous, three-dimensional magnet shielding calculations for a modified version of the HYLIFE-II IFE power plant design. We present key magnet results as a function of the number of beams.

  12. Development of position measurement unit for flying inertial fusion energy target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, R.; Endo, T.; Yoshida, H.; Norimatsu, T.

    2016-03-01

    We have reported the present status in the development of a position measurement unit (PMU) for a flying inertial fusion energy (IFE) target. The PMU, which uses Arago spot phenomena, is designed to have a measurement accuracy smaller than 1 μm. By employing divergent, pulsed orthogonal laser beam illumination, we can measure the time and the target position at the pulsed illumination. The two-dimensional Arago spot image is compressed into one-dimensional image by a cylindrical lens for real-time processing. The PMU are set along the injection path of the flying target. The local positions of the target in each PMU are transferred to the controller and analysed to calculate the target trajectory. Two methods are presented to calculate the arrival time and the arrival position of the target at the reactor centre.

  13. Comparative evaluation of perceptions of dental students to three methods of teaching in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Esan, T A; Oziegbe, E O

    2015-12-01

    The World Health Organization in 1994 recommended that dental education should be problem based, socially and culturally relevant, and community oriented. To explore the perceptions of Pre-phase II (pre-clinical II) dental students on three methods of teaching used during two academic sessions. All part IV dental students in two consecutive sessions undergoing pre phase II course in the Faculty of Dentistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife were recruited into the study. Three different modes of teaching that is, Problem based learning (PBL), hybrid PBL and traditional teaching were used to teach the students. A twenty two itemed anonymous questionnaire on a five point Likert scale was administered to the students at the end of the course. Six perceived factors were extracted from the questionnaire using factor analysis. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01) between the overall mean of PBL method compared to the other methods of teaching. The perceived factor "communication with peers" had the highest mean score for PBL in both sessions (4.57 ± 0.58 and 4.09 ± 0.93 respectively). However, PBL method was very helpful in all the six perceived factors while the students perceived that the traditional method of teaching was not helpful in "interaction with tutors" and "challenge to critical thinking". The findings showed that students preferred the PBL method to other forms of teaching. PBL enhanced the students' communication skill, was very useful as pedagogic tool and improved their critical thinking.

  14. Knowledge Attitude and Practices Toward Lassa Fever Control and Prevention Among Residents of Ile-Ife, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olowookere, S A; Adegbenro, C A; Idowu, A; Omisore, A G; Shabi, O M; Ikem, U R; Ekwere, G A; Oderinde, I F

    2017-01-01

    Lassa fever had been reported as a cause of death especially in endemic parts of Nigeria. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude, and practices toward Lassa fever control and prevention among residents of Ile-Ife, southwest Nigeria. Descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among consenting randomly selected adults using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. A total of 400 questionnaires with completed data were analyzed (response rate 96%). Majority, 207 (51.8%), were males while 193 (48.2%) were females. Most, 234 (58.5%), had tertiary education while 148 (37%) had secondary education. Fifty-nine percent had heard of Lassa fever with radio as their major source of information. About 76% had inadequate knowledge, 54% had negative attitude while 51% had poor practice toward Lassa fever. Determinants of knowledge of Lassa fever include having higher education (Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) = 11.49, 95% CI [3.10, 42.69], p = .0001), being in civil service (AOR = 0.22, 95% CI [0.09, 0.51], p = .01), and earning higher income (AOR = 4.23, 95% CI [2.61, 6.84], p = .0001). In conclusion, the knowledge, attitude, as well as preventive practices to Lassa fever were poor. It is necessary to increase public education and improve hygienic practices.

  15. Studies of ionospheric variations during geomagnetic activities at the low-latitude station, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmanuel, Ariyibi

    The dual frequency SCINDA NovAtel GSV 4004B GPS receiver installed at the Ile-Ife (low-latitude station) has been in operation since December 2009. Data records for the year 2010 were processed to obtain Total Electron Content (TEC) and S 4 index. These were interpreted to analyze the ionospheric condition during low geomagnetic activity period (when Dst is from -40 to 0 nT) and during geomagnetic storm events (with Dst about -100 nT). Seasonal variations of the TEC and S 4 index were also investigated. The occurrence of scintillations is closely linked to the peak value of TEC during the daytime; this is very evident during the equinox months when TEC ≥ 30 TECu. When the maximum TEC value is below 30 TECu, as shown by most of the days in the summer months, the scintillation phenomenon does not occur. During geomagnetic storms, the daytime segment of the TEC plot experiences fluctuations (even bifurcations) in values with the peak TEC value of about 40 TECu. From the interpreted data, the occurrence of geomagnetic storm does not necessarily suggest an increase in the level of scintillations at a low-latitude region. Also, there is a remarkable difference between the IRI 2007 model and the observed TEC values, as the daytime TEC peak differs in magnitude and time of occurrence from the observed TEC.

  16. Studies of ionospheric variations during geomagnetic activities at the low-latitude station, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyibi, Emmanuel; Joshua, Emanuel; Rabiu, Babatunde

    2013-02-01

    The dual frequency SCINDA NovAtel GSV 4004B GPS receiver installed at the Ile-Ife (low-latitude station) has been in operation since December 2009. Data records for the year 2010 were processed to obtain Total Electron Content (TEC) and S 4 index. These were interpreted to analyze the ionospheric condition during low geomagnetic activity period (when Dst is from -40 to 0 nT) and during geomagnetic storm events (with Dst about -100 nT). Seasonal variations of the TEC and S 4 index were also investigated. The occurrence of scintillations is closely linked to the peak value of TEC during the daytime; this is very evident during the equinox months when TEC ≥ 30 TECu. When the maximum TEC value is below 30 TECu, as shown by most of the days in the summer months, the scintillation phenomenon does not occur. During geomagnetic storms, the daytime segment of the TEC plot experiences fluctuations (even bifurcations) in values with the peak TEC value of about 40 TECu. From the interpreted data, the occurrence of geomagnetic storm does not necessarily suggest an increase in the level of scintillations at a low-latitude region. Also, there is a remarkable difference between the IRI 2007 model and the observed TEC values, as the daytime TEC peak differs in magnitude and time of occurrence from the observed TEC.

  17. The relationship of the lunar regolith less than 10-microns fraction and agglutinates. II - Chemical composition of agglutinate glass as a test of the 'fusion of the finest fraction' /F3/ model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Papike, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Agglutinate glasses from nine Apollo soils have been studied using an automated electron microprobe technique in order to test the fusion of the finest fraction model proposed by Papike (1981). The nine average agglutinate glass compositions are compared with the calculated fused-soil-free compositions, the bulk compositions and the 90-20 micron fraction compositions of the soils in which they are found. It is found that the agglutinate glass data are consistent with the composition of most of the fractions finer than 10 microns, allowing for the volatile loss of K2O and Na2O; some inconsistencies that do arise may result from the degree of soil maturity and the amount of material finer than 10 microns. It is concluded that the fusion of the finest fraction model is a good first approximation of mechanisms affecting the formation of agglutinate glass.

  18. The relationship of the lunar regolith less than 10-microns fraction and agglutinates. II - Chemical composition of agglutinate glass as a test of the 'fusion of the finest fraction' /F3/ model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. J.; Papike, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Agglutinate glasses from nine Apollo soils have been studied using an automated electron microprobe technique in order to test the fusion of the finest fraction model proposed by Papike (1981). The nine average agglutinate glass compositions are compared with the calculated fused-soil-free compositions, the bulk compositions and the 90-20 micron fraction compositions of the soils in which they are found. It is found that the agglutinate glass data are consistent with the composition of most of the fractions finer than 10 microns, allowing for the volatile loss of K2O and Na2O; some inconsistencies that do arise may result from the degree of soil maturity and the amount of material finer than 10 microns. It is concluded that the fusion of the finest fraction model is a good first approximation of mechanisms affecting the formation of agglutinate glass.

  19. Thermo Fluid Dynamics and Chamber Aerosol Behavior for Thin Liquid Wall Under IFE Cyclic Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Raffray, A.R.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Haynes, D.; Najmabadi, F.; Sharpe, P.; Yoda, M.; Zaghloul, M.

    2004-11-15

    A thin-liquid-wall configuration combines the attractive features of a solid wall with the advantages of a renewable armor to accommodate the threat spectra produced by inertial fusion energy targets. Key design issues for successful implementation of the thin-liquid-film wall protection schemes are the reestablishment of the thin liquid armor and the state of the chamber environment prior to each shot relative to the requirements imposed by the driver and target thermal and injection control. Experimental and numerical studies have been conducted to examine the fluid dynamic aspects of thin-liquid-film protection systems with either radial injection through a porous first wall or forced flow of a thin liquid film tangential to a solid first wall. Analyses were also conducted to help assess and understand key processes influencing the chamber environment, including ablation mechanisms that could lead to aerosol formation and the behavior of such aerosol in the chamber. Results from these studies are described in this paper.

  20. FY00 LDRD Final Report High Power IFE Driver Component Development 00-SI-009

    SciTech Connect

    Bibeau, C; Schaffers, K; Tassano, J; Waide, P; Bayramian, A

    2001-02-26

    We have begun building the ''Mercury'' laser system as the first in a series of new generation diode-pumped solid-state lasers for target physics research. Mercury will integrate three key technologies: diodes, crystals, and gas cooling, within a unique laser architecture that is scalable to kilojoule and megajoule energy levels for fusion energy applications. The primary near-term performance goals include 10% electrical efficiencies at 10 Hz and 100 J with a 2-10 ns pulse length at 1.047 {micro}m wavelength. Currently, this review concentrates on the critical development and production of Yb:S-FAP crystals. After solving many defect issues that can be present in the crystals, reproducibility is the final issue that needs to be resolved. We have enlisted the help of national experts and have strongly integrated two capable commercial crystal growth companies (Litton-Airton/Synoptics and Scientific Materials) into the effort, and have solicited the advice of Robert Morris (retired from Allied Signal), a recognized international expert in high temperature oxide growth.

  1. Review of fusion synfuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  2. Novel Hydrophobin Fusion Tags for Plant-Produced Fusion Proteins.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Lauri; Ritala, Anneli; Linder, Markus; Joensuu, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobin fusion technology has been applied in the expression of several recombinant proteins in plants. Until now, the technology has relied exclusively on the Trichoderma reesei hydrophobin HFBI. We screened eight novel hydrophobin tags, T. reesei HFBII, HFBIII, HFBIV, HFBV, HFBVI and Fusarium verticillioides derived HYD3, HYD4 and HYD5, for production of fusion proteins in plants and purification by two-phase separation. To study the properties of the hydrophobins, we used N-terminal and C-terminal GFP as a fusion partner. Transient expression of the hydrophobin fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed large variability in accumulation levels, which was also reflected in formation of protein bodies. In two-phase separations, only HFBII and HFBIV were able to concentrate GFP into the surfactant phase from a plant extract. The separation efficiency of both tags was comparable to HFBI. When the accumulation was tested side by side, HFBII-GFP gave a better yield than HFBI-GFP, while the yield of HFBIV-GFP remained lower. Thus we present here two alternatives for HFBI as functional fusion tags for plant-based protein production and first step purification.

  3. Novel Hydrophobin Fusion Tags for Plant-Produced Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ritala, Anneli; Linder, Markus; Joensuu, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobin fusion technology has been applied in the expression of several recombinant proteins in plants. Until now, the technology has relied exclusively on the Trichoderma reesei hydrophobin HFBI. We screened eight novel hydrophobin tags, T. reesei HFBII, HFBIII, HFBIV, HFBV, HFBVI and Fusarium verticillioides derived HYD3, HYD4 and HYD5, for production of fusion proteins in plants and purification by two-phase separation. To study the properties of the hydrophobins, we used N-terminal and C-terminal GFP as a fusion partner. Transient expression of the hydrophobin fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed large variability in accumulation levels, which was also reflected in formation of protein bodies. In two-phase separations, only HFBII and HFBIV were able to concentrate GFP into the surfactant phase from a plant extract. The separation efficiency of both tags was comparable to HFBI. When the accumulation was tested side by side, HFBII-GFP gave a better yield than HFBI-GFP, while the yield of HFBIV-GFP remained lower. Thus we present here two alternatives for HFBI as functional fusion tags for plant-based protein production and first step purification. PMID:27706254

  4. Diode-pumped solid-state laser driver experiments for inertial fusion energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, C.D.; Payne, S.A.; Emanuel, M.E.; Smith, L.K.; Powell, H.T.; Krupke, W.F.

    1995-07-11

    Although solid-state lasers have been the primary means by which the physics of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) have been investigated, it was previously thought that solid-state laser technology could not offer adequate efficiencies for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Orth and co-workers have recently designed a conceptual IFE power plant, however, with a high efficiency diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) driver that utilized several recent innovations in laser technology. It was concluded that DPSSLs could offer adequate performance for IFE with reasonable assumptions. This system was based on a novel diode pumped Yb-doped Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F (Yb:S-FAP) amplifier. Because this is a relatively new gain medium, a project was established to experimentally validate the diode-pumping and extraction dynamics of this system at the smallest reasonable scale. This paper reports on the initial experimental results of this study. We found the pumping dynamics and extraction cross-sections of Yb:S-FAP crystals to be similar to those previously inferred by purely spectroscopic techniques. The saturation fluence for pumping was measured to be 2.2 J/cm{sup 2} using three different methods based on either the spatial, temporal, or energy transmission properties of a Yb:S-FAP rod. The small signal gain implies an emission cross section of 6.0{times}10{sup {minus}20} cm{sup 2}. Up to 1.7 J/cm{sup 3} of stored energy density was achieved in a 6{times}6{times}44 mm{sup 3} Yb:S-FAP amplifier rod. In a free running configuration diode-pumped slope efficiencies up to 43% were observed with output energies up to {approximately}0.5 J per 1 ms pulse from a 3{times}3{times}30 mm{sup 3} rod. When the rod was mounted in a copper block for cooling, 13 W of average power was produced with power supply limited operation at 70 Hz with 500 {mu}s pulses.

  5. Fusion metrics for dynamic situation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Pribilski, Mike; Daughtery, Bryan; Roscoe, Brian; Gunsett, Josh

    2004-08-01

    To design information fusion systems, it is important to develop metrics as part of a test and evaluation strategy. In many cases, fusion systems are designed to (1) meet a specific set of user information needs (IN), (2) continuously validate information pedigree and updates, and (3) maintain this performance under changing conditions. A fusion system"s performance is evaluated in many ways. However, developing a consistent set of metrics is important for standardization. For example, many track and identification metrics have been proposed for fusion analysis. To evaluate a complete fusion system performance, level 4 sensor management and level 5 user refinement metrics need to be developed simultaneously to determine whether or not the fusion system is meeting information needs. To describe fusion performance, the fusion community needs to agree on a minimum set of metrics for user assessment and algorithm comparison. We suggest that such a minimum set should include feasible metrics of accuracy, confidence, throughput, timeliness, and cost. These metrics can be computed as confidence (probability), accuracy (error), timeliness (delay), throughput (amount) and cost (dollars). In this paper, we explore an aggregate set of metrics for fusion evaluation and demonstrate with information need metrics for dynamic situation analysis.

  6. Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Shorter trips are better for humans in the harmful radiation environment of deep space. Nuclear propulsion and power plants can enable high Ispand payload mass fractions because they require less fuel mass. Fusion energy research has characterized the Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method. (1) Lightning is form of pinched plasma electrical discharge phenomena. (2) Wire array Z-Pinch experiments are commonly studied and nuclear power plant configurations have been proposed. (3) Used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, nuclear weapon x-rays are simulated through Z-Pinch phenomena.

  7. Superconducting magnets for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.

    1987-07-02

    Fusion magnet technology has made spectacular advances in the past decade; to wit, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility and the Large Coil Project. However, further advances are still required for advanced economical fusion reactors. Higher fields to 14 T and radiation-hardened superconductors and insulators will be necessary. Coupled with high rates of nuclear heating and pulsed losses, the next-generation magnets will need still higher current density, better stability and quench protection. Cable-in-conduit conductors coupled with polyimide insulations and better steels seem to be the appropriate path. Neutron fluences up to 10/sup 19/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/ in niobium tin are achievable. In the future, other amorphous superconductors could raise these limits further to extend reactor life or decrease the neutron shielding and corresponding reactor size.

  8. Viral membrane fusion

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. PMID:25866377

  9. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wurden, G. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Intrator, T. P.; Grabowski, T. C.; Degnan, J. H.; Domonkos, M.; Turchi, P. J.; Campbell, E. M.; Sinars, D. B.; Herrmann, M. C.; Betti, R.; Bauer, B. S.; Lindemuth, I. R.; Siemon, R. E.; Miller, R. L.; Laberge, M.; Delage, M.

    2015-11-17

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). The status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans.

  10. Cold fusion coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Wachtler, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    Historically, fusion of metals was accomplished through the use of heat. Cold fusion has become a reality with metal to metal fusion occurring at room temperature. The basics of this new technology which can be done in tank, brush or solid form is covered in this paper.

  11. Magneto-Inertial Fusion

    DOE PAGES

    Wurden, G. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Intrator, T. P.; ...

    2015-11-17

    In this community white paper, we describe an approach to achieving fusion which employs a hybrid of elements from the traditional magnetic and inertial fusion concepts, called magneto-inertial fusion (MIF). Furthermore, the status of MIF research in North America at multiple institutions is summarized including recent progress, research opportunities, and future plans.

  12. Cluster-impact fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Echenique, P.M.; Manson, J.R.; Ritchie, R.H. )

    1990-03-19

    We present a model for the cluster-impact-fusion experiments of Buehler, Friedlander, and Friedman, Calculated fusion rates as a function of bombarding energy for constant cluster size agree well with experiment. The dependence of the fusion rate on cluster size at fixed bombarding energy is explained qualitatively. The role of correlated, coherent collisions in enhanced energy loss by clusters is emphasized.

  13. Cold fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  14. Personality profiles and psychopathology among students exposed to dating violence at theObafemi AwolowoUniversity, Ile-Ife.

    PubMed

    Boladale, Mapayi; Yetunde, Oladimeji; Adesanmi, Akinsulore; Olutayo, Aloba; Olanrewaju, Ibigbami

    2015-01-01

    Dating violence is a complex phenomenon, and researchers continue to examine a wide range of precursors and contributing factors. Evidence indicates that violent intimate partners may be more likely to have personality disorders and dependency and attachment problems compared with non-violent ones. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the interaction between the personality profiles, pattern of psychopathology, and dating violence among university students in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. The study utilized a cross-sectional survey design with a total of 400 students selected using a multistage sampling technique. They completed the Sociodemographic Data Schedule, the Conflict Tactic Scale (CTS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Univariate analysis was used to determine the prevalence of dating violence, psychopathology, and personality traits, and these were expressed in percentages. Association at bivariate level was assessed using chi-square and at multivariate level using logistic regression and correlations as was appropriate depending on the type of variable. The age of the respondents ranged between 18 and 35 years (M = 21.44, SD = 2.99). The prevalence of dating violence in the previous 12 months was 34%, and the prevalence of psychopathology was 15%. In the logistic regression model constructed, it was found that the significant predictors of dating violence were the psychoticism and neuroticism personality traits, which were also found to be positive correlates of psychopathology. The magnitude of dating violence found in this study is comparable with those found in other countries of the world. This study found an association between dating violence and personality in the study population and also between certain personality traits and psychopathology. The personality profiles of students could affect their interpersonal relationships greatly, and this fact must feature in dating violence

  15. The bacteriological quality of different brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife, south-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Lamikanra, Adebayo

    2014-11-28

    The upsurge in the demand for bottled water has prompted the interest of many manufacturers in the production of bottled water and very many water bottling companies are therefore involved in its production. These range from large scale multinational companies to medium scale business enterprises, institutional and government business investment companies as well as small scale entrepreneurs. There is however little information on the comparative quality of bottled water brands produced by different classes of water bottling companies in Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological quality of brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife. Forty-three samples of bottled water comprising of three batches each of thirteen bottled water brands and two batches of two brands were purchased and analyzed for total bacterial count, presence of coliform and the presence of other bacterial indicators of drinking water quality. Only 67.4% of the water samples representing the products of 10 companies or 66.7% of the brands had heterotrophic counts within the acceptable limits. Coliforms present in 100 ml of water were detected in 26.7% of the bottled water brands. Other indicator organisms detected included Staphylococci isolated from 27.9% of the samples (33.3% of the brands) and specifically Staphylococcus aureus found in four brands constituting 14% of the samples. Pseudomonas strains were consistently detected in consecutive batches of three brands of the water samples. Bottled water samples produced by the large scale multinational producers were of acceptable bacteriological quality unlike those produced by most small companies. There is need for a greater control of water bottling processes carried out by commercial bottled water producers in Nigeria.

  16. Hepatobiliary Ultrasonographic Abnormalities in Adult Patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Steady State in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oguntoye, Oluwatosin O.; Ndububa, Dennis A.; Yusuf, Musah; Bolarinwa, Rahman A.; Ayoola, Oluwagbemiga O.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is associated with structural manifestations in the hepatobiliary axis. This study aimed to investigate the hepatobiliary ultrasonographic abnormalities in adult patients with sickle cell anaemia in steady state attending the Haematology clinic of a federal tertiary health institution in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Material/Methods Basic demographic data as well as right upper abdominal quadrant ultrasonography of 50 consecutive sickle cell anaemia patients were compared with those of 50 age- and sex-matched subjects with HbAA as controls. Results Each of the study groups (patients and controls) comprised of 21 (42%) males and 29 (58%) females. The age range of the patients was 18–45 years with a mean (±SD) of 27.6±7.607 years, while that of the controls was 21–43 years with a mean (±SD) of 28.0±5.079 years (p=0.746). Amongst the patients, 32 (64%) had hepatomegaly, 15 (30%) cholelithiasis and 3 (6%) biliary sludge. Fourteen (28%) of the patients had normal hepatobiliary ultrasound findings. In the control group, one (2%) person had cholelithiasis, one (2%) biliary sludge, one (2%) fatty liver and none hepatomegaly. Forty-seven (94%) of the controls had normal hepatobiliary ultrasound findings. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of hepatomegaly and cholelithiasis between the patients and controls (p value <0.001 for both comparisons). Conclusions In this study, hepatomegaly, cholelithiasis and biliary sludge were the most common hepatobiliary ultrasound findings in patients with sickle cell anaemia. Ultrasonography is a useful tool for assessing hepatobiliary abnormalities in patients with sickle cell anaemia. PMID:28105246

  17. Effect of community level intervention on nutritional status and feeding practices of under five children in Ile Ife, Nigeria.