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  1. Total serum IgE and parasite-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in human strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, C L; Takahashi, E E; Partel, C D; Teodoro, L G; da Silva, L J

    1993-01-01

    Total serum IgE, and Strongyloides-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were studied in 27 patients with parasitologically proven strongyloidiasis. Clinical manifestations in this case series were investigated by a retrospective study of the patient's records. Total serum IgE levels were elevated (greater than 250 IU/ml) in 59% of the patients (mean concentration = 1364 IU/ml). Parasite-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were detected by ELISA in the serum of 23 (85.2%) and 21 (77.8%) patients, respectively. Elevated serum IgE and clinical manifestations were not useful indexes of the presence of strongyloidiasis. On the other hand, our results support the view that serologic tests, particularly ELISA for detecting Strongyloides-specific IgG antibodies, can be usefully exploited for diagnostic purposes in strongyloidiasis.

  2. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in <65% of the sera. No significant correlation was observed between plant food allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. © 2014 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Specific recognition of hydatid cyst antigens by serum IgG, IgE, and IgA using western blot.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Y; Janssen, D; Osuna, A

    1997-01-01

    Diagnosis of hydatid disease in humans relies on the detection of specific antibodies against antigens of the metacestode from Echinococcus granulosus. The specificity and sensitivity of current immunological techniques based on specific serum IgG rely on the way antigens are purified. We used Western immunoblotting to detect specific IgG, IgE, and IgA antibodies in serum from patients with hydatid disease using either crude antigen preparations (total hydatid fluid), purified fractions enriched in Antigens 5 and B, and glycoproteins from hydatid fluid. Depending on whether crude HF or purified antigen fractions were used, IgG and IgE recognized specifically low-to-medium MW bands between 12 and 42 kDa. IgA recognized specifically 110 kDa band in crude hydatid fluid and in the glycoprotein fraction of hydatid fluid, and a 42 kDa band in all antigen samples used. Besides the advantage of detecting specific IgA in crude hydatid fluid, these results offer the possibility of simplifying future immunological tests if specific secretory IgA can be similarly detected.

  4. Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. Methods We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. Sera with low or high reactivity to modified food antigens were subjected to myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Results Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3–8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Conclusion We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. Antibodies against modified food antigens, by reacting with AGEs and tissue proteins, may cause perturbation in degenerative and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and neuroautoimmunity. PMID:19435515

  5. Evaluation of a commercial IgE ELISA in comparison with IgA and IgM ELISAs, IgG avidity assay and complement fixation for the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Kodym, P; Machala, L; Rohácová, H; Sirocká, B; Malý, M

    2007-01-01

    A panel of sera from patients with known case histories representative of acute toxoplasmosis (primarily lymphadenopathy, n = 106), latent toxoplasmosis (asymptomatic, n = 368) and negative samples (n = 54) was used to evaluate the capacity of five serological tests to differentiate among patients with acute or latent toxoplasmosis and non-infected individuals. Positive IgA, IgE and IgM ELISA results and low IgG avidity and complement fixation test (CFT) titres of >or=256 were considered to be indicative of acute toxoplasmosis. The most sensitive methods were IgM ELISA (98.1%) and CFT (97.1%), albeit with low specificity (65.0% and 64.5%, respectively) and positive predictive values (43.3% and 42.7%, respectively). IgG avidity assay and IgE ELISA had the highest specificity (97.7% and 91.7%, respectively) and the highest positive predictive values (89.4% and 75.6%, respectively). The best association between serological results and clinical findings was obtained with IgE ELISA (86%, as expressed via Youden's index). In a subset of 259 samples categorised by the period between the onset of clinical symptoms and sampling, >50% of patients had enlarged lymph nodes for <4 months, despite a broad range of differences. However, IgM remained positive for 12-18 months, IgA for 6-9 months and IgE for 4-6 months. IgG avidity remained low for a maximum of 4 months, after which avidity increased despite the persistence of enlarged lymph nodes and a positive IgE assay. Detection of IgE appears to be a highly specific test for confirming the acute nature of Toxoplasma infections that have been detected by other sensitive methods.

  6. Differential Decline in Leishmania Membrane Antigen-Specific Immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgE, and IgG Subclass Antibodies in Indian Kala-Azar Patients after Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Anam, Khairul; Afrin, Farhat; Banerjee, Dwijadas; Pramanik, Netai; Guha, Subhasis K.; Goswami, Rama P.; Saha, Shiben K.; Ali, Nahid

    1999-01-01

    Pathogenesis in kala-azar is associated with depressed cellular immunity and significant elevation of antileishmanial antibodies. Since these antibodies are present even after cure, analysis of the parasite-specific isotypes and immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses in kala-azar patients may shed new light on the immune responses during progression and resolution of infection. Using leishmanial membrane antigenic extracts, we investigated the relative levels of specific IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgG subclasses in Indian kala-azar patient sera during disease, drug resistance, and cure. Acute-phase sera showed strong stimulation of IgG, followed by IgE and IgM and lastly by IgA antibodies. IgG subclass analysis revealed expression of all of the subclasses, with a predominance of IgG1 during disease. Following sodium stibogluconate (SAG) resistance, the levels of IgG, IgM, IgE, and IgG4 remained constant, while there was a decrease in the titers of IgG2 and IgG3. In contrast, a significant (2.2-fold) increase in IgG1 was observed in these individuals. Cure, in both SAG-responsive and unresponsive patients, correlated with a decline in the levels of IgG, IgM, IgE, and all of the IgG subclasses. The stimulation of IgG1 and the persistence, most importantly, of IgE and IgG4 following drug resistance, along with a decline in IgE, IgG4, and IgG1 with cure, demonstrate the potential of these isotypes as possible markers for monitoring effective treatment in kala-azar. PMID:10569788

  7. Allergen-specific IgG and IgA in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in a model of experimental feline asthma.

    PubMed

    Norris, C R; Byerly, J R; Decile, K C; Berghaus, R D; Walby, W F; Schelegle, E S; Hyde, D M; Gershwin, L J

    2003-12-15

    Allergic asthma, a Th2 cell driven response to inhaled allergens, has classically been thought of as predominantly mediated by IgE antibodies. To investigate the role of other immunoglobulin classes (e.g., IgG and IgA) in the immunopathogenesis of allergic asthma, levels of these allergen-specific immunoglobulins were measured in serum and mucosal fluids. Bermuda grass allergen (BGA)-specific IgG and IgA ELISAs in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were developed and optimized in an experimental model of BGA-induced feline asthma. Levels of BGA-specific IgG and IgA significantly increased over time in serum and BALF after allergen sensitization. Additionally, these elevated levels of BGA-specific IgG and IgA were seen in conjunction with the development of an asthmatic phenotype indicated by positive intradermal skin tests, enhanced airways hyperreactivity, and increased eosinophil percentages in the BALF.

  8. IgG1 memory B cells keep the memory of IgE responses.

    PubMed

    He, Jin-Shu; Subramaniam, Sharrada; Narang, Vipin; Srinivasan, Kandhadayar; Saunders, Sean P; Carbajo, Daniel; Wen-Shan, Tsao; Hidayah Hamadee, Nur; Lum, Josephine; Lee, Andrea; Chen, Jinmiao; Poidinger, Michael; Zolezzi, Francesca; Lafaille, Juan J; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria A

    2017-09-21

    The unique differentiation of IgE cells suggests unconventional mechanisms of IgE memory. IgE germinal centre cells are transient, most IgE cells are plasma cells, and high affinity IgE is produced by the switching of IgG1 cells to IgE. Here we investigate the function of subsets of IgG1 memory B cells in IgE production and find that two subsets of IgG1 memory B cells, CD80 + CD73 + and CD80 - CD73 - , contribute distinctively to the repertoires of high affinity pathogenic IgE and low affinity non-pathogenic IgE. Furthermore, repertoire analysis indicates that high affinity IgE and IgG1 plasma cells differentiate from rare CD80 + CD73 + high affinity memory clones without undergoing further mutagenesis. By identifying the cellular origin of high affinity IgE and the clonal selection of high affinity memory B cells into the plasma cell fate, our findings provide fundamental insights into the pathogenesis of allergies, and on the mechanisms of antibody production in memory B cell responses.IgE is an important mediator of protective immunity as well as allergic reaction, but how high affinity IgE antibodies are produced in memory responses is not clear. Here the authors show that IgE can be generated via class-switch recombination in IgG1 memory B cells without additional somatic hypermutation.

  9. Defective anti-polysaccharide IgG vaccine responses in IgA deficient mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    IgA deficient patients often show defects in antibody responses following immunization with polysaccharide vaccines. We now show that IgA-/- mice exhibit specific defects in IgG antibody responses to various polysaccharide vaccines, but not protein vaccines. Defects in anti-polysaccharide IgG resp...

  10. Allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Siman, Isabella Lima; de Aquino, Lais Martins; Ynoue, Leandro Hideki; Miranda, Juliana Silva; Pajuaba, Ana Claudia Arantes Marquez; Cunha-Júnior, Jair Pereira; Silva, Deise Aparecida Oliveira; Taketomi, Ernesto Akio

    2013-01-01

    One of the purposes of specific immunotherapy (SIT) is to modulate humoral immune response against allergens with significant increases in allergen-specific IgG levels, commonly associated with blocking activity. The present study investigated in vitro blocking activity of allergen-specific IgG antibodies on IgE reactivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) in sera from atopic patients. Dpt-specific IgG antibodies were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by protein-G affinity chromatography. Purity was checked by SDS-PAGE and immunoreactivity by slot-blot and immunoblot assays. The blocking activity was evaluated by inhibition ELISA. The electrophoretic profile of the ammonium sulfate precipitated fraction showed strongly stained bands in ligand fraction after chromatography, compatible with molecular weight of human whole IgG molecule. The purity degree was confirmed by detecting strong immunoreactivity to IgG, negligible to IgA, and no reactivity to IgE and IgM. Dpt-specific IgG fraction was capable of significantly reducing levels of IgE anti-Dpt, resulting in 35%-51% inhibition of IgE reactivity to Dpt in atopic patients sera. This study showed that allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens. This approach reinforces that intermittent measurement of serum allergen-specific IgG antibodies will be an important objective laboratorial parameter that will help specialists to follow their patients under SIT.

  11. Defective anti-polysaccharide IgG vaccine responses in IgA deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Yoichi; Kirimanjeswara, Girish S; Roberts, Sean; Racine, Rachael; Wilson-Welder, Jennifer; Sanfilippo, Alan M; Salmon, Sharon L; Metzger, Dennis W

    2017-09-05

    We report that IgA -/- mice exhibit specific defects in IgG antibody responses to various polysaccharide vaccines (Francisella tularensis LPS and Pneumovax), but not protein vaccines such as Fluzone. This defect further included responses to polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Prevnar and Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid vaccine). In agreement with these findings, IgA -/- mice were protected from pathogen challenge with protein- but not polysaccharide-based vaccines. Interestingly, after immunization with live bacteria, IgA +/+ and IgA -/- mice were both resistant to lethal challenge and their IgG anti-polysaccharide antibody responses were comparable. Immunization with live bacteria, but not purified polysaccharide, induced production of serum B cell-activating factor (BAFF), a cytokine important for IgG class switching; supplementing IgA -/- cell cultures with BAFF enhanced in vitro polyclonal IgG production. Taken together, these findings show that IgA deficiency impairs IgG class switching following vaccination with polysaccharide antigens and that live bacterial immunization can overcome this defect. Since IgA deficient patients also often show defects in antibody responses following immunization with polysaccharide vaccines, our findings could have relevance to the clinical management of this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Raised serum IgG and IgA antibodies to mycobacterial antigens in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Tsoulfa, G; Rook, G A; Van-Embden, J D; Young, D B; Mehlert, A; Isenberg, D A; Hay, F C; Lydyard, P M

    1989-01-01

    Autoantigens cross reactive with mycobacteria are implicated in the pathogenesis of adjuvant arthritis in the rat, and there are reports of changes in the immune response to mycobacteria in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We have therefore examined the IgM, IgG, and IgA antibody levels to crude mycobacterial antigens and to two recombinant mycobacterial heat shock/stress proteins (65 kD and 71 kD) in sera from patients with RA, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Crohn's disease, and from healthy controls. IgA binding to the crude mycobacterial antigens was significantly raised in RA sera, though IgG and IgM binding tended to be lower than in controls. Both IgA and IgG binding to the heat shock proteins were significantly raised in the RA sera. Smaller significant rises in both classes were seen in sera from patients with SLE, and in the IgA class only to the 65 kD protein in Crohn's disease. The rises in IgG and IgA antibodies to the 65 kD protein in RA were significantly higher than in the other diseases, however. It is interesting that this protein is the one responsible for adjuvant arthritis in the rat. PMID:2930263

  13. IgG and IgE antibodies to Chironomidae in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, N; Ito, K; Nakagawa, T; Haida, M; Okudaira, H; Nakada, S; Miyamoto, T; Shibuya, T; Kamei, K; Sasa, M

    1987-01-01

    IgG antibodies to Chironomidae and its correlations to radioallergosorbent and skin reactions were examined with the aim of clarifying the relationship between asthma and Chironomidae. The level of specific IgG antibody in asthmatic patients (0.698 +/- 0.034, n = 104) was significantly greater than that in normal subjects (0.367 +/- 0.032, n = 52) (P less than 0.01). The specific IgG level was not correlated to skin reaction, nor to IgE RAST scores. Specific IgG1 and IgG4 levels in asthmatic patients were significantly greater than in control subjects (n = 14) (P less than 0.01). Images Fig. 5 PMID:3652516

  14. Synthesis of IgM, IgG and IgA in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Poikonen, K; Oka, M; Möttönen, T; Jokinen, I; Arvilommi, H

    1982-01-01

    We studied the production of immunoglobulins by lymphocytes separated from the blood of 15 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, of 12 patients suffering from other connective tissue diseases (CTD), and of 18 healthy controls. The production of IgM, IgG and IgA in pokeweed-mitogen-stimulated cultures was measured by counting the number of plaque-forming cells (PFC) and by determining the concentration of secreted immunoglobulins by means of an enzyme immunoassay. Synthesis of immunoglobulins, particularly IgM and IgG, was lower than in other CTD patients or controls. The IgM response of RA patients was 20% and 29% (PFC and Ig concentrations) that of the controls. The respective figures for IgG were 33% and 53% and for IgA 61% and 72%. PMID:6756322

  15. Comparison of Antiviral Activity between IgA and IgG Specific to Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin: Increased Potential of IgA for Heterosubtypic Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Ayaka; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Kajihara, Masahiro; Maruyama, Junki; Nao, Naganori; Manzoor, Rashid; Takada, Ayato

    2014-01-01

    Both IgA and IgG antibodies are known to play important roles in protection against influenza virus infection. While IgG is the major isotype induced systemically, IgA is predominant in mucosal tissues, including the upper respiratory tract. Although IgA antibodies are believed to have unique advantages in mucosal immunity, information on direct comparisons of the in vitro antiviral activities of IgA and IgG antibodies recognizing the same epitope is limited. In this study, we demonstrate differences in antiviral activities between these isotypes using monoclonal IgA and IgG antibodies obtained from hybridomas of the same origin. Polymeric IgA-producing hybridoma cells were successfully subcloned from those originally producing monoclonal antibody S139/1, a hemaggulutinin (HA)-specific IgG that was generated against an influenza A virus strain of the H3 subtype but had cross-neutralizing activities against the H1, H2, H13, and H16 subtypes. These monoclonal S139/1 IgA and IgG antibodies were assumed to recognize the same epitope and thus used to compare their antiviral activities. We found that both S139/1 IgA and IgG antibodies strongly bound to the homologous H3 virus in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and there were no significant differences in their hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing activities against the H3 virus. In contrast, S139/1 IgA showed remarkably higher cross-binding to and antiviral activities against H1, H2, and H13 viruses than S139/1 IgG. It was also noted that S139/1 IgA, but not IgG, drastically suppressed the extracellular release of the viruses from infected cells. Electron microscopy revealed that S139/1 IgA deposited newly produced viral particles on the cell surface, most likely by tethering the particles. These results suggest that anti-HA IgA has greater potential to prevent influenza A virus infection than IgG antibodies, likely due to increased avidity conferred by its multivalency, and that this advantage may be

  16. IgE and IgG antibodies in skin allergy of the horse.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bettina; Miller, William H; Morgan, Erin E; Hillegas, Julia M; Erb, Hollis N; Leibold, Wolfgang; Antczak, Douglas F

    2006-01-01

    In horses, allergies have been characterized by clinical signs and/or intradermal (i.d.) allergen testing. Our aim was to find the first direct evidence that immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediates equine allergy. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that immediate skin reactions in horses can also be mediated by IgG. Anti-IgE affinity columns were used to purify IgE from serum of one healthy horse and three horses affected with summer eczema, an allergic dermatitis which is believed to be induced by Culicoides midges. A modified Prausnitz-Küstner experiment was performed in four clinical healthy horses by i.d. injection of the purified serum IgE antibodies. The following day, Culicoides allergen was injected at the same sites. Skin reactions were not observed in response to allergen alone, and in two horses after stimulation at any previous IgE injection site. However, the other two horses showed an immediate skin reaction at the previous injection sites of IgE obtained from allergic horses. In addition, purified monoclonal antibodies to various equine immunoglobulin isotypes were injected i.d. into six healthy horses. Immediate skin reactions were observed in response to anti-IgE (6/6 horses) and anti-IgG(T) injections (5/6 horses). The specificities of both antibodies for IgE and IgG(T), respectively, were confirmed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. The results provide the first direct evidence that IgE mediates classical Type-I allergy in horses and plays a major role in the pathogenesis of summer eczema. The data also suggest that IgG(T) can bind to skin mast cells and might contribute to clinical allergy.

  17. 98 Specific IGE and IGG Binding to Allergoids of Phleum pratense

    PubMed Central

    Cases, Barbara; Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique; Tudela, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, Eva Abel; Sanchez-Garcia, Silvia; Ibañez, M. Dolores; Escudero, Carmelo; Casanovas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergoids were first used in the decades of the 60s and 70s of the last century as an effective treatment of allergic respiratory diseases. Allergoids can be modified with formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde. Modified allergens, or allergoids, decrease the risk of adverse reactions while administering higher allergen doses. The objective of this study was to analyse specific IgE and IgG binding to glutaraldehyde modified and non-modified allergen extracts of Phleum pratense. Methods The sera of 69 patients sensitized to P. pratense were tested. All these patients had signs and symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis with, or without, asthma in May and June of 2011. All these patients had positive skin prick tests to a standardized extract of P. pratense, and other grass species. Most patients were also sensitized to olive pollen. Specific IgE and IgG binding were analysed by direct ELISA against P. pratense native (non-modified) and allergoid extracts. Relative potencies were evaluated through ELISA inhibition assays, and the protein composition of non-modified and allergoid samples was determined by Mass Spectrometry (MS/MS). Results Mean Specific IgE levels against the native extract was 16.68 ± 11.65 Units (U) and against the allergoid: 7.26 ± 8.24 U (P < 0.0001; Mann-Whitney). On the other hand, mean specific IgG binding against the non-modified extract was 90.34 ± 75.57 U versus 76.19 ± 70.31 U against the allergoid (P = 0.16; Mann-Whitney). Linear regression coefficients obtained between immunoglobulin reactivity against both extracts were: r2 = 0.51 for specific IgE and r2 = 0.83 for specific IgG. An important decrease in the allergenic activity, measured by inhibition ELISA, was clearly observed. The MS/MS assay revealed the presence of the mayor allergen, and some isoforms, in non-modified and allergoid extracts. Conclusions Results obtained demonstrate that the glutaraldehyde polymerization process induces an important decrease in specific IgE binding

  18. Factors associated with fluctuations in IgA and IgG levels at the cervix during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Falk, Roni T; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Hildesheim, Allan; Kemp, Troy; Williams, Marcus; Morera, Lidiana; Barrantes, Manuel; Herrero, Rolando; Porras, Carolina; Pinto, Ligia

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this analysis was to describe patterns and determinants of cervical immunoglobulin A (IgA) and G (IgG) levels during the menstrual cycle. A total of 154 women who attended 3 visits coinciding with the follicular, periovulatory, and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle were studied. Cervical secretions were collected at each visit for determination of total IgA and IgG levels. Questionnaires administered at each visit inquired about demographic characteristics and behavioral practices. Total IgA and IgG levels were higher among oral contraceptive (OC) users than among naturally cycling women (hereafter, "non-OC users"). IgA and IgG levels decreased at midcycle, particularly among non-OC users. After adjustment for phase of the current cycle, specimen weight, and detection of blood in the sample, report of a recent illness was associated with lower IgA and IgG levels and increased age with higher IgA and IgG levels among OC users and non-OC users. Increased lifetime number of pregnancies was associated with a higher IgA level among non-OC users and a higher IgG level among OC users. Change in immunoglobulin levels between visits was associated with sample weight and the presence of blood for both OC users and non-OC users. Phase of the current menstrual cycle and OC use were significant determinants of cervical IgA and IgG levels. The impacts of endogenous and exogenous hormones on cervical immunoglobulin levels should be further investigated.

  19. Comparisons of Serum Total IgE, IgG, and IgG1 Levels in Patients with and without Echinococcosis-Induced Anaphylactic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yimei; Zheng, Hong; Gu, Meilin; Cao, Xinghua; Wen, Hao; Liu, Zaoling; Liu, Tao

    2012-01-01

    We investigated serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE), IgG, and IgG1 levels in patients with and without echinococcosis-induced anaphylactic shock. This was a case-control study of 11 patients with echinococcosis-induced anaphylactic shock and 22 echinococcosis patients with cyst rupture but without anaphylactic shock. Blood was collected before surgery (T0), at the time of cyst rupture (T1), and shock (Tx), 1 h (T2), 1 day (T3), and 1 week (T4) after cyst rupture. Serum IgE, IgG, and IgG1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum IgE, IgG, and IgG1 levels were significantly higher in patients who developed anaphylactic shock at all time points. Increased pre-surgical IgG and IgG1 levels were identified to be a significant risk factors for developing anaphylactic shock. The results showed that a serum IgG concentration of 312.25 μg/mL could be used as a cut-off point to predict whether an echinococcosis patient would develop anaphylactic shock. PMID:22764299

  20. Macrophage triggering by aggregated immunoglobulins. II. Comparison of IgE and IgG aggregates or immune complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Pestel, J; Dessaint, J P; Joseph, M; Bazin, H; Capron, A

    1984-01-01

    Macrophages incubated with complexed or aggregated IgE released beta-glucuronidase (beta-G) within 30 min. In contrast in the presence of aggregated or complexed IgG, macrophages liberated equivalent amount of beta-G only after 6 h incubation. In addition the rapid macrophage stimulation induced by aggregated IgE was also followed by a faster 3H-glucosamine incorporation when compared to the delayed activation caused by aggregated IgG. However, macrophages stimulated either by IgG or by IgE oligomers produced the same percentage of plasminogen activator at 24 h. In contrast, while the interaction between macrophages and aggregated IgE was only followed by a peak of cyclic GMP and a beta-G release during the first 30 min of incubation, the interaction between macrophages and IgG oligomers was accompanied by a simultaneous increase of cyclic GMP and AMP nucleotides and by an absence of beta-G exocytosis. Moreover, the beta-G release induced by aggregated IgE was increased when macrophages were preincubated with aggregated IgG. This additive effect was not observed in the reverse situation. Finally macrophages activated by IgG oligomers were demonstrated to exert a cytotoxic effect on tumour cells and to kill schistosomula in the presence of a low level of complement. Taken together these results underline the peculiar ability of aggregated or complexed IgE to trigger rapidly the macrophage activation compared to aggregated IgG and can explain the important role of complexed IgE in some macrophage dependent cytotoxicity mechanisms (i.e. in parasitic diseases). PMID:6088135

  1. What do anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgA and IgG subclasses in human saliva indicate?

    PubMed

    Cañedo-Solares, I; Gómez-Chávez, F; Luna-Pastén, H; Ortiz-Alegría, L B; Flores-García, Y; Figueroa-Damián, R; Macedo-Romero, C A; Correa, D

    2018-05-01

    Diagnostic tests for toxoplasmosis are based on serological techniques due to their high sensitivity. Some IgG subclasses are related to clinical outcome in the congenital form. In this work, we determined the levels of IgG, IgA, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in paired saliva and serum samples from 91 women by indirect ELISA using a crude extract of the RH strain. The levels of IgA, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 antibodies and, to a lesser extent, IgG1 did not correlate between saliva and serum, that is, most cases that were positive for one Ig class in a sample were negative or very low in the other, and vice versa. We also observed that most samples of saliva that were positive for one IgG subclass were also positive for at least 2 of the other 3; this contrasted with findings in serum, wherein each person was positive almost exclusively for one subclass, as demonstrated before by us and other researchers. Although these findings are disappointing for the use in diagnosis, the richer response in saliva might indicate local exposure to T. gondii antigens without systemic infection; thus, saliva might be reflecting a local (protective?) response against this protozoan. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Serum concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgM in retired racing Greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Mónica; Marín, Liliana; Iazbik, M Cristina; Couto, C Guillermo

    2010-12-01

    Greyhound dogs have significant physiologic, hematologic, and biochemical differences when compared with other breeds, including significantly lower serum globulin concentration owing to decreases in the α- and β-globulin fractions. The specific proteins that account for differences in globulin concentrations are not known, but IgA and IgM, both β-globulins, are potential candidates. The aims of this study were to measure serum IgG, IgA, and IgM in clinically healthy retired racing Greyhounds and compare the results with those of age- and sex-matched non-Greyhound dogs. Study animals included 25 Greyhound and 20 non-Greyhound dogs. Total protein, albumin, and total globulin concentrations were determined. IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations were measured using a commercially available radial immunodiffusion kit. The Student t-test assuming equal variances was used to compare concentrations of immunoglobulins between groups. Serum concentrations of IgA and IgM in Greyhounds (IgA=49±20 mg/dL; IgM=132±47 mg/dL) were significantly lower than concentrations in non-Greyound dogs (IgA=70±39 mg/dL; Ig M=212±78 mg/dL). Concentrations of IgG did not differ between groups. Mean serum IgA and IgM concentrations in Greyhounds were lower than those in non-Greyhound dogs. This may contribute to low serum concentrations of β-globulins in Greyhounds. Specific reference intervals are recommended for Greyhounds to avoid possible misdiagnosis of IgA or IgM deficiency. ©2010 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Serum IgG and IgE antibodies against mold-derived antigens in patients with symptoms of hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Makkonen, K; Viitala, K I; Parkkila, S; Niemelä, O

    2001-03-01

    Exposure to mold in water-damaged buildings has been suggested to be responsible for various health problems such as hypersensitivity and upper respiratory tract diseases. However, only little information is available on possible diagnostic tools for examining mold-associated health problems. We used recently developed immunofluorometric IgG and IgE assays (UniCAP) to examine serum IgG and IgE antibodies against mold-derived allergens from 70 mold-exposed individuals with (n = 55) or without (n = 15) symptoms of sensitization. Controls were healthy individuals (n = 31) without any history of such exposure. The IgG titers exceeded the upper normal limits of control individuals (mean +/- 2 S.D.) in 35% of symptomatic men and in 25% of women. The IgG titers were usually higher in women than in men (P < 0.05) showing no significant association with the severity of symptoms. During follow-up of eight mold-exposed subjects for 9-12 months the IgG titers remained relatively constant. Elevated anti-mold IgEs were found in six (11%) of the exposed subjects who were all symptomatic. Measurements of anti-mold IgGs may help to confirm exposure in patients with hypersensitivity symptoms and evidence of mold growth in living or working environment. Some exposed symptomatic patients present IgE-mediated responses. Combined measurements of IgGs and IgEs may prove to be of value in the comprehensive assessment and treatment of such patients.

  4. Quantitation of sperm bindable IgA and IgG in seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Howe, S E; Lynch, D M

    1986-05-01

    Seminal fluid and serum from 95 infertile males were assayed for sperm bindable immunoglobulins using an indirect ELISA with whole target sperm. The ELISA method was compared to seminal fluid and serum immobilization and agglutination assays (functional assays). In this infertile group, the ELISA assay was positive in 22% of seminal fluids (greater than 1.2 fg IgA/sperm and greater than 0.3 fg IgG/sperm). The seminal fluid antibodies were IgA and had an accompanying elevated IgG component in 78% of patients. There was a 96% correlation between negative seminal fluid functional assays and negative ELISA, and a 95% correlation between positive seminal fluid functional assays and positive ELISA. Positive serum sperm antibody tests were found in 71% of the infertile males with positive seminal fluid sperm antibodies, but 29% of the infertile males with strongly positive IgA seminal fluid sperm antibodies showed normal levels of serum sperm antibodies by either ELISA or functional assays. The ELISA method gives reproducible quantitation of sperm antibodies in seminal fluid and correlates well with accepted functional assays. Comparisons with serum sperm antibody assays suggests that seminal fluid sperm antibody analysis complements the serum analysis of sperm antibodies.

  5. Proposal and validation of prognostic scoring systems for IgG and IgA monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Francesca; Petrucci, Maria Teresa; Guffanti, Andrea; Marcheselli, Luigi; Rossi, Davide; Callea, Vincenzo; Vincenzo, Federico; De Muro, Marianna; Baraldi, Alessandra; Villani, Oreste; Musto, Pellegrino; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Gaidano, Gianluca; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Goldaniga, Maria; Depaoli, Lorenzo; Baldini, Luca

    2009-07-01

    The presenting clinico-hematologic features of 1,283 patients with IgG and IgA monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) were correlated with the frequency of evolution into multiple myeloma (MM). Two IgG MGUS populations were evaluated: a training sample (553 patients) and a test sample (378 patients); the IgA MGUS population consisted of 352 patients. Forty-seven of the 553 training group patients and 22 of 378 test group IgG patients developed MM after a median follow-up of 6.7 and 3.6 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that serum monoclonal component (MC) levels of < or =1.5 g/dL, the absence of light-chain proteinuria and normal serum polyclonal immunoglobulin levels defined a prognostically favorable subset of patients, and could be used to stratify the patients into three groups at different 10-year risk of evolution (hazard ratio, 1.0, 5.04, 11.2; P < 0.001). This scoring system was validated in the test sample. Thirty of the 352 IgA patients developed MM after a median follow-up of 4.8 years, and multivariate analysis showed that hemoglobin levels of <12.5 g/dL and reduced serum polyclonal immunoglobulin correlated with progression. A pooled statistical analysis of all of the patients confirmed the validity of Mayo Clinic risk model showing that IgA class, serum MC levels, and light-chain proteinuria are the most important variables correlated with disease progression. Using simple variables, we validated a prognostic model for IgG MGUS. Among the IgA cases, the possible prognostic role of hemoglobin emerged in addition to a decrease in normal immunoglobulin levels.

  6. Specific IgA and IgG antibodies in paired serum and breast milk samples in human strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Mota-Ferreira, Daniela M L; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do Rosário F; Júnior, Alvaro Ferreira; Sopelete, Mônica C; Abdallah, Vânia O S; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2009-02-01

    Strongyloidiasis, caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis, is one of the major worldwide parasitic infections in humans. Breastfeeding may offer a potential protection against this infection. Feces, serum and milk samples were obtained from 90 lactating women from Clinical Hospital of Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Brazil. The fecal samples were collected for parasitological diagnosis and the serum and milk samples were examined for specific S. stercoralis IgA and IgG antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fecal examination showed that the rate of prevalence of S. stercoralis infection in the lactating women was 4.4%. IFAT manifested a 16.7% positivity rate for specific IgA antibody in serum and a 28.9% rate in milk samples; specific IgG was 41.1% in serum and 25.5% in milk samples. According to ELISA the positivity rate for specific IgA antibody was 21.1% in serum and 42.2% in milk samples; specific IgG was 40% in serum and 18.9% in milk samples. In serum samples, these immunological tests showed a concurrence of 91.1% and 94.4%, respectively, in detecting specific IgA and IgG antibodies. In milk samples, they showed a concurrence of 70% and 78.9%, respectively, in detecting specific IgA and IgG antibodies. There was a statistically significant difference between concordant and discordant results of immunological tests (P<0.0001). IFAT and ELISA highly concurred in their detection of specific S. stercoralis IgA and IgG antibodies in serum and in milk samples reconfirming prior studies that the serological method is a complement to the direct diagnosis of the parasite, and suggesting that immunological methods using milk samples can also be helpful. Furthermore, in endemic areas, infants may acquire antibodies to S. stercoralis from breast milk, possibly, contributing to the enhancement of specific mucosal immunity against this parasite.

  7. Food allergen-specific serum IgG and IgE before and after elimination diets in allergic dogs.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Anja; Bexley, Jennifer; Halliwell, Richard E W; Mueller, Ralf S

    2011-12-15

    Serum food allergen-specific antibody testing is widely offered to identify suitable ingredients for diets to diagnose adverse food reaction (AFR) in dogs with allergic skin disease. Antibody concentrations in blood samples obtained during an unsuccessful diet to help in the choice of diet changes may be influenced by the previous diet. The objective of this paper was to measure food antigen-specific IgE and IgG for the most commonly used 16 food antigens before and after an elimination diet. Levels of food-specific serum IgE and IgG antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Dogs had detectable IgE antibodies to beef, pork, lamb and cows' milk; and detectable IgG antibodies to beef, pork, lamb, cows' milk, chicken and turkey. Of 19 dogs with complete data sets, 14 dogs showed clear improvement during diet and in 7 dogs AFR could be diagnosed by deterioration on rechallenge and subsequent improvement on refeeding the diet. Serum was obtained before and 6-8 weeks after beginning such a diet. There was no significant difference in pre- and post-diet levels for any of the individual allergens nor for the total IgE and IgG concentrations of all antigens (P=0.55 and P=0.53 respectively). In these 19 dogs in which an elimination diet was used for the diagnosis of food allergy and in which 14 were probably food allergic and 7 were proven food allergic there were no significant differences in food-specific antibodies before and after an elimination diet of 6-8 weeks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Specific IgE and IgG to gelatin in children with systemic cutaneous reactions to Japanese encephalitis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Miyazawa, H; Inouye, S

    2001-06-01

    Systemic allergic reactions to Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine that include urticaria, angioedema, and rash have been reported. In Japan, children who suffered from allergic immediate-type reactions to JE vaccine had antigelatin IgE in their sera. However, the immunologic mechanism of allergic nonimmediate-type reactions that consist of cutaneous signs appearing several hours or more after JE vaccination has not been defined. Serum samples were taken from 28 children who showed allergic nonimmediate-type cutaneous reactions to JE vaccine. Furthermore, serum samples were taken from 10 children who showed allergic immediate-type reactions with cutaneous signs and/or respiratory symptoms to JE vaccine. We have defined an immediate-type reaction as one occurring within 1 h after vaccination. Of 10 children who showed immediate-type reactions, all had antigelatin IgE and IgG. Of 28 children who showed systemic nonimmediate-type reactions, one had antigelatin IgE and nine (32%) had antigelatin IgG. The child who had antigelatin IgE showed urticaria 2 h after JE vaccination. These results suggest that some children who showed allergic nonimmediate-type reactions to JE vaccine were sensitized to gelatin.

  9. OVA-bound nanoparticles induce OVA-specific IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b responses with low IgE synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yanase, Noriko; Toyota, Hiroko; Hata, Kikumi; Yagyu, Seina; Seki, Takahiro; Harada, Mitsunori; Kato, Yasuki; Mizuguchi, Junichiro

    2014-10-14

    There is an urgent requirement for a novel vaccine that can stimulate immune responses without unwanted toxicity, including IgE elevation. We examined whether antigen ovalbumin (OVA) conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles (NPs) (OVA-NPs) with average diameter of 110nm would serve as an immune adjuvant. When BALB/c mice were immunized with OVA-NPs, they developed sufficient levels of OVA-specific IgG1 antibody responses with low levels of IgE synthesis, representing helper T (Th)2-mediated humoral immunity. OVA-specific IgG2a and IgG2b responses (i.e., Th1-mediated immunity) were also induced by secondary immunization with OVA-NPs. As expected, immunization with OVA in alum (OVA-alum) stimulated humoral immune responses, including IgG1 and IgE antibodies, with only low levels of IgG2a/IgG2b antibodies. CD4-positive T cells from mice primed with OVA-NPs produced substantial levels of IL-21 and IL-4, comparable to those from OVA-alum group. The irradiated mice receiving OVA-NPs-primed B cells together with OVA-alum-primed T cells exhibited enhanced anti-OVA IgG2b responses relative to OVA-alum-primed B cells and T cells following stimulation with OVA-NPs. Moreover, when OVA-NPs-primed, but not OVA-alum-primed, B cells were cultured in the presence of anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, IL-4, and IL-21, or LPS plus TGF-β in vitro, OVA-specific IgG1 or IgG2b antibody responses were elicited, suggesting that immunization with OVA-NPs modulates B cells to generate IgG1 and IgG2b responses. Thus, OVA-NPs might exert their adjuvant action on B cells, and they represent a promising potential vaccine for generating both IgG1 and IgG2a/IgG2b antibody responses with low IgE synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased levels of IgE and autoreactive, polyreactive IgG in wild rodents: implications for the hygiene hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Devalapalli, A.P.; Lesher, A.; Shieh, K.; Solow, J.S.; Everett, M.L.; Edala, A.S.; Whitt, P.; Long, Renee R.; Newton, N.; Parker, W.

    2006-01-01

    To probe the potential role of Th1 versus Th2 reactivity underlying the hygiene hypothesis, intrinsic levels of Th1-associated and Th2-associated antibodies in the serum of wild rodents were compared with that in various strains of laboratory rodents. Studies using rat lung antigens as a target indicated that wild rats have substantially greater levels of autoreactive, polyreactive immunoglobulin G (IgG), but not autoreactive, polyreactive IgM than do laboratory rats, both on a quantitative and qualitative basis. Increased levels of serum IgG and IgE were observed in both wild rats and wild mice relative to their laboratory-raised counterparts, with the effect being most pronounced for IgE levels. Further, wild rats had greater intrinsic levels of both Th1- and Th2-associated IgG subclasses than did lab rats. The habitat (wild versus laboratory raised) had a more substantial impact on immunoglobulin concentration than did age, strain or gender in the animals studied. The presence in wild rodents of increased intrinsic, presumably protective, non-pathogenic responses similar to both autoimmune (autoreactive IgG, Th1-associated) and allergic (IgE, Th2-associated) reactions as well as increased levels of Th1-associated and Th2-associated IgG subclasses points toward a generally increased stimulation of the immune system in these animals rather than a shift in the nature of the immunoreactivity. It is concluded that, at least to the extent that feedback inhibition is a controlling element of immunoreactivity, an overly hygienic environment may affect the threshold of both types of immune responses more so than the balance between the different responses.

  11. Increased levels of IgE and autoreactive, polyreactive IgG in wild rodents: implications for the hygiene hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Devalapalli, A P; Lesher, A; Shieh, K; Solow, J S; Everett, M L; Edala, A S; Whitt, P; Long, R R; Newton, N; Parker, W

    2006-08-01

    To probe the potential role of Th1 versus Th2 reactivity underlying the hygiene hypothesis, intrinsic levels of Th1-associated and Th2-associated antibodies in the serum of wild rodents were compared with that in various strains of laboratory rodents. Studies using rat lung antigens as a target indicated that wild rats have substantially greater levels of autoreactive, polyreactive immunoglobulin G (IgG), but not autoreactive, polyreactive IgM than do laboratory rats, both on a quantitative and qualitative basis. Increased levels of serum IgG and IgE were observed in both wild rats and wild mice relative to their laboratory-raised counterparts, with the effect being most pronounced for IgE levels. Further, wild rats had greater intrinsic levels of both Th1- and Th2-associated IgG subclasses than did lab rats. The habitat (wild versus laboratory raised) had a more substantial impact on immunoglobulin concentration than did age, strain or gender in the animals studied. The presence in wild rodents of increased intrinsic, presumably protective, non-pathogenic responses similar to both autoimmune (autoreactive IgG, Th1-associated) and allergic (IgE, Th2-associated) reactions as well as increased levels of Th1-associated and Th2-associated IgG subclasses points toward a generally increased stimulation of the immune system in these animals rather than a shift in the nature of the immunoreactivity. It is concluded that, at least to the extent that feedback inhibition is a controlling element of immunoreactivity, an overly hygienic environment may affect the threshold of both types of immune responses more so than the balance between the different responses.

  12. Association of IgG co-deposition with serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 in pediatric IgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Eison, T. Matthew; Hastings, M. Colleen; Moldoveanu, Zina; Sanders, John T.; Gaber, Lillian; Walker, Patrick D.; Lau, Keith K; Julian, Bruce A.; Novak, Jan; Wyatt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the absence of mesangial IgG deposits is associated with the absence of elevated blood levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Design and methods: Serum Gd-IgA1 levels were determined by ELISA using an N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin from Helix aspersa. Levels of Gd-IgA1 above the 90th percentile for healthy pediatric controls were considered to be elevated. Renal biopsy samples were examined by immunofluorescence for presence and intensity of staining for IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 and C1q and by light microscopy for histological changes. Findings were graded by a single pathologist (L. Gaber) at UTHSC until 2007 and by NephropathTM (Little Rock, AR, USA) thereafter. Staining for the mesangial deposits was considered negative when intensity was trace or less, and positive at greater intensity. Fisher’s exact-test was used to determine significance of 2 × 2 tables. Results: Serum samples were obtained from 30 patients with IgAN diagnosed before age 18 years. Male : female ratio was 2.3 : 1. Twenty were Caucasian and 10 were African-American. Blood was obtained within 3 months of biopsy (incident cases) for 12, while 18 provided blood > 3 months after biopsy (prevalent cases). Serum Gd-IgA1 level was elevated in 23 (77%) of cases and 20 (67%) had a biopsy positive for IgG. Of those 20 patients, 18 (90%) had an elevated serum Gd-IgA1 level, whereas 5 (50%) of patients with biopsies without IgG had a normal serum Gd-IgA1 level (p = 0.026). Summary: In this small study we found a weak association between the absence of IgG in the biopsy and normal serum Gd-IgA1 level. PMID:23006340

  13. Distribution of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and A (IgA) subclasses following Q fever vaccination with soluble phase I Coxiella burnetii extract.

    PubMed

    Camacho, M T; Outschoorn, I; Kovácová, E; Téllez, A

    2000-03-06

    High levels of IgG1, IgG3 and IgA2 antibodies have been observed in patients with Q fever following Coxiella burnetii infection. This IgG subclass distribution is more typical of viral and autoimmune diseases than of bacterial infections. It seemed, therefore, of interest to carry out a prospective study of the distribution of immunoglobulin subclasses after vaccination with phase I C. burnetii tricloroacetic soluble extracts to detect possible differences with respect to natural infection. The antibody response found in vaccinees was mainly restricted to the IgG1, IgG2 and IgA1 subclasses. These findings confirm differences in isotype distribution when compared to those of patients with acute or chronic Coxiella infections and opens an area of interest with respect to the role of IgA subclasses.

  14. Specific IgE and IgG measured by the MeDALL allergen-chip depend on allergen and route of exposure: The EGEA study.

    PubMed

    Siroux, Valérie; Lupinek, Christian; Resch, Yvonne; Curin, Mirela; Just, Jocelyne; Keil, Thomas; Kiss, Renata; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin; Melén, Erik; Nadif, Rachel; Pin, Isabelle; Skrindo, Ingebjørg; Vrtala, Susanne; Wickman, Magnus; Anto, Josep Maria; Valenta, Rudolf; Bousquet, Jean

    2017-02-01

    The nature of allergens and route and dose of exposure may affect the natural development of IgE and IgG responses. We sought to investigate the natural IgE and IgG responses toward a large panel of respiratory and food allergens in subjects exposed to different respiratory allergen loads. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 340 adults of the EGEA (Epidemiological study of the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and atopy) (170 with and 170 without asthma) cohort. IgE and IgG responses to 47 inhalant and food allergen components were analyzed in sera using allergen microarray and compared between 5 French regions according to the route of allergen exposure (inhaled vs food allergens). Overall 48.8% of the population had allergen-specific IgE levels of 0.3 ISAC standardized units (ISU) or more to at least 1 of the 47 allergens with no significant differences across the regions. For ubiquitous respiratory allergens (ie, grass, olive/ash pollen, house dust mites), specific IgE did not show marked differences between regions and specific IgG (≥0.5 ISU) was present in most subjects everywhere. For regionally occurring pollen allergens (ragweed, birch, cypress), IgE sensitization was significantly associated with regional pollen exposure. For airborne allergens cross-reacting with food allergens, frequent IgG recognition was observed even in regions with low allergen prevalence (Bet v 1) or for allergens less frequently recognized by IgE (profilins). The variability in allergen-specific IgE and IgG frequencies depends on exposure, route of exposure, and overall immunogenicity of the allergen. Allergen contact by the oral route might preferentially induce IgG responses. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunocytochemical localization of the ovine immunoglobulins IgA, IgG1, IgG1A and IgG2: effect of gastro-intestinal parasitism in the sheep

    PubMed Central

    Curtain, C. C.; Anderson, N.

    1971-01-01

    A study has been made of the immunocytochemical localization of IgG1, IgG2, IgG1A and IgA in the alimentary tract and associated lymph nodes of parasitized and parasite-free sheep. No immunoglobulin-containing cells were found in the abomasal mucosa of the parasite-free sheep. On the other hand, large numbers of IgG1 and IgG1A-containing cells were found in the lamina propria and at the base of the villi of the abomasum of the parasitized sheep. IgG1, IgG1A, and IgA-containing cells were found in mucosal sections from the jejunum and ileum of both parasitized and parasite-free sheep, the number of IgG1A-containing cells being sifnificantly greater in the former than in the latter. This increase was considered to be of some importance since the IgG1A subclass appears to be involved in the allergic response of the sheep to intestinal parasites. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7 PMID:4924939

  16. IgE and allergen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4 recognize similar epitopes of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen.

    PubMed

    Groh, N; von Loetzen, C S; Subbarayal, B; Möbs, C; Vogel, L; Hoffmann, A; Fötisch, K; Koutsouridou, A; Randow, S; Völker, E; Seutter von Loetzen, A; Rösch, P; Vieths, S; Pfützner, W; Bohle, B; Schiller, D

    2017-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen generates Bet v 1-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G 4 which blocks IgE-mediated hypersensitivity mechanisms. Whether IgG 4 specific for Bet v 1a competes with IgE for identical epitopes or whether novel epitope specificities of IgG 4 antibodies are developed is under debate. We sought to analyze the epitope specificities of IgE and IgG 4 antibodies from sera of patients who received AIT. 15 sera of patients (13/15 received AIT) with Bet v 1a-specific IgE and IgG 4 were analyzed. The structural arrangements of recombinant (r)Bet v 1a and rBet v 1a _11x , modified in five potential epitopes, were analyzed by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. IgE binding to Bet v 1 was assessed by ELISA and mediator release assays. Competitive binding of monoclonal antibodies specific for Bet v 1a and serum IgE/IgG 4 to rBet v 1a and serum antibody binding to a non-allergenic Bet v 1-type model protein presenting an individual epitope for IgE was analyzed in ELISA and western blot. rBet v 1a _11x had a Bet v 1a - similar secondary and tertiary structure. Monomeric dispersion of rBet v 1a _11x was concentration and buffer-dependent. Up to 1500-fold increase in the EC 50 for IgE-mediated mediator release induced by rBet v 1a _11x was determined. The reduction of IgE and IgG 4 binding to rBet v 1a _11x was comparable in 67% (10/15) of sera. Bet v 1a-specific monoclonal antibodies inhibited binding of serum IgE and IgG 4 to 66.1% and 64.9%, respectively. Serum IgE and IgG 4 bound specifically to an individual epitope presented by our model protein in 33% (5/15) of sera. Patients receiving AIT develop Bet v 1a-specific IgG 4 which competes with IgE for partly identical or largely overlapping epitopes. The similarities of epitopes for IgE and IgG 4 might stimulate the development of epitope-specific diagnostics and therapeutics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Reformatting palivizumab and motavizumab from IgG to human IgA impairs their efficacy against RSV infection in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jacobino, Shamir R; Nederend, Maaike; Reijneveld, J Frederiek; Augustijn, Daan; Jansen, J H Marco; Meeldijk, Jan; Reiding, Karli R; Wuhrer, Manfred; Coenjaerts, Frank E J; Hack, C Erik; Bont, Louis J; Leusen, Jeanette H W

    2018-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality in young children. Protective therapy options are limited. Currently, palivizumab, a monoclonal IgG1 antibody, is the only licensed drug for RSV prophylaxis, although other IgG antibody candidates are being evaluated. However, at the respiratory mucosa, IgA antibodies are most abundant and act as the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Therefore, it would be logical to explore the potential of recombinant human IgA antibodies to protect against viral respiratory infection, but very little research on the topic has been published. Moreover, it is unknown whether human antibodies of the IgA isotype are better suited than those of the IgG isotype as antiviral drugs to combat respiratory infections. To address this, we generated various human IgA antibody formats of palivizumab and motavizumab, two well-characterized human IgG1 anti-RSV antibodies. We evaluated their efficacy to prevent RSV infection in vitro and in vivo and found similar, but somewhat decreased efficacy for different IgA subclasses and formats. Thus, reformatting palivizumab or motavizumab into IgA reduces the antiviral potency of either antibody. Moreover, our results indicate that the efficacy of intranasal IgA prophylaxis against RSV infection in human FcαRI transgenic mice is independent of Fc receptor expression.

  18. Serum IgG and IgA levels in polio and non-polio acute flaccid paralysis cases in western Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Madhu C; Nalavade, Uma P; Deshpande, Jagadish M

    2015-03-08

    IgG and IgA immunocompetence of children with wild poliovirus poliomyelitis and non-polio acute flaccid paralysis. 932 cases of acute flaccid paralysis, reported in 2008-2009, were tested for presence of polio and non-polio enteroviruses according to the WHO standards. Serum IgA and IgG levels were determined by sandwich ELISA. Mean (SD) IgA levels [0.87 (0.62)g/L; n=28] of virologically confirmed poliomyelitis cases were lower than those of virus negative [1.21 (0.83)g/L; n=612] and non-polio Enterovirus positive [1.22 (0.79)g/L; n=240] cases of acute flaccid paralysis. No significant difference was observed in the concentration of IgG among these groups. IgA plays an important role in protection against poliomyelitis.

  19. Frequency of anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgA, IgM, and IgG antibodies in high-risk pregnancies, in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Murata, Fernando Henrique Antunes; Ferreira, Marina Neves; Camargo, Natália Sahyoun; Santos, Gabriela Soria; Spegiorin, Lígia Cosentino Junqueira Franco; Silveira-Carvalho, Aparecida Perpétuo; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia; Mattos, Luiz Carlos de; Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão de

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can be severe; thus, it is essential to diagnose the disease via serological tests. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to investigate anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin A (IgA), M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies in 62 high-risk pregnant women. Forty-three (69.4%) women were positive for IgA, 31 (50%) for IgG, and 57 (91.9%) for IgM; 4 (6,5%) were positive for IgA but negative for IgM; 10 (16.1%) were negative for IgA and IgM but positive for IgG. Testing for these antibodies can help diagnose infection in pregnant women, thereby contributing to clinical management.

  20. Food-specific serum IgE and IgG reactivity in dogs with and without skin disease: lack of correlation between laboratories.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Jonathan I; Hendricks, Anke; Loeffler, Anette; Chang, Yu-Mei; Verheyen, Kristien L; Garden, Oliver A; Bond, Ross

    2014-10-01

    Despite conflicting data on their utility and no reports on interlaboratory reproducibility, serum food-specific antibodies are commonly assayed in first-opinion canine practice. To determine both the variability of test results between two laboratories and the frequencies and magnitudes of food reactivity in dogs of different disease status. Sera were obtained from eight dogs with cutaneous adverse food reaction (Group A), 22 with nonfood-induced atopic dermatitis (Group B), 30 with an allergic/inflammatory phenotype (Group C), 12 with miscellaneous skin diseases (Group D) and nine healthy dogs (Group E). Paired sera were submitted to two laboratories (A and B) for assays of food-specific IgE and IgG antibodies. Numbers of positive IgE and IgG tests determined by each laboratory in Groups A, B, D and E were comparable (Group C not included). Significant differences in the magnitude of IgE reactivity between groups for each allergen were seen only for lamb (Laboratory A, P = 0.003); lamb reactivity in Group D exceeded Group E (P = 0.004) but was comparable between all other groups. Agreement (kappa statistic) between the two laboratories' tests was 'moderate' for one antigen (potato IgE), 'fair' for four (corn IgE, rice IgE and IgG and soya bean IgG), 'slight' for eight (six IgE and two IgG) and 'less than chance' for the remaining six antigens (three IgE and three IgG). These laboratories' tests appear to have dubious predictive clinical utility because they neither correlate nor distinguish between dogs of different disease status. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  1. An assay that may predict the development of IgG enhancing allergen-specific IgE binding during birch immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Selb, R.; Eckl-Dorna, J.; Vrtala, S.; Valenta, R.; Niederberger, V.

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been shown that birch pollen immunotherapy can induce IgG antibodies which enhance IgE binding to Bet v 1. We aimed to develop a serological assay to predict the development of antibodies which enhance IgE binding to Bet v 1 during immunotherapy. Methods In 18 patients treated by Bet v 1-fragment-specific immunotherapy, the effects of IgG antibodies specific for the fragments on the binding of IgE antibodies to Bet v 1 were measured by ELISA. Blocking and possible enhancing effects on IgE binding were compared with skin sensitivity to Bet v 1 after treatment. Results We found that fragment-specific IgG enhanced IgE binding to Bet v 1 in two patients who also showed an increase of skin sensitivity to Bet v 1. Conclusion Our results indicate that it may be possible to develop serological tests which predict the induction of unfavourable IgG antibodies enhancing the binding of IgE to Bet v 1 during immunotherapy. PMID:23998344

  2. Toxicological Effects of Nickel Chloride on IgA+ B Cells and sIgA, IgA, IgG, IgM in the Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of dietary NiCl2 on IgA+ B cells and the immunoglobulins including sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM in the small intestine and cecal tonsil of broilers by the methods of immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Compared with the control group, the IgA+ B cell number and the sIgA, IgA, IgG, and IgM contents in the NiCl2-treated groups were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in the excess of 300 mg/kg had negative effects on the IgA+ B cell number and the abovementioned immunoglobulin contents in the small intestine and the cecal tonsil. NiCl2-reduced sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM contents is due to decrease in the population and/or the activation of B cell. The results suggest that NiCl2 at high levels has intestinal mucosal humoral immunotoxicity in animals. PMID:25116637

  3. Characterization of specific anti-Candida IgM, IgA and IgE: diagnostic value in deep-seated infections.

    PubMed

    Aubert, D; Puygauthier-Toubas, D; Leon, P; Pignon, B; Foudrinier, F; Marnef, F; Boulant, J; Pinon, J M

    1996-01-01

    The proposed serological diagnosis of systemic Candida infections is based on a microplate immunocapture technique detecting IgM, IgA and IgE anti-Candida antibodies. Activity is revealed with a suspension of human erythrocytes sensitized with somatic antigen of Candida albicans, and is quantified on an automated plate reader. The sera were obtained from patients with deep-seated (n = 56) and superficial (n = 193) candidosis. We compared this immunological method with a combination of indirect immunofluorescence and co-immunoelectrodiffusion. The immunocapture method was more sensitive (80.4% vs. 48.2% with indirect immunofluorescence and 58.9% with co-immunoelectrodiffusion), and often provided the diagnosis at an earlier stage, with clear therapeutic advantages. The IgA isotype was a particularly valuable marker of deep-seated Candida infections.

  4. IgA and IgG1 reactivities assessed by flow cytometry mirror clinical aspects of infants with ocular congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Laura Néspoli Nassar Pansini; Tonini, Aline de Castro Zacche; Barros, Geisa Baptista; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela A; Béla, Samantha Ribeiro; Antonelli, Lis Ribeiro do Valle; Machado, Anderson Silva; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Andrade, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januário, José Nélio; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida; Ferro, Eloísa A V; Mineo, José Roberto; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian Maria Garcia; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Lemos, Elenice Moreira

    2016-01-01

    This study intended to apply the flow cytometric analysis of IgA and IgG reactivity and intracytoplasmic cytokine analysis to understand and decode the clinical aspects of infants with ocular congenital toxoplasmosis. The Toxoplasma gondii-infected infants (TOXO) were subdivided according to their clinical aspects based on the absence (NRL), presence of active (ARL), active/cicatricial (ACRL) or cicatricial retinochoroidal lesions (CRL) and compared to non-infected controls (NI). The reactivity of anti-T. gondii IgG subclasses resembles the clinical aspects of ocular lesions. IgG and IgG1 discriminate infants with cicatricial lesions (ACRL and CRL) from both ARL and NLR. IgG2 and IgG3 are particularly higher in ACRL and CRL as compared to NLR. No differences were observed when IgG4 reactivity was evaluated. Thus, the results indicated that the reactivity patterns of IgA, IgG and IgG subclasses are able to discriminate ARL, ACRL and CRL from NLR or NI. IgA and IgG subclasses are relevant serological biomarkers with diagnostic and prognostic applicability, respectively. Moreover, IgA and IgG1 were closely related to cytokine production by innate/adaptive immunity cells. IgA reactivity was directly associated to TNF-α-derived from neutrophils, monocytes and CD8(+) T-cells, while IgG1 was inversely correlated with IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells but positively correlated with IL-10(+) B-cells. These findings provide insights on the relationship between the cytokine production by innate/adaptive immunity and the antibody pattern of infants with ocular congenital toxoplasmosis. In addition, the present study supports the use of flow cytometric serology as a potential tool for the diagnosis and monitoring of ocular lesions in T. gondii-infected infants in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Intradermal Delivery of Antigens Enhances Specific IgG and Diminishes IgE Production: Potential Use for Vaccination and Allergy Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Takuwa; Ura, Takehiro; Taniguchi, Masaru; Yoshida, Hisahiro

    2016-01-01

    Skin is protected by a tough but flexible multilayered barrier and is a front line for immune responses against invading particles. For many years now, skin has been a tissue where certain vaccines are injected for the prevention of infectious disease, however, the detailed mechanisms of the skin immune response are not yet well understood. Using thin and small injection needles, we carefully injected OVA into a restricted region of mouse skin, i.e., intradermal (ID), and examined the antibody response in comparison with subcutaneous (SC) injection or epicutaneous patch administration of OVA. Epicutaneous patches induced a high IgE response against OVA, but IgG production was low. High IgG production was induced by both ID and SC injection, moreover, ID injection induced higher IgG production without any adjutants. Furthermore, OVA-specific IgE production was diminished by ID injection. We found that ID injection could efficiently stimulate skin resident DCs, drive Th1-biased conditions and diminish IgE production. The ID injection response was regulated by Langerin+ dermal DCs, because OVA was taken up mainly by these cells and, after transiently deleting them, the IgE response was no longer diminished and IgG1 production was enhanced. We also tested whether ID injection might be an effective allergy treatment by attempting to inhibit ongoing IgE production in mice with experimentally induced high serum IgE levels. Multiple ID injections of OVA were shown to prevent elevation of serum OVA-specific IgE after repeated allergen challenge. In contrast, SC OVA injection could only transiently inhibit the OVA-specific IgE production. These findings indicated that ID injection results in higher induction of antigen-specific IgG, and thus may be useful for vaccine delivery with little or no adjuvant components. Moreover, the observed diminishment of IgE and induction of Th1-biased immune responses suggest that ID may be a useful injection route for allergy immunotherapy

  6. Effect of heat and enzymatic treatments on human IgE and rabbit IgG sensitivity to white bean allergens.

    PubMed

    Bousfiha, Amal; Lotfi, Aarab

    2013-08-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of the population of Fez and Casablanca in Morocco to dry white beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris) and to investigate the effect of food processing (heat and/or enzymatic hydrolysis by pepsin) on this sensitivity. Work was based on a bank consisting of 146 sera from patients with atopic hypersensitivity in order to evaluate specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels to native and processed white bean proteins by ELISA. Under the same conditions, we assessed the immunoreactivity of rabbit IgG obtained by immunization with native white bean proteins.Evaluation of specific IgE to the white bean proteins showed that 51% of children and 39% of adults had positive values. The heat treatment and pepsin hydrolysis of dry bean proteins showed a reduction of 68% of IgE binding recognition in more than 65% of all patients. After heating, all patients indicated a reduction greater than 36%. With rabbit IgG, we observed a decrease by 25% of binding under heat treatment while enzymatic digestion reduced IgG recognition by 46.6%.These findings suggest that epitopes recognized by IgE in the studied population were conformational sites whereas those recognized by rabbit IgG were probably sequential. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the Moroccan population was very sensitive to white beans and this sensitivity could be reduced after heat treatment or enzymatic hydrolysis.

  7. Mapping of IgE and IgG4 antibody-binding epitopes in Cyn d 1, the major allergen of Bermuda grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Han-Chih; Wu, Keh-Gong; Chen, Chun-Jen; Su, Song-Nan; Shen, Horng-Der; Chen, Yann-Jang; Peng, Ho-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Bermuda grass pollen (BGP) is an important seasonal aeroallergen worldwide which induces allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis and asthma. Cyn d 1 is the major allergen of BGP. This study is aimed to map human IgE and IgG(4) antibody-binding sequential epitopes on Cyn d 1 by dot immunoblotting. Synthetic peptides (10-mers; 5 overlapping residues) spanning the full length of Cyn d 1 were used for dot immunoblotting to map human IgE and IgG(1-4) antibody-binding regions with sera from BGP-allergic patients. Synthetic peptides with more overlapping residues were used for further mapping. Essential amino acids in each epitope were examined by single amino acid substitution with alanine. Peptides with sequence polymorphism of epitopes of Cyn d 1 were also synthesized to extrapolate their differences in binding capability. Four major IgE-binding epitopes (peptides 15(-1), 21, 33(-2) and 35(+1), corresponding to amino acids 70-79, 101-110, 159-167 and 172-181) and 5 major IgG(4)-binding epitopes (peptides 15(-1), 30(-2), 33(-2), 35(+1) and 39, corresponding to amino acids 70-79, 144-153, 159-167, 172-181 and 192-200) were identified. They are all located on the surface of the simulated Cyn d 1 molecule, and three of them are major epitopes for both IgE and IgG(4). Their critical amino acids were all characterized. Major epitopes for human IgG(1) to IgG(4) are almost identical. This is the first study to map the sequential epitopes for human IgE and IgG(4) subclasses in Cyn d 1. It will be helpful for future development in immunotherapy and diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Relation between IgG antibodies to foods and IgE antibodies to milk, egg, cat, dog and/or mite in a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Eysink, P E; De Jong, M H; Bindels, P J; Scharp-Van Der Linden, V T; De Groot, C J; Stapel, S O; Aalberse, R C

    1999-05-01

    Because IgG antibodies to foods can be detected before IgE antibodies to inhalants, increased levels of IgG antibodies to foods might be used as a predictor of IgE-mediated allergy in initially nonatopic children. To examine the cross-sectional relation between IgG to foods (i.e. mixture of wheat and rice, mixture of soybean and peanut, egg white, cow's milk, meat, orange and potato) and specific IgE to cat, dog, mite, milk and egg white in 1-year-old children. All atopic children (n = 120; 58 with and 62 without eczema) and a random sample of the nonatopic children (n = 144) of the Bokaal study were tested on their IgG response to foods. The IgG results of the food assays were dichotomized high or low using the 66th centile as a cut-off value. Atopic children more often had high IgG levels to foods than nonatopic children. IgG to egg white (OR = 7.50) and mixture of wheat and rice (OR = 4.79) were most strongly associated with positive specific IgE. In a stepwise logistic regression analysis egg white, mixture of wheat and rice, and orange were selected (OR = 3.76, OR = 2.43, and OR = 2.11, respectively). In children without eczema higher levels of IgG to foods were still significantly associated with atopy, which was most prominent for egg white, orange and cow's milk. An increased IgG antibody level to foods, especially to egg white, orange, and mixture of wheat and rice, indicates an increased risk of having IgE to cat, dog, mite, egg and/or milk allergens, even in the noneczematous group. Therefore, in another prospective study we are currently investigating the usefulness of IgG in early identification, i.e. before IgE antibodies can be detected, of children with an increased risk of developing allergic diseases in the future.

  9. Neutralization Takes Precedence Over IgG or IgA Isotype-related Functions in Mucosal HIV-1 Antibody-mediated Protection.

    PubMed

    Astronomo, Rena D; Santra, Sampa; Ballweber-Fleming, Lamar; Westerberg, Katharine G; Mach, Linh; Hensley-McBain, Tiffany; Sutherland, Laura; Mildenberg, Benjamin; Morton, Georgeanna; Yates, Nicole L; Mize, Gregory J; Pollara, Justin; Hladik, Florian; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Denny, Thomas N; Warrier, Ranjit; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Nitayapan, Sorachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Ferrari, Guido; Shaw, George M; Xia, Shi-Mao; Liao, Hua-Xin; Montefiori, David C; Tomaras, Georgia D; Haynes, Barton F; McElrath, Juliana M

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1 infection occurs primarily through mucosal transmission. Application of biologically relevant mucosal models can advance understanding of the functional properties of antibodies that mediate HIV protection, thereby guiding antibody-based vaccine development. Here, we employed a human ex vivo vaginal HIV-1 infection model and a rhesus macaque in vivo intrarectal SHIV challenge model to probe the protective capacity of monoclonal broadly-neutralizing (bnAb) and non-neutralizing Abs (nnAbs) that were functionally modified by isotype switching. For human vaginal explants, we developed a replication-competent, secreted NanoLuc reporter virus system and showed that CD4 binding site bnAbs b12 IgG1 and CH31 IgG1 and IgA2 isoforms potently blocked HIV-1 JR-CSF and HIV-1 Bal26 infection. However, IgG1 and IgA nnAbs, either alone or together, did not inhibit infection despite the presence of FcR-expressing effector cells in the tissue. In macaques, the CH31 IgG1 and IgA2 isoforms infused before high-dose SHIV challenge were completely to partially protective, respectively, while nnAbs (CH54 IgG1 and CH38 mIgA2) were non-protective. Importantly, in both mucosal models IgG1 isotype bnAbs were more protective than the IgA2 isotypes, attributable in part to greater neutralization activity of the IgG1 variants. These findings underscore the importance of potent bnAb induction as a primary goal of HIV-1 vaccine development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of routine prophylactic vaccination or administration of aluminum adjuvant alone on allergen-specific serum IgE and IgG responses in allergic dogs.

    PubMed

    Tater, Kathy C; Jackson, Hilary A; Paps, Judy; Hammerberg, Bruce

    2005-09-01

    To determine the acute corn-specific serum IgE and IgG, total serum IgE, and clinical responses to s.c. administration of prophylactic vaccines and aluminum adjuvant in corn-allergic dogs. 20 allergic and 8 nonallergic dogs. 17 corn-allergic dogs were vaccinated. Eight clinically normal dogs also were vaccinated as a control group. Serum corn-specific IgE, corn-specific IgG, and total IgE concentrations were measured in each dog before vaccination and 1 and 3 weeks after vaccination by use of an ELISA. The corn-allergic dogs also had serum immunoglobulin concentrations measured at 8 and 9 weeks after vaccination. Twenty allergic dogs received a s.c. injection of aluminum adjuvant, and serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured in each dog 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks after injection. The allergic dogs were examined during the 8 weeks after aluminum administration for clinical signs of allergic disease. The allergic dogs had significant increases in serum corn-specific IgE and IgG concentrations 1 and 3 weeks after vaccination but not 8 or 9 weeks after vaccination. Control dogs did not have a significant change in serum immunoglobulin concentrations after vaccination. After injection of aluminum adjuvant, the allergic dogs did not have a significant change in serum immunoglobulin concentrations or clinical signs. Allergen-specific IgE and IgG concentrations increase after prophylactic vaccination in allergic dogs but not in clinically normal dogs. Prophylactic vaccination of dogs with food allergies may affect results of serologic allergen-specific immunoglobulin testing performed within 8 weeks after vaccination.

  11. IgG and IgG4 to 91 allergenic molecules in early childhood by route of exposure and current and future IgE sensitization: Results from the Multicentre Allergy Study birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Alina; Panetta, Valentina; Cappella, Antonio; Hofmaier, Stephanie; Hatzler, Laura; Rohrbach, Alexander; Tsilochristou, Olympia; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Hoffmann, Ute; Forster, Johannes; Zepp, Fred; Schuster, Antje; D'Amelio, Raffaele; Wahn, Ulrich; Keil, Thomas; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria

    2016-11-01

    Studies of a limited number of allergens suggested that nonsensitized children produce IgG responses mainly to foodborne allergens, whereas IgE-sensitized children also produce strong IgG responses to the respective airborne molecules. We sought to systematically test the hypothesis that both the route of exposure and IgE sensitization affect IgG responses to a broad array of allergenic molecules in early childhood. We examined sera of 148 children participating in the Multicentre Allergy Study, a birth cohort born in 1990. IgG to 91 molecules of 42 sources were tested with the ImmunoCAP Solid-Phase Allergen Chip (ISAC; TFS, Uppsala, Sweden). IgE sensitization at age 2 and 7 years was defined by IgE levels of 0.35 kU A /L or greater to 1 or more of 8 or 9 extracts from common allergenic sources, respectively. The prevalence and geometric mean levels of IgG to allergenic molecules in nonsensitized children were lower at age 2 years than in IgE-sensitized children, and they were extremely heterogeneous: highest for animal food (87% ± 13%; 61 ISAC Standardized Units [ISU], [95% CI, 52.5-71.5 ISU]), intermediate for vegetable food (48% ± 27%; 13 ISU [95% CI, 11.2-16.1 ISU]), and lowest for airborne allergens (24% ± 20%; 3 ISU [95% CI, 2.4-3.4 ISU]; P for trend < .001 [for percentages], P for trend < .001 [for levels]). IgG 4 antibodies were infrequent (<5%) and contributed poorly (<3%) to overall IgG antibody levels. IgG responses at age 2 years were slightly more frequent and stronger among children with than in those without IgE sensitization at age 7 years. The children's repertoire of IgG antibodies at 2 years of age to a broad array of animal foodborne, vegetable foodborne, and airborne allergenic molecules is profoundly dependent on the route of allergen exposure and the child's IgE sensitization status and only marginally involves the IgG 4 isotype. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc

  12. Distinct patterns of IgG and IgA against food and microbial antigens in serum and feces of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Frehn, Lisa; Jansen, Anke; Bennek, Eveline; Mandic, Ana D; Temizel, Ilknur; Tischendorf, Stefanie; Verdier, Julien; Tacke, Frank; Streetz, Konrad; Trautwein, Christian; Sellge, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with a defective intestinal barrier and enhanced adaptive immune responses against commensal microbiota. Immune responses against food antigens in IBD patients remain poorly defined. IgG and IgA specific for food and microfloral antigens (wheat and milk extracts; purified ovalbumin; Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis lysates; mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were analyzed by ELISA in the serum and feces of patients with Crohn's disease (CD; n = 52 for serum and n = 20 for feces), ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 29; n = 17), acute gastroenteritis/colitis (AGE; n = 12; n = 9) as well as non-inflammatory controls (n = 61; n = 39). Serum anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and anti-B. fragilis IgG and IgA levels were increased in CD patients whereas antibody (Ab) levels against E. coli and food antigens were not significantly different within the patient groups and controls. Subgroup analysis revealed that CD patients with severe diseases defined by stricturing and penetrating lesions have slightly higher anti-food and anti-microbial IgA levels whereas CD and UC patients with arthropathy have decreased anti-food IgG levels. Treatment with anti-TNF-α Abs in CD patients was associated with significantly decreased ASCA IgG and IgA and anti-E. coli IgG. In the feces specific IgG levels against all antigens were higher in CD and AGE patients while specific IgA levels were higher in non-IBD patients. Anti-food IgG and IgA levels did not correlate with food intolerance. In contrast to anti-microbial Abs, we found only minor changes in serum anti-food Ab levels in specific subgroups of IBD patients. Fecal Ab levels towards microbial and food antigens show distinct patterns in controls, CD and UC patients.

  13. Serum IgE and IgG responses to food antigens in normal and atopic dogs, and dogs with gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Foster, A P; Knowles, T G; Moore, A Hotston; Cousins, P D G; Day, M J; Hall, E J

    2003-05-12

    In human food allergy, with or without concurrent atopy, there may be significant increases in serum allergen-specific IgE. Serological methods have been tried but are not currently recommended for diagnosis of suspected food allergy in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate humoral immune responses to food antigens in dogs. Serum IgG and IgE antibodies specific for food antigens were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using polyclonal anti-dog IgG and IgE reagents. Antigens tested were beef, chicken, pork, lamb, chicken, turkey, white fish, whole egg, wheat, soybean, barley, rice, maize corn, potato, yeast and cow's milk. Three groups were examined: normal dogs, dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD); and dogs with one of four types of gastrointestinal (GI) disease: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), food-responsive disease, and infectious diarrhoea. Statistically significant differences in food-specific antibodies were not detected between the GI subgroups. There were statistically significant differences in the IgE concentration between the normal dogs, and dogs with atopic or GI disease, for all of the antigens tested. There were statistically significant differences in the average IgG concentrations between the normal dogs, and dogs with atopic or GI disease, for all of the antigens tested, except egg and yeast. The relationship of antigen responses for pooled data was analysed using principle component analysis and cluster plots. Some clustering of variables was apparent for both IgE and IgG. For example, all dogs (normal and diseased) made a similar IgG antibody response to chicken and turkey. Compared with other groups, atopic dogs had more food allergen-specific IgE and this would be consistent with a Th(2) humoral response to food antigens. Dogs with GI disease had more food allergen-specific IgG compared with the other groups. This may reflect increased antigen exposure due to increased

  14. Prevaccination Rotavirus Serum IgG and IgA Are Associated With Lower Immunogenicity of Live, Oral Human Rotavirus Vaccine in South African Infants.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sung-Sil; Groome, Michelle J; Velasquez, Daniel E; Parashar, Umesh D; Jones, Stephanie; Koen, Antoinette; van Niekerk, Nadia; Jiang, Baoming; Madhi, Shabir A

    2016-01-15

    Live oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines have shown modest efficacy among children in African countries for reasons that are not completely understood. We examined the possible inhibitory effect of preexisting antirotavirus antibodies on immunogenicity of monovalent RV vaccine (RV1). Mother-infant pairs were enrolled at presentation for their routine immunization visit in Soweto, South Africa, when infants were aged 5-8 weeks. Infant serum samples were obtained before the first and second doses of RV1 and 1 month after the second dose. Maternal serum and breast milk samples were obtained prior to administration of each dose of RV1 to infants. RV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and neutralizing activity in sera of infants and serum or breast milk samples of mothers were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or a microneutralization test. Of the 107 serum pairs from infants who were seronegative for RV IgA at enrollment, we observed a strong positive association between IgG titers in pre-dose 1 sera of infants and mothers and significant negative associations between IgG titers in pre-dose 1 sera of infants and seroconversion to RV1 post-dose 1. Similarly, mothers whose infants' IgA seroconverted after RV1 had significantly lower pre-dose 1 IgG titers in sera than those whose infants did not seroconvert. High levels of preexisting serum IgG, including transplacentally acquired maternal IgG, appeared to have an inhibitory effect on the immunogenicity of RV1 among infants and may, in part, contribute to lower efficacy of RV vaccines in this and other low-income settings. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  15. Serum from patients with SLE instructs monocytes to promote IgG and IgA plasmablast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Joo, HyeMee; Coquery, Christine; Xue, Yaming; Gayet, Ingrid; Dillon, Stacey R.; Punaro, Marilynn; Zurawski, Gerard; Banchereau, Jacques; Pascual, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The development of autoantibodies is a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE serum can induce monocyte differentiation into dendritic cells (DCs) in a type I IFN–dependent manner. Such SLE-DCs activate T cells, but whether they promote B cell responses is not known. In this study, we demonstrate that SLE-DCs can efficiently stimulate naive and memory B cells to differentiate into IgG- and IgA-plasmablasts (PBs) resembling those found in the blood of SLE patients. SLE-DC–mediated IgG-PB differentiation is dependent on B cell–activating factor (BAFF) and IL-10, whereas IgA-PB differentiation is dependent on a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL). Importantly, SLE-DCs express CD138 and trans-present CD138-bound APRIL to B cells, leading to the induction of IgA switching and PB differentiation in an IFN-α–independent manner. We further found that this mechanism of providing B cell help is relevant in vivo, as CD138-bound APRIL is expressed on blood monocytes from active SLE patients. Collectively, our study suggests that a direct myeloid DC–B cell interplay might contribute to the pathogenesis of SLE. PMID:22689824

  16. IgA, IgM and IgG anti-M. leprae antibodies in babies of leprosy mothers during the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed Central

    Melsom, R; Harboe, M; Duncan, M E

    1982-01-01

    IgA, IgM and IgG anti-M. leprae antibody activity was estimated by solid phase radioimmunoassay in repeated serum samples from cord sera to sera taken 2 years after birth from 29 babies of mothers with lepromatous leprosy (Group 1) and 16 babies of mothers with tuberculoid leprosy and non-leprosy control mothers (Group 2). IgA anti-M. leprae antibody activity could be detected in 30% and IgM anti-M. leprae antibody activity in 50% of cord sera from Group 1, but not in any of the cord sera from Group 2. After birth, there was a significantly higher increase of IgA and IgM anti-M. leprae antibody activity in sera taken 3-6 months after birth from babies of Group 1 compared to Group 2, but the IgA and IgM activity in sera taken after 6 months of age showed the same increase in the two groups. IgG anti-M. leprae antibody activity showed a marked decrease in sera from both Groups 1 and 2 taken 3-6 and 6-9 months after birth compared to the activity in the cord sera. No increase of the IgG activity could be demonstrated even in sera taken 15-24 months after birth in any of the two groups. These findings are discussed in relation to possible transfer of M. leprae bacilli across the placenta, the influence of M. leprae and other mycobacteria exposure on the antibody activity, the poor IgG anti-M. leprae antibody response and subclinical leprosy infection in babies exposed to leprosy below 2 years of age. PMID:6756719

  17. Intrauterine sensitization of allergen-specific IgE analyzed by a highly sensitive new allergen microarray.

    PubMed

    Kamemura, Norio; Tada, Hitomi; Shimojo, Naoki; Morita, Yoshinori; Kohno, Yoichi; Ichioka, Takao; Suzuki, Koichi; Kubota, Kenji; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Kido, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    To design a rational allergy prevention program, it is important to determine whether allergic sensitization starts in utero under the maternal immune system. To investigate the origin of allergen-specific IgE antibodies in cord blood (CB) and maternofetal transfer of immunoglobulins. The levels of food and inhalant allergen-specific IgE, IgA, IgG, and IgG(4) antibodies in CB and maternal blood (MB) from 92 paired neonates and mothers were measured by using a novel allergen microarray of diamond-like-carbon-coated chip, with high-sensitivity detection of allergen-specific antibodies and allergen profiles. The levels of allergen-specific IgE antibodies against food and inhalant allergens and allergen profiles were identical in CB and newborn blood, but the levels and profiles, specifically against inhalant allergens, were different from those in MB. The level of allergen-specific IgA antibodies was below the detection levels in CB despite clear detection in MB. Therefore, contamination with MB in CB was excluded on the basis of extremely low levels of IgA antibodies in CB and the obvious mismatch of the allergen-specific IgE and IgA profiles between CB and MB. However, the levels of allergen-specific IgG and IgG(4) antibodies and their allergen profiles were almost identical in both MB and CB. Allergen-specific levels of IgE and IgA antibodies and their allergen profiles analyzed by the diamond-like-carbon allergen chip indicate that IgE antibodies in CB are of fetal origin. Food-allergen specific IgE antibodies were detected more often than inhalant-allergen specific IgE antibodies in CB, the reason of which remains unclarified. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreased IgA+ B cells population and IgA, IgG, IgM contents of the cecal tonsil induced by dietary high fluorine in broilers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Hesong; Wu, Bangyuan; Deng, Yuanxin; Wang, Kangping

    2013-05-02

    Fluoride is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in humans and animals. The cecal tonsil is an important component of the mucosal immune system and performs important and unique immune functions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on the quantities of IgA+ B cells in the cecal tonsil by immunohistochemistry, and the immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents in the cecal tonsil by ELISA. A total of 280 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg) or the same diet supplemented with 400, 800 and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II and III) in the form of sodium fluoride, respectively, throughout a 42-day experimental period. The results showed that the quantities of IgA+ B cells were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) and the IgA, IgG, and IgM contents were decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in high fluorine groups II and III in comparison with those of control group. It was concluded that dietary fluorine, in the 800-1,200 mg/kg range, could reduce the numbers of the IgA+ B cells and immunoglobulin contents in the cecal tonsil, implying the local mucosal immune function was ultimately impacted in broilers.

  19. Decreased IgA+ B Cells Population and IgA, IgG, IgM Contents of the Cecal Tonsil Induced by Dietary High Fluorine in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Hesong; Wu, Bangyuan; Deng, Yuanxin; Wang, Kangping

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is an environmental and industrial pollutant that affects various organs in humans and animals. The cecal tonsil is an important component of the mucosal immune system and performs important and unique immune functions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary high fluorine on the quantities of IgA+ B cells in the cecal tonsil by immunohistochemistry, and the immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents in the cecal tonsil by ELISA. A total of 280 one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet (fluorine 22.6 mg/kg) or the same diet supplemented with 400, 800 and 1,200 mg/kg fluorine (high fluorine groups I, II and III) in the form of sodium fluoride, respectively, throughout a 42-day experimental period. The results showed that the quantities of IgA+ B cells were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) and the IgA, IgG, and IgM contents were decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in high fluorine groups II and III in comparison with those of control group. It was concluded that dietary fluorine, in the 800–1,200 mg/kg range, could reduce the numbers of the IgA+ B cells and immunoglobulin contents in the cecal tonsil, implying the local mucosal immune function was ultimately impacted in broilers. PMID:23644827

  20. [Level of sIgA, IgG, IgA in vaginal secretion in women with chronic inflammatory disease of small pelvis organs].

    PubMed

    Shibina, L V; Krasnoproshina, L I; Ordiiants, I M; Slatinova, O V; Skhodova, S A

    2013-01-01

    Determine levels of sIgA, IgG, IgA in vaginal secretion and saliva of women of reproductive age with chronic inflammatory diseases of small pelvis organs (IDSPO) at exacerbation stage and remission period. Clinical-laboratory and gynecological examination of 105 women was carried out. Based on the results obtained 3 groups were formed: patients with IDSPO at exacerbation stage; patients at remission stage; clinically healthy women. sIgA, IgG, IgA parameters were studied in vaginal secretion and saliva in women with IDSPO at exacerbation stage and remission period by radial immune diffusion in gel by Manchini method. An increase of immunoglobulin level in vaginal secretion of women with IDSPO at remission period and a sharper increase of these parameters during exacerbation of the disease compared with women of the control group were detected. During analysis of sIgA, IgG, IgA levels in saliva in the same groups of women the results were obtained that give evidence that the presence of IDSPO and local immune reaction do not lead to the changes of these parameters. The obtained parameters on the dependence of an increase of immunoglobulin levels in vaginal secretions and the degree of intensity of the inflammatory process give basis to use them with the aim of additional diagnostics.

  1. Detection of a combination of serum IgG and IgA antibodies against selected mycobacterial targets provides promising diagnostic signatures for active TB

    PubMed Central

    Chegou, Novel N.; Kriel, Belinda; Jacobs, Ruschca; Kidd, Martin; Loxton, Andre G.; Kaempfer, Susanne; Singh, Mahavir; Walzl, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) based tests for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) disease often show a lack of specificity in TB endemic regions, which is mainly due to a high background prevalence of LTBI. Here, we investigated the combined performance of the responses of different Ig classes to selected mycobacterial antigens in primary healthcare clinic attendees with signs and symptoms suggestive of TB. The sensitivity and specificity of IgA, IgG and/or IgM to LAM and 7 mycobacterial protein antigens (ESAT-6, Tpx, PstS1, AlaDH, MPT64, 16kDa and 19kDa) and 2 antigen combinations (TUB, TB-LTBI) in the plasma of 63 individuals who underwent diagnostic work-up for TB after presenting with symptoms and signs compatible with possible active TB were evaluated. Active TB was excluded in 42 individuals of whom 21 has LTBI whereas active TB was confirmed in 21 patients of whom 19 had a follow-up blood draw at the end of 6-month anti-TB treatment. The leading single serodiagnostic markers to differentiate between the presence or absence of active TB were anti-16 kDa IgA, anti-MPT64 IgA with sensitivity and specificity of 90%/90% and 95%/90%, respectively. The combined use of 3 or 4 antibodies further improved this performance to accuracies above 95%. After successful completion of anti-TB treatment at month 6, the levels of 16 kDa IgA and 16 kDa IgM dropped significantly whereas LAM IgG and TB-LTBI IgG increased. These results show the potential of extending investigation of anti-tuberculous IgG responses to include IgM and IgA responses against selected protein and non-protein antigens in differentiating active TB from other respiratory diseases in TB endemic settings. PMID:28415587

  2. Detection of a combination of serum IgG and IgA antibodies against selected mycobacterial targets provides promising diagnostic signatures for active TB.

    PubMed

    Awoniyi, Dolapo O; Baumann, Ralf; Chegou, Novel N; Kriel, Belinda; Jacobs, Ruschca; Kidd, Martin; Loxton, Andre G; Kaempfer, Susanne; Singh, Mahavir; Walzl, Gerhard

    2017-06-06

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) based tests for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) disease often show a lack of specificity in TB endemic regions, which is mainly due to a high background prevalence of LTBI. Here, we investigated the combined performance of the responses of different Ig classes to selected mycobacterial antigens in primary healthcare clinic attendees with signs and symptoms suggestive of TB. The sensitivity and specificity of IgA, IgG and/or IgM to LAM and 7 mycobacterial protein antigens (ESAT-6, Tpx, PstS1, AlaDH, MPT64, 16kDa and 19kDa) and 2 antigen combinations (TUB, TB-LTBI) in the plasma of 63 individuals who underwent diagnostic work-up for TB after presenting with symptoms and signs compatible with possible active TB were evaluated. Active TB was excluded in 42 individuals of whom 21 has LTBI whereas active TB was confirmed in 21 patients of whom 19 had a follow-up blood draw at the end of 6-month anti-TB treatment. The leading single serodiagnostic markers to differentiate between the presence or absence of active TB were anti-16 kDa IgA, anti-MPT64 IgA with sensitivity and specificity of 90%/90% and 95%/90%, respectively. The combined use of 3 or 4 antibodies further improved this performance to accuracies above 95%. After successful completion of anti-TB treatment at month 6, the levels of 16 kDa IgA and 16 kDa IgM dropped significantly whereas LAM IgG and TB-LTBI IgG increased. These results show the potential of extending investigation of anti-tuberculous IgG responses to include IgM and IgA responses against selected protein and non-protein antigens in differentiating active TB from other respiratory diseases in TB endemic settings.

  3. A rare case of Addison's disease, hepatitis, thyreoiditis, positive IgG anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies and partial IgA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Baleva, Marta P; Mihaylova, Snejina; Yankova, Petja; Atanasova, Iliana; Nikolova-Vlahova, Milena; Naumova, Elissaveta

    2016-01-01

    Selective IgA deficiency (IgAD) is the most prevalent type of primary immune deficiencies, but partial IgA deficiency is even more common. Addison's disease is a rare condition associated with primary adrenal insufficiency due to infection or autoimmune destruction of the adrenals. The association between IgA deficiency and Addison's disease is very rare. We observed a 22-year-old male patient with marked darkening of the skin, especially on the palms and areolae, jaundice on the skin and sclera, astheno-adynamia, hypotension (80/50 mm Hg), and pain in the right hypochondrium. The laboratory investigations revealed increased serum levels of total and indirect bilirubin, AST, ALT, GGT and LDH, negative HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HCV and anti-HAV IgM, very low serum IgA levels (0.16 g/l) with normal IgG and IgM, negative ANA, ANCA, AMA, LKM-1, anti-GAD-60, anti-IA-2, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, a mild increase in anti-TPO antibodies titer, a marked increase in IgG anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies, with no typical changes in cellular immunity, negative T-SPOT-TB test, HLA - A*01; B*08; DRB1*03; DQB1*02, karyotype - 46, XY. We present a rare case of partial IgA deficiency with Addison's disease, hepatitis, thyroiditis and positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies. IgAD and some autoimmune disorders share several predisposing HLA genes, thus explaining the increased prevalence of IgAD in certain patient groups.

  4. Multiplexed Anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA Assay on Plasmonic Gold Chips: towards Making Mass Screening Possible with Dye Test Precision

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyang; Pomares, Christelle; Gonfrier, Géraldine; Koh, Byumseok; Zhu, Shoujun; Gong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii that can lead to severe sequelae in the fetus during pregnancy. Definitive serologic diagnosis of the infection during gestation is made mostly by detecting T. gondii-specific antibodies, including IgG and IgM, individually in a single serum sample by using commercially available kits. The IgA test is used by some laboratories as an additional marker of acute infection. Most of the commercial tests have failed to reach 100% correlation with the reference method, the Sabin-Feldman dye test for the detection of Toxoplasma IgG antibodies. For Toxoplasma IgM and IgA antibodies, there is no reference method and their evaluation is done by comparing the results of one assay to those of another. There is a need for multiplexed assay platforms, as the serological diagnosis of T. gondii infection does not rely on the detection of a single Ig subtype. Here we describe the development of a plasmonic gold chip with vast fluorescence enhancement in the near-infrared region for simultaneous detection of IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies against T. gondii in an ∼1-μl serum or whole-blood sample. When 168 samples were tested on this platform, IgG antibody detection sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were all 100%. IgM antibody detection achieved 97.6% sensitivity and 96.9% specificity with a 90.9% PPV and a 99.2% NPV. Thus, the nanoscience-based plasmonic gold platform enables a high-performance, low-cost, multiplexed assay requiring ultrasmall blood volumes, paving the way for the implementation of universal screening for toxoplasmosis infection during gestation. PMID:27008879

  5. Timothy-specific IgG antibody levels vary with the pollen seasons.

    PubMed

    Nordvall, S L; Larsson, P H; Johansson, S G

    1986-11-01

    Serum samples were collected from eight grass pollen hypersensitive children during a 4-year period. The sera were assayed for contents of timothy-specific IgE antibodies by RAST. Timothy-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were quantified by a refined ELISA in which covalent binding of the antigen to the polystyrene solid phase had been performed. IgG antibodies were also assayed by a Sepharose-protein-A technique with radiolabelled timothy allergens as the antigen. It was possible to register clearcut seasonal variations with postseasonally boosted antibody levels not only of timothy-specific IgE but also of IgG antibody. Both IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies specific for timothy showed seasonal variations of a similar degree. It was not possible to register seasonal variations of the same magnitude of timothy-specific IgA antibodies.

  6. Epicutaneous sensitization with nematode antigens of fish parasites results in the production of specific IgG and IgE.

    PubMed

    Fontenelle, G; Knoff, M; Verícimo, M A; São Clemente, S C

    2018-07-01

    Fish consumption plays an important role in the human diet. Hoplias malabaricus, trahira, is a freshwater fish widely appreciated in several Brazilian states and it is frequently infected by Contracaecum multipapillatum third-instar larvae (L3). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the allergenic potential of the C. multipapillatum L3 crude extract (CECM). BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally (ip) with 10 or 50 μg CECM associated with 2 mg of aluminium hydroxide on days 0, 14 and 48. The determination of specific IgG and IgE antibody levels was done after immunization, and the late immunity was evaluated by the intradermal reaction in the ear pavilion. Epicutaneous sensitization was performed in the dorsal region, with antigenic exposure via a Finn-type chamber, containing 100 μg of chicken ovum albumin (OVA) or 100 μg CECM. After the exposures, the specific antibody levels were determined. In the ip immunization, there was a gradual increase in IgG antibody levels, independent of CECM concentration. In relation to IgE production, it was transitory, and immunization with 10 μg was more efficient than that of 50 μg. The same result was observed in the cellular hypersensitivity reaction. In the case of antigen exposure by the epicutaneous route, it was verified that only CECM was able to induce detectable levels of specific IgG and IgE antibodies. In the present study it was demonstrated that both intraperitoneal immunization and epicutaneous contact with C. multipapillatum larval antigens are potentially capable of inducing allergic sensitization in mice.

  7. IgM, IgG and IgA rheumatoid factors and circulating immune complexes in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex with serological abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Procaccia, S; Lazzarin, A; Colucci, A; Gasparini, A; Forcellini, P; Lanzanova, D; Foppa, C U; Novati, R; Zanussi, C

    1987-01-01

    To investigate some humoral aspects which may reflect the involvement of B lymphocytes in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), we used an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) to determine the levels of IgM, IgG and IgA rheumatoid factors (RF) in 16 patients suffering from full-blown AIDS and 32 patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC), in the clinical form of lymphoadenopathy syndrome (LAS), compared with 40 healthy, young heterosexual subjects. Both AIDS and ARC patients showed a greater incidence of high IgM RF levels, with mean values significantly higher than controls, but with no differences between the two pathological groups. IgG RF behaviour was similar in the two patient populations and the healthy subjects. IgA RF were significantly raised in AIDS and ARC. Further information on RF was obtained by determination of the immunoglobulin levels of the respective isotypes in the same patients. Mean IgG levels were above normal in AIDS and ARC patients, but the latter group showed a higher incidence of increased values and higher mean levels. The IgA isotype was significantly increased mainly in AIDS patients. The behaviour of IgM was virtually the same in the three groups studied. A difference between AIDS and ARC patients was established by the detection of circulating immune-complexes (IC) by the C1q-binding and CIC-conglutinin assays. IC were significantly high, by both methods, only in the ARC group, but normal or very low in AIDS. These overall findings suggest once again the impairment of B cell function in AIDS, with prevalent hyperactivation in ARC and exhaustion in full-blown AIDS, and apparent preservation, in the latter group, of the antibody responses which are more closely related to the activity of subsets of T helper cells. PMID:3608224

  8. Detection of IgA antibodies and quantification of IgA antibody-producing cells specific for ovalbumin or Trichinella spiralis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Van Loveren, H; Osterhaus, A D; Nagel, J; Schuurman, H J; Vos, J G

    1988-09-01

    This report describes procedures to quantify IgA responses in the rat sensitized to ovalbumin or infected with the parasite Trichinella spiralis: an ELISPOT detecting specific IgA antibody-producing cells in lymph nodes, and an ELISA demonstrating IgA antibody in serum and gut mucosal scrapings. For this purpose a mouse monoclonal anti-rat IgA antibody was produced. This IgG1-kappa 1 antibody recognized rat IgA but not rat IgM, IgG, or IgE. It proved very suitable in both assays. Using this reagent we could demonstrate large numbers of IgA anti-ovalbumin-producing cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes 15 days after sensitization to ovalbumin via the Peyer's patches. At 28 days after sensitization the numbers were much lower. IgA antibody titres to ovalbumin in serum were maximal between days 14 and 21 after immunization. Maximal numbers of IgA anti-T. spiralis-producing cells were found in the mesenteric lymph nodes 12 days after infection with muscle larvae, followed by a sharp decrease at 15 days. Maximal IgA anti-T. spiralis antibody titres in serum and mucus scrapings of small intestines were found on days 10 and 12 after oral infection with the parasite.

  9. Mannan adjuvants intranasally administered inactivated influenza virus in mice rendering low doses inductive of strong serum IgG and IgA in the lung.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, Owen; Esparon, Sandra; Tang, Choon-Kit; Laurie, Karen; Barr, Ian; Pietersz, Geoffrey

    2015-02-26

    H1N1 influenza viruses mutate rapidly, rendering vaccines developed in any given year relatively ineffective in subsequent years. Thus it is necessary to generate new vaccines every year, but this is time-consuming and resource-intensive. Should a highly virulent influenza strain capable of human-to-human transmission emerge, these factors will severely limit the number of people that can be effectively immunised against that strain in time to prevent a pandemic. An adjuvant and mode of administration capable of rendering ordinarily unprotective vaccine doses protective would thus be highly advantageous. The carbohydrate mannan was conjugated to whole inactivated H1N1 influenza virus at a range of ratios, and mixed with it at a range of ratios, and various doses of the resulting preparations were administered to mice via the intranasal (IN) route. Serum immunity was assessed via antigen-specific IgG ELISA and the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay, and mucosal immunity was assessed via IgA ELISA of bronchio-alveolar lavages. IN-administered inactivated H1N1 mixed with mannan induced higher serum IgG and respiratory-tract IgA than inactivated H1N1 conjugated to mannan, and HIN1 alone. Adjuvantation was mannan-dose-dependent, with 100 μg of mannan adjuvanting 1 μg of H1N1 more effectively than 10 or 50 μg of mannan. Serum samples from mice immunised with 1 μg H1N1 adjuvanted with 10 μg mannan did not inhibit agglutination of red blood cells (RBCs) at a dilution factor of 10 in the HI assay, but samples resulting from adjuvantation with 50 and 100 μg mannan inhibited agglutination at dilution factors of ≥ 40. Both serum IgG1 and IgG2a were induced by IN mannan-adjuvanted H1N1 vaccination, suggesting the induction of humoral and cellular immunity. Mixing 100 μg of mannan with 1 μg of inactivated H1N1 adjuvanted the vaccine in mice, such that IN immunisation induced higher serum IgG and respiratory tract IgA than immunisation with virus alone. The

  10. Epicutaneous immunization with ovalbumin and CpG induces TH1/TH17 cytokines, which regulate IgE and IgG2a production

    PubMed Central

    Majewska-Szczepanik, Monika; Askenase, Philip W.; Lobo, Francis M.; Marcińska, Katarzyna; Wen, Li; Szczepanik, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy is a standard route for the immunotherapy of allergic diseases. It modulates the course of allergy and can generate long-term remission. However, subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy can also induce anaphylaxis in some patients, and therefore additional routes of administration should be investigated to improve the safety and tolerability of immunotherapy. Objective We sought to determine whether epicutaneous treatment with antigen in the presence of a Toll-like receptor 9 agonist can suppress TH2-mediated responses in an antigen-specific manner. Methods Epicutaneous immunization was performed by applying a skin patch soaked with ovalbumin (OVA) plus CpG, and its suppressor activity was determined by using the mouse model of atopic dermatitis. Finally, adoptive cell transfers were implemented to characterize the regulatory cells that are induced by epicutaneous immunization. Results Epicutaneous immunization with OVA and CpG reduces the production of OVA-specific IgE and increases the synthesis of OVA-specific IgG2a antibodies in an antigen-specific manner. Moreover, eosinophil peroxidase activity in the skin and production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13 are suppressed. The observed reduction of IgE synthesis is transferable with T-cell receptor (TCR) αβ+CD4+CD25− cells, whereas IgG2a production is dependent on both TCRαβ+ and TCRγδ+ T cells. Further experiments show that the described phenomenon is myeloid differentiation primary response 88, IFN-γ, and IL-17A dependent. Finally, the results suggest that epicutaneous immunization with OVA and CpG decreases the synthesis of OVA-specific IgE and skin eosinophil peroxidase activity in mice with ongoing skin allergy. Conclusion Epicutaneous application of protein antigen in the presence of adjuvant could be an attractive needle-free and self-administered immunotherapy for allergic diseases. PMID:26810716

  11. [Serum levels of antibodies for IgG, IgA, and IgM against the fungi antigen in psoriasis vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yun-sheng; Wen, Hai-quan; Xiao, Rong

    2003-12-01

    To detect the serum levels of antibodies against Malassezia further and Candida albicans in patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PV), and to investigate the relationship between Malassezia furfur or Candida albicans and pathogenesis of PV. The serum levels of antibodies for IgG, IgA, and IgM against the whole cell antigen Wag and soluble antigen (Sag) of Malassezia fufur and Candida albicans in 40 PV patients and 20 healthy controls were detected by indirect-ELISA, RESULTS: The serum levels of IgG against Wag of Malassezia furfur and Candida albicans were significantly higher in PV patients than those in the healthy controls (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively), The serum levels of IgM against Sag of Malassezia furfur and Candida albican, IgA against Sag of Candida albicans were significantly lower in PV patients than those in the healthy controls (P < 0.05). There are some humoral immunity abnormalties in PV patients. Malassezia furfur and Candida albicans may be related to the pathogenesis of PV.

  12. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) enhances class switching to IgE and IgG4 in the presence of T cells via IL-9 and sCD23.

    PubMed

    Jeannin, P; Delneste, Y; Lecoanet-Henchoz, S; Gretener, D; Bonnefoy, J Y

    1998-02-15

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a B-cell growth factor produced by both bone marrow stroma cells and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) located in primary lymphoid follicles and germinal centers. In this study, we have evaluated the role of IL-7 on human Ig class switching. IL-7 was added to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or tonsillar B cells in the absence or presence of IL-4 and/or anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody (MoAb). Alone, IL-7 did not affect Ig production by PBMCs or by anti-CD40 MoAb-stimulated B cells. Rather, IL-7 potentiated IL-4-induced IgE and IgG4 production by PBMCs. In parallel, IgG3 production was also enhanced but to a lesser extent, whereas the production of the other isotypes was unaltered. The activity of IL-2, IL-9, or IL-15, which share usage of the common gamma chain for signaling, was also assessed. IL-9, like IL-7, potentiated mainly IgE and IgG4 production by IL-4-stimulated PBMCs. IL-15, in contrast, was ineffective, whereas IL-2 enhanced the production of all isotypes. More precisely, IL-7 potentiation of IgE and IgG4 production required the presence of T cells and was accompanied by an increase of the expression of two soluble molecules favoring preferentially IgE and IgG4 synthesis: CD23 (sCD23) and IL-9. Moreover, neutralizing anti-CD23 and anti-IL-9 antibodies partly inhibited the increase of IgE synthesis induced by IL-7. Thus, IL-7 produced locally in the germinal centers by FDCs may interact with T cells and potentiate human IgE and IgG4 switching by favoring IL-9 and sCD23 production.

  13. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection by using pyloriset EIA-G and EIA-A for detection of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Granberg, C; Mansikka, A; Lehtonen, O P; Kujari, H; Grönfors, R; Nurmi, H; Räihä, I; Ståhlberg, M R; Leino, R

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of new enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits (Pyloriset; Orion Corporation, Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland) for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies to Helicobacter pylori in serum. Serum samples from 195 patients with upper abdominal complaints were collected. Biopsy specimens of the gastric mucosae were taken for histological analysis and bacterial culture. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values, and efficacy of the Pyloriset EIA-G in detecting IgG antibodies to H. pylori were 92, 84, 88, 90, and 89%, respectively, when compared with those of the reference methods used. The corresponding data for detection of IgA antibodies were 80, 89, 89, 79, and 84%, respectively. The overall prevalence of defined H. pylori positivity was 54%. Moreover, the antibody tests showed a very good correlation with the biopsy findings. IgG antibodies were found in 93% of sera from patients with documented gastritis and H. pylori positivity, whereas only 4% of the sera from patients with documented gastritis and H. pylori-negative patients was positive. The results obtained for IgA antibodies were 81 and 6%, respectively. We conclude that the Pyloriset EIA-G, the test for IgG antibodies, is a good and reliable test for the detection of antibodies to H. pylori and as an indication of H. pylori infection. The determination of IgA antibodies may be used as a test that complements the IgG antibody assay. PMID:8314985

  14. Comparison of the Specificities of IgG, IgG-Subclass, IgA and IgM Reactivities in African and European HIV-Infected Individuals with an HIV-1 Clade C Proteome-Based Array

    PubMed Central

    Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Fauland, Kerstin; Wollmann, Eva; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter; Sibanda, Elopy; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive set of recombinant proteins and peptides of the proteome of HIV-1 clade C was prepared and purified and used to measure IgG, IgG-subclass, IgA and IgM responses in HIV-infected patients from Sub-Saharan Africa, where clade C is predominant. As a comparison group, HIV-infected patients from Europe were tested. African and European patients showed an almost identical antibody reactivity profile in terms of epitope specificity and involvement of IgG, IgG subclass, IgA and IgM responses. A V3-peptide of gp120 was identified as major epitope recognized by IgG1>IgG2 = IgG4>IgG3, IgA>IgM antibodies and a C-terminal peptide represented another major peptide epitope for the four IgG subclasses. By contrast, gp41-derived-peptides were mainly recognized by IgG1 but not by the other IgG subclasses, IgA or IgM. Among the non-surface proteins, protease, reverse transcriptase+RNAseH, integrase, as well as the capsid and matrix proteins were the most frequently and strongly recognized antigens which showed broad IgG subclass and IgA reactivity. Specificities and magnitudes of antibody responses in African patients were stable during disease and antiretroviral treatment, and persisted despite severe T cell loss. Using a comprehensive panel of gp120, gp41 peptides and recombinant non-surface proteins of HIV-1 clade C we found an almost identical antibody recognition profile in African and European patients regarding epitopes and involved IgG-sublass, IgA- and IgM-responses. Immune recognition of gp120 peptides and non-surface proteins involved all four IgG subclasses and was indicative of a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. The HIV-1 clade C proteome-based test allowed diagnosis and monitoring of antibody responses in the course of HIV-infections and assessment of isotype and subclass responses. PMID:25658330

  15. Different Dynamics for IgG and IgA Memory B Cells in Adolescents following a Meningococcal Serogroup C Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Booster Vaccination Nine Years after Priming: A Role for Priming Age?

    PubMed Central

    Stoof, Susanne P.; Buisman, Anne-Marie; van Rooijen, Debbie M.; Boonacker, Rianne; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antibody levels wane rapidly after Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenCC) vaccination in young children, rendering the need for an adolescent booster dose. It is not clear whether circulating memory B cells are associated with persistence of MenC-specific antibody levels. Methods Measurement of MenC-specific IgG and IgA memory B cells and levels of serum and salivary MenC-specific IgG and IgA in healthy 10-, 12- and 15-year-olds prior to and one month and one year after a MenCC booster vaccination. All participants had received a primary MenCC vaccination nine years earlier. Results The number of circulating MenC-specific IgG memory B cells prior to booster was low and not predictive for MenC-specific IgG responses in serum or saliva post-booster, whereas the number of MenC-specific IgA memory B cells pre-booster positively correlated with MenC-specific IgA levels in saliva post-booster (R = 0.5, P<0.05). The booster induced a clear increase in the number of MenC-specific IgG and IgA memory B cells. The number of MenC-PS-specific IgG memory B cells at 1 month post-booster was highest in the 12-year-olds. The number of MenC-specific memory B cells at one month post-booster showed no correlation with the rate of MenC-specific antibody decay throughout the first year post-booster. Conclusions Circulating MenC-specific IgA memory B cells correlate with IgA responses in saliva, whereas circulating MenC-specific IgG memory B cells are not predictive for MenC-specific IgG responses in serum or saliva. Our results are suggestive for age-dependent differences in pre-existing memory against MenC. PMID:26458006

  16. Different Dynamics for IgG and IgA Memory B Cells in Adolescents following a Meningococcal Serogroup C Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Booster Vaccination Nine Years after Priming: A Role for Priming Age?

    PubMed

    Stoof, Susanne P; Buisman, Anne-Marie; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Boonacker, Rianne; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2015-01-01

    Antibody levels wane rapidly after Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenCC) vaccination in young children, rendering the need for an adolescent booster dose. It is not clear whether circulating memory B cells are associated with persistence of MenC-specific antibody levels. Measurement of MenC-specific IgG and IgA memory B cells and levels of serum and salivary MenC-specific IgG and IgA in healthy 10-, 12- and 15-year-olds prior to and one month and one year after a MenCC booster vaccination. All participants had received a primary MenCC vaccination nine years earlier. The number of circulating MenC-specific IgG memory B cells prior to booster was low and not predictive for MenC-specific IgG responses in serum or saliva post-booster, whereas the number of MenC-specific IgA memory B cells pre-booster positively correlated with MenC-specific IgA levels in saliva post-booster (R = 0.5, P<0.05). The booster induced a clear increase in the number of MenC-specific IgG and IgA memory B cells. The number of MenC-PS-specific IgG memory B cells at 1 month post-booster was highest in the 12-year-olds. The number of MenC-specific memory B cells at one month post-booster showed no correlation with the rate of MenC-specific antibody decay throughout the first year post-booster. Circulating MenC-specific IgA memory B cells correlate with IgA responses in saliva, whereas circulating MenC-specific IgG memory B cells are not predictive for MenC-specific IgG responses in serum or saliva. Our results are suggestive for age-dependent differences in pre-existing memory against MenC.

  17. Patch testing and allergen-specific serum IgE and IgG antibodies in the diagnosis of canine adverse food reactions.

    PubMed

    Bethlehem, Simone; Bexley, Jennifer; Mueller, Ralf S

    2012-02-15

    Adverse food reaction (AFR) is a common differential diagnosis for pruritic dogs. The only way to diagnose AFR is an elimination diet of 6-8 weeks with a protein and a carbohydrate source not previously fed. In humans, patch testing has been shown to be a useful tool to diagnose food allergies. In veterinary medicine, serum food allergen-specific antibody testing is widely offered to identify suitable ingredients for such diets. The aim of this study was to determine sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictability of patch testing with and serum antibody testing for a variety of common food stuffs. Twenty-five allergic dogs underwent an elimination diet and individual rechallenge with selected food stuffs, food patch testing and serum testing for food-antigen specific IgE and IgG. Eleven clinically normal control dogs only were subjected to patch and serum testing. The sensitivity and specificity of the patch test were 96.7 and 89.0% respectively, negative and positive predictability were 99.3 and 63.0%. For IgE and IgG the sensitivity was 6.7 and 26.7%, specificity were 91.4 and 88.3%, the negative predictive values 80.7 and 83.7% and the positive predictive values were 15.4 and 34.8%. Based on these results, a positive reaction of a dog on these tests is not very helpful, but a negative result indicates that this antigen is tolerated well. We conclude that patch testing (and to a lesser degree serum testing) can be helpful in choosing ingredients for an elimination diet in a dog with suspected AFR. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of single IgA and IgG antibody concentrations for early diagnosis of pertussis in adults: an evaluation for outbreak management in public health practice

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Paul LJM; Stals, Frans S; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Richardus, Jan H

    2007-01-01

    Background An accurate, practical laboratory test is needed to confirm clinical diagnosis of pertussis in adults during the first 3 symptomatic weeks, when treatment is effective and transmission can be interrupted. Methods The sensitivity and specificity of single IgA and IgG levels were assessed in a cohort study of a pertussis epidemic in 99 adults in a closed community. Sensitivities were assessed in the sera of 46 laboratory confirmed clinical pertussis cases during the first 3 weeks. Specificities were calculated in sera of 35 asymptomatic controls without clinical symptoms or laboratory confirmed infections from the same community (internal controls). We compared these specificities with the specificities of single IgA and IgG levels in 4275 external controls from a cross-section of the general Dutch population aged 21–79 years who had not coughed for more than 2 weeks in the past year, and without pertussis diagnoses. The study was done in the Netherlands when whole-cell pertussis vaccine was used in the national vaccination programme. Results Levels of 24 U/ml for IgA and 27 U/ml for IgG gave sensitivities of 100% and 75%, respectively, in the first 2 weeks, 100% in the third week, and 97% after the fourth week. The levels were reached within 2 days after onset of increase, and remained above these levels for roughly 7.2 and 5.1 months, respectively. Specificity was 82% for IgA and 89% for IgG in the internal controls and 90% in the external controls, respectively. Conclusion We suggest levels of 24 U/ml for IgA level and 27 U/ml (= 27 International Units (IU)/ml) for IgG as sensitive, specific, and practical for laboratory confirmation of clinical pertussis in adults in the first 3 weeks of outbreak management. PMID:17553132

  19. Development of an ELISA for sensitive and specific detection of IgA autoantibodies against BP180 in pemphigoid diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pemphigoids are rare diseases associated with IgG, IgE and IgA autoantibodies against collagen XVII/BP180. An entity of the pemphigoid group is the lamina lucida-type of linear IgA disease (IgA pemphigoid) characterized by IgA autoantibodies against BP180. While for the detection of IgG and IgE autoantibodies specific to collagen XVII several ELISA systems have been established, no quantitative immunoassay has been yet developed for IgA autoantibodies. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop an ELISA to detect IgA autoantibodies against collagen XVII in the sera of patients with pemphigoids. Methods We expressed a soluble recombinant form of the collagen XVII ectodomain in mammalian cells. Reactivity of IgA autoantibodies from patients with IgA pemphigoid was assessed by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analysis. ELISA test conditions were determined by chessboard titration experiments. The sensitivity, specificity and the cut-off were determined by receiver-operating characteristics analysis. Results The optimized assay was carried out using sera from patients with IgA pemphigoid (n = 30) and healthy donors (n = 105). By receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, an area under the curve of 0.993 was calculated, indicating an excellent discriminatory capacity. Thus, a sensitivity and specificity of 83.3% and 100%, respectively, was determined for a cut-off point of 0.48. As additional control groups, sera from patients with bullous pemphigoid (n = 31) and dermatitis herpetiformis (n = 50), a disease associated with IgA autoantibodies against epidermal transglutaminase, were tested. In 26% of bullous pemphigoid patients, IgA autoantibodies recognized the ectodomain of collagen XVII. One of 50 (2%) of dermatitis herpetiformis patients sera slightly topped the cut-off value. Conclusions We developed the first ELISA for the specific and sensitive detection of serum IgA autoantibodies specific to collagen XVII in patients

  20. Serum IgG subclass antibodies to a variety of food antigens in patients with coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hvatum, M; Scott, H; Brandtzaeg, P

    1992-01-01

    Levels of serum IgA, IgG, and IgG subclass antibodies to a variety of dietary antigens were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays in 14 adults with untreated coeliac disease and in 10 disease controls selected because of raised total IgG activities. The untreated coeliacs showed somewhat higher total IgG activity (p approximately 0.05) and significantly raised IgA and IgG1 + IgG3 activities to gliadin but reduced IgG4 activity (p less than 0.02) compared with the controls. High IgA and IgG1 + IgG3 activities were positively correlated (r = 0.67, p less than 0.01), and so were IgG and IgG4 activities (r = 0.64, p less than 0.02). Conversely, a high IgG2 response to gliadin appeared related to a low IgA response (r = 0.55, p less than 0.05). The IgG2 response was most prominent to oat flour antigens, followed by IgG1; and the main response to soy antigens resided in IgG1, followed by IgG2 in both disease groups. There was no difference in antibody activities to oat and soy between the two groups, and raised activity to bovine serum albumin was seldom encountered. The IgA activity to alpha-lactalbumin and ovalbumin tended to be increased in the coeliacs compared with the controls. The IgG4 subclass dominated the IgG response to beta-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin and was often raised to alpha-lactalbumin, especially in the disease controls. The IgG subclass pattern to casein parallelled that to gliadin with dominance of the IgG1- and IgG3-subclass activities, especially in the coeliacs. The phlogistic potential of a response in these two subclasses might be relevant to the pathogenesis of coeliac disease and could contribute to a raised IgA gliadin response by increasing mucosal permeability. IgA activity seemed to be highest against antigens usually involved in IgE mediated food allergy. PMID:1612478

  1. The relationship of the p–k titre to the serum ige level in patients with leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Hamburger, R. N.; Fernandez-Cruz, E.; Arnaiz, A.; Perez, B.; Bootello, A.

    1974-01-01

    Fifty patients with leprosy were found to have P–K titres inversely related to their serum IgE levels. Patients with leprosy react in a manner similar to normal individuals and to patients with other diseases. Serum IgG, IgM, IgA and complement were measured in twenty-five of the leprosy patients in addition to the serum IgE and only the IgG significantly positively correlated with the serum IgE. All of these leprosy patients were shown to react to exogenous histamine and they released endogenous histamine when chemically stimulated. Two patients had absent flare responses with normal weals, the remaining forty-eight had complete weal and flare responses. Higher serum IgE levels were noted in those patients with recent institution of chemotherapy. PMID:4143279

  2. [Comparison of echocardiographic findings in AVS patients with and without high IgG, IgM, IgA titers against Chlamydia pneumoniae during 12 months' observation of AVS natural course].

    PubMed

    Swierszcz, Jolanta; Dubiel, Jacek S; Krzysiek, Józef; Sztefko, Krystyna; Galicka-Latała, Danuta; Roman, Pfitzner; Podolec, Piotr; Wodniecki, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of echocardiographic findings in AVS patients with and without high IgG, IgM, IgA titers against Chlamydia pneumoniae during 12 months' observation of AVS natural course. 60 AVS patients who did not agree for operational treatment were divided into group A (30 patients with high IgG titer) group B (30 patients with low IgG titer), group C (22 patients with high IgA titer) group D (38 patients with low IgA titer), group E (7 patients with high IgM titer), group F (53 patients with low IgA titer) Antibodies titers and echocardiographic scans were carried out every 12 months. There were more (p < 0.02) patients with AVS deterioration in group A compared to group B. Group A patients had lower left ventricle posteriori wall systolic diameter compared to group B. There were no differences in echocardiographic parameters between group C and D. Mean ejection fraction was lower and mean right atrium diameter was higher in group E compared to group F. The results may suggest link between Chlamydia pneumoniae and deterioration of AVS.

  3. [Analysis of Relationship between Serum Total Light Chain κ/λ Ratio and Proportion of Bone Marrow Plasma Cells in Patients with IgG type and IgA type Multiple Myeloma].

    PubMed

    Zhu, An-You; Zhu, Fang-Bing; Wang, Feng-Chao; Zhang, Lun-Jun; Ma, Yue; Hu, Jian-Guo

    2017-10-01

    To explore the relationship between serum total light chain κ/λ ratio (sTLC-κ/λ) and proportion of bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) in patients with IgG type and IgA type multiple myeloma (MM) and its clinical significance. The levels of serum IgG, IgA, κ type and λ type total light chain were detected in 79 newly diagnosed patients with IgG type (n=52) and IgA type (n=27) MM by immuno-nephelometric assay and the sTLC-κ/λ ratio was calculated. The proportion of BMPC was determined by bone marrow smears in the corresponding period, and the changes in sTLC-κ/λ ratio and the proportion of BMPC were observed in 19 patients with IgG type(n=16) and IgA type (n=3) MM undergoing treatment, 26 cases of non-phasmocytic proliferative diseases were enrolled in control group. In MM patients with IgGκ type and IgAκ type, the sTLC-κ/λ ratio was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01), while in MM patients with IgGλ type and IgAλ type, the sTLC-κ/λ ratio was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.01). In MM patients with IgGκ, the sTLC-κ/λ ratio was significantly higher than that in MM patients with IgAκ(P<0.01), while the sTLC-κ/λ ratio in MM patients with IgGλ was significantly lower than that in MM patients with IgAλ. The sTLC-κ/λ ratios in MM patients with IgGκ and IgAκ were positively correlated with the concentrations of IgG (r=0.778,P=0.000) and IgA (r=0.601,P=0.039), while the sTLC-κ/λ ratios of patients with IgGλ and IgAλ were negativily correlated with the IgG(r=-0.586,P=0.01) and IgA level(r=-0.718,P=0.003). In addition, a correlation between each type MM was not found except the IgGκ type MM which had a positive correlation between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and proportion of BMPC (r=0.579,P=0.002). Nonetheless, 18 of 19 patients with IgG type and IgA type MM undergoing treatment showed concordance between the sTLC-κ/λ ratio and proportion of BMPC change. There is a lower correlation between the s

  4. [Detection of split products of the immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM during chronic otitis media (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kastenbauer, E R; Hochgesand, K; Hochstrasser, K; Tappermann, G

    1975-07-01

    Proteolytic enzymes such as pepsine or papaine are able to split IgG antibodies into large fragments in vitro. These immunoglobulin fragments (IgG, IgA, IgM) were now detected in vivo from the purulent secretions of cholesteatoma, chronic otitis media and radical mastoid cavities. During chronic otitis media the intact immunoglobulins are split due to the proteolytic activity of neutral proteinases. These fragments were qualitatively and quantitatively investigated by means of various immunological procedures. After the immunoelectrophoretic separation of the purulent middle-ear-secretions and after diffusion against anti-IgG-, anti-IgA- and anti-IgM- serum double precipitate lines could be observed especially in middle-ear-secretion with a bacterial flora of pseudomonas aeruginosa (pyocyanea) and of the proteus-providencia-group. This was the first proof of the presence of split products of the immunoglobulins. The exact demonstration of these split products could be carried out by gel-filtration and fractionation of the intact and split immunoglobulins. During chronic otitis media intact immunoglobulins are split by leucocytic and extracellular bacterial proteinases into fragments of different molecular weight. The most malignant extracellular proteinases with the greatest proteolytic activity against intact immunoglobulins are the bacterial proteinases of pseudomonas aeruginosa. These proteinases can not be inhibited by the other serum proteinaseinhibitors except for alpha-2-macroglobulin of the human blood serum. This inhibitor has a very high molecular weight so that we can not find it in a higher concentration in the middle-ear-secretion. We can liberate this inhibitor by injuring the blood vessels during a tympanoplasty. In this way we get an inhibitory effect against these proteinases and combined with an appropriate antibiotic therapy we can cure a chronic otitis media.

  5. HIV-1 evades virus-specific IgG2 and IgA class switching by targeting systemic and intestinal B cells via long-range intercellular conduits

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weifeng; Santini, Paul A.; Sullivan, John S.; He, Bing; Shan, Meimei; Ball, Susan C.; Dyer, Wayne B.; Ketas, Thomas J.; Chadburn, Amy; Cohen-Gould, Leona; Knowles, Daniel M.; Chiu, April; Sanders, Rogier W.; Chen, Kang; Cerutti, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Contact-dependent communication between immune cells generates protection, but also facilitates viral spread. We found that macrophages formed long-range actin-propelled conduits in response to negative factor (Nef), a human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protein with immunosuppressive functions. Conduits attenuated immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) and IgA class switching in systemic and intestinal lymphoid follicles by shuttling Nef from infected macrophages to B cells through a guanine exchange factor-dependent pathway involving the amino-terminal anchor, central core and carboxy-terminal flexible loop of Nef. By showing stronger virus-specific IgG2 and IgA responses in patients harboring Nef-deficient virions, our data suggest that HIV-1 exploits intercellular highways as a “Trojan horse” to deliver Nef to B cells and evade humoral immunity systemically and at mucosal sites of entry. PMID:19648924

  6. Characterization of cytological changes, IgA, IgG and IL-8 levels and pH value in the vagina of prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen minipigs during an estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Grossi, Anette Blak; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Skytte, Christina; Erneholm, Karin; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-06-01

    The pig is increasingly used as an advanced animal model of the genital tract in women and knowledge on the genital immune system is therefore needed. In this study, evaluation of vaginal smears revealed that almost no neutrophils or other leukocytes were present in the vaginal mucosa of prepubertal minipigs (n = 10). In sexually mature minipigs (n = 10), evaluated through an estrous cycle, there was an increase in number of mucosal neutrophils and other leukocytes during estrus. The level of total IgA on the vaginal mucosa increased during diestrus. The level of total IgG showed no significant changes through the cycle. The vaginal IgA level in the prepubertal minipigs was similar to the low estrus level in sexually mature minipigs, and the IgG level in prepubertal was similar to the stable level in the sexually mature minipigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Effect of Broncho-Vaxom on serum IgE and IgG levels in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease. A placebo-controlled double-blind study].

    PubMed

    Weiss, S; Fux, T

    1987-09-26

    In a double-blind study of 33 patients with bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, of whom 17 had proven atopies, the results showed a distinct diminution of the mean IgE level in the atopic patients at the end of 1-month treatment with Broncho-Vaxom, though not attaining statistical significance (trend with p less than 0.10), compared to a slight increase under placebo. Simultaneously the mean IgG level increased slightly in the atopic patients under Broncho-Vaxom and remained stable in the patients under placebo (p less than 0.10). The IgE and IgG values of the non-atopic patients in both treatment groups remained practically unchanged. Considering the small number of patients in each group, and the clear tendency towards a diminution of the IgE level, it may be concluded that the administration of Broncho-Vaxom to atopic patients does not lead to an increased IgE level but, on the contrary, seems rather to favour a decrease.

  8. Role of Serum Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgA, IgM, and IgG in the Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-Related Pneumonia in School-Age Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei-Ju; Huang, Eng-Yen; Tsai, Chih-Min; Kuo, Kuang-Che; Huang, Yi-Chuan; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Niu, Chen-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important causative pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection is important so that appropriate antibiotic treatment can be initiated to reduce the misuse of drugs and resistance rates. Anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an indicator of recent primary infection but can persist for several months after initial infection. It has been suggested that anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin A (IgA) can be a reliable indicator for recent M. pneumoniae infection in adults. We investigated the clinical diagnostic value of M. pneumoniae IgA in school-age children and adolescents with M. pneumoniae-related pneumonia. Eighty children with pneumonia and seropositive for M. pneumoniae IgM or with a 4-fold increase of anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin G (IgG) were enrolled from May 2015 to March 2016. The titers of M. pneumoniae IgA, IgM, and IgG, the clinical features, and laboratory examinations of blood, C-reactive protein, and liver enzymes were analyzed. The initial positivity rates for M. pneumoniae IgM and IgA upon admission to the hospital were 63.6 and 33.8%, respectively. One week after admission, the cumulative positivity rates for M. pneumoniae IgM and IgA increased to 97.5 and 56.3%, respectively. Detection of M. pneumoniae IgM was more sensitive than detection of M. pneumoniae IgA for the diagnosis of M. pneumoniae-related pneumonia in school-age children and adolescents; however, paired sera are necessary for a more accurate diagnosis. PMID:27760779

  9. Serodiagnosis of Tuberculosis: Comparison of Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Response to Sulfolipid I with IgG and IgM Responses to 2,3-Diacyltrehalose, 2,3,6-Triacyltrehalose, and Cord Factor Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Julián, Esther; Matas, Lurdes; Pérez, Andrés; Alcaide, José; Lanéelle, Marie-Antoinette; Luquin, Marina

    2002-01-01

    Nonpeptidic antigens from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall are the focus of extensive studies to determine their potential role as protective antigens or serological markers of tuberculous disease. Regarding this latter role and using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we have made a comparative study of the immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibody responses to four trehalose-containing glycolipids purified from M. tuberculosis: diacyltrehaloses, triacyltrehaloses, cord factor, and sulfolipid I (SL-I). Sera from 92 tuberculosis patients (taken before starting antituberculosis treatment) and a wide group of control individuals (84 sera from healthy donors, including purified protein derivative-negative, -positive, healed, and vaccinated individuals, and 52 sera from nontuberculous pneumonia patients), all from Spain, were studied. The results indicated a significantly elevated IgG and IgA antibody response in tuberculosis patients, compared with controls, with all the antigens used. SL-I was the best antigen studied, showing test sensitivities and specificities for IgG of 81 and 77.6%, respectively, and of 66 and 87.5% for IgA. Using this antigen and combining IgA and IgG antibody detection, high test specificity was achieved (93.7%) with a sensitivity of 67.5%. Currently, it is widely accepted that it is not possible to achieve sensitivities above 80% in tuberculosis serodiagnosis when using one antigen alone. Thus, we conclude that SL-I, in combination with other antigenic molecules, could be a useful antigen for tuberculosis serodiagnosis. PMID:12354881

  10. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgE-containing cells in human gastrointestinal fluids and tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, W R; Borthistle, B K; Chen, S T

    1975-01-01

    Human gastric, small intestinal, colonic and rectal mucosae were examined for IgE-containing cells by single- and double-antibody immunofluorescence techniques, and IgE in intesinal fluids was measured by a double-antibody radioimmunoassay. IgE-containing cells were identified in all tissue specimens and comprised about 2% of all immunoglobulin-containing cells. Although less numerous than cells containing IgA, IgM or IgG, they were remarkably numerous in relation to the concentration of IgE in serum (about 0-001% of total immunoglobulin). IgE immunocytes were significantly more numerous in stomach and proximal small bowel than in colon and rectum, and were very numerous at bases of gastric and duodenal peptic ulcers. Measurable IgE was found in seventy-eight of eighty-five (92%) intestinal fluids. Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation analysis of four of the fluids revealed that the immunologically reactive IgE was largely in fractions corresponding to molecules of lower molecular weight than that of albumin, which suggests that IgE in gut contents is degraded by proteolytic enzymes. The presence of IgE-forming cells in gastrointestinal tissues, and IgE or a fragment of IgE in intestinal fluids, suggests that IgE antibodies are available for participation in local reaginic-type reactions in the gut. Images FIG. 1 PMID:813925

  11. Local oral immunization with synthetic peptides induces a dual mucosal IgG and salivary IgA antibody response and prevents colonization of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, T; Haron, J; Bergmeier, L A; Mehlert, A; Beard, R; Dodd, M; Mielnik, B; Moore, S

    1989-01-01

    A small cell surface antigen of Streptococcus mutans was partially sequenced and the amino terminal peptides of 11, 15 and 20 amino acid residues and a dimer of the 15 and 20 residues peptides were synthesized. The synthetic peptides (SP) were used in topical oral immunization of the gingivomucosal epithelium of macaque monkeys. Sequential examination for antibodies over a period of up to 30 weeks revealed that six applications of the linear or cyclized SP11 and a random SP11 induced negligible or very low antibody levels. In contrast, the SP17 (SP15 with added cysteine at each terminus), SP21 (SP20 with one cysteine) and the dimer (SP35) induced significant anti-SP as well as anti-native streptococcal antibodies in the gingival fluid and in saliva. The functional significance of this immune response was examined by studying its effect on oral colonization of S. mutans following feeding of a carbohydrate-rich diet. Whereas control animals, sham-immunized with a random SP of 11 residues, showed increased colonization of the teeth by S. mutans, there was no colonization or a significant reduction in colonization of animals immunized with the cyclized SP17, linear SP21 or dimerized SP35. These experiments suggest that local immunization with SP derived from the sequences of a streptococcal cell surface antigen induce a dual local immune response of gingival IgG and salivary IgA antibodies against the SP and native SA. These antibodies may be involved in preventing colonization of S. mutans, which is the principal agent in the development of dental caries. PMID:2759661

  12. A nonallergenic birch pollen allergy vaccine consisting of hepatitis PreS-fused Bet v 1 peptides focuses blocking IgG toward IgE epitopes and shifts immune responses to a tolerogenic and Th1 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Marth, Katharina; Breyer, Isabella; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Blatt, Katharina; Shamji, Mohamed H; Layhadi, Janice; Gieras, Anna; Swoboda, Ines; Zafred, Domen; Keller, Walter; Valent, Peter; Durham, Stephen R; Valenta, Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only allergen-specific and disease-modifying treatment for allergy. The construction and characterization of a vaccine for birch pollen allergy is reported. Two nonallergenic peptides, PA and PB, derived from the IgE-reactive areas of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were fused to the hepatitis B surface protein, PreS, in four recombinant fusion proteins containing different numbers and combinations of the peptides. Fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity showed a lack of IgE reactivity and allergenic activity when tested with sera and basophils from patients allergic to birch pollen. Compared to Bet v 1 allergen, peptides PA and PB showed reduced T cell activation in PBMCs from allergic patients, whereas PreS fusion proteins induced less IL-5 and more IL-10 and IFN-γ. Immunization of rabbits with the fusion proteins, in particular with a PreS fusion protein 2PAPB-PreS, containing two copies of each peptide, induced high levels of IgG Abs against the major IgE-reactive site on Bet v 1 and related allergens. These IgG Abs inhibited allergic patients' IgE binding to Bet v 1 better than did IgG induced by immunization with complete Bet v 1. Furthermore, 2PAPB-PreS-induced IgG inhibited Bet v 1-induced basophil activation in allergic patients and CD23-facilitated allergen presentation. Our study exemplifies novel beneficial features for a PreS carrier-based peptide vaccine for birch pollen, which, in addition to the established reduction in allergenic activity, include the enhanced focusing of blocking Ab responses toward IgE epitopes, immunomodulatory activity, and reduction of CD23-facilitated allergen presentation.

  13. A Nonallergenic Birch Pollen Allergy Vaccine Consisting of Hepatitis PreS–Fused Bet v 1 Peptides Focuses Blocking IgG toward IgE Epitopes and Shifts Immune Responses to a Tolerogenic and Th1 Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Marth, Katharina; Breyer, Isabella; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Blatt, Katharina; Shamji, Mohamed H.; Layhadi, Janice; Gieras, Anna; Swoboda, Ines; Zafred, Domen; Keller, Walter; Valent, Peter; Durham, Stephen R.; Valenta, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only allergen-specific and disease-modifying treatment for allergy. The construction and characterization of a vaccine for birch pollen allergy is reported. Two nonallergenic peptides, PA and PB, derived from the IgE-reactive areas of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were fused to the hepatitis B surface protein, PreS, in four recombinant fusion proteins containing different numbers and combinations of the peptides. Fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity showed a lack of IgE reactivity and allergenic activity when tested with sera and basophils from patients allergic to birch pollen. Compared to Bet v 1 allergen, peptides PA and PB showed reduced T cell activation in PBMCs from allergic patients, whereas PreS fusion proteins induced less IL-5 and more IL-10 and IFN-γ. Immunization of rabbits with the fusion proteins, in particular with a PreS fusion protein 2PAPB-PreS, containing two copies of each peptide, induced high levels of IgG Abs against the major IgE-reactive site on Bet v 1 and related allergens. These IgG Abs inhibited allergic patients’ IgE binding to Bet v 1 better than did IgG induced by immunization with complete Bet v 1. Furthermore, 2PAPB-PreS–induced IgG inhibited Bet v 1–induced basophil activation in allergic patients and CD23-facilitated allergen presentation. Our study exemplifies novel beneficial features for a PreS carrier–based peptide vaccine for birch pollen, which, in addition to the established reduction in allergenic activity, include the enhanced focusing of blocking Ab responses toward IgE epitopes, immunomodulatory activity, and reduction of CD23-facilitated allergen presentation. PMID:23440415

  14. 469 Levels of IL-4, INF-&GAMMA; Total IGE and IGG4 in Serum of Allergic Children within Areas of Risk of Lead Exposure in Torreon Coahuila, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Chavez Villarreal, Karen Giselle; Hernandez, Jahzeel Avila; Goytia Acevedo, Raquel Concepción; Velazquez, Rocio Meza; Guillen, Mario Rivera; Jurado, Michelle Gomez; García-Arenas, Guadalupe; Maravilla-Domínguez, Aurora

    2012-01-01

    Background There are precedents to suggest that lead exposure may increase the severity of allergic disease in children. In Torreon Coahuila is known the problem of lead contamination and its association with the body burden in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and biochemical characteristics of allergic disease in children living in areas at risk of lead exposure. Methods We included children between 6 and 11 years old with clinical diagnosis of allergy, who were attending by allergic consultation in the Center of attention Heavy Metals in Torreon, Coahuila, Mexico. Medical evaluation was performed following the diagnostic criteria described by ARIA, Global Initiative for Asthma and the Hanifin and Rajka criteria for atopic dermatitis. Skin tests were applied to 47 common allergens in the region. Were quantified in serum, the levels of IL-4, IFN-γ and IgG4 by ELISA, total IgE levels by chemiluminescence and lead in blood by spectrophotometry AA. Results We present the results of 33 patients (16 girls/17 boys) aged 8 ± 1.38. The main risk factors for allergy were current animal contact (66.7%), past animal exposure (60.6%) and passive smoking (51.5%). The predominant allergy diseases: rhinitis (97%), conjunctivitis (43.8%) and atopic dermatitis (33.3%). The allergens with the higher prevalence of responses were: thickets (91.2%) and grass (88.2%). The average blood lead level was 4.36 μg/dL ± 2.13 and median total IgE 660 IU/mL. We present the analysis of the levels of cytokines, total IgE and IgG4 according to the types of allergy, severity and frequency of the disease. Conclusions IgE levels according to the type of allergic disease, severity and frequency seem to be related to the balance IL-4/INF g. The IgG4 seems to be positively related to total IgE levels in rhinitis, conjunctivitis and dermatitis and negatively with Asthma and other allergies. No association was found between blood lead levels and total IgE.

  15. Vaccine-elicited SIV and HIV envelope-specific IgA and IgG memory B cells in rhesus macaque peripheral blood correlate with functional antibody responses and reduced viremia

    PubMed Central

    Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; McKinnon, Katherine; Demberg, Thorsten; Venzon, David; Hidajat, Rachmat; Xiao, Peng; Daltabuit-Test, Mara; Patterson, L. Jean; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    An effective HIV vaccine requires strong systemic and mucosal, cellular and humoral immunity. Numerous non-human primate studies have investigated memory T cells, but not memory B cells. Humoral immunologic memory is mediated by long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and differentiation of memory B cells into short-lived plasma blasts following re-exposure to immunizing antigen. Here we studied memory B cells in vaccinated rhesus macaques. PBMC were stimulated polyclonally using CD40 Ligand, IL-21 and CpG to induce B cell proliferation and differentiation into antibody secreting cells (ASC). Flow cytometry was used for phenotyping and evaluating proliferation by CFSE dilution. B cell responses were quantified by ELISPOT. Methodology was established using PBMC of vaccinated elite-controller macaques that exhibited strong, multi-functional antibody activities. Subsequently, memory B cells elicited by two replicating Ad-recombinant prime/envelope boost regimens were retrospectively evaluated pre- and post- SIV and SHIV challenges. The vaccine regimens induced SIV and HIV Env-specific IgG and IgA memory B cells. Prior to challenge, IgA memory B cells were more numerous than IgG memory B cells, reflecting the mucosal priming immunizations. Pre- and post-challenge memory B cells were correlated with functional antibody responses including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cell-mediated viral inhibition (ADCVI) and transcytosis inhibition. Post-challenge, Env-specific IgG and IgA memory B cells were correlated with reduced chronic viremia. We conclude that functional antibody responses elicited by our prime/boost regimen were effectively incorporated into the memory B cell pool where they contributed to control of viremia following re-exposure to the immunizing antigen. PMID:21382487

  16. [Diagnosis of human brucellosis. Role of pH in the seroagglutination test and influence of pH on the agglutinating activity of IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies].

    PubMed

    Rubio Vallejo, Manuel; del Pozo, José L; Del Pozo León, José Luis; Hernández-Molina, Juan Manuel; Dorronsoro Ibero, Inés; Marrodán Ciordia, Teresa; Díaz García, Ramón

    2002-04-01

    To evaluate the role of pH in the seroagglutination test (SAT)and Rose Bengal (RB) test, and to determine the influence of pH on the agglutinating activity of IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies. The SAT was performed at pH 7.2 or pH 5.0 in standard microtiter-type polystyrene plates using Ring Test antigen or the Brucella suspension (BRUCAPT) provided in the Brucellacapt kits. Specific antibodies against native hapten were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Additionally, IgG, IgA and IgM fractions were separated from 8 sera by absorption chromatography and their agglutinating capacity was studied at pH 7.2 and 5.0. We studied 72 sera from patients with clinical brucellosis taken at the time of hospitalization, 16 from persons in contact with infected animals, and 16 from healthy donors. SAT results at pH 5.0 correlated with those obtained with the Rose Bengal test. Four Rose Bengal-positive sera were found to be SAT-negative at pH 7.2 and SAT-positive at pH 5.0. SAT performed at pH 5.0 with BRUCAPT antigen yielded higher titers than tests performed at pH 7.2 or 5.0 with Ring Test antigen (p < 0.001), with highest titers in IDR-positive sera. Among the 8 IgG fractions, all but one agglutinated at pH 7.2, and in 4, IgG titers showed significant increases at pH 5.0. Three IgA fractions were SAT-negative at pH 7.2 and SAT-positive at pH 5.0; the other 5 agglutinated at both pH conditions and were DTT-sensitive. All IgA fractions but one were positive by Rose Bengal. Agglutinating activity of the IgM fraction was not affected by pH. The SAT performed with the buffer and antigen suspension included in the Brucellacapt kit (pH 5.0) is highly useful for detecting agglutinating and non-agglutinating antibodies at pH 7.2.

  17. The significance of serum IgM IgA and IgG antibodies specific for Epstein-Barr virus as determined by immunoperoxidase assay in the rapid diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Hadar, T; Margalith, M; Sagiv, E; Sarov, B; Sarov, I

    1995-05-01

    The feasibility of using serum IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies specific to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen (VCA), as determined by immunoperoxidase assay (IPA), for the early diagnosis of mononucleosis was evaluated in 65 patients with infectious mononucleosis (IMN). Control groups consisted of 104 healthy students and 15 cytomegalovirus-infected patients. In the first serum sample obtained upon admission, IgM antibodies (titer > or = 64) to EBV VCA were found in 64 of the 65 IMN patients (98%), while EBV-VCA IgA antibodies (titer > or = 32) were found in 32 patients (49%). In those particular titers, no EBV-VCA IgM or IgA antibodies were found in any of the control sera. EBV-VCA-specific IgM antibodies were also not detected in any of the 15 patients with cytomegalovirus infection. In sera obtained from IMN patients within 10 days of the onset of symptoms, 18 of 19 (95%) were IgM seropositive. This study demonstrates that serum EBV-VCA IgM antibodies (titer > or = 64) as determined by IPA are highly specific (100%) and highly sensitive (98%) and can be of value for the early and rapid diagnosis of EBV-IMN infection.

  18. Vaccine-Induced Plasma IgA Specific for the C1 Region of the HIV-1 Envelope Blocks Binding and Effector Function of IgG

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-28

    uninfected vaccine recipients in RV144. Moreover, Env-specific IgA antibodies from RV144 vaccinees blocked the binding of ADCC-mediating mAb to HIV-1 Env... vaccine re- cipients in the case control study. There was a significantly greater number of infected vaccinees with IgA/IgG ratio >1e-02 (A1 Congp140 Env... vaccine efficacy. Second, we demonstrated that IgA mAbs isolated from RV144 vaccinees can both inhibit Env binding and block ADCC function of vaccine

  19. Optimization of incubation conditions of Plasmodium falciparum antibody multiplex assays to measure IgG, IgG1-4, IgM and IgE using standard and customized reference pools for sero-epidemiological and vaccine studies.

    PubMed

    Ubillos, Itziar; Jiménez, Alfons; Vidal, Marta; Bowyer, Paul W; Gaur, Deepak; Dutta, Sheetij; Gamain, Benoit; Coppel, Ross; Chauhan, Virander; Lanar, David; Chitnis, Chetan; Angov, Evelina; Beeson, James; Cavanagh, David; Campo, Joseph J; Aguilar, Ruth; Dobaño, Carlota

    2018-06-01

    The quantitative suspension array technology (qSAT) is a useful platform for malaria immune marker discovery. However, a major challenge for large sero-epidemiological and malaria vaccine studies is the comparability across laboratories, which requires the access to standardized control reagents for assay optimization, to monitor performance and improve reproducibility. Here, the Plasmodium falciparum antibody reactivities of the newly available WHO reference reagent for anti-malaria human plasma (10/198) and of additional customized positive controls were examined with seven in-house qSAT multiplex assays measuring IgG, IgG 1-4 subclasses, IgM and IgE against a panel of 40 antigens. The different positive controls were tested at different incubation times and temperatures (4 °C overnight, 37 °C 2 h, room temperature 1 h) to select the optimal conditions. Overall, the WHO reference reagent had low IgG2, IgG4, IgM and IgE, and also low anti-CSP antibody levels, thus this reagent was enriched with plasmas from RTS,S-vaccinated volunteers to be used as standard for CSP-based vaccine studies. For the IgM assay, another customized plasma pool prepared with samples from malaria primo-infected adults with adequate IgM levels proved to be more adequate as a positive control. The range and magnitude of IgG and IgG 1-4 responses were highest when the WHO reference reagent was incubated with antigen-coupled beads at 4 °C overnight. IgG levels measured in the negative control did not vary between incubations at 37 °C 2 h and 4 °C overnight, indicating no difference in unspecific binding. With this study, the immunogenicity profile of the WHO reference reagent, including seven immunoglobulin isotypes and subclasses, and more P. falciparum antigens, also those included in the leading RTS,S malaria vaccine, was better characterized. Overall, incubation of samples at 4 °C overnight rendered the best performance for antibody measurements against the antigens tested

  20. Detection of the Haemophilus somnus antibodies in the bulls' reproductive tract fluids using the ELISA. I. Elaboration of the ELISA for the detection of the specific antibodies in the IgG, IgM and IgA classes.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, T

    1993-01-01

    The conditions of the ELISA for detecting the Haemophilus somnus antibodies in IgG, IgM and IgA classes were elaborated. The test was adapted for examining the seminal plasma, preputial washings and blood serum samples of bulls. In order to obtain the more precise evaluation of results, the tests were made for two different dilutions of the examined material. The arising out of this method difficulty in the evaluation of the intensity of reaction was solved by introducing the specific, semi-quantitative method of classification, using the eleven-degree scale. The mean arithmetic classificational values calculated from absorbance readings were called "absorbance index". The introduced parameter proved to be especially useful while comparing the reaction of antibodies in reproductive tract fluids samples.

  1. Increased IgE serum levels are unrelated to allergic and parasitic diseases in patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Liphaus, Bernadete L; Jesus, Adriana A; Silva, Clovis A; Coutinho, Antonio; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the IgE serum levels in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients and to evaluate possible associations with clinical and laboratory features, disease activity and tissue damage. The IgE serum concentrations in 69 consecutive juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients were determined by nephelometry. IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations were measured by immunoturbidimetry. All patients were negative for intestinal parasites. Statistical analysis methods included the Mann-Whitney, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, as well as the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Increased IgE concentrations above 100 IU/mL were observed in 31/69 (45%) juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients. The mean IgE concentration was 442.0 ± 163.4 IU/ml (range 3.5-9936.0 IU/ml). Fifteen of the 69 patients had atopic disease, nine patients had severe sepsis and 56 patients presented with nephritis. The mean IgE level in 54 juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients without atopic manifestations was 271.6 ± 699.5 IU/ml, and only nine of the 31 (29%) patients with high IgE levels had atopic disease. The IgE levels did not statistically differ with respect to the presence of atopic disease, severe sepsis, nephritis, disease activity, or tissue damage. Interestingly, IgE concentrations were inversely correlated with C4 levels (r = -0.25, p = 0.03) and with the SLICC/ACR-DI score (r = -0.34, p = 0.005). The IgE concentration was also found to be directly correlated with IgA levels (r = 0.52, p = 0.03). The present study demonstrated for the first time that juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients have increased IgE serum levels. This increase in IgE levels was not related to allergic or parasitic diseases. Our results are in line with the hypothesis that high IgE levels can be considered a marker of immune dysregulation.

  2. Oral immunization with rotavirus VP7-CTB fusion expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana induces antigen-specific IgA and IgG and passive protection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuxian; Guan, Lili; Liu, Xiuming; Liu, Weican; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Fawei; Guo, Yongxin; Li, Haiyan; Li, Xiaokun

    2018-01-01

    Human rotavirus (HRV) is the primary cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. However, there is currently no protective virus for rotavirus available. In the present study, an HRVVP7-cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) fusion protein was expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. To determine the adjuvant effect of HRVVP7-CTB, HRVVP7 without CTB was expressed in the same manner. HRVVP7-CTB accounted for 0.39% of the total soluble protein (TSP) in the transgenic seeds and 52.65 µg/g of HRVVP7 protein was expressed in these seeds. Mice were immunized with TSP from the transformed seeds and produced serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal IgA specifically directed against HRVVP7. Antibody titers were highest in mice orally immunized with the plant-expressed HRVVP7-CTB protein, whereas HRVVP7-CTB-specific IgG neutralized the rotavirus. Suckling pups born from dams immunized with the HRVVP7-CTB fusion protein were protected against challenge with virulent rotavirus. The results of the present study suggest that the HRVVP7-CTB fusion protein produced in A. thaliana may be a rotaviral-specific candidate subunit vaccine. PMID:29805507

  3. Effect of filgrastim (recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor) on IgE responses in human asthma: a case study.

    PubMed

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Joks, Rauno; Norowitz, Kevin B; Chice, Seto; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H

    2013-10-01

    The role of peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization on Immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses has not been studied. Distributions of blood lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, CD8+CD60+, CD19+, CD23+, CD16/56+, CD25, CD45RA+, CD45RO+, CD34+), and levels of serum immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE) were studied in an allergic asthmatic serum IgE+ (181IU/mL) adult (m/45 y/o) donor undergoing routine stem cell mobilization protocol (American Society of Hematology) before (day-30), during (day 4), and after (1 wk post last dose) filgrastim (subcutaneous, 480 mcg, 2qd) treatment (flow cytometry, nephelometry, UniCAP Total IgE Fluoro enzyme immunoassay). On day 4 of filgrastim treatment, numbers of CD8+CD60+T cells and CD23+ blood cells dramatically increased (98% and 240% respectively) compared with pre treatment. In contrast on day 4 of treatment, serum IgE levels decreased (>50%) compared with pre treatment. CD8+CD60+T cells and CD23+ blood cells and serum IgE levels approached pre-treatment levels at 1 week post treatment. Filgrastim treatment transiently increases numbers of CD8+CD60+T and CD23+ expressing cells, which are known to regulate human IgE responses, while also transiently suppressing ongoing IgE responses. These results suggest that filgrastim affects IgE related responses, and may be useful in modulating allergic responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences in the Importance of Mast Cells, Basophils, IgE, and IgG versus That of CD4+ T Cells and ILC2 Cells in Primary and Secondary Immunity to Strongyloides venezuelensis.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kaori; Karasuyama, Hajime; Kabashima, Kenji; Kubo, Masato; Galli, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    There is evidence that mast cells, basophils, and IgE can contribute to immune responses to parasites; however, the relative levels of importance of these effector elements in parasite immunity are not fully understood. Previous work in Il3 -deficient and c- kit mutant Kit W / W-v mice indicated that interleukin-3 and c-Kit contribute to expulsion of the intestinal nematode Strongyloides venezuelensis during primary infection. Our findings in mast cell-deficient Kit W-sh / W-sh mice and two types of mast cell-deficient mice that have normal c- kit ("Hello Kit ty" and MasTRECK mice) confirmed prior work in Kit W / W-v mice that suggested that mast cells play an important role in S. venezuelensis egg clearance in primary infections. We also assessed a possible contribution of basophils in immune responses to S. venezuelensis By immunohistochemistry, we found that numbers of basophils and mast cells were markedly increased in the jejunal mucosa during primary infections with S. venezuelensis Studies in basophil-deficient Mcpt8 DTR mice revealed a small but significant contribution of basophils to S. venezuelensis egg clearance in primary infections. Studies in mice deficient in various components of immune responses showed that CD4 + T cells and ILC2 cells, IgG, FcRγ, and, to a lesser extent, IgE and FcεRI contribute to effective immunity in primary S. venezuelensis infections. These findings support the conclusion that the hierarchy of importance of immune effector mechanisms in primary S. venezuelensis infection is as follows: CD4 + T cells/ILC2 cells, IgG, and FcRγ>mast cells>IgE and FcεRI>basophils. In contrast, in secondary S. venezuelensis infection, our evidence indicates that the presence of CD4 + T cells is of critical importance but mast cells, antibodies, and basophils have few or no nonredundant roles. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Intranasal coadministration of Cholera toxin with amoeba lysates modulates the secretion of IgA and IgG antibodies, production of cytokines and expression of pIgR in the nasal cavity of mice in the model of Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Yepez, Maricela; Campos-Rodriguez, Rafael; Lopez-Reyes, Israel; Bonilla-Lemus, Patricia; Rodriguez-Cortes, Antonio Yahve; Contis-Montes de Oca, Arturo; Jarillo-Luna, Adriana; Miliar-Garcia, Angel; Rojas-Hernandez, Saul

    2014-11-01

    The nasal mucosa is the first contact with antigens to induce IgA response. The role of this site has rarely been studied. We have shown than intranasal administration with Naegleria fowleri lysates plus Cholera toxin (CT) increased the protection (survival up to 100%) against N. fowleri infection in mice and apparently antibodies IgA and IgG together with polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells avoid the attachment of N. fowleri to apical side of the nasal epithelium. We also observed that nasal immunization resulted in the induction of antigen-specific IgG subclasses (IgG1 and IgG2a) in nasal washes at days 3 and 9 after the challenge and IgA and IgG in the nasal cavity, compared to healthy and infected mice. We found that immunization with both treatments, N. fowleri lysates plus CT or CT alone, increased the expression of the genes for alpha chain, its receptor (pIgR), and it also increased the expression of the corresponding proteins evidenced by the ∼65 and ∼74kDa bands, respectively. Since the production of pIgR, IgA and IgG antibodies, is up-regulated by some factors, we analyzed the expression of genes for IL-10, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β by using RT-PCR of nasal passages. Immunization resulted in an increased expression of IL-10, IL-6, and IFN-γ cytokines. We also aimed to examine the possible influences of immunization and challenge on the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β). We observed that the stimulus of immunization inhibits the production of TNF-α compared to the infected group where the infection without immunization causes an increase in it. Thus, it is possible that the coexistence of selected cytokines produced by our immunization model may provide a highly effective immunological environment for the production of IgA, IgG and pIgR as well as a strong activation of the PMN in mucosal effector tissue such as nasal passages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of maternal elimination diets and human milk IgA in development of cow’s milk allergy in the infants

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Kirsi M.; Westfall, Jennifer E.; Seppo, Max S.; James, Aisha K.; Tsuang, Angela J.; Feustel, Paul J.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Berin, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of maternal avoidance diets in the prevention of food allergies is currently under debate. Little is known regarding the effects of such diets on human milk (HM) composition or induction of infant humoral responses. Objective To assess the association of maternal cow’s milk (CM) avoidance during breastfeeding with specific IgA levels in HM and development of cow’s milk allergy (CMA) in infants. Methods We utilized HM and infant serum samples from a prospective birth cohort of 145 dyads. Maternal serum and HM samples were assessed for casein and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG)-specific IgA and IgG by ELISA; 21 mothers prophylactically initiated a strict maternal CM avoidance diet due to a sibling’s history of food allergy and 16 due to atopic eczema or regurgitation/vomiting seen in their infants within the first 3 months of life. Infants’ sera were assessed for casein and BLG-specific IgG, IgA and IgE; CMA was confirmed by an oral food challenge. The impact of HM on BLG uptake was assessed in transcytosis assays utilizing Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line. Results Mothers avoiding CM had lower casein- and BLG-specific IgA in HM than mothers with no CM restriction (p=0.019 and p=0.047). Their infants had lower serum casein- and BLG-specific IgG1 (p=0.025 and p<0.001) and BLG-specific IgG4 levels (p=0.037) and their casein- and BLG-specific IgA levels were less often detectable than those with no CM elimination diet (p=0.003 and p=0.007). Lower CM-specific IgG4 and IgA levels in turn were associated with infant CMA. Transcytosis of BLG was impaired by HM with high, but not low levels of specific IgA. Conclusions Maternal CM avoidance was associated with lower levels of mucosal specific IgA levels and development of CMA in infants. Clinical relevance HM IgA may play a role in preventing excessive, uncontrolled food antigen uptake in the gut lumen and thereby in the prevention of CMA. PMID:24164317

  7. Role of maternal elimination diets and human milk IgA in the development of cow's milk allergy in the infants.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, K M; Westfall, J E; Seppo, M S; James, A K; Tsuang, A J; Feustel, P J; Sampson, H A; Berin, C

    2014-01-01

    The role of maternal avoidance diets in the prevention of food allergies is currently under debate. Little is known regarding the effects of such diets on human milk (HM) composition or induction of infant humoral responses. To assess the association of maternal cow's milk (CM) avoidance during breastfeeding with specific IgA levels in HM and development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) in infants. We utilized HM and infant serum samples from a prospective birth cohort of 145 dyads. Maternal serum and HM samples were assessed for casein and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG)-specific IgA and IgG by ELISA; 21 mothers prophylactically initiated a strict maternal CM avoidance diet due to a sibling's history of food allergy and 16 due to atopic eczema or regurgitation/vomiting seen in their infants within the first 3 months of life. Infants' sera were assessed for casein and BLG-specific IgG, IgA and IgE; CMA was confirmed by an oral food challenge. The impact of HM on BLG uptake was assessed in transcytosis assays utilizing Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line. Mothers avoiding CM had lower casein- and BLG-specific IgA in HM than mothers with no CM restriction (P = 0.019 and P = 0.047). Their infants had lower serum casein- and BLG-specific IgG(1) (P = 0.025 and P < 0.001) and BLG-specific IgG(4) levels (P = 0.037), and their casein- and BLG-specific IgA levels were less often detectable than those with no CM elimination diet (P = 0.003 and P = 0.007). Lower CM-specific IgG4 and IgA levels in turn were associated with infant CMA. Transcytosis of BLG was impaired by HM with high, but not low levels of specific IgA. Maternal CM avoidance was associated with lower levels of mucosal-specific IgA levels and the development of CMA in infants. HM IgA may play a role in preventing excessive, uncontrolled food antigen uptake in the gut lumen and thereby in the prevention of CMA. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Determination by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA to Brucella melitensis major outer membrane proteins and whole-cell heat-killed antigens in sera of patients with brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Araj, G F; Kaufmann, A F

    1989-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to compare Brucella melitensis major outer membrane proteins (MOMP) and whole-cell heat-killed antigens (HK) in measuring antibrucella immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA in sera of brucellosis patients and controls. Antibodies to MOMP were generally similar to those against HK, and the correlation coefficients between the two antigens and IgG, IgM, and IgA in patients varied between 0.73 and 0.94. Both antigens are comparably suitable in detecting antibrucella immunoglobulin isotypes for the serologic diagnosis of patients with brucellosis, with high (greater than or equal to 95%) sensitivity and specificity. PMID:2768476

  9. CD4+ T cells support establishment of RSV-specific IgG and IgA antibody secreting cells in the upper and lower murine respiratory tract following RSV infection.

    PubMed

    Sealy, Robert E; Surman, Sherri L; Hurwitz, Julia L

    2017-05-09

    The RSV vaccine field suffered a major set-back when children were vaccinated with a formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine (FI-RSV). Unexpectedly, the vaccinated children fared worse than unvaccinated children when they were naturally infected with RSV. Mouse models were then developed that implicated the CD4 + T helper cell population as a contributor to adverse events. Today, the T cell is viewed with much caution in the RSV field, and its induction by vaccination is sometimes discouraged. Here we re-emphasize the beneficial role of the CD4 + T cell. Experiments were performed with RSV-infected nude mice that received CD4 + T cells by adoptive transfer. Data demonstrated that CD4 + T cells were necessary for the induction of mucosal and systemic RSV-specific antibodies, for the establishment of RSV-specific IgG and IgA antibody secreting cells in the upper and lower respiratory tract, and for RSV clearance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reverse enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies against SAG1-related sequence, SAG2A, and p97 antigens from Toxoplasma gondii to detect specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies in human sera.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando R; Silva, Deise A O; Cunha-Júnior, Jair P; Souza, Maria A; Oliveira, Taísa C; Béla, Samantha R; Faria, Gabriele G; Lopes, Carolina S; Mineo, José R

    2008-08-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in reverse enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for detecting immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in 175 serum samples from patients at different stages of T. gondii infection, as defined by both serological and clinical criteria, as follows: recent (n = 45), transient (n = 40), and chronic (n = 55) infection as well as seronegative subjects (n = 35). The results were compared with those obtained by indirect ELISA using soluble Toxoplasma total antigen (STAg). Our data demonstrated that MAb A3A4 recognizes a conformational epitope in SAG1-related-sequence (SRS) antigens, while A4D12 and 1B8 recognize linear epitopes defined as SAG2A surface antigen and p97 cytoplasmatic antigen, respectively. Reverse ELISA for IgG with A3A4 or A4D12 MAbs was highly correlated with indirect ELISA for anti-STAg IgG, whereas only A4D12 reverse ELISA showed high correlation with indirect ELISA for IgM and IgA isotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first report analyzing the performance of a reverse ELISA for simultaneous detection of IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes active toward native SAG2A, SRS, and p97 molecules from STAg, using a panel of human sera from patients with recent and chronic toxoplasmosis. Thus, reverse ELISA based on the capture of native SAG2A and SRS antigens of STAg by MAbs could be an additional approach for strengthening the helpfulness of serological tests assessing the stage of infection, particularly in combination with highly sensitive and specific assays that are frequently used nowadays for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy or congenital infection in newborns.

  11. Diagnostic value of serum galactomannan, (1-3)-β-D-glucan, and Aspergillus fumigatus-specific IgA and IgG assays for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in non-neutropenic patients.

    PubMed

    Dobias, R; Jaworska, P; Tomaskova, H; Kanova, M; Lyskova, P; Vrba, Z; Holub, C; Svobodová, L; Hamal, P; Raska, M

    2018-03-25

    Detection of serum galactomannan (GM) and (1-3)-β-D-glucan (BG) is considered useful for non-culture diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in neutropenic patients. Only few studies evaluated these seromarkers in non-neutropenic patients suspected of having IPA. The aim of this study was to evaluate both tests together with the Aspergillus fumigatus-specific serum IgG and IgA (IgAG) test for serological IPA diagnosis in non-neutropenic patients.Sera from 87 patients suspected of having IPA were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were categorized into groups of proven IPA (n=10), putative IPA (n=31), and non-IPA colonization (n=46). When the GM, BG, and IgAG assays were used for patients included in the study, the sensitivity/specificity / positive predictive value (PPV) / negative predictive value (NPV) were 48.8%/91.3%/83.3%/66.7%, 82.9%/73.9%/73.9%/82.9%, and 75.6%/95.7%/93.9%/81.5%, respectively. Thus, the highest specificity and PPV were confirmed for the IgAG assay. Improvements in the sensitivity and NPV were achieved by "at least one positive" analysis with the GM and BG assays, with the sensitivity/specificity/PPV/NPV values being 85.0%/69.6%/71.4%/84.2%. Nevertheless, the highest sensitivity and NPV were achieved by the "at least one positive" analysis combining the GM, BG, and IgAG tests (97.6% and 96.8%, respectively).The involvement of the IgAG assay could improve IPA diagnosis in non-neutropenic patients by increasing the sensitivity and NPV when combined with the GM or BG assays. Further improvement was achieved by combining the GM, BG, and IgAG assays using the "at least one positive test" strategy, especially if doubt exists. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Prediction of tolerance in children with IgE mediated cow's milk allergy by microarray profiling and chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Wulfert, F; Sanyasi, G; Tongen, L; Watanabe, L A; Wang, X; Renault, N K; Falcone, F H; Jacob, C M A; Alcocer, M J C

    2012-08-31

    The sera of a retrospective cohort (n=41) composed of children with well characterized cow's milk allergy collected from multiple visits were analyzed using a protein microarray system measuring four classes of immunoglobulins. The frequency of the visits, age and gender distribution reflected real situation faced by the clinicians at a pediatric reference center for food allergy in São Paulo, Brazil. The profiling array results have shown that total IgG and IgA share similar specificity whilst IgM and in particular IgE are distantly related. The correlation of specificity of IgE and IgA is variable amongst the patients and this relationship cannot be used to predict atopy or the onset of tolerance to milk. The array profiling technique has corroborated the clinical selection criteria for this cohort albeit it clearly suggested that 4 out of the 41 patients might have allergies other than milk origin. There was also a good correlation between the array data and ImmunoCAP results, casein in particular. By using qualitative and quantitative multivariate analysis routines it was possible to produce validated statistical models to predict with reasonable accuracy the onset of tolerance to milk proteins. If expanded to larger study groups, the array profiling in combination with the multivariate techniques show potential to improve the prognostic of milk allergic patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. IgA Antibodies in Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichelt, K. L.; Skjeldal, O.

    2006-01-01

    The level of IgA antibodies to gluten and gliadin proteins found in grains and to casein found in milk, as well as the level of IgG to gluten and gliadin, have been examined in 23 girls with Rett syndrome and 53 controls. Highly statistically significant increases were found for the Rett population compared to the controls. The reason for this…

  14. Do we need to measure total serum IgA to exclude IgA deficiency in coeliac disease?

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, D; Saas, M; Turk, A; Goble, M; Kerr, D

    2006-01-01

    Background Screening for IgA deficiency in patients with coeliac disease is essential because of the increased incidence of IgA deficiency associated with the disease, which usually relies on the estimation of IgA levels in each case. Aim To devise a method of excluding IgA deficiency without measuring total serum IgA in each case. Materials and methods The optical density readings on enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of 608 routine samples received for tissue transglutaminase (TTG) antibody testing for coeliac disease were compared with their total IgA concentrations. Dilution experiments were also carried out to ensure linear relationships between optical density on ELISA and IgA concentrations and to compare the sensitivities for TTG and endomysium antibodies in TTG‐positive samples. Results and discussion A clear relationship was shown between total IgA concentration and TTG optical density readings by ELISA. To ensure a positive TTG result if antibodies are present, it was possible to recommend an optical density level above which all samples have sufficient IgA. Samples with optical density <0.05 should be investigated further by estimating total IgA and, if low, samples should be subjected to immunofluorescence microscopy testing for IgA and IgG endomysium antibodies. Conclusions An easier, more cost‐effective and practical way of excluding IgA deficiency in the investigation on coeliac disease is reported. PMID:16489174

  15. IgA antibasement membrane nephritis with pulmonary hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Border, W A; Baehler, R W; Bhathena, D; Glassock, R J

    1979-07-01

    Goodpasture's syndrome has characteristically been described as being mediated by IgG antibodies. We have recently seen a 55-year-old man who developed renal failure and hemoptysis; a renal biopsy showed linear deposits of IgA and C3 involving glomerular and tubular basement membrane. Serologic tests for detecting (IgG) antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies were negative. Elution studies of kidney and lung showed the presence of an IgA antibasement membrane antibody only. The patient's serum contained IgA, but not IgG, antibodies reactive with glomerular and tubular basement membrane of normal human kidney and alveolar basement membrane of normal human lung. Attempts to transfer disease with the patient's IgA antibody to a monkey and to Lewis and Brown-Norway rats were unsuccessful. Immunoglobulin A antibasement membrane antibody must be considered in the design of immunoserologic procedures for the diagnosis of Goodpasture's syndrome.

  16. Hypogammaglobulinemia associated with accelerated catabolism of IgG secondary to its interaction with an IgG-reactive monoclonal IgM

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, Thomas A.; Johnson, John S.; Talal, Norman

    1971-01-01

    Hypogammaglobulinemia due to a new pathophysiological mechanism was studied in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome, a monoclonal IgM and a mixed (IgM-IgG) cryoglobulinemia. The IgM (IgMdk) component of the cryogel possessed light chains of λ-type with highly restricted electrophoretic mobility analagous to those of a Waldenström's macroglobulin. IgMdk reacted specifically with native IgG, with IgG subclasses 1, 2, and 4, and with the Fc piece of IgG to form a cryogel. Serum concentrations of IgG 1, 2, and 4 were 10% of normal, whereas the IgG3 level was slightly increased and the IgM level was markedly increased. Viscosity and analytical ultracentrifugation studies with the purified mixed cryogel (IgM-LgG) indicated soluble complex formation over a temperature range (36-38°C) attainable in vivo. Immunoglobulin turnover studies revealed a markedly elevated rate of IgM synthesis with a normal survival of IgM, IgA, and IgE. IgG3, which failed to form complexes with IgMdk at body temperature, had a normal synthetic rate and survival. In contrast, the other IgG subclasses showed reduced synthesis and shortened survival. These studies are the first indicating a short survival of some IgG subclasses with a normal survival of another. The hypogammaglobulinemia appears to be due in part to a new mechanism of accelerated protein catabolism: The rapid elimination of IgG due to its interaction with an IgG-reactive monoclonal IgM. PMID:4993860

  17. Scarcity of autoreactive human blood IgA+ memory B cells

    PubMed Central

    Prigent, Julie; Lorin, Valérie; Kök, Ayrin; Hieu, Thierry; Bourgeau, Salomé

    2016-01-01

    Class‐switched memory B cells are key components of the “reactive” humoral immunity, which ensures a fast and massive secretion of high‐affinity antigen‐specific antibodies upon antigenic challenge. In humans, IgA class‐switched (IgA+) memory B cells and IgA antibodies are abundant in the blood. Although circulating IgA+ memory B cells and their corresponding secreted immunoglobulins likely possess major protective and/or regulatory immune roles, little is known about their specificity and function. Here, we show that IgA+ and IgG+ memory B‐cell antibodies cloned from the same healthy humans share common immunoglobulin gene features. IgA and IgG memory antibodies have comparable lack of reactivity to vaccines, common mucosa‐tropic viruses and commensal bacteria. However, the IgA+ memory B‐cell compartment contains fewer polyreactive clones and importantly, only rare self‐reactive clones compared to IgG+ memory B cells. Self‐reactivity of IgAs is acquired following B‐cell affinity maturation but not antibody class switching. Together, our data suggest the existence of different regulatory mechanisms for removing autoreactive clones from the IgG+ and IgA+ memory B‐cell repertoires, and/or different maturation pathways potentially reflecting the distinct nature and localization of the cognate antigens recognized by individual B‐cell populations. PMID:27469325

  18. IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina

    2014-05-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis.

  19. Induction of mucosal IgA by a novel jet delivery technique for HIV-1 DNA.

    PubMed

    Lundholm, P; Asakura, Y; Hinkula, J; Lucht, E; Wahren, B

    1999-04-09

    Novel ways of delivering plasmid DNA to elicit humoral IgA, IgG and cell-mediated immune responses in mice were investigated. Intraoral administration of DNA in the cheek, using a jet immunization technique, elicited the highest IgA mucosal responses. Intranasal immunization gave strong mucosal IgA responses and persistent systemic IgG. Immunoglobulin isotype analysis revealed an IgG1 profile for intramuscular tongue and gene gun immunizations and an IgG2a profile following oral jet injection and intranasal application. The route of delivery was of importance for the characteristics and quality of the mucosal immune response following DNA immunization. For DNA vaccine delivery, the intraoral jet injection technique has the advantages of being a simple and rapid way of administering the DNA in solution and of provoking specific mucosal IgA when administered in the mucosal associated lymphoid tissue.

  20. Evaluation of seven assays detecting serum immunoglobulin classes and subclasses and salivary and faecal secretory IgA against Fasciola excretory/secretory (ES) antigens in diagnosing fascioliasis.

    PubMed

    Noureldin, Mohamed S; el-Ganaini, Goman A; Abou El-Enin, Ahmed M; el-Nemr, Hosam-Eldin I; Hussin, Eman M; Sultan, Doaa M

    2004-08-01

    Seven assays detecting serum IgM, IgG, IgG1, IgG4, IgA and salivary and fecal excretory IgA against Fasciola excretory/secretory (ES) antigens were evaluated in diagnosing fascioliasis, for cross reactivity with Schistosoma mansoni sera and for evaluation of cure of Fasciola infection after treatment. Assays detecting sera IgM, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA against Fasciola ES antigens showed 100% specificity and sensitivity. Assays detecting IgM and IgG showed 98% and 96% sensitivity and 100% and 94.6% specificity respectively. Assays detecting salivary and faecal IgA showed 92% & 96% sensitivity and 100% & 100% specificity respectively. Assays detecting IgM and IgG4 were the best in evaluation of cure and assays detecting IgG4 & IgA showed the lowest cross-reactivity with sera from S. mansoni infected patients. So, assays detecting serum IgA, IgG1 & IgG4 against Fasciola ES antigens were highly sensitive and specific for diagnosis of fascioliasis and assays detecting salivary and faecal IgA were promising and of great help in diagnosis of fascioliasis especially in epidemiologic studies.

  1. Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgA in Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    D'Arco, Christina; Dattwyler, Raymond J; Arnaboldi, Paul M

    2017-05-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease is currently dependent on the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of the disease. The significance of serum IgA against B. burgdorferi remains unclear. The production of intrathecal IgA has been noted in patients with the late Lyme disease manifestation, neuroborreliosis, but production of antigen-specific IgA during early disease has not been evaluated. In the current study, we assessed serum IgA binding to the B. burgdorferi peptide antigens, C6, the target of the FDA-cleared C6 EIA, and FlaB(211-223)-modVlsE(275-291), a peptide containing a Borrelia flagellin epitope linked to a modified VlsE sequence, in patients with early and late Lyme disease. Specific IgA was detected in 59 of 152 serum samples (38.8%) from early Lyme disease patients. Approximately 50% of early Lyme disease patients who were seropositive for peptide-specific IgM and/or IgG were also seropositive for peptide-specific IgA. In a subpopulation of patients, high peptide-specific IgA could be correlated with disseminated disease, defined as multiple erythema migrans lesions, and neurological disease complications. These results suggest that there may be an association between elevated levels of antigen-specific IgA and particular disease manifestations in some patients with early Lyme disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transfer of IgG in the female genital tract by MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) confers protective immunity to vaginal infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    IgG is a major immunoglobulin subclass in mucosal secretions of human female genital tract, where it predominates over the IgA isotype. Despite the abundance of IgG, surprisingly little is known about whether and how IgG enters the lumen of the genital tract and the exact role of local IgG may play ...

  3. Low pretransplant IgA level is associated with early post-lung transplant seromucous infection.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Sudish C; Avery, Robin K; Budev, Marie; Gupta, Sandeep; Pettersson, Gösta B; Nowicki, Edward R; Mehta, Atul; Chapman, Jeffrey T; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2018-04-13

    Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Immunoglobulins are part of both seromucous (IgA) and serum (IgG) infection defense mechanisms. We therefore hypothesized that lower pretransplant IgA levels would be associated with more early post-lung transplant seromucous infections and greater mortality independent of IgG. From January 2000 to July 2010, 538 patients undergoing primary lung transplantation had pretransplant IgA (n = 429) and IgG (n = 488) measured as a clinical routine. Median IgA was 200 mg·dL -1 (2% < 70 mg·dL -1 , lower limit of normal); median IgG was 970 mg·dL -1 (5% < 600 mg·dL -1 ). Intensive microbiology review was used to categorize infections and their causative organisms within the first posttransplant year. In total, 397 seromucous infections were observed in 247 patients, most bacterial. Although IgA and IgG were moderately correlated (r = 0.5, P < .0001), low pretransplant IgA was a strong risk factor (P = .01) for seromucous infections, but pretransplant IgG was not (P ≥ .6). As pretransplant IgA levels fell below 200 mg·dL -1 , the risk of these posttransplant infections rose nearly linearly. Lower pretransplant levels of IgA were associated with greater posttransplant mortality to end of follow-up (P = .004), but pretransplant IgG was not (P ≥ .3). Low levels of preoperative IgA, an important immunoglobulin involved in mucosal immunologic defense, but not IgG, are associated with seromucous infections in the year after lung transplantation and increased follow-up mortality. It would appear prudent to identify patients with relative IgA deficiency at listing and to increase vigilance of monitoring for, and prophylaxis against, seromucous infection in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. IgG2 deficiency in sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Natta, C L; Outschoorn, I M

    1984-08-01

    8 patients with known sickle cell anaemia were studied immunologically. The concentrations of the main immunoglobulin classes, IgG and IgA, were significantly higher than the levels in 11 normal age- and sex-matched black subjects (P less than 0.01). IgM levels were not significantly different in the two groups. There was a heterogeneity in the interaction of the IgG subclasses with Protein A, with low levels of IgG2. The IgG2:IgG1 ratios varied from 1:3.8 to 1:6 (normals 1:3). In 4 patients the absolute levels of IgG2 as measured by radial immunodiffusion were lower than normal, thus confirming the chromatographic ratios. Since specific antibody is often restricted to a single subclass, the levels of IgG subclasses may be related to recurrent bacterial infections in these patients.

  5. Translocalized IgA mediates neutralization and stimulates innate immunity inside infected cells.

    PubMed

    Bidgood, Susanna R; Tam, Jerry C H; McEwan, William A; Mallery, Donna L; James, Leo C

    2014-09-16

    IgA is the most prevalent antibody type on mucosal surfaces and the second most prevalent antibody in circulation, yet its role in immune defense is not fully understood. Here we show that IgA is carried inside cells during virus infection, where it activates intracellular virus neutralization and innate immune signaling. Cytosolic IgA-virion complexes colocalize with the high-affinity antibody receptor tripartite motif-containing protein 21 (TRIM21) and are positive for lysine-48 ubiquitin chains. IgA neutralizes adenovirus infection in a TRIM21- and proteasome-dependent manner in both human and mouse cells. Translocated IgA also potently activates NF-κB signaling pathways in cells expressing TRIM21, whereas viral infection in the absence of antibody or TRIM21 is undetected. TRIM21 recognizes an epitope in IgG Fc that is not conserved in IgA; however, fluorescence anisotropy experiments demonstrate that direct binding to IgA is maintained. We use molecular modeling to show that TRIM21 forms a nonspecific hydrophobic seal around a β-loop structure that is present in IgG, IgM, and IgA, explaining how TRIM21 achieves such remarkable broad antibody specificity. The findings demonstrate that the antiviral protection afforded by IgA extends to the intracellular cytosolic environment.

  6. Translocalized IgA mediates neutralization and stimulates innate immunity inside infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Bidgood, Susanna R.; Tam, Jerry C. H.; McEwan, William A.; Mallery, Donna L.; James, Leo C.

    2014-01-01

    IgA is the most prevalent antibody type on mucosal surfaces and the second most prevalent antibody in circulation, yet its role in immune defense is not fully understood. Here we show that IgA is carried inside cells during virus infection, where it activates intracellular virus neutralization and innate immune signaling. Cytosolic IgA–virion complexes colocalize with the high-affinity antibody receptor tripartite motif-containing protein 21 (TRIM21) and are positive for lysine-48 ubiquitin chains. IgA neutralizes adenovirus infection in a TRIM21- and proteasome-dependent manner in both human and mouse cells. Translocated IgA also potently activates NF-κB signaling pathways in cells expressing TRIM21, whereas viral infection in the absence of antibody or TRIM21 is undetected. TRIM21 recognizes an epitope in IgG Fc that is not conserved in IgA; however, fluorescence anisotropy experiments demonstrate that direct binding to IgA is maintained. We use molecular modeling to show that TRIM21 forms a nonspecific hydrophobic seal around a β-loop structure that is present in IgG, IgM, and IgA, explaining how TRIM21 achieves such remarkable broad antibody specificity. The findings demonstrate that the antiviral protection afforded by IgA extends to the intracellular cytosolic environment. PMID:25169018

  7. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Hruza, L L; Mallory, S B; Fitzgibbons, J; Mallory, G B

    1993-06-01

    A newborn black boy had two facial blisters at birth that progressed to bullous lesions over the trunk, genitals, extremities, and oral and tracheal mucosa. A biopsy specimen demonstrated a subepidermal bulla with mixed eosinophilic and neutrophilic, inflammatory infiltrate. Direct immunofluorescence showed linear IgA, IgG, and C3 depositions along the basement membrane zone, consistent with a diagnosis of childhood linear IgA bullous dermatosis (chronic bullous dermatosis of childhood). The skin disease was controlled with combined prednisone and dapsone. This is the youngest reported patient with the disease. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of blistering diseases of the newborn, and immunofluorescence should be performed on a skin biopsy specimen.

  8. The role of casein-specific IgA and TGF-β in children with Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome to milk

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinou, George N.; Bencharitiwong, Ramon; Grishin, Alexander; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Bardina, Luda; Sicherer, Scott H.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a gastrointestinal hypersensitivity disorder with a poorly understood pathophysiology and no biomarkers to aid in diagnosis. Objective To investigate humoral and cellular responses to casein in children with milk-FPIES, including the role of casein-specific (cs) IgA and T-cell mediated TGF-β responses. Patients and methods Thirty-one children previously diagnosed with milk-FPIES were challenged with milk. Twelve age-matched children with FPIES to other foods and 6 milk-tolerant children without a history of FPIES were used as controls. Casein-specific IgE, IgG, IgG4 and IgA were measured in serum and TGF-β levels in supernatants of casein-stimulated PBMCs. Result Twenty-six children with milk-FPIES reacted (active milk-FPIES) and five tolerated milk (milk-FPIES-resolved) during food challenge. All of them had significantly lower levels of csIgG, csIgG4 and csIgA than control children (p-value<0.001). There were no TGF-β responses in supernatants of active milk-FPIES children. Conclusion Children with milk-FPIES have low levels of csIgG, csIgG4 and csIgA. In particular, children with active FPIES to cow’s milk have deficient T-cell mediated TGF-β responses to casein, rendering TGF-β a promising biomarker in identifying children who are likely to experience FPIES reactions to this allergen. Prospective studies are needed to validate these findings, elucidate their role in FPIES pathophysiology and establish the diagnostic utility of TGF-β in milk-induced FPIES. PMID:25283440

  9. Gluten sensitivity in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Smerud, Hilde Kloster; Fellström, Bengt; Hällgren, Roger; Osagie, Sonia; Venge, Per; Kristjánsson, Gudjón

    2009-08-01

    Coeliac disease is more frequent in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients compared to the healthy population. Several hypotheses postulate that food antigens like gluten may be involved in the onset of IgAN. In this study, we used a recently developed mucosal patch technique to evaluate the rectal mucosal inflammatory reaction to gluten in patients with IgAN (n = 27) compared to healthy subjects (n = 18). The rectal mucosal production of nitric oxide (NO) and release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) were measured. Serum samples were analysed for IgA and IgG antigliadin antibodies (AGA), IgA antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies. Gluten reactivity, defined as increase in MPO and/or NO after gluten exposure, was observed in 8 of 27 IgAN patients. The prevalence of HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 was not increased among gluten-sensitive patients, and the total prevalence among IgAN patients was the same as for the normal population. An elevated serum IgA AGA response was seen in 9 of 27 IgAN patients. The increase in IgA AGA did not correlate with the gluten sensitivity as measured by NO and/or MPO. A specific serum IgG AGA response was seen in one patient only. Antibodies against tissue transglutaminase and endomysium were not observed. It is concluded that approximately one-third of our IgAN patients have a rectal mucosal sensitivity to gluten, but without signs of coeliac disease, and we hypothesize that such sub-clinical inflammation to gluten might be involved in the pathogenesis of IgAN in a subgroup of patients.

  10. Acute suppression of serum IgM and IgA in tank workers exposed to benzene.

    PubMed

    Kirkeleit, J; Ulvestad, E; Riise, T; Bråtveit, M; Moen, B E

    2006-12-01

    We investigated associations between benzene exposure and alterations of proteins and cells of the immune system among workers maintaining cargo tanks containing crude oil residues. Individual exposure to benzene, benzene in blood and urine, peripheral blood lymphocytes (total lymphocytes, lymphocytes in subpopulations CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD56 and CD4/CD8 ratio), complement factors C3 and C4 and serum concentration of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE) were analysed among 13 tank workers and nine unexposed referents (catering section). Benzene exposure was measured during three consecutive 12-h work days. Blood and urine samples were collected pre-shift on the first day (baseline), post-shift on the third day, and pre-next shift on the following morning. The time spent in the cargo tank was logged. The individual geometric mean benzene exposure in the breathing zone of tank workers over 3 days was 0.15 p.p.m. (range 0.01-0.62 p.p.m.) (n = 26). The geometric mean benzene concentration in blood post-shift was 12.3 nmol/l among tank workers versus 0.7 nmol/l among the referents. Tank workers showed a decline (versus referents) in IgM from baseline to post-shift (t-test, P = 0.04) and IgA from baseline to pre-next shift (t-test, P = 0.01). They also showed a decline in CD4 T cells from baseline to post-shift (t-test, P = 0.04). Suppression correlated with benzene exposure, benzene concentrations in blood and urine and time spent in the tank. The groups did not differ significantly in the change in other immune parameters. The clinical significance is unknown and warrants further studies.

  11. AllergoOncology: Generating a canine anti-cancer IgE against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).

    PubMed

    Fazekas-Singer, Judit; Singer, Josef; Ilieva, Kristina M; Matz, Miroslawa; Herrmann, Ina; Spillner, Edzard; Karagiannis, Sophia N; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2018-05-07

    Anti-cancer immunotherapies currently rely on IgG antibodies. In line with the AllergoOncology concept we provide evidence that tumor-specific IgE, alone or combined with IgG, may be superior to IgG treatment alone. The novel can225IgE-λ was made for future studies in dogs as translational model patients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. IgA Fc receptors.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Renato C; Van De Winkel, Jan G J

    2003-01-01

    The IgA receptor family comprises a number of surface receptors including the polymeric Ig receptor involved in epithelial transport of IgA/IgM, the myeloid specific IgA Fc receptor (FcalphaRI or CD89), the Fcalpha/muR, and at least two alternative IgA receptors. These are the asialoglycoprotein receptor and the transferrin receptor, which have been implicated in IgA catabolism, and tissue IgA deposition. In this review we focus on the biology of FcalphaRI (CD89). FcalphaRI is expressed on neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and Kupffer cells. This receptor represents a heterogeneously glycosylated transmembrane protein that binds both IgA subclasses with low affinity. A single gene encoding FcalphaRI has been isolated, which is located within the leukocyte receptor cluster on chromosome 19. The FcalphaRI alpha chain lacks canonical signal transduction domains but can associate with the FcR gamma-chain that bears an activation motif (ITAM) in the cytoplasmic domain, allowing activatory functions. FcalphaRI expressed alone mediates endocytosis and recyling of IgA. No FcalphaRI homologue has been defined in the mouse, and progress in defining the in vivo role of FcalphaRI has been made using human FcalphaRI transgenic (Tg) mice. FcalphaRI-Tg mice demonstrated FcalphaRI expression on Kupffer cells and so defined a key role for the receptor in mucosal defense. The receptor functions as a second line of antibacterial defense involving serum IgA rather than secretory IgA. Studies in FcalphaRI-Tg mice, furthermore, defined an essential role for soluble FcalphaRI in the development of IgA nephropathy by formation of circulating IgA-FcalphaRI complexes. Finally, recent work points out a role for human IgA in treatment of infectious and neoplastic diseases.

  13. Selective IgA Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunoglobulins. Videos: Choosing Wisely » Selective IgA Deficiency Treatment & Management The underlying cause for Selective IgA Deficiency is ... the Evidence » Practice Parameter for the Diagnosis and Management of Primary Immunodefiency » 2017 Non-CME Recordings » Vaccination ...

  14. Specific IgG antibodies in sera in patients with penicillin allergy.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hai-Ling; Gao, Na; Jia, Lin-Jing; Yang, Jing; Tian, Xin

    2009-06-01

    The role of IgG antibodies in inducing or modifying allergic reaction has not been sufficiently clarified. The objective of this investigation is to elucidate the relationship between IgG antibodies and penicillin allergy, between IgG and IgE antibodies in allergic patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Radioallergosorbent test were used to examine eight kinds of specific IgG and IgE antibodies, including major antigenic determinants: benzylpenicilloyl (BPO), ampicilloyl (APO), amoxicilloyl (AXO) and phenoxomethylpenicilloyl (PVO), and minor antigenic determinants: benzylpenicillanyl (BPA), ampicillanyl (APA), amoxicillanyl (AXA) and phenoxomethylpenicillany (PVA), in the sera of 249 patients with penicillin allergy. Except BPA-IgG, seven kinds of antigenic determinants IgG antibodies levels were significantly higher than that of control group (P < 0.05). Positive rates of specific IgG and IgE were 47.0 and 57.8%, while positive rate of IgE and IgG together was 77.9%. The positive rate of IgG antibodies to major antigenic determinants (42.2%) was significantly higher than that of minor antigenic determinants (8.8%) (P < 0.05). The positive rate of IgG antibodies of patients with typical clinical symptoms after penicillin administration when skin tests were negative was significantly higher than that of patients with positive skin test (P < 0.01). There were no differences between the IgG positive rates to three kinds of determinants and that of all of eight kinds. The study indicates that IgG may be important in penicillin allergy with negative skin test and IgG antibodies to major antigenic determinants probably play a more important role in the process of allergic reaction.

  15. Gluten exacerbates IgA nephropathy in humanized mice through gliadin-CD89 interaction.

    PubMed

    Papista, Christina; Lechner, Sebastian; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; LeStang, Marie-Bénédicte; Abbad, Lilia; Bex-Coudrat, Julie; Pillebout, Evangéline; Chemouny, Jonathan M; Jablonski, Mathieu; Flamant, Martin; Daugas, Eric; Vrtovsnik, François; Yiangou, Minas; Berthelot, Laureline; Monteiro, Renato C

    2015-08-01

    IgA1 complexes containing deglycosylated IgA1, IgG autoantibodies, and a soluble form of the IgA receptor (sCD89), are hallmarks of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Food antigens, notably gluten, are associated with increased mucosal response and IgAN onset, but their implication in the pathology remains unknown. Here, an IgAN mouse model expressing human IgA1 and CD89 was used to examine the role of gluten in IgAN. Mice were given a gluten-free diet for three generations to produce gluten sensitivity, and then challenged for 30 days with a gluten diet. A gluten-free diet resulted in a decrease of mesangial IgA1 deposits, transferrin 1 receptor, and transglutaminase 2 expression, as well as hematuria. Mice on a gluten-free diet lacked IgA1-sCD89 complexes in serum and kidney eluates. Disease severity depended on gluten and CD89, as shown by reappearance of IgAN features in mice on a gluten diet and by direct binding of the gluten-subcomponent gliadin to sCD89. A gluten diet exacerbated intestinal IgA1 secretion, inflammation, and villous atrophy, and increased serum IgA1 anti-gliadin antibodies, which correlated with proteinuria in mice and patients. Moreover, early treatment of humanized mice with a gluten-free diet prevented mesangial IgA1 deposits and hematuria. Thus, gliadin-CD89 interaction may aggravate IgAN development through induction of IgA1-sCD89 complex formation and a mucosal immune response. Hence, early-stage treatment with a gluten-free diet could be beneficial to prevent disease.

  16. IgG subclass alterations in adult asthma.

    PubMed

    Outschoorn, I M; Natta, C L

    1992-01-01

    Immunoglobulin levels were measured in serum samples of 12 black adult non-smoking asthmatic patients, 11 females and 1 male, and compared with 15 age-, sex-matched normal controls. Their total IgG, IgA and IgM levels were within the normal range. However, on quantitation of subclasses, IgG1 levels were significantly above normal, while IgG2 and IgG3 levels were significantly lower than those of controls. No significant differences were found between the two groups when IgG4 levels were compared. These studies as well as those of others suggest that immunoglobulin administration, particularly of individual subclasses, might prove to be a beneficial addition in the management of this condition.

  17. Biomarkers of IgA vasculitis nephritis in children

    PubMed Central

    Pillebout, Evangeline; Jamin, Agnès; Ayari, Hamza; Housset, Pierre; Pierre, Melissa; Sauvaget, Virginia; Viglietti, Denis; Deschenes, Georges

    2017-01-01

    Henoch–Schönlein purpura is a systemic vasculitis characterized by IgA deposits, which target the skin, joints, and kidneys, among other organs. In children, prognosis is often good but little is known about biomarkers of pediatric nephritis. We hypothesized that biological markers, including cytokines, immunoglobulins, IgA-immune complexes, IgA glycosylation and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), may discriminate IgA vasculitis (IgAV) pediatric patients with renal involvement from those without renal involvement. Fifty children at the time of IgAV rash between 2010 and 2015 were prospectively enrolled and compared to 21 controls. All patients were assessed for clinical and biological parameters at the time of diagnosis, including the levels of cytokines, immunoglobulins, immune complexes, IgA glycosylation and NGAL in serum and urine. Among IgAV patients, 33 patients exhibited nephritis (IgAV-N) and 17 children were without nephritis (IgAV-woN). The serum level of galactose-deficient (Gd)-IgA1 (p<0.01) and the urinary concentrations of IgA, IgG, IgM, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IgA-IgG complexes and IgA-sCD89 complexes (p<0.001 for all) were higher in the IgAV-N patients than in the IgAV-woN patients. Among those markers, urinary IgA and IgM had the highest AUC (0.86 and 0.87 respectively, p<0.0001). This prospective cohort study furthers our understanding of the pathophysiology of IgAV. We identified biomarkers that are able to distinguish patients initially with or without nephritis. To conclude, serum Gd-IgA1 and urinary IgA, IgG, IgM, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IgA-IgG and IgA-sCD89 complexes could identify IgAV pediatric patients with renal involvement at the time of diagnosis. PMID:29190714

  18. Alterations in IgG subclasses in acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Outschoorn, I M; Lluberes, R; Natta, C L

    1989-01-01

    Decreased IgG subclass levels in pyogenic infections and immunocompromised situations have been described. A study was made to determine IgG subclass levels in four groups of 68 Hispanic patients. The first group consisted of 25 terminal patients with AIDS, the second group of 20 i.v. drug abusers, and the third group of eight hospital patients with neither a diagnosis of AIDS/ARC nor a history of i.v. drug abuse. IgG subclass levels of these 53 cases were compared with those of a fourth group of 15 normal controls. The total IgG, IgA, and IgM levels as well as the four IgG subclass concentrations were measured by radial immunodiffusion using appropriate standards and specific antisera. The first two groups had similar values, with an average IgG level of 10.37 g/liter; IgA, 2.68; and IgM, 1.78; subclass levels were IgG1, 6.68 g/liter; IgG2, 2.77; IgG3, 0.34; and IgG4, 0.68. These were significantly lower than those of controls, except for IgG4. Determination of minor subclasses may offer some possibilities for immunomodulation and therapy and could be useful in terms of prognosis.

  19. Assessment of the value of detecting specific IgA antibodies for the diagnosis of a recently acquired primary Toxoplasma infection.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Fernanda Santos; Suzuki, Lisandra Akemi; Rossi, Cláudio Lúcio

    2008-08-01

    To assess the value of detecting IgA antibodies for the diagnosis of a recently acquired primary Toxoplasma infection. IgA antibodies were screened in sera from 87 women with different serological profiles of Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibodies and Toxoplasma-specific IgG avidity. The IgM and IgG antibodies and the IgG avidity were measured with an automated Vitek Immuno Diagnostic Assay System (VIDAS). Anti-T.gondii IgA was measured with Platelia Toxo IgA TMB kits. All 12 sera obtained from women with clinical and/or serological evidence of a recently acquired Toxoplasma infection were positive for IgA. In 42 serum samples obtained more than 6 months after T. gondii infection from women with no clinical evidence of infection, but who had a positive IgM test and a high IgG avidity index, the IgA-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test results were positive, negative, and doubtful in 16 (38.1%), 23 (54.8%), and 3 (7.1%) sera, respectively. In eight women, IgA was detected in sera collected more than 9 months after the onset of infection. The IgA test result was also positive in 11 of 12 sera (91.7%) obtained from women with no clinical evidence of toxoplasmosis, but who had a positive IgM test and a borderline IgG avidity index. The IgA-ELISA was negative in 21 sera obtained more than 2 years after the onset of T. gondii infection from women with no clinical evidence of toxoplasmosis, but who had a negative IgM test and a positive IgG test. These results show that IgA is not a dependable marker for a recently acquired primary Toxoplasma infection. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Intrinsic transcriptional heterogeneity in B cells controls early class switching to IgE

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yee Ling; Teichmann, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    Noncoding transcripts originating upstream of the immunoglobulin constant region (I transcripts) are required to direct activation-induced deaminase to initiate class switching in B cells. Differential regulation of Iε and Iγ1 transcription in response to interleukin 4 (IL-4), hence class switching to IgE and IgG1, is not fully understood. In this study, we combine novel mouse reporters and single-cell RNA sequencing to reveal the heterogeneity in IL-4–induced I transcription. We identify an early population of cells expressing Iε but not Iγ1 and demonstrate that early Iε transcription leads to switching to IgE and occurs at lower activation levels than Iγ1. Our results reveal how probabilistic transcription with a lower activation threshold for Iε directs the early choice of IgE versus IgG1, a key physiological response against parasitic infestations and a mediator of allergy and asthma. PMID:27994069

  1. IgE in lupus pathogenesis: Friends or foes?

    PubMed

    Augusto, Jean-François; Truchetet, Marie-Elise; Charles, Nicolas; Blanco, Patrick; Richez, Christophe

    2018-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease involving multiple immunological pathways. Recently, several studies have suggested an implication of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the pathophysiology of SLE. In the Lyn -/- and FcγIIB -/- .Yaa lupus mouse models, autoreactive IgE activate basophils, and promote a Th2 environment with, subsequently, production of autoantibodies by plasma cells. Autoreactive IgE has been also shown to play a role in the activation of human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), in synergy with IgG, which results in an increase of interferon-alpha (IFN-α) production. In contrast, a protective effect of total non-autoreactive IgE has also been suggested, through a decreased ability of FcεRI-triggered pDCs to secrete IFN-α. This review summarizes in a comprehensive manner the emerging recent literature in the field, and propose new concepts to reconcile the observations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Total and Toxocara canis larval excretory/secretory antigen- and allergen-specific IgE in atopic and non-atopic dogs.

    PubMed

    Zwickl, Lena L M N; Joekel, Deborah E; Fischer, Nina M; Rostaher, Ana; Thamsborg, Kristian; Deplazes, Peter; Favrot, Claude

    2018-06-01

    Total IgE concentrations are higher in dogs than in humans. Persistent Toxocara canis larval infection is prevalent in dogs and is associated with substantial specific antibody reactions. A correlation, however, between total IgE and T. canis-specific antibody levels in dogs has not been evaluated. To determine the relationship between total IgE, T. canis-specific IgG and IgE, and allergen-specific IgE levels in atopic and non-atopic dogs, and to evaluate possible confounding factors. Sera of 30 atopic and 30 non-atopic client-owned dogs. Total IgE, T. canis-specific antibody and allergen-specific IgE levels were evaluated by ELISA. Total IgE, T. canis-specific antibody and allergen-specific IgE levels were significantly higher in non-atopic compared to atopic dogs. A positive correlation was demonstrated between T. canis-specific IgG and T. canis-specific IgE; T. canis-specific IgG and total IgE; T. canis-specific IgE and total IgE; and allergen-specific IgE and total IgE. No differences were detected on the basis of age, gender, vaccination status; deworming or season between atopic and non-atopic dogs. Previous immunomodulatory treatment and cause of atopy did not influence antibody levels of atopic dogs. Toxocara canis-specific IgE appears to be a major component of total IgE in dogs. Total and T. canis-specific IgE levels are higher in non-atopic compared to atopic dogs. It is speculated that T. canis infection may have a protective effect against the development of canine atopic dermatitis and/or that elevations in total serum IgE level are often not associated with atopic dermatitis. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  3. Lack of serologic evidence to link IgA nephropathy with celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Sina; Canetta, Pietro A; Taylor, Annette K; Arguelles-Grande, Carolina; Snyder, Holly; Green, Peter H; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Alaedini, Armin

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. Mucosal infections and food antigens, including wheat gluten, have been proposed as potential contributing environmental factors. Increased immune reactivity to gluten and/or association with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder triggered by ingestion of gluten, have been reported in IgA nephropathy. However, studies are inconsistent about this association. We aimed to evaluate the proposed link between IgA nephropathy and celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten by conducting a comprehensive analysis of associated serologic markers in cohorts of well-characterized patients and controls. Study participants included patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy (n = 99), unaffected controls of similar age, gender, and race (n = 96), and patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease (n = 30). All serum specimens were tested for IgG and IgA antibodies to native gliadin and deamidated gliadin, as well as IgA antibody to transglutaminase 2 (TG2). Anti-TG2 antibody-positive nephropathy patients and unaffected controls were subsequently tested for IgA anti-endomysial antibody and genotyped for celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 alleles. In comparison to unaffected controls, there was not a statistically significant increase in IgA or IgG antibody reactivity to gliadin in individuals with IgA nephropathy. In addition, the levels of celiac disease-specific serologic markers, i.e., antibodies to deamidated gliadin and TG2, did not differ between IgA nephropathy patients and unaffected controls. Results of the additional anti-endomysial antibody testing and HLA genotyping were corroborative. The data from this case-control study do not reveal any evidence to suggest a significant role for celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten in IgA nephropathy.

  4. Lack of Serologic Evidence to Link IgA Nephropathy with Celiac Disease or Immune Reactivity to Gluten

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Sina; Canetta, Pietro A.; Taylor, Annette K.; Arguelles-Grande, Carolina; Snyder, Holly; Green, Peter H.; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Alaedini, Armin

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. Mucosal infections and food antigens, including wheat gluten, have been proposed as potential contributing environmental factors. Increased immune reactivity to gluten and/or association with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder triggered by ingestion of gluten, have been reported in IgA nephropathy. However, studies are inconsistent about this association. We aimed to evaluate the proposed link between IgA nephropathy and celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten by conducting a comprehensive analysis of associated serologic markers in cohorts of well-characterized patients and controls. Study participants included patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy (n = 99), unaffected controls of similar age, gender, and race (n = 96), and patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease (n = 30). All serum specimens were tested for IgG and IgA antibodies to native gliadin and deamidated gliadin, as well as IgA antibody to transglutaminase 2 (TG2). Anti-TG2 antibody-positive nephropathy patients and unaffected controls were subsequently tested for IgA anti-endomysial antibody and genotyped for celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 alleles. In comparison to unaffected controls, there was not a statistically significant increase in IgA or IgG antibody reactivity to gliadin in individuals with IgA nephropathy. In addition, the levels of celiac disease-specific serologic markers, i.e., antibodies to deamidated gliadin and TG2, did not differ between IgA nephropathy patients and unaffected controls. Results of the additional anti-endomysial antibody testing and HLA genotyping were corroborative. The data from this case-control study do not reveal any evidence to suggest a significant role for celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten in IgA nephropathy. PMID:24732864

  5. Correlation of serum IgE levels and clinical manifestations in patients with actinic prurigo*

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Gonzalez, Juan Carlos; Lievanos-Estrada, Zahide; Vega-Memije, Maria Elisa; Hojyo-Tomoka, Maria Teresa; Dominguez-Soto, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Actinic prurigo is an idiopathic photodermatosis, the pathophysiology of which has been hypothesized to involve subtype IV type b (Th2) hypersensitive response, whereby IL4, IL5, and IL13 are secreted and mediate the production of B cells, IgE, and IgG4. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of serum IgE levels and the clinical severity of injuries. METHODS: This case-control study comprised patients with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of actinic prurigo, as well as clinically healthy subjects, from whom 3cc of peripheral blood was taken for immunoassay. Cases were classified by lesion severity as mild, moderate, and severe. Descriptive statistics were analyzed, and chi-square test was performed. RESULTS: We included 21 actinic prurigo patients and 21 subjects without disease; 11 patients with actinic prurigo had elevated serum IgE levels, and 10 had low serum levels. Six actinic prurigo (AP) patients with elevated serum levels of IgE had moderate injuries, 4 had severe injuries, and 1 had minor injuries. Eight out of 10 patients with normal IgE levels presented with minor injuries in the clinical evaluation. The 21 controls did not have increased serum IgE levels. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated IgE levels are associated with moderate to severe clinical lesions, suggesting that actinic prurigo entails a type IV subtype b hypersensitivity response in which Th2 cells predominate. PMID:26982774

  6. Glove-derived foreign proteins induce allergen-specific IgE in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Busch, Marion; Schröder, Claudia; Baron, Jens-Malte; Ott, Hagen; Bruckner, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas L; Mahler, Vera

    2008-04-01

    Currently, most medical gloves are produced with a low content of natural rubber latex (NRL) protein. However, they may be substituted by proteins of foreign origin to maintain specific properties of the material. The aim of this study was to investigate the allergenicity and immunogenicity of unexpected proteins (i.e., soy and casein) compared with NRL proteins in a murine model in BALB/c mice. All respective allergen sources (extracts from three brands of NRL gloves, soy, and casein) were able to induce significant allergen-specific IgE and IgG(1) responses. On average, the highest IgE induction occurred after immunization with NRL, followed by soy and casein. Certain individuals from each treatment group exhibited levels of specific IgE as high as due to NRL. To analyze further specific IgE responses on a single allergen level, we established a microarray based on recombinant allergens for allergen-specific murine IgE detection. Besides specific IgE against rHev b 3, -6, -7, -8, and -11, specific IgE against kappa-casein could be detected in mice immunized with NRL glove extract, indicating a sensitization potential of the contained foreign protein. The substitution of genuine latex proteins by proteins of foreign origin may lead to a shift and de novo increase in sensitization to the finished products.

  7. Anti-food and anti-microbial IgG subclass antibodies in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Anke; Mandić, Ana D; Bennek, Eveline; Frehn, Lisa; Verdier, Julien; Tebrügge, Irene; Lutz, Holger; Streetz, Konrad; Trautwein, Christian; Sellge, Gernot

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly Crohn's disease (CD), is associated with increased microbial-specific IgG and IgA antibodies, whereas alterations of anti-food antibodies are still disputed. The knowledge about IgG subclass antibodies in IBD is limited. In this study we analysed IgG subclass antibodies specific for nutritional and commensal antigens in IBD patients and controls. Serum IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 specific for wheat and milk extracts, purified ovalbumin, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis lysates and mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analysed by ELISA in patients with CD (n = 56), ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 29), acute gastroenteritis/colitis (n = 12) as well as non-inflammatory controls (n = 62). Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) of all IgG subclasses and anti-B. fragilis IgG1 levels were increased in CD patients compared to UC patients and controls. The discriminant validity of ASCA IgG2 and IgG4 was comparable with that of ASCA pan-IgG and IgA, whereas it was inferior for ASCA IgG1/IgG3 and anti-B. fragilis IgG1. Complicated CD defined by the presence of perianal, stricturing or penetrating disease phenotypes was associated with increased ASCA IgG1/IgG3/IgG4, anti-B. fragilis IgG1 and anti-E. coli IgG1 levels. Anti-food IgG subclass levels were not different between IBD patients and controls and did not correlate with food intolerance. In contrast to anti-microbial Abs, food-specific IgG responses were predominately of the IgG4 isotype and all food-specific IgG subclass levels correlated negatively with age. Our study supports the notion that the adaptive immune recognition of food and commensal antigens are differentially regulated.

  8. Long Term Persistence of IgE Anti-Varicella Zoster Virus in Pediatric and Adult Serum Post Chicken Pox Infection and after Vaccination with Varicella Virus Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Josekutty, Joby; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Norowitz, Yitzchok M; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Nowakowski, Maja; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H

    2009-12-01

    The production of IgE specific to different viruses (HIV-1, Parvovirus B19, RSV), and the ability for IgE anti-HIV-1 to suppress HIV-1 production in vitro, strongly suggest an important role for IgE and/or anti viral specific IgE in viral pathogenesis. Previous studies in our laboratory were the first to report the presence of IgE anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) in an adolescent patient with shingles. However, the presence and long term persistence of IgE anti VZV antibodies has not been studied in adults. The presence of serum IgE in addition to IgE and IgG anti-VZV antibody in sera were studied in children (N=12) (0-16 y/o) and adults (N=9) (32-76 y/o) with either a past history of (wild type) chicken pox (N=7 children, 9 adults) or 5 years after vaccination with varicella zoster (N=2 children) (Varicella virus vaccine live, Oka/Merck), as well as in non-infected subjects (N=3 children). Of the patients who had a positive history of chicken pox 13 of 16 (81%) contained IgE anti-VZV antibodies; they were both serum IgEHi (>100 IU/ml) and IgELo (<100 IU/ml). Of the patients who were vaccinated, IgE anti-VZV antibodies were undetected. In contrast, serum from the patients without a history of chicken pox or vaccination did not make either IgE or IgG anti-VZV antibodies. This is the first demonstration of the existence of IgE anti-VZV antibodies, and its long-term persistence in serum of previously infected subjects. Future studies regarding the functional role of anti-viral IgE and its relationship to VZV are warranted.

  9. Gastrointestinal sensitivity to soy and milk proteins in patients with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kloster Smerud, H; Fellström, B; Hällgren, R; Osagie, S; Venge, P; Kristjánsson, G

    2010-11-01

    sensitivity to food antigens has been postulated as a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). in this study we used a recently developed mucosal patch technique to evaluate rectal mucosal sensitivity to soy and cow's milk (CM) proteins in IgAN patients (n = 28) compared to healthy subjects (n = 18). The rectal mucosal production of nitric oxide (NO) and release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) were measured. Serum samples were analyzed for IgA and IgG antibodies to alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein and soy. 14 of 28 (14/28) patients experienced a rectal mucosal reaction, measured by increased NO and/or MPO levels, upon rectal challenge with soy and/or cow's milk proteins. The levels of IgG antibodies to alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin and casein were significantly higher in CM sensitive as compared with non-sensitive IgAN patients, whereas the mean serum levels of IgA antibodies were similar. No differences were seen in serum levels of IgA or IgG antibodies to soy. it is concluded that approximately half of our IgAN patients have a rectal mucosal sensitivity to soy or CM, and that an immune reactivity against antigens may be involved in the pathogenesis of IgAN in this subgroup of patients.

  10. ISOLATION OF RABBIT IGA ANTIHAPTEN ANTIBODY AND DEMONSTRATION OF SKIN-SENSITIZING ACTIVITY IN HOMOLOGOUS SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Onoue, Kaoru; Yagi, Yasuo; Pressman, David

    1966-01-01

    Multiple antibody components of rabbit antisera against p-azobenzenearsonate (Rp) were studied with respect to their globulin nature and skin-sensitizing activity. IgA antibody was characterized by isolating two IgA-rich fractions from a specifically purified antibody preparation. Examination of these fractions showed that IgA antibodies existed in two molecular forms, one with a sedimentation constant of 7S and the other 9S. Skin-sensitizing activity was examined by a P-K type test and a PCA test with Rp-rabbit serum albumin in homologous (rabbit) species. Only the 7S but not 9S IgA antibody sensitized rabbit skin. IgM antibody showed no activity and IgG antibody showed very low activity. In contrast, only IgG antibody was active in the P-K type test to sensitize a heterologous species (guinea pig). None of the antibodies of other classes showed sensitizing activity in heterologous skin. The 7S IgA antibody lost its sensitizing activity upon reduction and alkylation, although no change in its molecular size could be observed. The loss of sensitizing activity was not due to the destruction of antigen-binding activity since the treated 7S IgA antibody retained this activity as shown by radioimmunoelectrophoresis and by binding to the specific immunoadsorbent. The 9S IgA antibody was more resistant to these treatments than the IgM antibody and showed no indication of dissociation. The treated 9S IgA also retained antigen-binding activity. Both the P-K type and PCA reactions were considerably stronger when the interval between injections of antibody and antigen was 24 hr rather than 4 to 5 hr. PMID:4159250

  11. [A case of IgA2-lambda type M-protein that IgA concentration differs from the values of M-protein by serum protein electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, M; Sugano, M; Ichikawa, T; Honda, T; Totsuka, M; Katsuyama, T; Fujita, K

    2001-07-01

    We report an IgA-lambda type M-protein in which the IgA concentration differed from the values of M-protein by serum protein electrophoresis found in a 53-year-old man with multiple myeloma. The M-protein value as determined by serum protein electrophoresis was 6,170 mg/dl. However, the serum IgA concentration was 3,052 mg/dl by turbidimetric immunoassay. Immuno-fixation electrophoresis using IgA subclass antisera revealed that this M-protein was the IgA2-lambda type. Western blotting analysis showed that the IgA2 molecules were composed of two approximately 68 kDa alpha 2 chains and two 28 kDa lambda chains. In addition the free lambda chain band was detected at the position of 28 kDa without 2-mercaptoethanol(2-ME) even though the patient IgA was purified. Since it is known that IgA2m(1) allotype easily release light chains from the IgA molecules in SDS-PAGE without 2-ME, we speculated that in this patient the IgA was the IgA2m(1) allotype. After peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(PBSCT), immunofixation electrophoresis of the patient serum revealed not only the bands of IgA2-lambda type M-protein, but also three bands of IgG1-kappa type M-protein in the gamma region.

  12. Abnormal IgG4 antibody response to aeroallergens in allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Jeannin, P; Delneste, Y; Tillie-Leblond, I; Wallaert, B; carlier, A; Pestel, J; Tonnel, A B

    1994-01-01

    Various studies have suggested the involvement of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies (Ab) in the physiopathology of allergic disorders. Recently, an abnormal IgG4 Ab production in response to immunization has been reported in some atopic patients. Thus, in order to evidence in allergic patients, a potential abnormal IgG4 Ab response to aeroallergens following natural exposure, we compared, in 34 patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and in 16 healthy subjects, the IgG4 Ab response to D. pteronyssinus, grass pollen and cat dander, using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Since some patients were also sensitive to grass pollen and/or to cat dander, we analyzed, in all patients, the IgG4 Ab responses both towards the allergen(s) they were sensitive to (sensitizing allergen) or not (unrelated allergen). The results showed that 90% of the patients produced levels of antisensitizing allergen(s) IgG4 Ab significantly higher than the controls; this IgG4 Ab response was correlated with the corresponding specific IgE Ab level. In addition, among these patients, around 40% presented high levels of IgG4 Ab to the unrelated allergen(s). Thus, in allergic patients, while specific IgE Ab define the nature of the sensitizing allergen, the presence of IgG4 Ab directed against various allergens seems in relation with an abnormal isotype regulation associated with atopic disorders.

  13. Resource Allocation and Time Utilization in IGE and Non-IGE Schools. Technical Paper No. 410.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossmiller, Richard A.; Geske, Terry G.

    This study addressed two basic questions; (1) Do individually guided education (IGE) schools cost more or exhibit different expenditure patterns than non-IGE schools? (2) Do instructional personnel in IGE schools allocate their time differently than instructional personnel in non-IGE schools? Data were obtained from a random sample of 41 IGE…

  14. Selective deficiency of IgA

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complications Autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis , systemic lupus erythematosus , and celiac sprue may develop. People with IgA deficiency may develop antibodies to IgA. As a result, they can have severe, even life-threatening reactions ...

  15. Serum under-O-glycosylated IgA1 level is not correlated with glomerular IgA deposition based upon heterogeneity in the composition of immune complexes in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Satake, Kenji; Shimizu, Yoshio; Sasaki, Yohei; Yanagawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Yusuke; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Honda, Shinichiro; Shibuya, Kazuko; Shibuya, Akira; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2014-06-13

    Although serum under-O-glycosylated IgA1 in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients may deposit more preferentially in glomeruli than heavily-O-glycosylated IgA1, the relationship between the glomerular IgA deposition level and the O-glycan profiles of serum IgA1 remains obscure. Serum total under-O-glycosylated IgA1 levels were quantified in 32 IgAN patients by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with Helix aspersa (HAA) lectin. Serum under-O-glycosylated polymeric IgA1 (pIgA1) was selectively measured by an original method using mouse Fcα/μ receptor (mFcα/μR) transfectant and flow cytometry (pIgA1 trap). The percentage area of IgA deposition in the whole glomeruli (Area-IgA) was quantified by image analysis on the immunofluorescence of biopsy specimens. Correlations were assessed between the Area-IgA and data from HAA-ELISA or pIgA1 trap. The relationships between clinical parameters and data from HAA-ELISA or pIgA1 trap were analyzed by data mining approach. While the under-O-glycosylated IgA1 levels in IgAN patients were significantly higher than those in healthy controls when measured (p<0.05), there was no significant difference in under-O-glycosylated pIgA1. There was neither a correlation observed between the data from HAA-ELISA and pIgA1 trap (r2=0.09) in the IgAN patients (r2=0.005) nor was there a linear correlation between Area-IgA and data from HAA-ELISA or the pIgA1 trap (r2=0.005, 0.03, respectively). Contour plots of clinical parameters versus data from HAA-ELISA and the pIgA1 trap revealed that patients with a high score in each clinical parameter concentrated in specific areas, showing that patients with specific O-glycan profiles of IgA1 have similar clinical parameters. A decision tree analysis suggested that dominant immune complexes in glomeruli were consisted of: 1) IgA1-IgG and complements, 2) pIgA1 and complements, and 3) monomeric IgA1-IgA or aggregated monomeric IgA1. Serum under-O-glycosylated IgA1 levels are not correlated with

  16. Natural clinical tolerance to peanut in African patients is caused by poor allergenic activity of peanut IgE.

    PubMed

    Wollmann, E; Hamsten, C; Sibanda, E; Ochome, M; Focke-Tejkl, M; Asarnoj, A; Önell, A; Lilja, G; Gallerano, D; Lupinek, C; Thalhamer, T; Weiss, R; Thalhamer, J; Wickman, M; Valenta, R; van Hage, M

    2015-06-01

    In Africa, peanuts are frequently consumed, but severe allergic reactions are rare. We investigated immunological patterns of clinical tolerance to peanut in peanut-sensitized but asymptomatic patients from central Africa compared to peanut-allergic and peanut-sensitized but asymptomatic patients from Sweden. Sera from allergic patients (n = 54) from Zimbabwe sensitized to peanut but without allergic symptoms to peanut, and sera from peanut-allergic (n = 25) and peanut-sensitized but asymptomatic (n = 25) patients from Sweden were analyzed toward peanut allergen components (Ara h 1-3, 6, 8-9) and other allergen molecules from important allergen sources using microarray. IgE to Ara h 2 peptide epitopes was analyzed, and allergenic activity was assessed by basophil activation assay. Forty-six percent of the African and all peanut-allergic Swedish patients showed IgE toward one of the highly allergenic peanut allergens (Ara h 1-3, 6, 9). However, 48% of the African patients had IgE to cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) with low allergenic activity and 60% of the Swedish asymptomatic patients had IgE against the PR protein Ara h 8. IgG and IgG4 specificities and levels could not discriminate between the African asymptomatic and Swedish peanut-allergic patients. Asymptomatic patients almost lacked IgE to Ara h 2 peptides, which were recognized by peanut-allergic patients. Peanut IgE from peanut asymptomatic patients showed poor allergenic activity compared with IgE from peanut-allergic patients. Natural clinical tolerance to peanut in the African patients can be caused by IgE to low allergenic peanut components and by poor allergenic activity of peanut-specific IgE. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Suppression of in vivo polyclonal IgE responses by monoclonal antibody to the lymphokine B-cell stimulatory factor 1.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelman, F D; Katona, I M; Urban, J F; Snapper, C M; Ohara, J; Paul, W E

    1986-01-01

    The lymphokine B-cell stimulatory factor 1 (BSF-1) has been shown to greatly enhance the differentiation of lipopolysaccharide-activated B cells into IgG1- and IgE-secreting cells in vitro. To determine whether in vivo IgG1 and IgE antibody responses are BSF-1 dependent, the ability of a monoclonal rat IgG1 anti-BSF-1 antibody, 11B11, to affect polyclonal IgG1 and IgE production in mice infected with the nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis or injected with a purified goat antibody to mouse IgD was studied. 11B11-containing ascites fluid or purified 11B11 strongly inhibited IgE production in both systems but did not affect IgG1 production, while control ascites or normal rat IgG1 had no IgE-inhibitory activity. These results indicate an important physiologic role for BSF-1 in the generation of IgE antibody responses and suggest means for limiting the production of antibodies responsible for allergic reactions without inhibiting protective antibody responses. PMID:3491987

  18. Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

  19. Immunization with Hypoallergens of shrimp allergen tropomyosin inhibits shrimp tropomyosin specific IgE reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wai, Christine Y Y; Leung, Nicki Y H; Ho, Marco H K; Gershwin, Laurel J; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S C; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy.

  20. Nasal IgA Provides Protection against Human Influenza Challenge in Volunteers with Low Serum Influenza Antibody Titre.

    PubMed

    Gould, Victoria M W; Francis, James N; Anderson, Katie J; Georges, Bertrand; Cope, Alethea V; Tregoning, John S

    2017-01-01

    In spite of there being a number of vaccines, influenza remains a significant global cause of morbidity and mortality. Understanding more about natural and vaccine induced immune protection against influenza infection would help to develop better vaccines. Virus specific IgG is a known correlate of protection, but other factors may help to reduce viral load or disease severity, for example IgA. In the current study we measured influenza specific responses in a controlled human infection model using influenza A/California/2009 (H1N1) as the challenge agent. Volunteers were pre-selected with low haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) titres in order to ensure a higher proportion of infection; this allowed us to explore the role of other immune correlates. In spite of HAI being uniformly low, there were variable levels of H1N1 specific IgG and IgA prior to infection. There was also a range of disease severity in volunteers allowing us to compare whether differences in systemic and local H1N1 specific IgG and IgA prior to infection affected disease outcome. H1N1 specific IgG level before challenge did not correlate with protection, probably due to the pre-screening for individuals with low HAI. However, the length of time infectious virus was recovered from the nose was reduced in patients with higher pre-existing H1N1 influenza specific nasal IgA or serum IgA. Therefore, IgA contributes to protection against influenza and should be targeted in vaccines.

  1. NASA-IGES Translator and Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Jin J.; Logan, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    NASA-IGES Translator (NIGEStranslator) is a batch program that translates a general IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file to a NASA-IGES-Nurbs-Only (NINO) file. IGES is the most popular geometry exchange standard among Computer Aided Geometric Design (CAD) systems. NINO format is a subset of IGES, implementing the simple and yet the most popular NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) representation. NIGEStranslator converts a complex IGES file to the simpler NINO file to simplify the tasks of CFD grid generation for models in CAD format. The NASA-IGES Viewer (NIGESview) is an Open-Inventor-based, highly interactive viewer/ editor for NINO files. Geometry in the IGES files can be viewed, copied, transformed, deleted, and inquired. Users can use NIGEStranslator to translate IGES files from CAD systems to NINO files. The geometry then can be examined with NIGESview. Extraneous geometries can be interactively removed, and the cleaned model can be written to an IGES file, ready to be used in grid generation.

  2. Prevention of Streptococcus mutans colonization by salivary IgA antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gregory, R L; Michalek, S M; Filler, S J; Mestecky, J; McGhee, J R

    1985-01-01

    The levels of salivary and serum IgA, IgG, and IgM antibodies to the seven serotypes (a-g) of Streptococcus mutans were established in 12 laboratory volunteers using a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Salivary IgA antibody levels to the serotype c organism were significantly lower (P less than 0.005) than antibody levels to the other six serotypes of S. mutans. Similar results were found with a purified S. mutans serotype c carbohydrate. Serum IgG and IgM antibody titers to the serotype c whole cells were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than to four other S. mutans serotypes (a, e-g). The abilities of S. mutans serotypes c and d to colonize molar tooth surfaces were examined in eight volunteers. S. mutans serotype d was cleared from the tooth surfaces within 24 hr of challenge, whereas S. mutans serotype c was detected in six of the eight volunteers after 2 weeks and in three of eight after 3 weeks. These results provide additional evidence for the role of salivary IgA antibodies in regulating S. mutans infection and suggest that the low levels of salivary IgA antibodies to S. mutans serotype c may contribute to the predominance of this serotype in the U.S. population.

  3. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgA antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in congenital infection.

    PubMed

    Di Pentima, M C; Edwards, M S

    1999-02-01

    With the aim of achieving earlier diagnosis of congenital Trypanosoma cruzi infection, we assessed the usefulness of detecting specific IgA antibody by an ELISA. We evaluated 12 pregnant women chronically infected with T. cruzi, their newborn infants, and three additional neonates with parasitemia at birth. The IgA-specific antibody was detected by adapting the procedure for use of a commercial IgG ELISA, the Hemagen Chagas' Kit (Hemagen Diagnostics, Inc., Waltham, MA). Trypanosoma cruzi-specific IgA was detected in 10 (83%) of 12 mothers at delivery, in one of three parasitemic infants, and one of 12 newborns of the chronically infected women. Testing of 13 infants at six months of age revealed IgA in seven infants (54%), of whom four also had persistent T. cruzi-specific IgG. Detection of T. cruzi-specific IgA could provide a criterion for diagnosis of congenital infection in the absence of detectable parasitemia.

  4. Purification and characterisation of immunoglobulins from the Australian black flying fox (Pteropus alecto) using anti-fab affinity chromatography reveals the low abundance of IgA.

    PubMed

    Wynne, James W; Di Rubbo, Antonio; Shiell, Brian J; Beddome, Gary; Cowled, Christopher; Peck, Grantley R; Huang, Jing; Grimley, Samantha L; Baker, Michelle L; Michalski, Wojtek P

    2013-01-01

    There is now an overwhelming body of evidence that implicates bats in the dissemination of a long list of emerging and re-emerging viral agents, often causing illnesses or death in both animals and humans. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding the immunological mechanisms by which bats coexist with highly pathogenic viruses. Immunoglobulins are major components of the adaptive immune system. Early studies found bats may have quantitatively lower antibody responses to model antigens compared to conventional laboratory animals. To further understand the antibody response of bats, the present study purified and characterised the major immunoglobulin classes from healthy black flying foxes, Pteropus alecto. We employed a novel strategy, where IgG was initially purified and used to generate anti-Fab specific antibodies. Immobilised anti-Fab specific antibodies were then used to capture other immunoglobulins from IgG depleted serum. While high quantities of IgM were successfully isolated from serum, IgA was not. Only trace quantities of IgA were detected in the serum by mass spectrometry. Immobilised ligands specific to IgA (Jacalin, Peptide M and staphylococcal superantigen-like protein) also failed to capture P. alecto IgA from serum. IgM was the second most abundant serum antibody after IgG. A survey of mucosal secretions found IgG was the dominant antibody class rather than IgA. Our study demonstrates healthy P. alecto bats have markedly less serum IgA than expected. Higher quantities of IgG in mucosal secretions may be compensation for this low abundance or lack of IgA. Knowledge and reagents developed within this study can be used in the future to examine class-specific antibody response within this important viral host.

  5. Purification and Characterisation of Immunoglobulins from the Australian Black Flying Fox (Pteropus alecto) Using Anti-Fab Affinity Chromatography Reveals the Low Abundance of IgA

    PubMed Central

    Shiell, Brian J.; Beddome, Gary; Cowled, Christopher; Peck, Grantley R.; Huang, Jing; Grimley, Samantha L.; Baker, Michelle L.; Michalski, Wojtek P.

    2013-01-01

    There is now an overwhelming body of evidence that implicates bats in the dissemination of a long list of emerging and re-emerging viral agents, often causing illnesses or death in both animals and humans. Despite this, there is a paucity of information regarding the immunological mechanisms by which bats coexist with highly pathogenic viruses. Immunoglobulins are major components of the adaptive immune system. Early studies found bats may have quantitatively lower antibody responses to model antigens compared to conventional laboratory animals. To further understand the antibody response of bats, the present study purified and characterised the major immunoglobulin classes from healthy black flying foxes, Pteropus alecto. We employed a novel strategy, where IgG was initially purified and used to generate anti-Fab specific antibodies. Immobilised anti-Fab specific antibodies were then used to capture other immunoglobulins from IgG depleted serum. While high quantities of IgM were successfully isolated from serum, IgA was not. Only trace quantities of IgA were detected in the serum by mass spectrometry. Immobilised ligands specific to IgA (Jacalin, Peptide M and staphylococcal superantigen-like protein) also failed to capture P. alecto IgA from serum. IgM was the second most abundant serum antibody after IgG. A survey of mucosal secretions found IgG was the dominant antibody class rather than IgA. Our study demonstrates healthy P. alecto bats have markedly less serum IgA than expected. Higher quantities of IgG in mucosal secretions may be compensation for this low abundance or lack of IgA. Knowledge and reagents developed within this study can be used in the future to examine class-specific antibody response within this important viral host. PMID:23308125

  6. [Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy: new perspectives for the near future?].

    PubMed

    Segarra, A

    2010-01-01

    Progress in understanding the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy has shown that probably there is no a single IgA nephropathy with the same pathogenic mechanism, clinical course and response to therapy. The evidence currently available suggests the existence of at least two possible mechanisms of IgA deposition in the renal mesangium. In a small percentage of patients, mesangial deposition of IgA1 colocalizes with secretory component, indicating that the deposited IgA1 in glomeruli originates completely or partly in the mucose-associated lymphoid tissue. This deposition pattern has been associated with activation of complement by the lectin pathway and has been associated with a worse prognosis, although this last statement needs to be confirmed in long-term studies. The mechanisms responsible for secretory IgA deposition are not known. In the majority of patients with IgA nephropathy secretory component is not detectable in the mesangium. In these cases, the presence of elevated circulating levels of galactose-deficient IgA, produced by bone marrow plasma cells would be a predisposing factor but not sufficient to induce nephropathy. To produce kidney disease, galactose-deficient IgA1 must be deposited in the renal mesangium, and once there, either by interaction with specific receptors (CD71?), by direct activation of complement or by being the target of an IgG autoimmune response anti-IgA, induce activation, proliferation and increased mesangial matrix synthesis and eventually cell injury. In parallel, galactose-deficient IgA, through interaction with the RR Fc alpha/gamma, may activate circulating lymphocytes and monocytes and enhance their response to chemoattractants produced by the mesangial cell, causing, thus, the inflammatory infiltrate to initiate and maintain the interstitial injury. In the next few years, advances recently added to the knowledge of the pathogenesis of nephropathy IgA1 could provide new variables that allow walking in the direction of

  7. Salivary IgA against sporozoite-specific embryogenesis-related protein (TgERP) in the study of horizontally transmitted toxoplasmosis via T. gondii oocysts in endemic settings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The prevalence of toxoplasmosis was investigated in endemic settings in Brazil, and calculated by measuring antibodies in two ELISA systems: 1) IgG and IgM from sera tested by commercial conventional ELISA, and 2) IgA, from saliva, and IgG from sera samples tested against a sporozoite-specific prote...

  8. Expression and biological effects of high levels of serum IgE in epsilon heavy chain transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Adamczewski, M; Köhler, G; Lamers, M C

    1991-03-01

    We have generated and examined transgenic mice carrying a rearranged immunoglobulin transgene coding for the heavy chain of an IgE antibody. These mice produce the secreted form of the recombinant epsilon heavy chain. Serum IgE levels were increased at least 100-fold over control values. Transgenic epsilon mRNA was detected in spleen and thymus, not in liver and heart. Transgenic epsilon production in vitro was slightly up-regulated by T cells, but not affected by interleukin 4 in vitro or Nippostrongylus infestation in vivo. The B cell and T cell compartments and antigen-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgM responses as well as the increase in endogenous IgE after Nippostrongylus infestation in transgenic mice were normal. These data indicate that the presence of high levels of transgenic IgE did not induce class-specific suppressive mechanisms. Transgenic IgE bound to Fc epsilon receptor type I and Fc epsilon receptor type II and mediated histamine release from mast cells in vitro and an allergic skin reaction in vivo. It inhibited an ovalbumin-specific skin reaction in ovalbumin-immunized transgenic mice only during the initial phases of the immune response. This result has a bearing on the feasibility of immune therapy of allergic diseases with substances that block binding of IgE to its receptors.

  9. EB virus-specific IgA in serum of patients with infectious mononucleosis and of healthy people of different ages.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J M; Woodroof, M

    1979-10-01

    The following sera were tested for EB virus-specific IgA: serial sera from 61 cases of infectious mononucleosis (IM) and from 195 EBV IgG positive healthy students; single sera from each of 1469 persons of different ages, 63 cases of untreated Hodgkin's disease, and 22 neonates. EBV specific IgA was found in the sera from 88% of cases of IM, from 18.5% of EBV IgG positive healthy students, and in 13.5% of repeat samples from the same students three years later. The incidence of EBV IgA varied from 5 to 30% at different ages in single sera from EBV IgG positive persons aged 2 to 70 years. The higher percentages occurred in the age groups where recent sero-conversion rates were high. Fifteen percent of sera from cases of Hodgkin's disease were positive for EBV IgA, an incidence similar to that for healthy adults in the age group 25-45 years. None of the EBV IgG positive sera from neonates gave a positive reaction for EBV IGA.

  10. Detection of H. Pylori infection on dyspepsia patients with IgA H. Pylori antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loesnihari, R.

    2018-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has a big role in the relapse and pathogenesis of the upper gastrointestinal disease. Dyspepsia is characterized by uncomfortable feeling at the upper gastrointestinal area. IgA H. pylori antibody was in two-thirds of H. pylori infected patients, but about 7.2% of IgA H. Pylori antibody became the only positive result of the test between the two serology test (IgG and IgA). A cross-sectional study was conducted in 38 patients with dyspepsia. The IgA antibody test for H. pylori in the serum of dyspepsia patient conducted through the ELISA test. The hemoglobin levels, leukocytes, platelets number, and H. pylori infection via IgA antibody test on ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia patient had no significant difference. There was a relation between the number of platelets in the infected H. pylori patients compared to the non-infected patients. H. pylori infection in the ulcer and non-ulcer dyspepsia patient with serology method was 18%. H. pylori infection number on ulcer dyspepsia was not higher than the non-ulcer dyspepsia, all ulcer dyspepsia patients who were with H. pylori found with a lesion on the antrum.

  11. T cell cytokine polarity as a determinant of immunoglobulin A (IgA) glycosylation and the severity of experimental IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Chintalacharuvu, S R; Yamashita, M; Bagheri, N; Blanchard, T G; Nedrud, J G; Lamm, M E; Tomino, Y; Emancipator, S N

    2008-09-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) glycosylation, recognized as an important pathogenic factor in IgA nephropathy (IgAN), is apparently controlled by the polarity of T helper (Th) cytokine responses. To examine the role of cytokine polarity in IgAN, inbred mice were immunized by intraperitoneal priming with inactivated Sendai virus (SeV) emulsified in either complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), which promote Th1- or Th2-immune response, respectively, and then boosted identically twice orally with aqueous suspensions of inactivated virus. Next, some mice were challenged intranasally with infectious SeV. Mice primed with CFA or IFA had equal reductions in nasal viral titre relative to non-immune controls, and equally increased serum levels of SeV-specific IgA antibody. Mice primed with CFA showed higher SeV-specific IgG than those with IFA. Splenocytes from mice primed with IFA produced copious amounts of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5, but little interferon-gamma and IL-2; those primed with CFA had reciprocal cytokine recall responses. Total serum IgA and especially SeV-specific IgA from mice primed with IFA showed a selective defect in sialylation and galactosylation. Although the frequency and intensity of glomerular deposits and haematuria did not differ, glomerulonephritis in mice primed with IFA and challenged with infectious virus was more severe than in those given CFA, as judged by serum creatinine level. We conclude that the polarity of T cell cytokines controls the pattern of IgA glycosylation and exerts direct or indirect effects on functional glomerular responses to immune complex deposition.

  12. Immunological studies on bee-keepers: specific IgG and subclass typing IgG against bee venom and bee venom components.

    PubMed

    Urbanek, R; Forster, J; Ziupa, J; Karitzky, D

    1980-11-17

    Specific IgE antibodies against bee venom and its components were studied in 23 bee-keepers. The highest IgG serum levels were observed for whole bee venom followed by phospholipase A. The serum levels of specific IgG antibodies against melittin and MCD-peptide were lower, the lowest serum levels being observed for apamin. After a 5 month absence from bee-keeping a fall in the serum levels of IgG antibodies was observed in all the bee-keepers studied. The investigation of the IgG subclass antibodies 1-4 against bee venom and phospholipase A demonstrated the highest serum levels for IgG 4 and IgG 2, the lowest levels were observed for IgG 1. The lowest IgG serum levels were associated with the least effective protection to bee stings. These findings support the concept that specific IgG antibodies prevent the development of allergic symptoms after bee sting.

  13. Predominate HIV1-specific IgG activity in various mucosal compartments of HIV1-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Lü, F X

    2000-10-01

    Evaluating mucosal humoral immunity is important for understanding local immunity induced by HIV infection or vaccination and designing prophylactic strategies. To characterize the mucosal humoral immunity following HIV infection, the levels of immunoglobulins (Igs), antibodies (Abs), and HIV1-specific Ab activity were evaluated in cervicovaginal secretions (CVS), saliva, breast milk, and sera of HIV-infected individuals. HIV1-specific IgG activity was significantly higher than that of IgA in CVS, saliva, and breast milk. The highest HIV1-specific IgG activity was found in breast milk. The data suggest that anti-HIV1 Abs in CVS were most likely serum derived. However, HIV1-specific Abs in saliva and breast milk were mainly locally produced. The prevalence of HIV1-specific Abs in seropositive subjects was 97% for IgG and 95% for IgA in CVS, 100% for IgG and 80% for IgA in saliva, and 59% for IgG and 94% for IgA in breast milk. These data provide evidence for both a better understanding of the nature of humoral mucosal responses after HIV1 infection and the development of strategies to induce desirable functional mucosal immunity for preventing HIV transmission. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Label Free QCM Immunobiosensor for AFB1 Detection Using Monoclonal IgA Antibody as Recognition Element.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Özlem; Öztürk, Selma; Öztürk, Zafer Ziya

    2016-08-11

    This study introduces the use of an IgA isotype aflatoxin (AF) specific monoclonal antibody for the development of a highly sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) immunobiosensor for the detection of AF in inhibitory immunoassay format. The higher molecular weight of IgA antibodies proved an advantage over commonly used IgG antibodies in label free immunobiosensor measurements. IgA and IgG antibodies with similar affinity for AF were used in the comparative studies. Sensor surface was prepared by covalent immobilization of AFB1, using self assembled monolayer (SAM) formed on gold coated Quartz Crystal, with 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS) method using a diamine linker. Nonspecific binding to the surface was decreased by minimizing the duration of EDC/NHS activation. Sensor surface was chemically blocked after AF immobilization without any need for protein blocking. This protein free sensor chip endured harsh solutions with strong ionic detergent at high pH, which is required for the regeneration of the high affinity antibody-antigen interaction. According to the obtained results, the detection range with IgA antibodies was higher than IgG antibodies in QCM immunosensor developed for AFB1.

  15. Label Free QCM Immunobiosensor for AFB1 Detection Using Monoclonal IgA Antibody as Recognition Element

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Özlem; Öztürk, Selma; Öztürk, Zafer Ziya

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces the use of an IgA isotype aflatoxin (AF) specific monoclonal antibody for the development of a highly sensitive Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) immunobiosensor for the detection of AF in inhibitory immunoassay format. The higher molecular weight of IgA antibodies proved an advantage over commonly used IgG antibodies in label free immunobiosensor measurements. IgA and IgG antibodies with similar affinity for AF were used in the comparative studies. Sensor surface was prepared by covalent immobilization of AFB1, using self assembled monolayer (SAM) formed on gold coated Quartz Crystal, with 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS) method using a diamine linker. Nonspecific binding to the surface was decreased by minimizing the duration of EDC/NHS activation. Sensor surface was chemically blocked after AF immobilization without any need for protein blocking. This protein free sensor chip endured harsh solutions with strong ionic detergent at high pH, which is required for the regeneration of the high affinity antibody-antigen interaction. According to the obtained results, the detection range with IgA antibodies was higher than IgG antibodies in QCM immunosensor developed for AFB1. PMID:27529243

  16. Immunoglobulins in Nasal Secretions of Healthy Humans: Structural Integrity of Secretory Immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and Occurrence of Neutralizing Antibodies to IgA1 Proteases of Nasal Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kirkeby, Line; Rasmussen, Trine Tang; Reinholdt, Jesper; Kilian, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    Certain bacteria, including overt pathogens as well as commensals, produce immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases. By cleaving IgA1, including secretory IgA1, in the hinge region, these enzymes may interfere with the barrier functions of mucosal IgA antibodies, as indicated by experiments in vitro. Previous studies have suggested that cleavage of IgA1 in nasal secretions may be associated with the development and perpetuation of atopic disease. To clarify the potential effect of IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal cavity, we have analyzed immunoglobulin isotypes in nasal secretions of 11 healthy humans, with a focus on IgA, and at the same time have characterized and quantified IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal flora of the subjects. Samples in the form of nasal wash were collected by using a washing liquid that contained lithium as an internal reference. Dilution factors and, subsequently, concentrations in undiluted secretions could thereby be calculated. IgA, mainly in the secretory form, was found by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to be the dominant isotype in all subjects, and the vast majority of IgA (median, 91%) was of the A1 subclass, corroborating results of previous analyses at the level of immunoglobulin-producing cells. Levels of serum-type immunoglobulins were low, except for four subjects in whom levels of IgG corresponded to 20 to 66% of total IgA. Cumulative levels of IgA, IgG, and IgM in undiluted secretions ranged from 260 to 2,494 (median, 777) μg ml−1. IgA1 protease-producing bacteria (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Streptococcus mitis biovar 1) were isolated from the nasal cavities of seven subjects at 2.1 × 103 to 7.2 × 106 CFU per ml of undiluted secretion, corresponding to 0.2 to 99.6% of the flora. Nevertheless, α-chain fragments characteristic of IgA1 protease activity were not detected in secretions from any subject by immunoblotting. Neutralizing antibodies to IgA1 proteases of autologous

  17. Serum anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 IgA correlates to IgM isotype in leprosy patients: a possible candidate for seroepidemiological surveys?

    PubMed

    de Macedo, Alexandre C; Guimarães, Juliana A; Rodrigues, Raphael O; Araújo, Thiago D V; Tavares, Clodis M; Cabral, Paula B; de Moraes-Pinto, Maria Isabel; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida T

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare serum anti-phenolic glycolipid-1 IgA, IgG, and IgM levels in leprosy patients and controls. Analysis of anti-PGL-1 IgA, IgG, or IgM in serum samples from multibacillary (MB, n=32) and paucibacillary (PB, n=22) leprosy patients, and in non-endemic controls (n=17), using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A strong correlation between serum IgM and IgA isotypes was found (r=.745, P<.0001) in MB patients. A moderate correlation was found in all analyses in PB patients. A moderate agreement was found between anti-PGL1 IgA and IgM tests. Based on the ROC curves, the cut-off values were selected and the parameters of validation were calculated. Considering the clinical forms altogether, the diagnostic sensitivities were 50.0% for IgA, 22.2% for IgG, and 74.1% for IgM. The positive (VPP) and negative (VPN) predictive values were estimated for each isotype. For IgA, the VPP and VPN were, respectively, 100.0% (87.0%-100.0%; 95% confidence interval) and 38.7% (24.4%-54.5%); for IgG, 100% (87.0%-100.0%) and 28.8% (17.8%-42.1%), respectively; and for IgM, 95.2% (83.8%-99.4%) and 51.7% (32.5%-70.6%), respectively. Despite the limiting factors, anti-PGL1 IgA correlates to IgM levels and it could be considered as a possible laboratorial tool to be also used, for instance, in serological follow-up studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The sites of catabolism of murine monomeric IgA.

    PubMed

    Moldoveanu, Z; Epps, J M; Thorpe, S R; Mestecky, J

    1988-07-01

    The tissue sites of monomeric IgA (mIgA) catabolism were determined in a BALB/c mouse model. Mouse mIgA myeloma proteins were labeled either by direct iodination or by coupling the residualizing label, dilactitol-125I-tyramine (125I-DLT) to the proteins; catabolites from protein labeled with 125I-DLT accumulate at the site of protein degradation, allowing identification of the tissue and cellular sites involved in catabolism of the protein. The circulating half-lives of 125I- and 125I-DLT-mIgA were the same. The distribution of radioactivity in tissues was measured at 1, 3, 24, and 96 h after iv. injection of 125I-DLT-labeled mIgA, dimeric IgA (dIgA), IgG, or mouse serum albumin. The greatest uptake of 125I-DLT-mIgA was attributable to the liver. This organ accounted for more internal catabolism of mIgA than all other tissues combined. In contrast, 125I-DLT-IgG was catabolized equally in skin, muscle, and liver. These data indicate that, in mice, the liver is the major site of mIgA catabolism. To determine the cell types involved, collagenase digestion was used to isolate parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells from perfused liver of animals injected with 125-DLT-mIgA. Most of the radioactivity was associated with the hepatocyte fraction, even though both cell types showed uptake of 125I-DLT-mIgA. Inhibition studies, with asialofetuin and mouse IgA demonstrated that the uptake of mIgA by liver cells was mediated primarily by the asialoglycoprotein receptor.

  19. Influence of protein expression system on elicitation of IgE antibody responses: experience with lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Almond, Rachael J; Flanagan, Brian F; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2012-11-15

    With increased interest in genetically modified (GM) crop plants there is an important need to understand the properties that contribute to the ability of such novel proteins to provoke immune and/or allergic responses. One characteristic that may be relevant is glycosylation, particularly as novel expression systems (e.g. bacterial to plant) will impact on the protein glycoprofile. The allergenicity (IgE inducing) and immunogenicity (IgG inducing) properties of wild type native human lactoferrin (NLF) from human milk (hm) and neutrophil granules (n) and a recombinant molecule produced in rice (RLF) have been assessed. These forms of lactoferrin have identical amino acid sequences, but different glycosylation patterns: hmNLF and nNLF have complex glycoprofiles including Lewis (Le)(x) structures, with particularly high levels of Le(x) expressed by nNLF, whereas RLF is simpler and rich in mannose residues. Antibody responses induced in BALB/c strain mice by intraperitoneal exposure to the different forms of lactoferrin were characterised. Immunisation with both forms of NLF stimulated substantial IgG and IgE antibody responses. In contrast, the recombinant molecule was considerably less immunogenic and failed to stimulate detectable IgE, irrespective of endotoxin and iron content. The glycans did not contribute to epitope formation, with equivalent IgE and IgG binding recorded for high titre anti-NLF antisera regardless of whether the immunising NLF or the recombinant molecule were used substrates in the analyses. These data demonstrate that differential glycosylation profiles can have a profound impact on protein allergenicity and immunogenicity, with mannose and Le(x) exhibiting opposing effects. These results have clear relevance for characterising the allergenic hazards of novel proteins in GM crops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pre- and Posttransplant IgA Anti-Fab Antibodies to Predict Long-term Kidney Graft Survival.

    PubMed

    Amirzargar, M A; Amirzargar, A; Basiri, A; Hajilooi, M; Roshanaei, G; Rajabi, G; Solgi, G

    2015-05-01

    Immunologic factors are reliable markers for allograft monitoring, because of their seminal role in rejection process. One of these factors is the immunoglobulin (Ig)A anti-Fab of the IgG antibody. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of pre- and posttransplant levels of this marker for kidney allograft function and survival. Sera samples of 59 living unrelated donor kidney recipients were collected before and after transplantation (days 7, 14, and 30) and investigated for IgA anti-Fab of IgG antibody levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in relation with allograft outcome. Among 59 patients, 15 cases (25%) including 10 with acute rejection and 5 with chronic rejection episodes showed graft failure during a mean of 5 years of follow-up. High posttransplant levels of IgA anti-Fab antibodies were observed more frequently in patients with stable graft function (SGF) compared with patients with graft failure (P = 2 × 10(-6)). None of patients with acute or chronic rejection episodes had high levels of IgA anti-Fab antibodies at day 30 posttransplant compared with the SGF group (P = 10(-6) and P = .01, respectively). In addition, high levels of IgA anti-Fab antibody correlated with lesser concentration of serum creatinine at 1 month posttransplantation (P = .01). Five-year graft survival was associated with high levels of pre- and posttransplant IgA anti-Fab antibodies (P = .02 and P = .003, respectively). Our findings indicate the protective effect of higher levels of IgA anti-Fab antibodies regarding to kidney allograft outcomes and long-term graft survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of three fully automated immunoassay systems for detection of IgA anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pérez, D; Martínez-Flores, J A; Serrano, M; Lora, D; Paz-Artal, E; Morales, J M; Serrano, A

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, we have been witnessing increased clinical interest in the determination of IgA anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I (aB2GPI) antibodies as well as increased demand for this test. Some ELISA-based diagnostic systems for IgA aB2GPI antibodies detection are suboptimal to detect it. The aim of our study was to determine whether the diagnostic yield of modern detection systems based on automatic platforms to measure IgA aB2GPI is equivalent to that of the well-optimized ELISA-based assays. In total, 130 patients were analyzed for IgA aB2GPI by three fully automated immunoassays using an ELISA-based assay as reference. The three systems were also analyzed for IgG aB2GPI with 58 patients. System 1 was able to detect IgA aB2GPI with good sensitivity and kappa index (99% and 0.72, respectively). The other two systems had also poor sensitivity (20% and 15%) and kappa index (0.10 and 0.07), respectively. On the other hand, kappa index for IgG aB2GPI was >0.89 in the three systems. Some analytical methods to detect IgA aB2GPI are suboptimal as well as some ELISA-based diagnostic systems. It is important that the scientific community work to standardize analytical methods to determine IgA aB2GPI antibodies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Disruption of Smad4 Expression in T Cells Leads to IgA Nephropathy-Like Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Michifumi; Choi, Sung Hee; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Letterio, John J.; Emancipator, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    The link between glomerular IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and T helper 2 (Th2) response has been implicated, however, the mechanisms are poorly defined because of the lack of an appropriate model. Here we report a novel murine model characterized by lineage-restricted deletion of the gene encoding MAD homologue 4 (Smad4) in T cells (Smad4co/co;Lck-cre). Loss of Smad4 expression in T cells results in overproduction of Th2 cytokines and high serum IgA levels. We found that Smad4co/co;Lck-cre mice exhibited massive glomerular IgA deposition, increased albumin creatinine ratio, aberrant glycosylated IgA, IgA complexed with IgG1 and IgG2a, and polymeric IgA, all known features of IgAN in humans. Furthermore, we examined the β1, 4-galactosyltransferases (β4GalT) enzyme which is involved in the synthesis of glycosylated murine IgA, and we found reduced β4GalT2 and β4GalT4 mRNA levels in B cells. These findings indicate that Smad4co/co;Lck-cre mice could be a useful model for studying the mechanisms between IgAN and Th2 response, and further, disruption of Smad4-dependent signaling in T cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of human IgAN and contributing to a Th2 T cell phenotype. PMID:24223846

  3. HIV-1-Specific IgA Monoclonal Antibodies from an HIV-1 Vaccinee Mediate Galactosylceramide Blocking and Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    functional properties of HIV-1-specific IgG, more studies are needed on the functional attributes of HIV-1-specific IgA, specifically for vaccine-elicited IgA. Characterization of the functional properties of HIV-1 Env-specific IgA monoclonal antibodies from human vaccine clinical trials are critical toward understanding the capacity of the host immune response to block HIV-1 acquisition. PMID:29321320

  4. Levels and complexity of IgA antibody against oral bacteria in samples of human colostrum.

    PubMed

    Petrechen, L N; Zago, F H; Sesso, M L T; Bertoldo, B B; Silva, C B; Azevedo, K P; de Lima Pereira, S A; Geraldo-Martins, V R; Ferriani, V P L; Nogueira, R D

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans (SM) have three main virulence antigens: glucan binding protein B (gbpB), glucosyltransferase (Gtf) and antigens I/II (Ag I/II) envolved in the capacity of those bacteria to adhere and accumulate in the dental biofilm. Also, the glycosyltransferases 153 kDa of Streptococcus gordonii (SGO) and 170kDa of Streptococcus sanguinis (SSA) were important antigens associated with the accumulation of those bacterias. Streptococcus mitis (SMI) present IgA1 protease of 202 kDa. We investigated the specificity and levels IgA against those antigens of virulence in samples of human colostrum. This study involved 77 samples of colostrum that were analyzed for levels of immunoglobulian A, M and G by Elisa. The specificity of IgA against extracts of SM and initials colonizators (SSA, SMI, SGO) were analyzed by the Western blot. The mean concentration of IgA was 2850.2 (±2567.2) mg/100 mL followed by IgM and IgG (respectively 321.8±90.3 and 88.3±51.5), statistically different (p<0.05). Results showed that the majority of samples had detectable levels of IgA antibodies to extracts of bacteria antigens and theirs virulence antigens. To SM, the GbpB was significantly lower detected than others antigens of SM (p<0.05). High complexities of response to Ags were identified in the samples. There were no significant differences in the mean number of IgA-reactive Ags between the antigens (p>0.4). So, the breast milk from first hours after birth presented significant levels of IgA specific against important virulence of antigens those oral streptococci, which can disrupt the installation and accumulation process of these microorganisms in the oral cavity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Tracing the Origins of IgE, Mast Cells, and Allergies by Studies of Wild Animals.

    PubMed

    Hellman, Lars Torkel; Akula, Srinivas; Thorpe, Michael; Fu, Zhirong

    2017-01-01

    In most industrialized countries, allergies have increased in frequency quite dramatically during the past 50 years. Estimates show that 20-30% of the populations are affected. Allergies have thereby become one of the major medical challenges of the twenty-first century. Despite several theories including the hygiene hypothesis, there are still very few solid clues concerning the causes of this increase. To trace the origins of allergies, we have studied cells and molecules of importance for the development of IgE-mediated allergies, including the repertoire of immunoglobulin genes. These studies have shown that IgE and IgG most likely appeared by a gene duplication of IgY in an early mammal, possibly 220-300 million years ago. Receptors specific for IgE and IgG subsequently appeared in parallel with the increase in Ig isotypes from a subfamily of the recently identified Fc receptor-like molecules. Circulating IgE levels are generally very low in humans and laboratory rodents. However, when dogs and Scandinavian wolfs were analyzed, IgE levels were found to be 100-200 times higher compared to humans, indicating a generally much more active IgE synthesis in free-living animals, most likely connected to intestinal parasite infections. One of the major effector molecules released upon IgE-mediated activation by mast cells are serine proteases. These proteases, which belong to the large family of hematopoietic serine proteases, are extremely abundant and can account for up to 35% of the total cellular protein. Recent studies show that several of these enzymes, including the chymases and tryptases, are old. Ancestors for these enzymes were most likely present in an early mammal more than 200 million years ago before the separation of the three extant mammalian lineages; monotremes, marsupials, and placental mammals. The aim is now to continue these studies of mast cell biology and IgE to obtain additional clues to their evolutionary conserved functions. A focus

  6. Tracing the Origins of IgE, Mast Cells, and Allergies by Studies of Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Hellman, Lars Torkel; Akula, Srinivas; Thorpe, Michael; Fu, Zhirong

    2017-01-01

    In most industrialized countries, allergies have increased in frequency quite dramatically during the past 50 years. Estimates show that 20–30% of the populations are affected. Allergies have thereby become one of the major medical challenges of the twenty-first century. Despite several theories including the hygiene hypothesis, there are still very few solid clues concerning the causes of this increase. To trace the origins of allergies, we have studied cells and molecules of importance for the development of IgE-mediated allergies, including the repertoire of immunoglobulin genes. These studies have shown that IgE and IgG most likely appeared by a gene duplication of IgY in an early mammal, possibly 220–300 million years ago. Receptors specific for IgE and IgG subsequently appeared in parallel with the increase in Ig isotypes from a subfamily of the recently identified Fc receptor-like molecules. Circulating IgE levels are generally very low in humans and laboratory rodents. However, when dogs and Scandinavian wolfs were analyzed, IgE levels were found to be 100–200 times higher compared to humans, indicating a generally much more active IgE synthesis in free-living animals, most likely connected to intestinal parasite infections. One of the major effector molecules released upon IgE-mediated activation by mast cells are serine proteases. These proteases, which belong to the large family of hematopoietic serine proteases, are extremely abundant and can account for up to 35% of the total cellular protein. Recent studies show that several of these enzymes, including the chymases and tryptases, are old. Ancestors for these enzymes were most likely present in an early mammal more than 200 million years ago before the separation of the three extant mammalian lineages; monotremes, marsupials, and placental mammals. The aim is now to continue these studies of mast cell biology and IgE to obtain additional clues to their evolutionary conserved functions. A focus

  7. IgE low affinity receptor (CD23) expression, Plasmodium falciparum specific IgE and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in Thai uncomplicated and severe falciparum malaria patients.

    PubMed

    Kumsiri, Ratchanok; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Pattanapanyasat, Kovit; Krudsood, Srivicha; Maneerat, Yaowapa

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) specific IgE in the form of immune complexes crosslinking the low-affinity receptor (CD23) on monocyte results in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the roles of these parameters in severity and immune protection are still unclear. This study aimed to determine the association between CD23 expression on monocytes, plasma soluble CD23 (sCD23), total IgE, malaria-specific IgE and IgG, and TNF-α levels in P. falciparum infected patients. We evaluated 64 uncomplicated (UC) and 25 severe patients (S), admitted at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Mahidol University, and 34 healthy controls (C) enrolled in 2001. Flow cytometry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) demonstrated that trends of the CD23 expression, levels of sCD23 and specific IgE were higher in the S group as compared to those in the UC and C groups. Plasma levels of P. falciparum specific IgE in the UC (p=0.011) and S groups (p=0.025) were significantly higher than those in C group. In contrast the TNF-α levels tended to be higher in the UC than those in the S (p=0.343) and significantly higher than those in C (p=0.004) groups. The specific IgG levels in UC were significantly higher than those in S and C (p<0.001) groups. At admission, a strong significant negative correlation was found between specific IgG and sCD23 (r=-0.762, p=0.028), and TNF-α and IgE-IgG complexes (r=-0.715, p=0.002). Significant positive correlations between levels of specific IgE and TNF-α (r=0.575, p=0.010); and sCD23 (r=0.597, p=0.000) were also observed. In conclusion, our data suggest that CD23 expression and malaria-specific IgE levels may be involved in the severity of the disease while TNF-α and the malaria-specific IgG may correlate with protection against falciparum malaria. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. IgA deficiency in wolves.

    PubMed

    Frankowiack, Marcel; Hellman, Lars; Zhao, Yaofeng; Arnemo, Jon M; Lin, Miaoli; Tengvall, Katarina; Møller, Torsten; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Hammarström, Lennart

    2013-06-01

    Low mean concentrations of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) and an increased frequency of overt IgA deficiency (IgAD) in certain dog breeds raises the question whether it is a breeding-enriched phenomenon or a legacy from the dog's ancestor, the gray wolf (Canis lupus). The IgA concentration in 99 serum samples from 58 free-ranging and 13 captive Scandinavian wolves, was therefore measured by capture ELISA. The concentrations were markedly lower in the wolf serum samples than in the dog controls. Potential differences in the IgA molecule between dogs and wolves were addressed by sequencing the wolf IgA heavy chain constant region encoding gene (IGHA). Complete amino acid sequence homology was found. Detection of wolf and dog IgA was ascertained by showing identity using double immunodiffusion. We suggest that the vast majority of wolves, the ancestor of the dog, are IgA deficient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Decreased immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to cashew allergens following sodium sulfite treatment and heating.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Christopher P; Desormeaux, Wendy A; Wasserman, Richard L; Yoshioka-Tarver, Megumi; Condon, Brian; Grimm, Casey C

    2014-07-16

    Cashew nut and other nut allergies can result in serious and sometimes life-threatening reactions. Linear and conformational epitopes within food allergens are important for immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding. Methods that disrupt allergen structure can lower IgE binding and lessen the likelihood of food allergy reactions. Previous structural and biochemical data have indicated that 2S albumins from tree nuts and peanuts are potent allergens, and that their structures are sensitive to strong reducing agents such as dithiothreitol. This study demonstrates that the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) compound sodium sulfite effectively disrupted the structure of the cashew 2S albumin, Ana o 3, in a temperature-dependent manner. This study also showed that sulfite is effective at disrupting the disulfide bond within the cashew legumin, Ana o 2. Immunoblotting and ELISA demonstrated that the binding of cashew proteins by rabbit IgG or IgE from cashew-allergic patients was markedly lowered following treatment with sodium sulfite and heating. The results indicate that incorporation of sodium sulfite, or other food grade reagents with similar redox potential, may be useful processing methods to lower or eliminate IgE binding to food allergens.

  10. Quantitative assessment of serum-specific IgE in the diagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Marinova, I; Nikolov, G; Michova, A; Kurdova, R; Petrunov, B

    2011-07-01

    Anti-Echinococcus serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E was assessed by the ImmunoCAP system and compared with anti-Echinococcus serum IgG assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. The ImmunoCAP system revealed very high specificity (one false positive of 110 healthy individuals), low cross-reactivity (one false positive of 58 patients with other diseases) and decreased sensitivity (73.55%). Receiver operating characteristic analysis displayed a beneficial diagnostic value with high accuracy. Comparison of the ImmunoCAP system with ELISA and Western blot showed significantly higher specificity and significantly lower cross-reactivity compared with the ELISA. Examination of sera from 155 patients with cystic echinococcosis (CE) showed varying levels of anti-Echinococcus IgE (range, 0.01-118.33 kUA/L). However, most samples had moderately elevated IgE levels. Analysis of serum-specific IgE revealed significantly higher sensitivity of the ImmunoCAP system and significantly higher antibody levels in hepatic CE compared with pulmonary CE. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Effects of allergic diseases and age on the composition of serum IgG glycome in children

    PubMed Central

    Pezer, Marija; Stambuk, Jerko; Perica, Marija; Razdorov, Genadij; Banic, Ivana; Vuckovic, Frano; Gospic, Adrijana Miletic; Ugrina, Ivo; Vecenaj, Ana; Bakovic, Maja Pucic; Lokas, Sandra Bulat; Zivkovic, Jelena; Plavec, Davor; Devereux, Graham; Turkalj, Mirjana; Lauc, Gordan

    2016-01-01

    It is speculated that immunoglobulin G (IgG) plays a regulatory role in allergic reactions. The glycans on the Fc region are known to affect IgG effector functions, thereby possibly having a role in IgG modulation of allergic response. This is the first study investigating patients’ IgG glycosylation profile in allergic diseases. Subclass specific IgG glycosylation profile was analyzed in two cohorts of allergen sensitized and non-sensitized 3- to 11-year-old children (conducted at University of Aberdeen, UK and Children’s Hospital Srebrnjak, Zagreb, Croatia) with 893 subjects in total. IgG was isolated from serum/plasma by affinity chromatography on Protein G. IgG tryptic glycopeptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. In the Zagreb cohort IgG glycome composition changed with age across all IgG subclasses. In both cohorts, IgG glycome composition did not differ in allergen sensitized subjects, nor children sensitized to individual allergens, single allergen mean wheal diameter or positive wheal sum values. In the Zagreb study the results were also replicated for high total serum IgE and in children with self-reported manifest allergic disease. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate no association between serum IgG glycome composition and allergic diseases in children. PMID:27616597

  12. Circulating IgA immune complexes in patients with psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.P.; Peck, G.L.; Lawley, T.J.

    1983-06-01

    The sera of 21 patients with psoriasis were examined for the presence of IgA-containing circulating immune complexes (CIC) using the Raji IgA radioimmunoassay. In addition, the Raji IgG radioimmunoassay and 125I-Clq binding assay were used to detect IgG- and IgM-containing CIC. Twenty-five patients with other hyperkeratotic skin disorders were studied as controls. Patients were studied before institution of systemic therapy with etretinate (20 patients) or 13-cis-retinoic acid (1 patient). In addition, sera of 15 of the patients treated with etretinate were studied before, during, and after therapy. The extent of pretreatment disease involvement as well as response to therapy weremore » evaluated in a blinded fashion. Fourteen of 21 (67%) patients with psoriasis had evidence of IgA-containing CIC at some time during the course of their disease, as compared to only 1 of 25 patients with other hyperkeratotic skin disorders. In contrast, only 2 of 19 (11%) had evidence of IgG-containing CIC using the Raji IgG assay, and only 1 of 19 (5%) had evidence of IgG- or IgM-containing CIC using the 125I-Clq binding assay. A positive correlation was found between the extent of pretreatment disease involvement and the level of IgA-containing CIC by linear regression analysis (p . 0.01). There was, however, no correlation between clinical improvement and the presence or level of IgA-containing CIC in 15 patients followed during therapy. Sucrose density gradient analysis of the IgA-containing CIC found in 2 of these patients demonstrated IgA-containing CIC in the 9S to 13S region. The finding of IgA-containing CIC in a significant number of patients with psoriasis and the relative absence of IgG- or IgM-containing CIC suggest that IgA-containing CIC may play a role in psoriasis.« less

  13. Contribution of IgG avidity and PCR for the early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women from the North-Eastern region of Algeria.

    PubMed

    Berredjem, Hajira; Aouras, Hayette; Benlaifa, Meriem; Becheker, Imène; Djebar, Mohamed Reda

    2017-09-01

    Acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women presents a high risk of Toxoplasma transmission to the fetus. Early diagnosis is difficult, especially when serological testing for IgG/IgM antibodies fail to differentiate between a recent and a past infection. In this case, we rely on IgG avidity or PCR assays. The aim of this study was to compare conventional ELISA and IgG avidity, with PCR using B1 and P30 primers for the early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. Sera were collected from 143 pregnant women and measured by ELISA for anti- Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, IgA and IgG avidity. DNA was extracted from 57 peripheral blood and 14 amniotic fluid samples for PCR amplification. A total of 57 out 143 women were seropositive: 30 (52.6%) were IgG+/IgM- and 27 (43.8%) were IgG+/IgM+; IgA antibodies were positive in 7 (12.2%) cases. IgG avidity was low in 9 women suggesting an acute infection; 3 women presented an intermediate avidity. PCR detected Toxoplasma DNA in 9 women presenting low avidity and was negative for the intermediate avidity cases. PCR combined to avidity IgG performed better than ELISA IgG, IgM and/or IgA assays alone. PCR was useful in the case of intermediate avidity.

  14. Aerobic Exercise Decreases Lung Inflammation by IgE Decrement in an OVA Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Camargo Hizume-Kunzler, Deborah; Greiffo, Flavia R; Fortkamp, Bárbara; Ribeiro Freitas, Gabriel; Keller Nascimento, Juliana; Regina Bruggemann, Thayse; Melo Avila, Leonardo; Perini, Adenir; Bobinski, Franciane; Duarte Silva, Morgana; Rocha Lapa, Fernanda; Paula Vieira, Rodolfo; Vargas Horewicz, Verônica; Soares Dos Santos, Adair Roberto; Cattelan Bonorino, Kelly

    2017-06-01

    Aerobic exercise (AE) reduces lung function decline and risk of exacerbations in asthmatic patients. However, the inflammatory lung response involved in exercise during the sensitization remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of exercise for 2 weeks in an experimental model of sensitization and single ovalbumin-challenge. Mice were divided into 4 groups: mice non-sensitized and not submitted to exercise (Sedentary, n=10); mice non-sensitized and submitted to exercise (Exercise, n=10); mice sensitized and exposed to ovalbumin (OVA, n=10); and mice sensitized, submitted to exercise and exposed to OVA (OVA+Exercise, n=10). 24 h after the OVA/saline exposure, we counted inflammatory cells from bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), lung levels of total IgE, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-1ra, measurements of OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE, and VEGF and NOS-2 expression via western blotting. AE reduced cell counts from BALF in the OVA group (p<0.05), total IgE, IL-4 and IL-5 lung levels and OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 titers (p<0.05). There was an increase of NOS-2 expression, IL-10 and IL-1ra lung levels in the OVA groups (p<0.05). Our results showed that AE attenuated the acute lung inflammation, suggesting immunomodulatory properties on the sensitization process in the early phases of antigen presentation in asthma. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Distinct features distinguishing IgG4-related disease from multicentric Castleman’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takanori; Akiyama, Mitsuhiro; Kaneko, Yuko; Mori, Takehiko; Yasuoka, Hidekata; Suzuki, Katsuya; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Differentiating IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) from multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD) is challenging because both diseases present high serum IgG4. The objective of this study is to clarify the differences in characteristics and identify a clinically useful approach to differentiate these two diseases. Methods Forty-five consecutive patients with untreated active IgG4-RD and 33 patients with MCD were included in this study, who visited our institution from January 2000 to August 2016. The clinical and laboratory findings for the patients of the two diseases were compared. Various combinations of the distinctive findings were evaluated to identify the most efficient differentiating features between IgG4-RD and MCD. Results The levels of serum IgG4 were not different between the two diseases. Orbits, lacrimal glands, salivary glands or pancreas were involved in 88.9% of IgG4-RD cases and only in 3.0% of MCD cases. All MCD cases involved lymph nodes. Atopic history was characteristic for IgG4-RD. The levels of C reactive protein (CRP) with a cut-off of 0.80 mg/dL and IgA with a cut-off of 330 mg/dL were the most distinctive. The combination of ‘Orbits, lacrimal glands, salivary glands or pancreas involvement, atopic history, or non-involvement of lymph node’ and ‘CRP ≤ 0.8 mg/dL or IgA ≤ 330 mg/dL’ yielded the probability of 97.8% in IgG4-RD, while that of 3.0 % in patients with MCD. Conclusions Our study revealed distinct features between IgG4-RD and MCD. Differentiating between the diseases based on those distinct features, including distribution of organ involvement, atopic history, levels of IgA and CRP, was a useful approach. PMID:28959455

  16. Characterisation of an engineered trastuzumab IgE antibody and effector cell mechanisms targeting HER2/neu-positive tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin®), a humanized IgG1 antibody raised against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), is the main antibody in clinical use against breast cancer. Pre-clinical evidence and clinical studies indicate that trastuzumab employs several anti-tumour mechanisms that most likely contribute to enhanced survival of patients with HER2/neu-positive breast carcinomas. New strategies are aimed at improving antibody-based therapeutics like trastuzumab, e.g. by enhancing antibody-mediated effector function mechanisms. Based on our previous findings that a chimaeric ovarian tumour antigen-specific IgE antibody showed greater efficacy in tumour cell killing, compared to the corresponding IgG1 antibody, we have produced an IgE homologue of trastuzumab. Trastuzumab IgE was engineered with the same light- and heavy-chain variable-regions as trastuzumab, but with an epsilon in place of the gamma-1 heavy-chain constant region. We describe the physical characterisation and ligand binding properties of the trastuzumab IgE and elucidate its potential anti-tumour activities in functional assays. Both trastuzumab and trastuzumab IgE can activate monocytic cells to kill tumour cells, but they operate by different mechanisms: trastuzumab functions in antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP), whereas trastuzumab IgE functions in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Trastuzumab IgE, incubated with mast cells and HER2/neu-expressing tumour cells, triggers mast cell degranulation, recruiting against cancer cells a potent immune response, characteristic of allergic reactions. Finally, in viability assays both antibodies mediate comparable levels of tumour cell growth arrest. These functional characteristics of trastuzumab IgE, some distinct from those of trastuzumab, indicate its potential to complement or improve upon the existing clinical benefits of trastuzumab. PMID:18941743

  17. IgG4-related disease and lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilic syndrome: A comparative case series.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Mollie N; Park, Sujin; Slack, Graham W; Dalal, Bakul I; Skinnider, Brian F; Schaeffer, David F; Dutz, Jan P; Law, Joanna K; Donnellan, Fergal; Marquez, Vladimir; Seidman, Michael; Wong, Patrick C; Mattman, Andre; Chen, Luke Y C

    2017-04-01

    To compare the clinical and laboratory features of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilic syndrome (L-HES), two rare diseases that often present with lymphadenopathy, gastrointestinal symptoms, eosinophilia, and elevated immunoglobulins/IgE. Comparative case series of 31 patients with IgG4-RD and 13 patients with L-HES. Peripheral blood eosinophilia was present in eight of 31 patients with IgG4-RD compared to 13 of 13 patients with L-HES (median eosinophils 0.4 vs 7.0 giga/L, P=.001) and 12 of 20 patients with IgG4-RD had increased serum IgE compared to eight of 13 patients with L-HES, P=.930. Twenty-seven of 30 patients with IgG4-RD had elevated serum IgG4 compared to five of 12 patients with L-HES (median IgG4 9.6 g/L vs 0.80 g/L, P=.002). Flow cytometry demonstrated an aberrant T-cell phenotype in 7 of 23 patients with IgG4-RD and 13 of 13 patients with L-HES (P<.001). T-cell clonality by PCR was positive in 12 of 23 patients with IgG4-RD vs 10 of 13 patients with L-HES (P=.143). Patients in both groups received corticosteroids as first-line therapy. For refractory disease in IgG4-RD, rituximab was the most common steroid-sparing agent, whereas in L-HES, it was pegylated interferon-α-2a. The overlapping features of these two diseases with divergent treatment options demonstrate the importance of familiarity with both entities to optimize diagnosis and treatment. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Haematology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. IL-27 induces the production of IgG1 by human B cells.

    PubMed

    Boumendjel, Amel; Tawk, Lina; Malefijt, René de Waal; Boulay, Vera; Yssel, Hans; Pène, Jérôme

    2006-12-01

    It has been reported that IL-27 specifically induces the production of IgG2a by mouse B cells and inhibits IL-4-induced IgG1 synthesis. Here, we show that human naïve cord blood expresses a functional IL-27 receptor, consisting of the TCCR and gp130 subunits, although at lower levels as compared to naïve and memory splenic B cells. IL-27 does not induce proliferative responses and does not increase IgG1 production by CD19(+)CD27(+) memory B cells. However, it induces a low, but significant production of IgG1 by naïve CD19(+)CD27(-)IgD(+)IgG(-) spleen and cord blood B cells, activated via CD40, whereas it has no effect on the production of the other IgG subclasses. In addition, IL-27 induces the differentiation of a population of B cells that express high levels of CD38, in association with a down-regulation of surface IgD expression, and that are surface IgG(+/int), CD20(low), CD27(high), indicating that IL-27 promotes isotype switching and plasma cell differentiation of naive B cells. However, as compared to the effects of IL-21 and IL-10, both switch factors for human IgG1 and IgG3, those of IL-27 are modest and regulate exclusively the production of IgG1. Finally, although IL-27 has no effect on IL-4 and anti-CD40-induced Cepsilon germline promoter activity, it up-regulates IL-4-induced IgE production by naive B cells. These results point to a partial redundancy of switch factors regulating the production of IgG1 in humans, and furthermore indicate the existence of a common regulation of the human IgG1and murine IgG2a isotypes by IL-27.

  19. Migration of antigen-presenting B cells from peripheral to mucosal lymphoid tissues may induce intestinal antigen-specific IgA following parenteral immunization.

    PubMed

    Coffin, S E; Clark, S L; Bos, N A; Brubaker, J O; Offit, P A

    1999-09-15

    Parenterally administered immunizations have long been used to induce protection from mucosal pathogens such as Bordetella pertussis and influenza virus. We previously found that i.m. inoculation of mice with the intestinal pathogen, rotavirus, induced virus-specific Ab production by intestinal lymphocytes. We have now used adoptive transfer studies to identify the cell types responsible for the generation of virus-specific Ab production by gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) after i.m. immunization. Three days after i.m. immunization with rotavirus, cells obtained from the draining peripheral lymph nodes of donor mice were transferred into naive recipient mice. We found that intestinal lymphocytes produced rotavirus-specific Igs (IgM, IgA, and IgG) 2 wk after transfer of either unfractionated cells, or unfractionated cells rendered incapable of cellular division by mitomycin C treatment. Additional studies demonstrated that rotavirus-specific IgA, but not IgG, was produced by intestinal lymphocytes after transfer of purified B cells. Ig allotype analysis revealed that rotavirus-specific IgA was produced by intestinal B cells of recipient origin, suggesting that migration of Ag-presenting B cells from peripheral lymphoid tissues to GALT may contribute to the generation of mucosal IgA responses after parenteral immunization. Strategies that promote Ag uptake and presentation by B cells may enhance mucosal IgA production following parenteral immunization.

  20. Lack of cleavage of immunoglobulin A (IgA) from rhesus monkeys by bacterial IgA1 proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Reinholdt, J; Kilian, M

    1991-01-01

    Bacterial immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases cleaving IgA1 and secretory IgA1 molecules in the hinge region are believed to be important virulence factors. Previous studies have indicated that IgA of humans, gorillas, and chimpanzees are the exclusive substrates of these enzymes. In a recent study, IgA from the rhesus monkey was found to be susceptible to the IgA1 protease activity of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In an attempt to reproduce this observation, we found that neither five isolates of S. pneumoniae nor other IgA1 protease-producing bacteria representing different cleavage specificities caused cleavage of rhesus monkey IgA. Hence, the rhesus monkey does not appear to be a suitable animal model for studies of IgA1 proteases as virulence factors. Images PMID:2037384

  1. IGES transformer and NURBS in grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Tzu-Yi; Soni, Bharat K.

    1993-01-01

    In the field of Grid Generation and the CAD/CAM, there are numerous geometry output formats which require the designer to spend a great deal of time manipulating geometrical entities in order to achieve a useful sculptured geometrical description for grid generation. Also in this process, there is a danger of losing fidelity of the geometry under consideration. This stresses the importance of a standard geometry definition for the communication link between varying CAD/CAM and grid system. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) file is a widely used communication between CAD/CAM and the analysis tools. The scientists at NASA Research Centers - including NASA Ames, NASA Langley, NASA Lewis, NASA Marshall - have recognized this importance and, therefore, in 1992 they formed the committee of the 'NASA-IGES' which is the subset of the standard IGES. This committee stresses the importance and encourages the CFD community to use the standard IGES file for the interface between the CAD/CAM and CFD analysis. Also, two of the IGES entities -- the NURBS Curve (Entity 126) and NURBS Surface (Entity 128) -- which have many useful geometric properties -- like the convex hull property, local control property and affine invariance, also widely utilized analytical geometries can be accurately represented using NURBS. This is important in today grid generation tools because of the emphasis of the interactive design. To satisfy the geometry transformation between the CAD/CAM system and Grid Generation field, the CAGI (Computer Aided Geometry Design) developed, which include the Geometry Transformation, Geometry Manipulation and Geometry Generation as well as the user interface. This paper will present the successful development IGES file transformer and application of NURBS definition in the grid generation.

  2. Identification of a unique IgG Fc binding site in human intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Blaser, M J; Brown, W R

    1989-10-15

    In experiments to determine whether serum antibodies in patients with Crohn's disease could be used as probes for detecting potentially etiologic Ag in the patients' tissues, we found that peroxidase (HRP)-labeled IgG from healthy persons, as well as from the patients, bound to normal colonic and small intestinal epithelium, mostly or entirely to goblet cells. The binding was due to a reaction involving the Fc region of IgG because HRP-labeled Fc fragments of IgG bound, but HRP-Fab, HRP-IgA, and HRP-bovine albumin did not, and because binding of HRP-IgG was inhibited competitively by unlabeled IgG or Fc fragments but not by IgG Fab fragments or IgA. These immunohistochemical results were confirmed by ELISA with microtiter wells coated with a sonicated homogenate from human colonocytes. The epithelial IgG Fc binding site was characterized by SDS-PAGE as consisting of a high Mr (greater than 200,000 Da) and a 78,000-Da component. It bound all four subclasses of human IgG and bound aggregated as well as monomeric IgG. It is distinct from known human Fc-gamma R by lack of recognition by mAb to those receptors and differences in affinity for various subclasses of human and murine IgG. This unique IgG Fc binding site might be involved in immunologic defense of the gut, perhaps by mediating reactions between foreign Ag and the contents of goblet cells.

  3. Serum or breast milk immunoglobulins mask the self-reactivity of human natural IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Djoumerska-Alexieva, Iglika; Manoylov, Iliyan; Dimitrov, Jordan D; Tchorbanov, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    B cells producing IgG antibodies specific to a variety of self- or foreign antigens are a normal constituent of the immune system of all healthy individuals. These naturally occurring IgG antibodies are found in the serum, external secretions, and pooled human immunoglobulin preparations. They bind with low affinity to antigens, which can also be targets for pathologic autoantibodies. An enhancement of naturally occurring IgG autoantibody activity was observed after treatment of human IgG molecules with protein-destabilizing agents. We have investigated the interactions of human immunoglobulins that were obtained from serum or from breast milk of healthy individuals or IVIg with human liver antigens. Proteins from an individual serum or milk were isolated by two methods, one of which included exposure to low pH and the other did not. Purified serum, mucosal IgM, IgA, and the fraction containing immunoglobulin G F(ab')2 fragments each inhibited the binding of a single donor or pooled IgG to human liver antigens. Our study presents findings regarding the role of the breast milk or serum antibodies in blocking the self-reactivity of IgG antibodies. It supports the suggestion that not IVIg only, but also the pooled human IgM and IgA might possess a potent beneficial immunomodulatory activity in autoimmune patients. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. QUALITATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF IGE AND IGG IN HUMAN ASTHMATIC SERUM FOR MOLD REACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rational: Molds have the ability to induce allergic asthma-like responses in mouse models; however, their role in human disease is unclear. This study was to develop a screening tool for reactivity of human sera to mold extracts by using a minimal amount of sera for a qual...

  5. Non-classical forms of pemphigus: pemphigus herpetiformis, IgA pemphigus, paraneoplastic pemphigus and IgG/IgA pemphigus*

    PubMed Central

    Porro, Adriana Maria; Caetano, Livia de Vasconcelos Nasser; Maehara, Laura de Sena Nogueira; Enokihara, Milvia Maria dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    The pemphigus group comprises the autoimmune intraepidermal blistering diseases classically divided into two major types: pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceous. Pemphigus herpetiformis, IgA pemphigus, paraneoplastic pemphigus and IgG/IgA pemphigus are rarer forms that present some clinical, histological and immunopathological characteristics that are different from the classical types. These are reviewed in this article. Future research may help definitively to locate the position of these forms in the pemphigus group, especially with regard to pemphigus herpetiformis and the IgG/ IgA pemphigus. PMID:24626654

  6. [Multiple myeloma (IgG-kappa) infiltrating central nervous system, lymph nodes, liver, and kidneys, and with elevation of IgE].

    PubMed

    Toyota, Shigeo; Nakamura, Norihiko; Dan, Kazuo

    2004-05-01

    A 63-year-old man was admitted because of general malaise, fever, headache, generalized lymphadenopathy and hepatomegaly in July 2002. He was diagnosed as having multiple myeloma (MM) (IgG-kappa type) with atypical plasma cells in the bone marrow, lymph nodes and cerebrospinal fluid. Systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy were effective. Because of an increase of polyclonal IgE, electrophoretic patterns revealed an M-peak which was not as sharp as that in IgG myeloma. IgE production is not impaired by the pathologic process in MM patients.

  7. IgG4 anti-infliximab in treated patients: clinical impact and temporal evolution.

    PubMed

    Vultaggio, Alessandra; Nencini, Francesca; Carraresi, Alessia; Pratesi, Sara; Movérare, Robert; Eriksson, Camilla; Venemalm, Lennart; Maggi, Enrico; Matucci, Andrea

    2018-05-02

    Infliximab (IFX) carries potential risk of immunogenicity with the production of anti-drug antibodies (ADA). ADA may belong to different isotypes and are usually measured by ELISA bridging assay. This test is not designed to detect IgG4 antibodies. The aim was to measure IgG4 anti-IFX antibodies in a cohort of IFX-treated patients and to evaluate their relationship with ADA and their clinical impact. ADA were detected by using a bridging ELISA in the serum of 222 treated patients with different clinical outcomes to IFX. The same samples were analysed for IgG4 anti-IFX antibodies using an experimental ImmunoCAP assay with reduced serum IgG4 background levels. A longitudinal evaluation was performed in a subgroup of 38 patients to define the temporal evolution of IgG4 anti-IFX. IgG4 anti-IFX was found in 26.6% of patients. Eigthy out of 222 patients were ADA+ (36%) and the majority (57/80, 71.3%) had IgG4 anti-IFX. Two IgG4-positive but ADA-negative patients were identified. IgG4 anti-IFX levels correlated with the serum levels of ADA. IgG4 anti-IFX was more common in both reactive and non-responder patients than in tolerant/responder patients. Patients who had experienced IgE-mediated reactions displayed significantly higher IgG4 anti-IFX than IgE-negative reactive patients. The majority of patients tested positive for IgG4 anti-IFX after the first seven infusions. IgG4 anti-IFX is common in treated patients and a large part of ADA producing patients produce IgG4 antibodies. The IgG4 anti-IFX response does not prevent hypersensitivity reactions to IFX and correlates with the IgE anti-IFX response. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Porcine allergy and IgE.

    PubMed

    Rupa, Prithy; Schmied, Julie; Wilkie, Bruce N

    2009-11-15

    Anaphylaxis was reported in 1963 in pigs experimentally sensitized with ovalbumin and was subsequently associated indirectly with IgE-related antibodies by functional assays to confirm heat-labile passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), reverse passive anaphylaxis (RPA) and Prausnitz-Küstner (PK) reactions to this and other allergens. The immunoglobulin mediating immediate hypersensitivity could be cross-adsorbed with anti-human IgE. Porcine IgE epsilon chain has been cloned and sequenced. Rabbit anti-pig IgE has been described by two groups, as has cross reactivity with pig IgE of various heterologous polyclonal and monoclonal anti-IgEs. Pigs develop transient post-weaning food allergy to soy allergens which can be prevented by pre-weaning feeding of soy proteins in sufficient quantity. Natural hypersensitivity also occurs to nematodes. Recently, experimental allergy has been induced in outbred pigs to peanut and to egg allergens which manifest as respiratory, cutaneous and enteric signs similar to those of human food allergy. These models are platforms for comparative allergy research as realistic alternatives to use of inbred mice or humans for investigation of pathogenesis, prophylaxis and therapy.

  9. Mouse IgA inhibits cell growth by stimulating tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and apoptosis of macrophage cell lines.

    PubMed

    Reljic, Rajko; Crawford, Carol; Challacombe, Stephen; Ivanyi, Juraj

    2004-04-01

    Potent Fcalpha-mediated actions of IgA have previously been shown for myeloid cells from man, but much less is known in relation to murine cells. Here, we report that mouse monoclonal IgA, irrespective of their antigenic specificity, inhibit the proliferation of mouse macrophage cell lines. The anti-proliferative activity was manifested by both monomeric and polymeric mouse IgA, but not by mouse monoclonal IgG and IgM. Growth of J774 cells was significantly inhibited during the 4-8 days of logarithmic growth, followed by a subsequent recovery of cell numbers prior to the stationary phase. We demonstrated that IgA binds to J774 cells, stimulates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production and induces apoptosis which is not dependent on NO or FAS/CD95. We also demonstrated that IgA, in synergy with IFN-gamma, induced TNF-alpha production and apoptosis of thioglycollate-elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages. Thus, the in vitro actions of IgA described may also play a regulatory role for mouse macrophages in vivo.

  10. Specific IgG to gelatin in children with systemic immediate- and nonimmediate-type reactions to measles, mumps and rubella vaccines.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, H; Saitoh, S; Kumagai, T; Yamanaka, T; Yasuda, S; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Y; Inouye, S; Sakaguchi, M

    1999-04-23

    We examined anti-gelatin IgG in sera of children who suffered from systemic adverse reactions upon immunization with gelatin-containing live virus vaccines. In the group of 30 children who had immediate-type reactions and anti-gelatin IgE, 30 (100%) had anti-gelatin IgG and 29 (96%) had anti-gelatin IgG4. In another group of 75 children who had nonimmediate-type reactions and no anti-gelatin IgE, 22 (29%) had anti-gelatin IgG and six (8%) had IgG4. The IgG positivity well correlated with the lymphocyte proliferation assay positivity. In contrast, as a negative control, all 24 children who had no allergic reaction to live virus vaccines had no anti-gelatin IgG and IgG4. The results suggest that immune-response to gelatin may play a role in the pathogenesis of systemic nonimmediate-type reactions to the live virus vaccines.

  11. Chronic cat allergen exposure induces a TH2 cell-dependent IgG4 response related to low sensitization.

    PubMed

    Renand, Amedee; Archila, Luis D; McGinty, John; Wambre, Erik; Robinson, David; Hales, Belinda J; Thomas, Wayne R; Kwok, William W

    2015-12-01

    In human subjects, allergen tolerance has been observed after high-dose allergen exposure or after completed allergen immunotherapy, which is related to the accumulation of anti-inflammatory IgG4. However, the specific T-cell response that leads to IgG4 induction during chronic allergen exposure remains poorly understood. We sought to evaluate the relationship between cat allergen-specific T-cell frequency, cat allergen-specific IgE and IgG4 titers, and clinical status in adults with cat allergy with and without cat ownership and the cellular mechanism by which IgG4 is produced. Fel d 1-, Fel d 4-, Fel d 7-, and Fel d 8-specific T-cell responses were characterized by CD154 expression after antigen stimulation. In allergic subjects without cat ownership, the frequency of cat allergen (Fel d 1 and Fel d 4)-specific TH2 (sTH2) cells correlates with higher IgE levels and is linked to asthma. Paradoxically, we observed that subjects with cat allergy and chronic cat exposure maintain a high frequency of sTH2 cells, which correlates with higher IgG4 levels and low sensitization. B cells from allergic, but not nonallergic subjects, are able to produce IgG4 after cognate interactions with sTH2 clones and Fel d 1 peptide or the Fel d 1 recombinant protein. These experiments suggest that (1) allergen-experienced B cells with the capacity to produce IgG4 are present in allergic subjects and (2) cat allergen exposure induces an IgG4 response in a TH2 cell-dependent manner. Thus IgG4 accumulation could be mediated by chronic activation of the TH2 response, which in turn drives desensitization. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  12. IgE in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.; Schuyler, Alexander J.; Erwin, Elizabeth A.; Commins, Scott P.; Woodfolk, Judith A.

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, the concept of allergy implied an abnormal response to an otherwise benign agent (eg, pollen or food), with an easily identifiable relationship between exposure and disease. However, there are syndromes in which the relationship between exposure to the relevant allergen and the “allergic” disease is not clear. In these cases the presence of specific IgE antibodies can play an important role in identifying the relevant allergen and provide a guide to therapy. Good examples include chronic asthma and exposure to perennial indoor allergens and asthma related to fungal infection. Finally, we are increasingly aware of forms of food allergy in which the relationship between exposure and the disease is delayed by 3 to 6 hours or longer. Three forms of food allergy with distinct clinical features are now well recognized. These are (1) anaphylactic sensitivity to peanut, (2) eosinophilic esophagitis related to cow’s milk, and (3) delayed anaphylaxis to red meat. In these syndromes the immunology of the response is dramatically different. Peanut and galactose α-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) are characterized by high- or very high-titer IgE antibodies for Ara h 2 and alpha-gal, respectively. By contrast, eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by low levels of IgE specific for milk proteins with high- or very high-titer IgG4 to the same proteins. The recent finding is that patients with alpha-gal syndrome do not have detectable IgG4 to the oligosaccharide. Thus the serum results not only identify relevant antigens but also provide a guide to the nature of the immune response. PMID:27264001

  13. Cloning and structural analysis of two highly divergent IgA isotypes, IgA1 and IgA2 from the duck billed platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Vernersson, M; Belov, K; Aveskogh, M; Hellman, L

    2010-01-01

    To trace the emergence of modern IgA isotypes during vertebrate evolution we have studied the immunoglobulin repertoire of a model monotreme, the platypus. Two highly divergent IgA-like isotypes (IgA1 and IgA2) were identified and their primary structures were determined from full-length cDNAs. A comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences for IgA from various animal species showed that the two platypus IgA isotypes form a branch clearly separated from their eutherian (placental) counterparts. However, they still conform to the general structure of eutherian IgA, with a hinge region and three constant domains. This indicates that the deletion of the second domain and the formation of a hinge region in IgA did occur very early during mammalian evolution, more than 166 million years ago. The two IgA isotypes in platypus differ in primary structure and appear to have arisen from a very early gene duplication, possibly preceding the metatherian eutherian split. Interestingly, one of these isotypes, IgA1, appears to be expressed in only the platypus, but is present in the echidna based on Southern blot analysis. The platypus may require a more effective mucosal immunity, with two highly divergent IgA forms, than the terrestrial echidna, due to its lifestyle, where it is exposed to pathogens both on land and in the water. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-cetuximab IgE ELISA for identification of patients at a high risk of cetuximab-induced anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Mariotte, Delphine; Dupont, Benoît; Gervais, Radj; Galais, Marie-Pierre; Laroche, Dominique; Tranchant, Aurore; Comby, Elisabeth; Bouhier-Leporrier, Karine; Reimund, Jean-Marie; Le Mauff, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Cetuximab, a chimeric mouse-human IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor, has proven effective in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. However, a high incidence of immediate hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) to cetuximab after the first infusion has been observed. We have developed a test for identification of patients likely to show treatment-related HSR to cetuximab. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting anti-cetuximab IgEs was developed and tested on serum samples collected from cancer patients before start of cetuximab treatment, and from healthy blood donors. Similar levels of anti-cetuximab IgE were detected in pre-treatment patient sera (24/92, 26.1%) and sera from healthy blood donors (33/117, 28.2%). HSR were observed in 14 out of the 92 patients (15.2%), and 8 of these (57.1%) were grade 3-4. Anti-cetuximab IgEs were detected in 7/8 of the patients (87.5%) with severe HSRs as compared with 14/78 patients (17.9%) with no HSR (p=0.0002). Predictive value of the anti-cetuximab IgE test for HSR events of grades 3-4 was calculated using Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis. With a cut-off value of 29 arbitrary units for the anti-cetuximab IgE, the ELISA test showed a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 82.1%, positive predictive value of 33.3% and negative predictive value of 98.5%. Anti-cetuximab IgE ELISA detection could be a valuable tool to help the physician anticipate an anaphylaxis episode following cetuximab infusion and opt for a suitable alternative treatment.

  15. Radiolabelled polymeric IgA: from biodistribution to a new molecular imaging tool in colorectal cancer lung metastases

    PubMed Central

    Carpenet, Helene; Cuvillier, Armelle; Perraud, Aurélie; Martin, Ophélie; Champier, Gaël; Jauberteau, Marie-Odile; Monteil, Jacques; Quelven, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    By radiolabelling monomeric (m) and polymeric (p) IgA with technetium 99m (99mTc), this study assessed IgA biodistribution and tumour-targeting potency. IgA directed against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a colorectal cancer marker, was selected to involve IgA mucosal tropism. Ig was radiolabelled with 99mTc-tricarbonyl after derivatisation by 2-iminothiolane. 99mTc-IgA was evaluated by in vitro analysis. The biodistributions of radiolabelled anti-CEA mIgA, pIgA and IgG were compared in normal mice. Anti-CEA pIgA tumour uptake was studied in mice bearing the WiDr caecal orthotopic graft. IgA radiolabelling was obtained with a high yield, was stable in PBS and murine plasma, and did not alter IgA binding functionality (Kd ≈ 25 nM). Biodistribution studies in normal mice confirmed that radiolabelled pIgA – and to a lesser extent, mIgA – showed strong and fast mucosal tropism and a shorter serum half-life than IgG. In caecal tumour model mice, evaluation of the anti-CEA-pIgA biodistribution showed a high uptake in lung metastases, confirmed by histological analysis. However, no radioactivity uptake increase in the tumoural caecum was discerned from normal intestinal tissue, probably due to high IgA caecal natural tropism. In microSPECT/CT imaging, 99mTc-IgA confirmed its diagnostic potency of tumour in mucosal tissue, even if detection threshold by in vivo imaging was higher than post mortem studies. Contribution of the FcαRI receptor, studied with transgenic mouse model (Tsg SCID-CD89), did not appear to be determinant in 99mTc-IgA uptake. Pre-clinical experiments highlighted significant differences between 99mTc-IgA and 99mTc-IgG biodistributions. Furthermore, tumoural model studies suggested potential targeting potency of pIgA in mucosal tissues. PMID:29156712

  16. Dissociation between skin test reactivity and anti-aeroallergen IgE: Determinants among urban Brazilian children

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Rafael V.; Ponte, João C. M.; da Cunha, Sérgio S.; Simões, Silvia M.; Cruz, Álvaro A.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Matos, Sheila M.; Silva, Thiago Magalhães; Figueiredo, Camila A.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L.; Cooper, Philip J.; Barreto, Maurício L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The dissociation between specific IgE and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens, a common finding in populations living in low and middle-income countries, has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. Few studies have investigated the determinants of this dissociation. In the present study, we explored potential factors explaining this dissociation in children living in an urban area of Northeast Brazil, focusing in particular on factors associated with poor hygiene. Methods Of 1445 children from low income communities, investigated for risk factors of allergies, we studied 481 with specific IgE antibodies to any of Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica allergens. Data on demographic, environmental and social exposures were collected by questionnaire; serum IgG and stool examinations were done to detect current or past infections with viral, bacterial, protozoan and intestinal helminth pathogens. We measured atopy by skin prick testing (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to aerollergens in serum (by ImmunoCAP). SIgE reactivity to B. tropicalis extract depleted of carbohydrates was measured by an in-house ELISA. Total IgE was measured by in house capture ELISA. SNPs were typed using Illumina Omni 2.5. Results Negative skin prick tests in the presence of specific IgE antibodies were frequent. Factors independently associated with a reduced frequency of positive skin prick tests were large number of siblings, the presence of IgG to herpes simplex virus, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections, living in neighborhoods with infrequent garbage collection, presence of rodents and cats in the household and sIgE reactivity to glycosylated B. tropicalis allergens. Also, SNP on IGHE (rs61737468) was negatively associated with SPT reactivity. Conclusions A variety of factors were found to be associated with decreased frequency of SPT such as unhygienic

  17. Dissociation between skin test reactivity and anti-aeroallergen IgE: Determinants among urban Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M; Veiga, Rafael V; Ponte, João C M; da Cunha, Sérgio S; Simões, Silvia M; Cruz, Álvaro A; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Matos, Sheila M; Silva, Thiago Magalhães; Figueiredo, Camila A; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain C; Rodrigues, Laura C; Fiaccone, Rosemeire L; Cooper, Philip J; Barreto, Maurício L

    2017-01-01

    The dissociation between specific IgE and skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens, a common finding in populations living in low and middle-income countries, has important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. Few studies have investigated the determinants of this dissociation. In the present study, we explored potential factors explaining this dissociation in children living in an urban area of Northeast Brazil, focusing in particular on factors associated with poor hygiene. Of 1445 children from low income communities, investigated for risk factors of allergies, we studied 481 with specific IgE antibodies to any of Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Periplaneta americana and Blatella germanica allergens. Data on demographic, environmental and social exposures were collected by questionnaire; serum IgG and stool examinations were done to detect current or past infections with viral, bacterial, protozoan and intestinal helminth pathogens. We measured atopy by skin prick testing (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) to aerollergens in serum (by ImmunoCAP). SIgE reactivity to B. tropicalis extract depleted of carbohydrates was measured by an in-house ELISA. Total IgE was measured by in house capture ELISA. SNPs were typed using Illumina Omni 2.5. Negative skin prick tests in the presence of specific IgE antibodies were frequent. Factors independently associated with a reduced frequency of positive skin prick tests were large number of siblings, the presence of IgG to herpes simplex virus, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections, living in neighborhoods with infrequent garbage collection, presence of rodents and cats in the household and sIgE reactivity to glycosylated B. tropicalis allergens. Also, SNP on IGHE (rs61737468) was negatively associated with SPT reactivity. A variety of factors were found to be associated with decreased frequency of SPT such as unhygienic living conditions, infections, total IgE, IgE

  18. Dietary zinc is a key environmental modifier in the progression of IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Maiguma, Masayuki; Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Okazaki, Keiko; Aizawa, Masashi; Muto, Masahiro; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) shows diverse epidemiological characteristics, resulting from both genetic and acquired (e.g., environmental) causes. Environmental factors, such as diet or exposure to exogenous antigens, may prescribe the progression or prognosis of IgAN. It remains unclear as to how diet and infection influence susceptibility to IgAN. A relationship, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR9 and TLR4, was demonstrated between IgAN and pathogen-recognition molecules. Recently, zinc (Zn) was discovered to be involved in various immune-related diseases, affecting B, T, and dendritic cells (DCs). This study investigates the relationship between dietary Zn and IgAN development in IgAN-prone mice. Seven-week-old IgAN-prone mice were divided into low, normal, and high Zn diet groups. To assess exogenous pathogen-mediated immune responses, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was nasally administered. The activity of IgAN was biochemically and pathologically evaluated during the disease course. We also examined in vitro IgA production in spleen cells or in combinations of cocultured B, T, and DCs under various Zn conditions with or without LPS. Dietary conditioning with Zn affected serum immunoglobulins and urinary albumin levels, and mesangial deposition of IgA and IgG. Zn deficiency is associated with IgAN progression through the activation of the TLR4/TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), but not the TLR9, in DCs. Zn supplementation prevented disease aggravation. Our findings indicate that immune conditioning with dietary Zn alters nephritogenic IgA production after mucosal infection.

  19. Clinical and pathological analysis of IgA nephropathy with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuyuan; Hu, Qinfeng; Shen, Ping; Tang, Li; Yuan, Gang; Zhou, Yongmei; Chai, Huaqi

    2016-10-01

    To investigative clinical and pathological characteristics of IgA nephropathy with chronic renal failure. Clinical and pathological findings from 65 cases of IgA nephropathy with chronic renal failure were reviewed. Pathological characteristics of all the cases were analyzed according to WHO definition and Oxford Classification. Evaluating the severity of pathological lesions by the Katafuchi R semiquantitative scoring system, and analyzing their relationship with clinical indexes of renal function. Of all 65 cases the male and female ratio was 1.4, and the mean age was 37 ± 13 years old. Levels of systolic pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr), uric acid (UA), album (Alb), serum IgG and 24 h urinary protein were related with eGRF level (p < 0.05, respectively). The most common pathological type was proliferative sclerosis glomerulonephritis (PSGN) and M1S1E0T0 according to WHO definition and Oxford Classification, respectively, and most of the 65 cases had glomerulosclerosis. Simple IgA deposition was the most common immunopathologic type. Of all the cases, 44.6% accompanied with C3 while 4.6% with C1q. Further analysis revealed there were no relationships between severity of pathological lesion and levels of clinical indexes (Scr and eGRF) (p > 0.05). IgA nephropathy with chronic renal failure usually occurred in young adults, and it had severe clinical condition and pathological changes, while there was no significant relationship between them.

  20. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  1. IgA Function in Relation to the Intestinal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Andrew J; Yilmaz, Bahtiyar; Limenitakis, Julien P; Ganal-Vonarburg, Stephanie C

    2018-04-26

    IgA is the dominant immunoglobulin isotype produced in mammals, largely secreted across the intestinal mucosal surface. Although induction of IgA has been a hallmark feature of microbiota colonization following colonization in germ-free animals, until recently appreciation of the function of IgA in host-microbial mutualism has depended mainly on indirect evidence of alterations in microbiota composition or penetration of microbes in the absence of somatic mutations in IgA (or compensatory IgM). Highly parallel sequencing techniques that enable high-resolution analysis of either microbial consortia or IgA sequence diversity are now giving us new perspectives on selective targeting of microbial taxa and the trajectory of IgA diversification according to induction mechanisms, between different individuals and over time. The prospects are to link the range of diversified IgA clonotypes to specific antigenic functions in modulating the microbiota composition, position and metabolism to ensure host mutualism.

  2. Human placenta: relative content of antibodies of different classes and subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) containing lambda- and kappa-light chains and chimeric lambda-kappa-immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Lekchnov, Evgenii A; Sedykh, Sergey E; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2015-06-01

    The specific organ placenta is much more than a filter: it is an organ that protects, feeds and regulates the growth of the embryo. Affinity chromatography, ELISA, SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry were used. Using 10 intact human placentas deprived of blood, a quantitative analysis of average relative content [% of total immunoglobulins (Igs)] was carried out for the first time: (92.7), IgA (2.4), IgM (2.5), kappa-antibodies (51.4), lambda-antibodies (48.6), IgG1 (47.0), IgG2 (39.5), IgG3 (8.8) and IgG4 (4.3). It was shown for the first time that placenta contains sIgA (2.5%). In the classic paradigm, Igs represent products of clonal B-cell populations, each producing antibodies recognizing a single antigen. There is a common belief that IgGs in mammalian biological fluids are monovalent molecules having stable structures and two identical antigen-binding sites. However, similarly to human milk Igs, placenta antibodies undergo extensive half-molecule exchange and the IgG pool consists of 43.5 ± 15.0% kappa-kappa-IgGs and 41.6 ± 17.0% lambda-lambda-IgGs, while 15.0 ± 4.0% of the IgGs contained both kappa- and lambda-light chains. Kappa-kappa-IgGs and lambda-lambda-IgGs contained, respectively (%): IgG1 (47.7 and 34.4), IgG2 (36.3 and 44.5), IgG3 (7.4 and 11.8) and IgG4 (7.5 and 9.1), while chimeric kappa-lambda-IgGs consisted of (%): 43.5 IgG1, 41.0 IgG2, 5.6 IgG3 and 7.9 IgG4. Our data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between placenta IgGs of various subclasses, raised against different antigens, which explains a very well-known polyspecificity and cross-reactivity of different human IgGs. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Detection of IgA-class circulating immune complexes (CIC) in sera from patients with IgA nephropathy using a solid-phase anti-C3 Facb enzyme immunoassay (EIA).

    PubMed Central

    Yagame, M; Tomino, Y; Miura, M; Tanigaki, T; Suga, T; Nomoto, Y; Sakai, H

    1987-01-01

    The detection of circulating immune complexes (CIC) in sera from patients with IgA nephropathy is described. A solid-phase anti-C3 Facb enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was employed for detection of IgA-, IgG- and IgM-CIC in sera. The C1q-binding enzyme assay was also used for the detection of CIC in sera from these patients and healthy adults. Twenty-two patients with IgA nephropathy, 14 patients with other glomerular diseases and 19 healthy adults were examined by anti-C3 Facb EIA. The levels of IgA-CIC in sera from patients with IgA nephropathy were significantly higher than those in sera from patients with other glomerular diseases and healthy adults. CIC measured by the C1q-binding enzyme assay was detected in some patients with IgA nephropathy. The levels of serum IgA in patients with IgA nephropathy were significantly higher than those in patients with other glomerular diseases and healthy adults. However, there was no significant correlation between the levels of IgA-CIC in sera and those of serum IgA in patients with IgA nephropathy. There was also no significant correlation between the levels of IgA-CIC in sera and the degree of histopathological injuries in the patients. It is concluded that the solid-phase anti-C3 Facb EIA is useful for the detection of IgA-CIC in sera from patients with IgA nephropathy. PMID:3301093

  4. Sensitization with 7S globulins from peanut, hazelnut, soy or pea induces IgE with different biological activities which are modified by soy tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Bøgh, Katrine L; Rigby, Neil M; Mills, E N Clare; Rogers, Adrian; Madsen, Charlotte B

    2011-01-01

    It is not known why some foods sensitizing via the gastrointestinal tract are prevalent allergenic foods and others are not. Eating habits, processing, and the food matrix have been suggested to influence the allergenicity of a given food. Factors related to protein structure, such as stability to digestion, have also been suggested. 7S globulins from peanut, hazelnut, soy, and pea were studied to determine whether related proteins would induce a similar sensitization when removed from their 'normal' matrix. Brown Norway rats (soy tolerant or nontolerant) were immunized i.p. 3 times with 100 μg purified peanut, hazelnut, soy, or pea 7S without adjuvant. Sera were analyzed for specific antibodies by different ELISAs (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgE), inhibition ELISA, and rat basophilic leukemia cell assay. The 4 related 7S globulins induced a response with an almost identical level of specific antibodies, but peanut 7S induced IgE of higher avidity than hazelnut and pea 7S which, again, had a higher avidity than IgE induced by soy 7S. Soy tolerance reduced the functionality of IgE without influencing antibody titers. Although the 4 7S globulins are structurally related allergens, they induce antibodies with different antigen-binding characteristics. Peanut 7S induces IgE of a higher avidity than hazelnut and pea 7S which, again, has a higher avidity than IgE induced by soy 7S. We also show that soy tolerance influences the function of antibodies to peanut 7S. These findings may help explain how antibodies of different clinical significances can develop in different individuals sensitized to the same allergen. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. [Contribution of the detection of IgA antibodies to the laboratory diagnosis of mumps in the population with a high vaccination coverage].

    PubMed

    Limberková, R; Smíšková, D; Havlíčková, M; Herrmannová, K; Lexová, P; Malý, M

    2015-03-01

    Serological diagnosis of epidemic mumps can be difficult in vaccinated persons, particularly due to the absence of specific IgM antibodies. The aim was to find whether adding the detection of IgA antibodies to the currently used routine serological diagnosis of mumps (detection of IgM and IgG antibodies in an acute serum sample) would make the serological diagnosis of mumps more effective in a population with a high vaccination coverage. At the same time, ELISA kits for the detection of early IgA and IgM antibodies against the mumps virus were compared and statistical analysis of the results was performed. Sixty-four acute sera from patients with laboratory confirmed diagnosis of mumps were included in the study. Clinical specimens were collected at the onset of clinical symptoms. To test the sera, the MASTAZYME ELISA Mumps IgA kit (MAST DIAGNOSTICA, Germany) with the MASTSORB sorbent (RF and IgG) and Enzygnost Anti-Parotitis-Virus/IgM kit (Siemens, Germany) were used. A panel of 121 acute sera with no epidemiological link to mumps virus served as specificity controls for the IgA assay. The epidemiological data were derived from the EPIDAT system. The level of agreement was assessed using the McNemara test and Cohen's coefficient kappa. The Stata 9.2 software (Stata Corp LP, College Station, USA) was used for statistical analysis. The detection of IgA and IgM antibodies against the mumps virus yielded concordant results in 50/64 acute sera, 32 positive and 18 negative, i.e. an agreement of 78.12 %. Of the remaining 14 samples, 13 were only IgA positive and one was only IgM positive. The controls showed non-specific IgA positivity in 5/121 samples which indicates a 96% specificity. The absence of specific IgM antibodies against mumps virus is relatively often seen in vaccinated indivi-duals; nevertheless, the test is routinely used in patients with suspected active infection. The test for IgA antibodies, which is not routinely performed, significantly increased the

  6. The significance of specific IgG4 antibodies to methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride in occupationally exposed subjects.

    PubMed

    Yokota, K; Yamaguchi, K; Takeshita, T; Morimoto, K

    1998-06-01

    A definitive role for allergen-specific IgG4 as either an anaphylactic or a blocking antibody, or both, remains controversial. A population of 148 workers from two condenser plants (A and B) using epoxy resin with methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA) was studied to evaluate the significance of MTHPA-specific IgG4 antibody. The workers were evaluated through questionnaire and serological investigations. Ninety-seven (66%) of the currently exposed workers had positive MTHPA-specific IgE. IgE-sensitized workers in each plant had significantly more eye and nose complaints than unsensitized workers (P < 0.03). As the result of multiple logistic analysis, specific IgE antibodies was the most important predictor of work-related symptoms and its effect was greater than that of specific IgG4 (odds ratio 16.7 and 3.68, respectively). These indicate an IgE-mediated mechanism in most cases of work-related symptoms associated with MTHPA exposure. However, it cannot be denied that specific IgG4 is an anaphylactic antibody. Furthermore, IgE-sensitized workers in these plants displayed work-related symptoms despite the presence of specific IgG4. The frequency of positive specific IgG4 in continuously exposed workers was significantly (P < 0.02) higher in plant A than in plant B, reflecting the difference of the MTHPA levels between the two plants. In plant A, the frequency of positive specific IgG4 was significantly (P < 0.002) higher in continuously exposed workers than in intermittently exposed workers. Multiple regression analysis also confirmed that plant and exposure style contributed significantly (P < 0.01) to the determination of specific IgG4 levels. These results suggest that work-related eye and nasal symptoms are likely to be IgE-mediated, and that specific IgG4 may reflect the intensity of MTHPA exposure and may not act as a blocking antibody.

  7. Presence of specific IgG antibody to grain dust does not go with respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Park, H. S.; Suh, C. H.; Nahm, D. H.; Kim, H. Y.

    1999-01-01

    A high prevalence of work-related symptoms in relation to grain dust exposure has been reported in grain dust workers, but the role of the specific IgG antibody is unknown. To study the possible role of specific IgG (sIgG) and specific IgG4 (sIgG4) in the development of work-related symptoms, sIgG and sIgG4 subclass antibodies against grain dust antigens were determined by ELISA in sera from 43 workers and 27 non-exposed controls. They were compared with results of specific IgE antibodies, exposure intensity and the presence of respiratory symptoms. SIgG and sIgG4 antibodies were detectable in almost all sera of exposed workers, and the prevalence were significantly higher than those of controls (p<0.05). Higher sIgG4 was noted in workers with specific IgE (p<0.05). The correlation between sIgG and exposure duration was significant (p<0.05). There was no association between the prevalence of sIgG and sIgG4 and the presence of respiratory symptoms, or work stations. In conclusion, these results suggest that the existence of sIgG and sIgG4 might represent a response to grain dust exposure and may unlikely play a role in the etiology of respiratory symptoms. PMID:10102522

  8. Presence of specific IgG antibody to grain dust does not go with respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Suh, C H; Nahm, D H; Kim, H Y

    1999-02-01

    A high prevalence of work-related symptoms in relation to grain dust exposure has been reported in grain dust workers, but the role of the specific IgG antibody is unknown. To study the possible role of specific IgG (sIgG) and specific IgG4 (sIgG4) in the development of work-related symptoms, sIgG and sIgG4 subclass antibodies against grain dust antigens were determined by ELISA in sera from 43 workers and 27 non-exposed controls. They were compared with results of specific IgE antibodies, exposure intensity and the presence of respiratory symptoms. SIgG and sIgG4 antibodies were detectable in almost all sera of exposed workers, and the prevalence were significantly higher than those of controls (p<0.05). Higher sIgG4 was noted in workers with specific IgE (p<0.05). The correlation between sIgG and exposure duration was significant (p<0.05). There was no association between the prevalence of sIgG and sIgG4 and the presence of respiratory symptoms, or work stations. In conclusion, these results suggest that the existence of sIgG and sIgG4 might represent a response to grain dust exposure and may unlikely play a role in the etiology of respiratory symptoms.

  9. Natural polyreactive IgA antibodies coat the intestinal microbiota

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, Jeffrey J.; Erickson, Steven A.; Flynn, Theodore M.

    Large quantities of immunoglobulin A (IgA) are constitutively secreted by intestinal plasma cells to coat and contain the commensal microbiota, yet the specificity of these antibodies remains elusive. In this paper, we profiled the reactivities of single murine IgA plasma cells by cloning and characterizing large numbers of monoclonal antibodies. IgAs were not specific to individual bacterial taxa but rather polyreactive, with broad reactivity to a diverse, but defined, subset of microbiota. These antibodies arose at low frequencies among naïve B cells and were selected into the IgA repertoire upon recirculation in Peyer’s patches. This selection process occurred independent ofmore » microbiota or dietary antigens. Furthermore, although some IgAs acquired somatic mutations, these did not substantially influence their reactivity. In conclusion, these findings reveal an endogenous mechanism driving homeostatic production of polyreactive IgAs with innate specificity to microbiota.« less

  10. Natural polyreactive IgA antibodies coat the intestinal microbiota

    DOE PAGES

    Bunker, Jeffrey J.; Erickson, Steven A.; Flynn, Theodore M.; ...

    2017-09-28

    Large quantities of immunoglobulin A (IgA) are constitutively secreted by intestinal plasma cells to coat and contain the commensal microbiota, yet the specificity of these antibodies remains elusive. In this paper, we profiled the reactivities of single murine IgA plasma cells by cloning and characterizing large numbers of monoclonal antibodies. IgAs were not specific to individual bacterial taxa but rather polyreactive, with broad reactivity to a diverse, but defined, subset of microbiota. These antibodies arose at low frequencies among naïve B cells and were selected into the IgA repertoire upon recirculation in Peyer’s patches. This selection process occurred independent ofmore » microbiota or dietary antigens. Furthermore, although some IgAs acquired somatic mutations, these did not substantially influence their reactivity. In conclusion, these findings reveal an endogenous mechanism driving homeostatic production of polyreactive IgAs with innate specificity to microbiota.« less

  11. Lymphotoxin Alpha-Deficient Mice Clear Persistent Rotavirus Infection after Local Generation of Mucosal IgA

    PubMed Central

    Lopatin, Uri; Blutt, Sarah E.; Conner, Margaret E.

    2013-01-01

    Rotavirus is a major cause of pediatric diarrheal illness worldwide. To explore the role of organized intestinal lymphoid tissues in infection by and immunity to rotavirus, lymphotoxin alpha-deficient (LTα−/−) mice that lack Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes were orally infected with murine rotavirus. Systemic rotavirus was cleared within 10 days in both LTα−/− and wild-type mice, and both strains developed early and sustained serum antirotavirus antibody responses. However, unlike wild-type mice, which resolved the intestinal infection within 10 days, LTα−/− mice shed fecal virus for approximately 50 days after inoculation. The resolution of fecal virus shedding occurred concurrently with induction of intestinal rotavirus-specific IgA in both mouse strains. Induction of intestinal rotavirus-specific IgA in LTα−/− mice correlated with the (late) appearance of IgA-producing plasma cells in the small intestine. This, together with the absence of rotavirus-specific serum IgA, implies that secretory rotavirus-specific IgA was produced locally. These findings indicate that serum IgG responses are insufficient and imply that local intestinal IgA responses are important for the clearance of rotavirus from intestinal tissues. Furthermore, they show that while LTα-dependent lymphoid tissues are important for the generation of IgA-producing B cells in the intestine, they are not absolutely required in the setting of rotavirus infection. Moreover, the induction of local IgA-producing B cell responses can occur late after infection and in an LTα-independent manner. PMID:23097456

  12. Diagnostic value of detecting specific IgA and IgM with recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in congenital Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Lorca, M; Veloso, C; Munoz, P; Bahamonde, M I; Garcia, A

    1995-06-01

    The present study compares the early diagnosis of congenital Chagas' disease with a DOT assay using recombinant antigens with immunofluorescence antibody testing (IFAT) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The studies were performed using cord blood and sera of 12 infected newborns (group I) and 12 uninfected ones born to Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mothers (group II). Conventional IFAT and ELISA showed positive results for IgG at high titers, in infants and mothers of both groups; IgA antibodies were detected by ELISA in four of the infected infants and IgM was detected in two of them. All sera of the uninfected infants were negative for IgA and IgM in the ELISA. Application of a DOT assay using eight recombinant T. cruzi antigens allowed detection of specific IgA in the cord blood of six of the infected cases and IgM in eight of them. Repetition of these serologic tests in samples obtained during a monthly follow-up gave positive results for IgA in two of the initially negative infants of group I and for IgM in four of them. This means that diagnosis of congenital T. cruzi infection was confirmed, through demonstration of specific IgM, in all infected infants, and of IgA in eight of them. The importance of late detection of IgM in siblings born of infected mothers is discussed. The detection of IgM and IgA in sera obtained after birth is believed to be due to a congenital transmission of the parasite that occurred late in pregnancy. No IgA or IgM antibodies could be detected by the DOT assay in the sera of the negative controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Isotype- and subclass-specific responses to infection and reinfection with parainfluenza-3 virus: comparison of the diagnostic potential of ELISAs detecting seroconversion and specific IgM and IgA.

    PubMed

    Graham, D A; Mawhinney, K A; German, A; Foster, J C; Adair, B M; Merza, M

    1999-03-01

    Isotype- and subclass-specific indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed to detect parainfluenza-3 virus-specific IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA responses. Sera were treated with protein G-agarose prior to testing for specific IgM and IgA to eliminate the possibility of false-positive results due to IgM-rheumatoid factor and to remove interisotypic competition due to specific IgG. IgM and IgA absorbance values were expressed as a percentage of the absorbance values of positive reference sera included on each plate (S/P%), and respective positive/negative threshold values of 15.0% and 28.0% were determined. The mean interval between experimental infection of 3 calves and initial detection of specific IgG1 and IgG2 responses was 8.0 and 9.3 days respectively, rising rapidly to an initial plateau 13.7 and 11.0 days postinfection (dpi). Reinfection of these calves at 30 dpi resulted in further rapid increases, with higher plateau values reached 13.0 (IgG1) and 13.7 (IgG2) days later. The mean interval between infection and the first positive IgM and IgA responses was 6.7 and 12.3 days, respectively. IgM S/P% values peaked at 13.0 dpi, with all 3 calves showing a secondary anamnestic response to reinfection, peaking 4.7 days later. The IgA response to initial infection was weak, with only 2 calves showing an obvious peak response at 15.0 dpi. A strong anamnestic IgA response to reinfection occurred in 2 calves, with a peak response 9.5 days later. Apparent biphasic and triphasic IgM and IgA responses were evident in some calves. Acute and convalescent serum samples from 80 calves involved in 17 outbreaks of respiratory disease were tested for specific IgM and IgA. Positive IgM results were detected in 15 outbreaks, with 71 sera from 44 calves testing positive. Although IgA-positive results were detected in the same 15 outbreaks, only 42 sera from 31 calves were positive. In a previous study, seroconversion was detected in 21 of these calves from 10 outbreaks

  14. New insights into the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Yeo, See Cheng; Cheung, Chee Kay; Barratt, Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most common form of glomerulonephritis in many parts of the world and remains an important cause of end-stage renal disease. Current evidence suggests that IgA nephropathy is not due to a single pathogenic insult, but rather the result of multiple sequential pathogenic "hits". An abnormally increased level of circulating poorly O-galactosylated IgA1 and the production of O-glycan-specific antibodies leads to the formation of IgA1-containing immune complexes, and their subsequent mesangial deposition results in inflammation and glomerular injury. While this general framework has formed the foundation of our current understanding of the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy, much work is ongoing to try to precisely define the genetic, epigenetic, immunological, and molecular basis of IgA nephropathy. In particular, the precise origin of poorly O-galactosylated IgA1 and the inciting factors for the production of O-glycan-specific antibodies continue to be intensely evaluated. The mechanisms responsible for mesangial IgA1 deposition and subsequent renal injury also remain incompletely understood. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the key steps involved in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy. It is hoped that further advances in our understanding of this common glomerulonephritis will lead to novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and targeted therapies to ameliorate disease progression.

  15. High IgE sensitization to maize and rice pollen in the highlands of Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Ramavovololona; Sénéchal, Hélène; Andrianarisoa, Ange; Rakotoarimanana, Vololona; Godfrin, Dominique; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Maize and rice are two crops constituting the main food supply in many under-developed and developing countries. Despite the large area devoted to the culture, the sensitization to the pollen from these plants is reported to be low and often considered as an occupational allergy. Methods Sixty five Malagasy pollen allergic patients were clinically and immunochemically investigated with regard to maize and rice pollen allergens. Pollen extracts were electrophoretically separated in 1 and 2 dimensions and IgE and IgG reactivities detected upon immunoblotting. Results When exploring the sensitization profile of Malagasy allergic patients to maize and rice pollen, it appears that a high proportion of these patients consulting during grass pollinating season were sensitized to both pollen as revealed by skin prick testing (62 vs. 59%) and IgE immunoblotting (85 vs. 40%). Several clinically relevant allergens were recognized by patients’ serum IgE in maize and rice pollen extracts. Conclusion The high levels of maize and rice pollen sensitization should be related, in this tropical region, to a specific environmental exposure including i) a proximity of the population to the allergenic sources and ii) a putative exacerbating effect of a highly polluted urban atmosphere on pollen allergenicity. Cross-reactivities between wild and cultivated grasses and also between rice and maize pollen are involved as well as some specific maize sensitizations. The presence of dense urban and peri-urban agriculture, in various African regions and worldwide, could be a high environmental risk factor for people sensitive to maize pollen. PMID:25870739

  16. Heat-induced alterations in cashew allergen solubility and IgE binding.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Christopher P; Bren-Mattison, Yvette; Vant-Hull, Barry; Vargas, Aurora M; Wasserman, Richard L; Grimm, Casey C

    2016-01-01

    Cashew nuts are an increasingly common cause of food allergy. We compare the soluble protein profile of cashew nuts following heating. SDS-PAGE indicate that heating can alter the solubility of cashew nut proteins. The 11S legumin, Ana o 2, dominates the soluble protein content in ready to eat and mildly heated cashew nuts. However, we found that in dark-roasted cashew nuts, the soluble protein profile shifts and the 2S albumin Ana o 3 composes up to 40% of the soluble protein. Analysis of trypsin-treated extracts by LC/MS/MS indicate changes in the relative number and intensity of peptides. The relative cumulative intensity of the 5 most commonly observed Ana o 1 and 2 peptides are altered by heating, while those of the 5 most commonly observed Ana o 3 peptides remaine relatively constant. ELISA experiments indicate that there is a decrease in rabbit IgG and human serum IgE binding to soluble cashew proteins following heating. Our findings indicate that heating can alter the solubility of cashew allergens, resulting in altered IgE binding. Our results support the use of both Ana o 2 and Ana o 3 as potential cashew allergen diagnostic targets.

  17. Biomarkers for IgA nephropathy on the basis of multi-hit pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2018-05-08

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most prevalent glomerular disease worldwide and is associated with a poor prognosis. Development of curative treatment strategies and approaches for early diagnosis is necessary. Renal biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis and assessment of disease activity. However, reliable biomarkers are needed for the noninvasive diagnosis of this disease and to more fully delineate the risk of progression. With regard to the pathogenesis of IgAN, the multi-hit hypothesis, including production of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1; Hit 1), IgG or IgA autoantibodies that recognize Gd-IgA1 (Hit 2), and their subsequent immune complexes formation (Hit 3) and glomerular deposition (Hit 4), has been widely supported by many studies. Although the prognostic values of several biomarkers have been discussed, we recently developed a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic method by measuring serum levels of Gd-IgA1 and Gd-IgA1-containing immune complexes. In addition, urinary Gd-IgA1 may represent a disease-specific biomarker for IgAN. We also confirmed that there is a significant correlation between serum levels of these effector molecules and disease activity, suggesting that each can be considered a practical surrogate marker of therapeutic response. Thus, these disease-oriented specific serum and urine biomarkers may be useful for screening of potential IgAN with isolated hematuria, earlier diagnosis, disease activity, and eventually, response to treatment. In this review, we discuss these concepts, with a focus on potential clinical applications of these biomarkers.

  18. Individually Guided Education (IGE) Program. 1973-1974 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    This report presents data gathered during the 1973-74 school year on the Austin Independent School District (Austin, Texas) implementation of the Individually Guided Education Program (IGE). Classroom observation indicates on the whole that the 11 schools identified as IGE exhibit greater degrees of implementation of characteristics associated…

  19. Lacrimal secretory IgA in active posterior uveitis induced by Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Maria Isabel; Cordeiro, Francisco; Ferreira, Silvana; Ximenes, Ricardo; Oréfice, Fernando; Malagueño, Elizabeth

    2004-12-01

    It is quite difficult to diagnose active toxoplasmosis in patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. Active posterior uveitis presumably due to Toxoplasma gondii infection (APUPT) is seldom produced during a prime-infection; hence most patients do not show high IgM antibodies. High levels of IgA have been described in active toxoplasmosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible association between APUPT and the specific anti-parasite sIgA in tears. The study was carried out as case-control. Tears of 25 clinically confirmed APUPT patients and 50 healthy control subjects were analyzed. All were IgG seropositive. Specific sIgA was determined by ELISA assay using T. gondii RH strain crude extract. Anti-T. gondii sIgA was found in 84% of the cases and in 22% of the control subjects. The intensity of the reaction was higher in APUPT cases (P = 0.007). There was strong association between APUPT patients and lacrimal sIgA (odds-ratio 18.61, P = 0.0001). ELISA test sensitivity was 84% and specificity 78%. Our data suggest that anti-T.gondii secretory IgA found in tears may become an important marker for active ocular toxoplasmosis.

  20. A single intranasal immunization with a subunit vaccine formulation induces higher mucosal IgA production than live respiratory syncytial virus

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Ravendra

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes serious respiratory illness in infants and elderly. RSV infection induces short-lived immunity, which leaves people prone to re-infection. In contrast, the RSV fusion (F) protein formulated with a novel adjuvant (∆F/TriAdj) elicits long term protective immunity. A comparison of RSV-immunized mice to mice vaccinated with a single dose of ∆F/TriAdj showed no difference in IgG1 and IgG2a production; however, local IgA secreting memory B cell development and B cell IgA production were significantly lower in RSV vaccinated mice than in ∆F/TriAdj-immunized mice. This indicates a potential reason as to why long-term immunity is not inducedmore » by RSV infection. The comparison also revealed that germinal center lymphocyte populations were higher in ∆F/TriAdj-vaccinated mice. Furthermore, ∆F/TriAdj induced higher gene expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), as well as IL-6, IL-21, TGF-β cytokines, which are key players in IgA class switch recombination, ultimately leading to a sustained long-term memory response. - Highlights: •Immune responses to adjuvanted RSV F protein, ∆F/TriAdj, and RSV were compared. •∆F/TriAdj stimulates more local IgA production than RSV. •∆F/TriAdj induces more local IgA secreting memory B cells than RSV. •Germinal center lymphocyte populations are higher in ∆F/TriAdj-vaccinated mice. •∆F/TriAdj induces higher gene expression of AID, IL-6, IL-21, and TGF-β than RSV.« less

  1. [Correlation between IgG subtypes and hematological diseases].

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuan-Yuan; Shao, Zong-Hong

    2015-02-01

    IgG is the main immunoglobulin, brings the immunolgic effects in body. The human IgG can be divided into four kinds; IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, respectively. The structures of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 are different, therefore, their functions are also different. The defects, increase or imbalance of the IgG subtypes in autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, cancer and other diseases are indicators of the immune response. IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 also play a different important roles in the disease progress. The analysis of IgG subtypes is beneficial to study the etiology, pathogenesis and prognosis of above menthioned deseases. This review briefly summarizes the characteristics of IgG subtypes in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, hemophilia, lymphoma and leukemia.

  2. "Default" versus "pre-atopic" IgG responses to foodborne and airborne pathogenesis-related group 10 protein molecules in birch-sensitized and nonatopic children.

    PubMed

    Hofmaier, Stephanie; Hatzler, Laura; Rohrbach, Alexander; Panetta, Valentina; Hakimeh, Dani; Bauer, Carl Peter; Hoffman, Ute; Forster, Johannes; Zepp, Fred; Schuster, Antje; Stock, Philippe; Wahn, Ulrich; Keil, Thomas; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria

    2015-05-01

    The route and dose of exposure are believed to be relevant factors in the sensitization process. Pathogenesis-related group 10 protein (PR-10) molecules are a family of allergenic proteins shared by many pollens (eg, birch and alder) and foods (eg, apple, peach, and soy). Children are exposed to both pollen-derived (inhaled) and food-derived (ingested) PR-10 molecules. We sought to investigate the role of route and dose of exposure in the evolution of IgG and IgE responses to recombinant PR-10 molecules. The German Multicentre Allergy Study examined a birth cohort born in 1990. Blood samples were collected at the ages of 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 13 years. Participants were included in the present analysis if they had (1) at least 1 serum sample at each of the 4 age periods or time points (1-3 years, 5-7 years, 10 years, and 13 years) and (2) IgE responses to birch (children with birch atopy) or no IgE response at all to 9 common aeroallergens and food allergens (nonatopic children). Therefore serum IgE antibodies to a panel of 4 airborne and 5 foodborne extracts, as well as to Bet v 1, were measured in singleplex assays, whereas IgG and IgE antibodies to a panel of 3 airborne PR-10 molecules (rBet v 1, rAln g 1, and rCor a 1.0101) and 7 foodborne PR-10 molecules (rCor a 1.0401, rMal d 1, rPru p 1, rGly m 4, rAra h 8, rApi g 1, and rDau c 1) were tested by using a multiplex microarray. In the present analyses we included 28 children with birch atopy and randomly selected 28 nonatopic children from the 190 children fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Two different patterns of IgG responses to PR-10 molecules were identified. Among nonatopic subjects, a "default" IgG response was directed mostly against foodborne PR-10, started often before age 2 years, stayed weak, and was mostly transient. Among all atopic subjects, the default IgG response at age 1 year was overwhelmed after age 2 years by an "pre-atopic" IgG response, which started with or shortly before the IgE

  3. An avirulent Brachyspira hyodysenteriae strain elicits intestinal IgA and slows down spread of swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Mahu, Maxime; Boyen, Filip; Canessa, Stefano; Zavala Marchan, Jackeline; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank

    2017-10-05

    Swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, results in substantial economic losses in swine producing countries worldwide. Although a number of different vaccine approaches have been explored with regard to this disease, they show limitations and none of them have reached the market. We here determine the vaccine potential of a weakly haemolytic B. hyodysenteriae strain. The virulence of this strain was assessed in experimental infection trials and its protection against swine dysentery was quantified in a vaccination-challenge experiment using a seeder infection model. Systemic IgG production and local IgA production were monitored in serum and faeces respectively. Across all trials, pigs that were colonized by virulent, strongly haemolytic B. hyodysenteriae strains consistently developed swine dysentery, in contrast to none of the pigs colonized by the weakly haemolytic B. hyodysenteriae vaccine strain. In the seeder vaccination trial nearly all immunised animals developed swine dysentery on subsequent challenge with a virulent strain, but the speed of spread of swine dysentery and faecal score were significantly reduced in animals immunised with the weakly haemolytic strain compared to sham-immunised animals. The IgA response of immunised animals upon challenge with a virulent B. hyodysenteriae strain significantly correlated to a later onset of disease. The correlation between local IgA production and protection induced by a weakly haemolytic B. hyodysenteriae strain provides leads for future vaccine development against swine dysentery.

  4. Breastfeeding linked to the reduction of both rotavirus shedding and IgA levels after Rotarix® immunization in Mexican infants.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Marquez, Aurora; Velasquez, Daniel E; Esparza-Aguilar, Marcelino; Luna-Cruz, Maria; Ruiz-Moran, Tatiana; Sugata, Ken; Jiang, Baoming; Parashar, Umesh; Patel, Manish; Richardson, Vesta

    2016-10-17

    We examined potential risk factors on vaccine virus shedding and antibody seroresponse to human rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix) in Mexican infants. Two doses of Rotarix were administered to infants during the first two visits for their routine childhood immunization (∼8 and 15weeks of age) in Mexico City. Infant's characteristics and socioeconomic indicators were obtained, including history of long-term feeding practices (exclusively/predominantly breastfed and exclusively/predominantly non-breastfed). Two serum specimens were collected, one during the second rotavirus vaccine visit and one 7weeks later. Stool specimens were collected between days 4-7 after each of the two rotavirus vaccine doses. Rotavirus IgA and IgG titers in serum were determined by enzyme immunoassays (EIA) and rotavirus shedding in stool was assessed by EIA and confirmed by RT-PCR. The overall rotavirus IgA geometric mean titers (GMT) increased significantly post dose 2 from post dose 1 [176 (95%CI: 113-273) to 335 (238-471); p=0.020). Infants who were exclusively/predominantly breastfed were less likely to shed vaccine virus in stool than those who were formula-fed (22% vs. 43%, p=0.016). Infants who were breastfed had lower rotavirus IgA titers than those who were formula-fed after dose 1 [GMT: 145 (84-250) vs. 267 (126-566) p=0.188] and dose 2 [236 (147-378) vs.578 (367-910), p=0.007]. Infants who shed vaccine virus post dose 1 had significantly higher serum IgA GMT than those who did not shed [425 (188-965) vs. 150 (84-266), p=0.038]. Breastfeeding was linked with the reduction of both stool vaccine shedding, and IgA seroresponse. The reduced rotavirus replication in the gut and shedding after dose 1 may explain in part the lower IgA response in serum. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. IgA rheumatoid factor as a serological predictor of poor response to tumour necrosis factor α inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sakthiswary, Rajalingham; Shaharir, Syahrul S; Mohd Said, Mohd S; Asrul, Abdul W; Shahril, Nor S

    2014-11-01

    The main objective of this study is to elucidate the role of immunoglobulin A (IgA) rheumatoid factor (RF) in predicting the clinical response to tumour necrosis factor α inhibitors (TNFi) among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We recruited all patients with RA who were ever on TNFi for a minimum duration of 3 months at our centre. Based on the European League Against Rheumatism response criteria, subjects were further divided into responders and non-responders. Age-matched RA patients who were on conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and in remission were enrolled as controls. Subjects were tested for quantitative values of IgA, IgM, IgG RF and anti-citrulinated cyclic peptides (CCP). Further, all subjects were assessed for the disease activity score that includes 28 joints (DAS28) and Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) 8-item Disability Index (HAQ-DI). A total of 31 subjects with RA who had received TNFi and 15 controls were enrolled in this study. There was a trend for the non-responders (n = 10) to have higher levels of all isotypes of RF and anti-CCP. However, only the IgA RF and anti-CCP levels were significantly higher in the non-responder group compared to the responders and controls (P = 0.001, P = 0.034, respectively). On multivariate analysis, only the IgA RF remained significant (OR 0.989; 95% CI 0.980-0.999; P = 0.026). IgA RF is potentially a novel predictor of response to TNFi in RA patients. Testing for pretreatment IgA RF levels could be a reasonable consideration before commencement of TNFi. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Human Plasma-derived Polymeric IgA and IgM Antibodies Associate with Secretory Component to Yield Biologically Active Secretory-like Antibodies*

    PubMed Central

    Longet, Stéphanie; Miled, Sarah; Lötscher, Marius; Miescher, Sylvia M.; Zuercher, Adrian W.; Corthésy, Blaise

    2013-01-01

    Immunotherapy with monoclonal and polyclonal immunoglobulin is successfully applied to improve many clinical conditions, including infection, autoimmune diseases, or immunodeficiency. Most immunoglobulin products, recombinant or plasma-derived, are based on IgG antibodies, whereas to date, the use of IgA for therapeutic application has remained anecdotal. In particular, purification or production of large quantities of secretory IgA (SIgA) for potential mucosal application has not been achieved. In this work, we sought to investigate whether polymeric IgA (pIgA) recovered from human plasma is able to associate with secretory component (SC) to generate SIgA-like molecules. We found that ∼15% of plasma pIgA carried J chain and displayed selective SC binding capacity either in a mixture with monomeric IgA (mIgA) or after purification. The recombinant SC associated covalently in a 1:1 stoichiometry with pIgA and with similar efficacy as colostrum-derived SC. In comparison with pIgA, the association with SC delayed degradation of SIgA by intestinal proteases. Similar results were obtained with plasma-derived IgM. In vitro, plasma-derived IgA and SIgA neutralized Shigella flexneri used as a model pathogen, resulting in a delay of bacteria-induced damage targeted to polarized Caco-2 cell monolayers. The sum of these novel data demonstrates that association of plasma-derived IgA or IgM with recombinant/colostrum-derived SC is feasible and yields SIgA- and SIgM-like molecules with similar biochemical and functional characteristics as mucosa-derived immunoglobulins. PMID:23250751

  7. Shiga toxin-induced apoptosis is more efficiently inhibited by dimeric recombinant hybrid-IgG/IgA immunoglobulins than by the parental IgG monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kurohane, Kohta; Nagano, Kyoko; Nakanishi, Katsuhiro; Iwata, Koki; Miyake, Masaki; Imai, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) is a virulence factor of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains such as O157:H7 and Shigella dysenteriae. To prevent entry of Stx1 from the mucosal surface, an immunoglobulin A (IgA) specific for Stx1 would be useful. Due to the difficulty of producing IgA monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against the binding subunit of Stx1 (Stx1B) in mice, we took advantage of recombinant technology that combines the heavy chain variable region from Stx1B-specific IgG1 mAb and the Fc region from IgA. The resulting hybrid IgG/IgA was stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells as a dimeric hybrid IgG/IgA. We separated the dimeric hybrid IgG/IgA from the monomeric one by size-exclusion chromatography. The dimer fraction, confirmed by immunoblot analyses, was used for toxin neutralization assays. The dimeric IgG/IgA was shown to neutralize Stx1 toxicity toward Vero cells by assaying their viability. To compare the relative effectiveness of the dimeric hybrid IgG/IgA and parental IgG1 mAb, Stx1-induced apoptosis was examined using 2 different cell lines, Ramos and Vero cells. The hybrid IgG/IgA inhibited apoptosis more efficiently than the parental IgG1 mAb in both cases. The results indicated that the use of high affinity binding sites as variable regions of IgA would increase the utility of IgA specific for virulence factors.

  8. Role of specific IgE to β-lactoglobulin in the gastrointestinal phenotype of cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Poza-Guedes, Paloma; Barrios, Yvelise; González-Pérez, Ruperto; Sánchez-Machín, Inmaculada; Franco, Andres; Matheu, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of many phenotypes of food allergy is increasing. Specific gastrointestinal (GI) phenotype of food allergy (GI allergy) is also increasing but it is difficult to know the prevalence because of many entities. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 1 year retrospective study of pediatric patients complaining exclusively gastrointestinal symptoms after cow's milk consumption and at least one positive specific IgE (sIgE) to cow's milk (CM) proteins (CMP) was done (n = 39). The most prevalent symptom was abdominal cramps in 35 patients (90 %), discomfort or abdominal distention in 30 patients (75 %), diarrhea in 10 patients (25 %) and constipation in 5 patients (12 %). IgA anti-transglutaminase antibodies were absent and lactose intolerance was ruled out in all patients. Average of total IgE on this group was 288 UI/ml. sIgE against β-lactoglobulin was the dominant with an average of 4.14 kU/l. sIgE to casein (CAS), which is the dominant protein in systemic anaphylaxis was 1.74 kU/l; sIgE to α-lactoalbumin, the other whey protein, was 0.83 kU/l and sIgE levels to CM were 0.78 kU/l. The quotient sIgE CAS/sIgE β-lactoglobulin in these patients was always lower than 1. Patients experienced an improvement of their symptoms after a CM free diet. An open oral challenge with CM did mimic their initial symptoms in all patients. However, the open oral challenge with dairy products was well tolerated. Patients with a specific phenotype of GI allergy with CM have specific IgE against β-lactoglobulin, as a dominant sIgE. These patients could beneficiate of a diet with dairy products.

  9. Multicentric Castleman's disease associated with IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein purpura) responding well to tocilizumab: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yoichi; Hoshino, Junichi; Suwabe, Tatsuya; Hayami, Noriko; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Sekine, Akinari; Ueno, Toshiharu; Mizuno, Hiroki; Yabuuchi, Junko; Imafuku, Aya; Kawada, Masahiro; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Hasegawa, Eiko; Sawa, Naoki; Takaichi, Kenmei; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Fujii, Takeshi; Ubara, Yoshifumi

    2017-03-01

    A 41-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the evaluation of hypergammaglobulinemia (IgG 2898 mg/dL and IgA 587 mg/dL), inflammation (CRP 6.7 mg/dL and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) 15.1 ng/L), and anemia (Hb 10.9 mg/dL). Castleman's disease (CD) was diagnosed by axillary lymph node biopsy. Five months later, painful purpura (multiple palpable 5 mm lesions) developed on his legs, gradually spreading to the upper limbs, thighs, and trunk, accompanied by arthralgia of the wrists, ankles, and knees. Skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis with IgA deposits in dermal vessels. Accordingly, IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein purpura) was diagnosed. Tocilizumab (an anti-IL-6 receptor antibody) was administered intravenously at 8 mg/kg and treatment was repeated at monthly intervals. His purpura and clinical findings specific to CD improved rapidly. CD is well known to cause various skin lesions. The findings in this case indicate that overproduction of IL-6 contributes to IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein purpura) as well as to the pathogenesis of CD.

  10. Large Scale Generation and Characterization of Anti-Human IgA Monoclonal Antibody in Ascitic Fluid of Balb/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ezzatifar, Fatemeh; Majidi, Jafar; Baradaran, Behzad; Aghebati Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Monoclonal antibodies are potentially powerful tools used in biomedical research, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases and cancers. The monoclonal antibody against Human IgA can be used as a diagnostic application to detect infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to improve an appropriate protocol for large-scale production of mAbs against IgA. Methods: For large-scale production of the monoclonal antibody, hybridoma cells that produce monoclonal antibodies against Human IgA were injected intraperitoneally into Balb/c mice that were previously primed with 0.5 ml Pristane. After ten days, ascitic fluid was harvested from the peritoneum of each mouse. The ELISA method was carried out for evaluation of the titration of produced mAbs. The ascitic fluid was investigated in terms of class and subclass by a mouse mAb isotyping kit. MAb was purified from the ascitic fluid by ion exchange chromatography. The purity of the monoclonal antibody was confirmed by SDS-PAGE, and the purified monoclonal antibody was conjugated with HRP. Results: Monoclonal antibodies with high specificity and sensitivity against Human IgA were prepared by hybridoma technology. The subclass of antibody was IgG1 and its light chain was the kappa type. Conclusion: This conjugated monoclonal antibody could have applications in designing ELISA kits in order to diagnose different infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis and H. Pylori. PMID:25789225

  11. Effect of industrial processing on the IgE reactivity of three commonly consumed Mo-roccan fish species in Fez region.

    PubMed

    Mejrhit, N; Azdad, O; Aarab, L

    2018-03-02

    Objectives. The aim of this work was to study the effect of industrial processing on the allergenicity of three commonly consumed Moroccan fish species in Fez region (sardine, common pandora, and shrimp). Methods. This work was conducted by a sera-bank obtained from 1248 patients recruited from Fez Hospitals. Their sera were analyzed for specific IgE binding to raw fish extracts. Among them, 60 patients with higher specific IgE levels were selected, and used to estimate the binding variation of IgE to these products under several processing (frying, cooking, canning, marinade, and fermentation) using ELISA analysis. Results. ELISA results demonstrated that all the studied processing cause a reduction in the immunoreactivity of human IgE to fish products, with a high action with marinade and fermentation compared to other processing. This alteration was also observed with rabbit IgG in all processed products, showing that the maximum reduction was marked in fermented sardine with 64.5%, in cooked common pandora with 58%, and in fermented shrimp with 69.2%. Conclusion. In conclusion, our study has shown that the allergenicity of the three studied fish could be reduced by different industrial processes with different degrees.

  12. High salivary secretory IgA antibody levels are associated with less late-onset wheezing in IgE-sensitized infants.

    PubMed

    Sandin, Anna; Björkstén, Bengt; Böttcher, Malin F; Englund, Erling; Jenmalm, Maria C; Bråbäck, Lennart

    2011-08-01

    Low levels of secretory IgA (SIgA) and transient IgA deficiency have been associated with an increased risk for allergy, but data are conflicting. The aim was to assess the relationship between salivary SIgA antibody levels at 1 yr and wheezing at age four in a birth cohort, in particular the possible protective role of salivary SIgA in sensitized children. Saliva samples were obtained from all children (n=67) with a positive skin prick test (SPT) at 1 yr and 212 children with a negative SPT. In all, 200 of these children responded to questionnaires at 4 yrs and 183 were skin prick tested at that age. The levels of salivary SIgA and salivary IgA antibodies to the most common food allergen egg and inhalant allergen cat were analyzed by ELISA. Serum was analyzed for IgE antibodies to egg and cat. Development of late-onset wheezing was associated with low SIgA levels in children with positive SPT to at least one allergen both at 1 and 4 yrs of age (p=0.04), as well as in children with circulating IgE antibodies to egg or cat at 1 yr (p=0.02). None of nine persistently sensitized children with SIgA levels in the upper quartile developed wheezing, when compared to 10/20 children with lower levels (p=0.01). Older siblings, more than three infections during infancy, at least one smoking parent, and male gender, were all associated with SIgA in the upper quartile. In conclusion, high levels of SIgA antibodies in sensitized infants were associated with significantly less late-onset wheezing, supporting a protective role against development of asthmatic symptoms. Recurrent infections and other factors supporting an increased microbial pressure during infancy were associated with high levels of salivary SIgA. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Approaches to target IgE antibodies in allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Balbino, Bianca; Conde, Eva; Marichal, Thomas; Starkl, Philipp; Reber, Laurent L

    2018-06-15

    IgE is the antibody isotype found at the lowest concentration in the circulation. However IgE can undeniably play an important role in mediating allergic reactions; best exemplified by the clinical benefits of anti-IgE monoclonal antibody (omalizumab) therapy for some allergic diseases. This review will describe our current understanding of the interactions between IgE and its main receptors FcεRI and CD23 (FcεRII). We will review the known and potential functions of IgE in health and disease: in particular, its detrimental roles in allergic diseases and chronic spontaneous urticaria, and its protective functions in host defense against parasites and venoms. Finally, we will present an overview of the drugs that are in clinical development or have therapeutic potential for IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Interpreting IgE sensitization tests in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence, and with it, IgE testing to foods is becoming more commonplace. Food-specific IgE tests, including serum assays and prick skin tests, are sensitive for detecting the presence of food-specific IgE (sensitization), but specificity for predicting clinical allergy is limited. Therefore, positive tests are generally not, in isolation, diagnostic of clinical disease. However, rationale test selection and interpretation, based on clinical history and understanding of food allergy epidemiology and pathophysiology, makes these tests invaluable. Additionally, there exist highly predictive test cutoff values for common allergens in atopic children. Newer testing methodologies, such as component resolved diagnostics, are promising for increasing the utility of testing. This review highlights the use of IgE serum tests in the diagnosis of food allergy.

  15. Dysfunctions of the Iga system: a common link between intestinal and renal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Papista, Christina; Berthelot, Laureline; Monteiro, Renato C

    2011-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A (Iga)-isotype antibodies play an important role in immunity owing to their structure, glycosylation, localization and receptor interactions. Dysfunctions in this system can lead to multiple types of pathology. This review describes the characteristics of Iga and discusses the involvement of abnormalities in the Iga system on the development of celiac disease and Iga nephropathy. PMID:21278767

  16. Activation of effector functions by immune complexes of mouse IgG2a with isotype-specific autoantibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Rajnavölgyi, E; Fazekas, G; Lund, J; Daeron, M; Teillaud, J L; Jefferis, R; Fridman, W H; Gergely, J

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of five monoclonal autoantibodies, rheumatoid factors produced by hybridomas generated from spleen cells of BALB/c mice repeatedly infected with A/PR/8/34 human influenza A virus, revealed that they recognized distinct but spatially related epitopes. The differing isoallotypic specificity of the IgM and IgA monoclonal antibodies correlated with the presence of Ile258 and Ala305, respectively. Although these data suggest that the epitopes recognized are within the CH2 domain, all antibodies failed to inhibit IgG antigen reactivity with Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SpA), C1q, mouse C3, human Fc gamma RI or mouse Fc gamma RII, activities known to be predominantly determined by CH2 domain structures. Reactivity of the IgA antibody, Z34, with IgG2b allowed further specificity studies using a panel of 26 mutant IgG2b proteins, each having single amino acid replacements over the surface of the CH2 domain. The only substitution that affected Z34 reactivity was Asn/Ala297, which destroyed the glycosylation sequon, resulting in secretion of an aglycosylated IgG molecule. The epitope recognized by Z34 therefore seems to be located outside of the Fc gamma R and C1q binding sites, but to be dependent on the presence of carbohydrate for expression. In contrast to the binding studies, complement activation by aggregated IgG2a, through classical or alternative pathways, was inhibited by the presence of autoantibodies. The functional significance of isotype-specific autoantibody in immune regulation is discussed. PMID:7540592

  17. Investigation of IGES for CAD/CAE data transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zobrist, George W.

    1989-01-01

    In a CAD/CAE facility there is always the possibility that one may want to transfer the design graphics database from the native system to a non-native system. This may occur because of dissimilar systems within an organization or a new CAD/CAE system is to be purchased. The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) was developed in an attempt to solve this scenario. IGES is a neutral database format into which the CAD/CAE native database format can be translated to and from. Translating the native design database format to IGES requires a pre-processor and transling from IGES to the native database format requires a post-processor. IGES is an artifice to represent CAD/CAE product data in a neutral environment to allow interfacing applications, archive the database, interchange of product data between dissimilar CAD/CAE systems, and other applications. The intent here is to present test data on translating design product data from a CAD/CAE system to itself and to translate data initially prepared in IGES format to various native design formats. This information can be utilized in planning potential procurement and developing a design discipline within the CAD/CAE community.

  18. Occupational asthma and IgE sensitization to grain dust.

    PubMed Central

    Park, H. S.; Nahm, D. H.; Suh, C. H.; Kwon, O. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, S. W.; Chung, H. K.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate type I hypersensitivity to grain dust (GD), its prevalence and relationship to respiratory dysfunction, we studied clinical and immunologic features, including skin prick tests (SPT), serum specific IgE, and bronchoprovocation tests of 43 employees working in the animal feed industry. To further characterize IgE-mediated reaction, SDS-PAGE and electroblot studies were performed. Our survey revealed that 15 (34.9%) subjects had work-related skin response (> or =2+ of A/H ratio) to GD, thirteen (30.2%) had high specific IgE antibody against GD. The specific IgE antibody was detected more frequently in symptomatic workers (40%) than in asymptomatic workers (11%). Significant association was found between specific IgE antibody and atopy or smoking (p<0.05). The ELISA inhibition test of GD revealed significant inhibitions by GD extract and minimal inhibitions by the house dust mite, storage mite and corn dust. Immunoblot analysis showed 8 IgE binding components within GD ranging from 13.5 to 142.5 kDa. Two bands (13.5, 33 kDa) were bound to the IgE from more than 50% of the 14 sera tested. In conclusion, these findings suggest that GD inhalation could induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed workers. PMID:9681805

  19. Occupational asthma and IgE sensitization to grain dust.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Nahm, D H; Suh, C H; Kwon, O Y; Kim, K S; Lee, S W; Chung, H K

    1998-06-01

    To evaluate type I hypersensitivity to grain dust (GD), its prevalence and relationship to respiratory dysfunction, we studied clinical and immunologic features, including skin prick tests (SPT), serum specific IgE, and bronchoprovocation tests of 43 employees working in the animal feed industry. To further characterize IgE-mediated reaction, SDS-PAGE and electroblot studies were performed. Our survey revealed that 15 (34.9%) subjects had work-related skin response (> or =2+ of A/H ratio) to GD, thirteen (30.2%) had high specific IgE antibody against GD. The specific IgE antibody was detected more frequently in symptomatic workers (40%) than in asymptomatic workers (11%). Significant association was found between specific IgE antibody and atopy or smoking (p<0.05). The ELISA inhibition test of GD revealed significant inhibitions by GD extract and minimal inhibitions by the house dust mite, storage mite and corn dust. Immunoblot analysis showed 8 IgE binding components within GD ranging from 13.5 to 142.5 kDa. Two bands (13.5, 33 kDa) were bound to the IgE from more than 50% of the 14 sera tested. In conclusion, these findings suggest that GD inhalation could induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed workers.

  20. Serum levels of IgG and IgG4 in Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Sachiko-Tsukamoto; Tagami, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kanako; Nanba, Kazutaka; Tamanaha, Tamiko; Usui, Takeshi; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Mori, Yusuke; Tsuji, Jun; Tanaka, Issei; Shimatsu, Akira

    2014-03-01

    Although IgG4-related disease is characterized by extensive infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and lymphocytes of various organs, the details of this systemic disease are still unclear. We screened serum total IgG levels in the patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) to illustrate the prevalence of IgG4-related thyroiditis in HT. Twenty-four of 94 patients with HT (25.5%) had elevated serum IgG levels and their serum IgG4 was measured. Five of the 24 cases had more than 135 mg/dL of IgG4, which is the serum criterion of IgG4-related disease. One was a female patient who was initially treated as Graves' disease and rapidly developed a firm goiter and hypothyroidism. The biopsy of her thyroid gland revealed that follicular cells were atrophic with squamous metaplasia, replaced with fibrosis, which was compatible with the fibrous variant of HT. Immunohistochemical examination revealed diffuse infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, and the serum IgG4 level was 179 mg/dL. The levels of IgG and IgG4 were positively correlated with the titers of anti-thyroglobulin antibody or anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody. In conclusion, at least a small portion of patients with HT with high titers of anti-thyroid antibodies may overlap the IgG4-related thyroiditis.

  1. Establishing tools for early diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis: Flow cytometric IgG avidity assay as a confirmatory test for neonatal screening.

    PubMed

    de Castro Zacche-Tonini, Aline; Fonseca, Giuliana Schmidt França; de Jesus, Laura Néspoli Nassar Pansini; Barros, Geisa Baptista; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela Alves; Béla, Samantha Ribeiro; Machado, Anderson Silva; Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Andrade, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januário, José Nélio; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida; Ferro, Eloísa Amália Vieira; Mineo, José Roberto; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Lemos, Elenice Moreira

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of conventional serology (Q-Preven™ and ELFAVIDAS™) and flow cytometry-based serologic tools for early serologic diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. The study groups included prospectively confirmed cases of congenital toxoplasmosis (TOXO=88) and age-matching non-infected controls (NI=15).The results demonstrated that all samples tested positive/indeterminate for anti-T. gondii IgM screening at birth using air-dried whole blood samples. Serum samples collected at 30-45days after birth tested positive for ELFAVIDAS™ IgG in both groups. While all NI tested negative for ELFAVIDAS™ IgM and IgA, only 78% and 36% of TOXO tested positive for IgM and IgA, respectively. Flow cytometry-based anti-T. gondii IgM, IgA and IgG reactivity displayed moderate performance with low sensitivity (47.6%, 72.6% and 75.0%, respectively). Regardless the remarkable specificity of IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses for early diagnosis, weak or moderate specificity was observed (Se=73.9%, 60.2% and 83.0%, respectively). The analysis of IgG avidity indices (AI) demonstrated the highest performance among the flow cytometry-based methods (Se=96.6%; Sp=93.3%), underscoring the low avidity index (AI<60%) within TOXO (97.0%) in contrast with the high avidity index (AI>60%) in NI (93%). Analysis of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgG3 reactivity for mother:infant paired samples may represent a relevant complementary tests for early diagnosis. In conclusion, a feasible high-standard algorithm (Accuracy=97.1%) was proposed consisting of Q-Preven™ IgM screening at birth, followed by ELFAVIDAS™ IgM and flow cytometric IgG avidity analysis at 30-45days after birth as a high performance tool for early serological diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. HIV-Specific Functional Antibody Responses in Breast Milk Mirror Those in Plasma and Are Primarily Mediated by IgG Antibodies ▿

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Genevieve G.; Yates, Nicole L.; Pollara, Justin; Shen, Xiaoying; Overman, Glenn R.; Mahlokozera, Tatenda; Wilks, Andrew B.; Kang, Helen H.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Salazar, Maria G.; Kalilani, Linda; Meshnick, Steve R.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Shaw, George M.; Lovingood, Rachel V.; Denny, Thomas N.; Haynes, Barton; Letvin, Norman L.; Ferrari, Guido; Montefiori, David C.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Permar, Sallie R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite months of mucosal virus exposure, the majority of breastfed infants born to HIV-infected mothers do not become infected, raising the possibility that immune factors in milk inhibit mucosal transmission of HIV. HIV Envelope (Env)-specific antibodies are present in the milk of HIV-infected mothers, but little is known about their virus-specific functions. In this study, HIV Env-specific antibody binding, autologous and heterologous virus neutralization, and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses were measured in the milk and plasma of 41 HIV-infected lactating women. Although IgA is the predominant antibody isotype in milk, HIV Env-specific IgG responses were higher in magnitude than HIV Env-specific IgA responses in milk. The concentrations of anti-HIV gp120 IgG in milk and plasma were directly correlated (r = 0.75; P < 0.0001), yet the response in milk was 2 logarithm units lower than in plasma. Similarly, heterologous virus neutralization (r = 0.39; P = 0.010) and ADCC activity (r = 0.64; P < 0.0001) in milk were directly correlated with that in the systemic compartment but were 2 log units lower in magnitude. Autologous neutralization was rarely detected in milk. Milk heterologous virus neutralization titers correlated with HIV gp120 Env-binding IgG responses but not with IgA responses (r = 0.71 and P < 0.0001, and r = 0.17 and P = 0.30). Moreover, IgGs purified from milk and plasma had equal neutralizing potencies against a tier 1 virus (r = 0.65; P < 0.0001), whereas only 1 out of 35 tested non-IgG milk fractions had detectable neutralization. These results suggest that plasma-derived IgG antibodies mediate the majority of the low-level HIV neutralization and ADCC activity in breast milk. PMID:21734046

  3. Receptors for aggregated IgG on mouse lymphocytes: their presence on thymocytes, thymus-derived, and bone marrow-derived lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C L; Grey, H M

    1974-05-01

    An autoradiographic binding assay employing (125)I-labeled heat-aggregated mouse IgG2b myeloma protein (MOPC 141) was used to demonstrate receptors for IgG on 20-45% of Balb/c thymocytes and on 70-80% of splenocytes. Binding could also be shown with heat or BDB aggregates of another IgG2b (MOPC 195), with IgG1 and with human gamma-globulin, but not with aggregated chicken gamma-globulin, IgA, BSA, nor with aggregated Fab fragments of IgG2b. Optimum binding was obtained at 37 degrees C. Detection of binding was dependent upon aggregate size with complexes of more than 100 IgG molecules being optimal, aggregates of 6-25 detecting splenocytes but not thymocytes, and aggregates of less than 6 binding to a negligible extent. Comparison of grain counts on various cell types showed mastocytoma cells (P815) and macrophages averaging 40-50 grains/cell/day, allogeneically activated thymocytes 20-30, splenocytes 2-3, L5178 lymphoma cells 1, and positive thymocytes 0.6 grains/cell/day. Double labeling experiments for surface Ig, theta-antigen, and agg IgG receptor on mouse spleen cells indicated that a relatively high density of receptor was present on about 80% of B cells, 30% of T cells, and 60% of SIg(-), theta(-), null cells.

  4. Pregnant women have increased incidence of IgE autoantibodies reactive with the skin and placental antigen BP180 (type XVII collagen)

    PubMed Central

    Noe, Megan H.; Messingham, Kelly A.N.; Brandt, Debra S.; Andrews, Janet I.; Fairley, Janet A.

    2016-01-01

    BP180 (type XVII collagen) is a transmembrane protein expressed in a variety of cell types. It is also the target of autoantibodies in cutaneous autoimmune disease including bullous pemphigoid and pemphigoid gestationis, a disease unique to pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and specificity of cutaneous autoantibodies in a cohort of pregnant women. De-identified sera were collected from pregnant women (n = 299) and from non-pregnant controls (n = 134). Sera were analyzed by ELISA for the presence of IgG and IgE autoantibodies directed against several cutaneous autoantigens. IgE antibodies against the NC16A domain of BP180 were detected in 7.7% of pregnant women, compared to 2.2% of healthy controls (p = 0.01). No increase in total or cutaneous autoantigen specific IgG was seen. Total serum IgE was within the normal range. Full-length BP180 was detected by western immunoblot in epidermal, keratinocyte, placental and cytotrophoblast (CTB) cell lysates. Furthermore, flow cytometry and indirect immunofluorescence confirmed the expression of BP180 on the surface of cultured CTBs. Finally, it was demonstrated that IgE antibodies in the pregnancy sera labeled not only cultured CTBs, but also the placental amnion and cutaneous basement membrane zone using indirect immunofluorescence. We conclude that some pregnant women develop antibodies specific for BP180, and that these autoantibodies are capable of binding both CTB and the placental amnion, potentially affecting placental function. PMID:20471095

  5. Microbial ecology perturbation in human IgA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fadlallah, Jehane; El Kafsi, Hela; Sterlin, Delphine; Juste, Catherine; Parizot, Christophe; Dorgham, Karim; Autaa, Gaëlle; Gouas, Doriane; Almeida, Mathieu; Lepage, Patricia; Pons, Nicolas; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Levenez, Florence; Kennedy, Sean; Galleron, Nathalie; de Barros, Jean-Paul Pais; Malphettes, Marion; Galicier, Lionel; Boutboul, David; Mathian, Alexis; Miyara, Makoto; Oksenhendler, Eric; Amoura, Zahir; Doré, Joel; Fieschi, Claire; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Larsen, Martin; Gorochov, Guy

    2018-05-02

    Paradoxically, loss of immunoglobulin A (IgA), one of the most abundant antibodies, does not irrevocably lead to severe infections in humans but rather is associated with relatively mild respiratory infections, atopy, and autoimmunity. IgA might therefore also play covert roles, not uniquely associated with control of pathogens. We show that human IgA deficiency is not associated with massive quantitative perturbations of gut microbial ecology. Metagenomic analysis highlights an expected pathobiont expansion but a less expected depletion in some typically beneficial symbionts. Gut colonization by species usually present in the oropharynx is also reminiscent of spatial microbiota disorganization. IgM only partially rescues IgA deficiency because not all typical IgA targets are efficiently bound by IgM in the intestinal lumen. Together, IgA appears to play a nonredundant role at the forefront of the immune/microbial interface, away from the intestinal barrier, ranging from pathobiont control and regulation of systemic inflammation to preservation of commensal diversity and community networks. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. Interaction between the macrophage system and IgA immune complexes in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Roccatello, D; Coppo, R; Basolo, B; Martina, G; Rollino, C; Cordonnier, D; Busquet, G; Picciotto, G; Sena, L M; Piccoli, G

    1983-01-01

    In nine patients with IgA nephropathy, the function of the mononuclear phagocyte system was assessed by measuring in vivo clearance of anti-D coated red blood cells (RBC) and in vitro phagocytosis of sensitised RBC by monocytes. A strict correlation was found between in vivo macrophage function and in vitro monocyte phagocytosis. Statistical correlations were also found between in vivo clearance values and IgAIC and C3d values. A defective macrophage and monocyte function affects patients with major signs of clinical activity, highest IgAIC values, signs of complement activation and the most unfavourable clinical course.

  7. [Isolation and characteristics of IgA1 and its use for detecting bacterial IgA1 proteases].

    PubMed

    Amelina, I P; Zakharova, N A

    1984-12-01

    Sufficiently purified IgA, subclass I, has been isolated from the defibrinated plasma of a myeloma patient by chromatography on columns packed with DEAE-Sephadex A-50 or Sephadex G-200, and rabbit antiserum to this immunoglobulin has been obtained. These preparations have been used for detecting specific protease in Bordetella pertussis. The tested B. pertussis strains have been shown to induce, as revealed by immunoelectrophoretic methods, the proteolysis of human IgA, subclass I.

  8. Demonstration of IgG Subclass (IgG1 and IgG3) in Immuno-Related Hemocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yuanyuan; Qi, Xiao; Fu, Rong; Liu, Hui; Wang, Yihao; Ding, Shaoxue; Wang, Huaquan; Li, Lijuan; Shao, Zonghong

    2018-06-01

    Immuno-related hemocytopenia (IRH) is defined as idiopathic cytopenia of undetermined significance (ICUS) patients with autoantibodies. In our previous studies, we found that IgG1 levels were increased in IRH patients and might cause the destruction of hematopoietic cells. In this study, we analyzed IgG subclasses in 30 IRH patients (male:female = 13:17, median age 32 years, range 18 - 56), 15 IRH remission patients (IRH-R) (male:female = 6:9, median age 34, range 20 - 52) and 20 normal controls (male:female = 8:12, median age 27, range 24 - 36) by Cytometric Bead Array, Flow Cytometry and Immunohistochemical staining. Levels of IgG1/IgG3 in the bone marrow supernatant of IRH patents, as well as the proportion of CD5+ B lymphocytes and Th2 cells (CD3+CD8-IL-4+) were higher than those of IRH-R patients and normal controls, and IgG1 levels had a positive correlation with the proportion of Th2 cells. In IRH patients, IgG1 and IgG3 were positive on nucleated erythrocytes and granulocytes, which were negative in IRH-R patients and healthy controls and had inverse correlations with hematopoietic function. Using immunohistochemical staining, IgG1 were also detected on bone marrow biopsies of IRH patients. The results indicated that IgG1 and IgG3 autoantibodies in IRH patients might play a key role in the IRH pathogenesis and in the abnormal immune function of IRH patients.

  9. Impaired Antibody-mediated Protection and Defective IgA B-Cell Memory in Experimental Infection of Adults with Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Maximillian S; Jozwik, Agnieszka; Makris, Spyridon; Dunning, Jake; Paras, Allan; DeVincenzo, John P; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Wrammert, Jens; Openshaw, Peter J M; Chiu, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Despite relative antigenic stability, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) reinfects throughout life. After more than 40 years of research, no effective human vaccine exists and correlates of protection remain poorly defined. Most current vaccine candidates seek to induce high levels of RSV-specific serum neutralizing antibodies, which are associated with reduced RSV-related hospitalization rates in observational studies but may not actually prevent infection. To characterize correlates of protection from infection and the generation of RSV-specific humoral memory to promote effective vaccine development. We inoculated 61 healthy adults with live RSV and studied protection from infection by serum and mucosal antibody. We analyzed RSV-specific peripheral blood plasmablast and memory B-cell frequencies and antibody longevity. Despite moderately high levels of preexisting serum antibody, 34 (56%) became infected, of whom 23 (68%) developed symptomatic colds. Prior RSV-specific nasal IgA correlated significantly more strongly with protection from polymerase chain reaction-confirmed infection than serum neutralizing antibody. Increases in virus-specific antibody titers were variable and transient in infected subjects but correlated with plasmablasts that peaked around Day 10. During convalescence, only IgG (and no IgA) RSV-specific memory B cells were detectable in peripheral blood. This contrasted with natural influenza infection, in which virus-specific IgA memory B cells were readily recovered. This observed specific defect in IgA memory may partly explain the ability of RSV to cause recurrent symptomatic infections. If so, vaccines able to induce durable RSV-specific IgA responses may be more protective than those generating systemic antibody alone.

  10. Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Activation Contributes to House Dust Mite-Induced IgE Responses in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Post, Sijranke; Heijink, Irene H.; Petersen, Arjen H.; de Bruin, Harold G.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Nawijn, Martijn C.

    2014-01-01

    Aeroallergens such as house dust mite (HDM), cockroach, and grass or tree pollen are innocuous substances that can induce allergic sensitization upon inhalation. The serine proteases present in these allergens are thought to activate the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, on the airway epithelium, thereby potentially inducing allergic sensitization at the expense of inhalation tolerance. We hypothesized that the proteolytic activity of allergens may play an important factor in the allergenicity to house dust mite and is essential to overcome airway tolerance. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of PAR-2 activation in allergic sensitization and HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation. In our study, Par-2 deficient mice were treated with two different HDM extracts containing high and low serine protease activities twice a week for a period of 5 weeks. We determined airway inflammation through quantification of percentages of mononuclear cells, eosinophils and neutrophils in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and measured total IgE and HDM-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in serum. Furthermore, Th2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-5, IL-13, Eotaxin-1, IL-17, KC, Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), were measured in lung tissue homogenates. We observed that independent of the serine protease content, HDM was able to induce elevated levels of eosinophils and neutrophils in the airways of both wild-type (WT) and Par-2 deficient mice. Furthermore, we show that induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines by HDM exposure is independent of Par-2 activation. In contrast, serine protease activity of HDM does contribute to enhanced levels of total IgE, but not HDM-specific IgE. We conclude that, while Par-2 activation contributes to the development of IgE responses, it is largely dispensable for the HDM-induced induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and airway inflammation in an experimental mouse model of HDM

  11. IgG Glycome in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vučković, Frano; Theodoratou, Evropi; Thaçi, Kujtim; Timofeeva, Maria; Vojta, Aleksandar; Štambuk, Jerko; Pučić-Baković, Maja; Rudd, Pauline M; Đerek, Lovorka; Servis, Dražen; Wennerström, Annika; Farrington, Susan M; Perola, Markus; Aulchenko, Yurii; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Campbell, Harry; Lauc, Gordan

    2016-06-15

    Alternative glycosylation has significant structural and functional consequences on IgG and consequently also on cancer immunosurveillance. Because of technological limitations, the effects of highly heritable individual variations and the differences in the dynamics of changes in IgG glycosylation on colorectal cancer were never investigated before. Using recently developed high-throughput UPLC technology for IgG glycosylation analysis, we analyzed IgG glycome composition in 760 patients with colorectal cancer and 538 matching controls. Effects of surgery were evaluated in 28 patients sampled before and three times after surgery. A predictive model was built using regularized logistic regression and evaluated using a 10-cross validation procedure. Furthermore, IgG glycome composition was analyzed in 39 plasma samples collected before initial diagnosis of colorectal cancer. We have found that colorectal cancer associates with decrease in IgG galactosylation, IgG sialylation and increase in core-fucosylation of neutral glycans with concurrent decrease of core-fucosylation of sialylated glycans. Although a model based on age and sex did not show discriminative power (AUC = 0.499), the addition of glycan variables into the model considerably increased the discriminative power of the model (AUC = 0.755). However, none of these differences were significant in the small set of samples collected before the initial diagnosis. Considering the functional relevance of IgG glycosylation for both tumor immunosurveillance and clinical efficacy of therapy with mAbs, individual variation in IgG glycosylation may turn out to be important for prediction of disease course or the choice of therapy, thus warranting further, more detailed studies of IgG glycosylation in colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 22(12); 3078-86. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Higher Plasma Concentration of Food-Specific Antibodies in Persons with Autistic Disorder in Comparison to Their Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trajkovski, Vladimir; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Trajkov, Dejan; Arsov, Todor; Strezova, Ana; Ajdinski, Ljubomir; Spiroski, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Specific IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies to food antigens in 35 participants with autistic disorder and 21 of their siblings in the Republic of Macedonia were examined. Statistically significant higher plasma concentration of IgA antibodies against alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein, and gliadin were found in the children with autistic…

  13. Non-Immune Binding of Human IgG to M-Related Proteins Confers Resistance to Phagocytosis of Group A Streptococci in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Harry S.; Li, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The non-immune binding of immunoglobulins by bacteria is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of infections. M-related proteins (Mrp) are group A streptococcal (GAS) receptors for immunoglobulins, but it is not known if this binding has any impact on virulence. To further investigate the binding of immunoglobulins to Mrp, we engineered mutants of an M type 4 strain of GAS by inactivating the genes for mrp, emm, enn, sof, and sfbX and tested these mutants in IgG-binding assays. Inactivation of mrp dramatically decreased the binding of human IgG, whereas inactivation of emm, enn, sof, and sfbx had only minor effects, indicating that Mrp is a major IgG-binding protein. Binding of human immunoglobulins to a purified, recombinant form of Mrp indicated that it selectively binds to the Fc domain of human IgG, but not IgA or IgM and that it preferentially bound subclasses IgG1>IgG4>IgG2>IgG3. Recombinant proteins encompassing different regions of Mrp were engineered and used to map its IgG-binding domain to its A-repeat region and a recombinant protein with 3 A-repeats was a better inhibitor of IgG binding than one with a single A-repeat. A GAS mutant expressing Mrp with an in-frame deletion of DNA encoding the A-repeats had a dramatically reduced ability to bind human IgG and to grow in human blood. Mrp exhibited host specificity in binding IgG; human IgG was the best inhibitor of the binding of IgG followed by pig, horse, monkey, and rabbit IgG. IgG from goat, mouse, rat, cow, donkey, chicken, and guinea pig were poor inhibitors of binding. These findings indicate that Mrp preferentially binds human IgG and that this binding contributes to the ability of GAS to resist phagocytosis and may be a factor in the restriction of GAS infections to the human host. PMID:24205299

  14. Altered glycosylation of complexed native IgG molecules is associated with disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Sjöwall, C; Zapf, J; von Löhneysen, S; Magorivska, I; Biermann, M; Janko, C; Winkler, S; Bilyy, R; Schett, G; Herrmann, M; Muñoz, L E

    2015-05-01

    In addition to the redundancy of the receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulins, glycans result in potential ligands for a plethora of lectin receptors found in immune effector cells. Here we analysed the exposure of glycans containing fucosyl residues and the fucosylated tri-mannose N-type core by complexed native IgG in longitudinal serum samples of well-characterized patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Consecutive serum samples of a cohort of 15 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus during periods of increased disease activity and remission were analysed. All patients fulfilled the 1982 American College of Rheumatology classification criteria. Sera of 15 sex- and age-matched normal healthy blood donors served as controls. The levels and type of glycosylation of complexed random IgG was measured with lectin enzyme-immunosorbent assays. After specifically gathering IgG complexes from sera, biotinylated lectins Aleuria aurantia lectin and Lens culinaris agglutinin were employed to detect IgG-associated fucosyl residues and the fucosylated tri-mannose N-glycan core, respectively. In sandwich-ELISAs, IgG-associated IgM, IgA, C1q, C3c and C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected as candidates for IgG immune complex constituents. We studied associations of the glycan of complexed IgG and disease activity according to the physician's global assessment of disease activity and the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index 2000 documented at the moment of blood taking. Our results showed significantly higher levels of Aleuria aurantia lectin and Lens culinaris agglutinin binding sites exposed on IgG complexes of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus than on those of normal healthy blood donors. Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus correlated with higher exposure of Aleuria aurantia lectin-reactive fucosyl residues by immobilized IgG complexes. Top levels of Aleuria aurantia lectin-reactivity were found in samples taken during the

  15. Effect of IDA and TREN chelating agents and buffer systems on the purification of human IgG with immobilized nickel affinity membranes.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Mariana Borsoi; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambesvaran; Todorova-Balvay, Daniele; Bueno, Sonia Maria Alves

    2008-01-01

    The purification of IgG from human plasma was studied by comparing two affinity membranes complexed with Ni(II), prepared by coupling iminodiacetic acid (IDA) and Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TREN) to poly(ethylenevinyl alcohol), PEVA, hollow fiber membranes. The Ni(II)-TREN-PEVA hollow fiber membrane had lower capacity for human IgG than the complex Ni(II)-IDA-PEVA, but with similar selectivity. The IgG in peak fractions eluted from the Ni(II)-IDA-PEVA with a stepwise concentration gradient of Tris-HCl pH 7.0 (100-700 mM) reached a purity of 98% (based on IgG, IgM, IgA, albumin, and transferrin nephelometric analysis). Adsorption IgG data at different temperatures (4-37 degrees C) were analyzed using Langmuir model resulting in a calculated maximum capacity at 25 degrees C of 204.6 mg of IgG/g of dry membrane. Decrease in Kd with increasing temperature (1.7x10(-5) to 5.3x10(-6) M) indicated an increase in affinity with increased temperature. The positive value of enthalpy change (26.2 kJ/mol) indicated that the adsorption of IgG in affinity membrane is endothermic. Therefore, lower temperature induces adsorption as verified experimentally.

  16. IgG4-related prostatitis progressed from localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Dujuan; Kan, Yunzhen; Fu, Fangfang; Wang, Shuhuan; Shi, Ligang; Liu, Jie; Kong, Lingfei

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently described inflammatory disease involving multiple organs. Prostate involvement with IgG4-RD is very rare. In this report, we describe a case of IgG4-related prostatitis progressed from localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. This patient was present with urine retention symptoms. MRI and CT examination revealed the prostatic enlargement and the multiple lymphadenopathy. Serum IgG4 levels were elevated. Prostatic tissue samples resected both this time and less than 1 year earlier showed the same histological type of prostatitis with histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings characteristic of IgG4-RD. The right submandibular lymph nodes excised 2 years earlier were eventually proven to be follicular hyperplasia-type IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. This is the first case of IgG4-RD that began as localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy and progressed into a systemic disease involving prostate and multiple lymph nodes. This patient showed a good response to steroid therapy. This leads us to advocate a novel pathogenesis of prostatitis, and a novel therapeutic approach against prostatitis. Pathologists and urologists should consider this disease entity in the patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels and the symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia to avoid ineffective medical or unnecessary surgical treatment.

  17. [Comparison of two rat models of IgA nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Peng, Wei; Liu, Zheng-rong

    2008-10-01

    To study the methods for rapid establishment of rat models of IgA nephropathy. Forty female SD rats weighing 160-200 g were randomized into 3 groups. In group A, the rats received intravenous injection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and oral bovine serum albumin (BSA), and in group B, CCl4 was injected subcutaneously in addition to the above treatments; the rats in group C received no treatments to serve as the normal control group. The rats were sacrificed 10 and 14 weeks after the treatment for biochemical testing of the arterial blood and histopathological and IgA immunofluorescence examination of the renal tissues. The twenty-four-hour urine was collected at 10, 12, and 14 weeks after the treatments for detecting the urine proteins. Compared with the control group, the rats in groups A and B showed significantly increased serum creatinine, urine nitrogen and protein levels. Pathological examination of the renal tissue showed mild to moderate mesangial expansion and mesangial cell proliferation in groups A and B, without obvious difference between the two groups; but hematuria and proteinuria occurred earlier in group B with stronger IgA immunofluorescence than in group A. Both of the methods used in group A and group B can successfully induce IgA nephropathy in rats, but in group B, hematuria and urineprotein occurs earlier and IgA immunofluorescence is more stronger. Therefore intravenous SEB injection combined with oral BSA and subcutaneous CCl4 administration is a better method for time-efficient establishment of rat models of IgA nephropathy.

  18. Quantitation of IgE antibody specific for ragweed and grass allergens: binding of radiolabeled allergens by solid-phase bond IgE

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiss, C.R.; Levitz, D.; Suszko, I.M.

    1978-08-01

    IgE antibody specific for multiple allergens extracted from grass and ragweed pollens was measured by radioimmunoassay. The assay depends on the interaction between IgE antibody bound to a polystyrene solid phase, /sup 125/I-labeled grass allergens (GA), and ragweed allergens (RW). The binding of /sup 125/I RW by serum IgE antibody from 37 allergic patients ranged from 0.2 ng to 75 ng RW protein (P) bound per ml. This binding of /sup 125/I RW by patient's IgE was paralleled by their IgE binding of /sup 125/I antigen E (AgE), a purified allergen from ragweed pollen (r = 0.90, p less thanmore » 0.001). Inhibition of patient's IgE binding of /sup 125/I RW by highly purified AgE ranged from 25 to 85% indicated individual differences in patient's IgE response to inhaled ragweed pollen. The binding of /sup 125/I GA by serum IgE antibody from 7 grass-sensitive patients ranged from 0.6 ng GA P bound per ml to 15 ng. This assay should be useful in the study of IgE responses to environmental agents containing multiple allergens and has the advantage that other antibody classes cannot interfere with the interaction between IgE antibody and labeled allergens.« less

  19. Oral Administration of β-1,3/1,6-Glucan to Dogs Temporally Changes Total and Antigen-Specific IgA and IgM▿

    PubMed Central

    Stuyven, E.; Verdonck, F.; Van Hoek, I.; Daminet, S.; Duchateau, L.; Remon, J. P.; Goddeeris, B. M.; Cox, E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of β-1,3/1,6-glucans from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on humoral immunity in domestic dogs is not known. In this study, 15 beagle dogs were orally given MacroGard tablets, which contain 150 mg of this β-glucan, daily for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, the total serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) level decreased significantly in the group treated with the glucan compared to that in the control group as well as compared to the concentrations before supplementation. In contrast, the total serum IgM level rose significantly, whereas no effect on the IgG level occurred. Similar changes were seen in Bordetella-specific IgA and IgM titers following vaccination during the supplementation period. The IgA concentration also became significantly lower in the saliva and tears of the glucan group than in the placebo group. The effects disappeared 1 week after the cessation of the supplementation. In conclusion, the results showed a temporary change in the isotype profile during glucan supplementation. PMID:20032218

  20. Serum IgE Concentration in Trisomy 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vicente

    1974-01-01

    Levels of serum IgE (an immunoglobulin carrying reaginic antibody activity) were investigated in 16 Down's syndrome adolescents (12-to 18-years old) and in an equal number of retardates matched for age and sex residing in the same institution. (CL)

  1. IGE IN ASTHMATIC HUMAN SERA IS REACTIVE AGAINST MOLD EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Molds have been associated with various health effects including asthma, but their role in induction of asthma is unclear. However, the presence of mold-specific IgE indicates their capacity to induce allergic responses and possibly exacerbate asthma symptoms. This study was und...

  2. CLINICALLY RELEVANT IGE-CROSS-REACTIVITY OF NUT ALLERGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    All data resulting from this study will be catalogued in SDAP .This work will generate important information relating the structure/ physicochemical properties of cross-reactive IgE epitopes to clinical response, and model factors that underlie allergen recognition by the immu...

  3. Study on camel IgG purification

    PubMed Central

    Khamehchian, Sedigheh; Zolfagharian, Hossein; Dounighi, Naser Mohammadpour; Tebianian, Majid; Madani, Rasool

    2014-01-01

    A combined process of ammonium sulfate precipitation (salting out) and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B was used to prepare camel antivenom (IgG) against Naja Naja Oxiana for therapy. In the ammonium sulfate precipitation, the best condition for fractionation of IgG from the other proteins in camel serum was 55% precipitate. The camel IgG presented as 2 bands with molecular masses of 250 and 100 kDa, the latter corresponding to heavy chain IgG, on 10% gel electrophoresis. A trace amount of non-IgG proteins was not isolated and remained in this precipitate. Therefore in order to effectively separate albumin and the other nonspecific proteins from the IgG, the 25% precipitate of ammonium sulfate precipitation of serum was subjected to DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. A peak of antibody (IgG) could be obtained by elution with sodium phosphate buffer. In this stage, 2 bands of molecular masses of 150 and 75 kDa were observed on 7% gel electrophoresis. A comparative study was performed between camel IgG and conventional horse F(ab)2 antivenoms in term of potency (serum neutralization test and ELISA). Our results showed that the potency of camel antivenom was 4-fold higher than that of horse. It is suggested the combined ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography process effectively removed residual proteins in the final camel IgG preparation and can be a suitable method for large-scale refinement of therapeutic camel antivenoms. PMID:24642472

  4. Effect of tyrosinase-aided crosslinking on the IgE binding potential and conformational structure of shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) tropomyosin.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ishfaq; Lv, Liangtao; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing; Ma, Jiaju; Guanzhi, Chen; Sun, Lirui; Xu, Lili

    2018-05-15

    The present study was performed to determine crosslinking and oxidative reactions catalyzed by tyrosinase (Tyr), caffeic acid (CA) and their combination with respect to IgE binding potential and conformational structure of shrimp tropomyosin (TM). Cross-links and IgE binding potentials were analyzed by SDS-PAGE, western blot and indirect ELISA. While structural changes were characterized using surface hydrophobicity, ultraviolet (UV), fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. Maximum reduction in the IgG (37.19%) and IgE binding potentials (49.41%) were observed when treated with 2000 nkat/g Tyr + CA, as indicated by ELISA analyses. These findings correlated well with the denaturation of protein, as evident by slight blue shift and alterations in the ellipticities observed via structural analyses. The results demonstrated that addition of CA mediator with Tyr pronouncedly enhanced crosslinking, and altered the conformational structure, thereby mitigated allergenicity of TM, thus showing promise in developing novel food structures with reduced allergenic potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thymopentin treatment of selective IgA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fiorilli, M; Quinti, I; Russi, G; Seminara, R; Ensoli, B; Aiuti, F

    1985-01-01

    Thymic hormones have been shown to modulate immunoglobulin production in a number of experiments and it is generally agreed that this action is mediated by modulation of helper and/or suppressor T cell activities. The possibility of upregulating the immunoglobulins is of particular relevance in patients with hypogammaglobulinemias and this paper reports on the results of thymopentin treatment in 9 patients with selective IgA deficiency. Two out of 4 patients responded positively in an open-label trial; in one the serum IgA values remained stable up to 8 weeks after discontinuation of treatment whereas there was a rapid fall in the other. Both responders had consistently normal T4/T8 ratios during the treatment, whereas the nonresponders revealed high ratios with large fluctuations of the T4/T8 ratio. In a subsequent (still ongoing) double-blind trial in 5 patients (3 thymopentin, 2 placebo) no significant change of serum or secretory IgA levels has been observed. Taken together, the data suggest that the tested dose regimen of thymopentin (i.e. daily i.m. injections of 1 mg/kg for 2 weeks, then same dose 3 time weekly for 10 weeks) may only work in a subset of patients with selective IgA deficiency. In the present study we did not attempt to distinguish to which of the three known subgroups the 9 patients belonged, nor did we try alternative dose regimens of thymopentin.

  6. IgA and IgM protein primarily drive plasma corona‐induced adhesion reduction of PLGA nanoparticles in human blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Sobczynski, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The high abundance of immunoglobulins (Igs) in the plasma protein corona on poly(lactic‐co‐glycolic) acid (PLGA)‐based vascular‐targeted carriers (VTCs) has previously been shown to reduce their adhesion to activated endothelial cells (aECs) in human blood flow. However, the relative role of individual Ig classes (e.g., IgG, IgA, and IgM) in causing adhesion reduction remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized the influence of specific Ig classes in prescribing the binding efficiency of PLGA nano‐sized VTCs in blood flow. Specifically, we evaluated the flow adhesion to aECs of PLGA VTCs with systematic depletion of various Igs in their corona. Adhesion reduction was largely eliminated for PLGA VTCs when all Igs were removed from the corona. Furthermore, re‐addition of IgA or IgM to the Igs‐depleted corona reinstated the low adhesion of PLGA VTCs, as evidenced by ∼40–70% reduction relative to particles with an Igs‐deficient corona. However, re‐addition of a high concentration of IgG to the Igs‐depleted corona did not cause significant adhesion reduction. Overall, the presented results reveal that PLGA VTC adhesion reduction in blood flows is primarily driven by high adsorption of IgA and IgM in the particle corona. Pre‐coating of albumin on PLGA VTCs mitigated the extent of adhesion reduction in plasma for some donors but was largely ineffective in general. Overall, this work may shed light into effective control of protein corona composition, thereby enhancing VTC functionality in vivo for eventual clinical use. PMID:28932819

  7. IgA and IgM protein primarily drive plasma corona-induced adhesion reduction of PLGA nanoparticles in human blood flow.

    PubMed

    Sobczynski, Daniel J; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2017-06-01

    The high abundance of immunoglobulins (Igs) in the plasma protein corona on poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based vascular-targeted carriers (VTCs) has previously been shown to reduce their adhesion to activated endothelial cells (aECs) in human blood flow. However, the relative role of individual Ig classes (e.g., IgG, IgA, and IgM) in causing adhesion reduction remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized the influence of specific Ig classes in prescribing the binding efficiency of PLGA nano-sized VTCs in blood flow. Specifically, we evaluated the flow adhesion to aECs of PLGA VTCs with systematic depletion of various Igs in their corona. Adhesion reduction was largely eliminated for PLGA VTCs when all Igs were removed from the corona. Furthermore, re-addition of IgA or IgM to the Igs-depleted corona reinstated the low adhesion of PLGA VTCs, as evidenced by ∼40-70% reduction relative to particles with an Igs-deficient corona. However, re-addition of a high concentration of IgG to the Igs-depleted corona did not cause significant adhesion reduction. Overall, the presented results reveal that PLGA VTC adhesion reduction in blood flows is primarily driven by high adsorption of IgA and IgM in the particle corona. Pre-coating of albumin on PLGA VTCs mitigated the extent of adhesion reduction in plasma for some donors but was largely ineffective in general. Overall, this work may shed light into effective control of protein corona composition, thereby enhancing VTC functionality in vivo for eventual clinical use.

  8. Impaired protection against Trichinella spiralis in mice with high levels of IgE.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Naohiro

    2014-04-01

    Helminth infection induces production of a large amount of immunoglobulin E (IgE) to nonhelminth antigens. Although such "irrelevant" IgE is a major proportion of total IgE in the host, its biological significance remains unclear. Therefore, I examined protective activity against Trichinella spiralis in mice with high levels of IgE by repeated injections of anti-dansyl IgE monoclonal antibody or Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection. Injected anti-dansyl IgE occupied IgE receptors on mast cells in naive mice. Protective activity against T. spiralis, determined with number of muscle larvae 5weeks after infection, was impaired in mice treated with anti-dansyl IgE. The impaired protection was found in mice treated with anti-dansy IgE 7 and 14days after infection, but not 21 and 28days after infection, indicating that IgE-dependent protection operates at an early stage after infection. In the next experiments, mice were infected with N. brasiliensis 4weeks before T. spiralis infection to obtain high levels of IgE. The protective activity against T. spiralis was decreased by N. brasiliensis infection. On the other hand, protection against T. spiralis was comparable in IgE-deficient SJA/9 mice and in anti-IgE-treated BALB/c mice with or without N. brasiliensis infection, suggesting that impairment of protection is dependent on IgE. These results indicate that the high levels of irrelevant IgE are beneficial for helminths and, alternatively, that anti-helminth IgE antibodies are protective for hosts. In addition, the impaired protection was found in IgE high-responder mice but not in low-responder mice, suggesting that protection against T. spiralis is controlled by IgE responsiveness in the host. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Anal lymphogranuloma venereum infection screening with IgA anti-Chlamydia trachomatis-specific major outer membrane protein serology.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Henry J C; Smelov, Vitaly; Ouburg, Sander; Pleijster, Jolein; Geskus, Ronald B; Speksnijder, Arjen G C L; Fennema, Johannes S A; Morré, Servaas A

    2010-12-01

    Anal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) infections, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis biovar L (Ct+/LGV+), are endemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Anal non-LGV biovar Ct infections (Ct+/LGV-) can be eradicated with 1 week doxycycline, whereas Ct+/LGV+ infections require 3-week doxycycline. To differentiate Ct+/LGV+ from Ct+/LGV- infections, biovar-specific Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAAT) are standard, but also expensive and laborious. A chlamydia-specific serological assay could serve as an alternative test. MSM were screened for anal Ct+/LGV+ and Ct+/LGV- infections with a commercial nonspecific NAAT and an in house biovar L-specific NAAT. Serum samples were evaluated with chlamydia-specific anti-Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and antilipopolysaccharide assays of IgA and IgG classes. Asymptomatic patients were identified as: (1) no anal complaints or (2) no microscopic inflammation (i.e., <10 leucocytes per high power field in anal smears). The best differentiating assay was subsequently evaluated in 100 Ct+/LGV+ and 100 Ct+/LGV- MSM using different cut-off points. The anti-MOMP IgA assay was the most accurate to differentiate Ct+/LGV+ (n = 42) from Ct+/LGV- (n = 19) with 85.7% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.2-93.3) and 84.2% specificity (95% CI, 62.4-94.5), even among asymptomatic patients. In a population comprising 98 Ct+/LGV+ and 105 Ct+/LGV- patients, the anti-MOMP IgA assay scored most accurate when the cut-off point was set to 2.0 with 75.5% (95% CI, 65.8-83.6) sensitivity and 74.3% (95% CI, 64.8-82.3) specificity. The IgA anti-MOMP assay can identify a considerable proportion of the (asymptomatic) anal LGV infections correctly. Yet, biovar L-specific NAAT are still the preferred diagnostic tests in clinical settings.

  10. Glycosylation of IgG B cell receptor (IgG BCR) in multiple myeloma: relationship between sialylation and the signal activity of IgG BCR.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Vesna; Milosević-Jovcić, Nadezda; Petrović, Sonja; Marković, Dragana; Stefanović, Gordana; Ristić, Tatjana

    2008-05-01

    Little is known about the glycosylation of the isotype switched B cell receptor (BCR) in multiple myeloma, and the way it might affect receptor function. In this work IgG BCRs isolated from the individual lysates of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 32 patients with IgG multiple myeloma and healthy controls were investigated for the expression of sialic acid (SA), galactose (Gal) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), the sugars known to specify the glycoforms of human serum IgG. The degree of glycosylation and signaling status of all 32 isolated myeloma IgG BCRs were correlated and compared with the glycosylation of the IgG paraproteins isolated from sera of the same patients. It was shown that BCR IgG in myeloma is more heavily sialylated when compared with normal controls, that the increased sialylation of IgG BCR is associated with higher levels of tyrosine phosphorylation (signaling activity) of the IgG BCR supramolecular complex and that BCR IgG and serum IgG paraprotein from the same patient differed in all cases in the levels of terminal sugar expression. The results suggest that the development of the malignant clone in MM from post-switch B cells expressing IgG BCR at their surfaces to plasma cells secreting IgG paraprotein may be followed by permanent glycosylation changes in the IgG molecules.

  11. Enzyme replacement therapy in a patient with Fabry disease and the development of IgE antibodies against agalsidase beta but not agalsidase alpha.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akemi; Takeda, Taisuke; Hoshina, Takao; Fukai, Kazuyoshi; Yamano, Tsunekazu

    2010-12-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by an inborn deficiency of the enzyme α-galactosidase A. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with agalsidase alpha or beta isozymes is an effective treatment. Cross-reactivity of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies with agalsidase alpha and beta has been reported, but no such reaction has been recorded for IgE antibodies. We present the case of a patient with Fabry disease who developed antiagalsidase beta IgE antibodies without cross-reactivity to agalsidase alpha. A 17-year-old boy with Fabry disease had suffered from severe atopic dermatitis since infancy, and he complained for several years of peripheral pain during the summer months and when exercising. Fabry disease was confirmed by family history and a positive enzyme test, and ERT was commenced. Following infusion of agalsidase beta (1.0 mg/kg), the patient complained of a high temperature in his hands and feet, and purulent eczema developed. The infusion dose was reduced to 0.2 mg/kg, but the hyperthermia did not change, although its duration decreased. After three infusions, eosinophilia developed (9.4%; 573 cells/μl blood) and remained unresolved after four infusions with agalsidase beta. Treatment with this enzyme was discontinued, and agalsidase alpha (0.2 mg/kg) started. This produced immediate resolution of the eosinophilia, which has been maintained during follow-up. In conclusion, this patient developed IgE antibodies against agalsidase beta, which demonstrated no cross-reactivity to agalsidase alpha. These findings emphasize the importance of analyzing IgE antibodies against both enzymes when patients exhibit severe infusion-related events.

  12. IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis: expanding the morphological spectrum of IgG4 related diseases.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Abhijit; Bal, Amanjit; Das, Ashim; Singh, Gurpreet

    2015-01-01

    IgG4 related disease (IgG4RD) is a recently recognised condition characterised by mass forming lesions associated with storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4 positive plasma cells and elevated serum IgG4 levels. Although rare, mammary involvement has been reported as IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis, the morphological counterpart of a growing family of IgG4 related diseases. A total of 17 cases belonging to mass forming benign inflammatory breast lesions such as plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis, non-specific mastitis and inflammatory pseudotumour were investigated as a possible member of IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis. Clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemistry findings were noted in all cases. Cases diagnosed as inflammatory pseudotumour showed all the histopathological features of IgG4RD along with increased number of IgG4 positive plasma cells and IgG4/IgG ratio >40%. However, only a few IgG4 positive cells were seen in plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis and non-specific mastitis cases. These cases also did not fulfill the morphological criteria for the diagnosis of IgG4 related diseases. IgG4RD should be excluded in plasma cell rich lesions diagnosed on core biopsies by IgG4 immunostaining. This can avoid unnecessary surgery as IgG4 related diseases respond to simple and effective steroid treatment.

  13. The dog as a genetic model for immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency: identification of several breeds with low serum IgA concentrations.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Mia; Frankowiack, Marcel; Tengvall, Katarina; Roosje, Petra; Fall, Tove; Ivansson, Emma; Bergvall, Kerstin; Hansson-Hamlin, Helene; Sundberg, Katarina; Hedhammar, Ake; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Hammarström, Lennart

    2014-08-15

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) serves as the basis of the secretory immune system by protecting the lining of mucosal sites from pathogens. In both humans and dogs, IgA deficiency (IgAD) is associated with recurrent infections of mucosal sites and immune-mediated diseases. Low concentrations of serum IgA have previously been reported to occur in a number of dog breeds but no generally accepted cut-off value has been established for canine IgAD. The current study represents the largest screening to date of IgA in dogs in terms of both number of dogs (n=1267) and number of breeds studied (n=22). Serum IgA concentrations were quantified by using capture ELISA and were found to vary widely between breeds. We also found IgA to be positively correlated with age (p<0.0001). Apart from the two breeds previously reported as predisposed to low IgA (Shar-Pei and German shepherd), we identified six additional breeds in which ≥ 10% of all tested dogs had very low (<0.07 g/l) IgA concentrations (Hovawart, Norwegian elkhound, Nova Scotia duck tolling retriever, Bullterrier, Golden retriever and Labrador retriever). In addition, we discovered low IgA concentrations to be significantly associated with canine atopic dermatitis (CAD, p<0.0001) and pancreatic acinar atrophy (PAA, p=0.04) in German shepherds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 42 CFR 493.927 - General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Hepatitis markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, HBeAg) IgA IgG IgE IgM Infectious mononucleosis Rheumatoid factor.... IgG Target value ±25%. IgM Target value ±3 SD. Infectious mononucleosis Target value ±2 dilutions or...

  15. 42 CFR 493.927 - General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Hepatitis markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, HBeAg) IgA IgG IgE IgM Infectious mononucleosis Rheumatoid factor.... IgG Target value ±25%. IgM Target value ±3 SD. Infectious mononucleosis Target value ±2 dilutions or...

  16. 42 CFR 493.927 - General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Hepatitis markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, HBeAg) IgA IgG IgE IgM Infectious mononucleosis Rheumatoid factor.... IgG Target value ±25%. IgM Target value ±3 SD. Infectious mononucleosis Target value ±2 dilutions or...

  17. 42 CFR 493.927 - General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Hepatitis markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, HBeAg) IgA IgG IgE IgM Infectious mononucleosis Rheumatoid factor.... IgG Target value ±25%. IgM Target value ±3 SD. Infectious mononucleosis Target value ±2 dilutions or...

  18. 42 CFR 493.927 - General immunology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Hepatitis markers (HBsAg, anti-HBc, HBeAg) IgA IgG IgE IgM Infectious mononucleosis Rheumatoid factor.... IgG Target value ±25%. IgM Target value ±3 SD. Infectious mononucleosis Target value ±2 dilutions or...

  19. IgE reactivity to hen egg white allergens in dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions.

    PubMed

    Shimakura, Hidekatsu; Uchiyama, Jumpei; Saito, Taku; Miyaji, Kazuki; Fujimura, Masato; Masuda, Kenichi; Okamoto, Noriaki; DeBoer, Douglas J; Sakaguchi, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFR) often have specific IgE to food allergens. Egg white, which is majorly composed of ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, is a food allergen in dogs. Information of the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens supports accurate diagnosis and efficiency treatment in humans. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies on the IgE reactivity to purified egg white allergens in dogs. Here, we investigated the IgE reactivity to crude and purified allergens of hen egg white in dogs with CAFR. First, when we examined serum samples from 82 dogs with CAFR for specific IgE to crude egg white by ELISA, 9.8% (8/82) of the dogs with CAFR showed the IgE reactivity to crude egg white. We then used sera from the eight dogs with positive IgE reactivity to crude egg white to examine the IgE reactivity to four purified allergens, ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme, by ELISA. We found that 75% (6/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to both ovomucoid and ovalbumin, and that 37.5% (3/8) of the dogs showed IgE reactivity to ovotransferrin. None (0/8) showed IgE reactivity to lysozyme. Moreover, validating these results, the immunoblot analyses were performed using the sera of the three dogs showing the highest IgE reactivity to crude egg white. Both anti-ovomucoid and anti-ovalbumin IgE were detected in the sera of these dogs, while anti-ovotransferrin IgE was not detected. Considering these, ovomucoid and ovalbumin appears to be the major egg white allergens in dogs with CAFR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Depigmented allergoids reveal new epitopes with capacity to induce IgG blocking antibodies.

    PubMed

    López-Matas, M Angeles; Gallego, Mayte; Iraola, Víctor; Robinson, Douglas; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of allergen-specific blocking IgGs that interact with IgE after allergen immunotherapy (SIT) has been related to clinical efficacy. The objectives were to investigate the epitope specificity of IgG-antibodies induced by depigmented-polymerized (Dpg-Pol) allergoids and unmodified allergen extracts, and examine IgE-blocking activity of induced IgG-antibodies. Rabbits were immunized with native and Dpg-Pol extracts of birch pollen, and serum samples were obtained. Recognition of linear IgG-epitopes of Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 and the capacity of these IgG-antibodies to block binding of human-IgE was determined. Serum from rabbits immunized with native extracts recognised 11 linear epitopes from Bet v 1, while that from Dpg-Pol-immunized animals recognised 8. For Bet v 2, 8 epitopes were recognized by IgG from native immunized animals, and 9 from Dpg-Pol immunized one. Dpg-Pol and native immunized serum did not always recognise the same epitopes, but specific-IgG from both could block human-IgE binding sites for native extract. Depigmented-polymerized birch extract stimulates the synthesis of specific IgG-antibodies which recognize common but also novel epitopes compared with native extracts. IgG-antibodies induced by Dpg-Pol effectively inhibit human-IgE binding to allergens which may be part of the mechanism of action of SIT.

  1. Application Protocol, Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Layered Electrical Product

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connell, L.J.

    1994-12-01

    An application protocol is an information systems engineering view of a specific product The view represents an agreement on the generic activities needed to design and fabricate the product the agreement on the information needed to support those activities, and the specific constructs of a product data standard for use in transferring some or all of the information required. This application protocol describes the data for electrical and electronic products in terms of a product description standard called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). More specifically, the Layered Electrical Product IGES Application Protocol (AP) specifies the mechanisms for defining andmore » exchanging computer-models and their associated data for those products which have been designed in two dimensional geometry so as to be produced as a series of layers in IGES format The AP defines the appropriateness of the data items for describing the geometry of the various parts of a product (shape and location), the connectivity, and the processing and material characteristics. Excluded is the behavioral requirements which the product was intended to satisfy, except as those requirements have been recorded as design rules or product testing requirements.« less

  2. [IgG4-related disease].

    PubMed

    González-Moreno, Juan; Losada López, Inés; Ortego Centeno, Norberto

    2015-12-21

    IgG4-related disease is a recently described clinicopathological entity showing a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that share a common pathology. Its most characteristic feature is the formation of inflammatory tumors in different organs, which makes differentiation mainly with neoplastic diseases fundamental. The inflammatory process is typically comprised of IgG4 lymphoplasmacytic cells. The pathophysiological role of the immunoglobulin is not clear. The treatment of choice is corticosteroids. This article aims to summarize the main features of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis with elevated serum IgG4 concentrations is not equivalent to IgG4 Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Yu, Nan; Lu, Guizhi; Li, Ting; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Ying; Gao, Yanming; Guo, Xiaohui

    2018-06-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) with serum IgG4 concentrations greater than 135 mg/dL can be diagnosed as elevated serum IgG4 HT. HT can also be classified into IgG4 HT and non-IgG4 HT based on an immunohistochemistry analysis of IgG4. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between elevated serum IgG4 HT and IgG4 HT. Both thyroid tissues and serum samples stored before pathological examination from 93 patients with HT were collected. The serum levels of IgG, IgG4, TgAb IgG, TgAb IgG4, TPOAb IgG and TPOAb IgG4 were measured by ELISAs. The expression levels of IgG4, IgG and TGF-β1 in thyroid tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Patients with HT were divided into two groups: elevated serum IgG4 HT (n = 12) and nonelevated serum IgG4 HT (n = 81). Hypothyroidism was found in 5 of 12 cases (41.7%) in the elevated serum IgG4 HT group and 10 of 81 cases (12.3%) in the nonelevated serum IgG4 HT group (P = .023). Serologically, there were no significant differences in the levels of TgAb IgG, TPOAb IgG, TgAb IgG4 and TPOAb IgG4 between the two groups, and the expression of TGF-β1 in thyroid tissues was not significantly different between the groups. Most importantly, the frequency of patients who satisfied the criteria for IgG4 HT diagnosis was comparable (25% vs 20.9%, P = .756). The measurement of serum IgG4 allows the identification of patients with HT closely associated with hypothyroidism. However, our study demonstrated that elevated serum IgG4 HT is not equivalent to IgG4 HT. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Aflatoxin Immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Özlem; Pirinçci, Şerife Şeyda; Öztürk, Selma

    2016-01-01

    Antibody based techniques are widely used for the detection of aflatoxins which are potent toxins with a high rate of occurrence in many crops. We developed a murine monoclonal antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype with a strong binding affinity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The antibody was effectively used in immunoaffinity column (IAC) and ELISA kit development. The performance of the IACs was compatible with AOAC performance standards for affinity columns (Test Method: AOAC 991.31). The total binding capacity of the IACs containing our antibody was 111 ng, 70 ng, 114 ng and 73 ng for AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1 andAFG2, respectively. Furthermore, the recovery rates of 5 ng of each AF derivative loaded to the IACs were determined as 104.9%, 82.4%, 85.5% and 70.7% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. As for the ELISA kit developed using non-oriented, purified IgA antibody, we observed a detection range of 2–50 µg/L with 40 min total test time. The monoclonal antibody developed in this research is hitherto the first presentation of quadruple antigen binding IgA monoclonal antibodies in mycotoxin analysis and also the first study of their utilization in ELISA and IACs. IgA antibodies are valuable alternatives for immunoassay development, in terms of both sensitivity and ease of preparation, since they do not require any orientation effort. PMID:27187470

  5. T helper 2 and regulatory T-cell cytokine production by mast cells: a key factor in the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Mai; Sato, Yasuharu; Ohno, Kyotaro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Gion, Yuka; Orita, Yorihisa; Ito, Toshihiro; Tachibana, Tomoyasu; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2014-08-01

    IgG4-related disease is a systemic disorder with unique clinicopathological features and uncertain etiological features and is frequently related to allergic disease. T helper 2 and regulatory T-cell cytokines have been reported to be upregulated in the affected tissues; thus, the production of these cytokines by T helper 2 and regulatory T cells has been suggested as an important factor in the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease. However, it is not yet clear which cells produce these cytokines in IgG4-related disease, and some aspects of the disorder cannot be completely explained by T-cell-related processes. To address this, we analyzed paraffin-embedded sections of tissues from nine cases of IgG4-related submandibular gland disease, five cases of submandibular sialolithiasis, and six cases of normal submandibular gland in order to identify potential key players in the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the significant upregulation of interleukin (IL)4, IL10, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) in IgG4-related disease. Interestingly, immunohistochemical studies indicated the presence of mast cells expressing these cytokines in diseased tissues. In addition, dual immunofluorescence assays identified cells that were double-positive for each cytokine and for KIT, which is expressed by mast cells. In contrast, the distribution of T cells did not correlate with cytokine distribution in affected tissues. We also found that the mast cells were strongly positive for IgE. This observation supports the hypothesis that mast cells are involved in IgG4-related disease, as mast cells are known to be closely related to allergic reactions and are activated in the presence of elevated non-specific IgE levels. In conclusion, our results indicate that mast cells produce T helper 2 and regulatory T-cell cytokines in tissues affected by IgG4-related disease and possibly have an important role in disease

  6. Tetanus toxoid IgE may be useful in predicting allergy during childhood.

    PubMed

    Ciprandi, G; De Amici, M; Quaglini, S; Labò, E; Castellazzi, A M; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Marseglia, A; Bianchi, L; Moratti, R; Marseglia, G L

    2012-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions after immunization with tetanus toxoid are occasionally observed in atopic and non-atopic individuals. High IgE levels in infancy may predict subsequent allergy. The aims of this study were: i) to evaluate the role of specific IgE to tetanus toxoid in children in response to tetanus immunization and the possible factors associated with specific IgE levels, and ii) to investigate the correlation between specific IgE levels to tetanus toxoid and the late development of allergy (up to 12 years). Initially, 278 healthy infants (152 males and 126 females, aged 12 months) living in an urban city were screened for serum total IgE and specific IgE to tetanus toxoid, after having obtained informed consent from parents. After 12 years, 151 children could be evaluated. Total IgE summed with tetanus specific IgE were significantly associated with allergy at 12 years. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that serum total IgE and tetanus specific IgE may be predictive of subsequent allergy onset.

  7. Saliva secretory IgA antibodies against molds and mycotoxins in patients exposed to toxigenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Aristo; Kashanian, Albert; Vojdani, Elroy; Campbell, Andrew W

    2003-11-01

    Upper respiratory exposure to different environmental antigens results first in the activation of mucosal immunity and production of IgA antibodies in different secretions including saliva. Despite this there is no study, which addresses secretory antibodies against molds and mycotoxins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mold-specific salivary IgA in individuals exposed to molds and mycotoxins in a water-damaged building environment. Saliva IgA antibody levels against seven different molds and two mycotoxins were studied in 40 patients exposed to molds and in 40 control subjects. Mold-exposed patients showed significantly higher levels of salivary IgA antibodies against one or more mold species. A majority of patients with high IgA antibodies against molds exhibited elevation in salivary IgA against mycotoxins, as well. These IgA antibodies against molds and mycotoxins are specific, since using molds and mycotoxins in immune absorption could reduce antibody levels, significantly. Detection of high counts of molds in water-damaged buildings, strongly suggests the existence of a reservoir of mold spores in the environment. This viable microbial activity with specific mold and mycotoxin IgA in saliva may assist in the diagnosis of mold exposure. Whether mold and mycotoxin specific IgA antibodies detected in saliva are indicative of the role of IgA antibodies in the late phase of type-1 hypersensitivity reaction or in type-2 and type-3 delayed sensitivities is a matter that warrants further investigation.

  8. A Unique Report: Development of Super Anti-Human IgG Monoclone with Optical Density Over Than 3

    PubMed Central

    Aghebati Maleki, Leili; Baradaran, Behzad; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Ezzatifar, Fatemeh; Majidi, Jafar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Monoclonal antibodies and related conjugates are key reagents used in biomedical researches as well as, in treatment, purification and diagnosis of infectious and non- infectious diseases. Methods: Balb/c mice were immunized with purified human IgG. Spleen cells of the most immune mouse were fused with SP2/0 in the presence of Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG). Supernatant of hybridoma cells was screened for detection of antibody by ELISA. Then, the sample was assessed for cross-reactivity with IgM & IgA by ELISA and confirmed by immunoblotting. The subclasses of the selected mAbs were determined. The best clone was injected intraperitoneally to some pristane-injected mice. Anti-IgG mAb was purified from the animals' ascitic fluid by Ion exchange chromatography and then, mAb was conjugated with HRP. Results: In the present study, over than 50 clones were obtained that 1 clone had optical density over than 3. We named this clone as supermonoclone which was selected for limiting dilution. The result of the immunoblotting, showed sharp band in IgG position and did not show any band in IgM&IgA position. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the conjugated monoclonal antibody could have application in diagnosis of infectious diseases like Toxoplasmosis, Rubella and IgG class of other infectious and non- infectious diseases. PMID:24312857

  9. Comparative reactivity of human IgE to cynomolgus monkey and human effector cells and effects on IgE effector cell potency

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Louise; Saul, Louise; Josephs, Debra H; Josephs, Debra H; Cutler, Keith; Cutler, Keith; Bradwell, Andrew; Bradwell, Andrew; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Selkirk, Chris; Selkirk, Chris; Gould, Hannah J; Gould, Hannah J; Jones, Paul; Jones, Paul; Spicer, James F; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Sophia N; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to genetic similarities with humans, primates of the macaque genus such as the cynomolgus monkey are often chosen as models for toxicology studies of antibody therapies. IgE therapeutics in development depend upon engagement with the FcεRI and FcεRII receptors on immune effector cells for their function. Only limited knowledge of the primate IgE immune system is available to inform the choice of models for mechanistic and safety evaluations.   Methods: The recognition of human IgE by peripheral blood lymphocytes from cynomolgus monkey and man was compared. We used effector cells from each species in ex vivo affinity, dose-response, antibody-receptor dissociation and potency assays. Results: We report cross-reactivity of human IgE Fc with cynomolgus monkey cells, and comparable binding kinetics to peripheral blood lymphocytes from both species. In competition and dissociation assays, however, human IgE dissociated faster from cynomolgus monkey compared with human effector cells. Differences in association and dissociation kinetics were reflected in effector cell potency assays of IgE-mediated target cell killing, with higher concentrations of human IgE needed to elicit effector response in the cynomolgus monkey system. Additionally, human IgE binding on immune effector cells yielded significantly different cytokine release profiles in each species. Conclusion: These data suggest that human IgE binds with different characteristics to human and cynomolgus monkey IgE effector cells. This is likely to affect the potency of IgE effector functions in these two species, and so has relevance for the selection of biologically-relevant model systems when designing pre-clinical toxicology and functional studies. PMID:24492303

  10. Correlation between skin-prick testing, individual specific IgE tests, and a multiallergen IgE assay for allergy detection in patients with chronic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Hoon; Suh, Jeffrey D; Kim, Jin Kook; Hong, Seok-Chan; Park, Il-Ho; Lee, Heung-Man

    2014-01-01

    Allergy test results can differ based on the method used. The most common tests include skin-prick testing (SPT) and in vitro tests to detect allergen-specific IgE. This study was designed to assess allergy test results using SPT, individual specific IgE tests, and a multiallergen IgE assay (multiple allergen simultaneous test) in patients with chronic rhinitis and controls. One hundred forty total patients were prospectively enrolled in the study, including 100 patients with chronic rhinitis and 40 control patients without atopy. All eligible patients underwent SPT, serum analysis using individual specific IgE test, and multiple allergen simultaneous test against 10 common allergens. Allergy test results were then compared to identify correlation and interest agreement. There was an 81-97% agreement between SPT and individual specific IgE test in allergen detection and an 80-98% agreement between SPT and multiple allergen simultaneous test. Individual specific IgE test and multiple allergen simultaneous test allergy detection prevalence was generally similar to SPT in patients with chronic rhinitis. All control patients had negative SPT (0/40), but low positive results were found with both individual specific IgE test (5-12.5%) and multiple allergen simultaneous test (2.5-7.5%) to some allergens, especially cockroach, Dermatophagoides farina, and ragweed. Agreement and correlation between individual specific IgE test and multiple allergen simultaneous test were good to excellent for a majority of tested allergens. This study shows good agreement and correlation between SPT with individual specific IgE test and multiple allergen simultaneous test on a majority of the tested allergens for patients with chronic rhinitis. Comparing the two in vitro tests, individual specific IgE test agrees with SPT better than multiple allergen simultaneous test.

  11. The interaction of ruminant IgG with receptor type II for IgG on human phagocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Jungi, T W; Peterhans, E; Pfister, H; Fey, H

    1989-01-01

    The interaction of ruminant IgG with human phagocytes was assessed using Fc receptor (FcR)-mediated ingestion and the triggering of a respiratory burst as effector functions indicative of receptor-specific interaction. In monomeric form, ruminant IgG was three to five orders of magnitude less potent than homologous IgG in inhibiting FcR-specific phagocytosis by monocytes. However, when attached to tanned sheep erythrocytes (Es-T), ruminant IgG was opsonic, as it promoted enhanced phagocytosis of Es-T, comparable to ingestion of rabbit IgG-coated Es. This phagocytosis was inhibitable by high concentrations of human IgG in the fluid phase. Moreover, Es-T precoated with ferritin could be opsonized to a similar degree by anti-ferritin IgG from rabbit and cow. However, only bovine IgG1, but not IgG2, was opsonic. Bovine and goat IgG of some, but not other, suppliers were inactive. Similar results were obtained by measuring the respiratory burst triggered by heat-aggregated IgG, using a luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay. Thus, human IgG and ruminant IgG stimulated monocytes and, to a lesser extent, polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN), to generate CL. Depending on the manufacturer, some preparations of bovine and goat IgG were inactive, and bovine IgG2 failed to induce CL. These findings prove that certain ruminant IgG preparations, including bovine IgG1 interacting weakly with homologous PMN and monocytes, do interact with human PMN, monocytes and macrophages in a FcR-specific manner when offered in complexed form. Inhibition studies suggest that bovine IgG1 interacts mainly with human FcR type II. In contrast, bovine IgG2, regarded as cytophilic for homologous PMN, fails to interact with human PMN, monocytes and macrophages. PMID:15493277

  12. Polyphenol-rich pomegranate juice reduces IgE binding to cashew nut allergens.

    PubMed

    Li, Yichen; Mattison, Christopher P

    2018-03-01

    Food allergy negatively impacts quality of life and can be life-threatening. Cashew nuts can cause severe reactions in very small amounts, and they are included in a group of foods most commonly responsible for causing food allergy. Polyphenols and polyphenol-rich juices have been demonstrated to complex with peanut allergens. Here, the interaction between cashew nut allergens and polyphenol-rich juices is evaluated biochemically and immunologically. Various juices, including pomegranate (POM), blueberry (BB), and concord grape (CG) juices, were evaluated for polyphenol content and formation of polyphenol-cashew allergen complexes. Among the various juices studied, POM juice showed a greater capacity to form complexes with cashew proteins. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) demonstrated a sharp increase in cashew protein extract particle size to around 3580 nm, and fewer cashew proteins were resolved by electrophoresis after treatment with POM juice. Immunoassays demonstrated reduced IgG and IgE binding to cashew allergens due to allergen precipitation by POM juice. These observations support the formation of complexes between polyphenol and cashew proteins that can prevent antibody recognition of cashew allergens through allergen precipitation. POM juice treatment of cashew extract effectively reduces antibody binding through allergen precipitation, and these findings could be applied to the development of less allergenic cashew nut products and oral immunotherapy. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. IgG abnormality in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Susumu; Honda, Makoto

    2010-03-05

    A close association between narcolepsy and the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-DQB1*0602 allele suggests the involvement of the immune system, or possibly an autoimmune process. We investigated serum IgG levels in narcolepsy. We measured the serum total IgG levels in 159 Japanese narcolepsy-cataplexy patients positive for the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele, 28 idiopathic hypersomnia patients with long sleep time, and 123 healthy controls (the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele present in 45 subjects). The serum levels of each IgG subclass were subsequently measured. The distribution of serum IgG was significantly different among healthy controls negative for the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele (11.66+/-3.55 mg/ml), healthy controls positive for the HLA-DQB1*0602 allele (11.45+/-3.43), narcolepsy patients (9.67+/-3.38), and idiopathic hypersomnia patients (13.81+/-3.80). None of the following clinical variables, age, disease duration, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, smoking habit and BMI at the time of blood sampling, were associated with IgG levels in narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia. Furthermore we found the decrease in IgG1 and IgG2 levels, stable expression of IgG3, and the increase in the proportion of IgG4 in narcolepsy patients with abnormally low IgG levels. The increase in the proportion of IgG4 levels was also found in narcolepsy patients with normal serum total IgG levels. Idiopathic hypersomnia patients showed a different pattern of IgG subclass distribution with high IgG3 and IgG4 level, low IgG2 level, and IgG1/IgG2 imbalance. Our study is the first to determine IgG abnormalities in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia by measuring the serum IgG levels in a large number of hypersomnia patients. The observed IgG abnormalities indicate humoral immune alterations in narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia. Different IgG profiles suggest immunological differences between narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia.

  14. IgE to penicillins with different specificities can be identified by a multiepitope macromolecule: Bihaptenic penicillin structures and IgE specificities.

    PubMed

    Ariza, A; Barrionuevo, E; Mayorga, C; Montañez, M I; Perez-Inestrosa, E; Ruiz-Sánchez, A; Rodríguez-Guéant, R M; Fernández, T D; Guéant, J L; Torres, M J; Blanca, M

    2014-04-01

    Quantitation of specific IgE by immunoassay is a recommended in vitro test for the diagnosis of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to betalactams (BLs), particularly when skin test results are negative. IgE antibodies that recognize the common nuclear structure of all BLs or the specific side chain structure can be mainly distinguished by immunoassays. The aim of this study was to develop an immunoassay system to detect IgE antibodies with different specificities. Cellulose discs conjugated with benzylpenicillin (BP), amoxicillin (AX) or both drugs, with poly-l-lysine (PLL) as carrier molecule, were used as solid phases in the radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Direct and inhibition radioimmunoassay studies were made to verify the structures recognized by serum IgE antibodies from penicillin-allergic patients. Our results indicated that the addition of both haptens did not decrease the capacity to capture IgE when serum specific to either BP or AX was used, at least in terms of sensitivity. In addition, the inclusion of two haptens improved significantly the levels of IgE detection in patients who recognized both BP and AX. Therefore, the use of a solid phase with a carrier molecule conjugated with two determinants (AX and BP) is helpful to recognize IgE antibodies against either of these determinants and is useful for screening sera with different specificities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement of intestinal IgA production by Ajoene in mice.

    PubMed

    Washiya, Yuki; Nishikawa, Tomoaki; Fujino, Tsuchiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of ajoene on intestinal IgA production. Ajoene (1.35, 4.5, and 13.5 µg/kg/d) was administered to mice for 4 weeks. The fecal IgA level in the 13.5 µg/kg/d group increased after 3 weeks. The intestinal IgA level also increased in a dose-dependent manner upon ajoene administration. An oil-macerated garlic extract, with 1500 µg/g of ajoene, enhanced the intestinal IgA production.

  16. Spontaneous remission of IgA nephropathy associated with resolution of hepatitis A.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Hyeok; Kang, Ea Wha; Kie, Jeong Hae; Yoo, Tae Hyun; Choi, Kyu Hun; Han, Dae-Suk; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2010-12-01

    Although most cases of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy are idiopathic, several diseases are associated with IgA nephropathy. Of these, chronic liver disease resulting from hepatitis B or C virus infection has been reported as a secondary cause of IgA nephropathy. Recently, hepatitis A virus (HAV)-associated kidney disease has received attention because acute kidney injury can occur as a complication of HAV infection, generally caused by acute tubular necrosis or interstitial nephritis. However, unlike IgA nephropathy related to hepatitis B or C, HAV-associated IgA nephropathy is extremely rare and long-term outcomes have not been reported yet. We describe a case of spontaneous remission of IgA nephropathy associated with serologically documented HAV infection. The patient presented with microhematuria and moderate proteinuria, but acute kidney injury did not occur during active hepatic injury. Kidney biopsy specimens clearly showed mesangial IgA deposits with intact tubules and interstitium. Serum liver enzyme levels returned to reference values 1 month after the onset of acute hepatitis, but urinary protein excretion remained increased. Approximately 1 year later, urinary abnormalities were resolved and a second biopsy showed no mesangial IgA deposits. These findings suggest that IgA nephropathy can transiently accompany HAV infection, but may not progress to chronic glomerulonephritis after recovery from HAV. Copyright © 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiple independent IgE epitopes on the highly allergenic grass pollen allergen Phl p 5.

    PubMed

    Levin, M; Rotthus, S; Wendel, S; Najafi, N; Källström, E; Focke-Tejkl, M; Valenta, R; Flicker, S; Ohlin, M

    2014-11-01

    Group 5 allergens are small proteins that consist of two domains. They belong to the most potent respiratory allergens. To determine the binding sites and to study allergic patients' IgE recognition of the group 5 allergen (Phl p 5) from timothy grass pollen using human monoclonal IgE antibodies that have been isolated from grass pollen allergic patients. Using recombinant isoallergens, fragments, mutants and synthetic peptides of Phl p 5, as well as peptide-specific antibodies, the interaction of recombinant human monoclonal IgE and Phl p 5 was studied using direct binding and blocking assays. Cross-reactivity of monoclonal IgE with group 5 allergens in several grasses was studied and inhibition experiments with patients' polyclonal IgE were performed. Monoclonal human IgE showed extensive cross-reactivity with group 5 allergens in several grasses. Despite its small size of 29 kDa, four independent epitope clusters on isoallergen Phl p 5.0101, two in each domain, were recognized by human IgE. Isoallergen Phl p 5.0201 carried two of these epitopes. Inhibition studies with allergic patients' polyclonal IgE suggest the presence of additional IgE epitopes on Phl p 5. Our results reveal the presence of a large number of independent IgE epitopes on the Phl p 5 allergen explaining the high allergenic activity of this protein and its ability to induce severe allergic symptoms. High-density IgE recognition may be a general feature of many potent allergens and form a basis for the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergic disease. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Multiple independent IgE epitopes on the highly allergenic grass pollen allergen Phl p 5

    PubMed Central

    Levin, M; Rotthus, S; Wendel, S; Najafi, N; Källström, E; Focke-Tejkl, M; Valenta, R; Flicker, S; Ohlin, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Group 5 allergens are small proteins that consist of two domains. They belong to the most potent respiratory allergens. Objective To determine the binding sites and to study allergic patients' IgE recognition of the group 5 allergen (Phl p 5) from timothy grass pollen using human monoclonal IgE antibodies that have been isolated from grass pollen allergic patients. Methods Using recombinant isoallergens, fragments, mutants and synthetic peptides of Phl p 5, as well as peptide-specific antibodies, the interaction of recombinant human monoclonal IgE and Phl p 5 was studied using direct binding and blocking assays. Cross-reactivity of monoclonal IgE with group 5 allergens in several grasses was studied and inhibition experiments with patients' polyclonal IgE were performed. Results Monoclonal human IgE showed extensive cross-reactivity with group 5 allergens in several grasses. Despite its small size of 29 kDa, four independent epitope clusters on isoallergen Phl p 5.0101, two in each domain, were recognized by human IgE. Isoallergen Phl p 5.0201 carried two of these epitopes. Inhibition studies with allergic patients' polyclonal IgE suggest the presence of additional IgE epitopes on Phl p 5. Conclusions & Clinical Relevance Our results reveal the presence of a large number of independent IgE epitopes on the Phl p 5 allergen explaining the high allergenic activity of this protein and its ability to induce severe allergic symptoms. High-density IgE recognition may be a general feature of many potent allergens and form a basis for the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergic disease. PMID:25262820

  19. IgE antibody to fish gelatin (type I collagen) in patients with fish allergy.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, M; Toda, M; Ebihara, T; Irie, S; Hori, H; Imai, A; Yanagida, M; Miyazawa, H; Ohsuna, H; Ikezawa, Z; Inouye, S

    2000-09-01

    Most children with anaphylaxis to measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines had shown sensitivity to bovine gelatin that was included in the vaccines. Recently, it was found that bovine type I collagen, which is the main content in the gelatin, is a major allergen in bovine gelatin allergy. Fish meat and skin also contain type I collagen. The present study was designed to investigate IgE antibody to fish gelatin in children with fish allergy. Serum samples were taken from patients in 3 groups: (1) 10 patients with fish allergy and specific IgE to fish meat; (2) two patients with allergies to both fish meat and bovine gelatin and specific IgE to fish meat and bovine gelatin; and (3) 15 patients with atopic dermatitis and specific IgE to fish meat. Various fish gelatins (type I collagen) were prepared from fish skin. IgE antibody to fish gelatin was analyzed by using ELISA and immunoblotting. Of 10 patients with fish allergy, 3 had specific IgE to fish gelatin. Of two patients with fish allergy and bovine gelatin allergy, all had specific IgE to fish gelatin. Of 15 patients with atopic dermatitis and specific IgE to fish meat, 5 had specific IgE to fish gelatin. Furthermore, IgE from pooled serum of the patients reacted with both the alpha1 and alpha2 chains of fish type I collagen in immunoblots. There is cross-reactivity among gelatins from various fishes, but there is little cross-reactivity between fish and bovine gelatins. Some fish-sensitive patients possessed IgE antibody to fish gelatin. Fish gelatin (type I collagen) might be an allergen in subjects with fish allergy.

  20. IgE sensitization in relation to preschool eczema and filaggrin mutation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Emma Kristin; Bergström, Anna; Kull, Inger; Lind, Tomas; Söderhäll, Cilla; van Hage, Marianne; Wickman, Magnus; Ballardini, Natalia; Wahlgren, Carl-Fredrik

    2017-12-01

    Eczema (atopic dermatitis) is associated with an increased risk of having IgE antibodies. IgE sensitization can occur through an impaired skin barrier. Filaggrin gene (FLG) mutation is associated with eczema and possibly also with IgE sensitization. We sought to explore the longitudinal relation between preschool eczema (PSE), FLG mutation, or both and IgE sensitization in childhood. A total of 3201 children from the BAMSE (Children Allergy Milieu Stockholm Epidemiology) birth cohort recruited from the general population were included. Regular parental questionnaires identified children with eczema. Blood samples were collected at 4, 8, and 16 years of age for analysis of specific IgE. FLG mutation analysis was performed on 1890 of the children. PSE was associated with IgE sensitization to both food allergens and aeroallergens up to age 16 years (overall adjusted odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 2.00-2.66). This association was even stronger among children with persistent PSE. FLG mutation was associated with IgE sensitization to peanut at age 4 years (adjusted odds ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.03-3.44) but not to other allergens up to age 16 years. FLG mutation and PSE were not effect modifiers for the association between IgE sensitization and PSE or FLG mutation, respectively. Sensitized children with PSE were characterized by means of polysensitization, but no other specific IgE sensitization patterns were found. PSE is associated with IgE sensitization to both food allergens and aeroallergens up to 16 years of age. FLG mutation is associated with IgE sensitization to peanut but not to other allergens. Sensitized children with preceding PSE are more often polysensitized. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [The benefit from mumps virus IgG antibody avidity testing in the population with high vaccine coverage in the context of other serological methods for laboratory diagnosis of mumps and the current epidemiological].

    PubMed

    Limberková, R; Smíšková, D; Havlíčková, M; Herrmannová, K; Lexová, P; Marešová, V

    2016-01-01

    Regular vaccination against mumps resulted in a significant reduction in epidemic mumps in the Czech Republic. However, mumps cases have recently shown an upward trend, even in the vaccinated population where a considerable proportion of cases have occurred. The aim of this study was to find out, by mumps virus IgG antibody avidity testing, whether the high incidence of mumps in the vaccinated population is a result of primary or secondary vaccine failure and whether the vaccinated differ from the naturally immunised in anamnestic antibody avidity. Given the problematic laboratory diagnosis of mumps in the population with high vaccination coverage, the informative value of the detected IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodies was also considered as well as the potential of antibody avidity testing for improving laboratory diagnosis from a single sample of blood, the most commonly analysed clinical material, in patients with suspected mumps. Sixty-four patients laboratory confirmed with mumps, whose vaccination status was known, were included in the study (groups 1 and 2). Other study groups were 30 healthy naturally immunised subjects (group 3) and 22 vaccinated children 2-4-years of age with no etiological link to the mumps virus (group 4). The avidity index (AI) was determined using the Siemens Enzygnost Anti-Mumps/IgG kit and 6M urea, able to induce the dissociation of antigen-antibody bonds proportionally to the antibody avidity. IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies were tested using the Siemens Enzygnost Anti-Mumps/IgM and /IgG, and Mast Diagnostica Mastazyme Mumps IgA kits. The EPIDAT system served as the data source. The results showed that the mumps virus induces antibodies with a low AI after both vaccination, even recent, and natural immunisation. Antibodies with a high AI were only detected in convalescent sera of the vaccinated patients or in re-infected, naturally immunised persons, as a result of recent contact with the mumps virus. The comparison of the results of acute

  2. Lower serum IgA is associated with COPD exacerbation risk in SPIROMICS

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Gabriel G.; Azar, Antoine; Wise, Robert A.; O’Neal, Wanda K.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Comellas, Alejandro P.; Drummond, M. Bradley; Lambert, Allison A.; Paulin, Laura M.; Fawzy, Ashraf; Kanner, Richard E.; Paine, Robert; Han, MeiLan K.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Bowler, Russell P.; Barr, R. Graham; Hansel, Nadia N.

    2018-01-01

    Background Decreased but measurable serum IgA levels (≤70 mg/dL) have been associated with risk for infections in some populations, but are unstudied in COPD. This study tested the hypothesis that subnormal serum IgA levels would be associated with exacerbation risk in COPD. Methods Data were analyzed from 1,049 COPD participants from the observational cohort study SPIROMICS (535 (51%) women; mean age 66.1 (SD 7.8), 338 (32%) current smokers) who had baseline serum IgA measured using the Myriad RBM biomarker discovery platform. Exacerbation data was collected prospectively (mean 944.3 (SD 281.3) days), and adjusted linear, logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial regressions were performed. Results Mean IgA was 269.1 mg/dL (SD 150.9). One individual had deficient levels of serum IgA (<7 mg/dL) and 25 (2.4%) had IgA level ≤70 mg/dL. Participants with IgA ≤70 mg/dL were younger (62 vs. 66 years, p = 0.01) but otherwise similar to those with higher IgA. In adjusted models, IgA ≤70 mg/dL was associated with higher exacerbation incidence rates (IRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.01–2.87, p = 0.044) and greater risk for any severe exacerbation (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.30–6.94, p = 0.010). In adjusted models among those in the lowest decile (<120 mg/dL), each 10 mg/dL decrement in IgA (analyzed continuously) was associated with more exacerbations during follow-up (β 0.24, 95% CI 0.017–0.46, p = 0.035). Conclusions Subnormal serum IgA levels were associated with increased risk for acute exacerbations, supporting mildly impaired IgA levels as a contributing factor in COPD morbidity. Additionally, a dose-response relationship between lower serum IgA and number of exacerbations was found among individuals with serum IgA in the lowest decile, further supporting the link between serum IgA and exacerbation risk. Future COPD studies should more comprehensively characterize immune status to define the clinical relevance of these findings and their potential for therapeutic correction

  3. Increased human IgE induced by killing Schistosoma mansoni in vivo is associated with pretreatment Th2 cytokine responsiveness to worm antigens.

    PubMed

    Walter, Klaudia; Fulford, Anthony J C; McBeath, Rowena; Joseph, Sarah; Jones, Frances M; Kariuki, H Curtis; Mwatha, Joseph K; Kimani, Gachuhi; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Ouma, John H; Dunne, David W

    2006-10-15

    In schistosomiasis endemic areas, children are very susceptible to postchemotherapy reinfection, whereas adults are relatively resistant. Different studies have reported that schistosome-specific IL-4 and IL-5 responses, or posttreatment worm-IgE levels, correlate with subsequent low reinfection. Chemotherapy kills i.v. worms providing an in vivo Ag challenge. We measured anti-worm (soluble worm Ag (SWA) and recombinant tegumental Ag (rSm22.6)) and anti-egg (soluble egg Ag) Ab levels in 177 Ugandans (aged 7-50) in a high Schistosoma mansoni transmission area, both before and 7 wk posttreatment, and analyzed these data in relation to whole blood in vitro cytokine responses at the same time points. Soluble egg Ag-Ig levels were unaffected by treatment but worm-IgG1 and -IgG4 increased, whereas worm-IgE increased in many but not all individuals. An increase in worm-IgE was mainly seen in >15-year-olds and, unlike in children, was inversely correlated to pretreatment infection intensities, suggesting this response was associated both with resistance to pretreatment infection, as well as posttreatment reinfection. The increases in SWA-IgE and rSm22.6-IgE positively correlated with pretreatment Th2 cytokines, but not IFN-gamma, induced by SWA. These relationships remained significant after allowing for the confounding effects of pretreatment infection intensity, age, and pretreatment IgE levels, indicating a link between SWA-specific Th2 cytokine responsiveness and subsequent increases in worm-IgE. An exceptionally strong relationship between IL-5 and posttreatment worm-IgE levels in < 15-year-olds suggested that the failure of younger children to respond to in vivo Ag stimulation with increased levels of IgE, is related to their lack of pretreatment SWA Th2 cytokine responsiveness.

  4. Depigmented and polymerised house dust mite allergoid: allergen content, induction of IgG4 and clinical response.

    PubMed

    Gallego, M T; Iraola, V; Himly, M; Robinson, D S; Badiola, C; García-Robaina, J C; Briza, P; Carnés, J

    2010-01-01

    Polymerised allergenic extracts (allergoids) are commonly used in allergen immunotherapy. Clinical efficacy and safety of these extracts have been demonstrated. Recently, allergen sequences have been identified by mass spectrometry in depigmented and polymerised (Dpg-Pol) extracts. The objectives of this study were to investigate the presence of allergens in Dpg-Pol extracts of house dust mite and to analyze the immunological changes induced by these extracts in asthmatic patients enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Dpg-Pol extracts were manufactured and vaccines with a composition of 50% Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and 50% D. farinae (100 HEPL/ml) were prepared. Allergen composition was analyzed by mass spectrometry. Patients with asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis were treated in a 1-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study with 6 up-dosing and monthly maintenance injections. Specific IgE and IgG4 titres to D. pteronyssinus, Der p 1 and Der p 2 were measured in patients' sera using the CAP system and direct ELISA experiments. Sequences from the major allergens Der p 1 and Der p 2 and from other allergens were identified in native and Dpg-Pol extracts. There was a statistically significant increase in specific IgG4, a decrease in the ratio of IgE/IgG4 to D. pteronyssinus and a significant increase in specific IgG4 to Der p 1 and Der p 2 in the patients allotted to active treatment. The detection of allergen sequences suggests preservation of major and minor allergens in Dpg-Pol allergoids from house dust mites. Efficacy in asthma treatment and the increase in specific IgG4 seem to be associated with the presence of major allergens in Dpg-Pol allergen extracts. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Predictors of outcome for severe IgA Nephropathy in a multi-ethnic U.S. cohort.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Ana Huerta; Bomback, Andrew S; Butler, Blake; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Herlitz, Leal; Stokes, M Barry; D'Agati, Vivette; Markowitz, Glen S; Appel, Gerald B; Canetta, Pietro A

    2015-09-01

    Although IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the leading cause of glomerulonephritis worldwide, there are few large cohorts representative of U.S. Prognosis remains challenging, particularly as more patients are treated with RAAS blockade and immunosuppression. We analyzed a retrospective cohort of IgAN patients followed at Columbia University Medical Center from 1980 to 2010. We evaluated two outcomes - halving of eGFR and ESRD - using three proportional hazards models: 1) a model with only clinical parameters, 2) a model with only histopathologic parameters, and 3) a model combining clinical and histopathologic parameters. Of 154 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN, 126 had follow-up data available and 93 had biopsy slides re-read. Median follow-up was 47 months. The cohort was 64% male, 60% white, and the average age was 34 years at diagnosis. Median (IQR) eGFR and proteinuria at diagnosis were 64.1 (38.0 - 88.7) mL/min/1.73 m2 and 2.7 (1.3 - 4.5) g/day. Over 90% of subjects were treated with RAAS blockade, and over 66% received immunosuppression. In the clinical parameters-only model, baseline eGFR and African-American race predicted both halving of eGFR and ESRD. In the histopathologic parameters-only model, no parameter significantly predicted outcome. In the combined model, baseline eGFR remained the strongest predictor of both halving of eGFR (p = 0.03) and ESRD (p = 0.001), while the presence of IgG by immunofluorescence microscopy also predicted progression to ESRD. In this diverse U.S. IgAN cohort in which the majority of patients received RAAS blockade and immunosuppression, baseline eGFR, African-American race, and co-staining of IgG predicted poor outcome.

  6. [IgG4 immunohistochemistry in Riedle thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Luo, Y F; Cao, J L; Zhang, H; Shi, X H; Liang, Z Y; Feng, R E

    2017-03-08

    Objective: To observe the histopathological changes and immunohistochemical expression of IgG4 in Riedle thyroiditis (RT) and to study the relationship between RT and IgG4-related diseases (IgG4-RD). Methods: A total of 5 RT patients were collected from the Department of Pathology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital during April 2012 to August 2014. The clinical and immunohistochemical features were analyzed in the 5 patients. Histopathologic analysis was performed on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Results: There were one male and four female patients, aged 52 to 78 years (median 59 years). Five cases were characterized by multiple nodules of thyroid, which increased year by year. All patients were found to have surrounding tissue compression symptoms and signs. Two female patients were found to have hypothyroidism. The serum concentration of IgG was elevated in 2 cases, and the serum concentration of IgG was not tested before operation in the remaining patients. By ultrasound, all presented as low echo or medium low echo. Strong echo occasionally appeared in hypoechoic nodules. Microscopically, fibrous tissue hyperplasia was infiltrated with varying numbers of lymphocytes and plasma cells. The occlusion of phlebitis was found in 4 cases and eosinophils were found in 3 cases. IgG4 counts and IgG4/IgG ratios in 5 cases were 20/HPF, 16%; 60/HPF, 82%; 22/HPF, 28%; 400/HPF, 266% and 33/HPF, 71%, respectively. Conclusions: With the similar pathological manifestations between RT and IgG4-RD, immunohistochemical staining shows that the number of IgG4 positive plasma cells and IgG4/IgG ratio of RT are increased in varying degrees. Some cases meet the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RD, and speculate that some cases of RT belong to IgG4-RD.

  7. Ferulic acid enhances IgE binding to peanut allergens in western blots.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because phenolic compounds can precipitate or complex with proteins, we postulated that interactions of phenolics with IgE antibodies help enhance IgE binding to peanut allergens in Western blots. Three different phenolics, such as, ferulic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids were examined. Each was mixe...

  8. Computationally predicted IgE epitopes of walnut allergens contribute to cross-reactivity with peanuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cross reactivity between peanuts and tree nuts implies that similar IgE epitopes are present in their proteins. To determine whether walnut sequences similar to known peanut IgE binding sequences, according to the property distance (PD) scale implemented in the Structural Database of Allergenic Prot...

  9. Structural basis of omalizumab therapy and omalizumab-mediated IgE exchange

    DOE PAGES

    Pennington, Luke F.; Tarchevskaya, Svetlana; Brigger, Daniel; ...

    2016-05-19

    Omalizumab is a widely used therapeutic anti-IgE antibody. Here we report the crystal structure of the omalizumab–Fab in complex with an IgE-Fc fragment. This structure reveals the mechanism of omalizumab-mediated inhibition of IgE interactions with both high- and low-affinity IgE receptors, and explains why omalizumab selectively binds free IgE. The structure of the complex also provides mechanistic insight into a class of disruptive IgE inhibitors that accelerate the dissociation of the high-affinity IgE receptor from IgE. We use this structural data to generate a mutant IgE-Fc fragment that is resistant to omalizumab binding. Treatment with this omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragment, inmore » combination with omalizumab, promotes the exchange of cell-bound full-length IgE with omalizumab-resistant IgE-Fc fragments on human basophils. Furthermore, this combination treatment also blocks basophil activation more efficiently than either agent alone, providing a novel approach to probe regulatory mechanisms underlying IgE hypersensitivity with implications for therapeutic interventions.« less

  10. Factors affecting allergen-specific IgE serum levels in cats

    PubMed Central

    Belova, S.; Wilhelm, S.; Linek, M.; Beco, L.; Fontaine, J.; Bergvall, K.; Favrot, C.

    2012-01-01

    Pruritic skin diseases are common in cats and demand rigorous diagnostic workup for finding an underlying etiology. Measurement of a serum allergen-specific IgE in a pruritic cat is often used to make or confirm the diagnosis of a skin hypersensitivity disease, although current evidence suggests that elevated allergen-specific IgE do not always correlate with a clinical disease and vice versa. The aim of the study was to to assess the possible influence of age, deworming status, lifestyle, flea treatment, and gender on allergen-specific IgE levels and to evaluate the reliability of IgE testing in predicting the final diagnosis of a pruritic cat. For this purpose sera of 179 cats with pruritus of different causes and 20 healthy cats were evaluated for allergen-specific IgE against environmental, food and flea allergens using the Fc-epsilon receptor based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The results of the study showed positive correlation between age, outdoor life style, absence of deworming, absence of flea control measures and levels of allergen-specific IgE. Gender and living area (urban versus rural) did not seem to affect the formation of allergen-specific IgE. According to these findings, evaluating allergen-specific IgE levels, is not a reliable test to diagnose hypersensitivity to food or environmental allergens in cats. On the contrary, this test can be successfully used for diagnosing feline flea bite hypersensitivity. PMID:22754094

  11. Previously misdiagnosed linear IgA dermatosis resolved with dapsone.

    PubMed

    Tieppo Francio, Vinicius; Towery, Chris; Davani, Saeid; Allen, Travis; Brown, Tony L

    2018-04-25

    This is the case of a 25-year-old African American woman with a 3-week history of itching with burning, blistering lesions on her torso and extremities. Medical history was unremarkable. Medical treatments included three visits to urgent care, where she was treated with antivirals, oral and topical steroids, antibiotics and antifungals unsuccessfully. We performed a skin biopsy, and immunoflorescent studies revealed a linear deposition of IgA antigen at the basement membrane. The clinical diagnosis of linear IgA dermatosis (LAD) was established, with no eliciting cause, other than potential occupational exposure to Chlamydophila psittaci via her employment in a pet store. This is the first case to our knowledge to report such an association. However, confirmation of the exposure would only establish correlation, not causality. Resolution of symptoms and blisters was achieved with dapsone treatment. Accordingly, we highlight the crucial importance of reviewing exposures, along with the potential aetiology of LAD. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. B1 Cell IgE Impedes Mast Cell-Mediated Enhancement of Parasite Expulsion through B2 IgE Blockade.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rebecca K; Damle, Sheela R; Valentine, Yolander A; Zellner, Matthew P; James, Briana N; Lownik, Joseph C; Luker, Andrea J; Davis, Elijah H; DeMeules, Martha M; Khandjian, Laura M; Finkelman, Fred D; Urban, Joseph F; Conrad, Daniel H

    2018-02-13

    Helminth infection is known for generating large amounts of poly-specific IgE. Here we demonstrate that innate-like B1 cells are responsible for this IgE production during infection with the nematode parasites Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. In vitro analysis of B1 cell immunoglobulin class switch recombination to IgE demonstrated a requirement for anti-CD40 and IL-4 that was further enhanced when IL-5 was added or when the B1 source was helminth infected mice. An IL-25-induced upregulation of IgE in B1 cells was also demonstrated. In T cell-reconstituted RAG1 -/- mice, N. brasiliensis clearance was enhanced with the addition of B2 cells in an IgE-dependent manner. This enhanced clearance was impeded by reconstitution with IgE sufficient B1 cells. Mucosal mast cells mediated the B2 cell enhancement of clearance in the absence of B1 cells. The data support B1 cell IgE secretion as a regulatory response exploited by the helminth. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitation of IgG kappa and IgG lambda in the cerebrospinal fluid by sandwich ELISA method.

    PubMed

    Zeman, David; Kušnierová, Pavlína; Bojková, Jana; Všianský, František; Zapletalová, Olga

    2017-01-01

    IgG kappa and IgG lambda concentrations were quantified in 96 paired CSF and sera using Hevylite™ antibodies in an in-house developed sandwich ELISA method. In 56 of these samples, the results were compared with a qualitative isoelectric focusing/affinity-mediated immunoblotting assay for oligoclonal IgG kappa and IgG lambda. Normal IgG kappa/lambda ratio in the CSF was the same as in serum. In 19/33 patients with intrathecal oligoclonal IgG synthesis, skewed IgG kappa/lambda ratio was observed (increased in 16 and decreased in 3 cases). The analysis of light chain composition of intrathecally synthesised immunoglobulins could contribute to our understanding of intrathecal humoral immune response, although its diagnostic utility is limited.

  14. Relationship between frequency of pilocarpine administration and salivary IgA level.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Taubman, M A; Ebersole, J L; King, W

    1982-12-01

    The effect of repetitive administration of pilocarpine nitrate on the salivary volume and salivary IgA concentration was studied in the NIH white hamster. One and one-half to three-fold increases in salivary volume, coupled with decreases of 1/3 to 2/3 in IgA concentration, occurred as the frequency of administration of pilocarpine increased.

  15. The 28-entity IGES test file results using ComputerVision CADDS 4X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuan, Anchyi; Shah, Saurin; Smith, Kevin

    1987-01-01

    The investigation was based on the following steps: (1) Read the 28 Entity IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) Test File into the CAD data base with the IGES post-processor; (2) Make the modifications to the displayed geometries, which should produce the normalized front view and the drawing entity defined display; (3) Produce the drawing entity defined display of the file as it appears in the CAD system after modification to the geometry; (4) Translate the file back to IGES format using IGES pre-processor; (5) Read the IGES file produced by the pre-processor back into the CAD data base; (6) Produce another drawing entity defined display of the CAD display; and (7) Compare the plots resulting from steps 3 and 6 - they should be identical to each other.

  16. A New Classification System for IgG4 Autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Koneczny, Inga

    2018-01-01

    IgG4 autoimmune diseases are characterized by the presence of antigen-specific autoantibodies of the IgG4 subclass and contain well-characterized diseases such as muscle-specific kinase myasthenia gravis, pemphigus, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. In recent years, several new diseases were identified, and by now 14 antigens targeted by IgG4 autoantibodies have been described. The IgG4 subclass is considered immunologically inert and functionally monovalent due to structural differences compared to other IgG subclasses. IgG4 usually arises after chronic exposure to antigen and competes with other antibody species, thus “blocking” their pathogenic effector mechanisms. Accordingly, in the context of IgG4 autoimmunity, the pathogenicity of IgG4 is associated with blocking of enzymatic activity or protein–protein interactions of the target antigen. Pathogenicity of IgG4 autoantibodies has not yet been systematically analyzed in IgG4 autoimmune diseases. Here, we establish a modified classification system based on Witebsky’s postulates to determine IgG4 pathogenicity in IgG4 autoimmune diseases, review characteristics and pathogenic mechanisms of IgG4 in these disorders, and also investigate the contribution of other antibody entities to pathophysiology by additional mechanisms. As a result, three classes of IgG4 autoimmune diseases emerge: class I where IgG4 pathogenicity is validated by the use of subclass-specific autoantibodies in animal models and/or in vitro models of pathogenicity; class II where IgG4 pathogenicity is highly suspected but lack validation by the use of subclass specific antibodies in in vitro models of pathogenicity or animal models; and class III with insufficient data or a pathogenic mechanism associated with multivalent antigen binding. Five out of the 14 IgG4 antigens were validated as class I, five as class II, and four as class III. Antibodies of other IgG subclasses or immunoglobulin classes were present in several diseases

  17. Serological Analysis of Immunogenic Properties of Recombinant Meningococcus IgA1 Protease-Based Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, O V; Zinchenko, A A; Vikhrov, A A; Alliluev, A P; Serova, O V; Gordeeva, E A; Zhigis, L S; Zueva, V S; Razgulyaeva, O A; Melikhova, T D; Nokel, E A; Drozhzhina, E Yu; Rumsh, L D

    2016-07-01

    Using the genome sequence of IgA1 protease of N. meningitidis of serogroup B, four recombinant proteins of different structure and molecular weight were constructed. These proteins were equal in inducing the formation of specific antibodies to IgA1 protease and had protective properties against meningococci. In the sera of immunized mice, anti-IgA1 protease antibodies were detected by whole-cell ELISA, which indicated the presence of IgA1 protease on the surface of these bacteria. We hypothesized that the protective properties of IgA1 protease-based antigens and IgA1 protease analogs could be realized not only via impairment of bacterium adhesion to the mucosa, but also via suppression of this pathogen in the organism. The presented findings seem promising for using these proteins as the basis for anti-meningococcus vaccine.

  18. Study of the IGA/SCC behavior of Alloy 600 and 690 in high temperature solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujikawa, S.; Yashima, S.; Ohnishi, K.

    1995-09-01

    IGA/SCC of Alloy 600 steam generator (SG) tubes in the secondary side has been recognized as a matter of great concern for PWRs. IGA/SCC behavior of Alloy 600 and 690 in high temperature solutions were studied using CERT method under potentiostatic conditions. The IGA/SCC susceptible regions were investigated as the function of pH and electrode potential. To understand the cause of IGA/SCC, the electrochemical measurements and surface film analysis were also performed in acidic and alkaline solutions. To verify the results of CERT test, the long term model boiler tests were also carried out. Thermally treated Alloy 690 showed highermore » IGA/SCC resistance than Alloy 600 under both acid and alkaline conditions.« less

  19. Nanoparticles rapidly assess specific IgE in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sarmadia; Qadri, Shahnaz; al-Ramadi, Basel; Haik, Yousef

    2012-08-01

    Allergy is the sixth leading cause of chronic disease in the world. This study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting allergy indicators in human plasma, noninvasively, at the point of care and with a comparable efficiency and reduced turnaround time compared with the gold standard. Peanut allergy was utilized as a model due to its widespread occurrence among the US population and fatality if not treated. The detection procedure utilized magnetic nanoparticles that were coated with an allergen layer (peanut protein extract). Peanut immunoglobulin E (IgE) was detected in concentrations close to the minimum detection range of CAP assay. The results were obtained in minutes compared with the CAP assay which requires more than 3 h.

  20. Naturally Occurring Structural Isomers in Serum IgA1 O-Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuo; Smith, Archer D.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens; Julian, Bruce A.; Mestecky, Jiri; Novak, Jan; Renfrow, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    IgA is the most abundantly produced antibody and plays an important role in the mucosal immune system. Human IgA is represented by two isotypes, IgA1 and IgA2. The major structural difference between these two subclasses is the presence of nine potential sites of O-glycosylation in the hinge region between the first and second constant region domains of the heavy chain. Thr225, Thr228, Ser230, Ser232 and Thr236 have been identified as the predominant sites of O-glycan attachment. The range and distribution of O-glycan chains at each site within the context of adjacent sites in this clustered region create a complex heterogeneity of surface epitopes that is incompletely defined. We previously described the analysis of IgA1 O-glycan heterogeneity by use of high resolution LC/MS and electron capture dissociation tandem MS to unambiguously localize all amino acid attachment sites in IgA1 (Ale) myeloma protein. Here, we report the identification and elucidation of IgA1 O-glycopeptide structural isomers that occur based on amino acid position of the attached glycans (positional isomers) and the structure of the O-glycan chains at individual sites (glycan isomers). These isomers are present in a model IgA1 (Mce1) myeloma protein and occur naturally in normal human serum IgA1. Variable O-glycan chains attached to Ser230, Thr233 or Thr236 produce the predominant positional isomers, including O-glycans composed of a single GalNAc residue. These findings represent the first definitive identification of structural isomeric IgA1 O-glycoforms, define the single-site heterogeneity for all O-glycan sites in a single sample, and have implications for defining epitopes based on clustered O-glycan variability. PMID:22067045

  1. Inhibition of CD23-mediated IgE transcytosis suppresses the initiation and development of airway allergic inflammation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The epithelium lining the airway tract and allergen-specific IgE are considered essential controllers of inflammatory responses to allergens. The human IgE receptor, CD23 (Fc'RII), is capable of transporting IgE or IgE-allergen complexes across the polarized human airway epithelial cell (AEC) monola...

  2. The distinctive germinal center phase of IgE+ B lymphocytes limits their contribution to the classical memory response

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mechanisms involved in the maintenance of memory IgE responses are poorly understood, and the role played by germinal center (GC) IgE+ cells in memory responses is particularly unclear. IgE B cell differentiation is characterized by a transient GC phase, a bias towards the plasma cell (PC) fate,...

  3. Depigmented Allergoids Reveal New Epitopes with Capacity to Induce IgG Blocking Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    López-Matas, M. Angeles; Gallego, Mayte; Iraola, Víctor; Robinson, Douglas; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    Background. The synthesis of allergen-specific blocking IgGs that interact with IgE after allergen immunotherapy (SIT) has been related to clinical efficacy. The objectives were to investigate the epitope specificity of IgG-antibodies induced by depigmented-polymerized (Dpg-Pol) allergoids and unmodified allergen extracts, and examine IgE-blocking activity of induced IgG-antibodies. Methods. Rabbits were immunized with native and Dpg-Pol extracts of birch pollen, and serum samples were obtained. Recognition of linear IgG-epitopes of Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 and the capacity of these IgG-antibodies to block binding of human-IgE was determined. Results. Serum from rabbits immunized with native extracts recognised 11 linear epitopes from Bet v 1, while that from Dpg-Pol-immunized animals recognised 8. For Bet v 2, 8 epitopes were recognized by IgG from native immunized animals, and 9 from Dpg-Pol immunized one. Dpg-Pol and native immunized serum did not always recognise the same epitopes, but specific-IgG from both could block human-IgE binding sites for native extract. Conclusions. Depigmented-polymerized birch extract stimulates the synthesis of specific IgG-antibodies which recognize common but also novel epitopes compared with native extracts. IgG-antibodies induced by Dpg-Pol effectively inhibit human-IgE binding to allergens which may be part of the mechanism of action of SIT. PMID:24222901

  4. IgG4 plasma cell myeloma: new insights into the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Julia T; Niesvizky, Ruben; Jayabalan, David S; Mathew, Susan; Subramaniyam, Shivakumar; Geyer, Alexander I; Orazi, Attilio; Ely, Scott A

    2014-03-01

    IgG4-related disease is a newly described systemic fibroinflammatory process, characterized by increase in IgG4-positive plasma cells. Its pathogenesis, including the role of IgG4, remains poorly understood. Plasma cell myeloma is typically associated with a large monoclonal serum spike, which is frequently of IgG isotype. We sought to identify and characterize a subset of IgG4-secreting myeloma, as it may provide a biological model of disease with high serum levels of IgG4. Six out of 158 bone marrow biopsies (4%) from patients with IgG myeloma expressed IgG4. Four patients were men and two were women, with a mean age of 64 (range 53-87) years. Imaging showed fullness of pancreatic head (1), small non-metabolic lymphadenopathy (1), and bone lytic lesions (6). Two patients developed necrotizing fasciitis. All had elevated serum M-protein (mean 2.4, range 0.5-4.2 g/dl), and none had definite signs or symptoms of IgG4-related disease. Four myelomas had plasmablastic morphology. Four had kappa and two had lambda light chain expression. Three cases expressed CD56. Two patients had a complex karyotype. In conclusion, the frequency of IgG4 myeloma correlates with the normal distribution of IgG4 isoform. The patients with IgG4 myeloma appear to have a high rate of plasmablastic morphology and could be predisposed to necrotizing fasciitis. Despite high serum levels of IgG4, none had evidence of IgG4-related disease. These findings suggest that the increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells is not the primary etiologic agent in IgG4-related disease. Elevated serum levels of IgG4 is not sufficient to produce the typical disease presentation and should not be considered diagnostic of IgG4-related disease.

  5. Staphylococcal enterotoxin-specific IgE antibodies in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ide, Fumihito; Matsubara, Tomoyo; Kaneko, Miho; Ichiyama, Takashi; Mukouyama, Tokuko; Furukawa, Susumu

    2004-06-01

    The authors clarified the clinical significance of the measurement of serum concentrations of specific IgE antibodies to staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) A- and SEB in atopic dermatitis (AD). The serum concentrations of SEA- and SEB-specific IgE antibodies in 140 pediatric patients with AD were measured with an immuno CAP -radioallergosorbent test system (RAST). To check the cross-reaction of specific IgE antibodies to SEA/SEB and other allergens, the CAP RAST fluorescent enzyme immunoassay inhibition test was performed. Forty-seven patients (33.6%) tested positive for either SEA- or SEB-specific IgE antibodies. School children showed higher positive rates of SEA/SEB-specific IgE antibodies than infants or young children. The patients with severe AD and those with exacerbation of symptoms in summer, had higher positive rates of SEA/SEB-specific IgE antibodies than patients with mild AD or those with exacerbation in winter. In addition, the positive rates of specific IgE antibodies to both dog-dander and cat-dander were higher in patients with positive SEA/SEB-specific IgE antibodies than in patients with negative ones. No cross-reactions occurred among specific IgE antibodies to SEA/SEB and dog/cat dander with one patient's serum, which had positive IgE-specific antibodies against cat/dog dander and SEA/SEB. The positive rate of SEA/SEB-specific IgE antibodies in the patients with dogs and/or cats as pets was 48.4%, which was higher than in those with no pets. Atopic dermatitis patients who exhibit high positive rates of SEA/SEB-specific IgE antibodies were found to be school children, severe cases, cases with high serum concentrations of total IgE, cases with exacerbation in summer, and cases with dogs and/or cats as pets. The measurement of serum concentrations of specific IgE antibodies to SEA and SEB, thus has some value for evaluating AD patients.

  6. Maternal allergy is associated with surface-bound IgE on cord blood basophils.

    PubMed

    Matson, Adam P; Cloutier, Michelle M; Dhongade, Ashish; Puddington, Lynn; Rafti, Ektor

    2013-09-01

    The cell type(s) mediating the maternal influence on allergic disease in children remain unclear. We set out to define the relationship between maternal allergy and frequencies of cord blood (CB) basophils, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs); to characterize surface-bound IgE and FcεRI expressions on these cells; and to investigate the association between maternal and CB serum IgE levels with surface-bound IgE and FcεRI expressions. One hundred and three mother/infant dyads were recruited prenatally, and maternal allergic history was recorded. Maternal blood was collected prior to delivery, and CB was collected after birth. Flow cytometry was used to identify CB basophils and pDCs and to determine surface-bound IgE and FcεRI expressions. Frequencies of CB basophils and pDCs were low and not related to maternal history of allergy. Percentages of CB basophils with surface-bound IgE were significantly higher in infants of allergic mothers compared with infants of non-allergic mothers (median, 59.60% vs. 19.70%, p = 0.01). IgE on CB basophils correlated with CB IgE levels (r = 0.72, p < 0.0001), but not with maternal IgE levels (r = 0.26, p = 0.06). IgE on CB pDCs was low and not significantly associated with maternal or CB IgE levels. Similarly, FcεRI expression by CB basophils and pDCs was not significantly associated with maternal or CB IgE levels. Frequencies of CB basophils and pDCs are not influenced by maternal allergy. CB basophils and pDCs have surface-bound IgE and express FcεRI; however, only IgE on CB basophils appears influenced by maternal allergy. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Monovalent IgG4 molecules

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Ian C.; Fowler, Susan B.; Machiesky, LeeAnn; Miller, Kenneth; Hayes, David B.; Adib, Morshed; Her, Cheng; Borrok, M. Jack; Tsui, Ping; Burrell, Matthew; Corkill, Dominic J.; Witt, Susanne; Lowe, David C.; Webster, Carl I.

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies have become the fastest growing class of biological therapeutics, in part due to their exquisite specificity and ability to modulate protein-protein interactions with a high biological potency. The relatively large size and bivalency of antibodies, however, limits their use as therapeutics in certain circumstances. Antibody fragments, such as single-chain variable fragments and antigen binding-fragments, have emerged as viable alternatives, but without further modifications these monovalent formats have reduced terminal serum half-lives because of their small size and lack of an Fc domain, which is required for FcRn-mediated recycling. Using rational engineering of the IgG4 Fc domain to disrupt key interactions at the CH3-CH3 interface, we identified a number of point mutations that abolish Fc dimerization and created half-antibodies, a novel monovalent antibody format that retains a monomeric Fc domain. Introduction of these mutations into an IgG1 framework also led to the creation of half-antibodies. These half-antibodies were shown to be soluble, thermodynamically stable and monomeric, characteristics that are favorable for use as therapeutic proteins. Despite significantly reduced FcRn binding in vitro, which suggests that avidity gains in a dimeric Fc are critical to optimal FcRn binding, this format demonstrated an increased terminal serum half-life compared with that expected for most alternative antibody fragments. PMID:23567207

  8. Epitope-Specific Suppression of IgG Responses by Passively Administered Specific IgG: Evidence of Epitope Masking.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Joakim J E; Xu, Hui; Heyman, Birgitta

    2017-01-01

    Specific IgG, passively administered together with particulate antigen, can completely prevent induction of antibody responses to this antigen. The ability of IgG to suppress antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) is intact in mice lacking FcγRs, complement factor 1q, C3, or complement receptors 1 and 2, suggesting that Fc-dependent effector functions are not involved. Two of the most widely discussed explanations for the suppressive effect are increased clearance of IgG-antigen complexes and/or that IgG "hides" the antigen from recognition by specific B cells, so-called epitope masking. The majority of data on how IgG induces suppression was obtained through studies of the effects on IgM-secreting single spleen cells during the first week after immunization. Here, we show that IgG also suppresses antigen-specific extrafollicular antibody-secreting cells, germinal center B-cells, long-lived plasma cells, long-term IgG responses, and induction of memory antibody responses. IgG anti-SRBC reduced the amount of SRBC in the spleens of wild-type, but not of FcγR-deficient mice. However, no correlation between suppression and the amount of SRBC in the spleen was observed, suggesting that increased clearance does not explain IgG-mediated suppression. Instead, we found compelling evidence for epitope masking because IgG anti-NP administered with NP-SRBC suppressed the IgG anti-NP, but not the IgG anti-SRBC response. Vice versa, IgG anti-SRBC administered with NP-SRBC, suppressed only the IgG anti-SRBC response. In conclusion, passively transferred IgG suppressed all measured parameters of an antigen-specific antibody/B cell response and an important mechanism of action is likely to be epitope masking.

  9. IgA deficiency in wolves from Canada and Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Frankowiack, Marcel; Olsson, Mia; Cluff, H Dean; Evans, Alina L; Hellman, Lars; Månsson, Johan; Arnemo, Jon M; Hammarström, Lennart

    2015-05-01

    Immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in both humans and selected breeds of domestic dogs. In both species, IgAD is associated with recurrent infections and immune mediated diseases. Previous results imply that IgAD is also common in the wild ancestor of domestic dogs, the gray wolf. Here, we report that serum IgA concentrations are significantly different in Scandinavian and Canadian wolves (p = 3.252e-15) with an increased prevalence for IgAD in Scandinavian wolves (60%), which is as high as those found in high-risk dog breeds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Two Loci on Chromosome 5 Are Associated with Serum IgE Levels in Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Lauber, Béatrice; Molitor, Vivianne; Meury, Sabrina; Kierczak, Marcin; Tengvall, Katarina; Webster, Matthew T.; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Schlotter, Yvette; Willemse, Ton; Hendricks, Anke; Bergvall, Kerstin; Hedhammar, Åke; Andersson, Göran; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Favrot, Claude; Roosje, Petra; Marti, Eliane; Leeb, Tosso

    2012-01-01

    Crosslinking of immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE) bound at the surface of mast cells and subsequent mediator release is considered the most important trigger for allergic reactions. Therefore, the genetic control of IgE levels is studied in the context of allergic diseases, such as asthma, atopic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis (AD). We performed genome-wide association studies in 161 Labrador Retrievers with regard to total and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels. We identified a genome-wide significant association on CFA 5 with the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Acarus siro. We detected a second genome-wide significant association with respect to the antigen-specific IgE responsiveness to Tyrophagus putrescentiae at a different locus on chromosome 5. A. siro and T. putrescentiae both belong to the family Acaridae and represent so-called storage or forage mites. These forage mites are discussed as major allergen sources in canine AD. No obvious candidate gene for the regulation of IgE levels is located under the two association signals. Therefore our studies offer a chance of identifying a novel mechanism controlling the host's IgE response. PMID:22720065

  11. IgA Vasculitis: Genetics and Clinical and Therapeutic Management.

    PubMed

    González-Gay, Miguel A; López-Mejías, Raquel; Pina, Trinitario; Blanco, Ricardo; Castañeda, Santos

    2018-04-02

    The purpose of the study is to perform an update on the current knowledge on genetics, clinical manifestations, and therapy in immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV) (Henoch-Schönlein purpura). A strong genetic predisposition in individuals with IgAV was confirmed. It was due to the association with the HLA class II region that in people of European background is mainly related to HLA-DRB1*01 allele. Recent reports support the claim that kidney disease is more common in adults than in children with IgAV. The clinical spectrum and outcome of adults with IgAV depends on the age of onset. Relapses are not uncommon in IgAV. The presence of renal impairment or proteinuria excretion exceeding 1 g/24 h at the time of disease diagnosis and the degree of renal damage on the kidney biopsy are the best predictors of end-stage renal failure in adults with IgAV. The levels of urinary IgA at the onset of the disease may predict a poor renal outcome. The use of prednisone does not seem to prevent persistent kidney disease in children with IgAV. No additional benefit of adding cyclophosphamide to glucocorticoids in adults with IgAV was found. Rituximab seems to be a promising therapy in the management of adults with IgAV. In this overview, we focus on the genetics, clinical manifestations, and therapy of IgA vasculitis, emphasizing the main differences in the clinical expression of the disease between children and adults.

  12. Secretory IgA: Designed for Anti-Microbial Defense

    PubMed Central

    Brandtzaeg, Per

    2013-01-01

    Prevention of infections by vaccination remains a compelling goal to improve public health. Mucosal vaccines would make immunization procedures easier, be better suited for mass administration, and most efficiently induce immune exclusion – a term coined for non-inflammatory antibody shielding of internal body surfaces, mediated principally by secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). The exported antibodies are polymeric, mainly IgA dimers (pIgA), produced by local plasma cells (PCs) stimulated by antigens that target the mucose. SIgA was early shown to be complexed with an epithelial glycoprotein – the secretory component (SC). A common SC-dependent transport mechanism for pIgA and pentameric IgM was then proposed, implying that membrane SC acts as a receptor, now usually called the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). From the basolateral surface, pIg-pIgR complexes are taken up by endocytosis and then extruded into the lumen after apical cleavage of the receptor – bound SC having stabilizing and innate functions in the secretory antibodies. Mice deficient for pIgR show that this is the only receptor responsible for epithelial export of IgA and IgM. These knockout mice show a variety of defects in their mucosal defense and changes in their intestinal microbiota. In the gut, induction of B-cells occurs in gut-associated lymphoid tissue, particularly the Peyer’s patches and isolated lymphoid follicles, but also in mesenteric lymph nodes. PC differentiation is accomplished in the lamina propria to which the activated memory/effector B-cells home. The airways also receive such cells from nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue but by different homing receptors. This compartmentalization is a challenge for mucosal vaccination, as are the mechanisms used by the mucosal immune system to discriminate between commensal symbionts (mutualism), pathobionts, and overt pathogens (elimination). PMID:23964273

  13. Rapamycin slows IgA nephropathy progression in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jihua; Wang, Yanhong; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Li, Yanjiao; Wang, Chen; Li, Jiaming; Li, Rongshan

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most frequent glomerulonephritis worldwide. Different therapeutic approaches have been tested against IgAN. The present study was designed to explore the renoprotective potential of low-dose mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin in an IgAN rat model and the possible mechanism of action. After establishing an IgAN model, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, control with rapamycin treatment, IgAN model, and IgAN model with rapamycin treatment. Coomassie Brilliant Blue was utilized to measure 24-hour urinary protein levels. Hepatic and renal function was determined with an autoanalyzer. Proliferation was assayed via 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were utilized to detect the expression of α-SMA, collagen I, collagen III, TGF-β1 and platelet-derived growth factor. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine p-S6 protein levels. Low-dose mTOR inhibitor rapamycin prevented an additional increase in proteinuria and protected kidney function in a model of IgAN. Rapamycin directly or indirectly interfered with multiple key pathways in the progression of IgAN to end-stage renal disease: (1) reduced the deposition of IgA and inhibited cell proliferation; (2) decreased the expression of fibrosis markers α-SMA and type III collagen, and (3) downregulated the expression of the profibrotic growth factors platelet-derived growth factor and TGF-β1. The expression of p-S6 was significantly elevated in IgAN rats. The mTOR pathway was activated in IgAN rats and the early application of low-dose mTOR inhibitor rapamycin may slow the renal injury of IgAN in rats.

  14. Novel lectin-independent approach to detect galactose-deficient IgA1 in IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Yasutake, Junichi; Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Hiura, Naoko; Yanagawa, Hiroyuki; Makita, Yuko; Kaneko, Etsuji; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2015-08-01

    Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) is a critical effector molecule in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Although many researchers have measured serum levels of Gd-IgA1 using snail helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) lectin-based assay, the lectin-dependent assay has some serious problems in robustness. In this study, we aimed to establish a more robust and stable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method that uses a specific monoclonal antibody to recognize a hinge region in human Gd-IgA1 (Gd-IgA1 ELISA). Rats were immunized with human Gd-IgA1 hinge region peptide to obtain Gd-IgA1-specific monoclonal antibody KM55. Gd-IgA1 ELISA for specifically detecting serum Gd-IgA1 was consequently constructed. Serum Gd-IgA1 concentrations in human subjects were measured using KM55 ELISA assay. To further confirm specificity of the Gd-IgA1-specific antibody, KM55 was also applied for immunofluorescence staining of glomerular Gd-IgA1 in paraffin-embedded sections of renal biopsy specimens. Measurement of serum levels of Gd-IgA1 in human subjects by Gd-IgA1 ELISA revealed increased serum Gd-IgA1 level in patients with IgAN compared with patients with other renal diseases or non-renal diseases. Importantly, the results obtained from Gd-IgA1 ELISA positively correlated with those from the HAA lectin-based assay (R = 0.75). Immunofluorescence staining of renal biopsy specimens with KM55 detected glomerular co-localization of Gd-IgA1 and IgA. This novel lectin-independent method with KM55 for measuring serum levels of Gd-IgA1 can pave the way for more convincing diagnosis and activity assessment of IgAN, and can expedite clinical research to better understand this difficult disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  15. Novel lectin-independent approach to detect galactose-deficient IgA1 in IgA nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Yasutake, Junichi; Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Hiura, Naoko; Yanagawa, Hiroyuki; Makita, Yuko; Kaneko, Etsuji; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) is a critical effector molecule in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Although many researchers have measured serum levels of Gd-IgA1 using snail helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) lectin-based assay, the lectin-dependent assay has some serious problems in robustness. In this study, we aimed to establish a more robust and stable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method that uses a specific monoclonal antibody to recognize a hinge region in human Gd-IgA1 (Gd-IgA1 ELISA). Methods Rats were immunized with human Gd-IgA1 hinge region peptide to obtain Gd-IgA1-specific monoclonal antibody KM55. Gd-IgA1 ELISA for specifically detecting serum Gd-IgA1 was consequently constructed. Serum Gd-IgA1 concentrations in human subjects were measured using KM55 ELISA assay. To further confirm specificity of the Gd-IgA1-specific antibody, KM55 was also applied for immunofluorescence staining of glomerular Gd-IgA1 in paraffin-embedded sections of renal biopsy specimens. Results Measurement of serum levels of Gd-IgA1 in human subjects by Gd-IgA1 ELISA revealed increased serum Gd-IgA1 level in patients with IgAN compared with patients with other renal diseases or non-renal diseases. Importantly, the results obtained from Gd-IgA1 ELISA positively correlated with those from the HAA lectin-based assay (R = 0.75). Immunofluorescence staining of renal biopsy specimens with KM55 detected glomerular co-localization of Gd-IgA1 and IgA. Conclusion This novel lectin-independent method with KM55 for measuring serum levels of Gd-IgA1 can pave the way for more convincing diagnosis and activity assessment of IgAN, and can expedite clinical research to better understand this difficult disease. PMID:26109484

  16. IgG4-Associated Cholangitis Can Mimic Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zaydfudim, Victor M; Wang, Andrew Y; de Lange, Eduard E; Zhao, Zimin; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Bauer, Todd W; Adams, Reid B

    2015-07-01

    IgG4-associated cholangitis can mimic hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Previously reported patients with IgG4-associated cholangitis mimicking cholangiocarcinoma had elevated serum IgG4 levels and long-segment biliary strictures. However, in the absence of other diagnostic criteria for malignancy, IgG4-associated cholangitis should remain a consideration among patients with normal serum IgG4 and a hilar mass suspicious for cholangiocarcinoma. The presence of a hilar mass and a malignant-appearing biliary stricture in two patients with normal serum IgG4 prompted further evaluation and subsequent concomitant liver and bile duct resection and reconstruction. The diagnosis of IgG4-associated cholangitis was established during the pathologic evaluation of the resected specimens. IgG4-associated cholangitis is a known imitator of hilar cholangiocarcinoma and should be considered in the differential diagnosis even among serologically IgG4-negative patients with a hilar mass prior to operative resection.

  17. Aeroallergen and food IgE sensitization and local and systemic inflammation in asthma.

    PubMed

    Patelis, A; Janson, C; Borres, M P; Nordvall, L; Alving, K; Malinovschi, A

    2014-03-01

    We recently reported an independent association between IgE sensitization to food allergens and increased airway inflammation, assessed by fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), in a population-based study (J Allergy Clin Immunol, 130, 2012, 397). Similar studies have not been performed in populations with asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the allergic sensitization profile in asthmatics and examine FeNO, airway responsiveness and blood eosinophilia in relation to type and degree of IgE sensitization. FeNO, airway responsiveness, blood eosinophil count (B-Eos) and IgE sensitization to food allergens and aeroallergens were determined in 408 subjects with asthma, aged 10-34 years. Asthmatics had higher prevalence of IgE sensitization against all allergens than controls (P < 0.001). Mite, pollen, furry animal, mould and food sensitizations were each associated with increased FeNO, airway responsiveness and B-Eos in asthmatics. IgE sensitization to mould, furry animals and food allergens was independently related to FeNO (all P < 0.05) after adjustment for age, sex, height, smoking history and medication. IgE sensitization to mould (P < 0.001) and furry animals (P = 0.02) was related to airway responsiveness in a similar model. Finally, IgE sensitization to mould (P = 0.001), furry animals (P < 0.001) and food allergens (P < 0.001) was independently related to B-Eos. Independent effects of IgE sensitization to aeroallergens (furry animals and mould) and food allergens were found on both local and systemic markers of inflammation in asthma. The finding regarding food IgE sensitization is novel, and a clinical implication might be that even food sensitization must be assessed to fully understand inflammation patterns in asthma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Equine IgE responses to non-viral vaccine components.

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Laurel J; Netherwood, Kristina A; Norris, Meredith Somerville; Behrens, Nicole E; Shao, Matt X

    2012-12-14

    Vaccination of horses is performed annually or semi-annually with multiple viral antigens, either in a combination vaccine or as separate injections. While this practice undoubtedly prevents infection from such diseases as rabies, equine influenza, West Nile virus, and equine herpes virus, the procedure is not without repercussions. Hypersensitivity reactions, including fatal anaphylactic shock, after vaccination, although uncommon, have increased in incidence in recent years. Studies reported herein document the development of IgE antibodies against non-target antigen components of equine viral vaccines. We hypothesize that viral vaccines can induce an IgE response to non-target antigens, which could elicit an adverse response after vaccination with another viral vaccine containing the same component. In one study IgE responses to components of West Nile virus vaccine were evaluated by ELISA before and after vaccination in 30 horses. In a second five-year study 77 horses were similarly tested for IgE antibodies against bovine serum albumin (BSA), a component of most viral vaccines. Mast cell sensitization was evaluated in horses with high, moderate, and negative serum BSA specific IgE using an intradermal skin test with BSA. Over the five-year period high IgE responder horses showed gradually increasing BSA specific serum IgE levels and positive skin test reactivity, yet none had an adverse event. Sera from horses that had developed adverse vaccine reactions were also tested for IgE antibodies. Several of these horses had extremely high levels of BSA-specific IgE. These data suggest that non-essential protein components of vaccines may sensitize horses for future adverse responses to vaccination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-actin IgA antibodies in severe coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    Granito, A; Muratori, P; Cassani, F; Pappas, G; Muratori, L; Agostinelli, D; Veronesi, L; Bortolotti, R; Petrolini, N; Bianchi, F B; Volta, U

    2004-01-01

    Anti-actin IgA antibodies have been found in sera of coeliacs. Our aim was to define the prevalence and clinical significance of anti-actin IgA in coeliacs before and after gluten withdrawal. One hundred and two biopsy-proven coeliacs, 95 disease controls and 50 blood donors were studied. Anti-actin IgA were evaluated by different methods: (a) antimicrofilament positivity on HEp-2 cells and on cultured fibroblasts by immunofluorescence; (b) anti-actin positivity by enzyme-linked immuosorbent assay (ELISA); and (c) presence of the tubular/glomerular pattern of anti-smooth muscle antibodies on rat kidney sections by immunofluorescence. Antimicrofilament IgA were present in 27% of coeliacs and in none of the controls. Antimicrofilament antibodies were found in 25 of 54 (46%) coeliacs with severe villous atrophy and in three of 48 (6%) with mild damage (P < 0·0001). In the 20 patients tested, antimicrofilaments IgA disappeared after gluten withdrawal in accordance with histological recovery. Our study shows a significant correlation between antimicrofilament IgA and the severity of intestinal damage in untreated coeliacs. The disappearance of antimicrofilament IgA after gluten withdrawal predicts the normalization of intestinal mucosa and could be considered a useful tool in the follow-up of severe coeliac disease. PMID:15270857

  20. IGA: A Simplified Introduction and Implementation Details for Finite Element Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Vishal; Gautam, Sachin S.

    2018-05-01

    Isogeometric analysis (IGA) is a recently introduced technique that employs the Computer Aided Design (CAD) concept of Non-uniform Rational B-splines (NURBS) tool to bridge the substantial bottleneck between the CAD and finite element analysis (FEA) fields. The simplified transition of exact CAD models into the analysis alleviates the issues originating from geometrical discontinuities and thus, significantly reduces the design-to-analysis time in comparison to traditional FEA technique. Since its origination, the research in the field of IGA is accelerating and has been applied to various problems. However, the employment of CAD tools in the area of FEA invokes the need of adapting the existing implementation procedure for the framework of IGA. Also, the usage of IGA requires the in-depth knowledge of both the CAD and FEA fields. This can be overwhelming for a beginner in IGA. Hence, in this paper, a simplified introduction and implementation details for the incorporation of NURBS based IGA technique within the existing FEA code is presented. It is shown that with little modifications, the available standard code structure of FEA can be adapted for IGA. For the clear and concise explanation of these modifications, step-by-step implementation of a benchmark plate with a circular hole under the action of in-plane tension is included.

  1. Evaluation of intra- and extra-epithelial secretory IgA in chlamydial infections

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, Charles W; O’Meara, Connor P; Harvie, Marina C G; Timms, Peter; Wijburg, Odilia L; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A is an important mucosal antibody that can neutralize mucosal pathogens by either preventing attachment to epithelia (immune exclusion) or alternatively inhibit intra-epithelial replication following transcytosis by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen that initially targets the endocervical or urethral epithelium in women and men, respectively. As both tissues contain abundant secretory IgA (SIgA) we assessed the protection afforded by IgA targeting different chlamydial antigens expressed during the extra- and intra-epithelial stages of infection. We developed an in vitro model using polarizing cells expressing the murine pIgR together with antigen-specific mouse IgA, and an in vivo model using pIgR−/− mice. Secretory IgA targeting the extra-epithelial chlamydial antigen, the major outer membrane protein, significantly reduced infection in vitro by 24% and in vivo by 44%. Conversely, pIgR-mediated delivery of IgA targeting the intra-epithelial inclusion membrane protein A bound to the inclusion but did not reduce infection in vitro or in vivo. Similarly, intra-epithelial IgA targeting the secreted protease Chlamydia protease-like activity factor also failed to reduce infection. Together, these data suggest the importance of pIgR-mediated delivery of IgA targeting extra-epithelial, but not intra-epithelial, chlamydial antigens for protection against a genital tract infection. PMID:24827556

  2. Specific IgE in tear fluid and features of allergic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Tatsuya; Yamagami, Satoru; Kamei, Yuko; Goto, Mari; Matsubara, Masao

    2013-09-01

    The level of specific class E immunoglobulins (IgE) in tear fluid is a useful diagnostic indicator for allergic conjunctivitis, but it is still unclear whether the measurement of tear fluid IgE is helpful for assessing the severity of allergic conjunctivitis. In this study, we evaluated the relation between tear fluid levels of specific IgE and features of allergic conjunctivitis. A prospective, nonrandomized, cross-sectional study was conducted in patients with allergic conjunctivitis (n = 55, allergic group) and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (n = 50, control group). Levels of specific IgE for cedar pollen, cat epithelium/dander and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were measured in tear fluid with the Immfast Check J1®. A severity score (0, 1, 2 or 3) was assigned for various changes of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, as well as for limbal and corneal lesions. The levels of specific IgE for both cedar pollen, and D. pteronyssinus were significantly higher in the allergic group compared with the control group (p < 0.0001), while the level of specific IgE for cat epithelium/dander showed no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.0777). When IgE levels were divided into four classes, the classes for both D. Pteronyssinus and cat epithelium/dander IgE were correlated with four features of allergic conjunctivitis. On the other hand, no correlation was found between the class of cedar pollen IgE and any of the features of allergic conjunctivitis. This study demonstrated that measurement of specific IgE in tear fluid may be useful for determining the severity of allergic conjunctivitis induced by indoor allergens. Although measurement of IgE in tear fluid is only a supplemental tool for evaluating the clinical activity of allergic conjunctivitis, the test can be useful for detecting specific IgE antibodies responsible for this condition.

  3. Development of the gut microbiota and mucosal IgA responses in twins and gnotobiotic mice.

    PubMed

    Planer, Joseph D; Peng, Yangqing; Kau, Andrew L; Blanton, Laura V; Ndao, I Malick; Tarr, Phillip I; Warner, Barbara B; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2016-06-09

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA), the major class of antibody secreted by the gut mucosa, is an important contributor to gut barrier function. The repertoire of IgA bound to gut bacteria reflects both T-cell-dependent and -independent pathways, plus glycans present on the antibody's secretory component. Human gut bacterial taxa targeted by IgA in the setting of barrier dysfunction are capable of producing intestinal pathology when isolated and transferred to gnotobiotic mice. A complex reorientation of gut immunity occurs as infants transition from passively acquired IgA present in breast milk to host-derived IgA. How IgA responses co-develop with assembly of the microbiota during this period remains poorly understood. Here, we (1) identify a set of age-discriminatory bacterial taxa whose representations define a program of microbiota assembly and maturation during the first 2 postnatal years that is shared across 40 healthy twin pairs in the USA; (2) describe a pattern of progression of gut mucosal IgA responses to bacterial members of the microbiota that is highly distinctive for family members (twin pairs) during the first several postnatal months then generalizes across pairs in the second year; and (3) assess the effects of zygosity, birth mode, and breast feeding. Age-associated differences in these IgA responses can be recapitulated in young germ-free mice, colonized with faecal microbiota obtained from two twin pairs at 6 and 18 months of age, and fed a sequence of human diets that simulate the transition from milk feeding to complementary foods. Most of these responses were robust to diet, suggesting that 'intrinsic' properties of community members play a dominant role in dictating IgA responses. The approach described can be used to define gut mucosal immune development in health and disease states and to help discover ways of repairing or preventing perturbations in this facet of host immunity.

  4. The role of the carbohydrate chains in complement (C3) fixation by solid-phase-bound human IgA.

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, E B; Tomana, M; Russell, M W

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to antigen-antibody complexes containing native human IgA, solid-phase-deposited IgA activates the alternative complement pathway and binds C3b. To investigate the role of carbohydrate chains in this, various human IgA preparations were treated with neuraminidase alone or together with N-glycanase or O-glycanase, or with mixed glycosidases from the oral bacterium, Streptococcus mitis. Depletion of oligosaccharides was determined by carbohydrate analysis. Removal of sialic acid and N-linked glycan chains greatly increased the C3b-fixing properties of normal serum IgA1 and IgA2. Myeloma IgA1 and IgA2 proteins and secretory IgA had higher C3b-binding activity than normal serum IgA, and this was further increased by removal of sialic acid and N-linked glycans. Fc alpha and Fc alpha-SC fragments of myeloma and secretory IgA1, respectively, but not Fab alpha fragments, obtained by cleavage with bacterial IgA1 proteases and also free secretory component, fixed C3b by the alternative pathway. Images Figure 4 PMID:7927504

  5. Purification and functional characterization of mucosal IgA from vaccinated and SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Musich, Thomas; Demberg, Thorsten; Morgan, Ian L; Estes, Jacob D; Franchini, Genoveffa; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2015-06-01

    Vaccine-induced mucosal antibodies are often evaluated using small volumes of secretory fluids. However, fecal matter containing mucosal IgA is abundant. We purified fecal IgA from five SIV-vaccinated and five SIV-infected rhesus macaques by sequential affinity chromatography. The purified IgA was dimeric by native PAGE, contained secretory component, and was analogous to IgA in colostrum and vaginal fluid by western blot. IgA from one infected and four vaccinated animals neutralized H9-derived SIV(mac)251 with IC(50)s as low as 1 μg/mL. Purified IgAs inhibited transcytosis and exhibited phagocytic activity, the latter significantly correlated with SIV(mac)251 Env-specific IgA in the purified samples. Among different affinity resins, peptide M was optimal compared to jacalin, anti-monkey IgA and SSL7 for IgA purification, as confirmed using tandem peptide M/anti-monkey IgA columns. Fecal IgA provided material sufficient for several assays relevant to protective efficacy, and was shown to be multifunctional. Our approach is potentially applicable to human clinical studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Cytokine, chemokine and secretory IgA levels in human milk in relation to atopic disease and IgA production in infants.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Malin F; Jenmalm, Maria C; Björkstén, Bengt

    2003-02-01

    The relationship between breast-feeding, IgA production and development of atopic disease in children is a matter of controversy. Some of this controversy might be due to individual differences in the composition of breast milk. The aim of this study was to relate the levels of cytokines, chemokines and secretory (S)-IgA antibodies in breast milk to the development of atopic manifestation and salivary IgA production in infants. Cytokine, chemokine and SIgA levels, as measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), in colostrum and mature milk were analyzed in relation to the development of positive skin-prick tests (SPT), allergic symptoms and salivary IgA antibody production during the first 2 years of life in 53 infants. There was no association between levels of IL-4, -5, -6, -8, -10, -13, -16, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta1, -beta2, RANTES, eotaxin or SIgA levels in the breast milk with either SPT-positivity, development of allergic symptoms or salivary IgA levels during the first 2 years of life in the infants. Thus, differences in the composition of cytokines, chemokines and SIgA in breast milk did not, to any major degree, affect the development of a positive SPT, atopic symptoms, nor salivary IgA antibody production during the first 2 years of life.

  7. Contributions of direct versus indirect mechanisms for regulatory dendritic cell suppression of asthmatic allergen-specific IgG1 antibody responses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yanna; Dawicki, Wojciech; Zhang, Xiaobei

    2018-01-01

    IL-10-differentiated dendritic cells (DC10) can reverse the asthma phenotype in mice, but how they suppress the asthmatic B cell response is unclear. Herein we assessed the mechanism(s) by which DC10 and DC10-induced Treg affect IgG1 production in asthma. We observed a rapid decline in lung-resident OVA-specific IgG1-secreting B cells on cessation of airway allergen challenge, and intraperitoneal DC10 therapy did not amplify that (p>0.05). It did however increase the loss of IgG1-B cells from the bone marrow (by 45+/-7.2%; p≤0.01) and spleen (by 65+/-17.8%; p≤0.05) over 2 wk. Delivery of OVA-loaded DC10 directly into the airways of asthmatic mice decreased the lung IgG1 B cell response assessed 2 dy later by 33+/-9.7% (p≤0.01), while their co-culture with asthmatic lung cell suspensions reduced the numbers of IgG1-secreting cells by 56.5+/-9.7% (p≤0.01). This effect was dependent on the DC10 carrying intact allergen on their cell surface; DC10 that had phagocytosed and fully processed their allergen were unable to suppress B cell responses, although they did suppress asthmatic Th2 cell responses. We had shown that therapeutic delivery of DC10-induced Treg can effectively suppress asthmatic T and B cell (IgE and IgG1) responses; herein CD4+ cells or Treg from the lungs of DC10-treated OVA-asthmatic mice suppressed in vitro B cell IgG1 production by 52.2+/-8.7% (p≤0.001) or 44.6+/-12.2% (p≤0.05), respectively, but delivery of DC10-induced Treg directly into the airways of asthmatic mice had no discernible impact over 2 dy on the numbers of lung IgG1-secreting cells (p≥0.05). In summary, DC10 treatment down-regulates OVA-specific B cell responses of asthmatic mice. While DC10 that carry intact allergen on their cell surface can dampen this response, DC10-induced Treg are critical for full realization of this outcome. This suggests that infectious tolerance is an essential element in regulatory DC control of the B cell response in allergic asthma. PMID

  8. β1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 is a novel receptor for IgA in human mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, Karen; Wimbury, David; Pawluczyk, Izabella; Muto, Masahiro; Bhachu, Jasraj; Mertens, Peter R; Feehally, John; Barratt, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    IgA nephropathy is characterized by mesangial deposition of IgA, mesangial cell proliferation, and extracellular matrix production. Mesangial cells bind IgA, but the identity of all potential receptors involved remains incomplete. The transferrin receptor (CD71) acts as a mesangial cell IgA receptor and its expression is upregulated in many forms of glomerulonephritis, including IgA nephropathy. CD71 is not expressed in healthy glomeruli and blocking CD71 does not completely abrogate mesangial cell IgA binding. Previously we showed that mesangial cells express a receptor that binds the Fc portion of IgA and now report that this receptor is an isoform of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase. A human mesangial cell cDNA library was screened for IgA binding proteins and β-1,4-galactosyltransferase identified. Cell surface expression of the long isoform of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase was shown by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy and confirmed by immunoblotting. Glomerular β-1,4-galactosyltransferase expression was increased in IgA nephropathy. IgA binding and IgA-induced mesangial cell phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase and IL-6 synthesis were inhibited by a panel of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase-specific antibodies, suggesting IgA binds to the catalytic domain of β-1,4-galactosyltransferase. Thus, β-1,4-galactosyltransferase is a constitutively expressed mesangial cell IgA receptor with an important role in both mesangial IgA clearance and the initial response to IgA deposition. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. NASA geometry data exchange specification for computational fluid dynamics (NASA IGES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Matthew W.; Kerr, Patricia A.; Thorp, Scott A.; Jou, Jin J.

    1994-01-01

    This document specifies a subset of an existing product data exchange specification that is widely used in industry and government. The existing document is called the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification. This document, a subset of IGES, is intended for engineers analyzing product performance using tools such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This document specifies how to define mathematically and exchange the geometric model of an object. The geometry is represented utilizing nonuniform rational B-splines (NURBS) curves and surfaces. Only surface models are represented; no solid model representation is included. This specification does not include most of the other types of product information available in IGES (e.g., no material properties or surface finish properties) and does not provide all the specific file format details of IGES. The data exchange protocol specified in this document is fully conforming to the American National Standard (ANSI) IGES 5.2.

  10. [The expression and significance of IgE in anaphylactic shock guinea-pigs].

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhi-qiang; Xiao, Feng; Feng, Qiong; Xu, Xiao-ming; Zheng, Jian

    2006-02-01

    To seek the pathomorphological targets for forensic expertise in anaphylactic shock. The expression of IgE in hearts, lungs, livers, spleens, kidneys, gastrics, intestinals, tracheas and tonsils of anaphylactic shock guinea-pigs was observed at 0, 6, 12 h and 24 h respectively by tissue chip S-P immuno-histochemical method. Positive expression of IgE presented in lungs and tracheas in the test group with the peak at 0 hour and it declined as time advanced, and also there were significant differences at different times (P<0.05). The immuno-histochemical method of detecting the expression of IgE in lungs, tracheas and spleens can be supposed to be the pathomorphological targets for forensic expertise in anaphylactic shock. The weakening of the positive expression of IgE in lungs and tracheas as the time advanced suggested that in this kind of case the autopsy should be arried out as early as possible.

  11. Different implications of paternal and maternal atopy for perinatal IgE production and asthma development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Rong-Fu; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a hereditary disease associated with IgE-mediated reaction. Whether maternal atopy and paternal atopy have different impacts on perinatal IgE production and asthma development remains unclear. This paper reviews and summarizes the effects of maternal and paternal atopy on the developmental aspects of IgE production and asthma. Maternal atopy affects both pre- and postnatal IgE production, whereas paternal atopy mainly affects the latter. Maternally transmitted genes GSTP1 and FceRI-beta are associated with lung function and allergic sensitization, respectively. In IgE production and asthma development, the maternal influence on gene-environment interaction is greater than paternal influence. Maternal, paternal, and/or postnatal environmental modulation of allergic responses have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms, which may be good targets for early prevention of asthma.

  12. Different Implications of Paternal and Maternal Atopy for Perinatal IgE Production and Asthma Development

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Rong-Fu; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a hereditary disease associated with IgE-mediated reaction. Whether maternal atopy and paternal atopy have different impacts on perinatal IgE production and asthma development remains unclear. This paper reviews and summarizes the effects of maternal and paternal atopy on the developmental aspects of IgE production and asthma. Maternal atopy affects both pre- and postnatal IgE production, whereas paternal atopy mainly affects the latter. Maternally transmitted genes GSTP1 and FceRI-beta are associated with lung function and allergic sensitization, respectively. In IgE production and asthma development, the maternal influence on gene-environment interaction is greater than paternal influence. Maternal, paternal, and/or postnatal environmental modulation of allergic responses have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms, which may be good targets for early prevention of asthma. PMID:22272211

  13. Kissing selectively decreases allergen-specific IgE production in atopic patients.

    PubMed

    Kimata, H

    2006-05-01

    Stress enhanced allergic skin wheal responses and allergen-specific IgE production. In contrast, mothers' kissing caused relaxation in infants, and kissing by lovers or spouses to atopic patients reduced allergic skin wheal responses. I studied the effect of kissing on production of allergen-specific IgE and cytokines in atopic patients. Twenty-four patients with mild atopic eczema and 24 patients with mild allergic rhinitis kissed with lovers or spouses freely for 30 min while listening to soft music. Just before and immediately after kissing, blood mononuclear cells were separated cultured for allergen, and production of allergen-specific immunoglobulin and cytokine was measured. Kissing selectively decreased allergen-specific IgE production with skewing cytokine pattern toward Th1 type. Kissing may alleviate allergic symptoms by decrease in allergen-specific IgE production.

  14. The who, where, and when of IgE in allergic airway disease.

    PubMed

    Dullaers, Melissa; De Bruyne, Ruth; Ramadani, Faruk; Gould, Hannah J; Gevaert, Philippe; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2012-03-01

    Allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis are characterized by a T(H)2-dominated immune response associated with increased serum IgE levels in response to inhaled allergens. Because IgE is a key player in the induction and maintenance of allergic inflammation, it represents a prime target for therapeutic intervention. However, our understanding of IgE biology remains fragmentary. This article puts together our current knowledge on IgE in allergic airway diseases with a special focus on the identity of IgE-secreting cells ("who"), their location ("where"), and the circumstances in which they are induced ("when"). We further consider the therapeutic implications of the insights gained. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. IGES, a key interface specification for CAD/CAM systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. M.; Wellington, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) program has focused the efforts of 52 companies on the development and documentation of a means of graphics data base exchange among present day CAD/CAM systems. The project's brief history has seen the evolution of the Specification into preliminary industrial usage marked by public demonstrations of vendor capability, mandatory requests in procurement actions, and a formalization into an American National Standard in September 1981. Recent events have demonstrated intersystem data exchange among seven vendor systems with a total of 30 vendors committing to offer IGES capability. A full range of documentation supports the IGES project and the recently approved IGES Version 2.0 of the Specification.

  16. Early life IgE responses in children living in the tropics: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Zakzuk, Josefina; Acevedo, Nathalie; Cifuentes, Liliana; Bornacelly, Adriana; Sánchez, Jorge; Ahumada, Velky; Ring, Johannes; Ollert, Markus; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-12-01

    There are few birth cohort studies analyzing IgE sensitization in the tropics. We aimed to describe the evolution of total IgE and specific IgE responses to house-dust mite (HDM) allergens and Ascaris in a birth cohort (Risk Factors for Asthma and Allergy in the Tropics, FRAAT), analyzing their relationships with wheezing. Total and specific IgE were measured by ImmunoCap in mothers and children at four different time points (S1-S4) between 0 and 42 months. Parasite infection was evaluated by stool examination. Maternal total IgE (aOR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.09-5.43; p = 0.03) and socio-demographic factors were associated with high cord blood (CB) total IgE. High CB total IgE was positively associated with higher Blomia tropicalis and Ascaris-specific IgE values during lifetime, but protected from recurrent wheezing (aOR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.08-0.88, p = 0.03). Prevalence rates of IgE sensitization were high; at around 3 yr old, they were 33.3, 18.6, and 26.5% for B. tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and Ascaris, respectively. Indicators of unhygienic conditions were risk factors for HDM and Ascaris sensitization in children. A weak statistical association between B. tropicalis-specific IgE and ever wheezing was found (aOR: 1.47 95% CI: 1.00-2.28, p = 0.05). In a socioeconomically deprived community from the tropics, sensitization to HDM allergens was very frequent at early life, especially to B. tropicalis. In contrast to expected according to the hygiene hypothesis, unhygienic/poverty conditions were risk factors for allergen sensitization. High CB total IgE levels were a risk factor for allergen sensitization but protected from recurrent wheezing. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Riedel's thyroiditis association with IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Stan, Marius N; Sonawane, Vikram; Sebo, Thomas J; Thapa, Prabin; Bahn, Rebecca S

    2017-03-01

    IgG4-positive (+) plasma cells have been reported in both Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). These cells are the hallmark of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). We sought to determine whether RT is part of IgG4-RD spectrum. This was a case-control study performed at a tertiary medical centre. We included RT cases from the period 1958 to 2008 that had sufficient paraffin-embedded tissue for IgG4 immunostaining. Controls were patients with HT, age and gender matched, with similar pathology criteria. The main outcome measures were the intensity of the IgG4 staining and the clinical and histological correlates with IgG4-RD. Six pairs of RT and HT were analysed. The mean age was 44·7 years. In both groups, 5/6 cases had positive IgG4 staining. The mean number of IgG4 + cells/ HPF, normalized to the degree of inflammation, was 3·2 ± 3·0 SD (RT) vs 0·9 ± 0·7 (HT), P = 0·15, for fibrotic areas and 2·1 ± 2·3 SD vs 1·0 ± 0·8 (P = 0·39) for areas with lymphoid aggregates. We found the number of IgG4 +  cells in RT to be inversely correlated with the duration of disease (P = 0·046). Three RT cases had associated comorbidities from the IgG4-RD spectrum while none of the HT cases had such conditions. Riedel's thyroiditis is a component of IgG4-RD with the density of the IgG4 +  lymphocytic infiltrate being time dependent. In this small study, we did not identify differences in IgG4 infiltration between RT and HT, minimizing the utility of this marker in RT diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Computationally predicted IgE epitopes of walnut allergens contribute to cross-reactivity with peanuts

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Soheila J.; Teuber, Suzanne S.; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Chen, Deliang; Comstock, Sarah S.; Ruan, Sanbao; Schein, Catherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cross reactivity between peanuts and tree nuts implies that similar IgE epitopes are present in their proteins. Objective To determine whether walnut sequences similar to known peanut IgE binding sequences, according to the property distance (PD) scale implemented in the Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP), react with IgE from sera of patients with allergy to walnut and/or peanut. Methods Patient sera were characterized by Western blotting for IgE-binding to nut protein extracts, and to peptides from walnut and peanut allergens, similar to known peanut epitopes as defined by low PD values, synthesized on membranes. Competitive ELISA was used to show that peanut and predicted walnut epitope sequences compete with purified Ara h 2 for binding to IgE in serum from a cross-reactive patient. Results Sequences from the vicilin walnut allergen Jug r 2 which had low PD values to epitopes of the peanut allergen Ara h 2, a 2s-albumin, bound IgE in sera from five patients who reacted to either walnut, peanut or both. A walnut epitope recognized by 6 patients mapped to a surface-exposed region on a model of the N-terminal pro-region of Jug r 2. A predicted walnut epitope competed for IgE binding to Ara h 2 in serum as well as the known IgE epitope from Ara h 2. Conclusions Sequences with low PD value (<8.5) to known IgE epitopes could contribute to cross-reactivity between allergens. This further validates the PD scoring method for predicting cross-reactive epitopes in allergens. PMID:21883278

  19. Immunosafety of recombinant human C1-inhibitor in hereditary angioedema: evaluation of ige antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hack, C Erik; Relan, Anurag; Baboeram, Aartie; Oortwijn, Beatrijs; Versteeg, Serge; van Ree, Ronald; Pijpstra, Rienk

    2013-04-01

    Recombinant human C1-inhibitor (rhC1INH) purified from milk of transgenic rabbits is used for the treatment of acute attacks in patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-inhibitor (C1INH) deficiency. The objective was to investigate the risk of rhC1INH inducing IgE antibodies or eliciting anaphylactic reactions. In subjects treated with rhC1INH, we retrospectively analysed the frequency and clinical relevance of pre-exposure and potentially newly induced IgE antibodies against rabbit and other animal allergens including cow's milk by the ImmunoCAP(®) Specific IgE blood test system. 130 HAE patients and 14 healthy subjects received 300 administrations of rhC1INH, 65 subjects (47.4 %) on one occasion; 72 (52.6 %) on at least two occasions (range 2-12; median 2). Five subjects had pre-existing anti-rabbit epithelium IgE; the subject with the highest levels and a previously undisclosed rabbit allergy developed an anaphylactic reaction upon first exposure to rhC1INH, whereas the other four subjects with lower pre-existing IgE levels (Class 1-3), did not. No other anaphylactic reactions were identified in any of the subjects exposed to rhC1INH. Analysis of post-exposure samples revealed that the risk of inducing new or boosting existing IgE responses to rabbit or cow's milk allergens was negligible. The propensity of rhC1INH to induce IgE antibodies following repeated administration of rhC1INH is low. Subjects with substantially elevated anti-rabbit epithelium IgE antibodies and/or clinical allergy to rabbits may have an increased risk for an allergic reaction. No other risk factors for allergic reactions to rhC1INH have been identified.

  20. Effect of urbanisation on the relationship between total serum IgE and asthma.

    PubMed

    Checkley, William; Robinson, Colin L; Baumann, Lauren M; Romero, Karina; Combe, Juan M; Gilman, Robert H; Wise, Robert A; Hamilton, Robert G; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Cama, Vitaliano; Hansel, Nadia N

    2013-05-01

    It is unclear if the relationship of total serum IgE with asthma varies with degree of urbanisation. We hypothesised that the relationship of total serum IgE to asthma is more pronounced in an urban versus a rural environment. We enrolled 1441 children aged 13-15 years in a peri-urban shanty town in Lima, Peru (n=725) and 23 villages in rural Tumbes, Peru (n=716). We asked participants about asthma and allergy symptoms, environmental exposures and sociodemographics; and performed spirometry, and exhaled nitric oxide and allergy skin testing. We obtained blood for total serum IgE in 1143 (79%) participants. Geometric means for total serum IgE were higher in Lima versus Tumbes (262 versus 192 kU·L(-1); p<0.001). The odds of asthma increased by factors of 1.6 (95% CI 1.3-2.0) versus 1.4 (95% CI 0.9-2.1) per log unit increase in total serum IgE in Lima versus Tumbes, respectively. Atopy was an effect modifier of the relationship of total serum IgE on asthma. Among atopics and non-atopics, the odds of asthma increased by a factor of 2.0 (95% CI 1.5-2.7) and 1.0 (95% CI 0.7-1.4) per log unit increase in total serum IgE, respectively. Total serum IgE was associated with atopic asthma but not with non-atopic asthma. Urbanisation did not appear to be an effect modifier of this relationship.

  1. Microarray-based IgE detection in tears of patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Andrea; Borghesan, Franco; Faggian, Diego; Plebani, Mario

    2015-11-01

    A specific allergen sensitization can be demonstrated in approximately half of the vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) patients by conventional allergic tests. The measurement of specific IgE in tears using a multiplex allergen microarray may offer advantages to identify local sensitization to a specific allergen. In spring-summer 2011, serum and tears samples were collected from 10 active VKC patients (three females, seven males) and 10 age-matched normal subjects. Skin prick test, symptoms score and full ophthalmological examination were performed. Specific serum and tear IgE were assayed using ImmunoCAP ISAC, a microarray containing 103 components derived from 47 allergens. Normal subjects resulted negative for the presence of specific IgE both in serum and in tears. Of the 10 VKC patients, six resulted positive to specific IgE in serum and/or tears. In three of these six patients, specific IgE was found positive only in tears. Cross-reactivity between specific markers was found in three patients. Grass, tree, mites, animal but also food allergen-specific IgE were found in tears. Conjunctival provocation test performed out of season confirmed the specific local conjunctival reactivity. Multiple specific IgE measurements with single protein allergens using a microarray technique in tear samples are a useful, simple and non-invasive diagnostic tool. ImmunoCAP ISAC detects allergen sensitization at component level and adds important information by defining both cross- and co-sensitization to a large variety of allergen molecules. The presence of specific IgE only in tears of VKC patients reinforces the concept of possible local sensitization. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Diagnostic Utility of Total IgE in Foods, Inhalant, and Multiple Allergies in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Mughales, Jamil A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the diagnostic significance of total IgE in foods, inhalant, and multiple allergies. Methods. Retrospective review of the laboratory records of patients who presented with clinical suspicion of food or inhalant allergy between January 2013 and December 2014. Total IgE level was defined as positive for a value >195 kU/L; and diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of specific IgE (golden standard) for at least one food or inhalant allergen and at least two allergens in multiple allergies. Results. A total of 1893 (male ratio = 0.68, mean age = 39.0 ± 19.2 years) patients were included. Total IgE had comparable sensitivity (55.8% versus 59.6%) and specificity (83.9% versus 84.4%) in food versus inhalant allergy, respectively, but a superior PPV in inhalant allergy (79.1% versus 54.4%). ROC curve analysis showed a better diagnostic value in inhalant allergies (AUC = 0.817 (95% CI = 0.796-0.837) versus 0.770 (95% CI = 0.707-0.833)). In multiple allergies, total IgE had a relatively good sensitivity (78.6%), while negative IgE testing (<195 kU/L) predicted the absence of multiple allergies with 91.5% certitude. Conclusion. Total IgE assay is not efficient as a diagnostic test for foods, inhalant, or multiple allergies. The best strategy should refer to specific IgE testing guided by a comprehensive atopic history.

  3. Diagnostic Utility of Total IgE in Foods, Inhalant, and Multiple Allergies in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mughales, Jamil A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the diagnostic significance of total IgE in foods, inhalant, and multiple allergies. Methods. Retrospective review of the laboratory records of patients who presented with clinical suspicion of food or inhalant allergy between January 2013 and December 2014. Total IgE level was defined as positive for a value >195 kU/L; and diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of specific IgE (golden standard) for at least one food or inhalant allergen and at least two allergens in multiple allergies. Results. A total of 1893 (male ratio = 0.68, mean age = 39.0 ± 19.2 years) patients were included. Total IgE had comparable sensitivity (55.8% versus 59.6%) and specificity (83.9% versus 84.4%) in food versus inhalant allergy, respectively, but a superior PPV in inhalant allergy (79.1% versus 54.4%). ROC curve analysis showed a better diagnostic value in inhalant allergies (AUC = 0.817 (95% CI = 0.796–0.837) versus 0.770 (95% CI = 0.707–0.833)). In multiple allergies, total IgE had a relatively good sensitivity (78.6%), while negative IgE testing (<195 kU/L) predicted the absence of multiple allergies with 91.5% certitude. Conclusion. Total IgE assay is not efficient as a diagnostic test for foods, inhalant, or multiple allergies. The best strategy should refer to specific IgE testing guided by a comprehensive atopic history. PMID:27314052

  4. Linear IgA dermatosis associated with ulcerative colitis: complete and sustained remission after total colectomy.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Fialho, Mônica; Santos, Luiza Tavares dos; Rodrigues, Palmira Assis de Jesus Barreto; Vargas, Ana Luisa Bittencourt Sampaio Jeunon; Sousa, Maria Auxiliadora Jeunon

    2013-01-01

    Linear IgA dermatosis has been increasingly associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, particularly ulcerative colitis. A 13-year-old male patient with an 11-month history of ulcerative colitis developed vesicles, pustules and erosions on the skin of the face, trunk and buttocks and in the oral mucosa. The work-up revealed a neutrophil-rich sub-epidermal bullous disease and linear deposition of IgA along the dermoepidermal junction, establishing the diagnosis of linear IgA dermatosis. The patient experienced unsatisfactory partial control of skin and intestinal symptoms despite the use of adalimumab, mesalazine, prednisone and dapsone for some months. After total colectomy, he presented complete remission of skin lesions, with no need of medications during two years of follow-up. A review of previously reported cases of the association is provided here and the role of ulcerative colitis in triggering linear IgA dermatosis is discussed.

  5. Chronic myeloid leukemia in a child with IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Udani, Amish; Vijayakumar, Mahalingam; Prahlad, Nageswaran; Ekambaram, Sudha

    2012-08-01

    We report an 11 year old boy with IgA nephropathy developing chronic myeloid leukemia on follow-up. This association suggests that a B cell defect might be involved in the pathogenesis of these two conditions.

  6. Fluorescent IgG fusion proteins made in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Luria, Yael; Raichlin, Dina; Benhar, Itai

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies are among the most powerful tools in biological and biomedical research and are presently the fastest growing category of new bio-pharmaceutics. The most common format of antibody applied for therapeutic, diagnostic and analytical purposes is the IgG format. For medical applications, recombinant IgGs are made in cultured mammalian cells in a process that is too expensive to be considered for producing antibodies for diagnostic and analytical purposes. Therefore, for such purposes, mouse monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal sera from immunized animals are used. While looking for an easier and more rapid way to prepare full-length IgGs for therapeutic purposes, we recently developed and reported an expression and purification protocol for full-length IgGs, and IgG-based fusion proteins in E. coli, called “Inclonals.” By applying the Inclonals technology, we could generate full-length IgGs that are genetically fused to toxins. The aim of the study described herein was to evaluate the possibility of applying the “Inclonals” technology for preparing IgG-fluorophore fusion proteins. We found that IgG fused to the green fluorescent proteins enhanced GFP (EGFP) while maintaining functionality in binding, lost most of its fluorescence during the refolding process. In contrast, we found that green fluorescent Superfolder GFP (SFGFP)-fused IgG and red fluorescent mCherry-fused IgG were functional in antigen binding and maintained fluorescence intensity. In addition, we found that we can link several SFGFPs in tandem to each IgG, with fluorescence intensity increasing accordingly. Fluorescent IgGs made in E. coli may become attractive alternatives to monoclonal or polyclonal fluorescent antibodies derived from animals. PMID:22531449

  7. IgE and mast cells in host defense against parasites and venoms

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Kaori; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    IgE-dependent mast cell activation is a major effector mechanism underlying the pathology associated with allergic disorders. The most dramatic of these IgE-associated disorders is the fatal anaphylaxis which can occur in some people who have developed IgE antibodies to otherwise innocuous antigens, such as those contained in certain foods and medicines. Why would such a highly “maladaptive” immune response develop in evolution, and be retained to the present day? Host defense against parasites has long been considered the only beneficial function that might be conferred by IgE and mast cells. However, recent studies have provided evidence that, in addition to participating in host resistance to certain parasites, mast cells and IgE are critical components of innate (mast cells) and adaptive (mast cells and IgE) immune responses that can enhance host defense against the toxicity of certain arthropod and animal venoms, including enhancing the survival of mice injected with such venoms. Yet, in some people, developing IgE antibodies to insect or snake venoms puts them at risk for having a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction upon subsequent exposure to such venoms. Delineating the mechanisms underlying beneficial versus detrimental innate and adaptive immune responses associated with mast cell activation and IgE is likely to enhance our ability to identify potential therapeutic targets in such settings, not only for reducing the pathology associated with allergic disorders but perhaps also for enhancing immune protection against pathogens and animal venoms. PMID:27225312

  8. Effect on IgE production of transplanted cultured thymic fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, M; Hong, R

    1987-01-01

    The effect of cultured thymic fragment (CTF) transplantation on the IgE response of nude mice was studied. Nude mice (BALB/c nu/nu) were immunized with a mixture of tetanus toxoid and aluminium gel intraperitoneally. Non-CTF transplanted nude mice could not regulate IgE production nor synthesize specific IgE antibody, and all died at 16 weeks of age. Nude mice that were transplanted with CTF from allogeneic low responder strains (C57BL/6, SJL), allogeneic high responder strain (ASW) and syngeneic high responder strain (BALB/c) could regulate IgE production, and these lived a normal life span. Additionally, the tetanus toxoid-specific IgE antibody response, which was estimated by PCA, paralleled that seen in the strain of the thymus donor, i.e. BALB/c and ASW thymus reconstitution produced the highest response, whereas SJL and C57BL/6 recipients' levels were significantly less (P less than 0.05). We postulate that the lesser responses were due to the determination of the phenotype response by the thymic microenvironment. The low responses were shown to be due to regulator T-cell imbalance. These data show that BALB/c T-cell precursors developing in non-BALB/c thymuses interact with BALB/c B cells to produce levels of IgE antibody that are more characteristic of the non-BALB/c differentiating microenvironment than of their own genetic background. PMID:3493208

  9. IgE and mast cells in host defense against parasites and venoms.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Kaori; Tsai, Mindy; Starkl, Philipp; Marichal, Thomas; Galli, Stephen J

    2016-09-01

    IgE-dependent mast cell activation is a major effector mechanism underlying the pathology associated with allergic disorders. The most dramatic of these IgE-associated disorders is the fatal anaphylaxis which can occur in some people who have developed IgE antibodies to otherwise innocuous antigens, such as those contained in certain foods and medicines. Why would such a highly "maladaptive" immune response develop in evolution and be retained to the present day? Host defense against parasites has long been considered the only beneficial function that might be conferred by IgE and mast cells. However, recent studies have provided evidence that, in addition to participating in host resistance to certain parasites, mast cells and IgE are critical components of innate (mast cells) and adaptive (mast cells and IgE) immune responses that can enhance host defense against the toxicity of certain arthropod and animal venoms, including enhancing the survival of mice injected with such venoms. Yet, in some people, developing IgE antibodies to insect or snake venoms puts them at risk for having a potentially fatal anaphylactic reaction upon subsequent exposure to such venoms. Delineating the mechanisms underlying beneficial versus detrimental innate and adaptive immune responses associated with mast cell activation and IgE is likely to enhance our ability to identify potential therapeutic targets in such settings, not only for reducing the pathology associated with allergic disorders but perhaps also for enhancing immune protection against pathogens and animal venoms.

  10. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Rituximab in IgA Nephropathy with Proteinuria and Renal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Lafayette, Richard A.; Canetta, Pietro A.; Rovin, Brad H.; Appel, Gerald B.; Novak, Jan; Nath, Karl A.; Sethi, Sanjeev; Tumlin, James A.; Mehta, Kshama; Hogan, Marie; Erickson, Stephen; Julian, Bruce A.; Leung, Nelson; Enders, Felicity T.; Brown, Rhubell; Knoppova, Barbora; Hall, Stacy

    2017-01-01

    IgA nephropathy frequently leads to progressive CKD. Although interest surrounds use of immunosuppressive agents added to standard therapy, several recent studies have questioned efficacy of these agents. Depleting antibody–producing B cells potentially offers a new therapy. In this open label, multicenter study conducted over 1-year follow-up, we randomized 34 adult patients with biopsy–proven IgA nephropathy and proteinuria >1 g/d, maintained on angiotensin–converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers with well controlled BP and eGFR<90 ml/min per 1.73 m2, to receive standard therapy or rituximab with standard therapy. Primary outcome measures included change in proteinuria and change in eGFR. Median baseline serum creatinine level (range) was 1.4 (0.8–2.4) mg/dl, and proteinuria was 2.1 (0.6–5.3) g/d. Treatment with rituximab depleted B cells and was well tolerated. eGFR did not change in either group. Rituximab did not alter the level of proteinuria compared with that at baseline or in the control group; three patients in each group had ≥50% reduction in level of proteinuria. Serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 or antibodies against galactose-deficient IgA1 did not change. In this trial, rituximab therapy did not significantly improve renal function or proteinuria assessed over 1 year. Although rituximab effectively depleted B cells, it failed to reduce serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 and antigalactose–deficient IgA1 antibodies. Lack of efficacy of rituximab, at least at this stage and severity of IgA nephropathy, may reflect a failure of rituximab to reduce levels of specific antibodies assigned salient pathogenetic roles in IgA nephropathy. PMID:27821627

  11. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Rituximab in IgA Nephropathy with Proteinuria and Renal Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lafayette, Richard A; Canetta, Pietro A; Rovin, Brad H; Appel, Gerald B; Novak, Jan; Nath, Karl A; Sethi, Sanjeev; Tumlin, James A; Mehta, Kshama; Hogan, Marie; Erickson, Stephen; Julian, Bruce A; Leung, Nelson; Enders, Felicity T; Brown, Rhubell; Knoppova, Barbora; Hall, Stacy; Fervenza, Fernando C

    2017-04-01

    IgA nephropathy frequently leads to progressive CKD. Although interest surrounds use of immunosuppressive agents added to standard therapy, several recent studies have questioned efficacy of these agents. Depleting antibody-producing B cells potentially offers a new therapy. In this open label, multicenter study conducted over 1-year follow-up, we randomized 34 adult patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy and proteinuria >1 g/d, maintained on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers with well controlled BP and eGFR<90 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , to receive standard therapy or rituximab with standard therapy. Primary outcome measures included change in proteinuria and change in eGFR. Median baseline serum creatinine level (range) was 1.4 (0.8-2.4) mg/dl, and proteinuria was 2.1 (0.6-5.3) g/d. Treatment with rituximab depleted B cells and was well tolerated. eGFR did not change in either group. Rituximab did not alter the level of proteinuria compared with that at baseline or in the control group; three patients in each group had ≥50% reduction in level of proteinuria. Serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 or antibodies against galactose-deficient IgA1 did not change. In this trial, rituximab therapy did not significantly improve renal function or proteinuria assessed over 1 year. Although rituximab effectively depleted B cells, it failed to reduce serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 and antigalactose-deficient IgA1 antibodies. Lack of efficacy of rituximab, at least at this stage and severity of IgA nephropathy, may reflect a failure of rituximab to reduce levels of specific antibodies assigned salient pathogenetic roles in IgA nephropathy. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Occurrence of IgG4-related hypophysitis lacking IgG4-bearing plasma cell infiltration during steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Yohsuke; Sekido, Takashi; Takeshige, Keiko; Ishi, Hiroaki; Takei, Masahiro; Nishio, Shin-ichi; Yamazaki, Masanori; Komatsu, Mitsuhisa; Kawa, Shigeyuki; Suzuki, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Eight years after an episode of multiple IgG4-related disease, a pituitary mass with panhypopituitarism and a visual disturbance developed in a 70-year-old man under low-dose steroid therapy. A pituitary biopsy revealed findings of lymphocytic hypophysitis with the absence of IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration. The serum IgG4 level was unremarkable. Although performing a pituitary biopsy and measuring the serum IgG4 level is crucial for making a diagnosis of IgG4-related hypophysitis, it is occasionally difficult to diagnose the disease in patients treated with steroid therapy, as observed in the present case. Based on a review of the diagnosis, conducting a careful assessment is required, especially in men and elderly patients thought to have solitary hypophysitis.

  13. Diagnostic Performance of Serum IgG4 Levels in Patients With IgG4-Related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kuang-Hui; Chan, Tien-Ming; Tsai, Ping-Han; Chen, Ching-Hui; Chang, Pi-Yueh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to study the clinical features and diagnostic performance of IgG4 in Chinese populations with IgG4-related diseases (IgG4-RDs). The medical records of 2901 adult subjects who underwent serum IgG4 level tests conducted between December 2007 and May 2014 were reviewed. Serum concentrations of IgG4 were measured in 2901 cases, including 161 (5.6%) patients with IgG4-RD and 2740 (94.4%) patients without IgG4-RD (non-IgG4-RD group). The mean age of the IgG4-RD patients was 58.4 ± 16.1 years (range: 21–87), and 48 (29.8%) were women. The mean serum IgG4 level was significantly much higher in IgG4-RD patients than in non-IgG4-RD (1062.6 vs 104.3 mg/dL, P < 0.001) participants. For IgG4 >135 mg/dL, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), likelihood ratio (LR)+, and LR− were 86%, 77%, 18%, 99%, 3.70, and 0.19, respectively. When the upper limit of normal was doubled for an IgG4 >270 mg/dL, the corresponding data were 75%, 94%, 43%, 98%, 12.79, and 0.26, respectively. For IgG4 >405 mg/dL (tripling the upper limit of normal), the corresponding data were 62%, 98%, 68%, 98%, 37.00, and 0.39, respectively. When calculated according to the manufacturer's package insert cutoff (>201 mg/dL) for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD, the corresponding sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, LR+, and LR− were 80%, 89%, 29%, 99%, 7.00, and 0.23, respectively. For IgG4 >402 mg/dL (>2× the upper limit of the normal range), the corresponding data were 62%, 98%, 68%, 98%, 36.21, and 0.39, respectively. For IgG4 >603 mg/dL (>3× the upper limit of the normal range), the corresponding data were 50%, 99%, 84%, 97%, 90.77 and 0.51, respectively. The optimal cutoff value of serum IgG4 (measured by nephelometry using a Siemens BN ProSpec instrument and Siemens reagent) for the diagnosis of IgG4-RD was 248 mg/dL, the sensitivity and specificity were 77.6% and 92.8%, respectively. The present

  14. Coexistence of Fabry disease and IgA nephropathy: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Yin, G; Wu, Y; Zeng, C-H; Chen, H-P; Liu, Z-H

    2014-12-01

    Coexistence of Fabry disease and IgA nephropathy is rare. Moreover, the coexisting Fabry disease may be unrecognized due to unapparent clinical manifestations. We described two cases with coexisting Fabry disease and IgA nephropathy. The clinicopathological features of these two patients were studied. A 54-year-old male presented with proteinuria, hematuria, and hypertension, and a 33-year-old male presented with proteinuria without clinical signs or family history of Fabry disease. Both of them were diagnosed with IgA nephropathy at admission, whereas Fabry disease was not suspected. Subsequent immunofluorescent study confirmed the diagnosis of IgA nephropathy by showing positive staining for IgA and complement C3 in the mesangium. Meanwhile, light microscopy showed remarkable vacuolation of podocytes with mild mesangial expansion, which was characteristic of Fabry nephropathy. Further examination of toluidine blue-stained semi-thin sections and electron microscopy demonstrated blue bodies and myelin figures in the cytoplasm of podocytes, respectively. The diagnosis of coexisting Fabry disease was finally established based on deficient α-galactosidase A activity in both patients. This case study is an important reminder of the role of kidney biopsy as an indicator of Fabry disease and its rare coexistence with IgA nephropathy.

  15. High-affinity monoclonal IgA regulates gut microbiota and prevents colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Okai, Shinsaku; Usui, Fumihito; Yokota, Shuhei; Hori-I, Yusaku; Hasegawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Kurosawa, Manabu; Okada, Seiji; Yamamoto, Kazuya; Nishiyama, Eri; Mori, Hiroshi; Yamada, Takuji; Kurokawa, Ken; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Nanno, Masanobu; Naito, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Yohei; Kato, Tamotsu; Miyauchi, Eiji; Ohno, Hiroshi; Shinkura, Reiko

    2016-07-04

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the main antibody isotype secreted into the intestinal lumen. IgA plays a critical role in the defence against pathogens and in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. However, how secreted IgA regulates gut microbiota is not completely understood. In this study, we isolated monoclonal IgA antibodies from the small intestine of healthy mouse. As a candidate for an efficient gut microbiota modulator, we selected a W27 IgA, which binds to multiple bacteria, but not beneficial ones such as Lactobacillus casei. W27 could suppress the cell growth of Escherichia coli but not L. casei in vitro, indicating an ability to improve the intestinal environment. Indeed W27 oral treatment could modulate gut microbiota composition and have a therapeutic effect on both lymphoproliferative disease and colitis models in mice. Thus, W27 IgA oral treatment is a potential remedy for inflammatory bowel disease, acting through restoration of host-microbial symbiosis.

  16. Isolated lymphoid follicles are not IgA inductive sites for recombinant Salmonella

    SciTech Connect

    Hashizume, Tomomi; Momoi, Fumiki; Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko

    2007-08-24

    In this study, we investigated whether isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF) play a role in the regulation of intestinal IgA antibody (Ab) responses. The transfer of wild type (WT) bone marrow (BM) to lymphotoxin-{alpha}-deficient (LT{alpha}{sup -/-}) mice resulted in the formation of mature ILF containing T cells, B cells, and FDC clusters in the absence of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. Although the ILF restored total IgA Abs in the intestine, antigen (Ag)-specific IgA responses were not induced after oral immunization with recombinant Salmonella expressing fragment C of tetanus toxin. Moreover, Ag-specific cell proliferation was not detected in the ILF.more » Interestingly, no IgA anti-LPS Abs were detected in the fecal extracts of LT{alpha}{sup -/-} mice reconstituted with WT BM. On the basis of these findings, ILF can be presumed to play a role in the production of IgA Abs, but lymphoid nodules are not inductive sites for the regulation of Ag-specific intestinal IgA responses to recombinant Salmonella.« less

  17. Corticosteroid for IgA Nephropathy: Are They Really Therapeutic?

    PubMed

    Lin, Yujia; Jia, Junya; Guo, Yipeng; He, Dandan; Zhang, Yaru; Wang, Fuzhen; Yan, Tiekun; Liu, Youxia; Lin, Shan

    2018-06-06

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common chronic glomerular disease that, in most patients, slowly progresses to end-stage kidney disease. The therapy with corticosteroid in IgAN is still a worldwide problem that is confusing the clinicians. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and article reference lists were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared corticosteroids with placebo and any other non-immunosuppressive agents in treating IgAN. Twelve RCTs involving 1,057 patients were included. Overall, we found that steroids had statistically significant effects in preventing the decline in renal function (relative risk 0.42, 95% CI 0.25-0.71, p < 0.001) and reducing proteinuria (SMD: -0.58 g/day, 95% CI -0.80 to -0.36 g/day) in patients with IgAN. The association between glucocorticoid and risk of kidney outcome was not modified by steroids' type (prednisone or methylprednisone), dose (≤30 or > 30 mg/day), duration (≤8 or > 8 months), or serum creatinine (< 1.10 or ≥1.10 mg/dL). But steroids increased the risk of side effects such as gastrointestinal and endocrinium symptoms. This study provides the clear beneficial effects of the steroids therapy on the kidney function and proteinuria, although it should be used with caution. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Anti-type II collagen antibodies, anti-CCP, IgA RF and IgM RF are associated with joint damage, assessed eight years after onset of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early appearance of antibodies specific for native human type II collagen (anti-CII) characterizes an early inflammatory and destructive phenotype in adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of anti-CII, IgM RF, IgA RF and anti-CCP in serum samples obtained early after diagnosis, and to relate the occurrence of autoantibodies to outcome after eight years of disease in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods The Nordic JIA database prospectively included JIA patients followed for eight years with data on remission and joint damage. From this database, serum samples collected from 192 patients, at a median of four months after disease onset, were analysed for IgG anti-CII, IgM RF, IgA RF and IgG anti-CCP. Joint damage was assessed based on Juvenile Arthritis Damage Index for Articular damage (JADI-A), a validated clinical instrument for joint damage. Results Elevated serum levels of anti-CII occurred in 3.1%, IgM RF in 3.6%, IgA RF in 3.1% and anti-CCP in 2.6% of the patients. Occurrence of RF and anti-CCP did to some extent overlap, but rarely with anti-CII. The polyarticular and oligoarticular extended categories were overrepresented in patients with two or more autoantibodies. Anti-CII occurred in younger children, usually without overlap with the other autoantibodies and was associated with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) early in the disease course. All four autoantibodies were significantly associated with joint damage, but not with active disease at the eight-year follow up. Conclusions Anti-CII, anti-CCP, IgA RF and IgM RF detected early in the disease course predicted joint damage when assessed after eight years of disease. The role of anti-CII in JIA should be further studied. PMID:24944545

  19. Autoimmune response of IgE antibodies to cellular self-antigens in systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Atta, Ajax Mercês; Santiago, Mittermayer Barreto; Guerra, Fernanda Garcia; Pereira, Mariana Menezes; Sousa Atta, Maria Luiza B

    2010-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients may exhibit high total IgE and antinuclear IgE antibodies (ANA-IgE). Here, we investigated the specificity of ANA-IgE in SLE patients and the involvement of cytokines in this immune response. Sera from 92 SLE patients and 68 healthy controls were evaluated for the presence of antinuclear IgE antibodies by immunoperoxidase with HEp-2,000(R) cells and immunoblotting with IgG-depleted sera. Total IgE, IgE specific to allergens, and serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA. Antinuclear IgE antibodies were detected only in SLE patients (29/92, 31.5%). High total IgE was associated with ANA-IgE (p < 0.0001), but was not associated with IgE antibodies to allergens. In the immunoblotting, ANA-IgE reacted with nucleosomes (23/29, 79.3%), dsDNA (14/29, 48.3%), SS-A/Ro (14/29, 48.3%), SS-B/La (2/29, 18.7%), Sm (14/29, 48.3%) and RNP (18/29, 62.1%). Patients with ANA-IgE had very low serum IL-4, less IL-5 than controls (p < 0.05), more IL-10 than seronegative patients (p < 0.05), and unaltered IFN-gamma levels. The IL-5/IL-10 ratio was lower in ANA-IgE seropositive patients in comparison with either seronegative patients (p < 0.05) or healthy controls (p = 0.001). Controls displayed higher IL-5/IFN-gamma ratios than either SLE patients with ANA-IgE (p < 0.05) or patients without these immunoglobulins (p < 0.01). We conclude that IgE antibodies against cell autoantigens involved in protein expression, cellular proliferation, and cell death are present in patients with SLE. Interleukin-10 seems to down-regulate this IgE autoimmune response in SLE. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Serum IgE levels are associated with coronary artery disease severity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoxiao; Yuan, Su; Liu, Yongtai; Zeng, Yong; Xie, Hongzhi; Liu, Zhenyu; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Wang, Jing; Shen, Zhujun

    2016-08-01

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE), a key element of allergic reactions, was considered to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis and the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia. This study was designed to test whether total serum IgE levels were associated with the atherosclerosis severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Total serum IgE concentrations were measured in 708 consecutive patients who were presented to our center for coronary angiography. Atherosclerosis severity of CAD was assessed by the number of diseased vessels showing ≥50% diameter stenosis and quantified by Gensini score. Patients with CAD (N = 562) had higher serum IgE levels than those without CAD (N = 146) [55.90 (19.10-156.00) vs. 26.90 (11.80-62.10) KU/L, p = 0.003]. Furthermore, the serum IgE levels were significantly increased in patients with multivessel disease (MVD) compared to those with single-vessel disease [61.80 (23.20-159.00) vs. 32.45(14.15-94.38) KU/L, p = 0.003]. After adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, a high serum IgE level was an independent predictor for an increased risk of MVD (OR 1.003; 95% CI 1.001-1.004; p = 0.041). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that serum IgE levels improved the predictive capability of traditional risk factors for MVD (area under the curve with and without IgE: 0.734 and 0.713, respectively, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, there was a significant linear relationship between Gensini score and the serum IgE level quartiles (p for linear trend <0.001). Increased total serum IgE levels are associated with MVD and contribute to discriminating CAD severity independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relative stabilities of IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains: Influence of the light–heavy interchain disulfide bond architecture

    PubMed Central

    Heads, James T; Adams, Ralph; D'Hooghe, Lena E; Page, Matt J T; Humphreys, David P; Popplewell, Andrew G; Lawson, Alastair D; Henry, Alistair J

    2012-01-01

    The stability of therapeutic antibodies is a prime pharmaceutical concern. In this work we examined thermal stability differences between human IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains containing the same variable regions using the thermofluor assay. It was found that the IgG1 Fab domain is up to 11°C more stable than the IgG4 Fab domain containing the same variable region. We investigated the cause of this difference with the aim of developing a molecule with the enhanced stability of the IgG1 Fab and the biological properties of an IgG4 Fc. We found that replacing the seven residues, which differ between IgG1 CH1 and IgG4 CH1 domains, while retaining the native IgG1 light-heavy interchain disulfide (L–H) bond, did not affect thermal stability. Introducing the IgG1 type L–H interchain disulfide bond (DSB) into the IgG4 Fab resulted in an increase in thermal stability to levels observed in the IgG1 Fab with the same variable region. Conversely, replacement of the IgG1 L–H interchain DSB with the IgG4 type L–H interchain DSB reduced the thermal stability. We utilized the increased stability of the IgG1 Fab and designed a hybrid antibody with an IgG1 CH1 linked to an IgG4 Fc via an IgG1 hinge. This construct has the expected biophysical properties of both the IgG4 Fc and IgG1 Fab domains and may therefore be a pharmaceutically relevant format. PMID:22761163

  2. Cysteine Racemization on IgG Heavy and Light Chains

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingchun; Flynn, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Under basic pH conditions, the heavy chain 220-light chain 214 (H220-L214) disulfide bond, found in the flexible hinge region of an IgG1, can convert to a thioether. Similar conditions also result in racemization of the H220 cysteine. Here, we report that racemization occurs on both H220 and L214 on an IgG1 with a λ light chain (IgG1λ) but almost entirely on H220 of an IgGl with a κ light chain (IgG1κ) under similar conditions. Likewise, racemization was detected at significant levels on H220 and L214 on endogenous human IgG1λ but only at the H220 position on IgG1κ. Low but measurable levels of d-cysteines were found on IgG2 cysteines in the hinge region, both with monoclonal antibodies incubated under basic pH conditions and on antibodies isolated from human serum. A simplified reaction mechanism involving reversible β-elimination on the cysteine is presented that accounts for both base-catalyzed racemization and thioether formation at the hinge disulfide. PMID:24142697

  3. IgG4-related disease of the rectum

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Bong; Lim, Chul-Hyun; Cha, Myung-Guen

    2016-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a relatively new disease entity characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels and marked infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in lesions. Organ enlargement or nodular lesions consisting of abundant infiltration of lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasma cells and fibrosis are seen in various organs throughout. We encountered a patient with an inflammatory pseudotumor of the rectum, which was histopathologically confirmed to be an IgG4-related disease. The patient was a 28-year-old woman who had constipation for 3 months. The endoluminal ultrasonography showed a lesion that was heterogeneous and low echogenic in lower rectum. The result of colonoscopic biopsy findings was of chronic proctitis with lymphoid aggregates. For a confirmative diagnosis, excision was performed. Histopathological examination represented plasma cell infiltration and fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed prominence of IgG4-positive plasma cells and confirmed the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease. The patient is currently under observation on low-dose oral prednisolone without relapse. PMID:27186575

  4. Age related IgG subclass concentrations in asthma.

    PubMed

    Hoeger, P H; Niggemann, B; Haeuser, G

    1994-03-01

    The prevalence of IgG subclass deficiency in asthma is still controversial. Earlier studies often included patients receiving treatment with systemic steroids which can induce hypogammaglobulinaemia. Concentrations of IgG subclasses were studies in 200 children (aged 2-17 years) with asthma (mean asthma severity score (ASS) 2, range 1-4) who had not received systemic steroids for at least six weeks before investigation, and in 226 healthy age matched controls. The mean concentrations of IgG subclasses in children with asthma were within the 1SD range of those of the control group. In the group with asthma there was a trend towards higher levels of IgG1 and IgG4, whereas the number of children with low concentrations of IgG2 (< 2 SD of control serum samples; absolute concentrations 0.08-1.25 g/l) was slightly greater than in the group who did not have asthma (4.5 v 2.2%). Patients with subnormal concentrations of IgG2 could not be distinguished clinically or on the basis of case history and additional immunological studies did not show further abnormalities. Patients with severe asthma (ASS 3-4) had significantly higher concentrations of IgG4 (mean (SE) 0.53 (0.09) v 0.26 (0.04) g/l) than patients with mild asthma (ASS 1). No significant difference in subclass concentration was found between patients with atopic and those with non-atopic asthma. It is concluded that in an unselected group of children with asthma the mean IgG subclass concentrations do not differ significantly from a group of healthy age matched controls.

  5. Immunoglobulin class switching to IgG4 in Warthin tumor and analysis of serum IgG4 levels and IgG4-positive plasma cells in the tumor.

    PubMed

    Aga, Mitsuharu; Kondo, Satoru; Yamada, Kazunori; Wakisaka, Naohiro; Yagi-Nakanishi, Sayaka; Tsuji, Akira; Endo, Kazuhira; Murono, Shigeyuki; Ito, Makoto; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2014-04-01

    We previously reported a case of immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-related immune inflammation in Warthin tumor. Increased serum IgG4 levels and tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells are characteristics of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), a newly emerging clinicopathological entity. However, the relationship between IgG4-RD and Warthin tumor remains to be elucidated. We aimed to investigate the involvement of systemic and local IgG4 production and class-switch recombination in Warthin tumor. We examined serum IgG4 levels and also analyzed the involvement of IgG4-positive plasma cells in Warthin tumors (18 cases) compared with those of pleomorphic adenomas (19 cases) as controls. Furthermore, in specimens of Warthin tumors (3 cases), pleomorphic adenomas (2 cases), and IgG4-RDs (2 cases), we examined messenger RNA expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase, IgG4 germline transcripts and productive IgG4 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Serum IgG4 levels were increased in 5 of 18 Warthin tumors and not in any of the 19 pleomorphic adenomas. Infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells was detected in 4 Warthin tumors and none in the pleomorphic adenomas. Moreover, activation-induced cytidine deaminase, IgG4 germline transcripts, and productive IgG4 messenger RNA were found to be expressed in 2 of 3 Warthin tumors as well as IgG4-RDs by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, but not in pleomorphic adenomas. In conclusion, immunoglobulin class switching to IgG4 may be involved in the pathogenesis of Warthin tumor, and it is possible that certain inflammatory background with an immune reaction is involved in the pathogenesis of Warthin tumor. © 2013.

  6. Potential role of IgG avidity for diagnosing toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Joynson, D H; Payne, R A; Rawal, B K

    1990-01-01

    Sera from 20 cases of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy were examined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay toxoplasma IgG avidity (ELISA) at two laboratories. The results obtained were largely in agreement and showed that sera from patients with acute infection had low avidity IgG (30% or less), whereas sera from patients with chronic infection had high avidity IgG (40% or more). It is suggested that this type of assay could have a useful complementary role in antenatal testing for toxoplasmosis. PMID:2132560

  7. Potential role of IgG avidity for diagnosing toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Joynson, D H; Payne, R A; Rawal, B K

    1990-12-01

    Sera from 20 cases of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy were examined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay toxoplasma IgG avidity (ELISA) at two laboratories. The results obtained were largely in agreement and showed that sera from patients with acute infection had low avidity IgG (30% or less), whereas sera from patients with chronic infection had high avidity IgG (40% or more). It is suggested that this type of assay could have a useful complementary role in antenatal testing for toxoplasmosis.

  8. The property distance index PD predicts peptides that cross-react with IgE antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; Schein, Catherine H.; Xie, Liping; Hillman, Gilbert R.; Goldblum, Randall M.; Braun, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Similarities in the sequence and structure of allergens can explain clinically observed cross-reactivities. Distinguishing sequences that bind IgE in patient sera can be used to identify potentially allergenic protein sequences and aid in the design of hypo-allergenic proteins. The property distance index PD, incorporated in our Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP, http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/), may identify potentially cross-reactive segments of proteins, based on their similarity to known IgE epitopes. We sought to obtain experimental validation of the PD index as a quantitative predictor of IgE cross-reactivity, by designing peptide variants with predetermined PD scores relative to three linear IgE epitopes of Jun a 1, the dominant allergen from mountain cedar pollen. For each of the three epitopes, 60 peptides were designed with increasing PD values (decreasing physicochemical similarity) to the starting sequence. The peptides synthesized on a derivatized cellulose membrane were probed with sera from patients who were allergic to Jun a 1, and the experimental data were interpreted with a PD classification method. Peptides with low PD values relative to a given epitope were more likely to bind IgE from the sera than were those with PD values larger than 6. Control sequences, with PD values between 18 and 20 to all the three epitopes, did not bind patient IgE, thus validating our procedure for identifying negative control peptides. The PD index is a statistically validated method to detect discrete regions of proteins that have a high probability of cross-reacting with IgE from allergic patients. PMID:18950868

  9. An automated multiplex specific IgE assay system using a photoimmobilized microarray.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshihiro; Moritsugu, Nozomi; Matsue, Takahisa; Mitsukoshi, Kiyomi; Ayame, Hirohito; Okochi, Norihiko; Hattori, Hideshi; Tashiro, Hideo; Sato, Sakura; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2012-11-15

    An automated microarray diagnostic system for specific IgE using photoimmobilized allergen has been developed. Photoimmobilization is useful for preparing microarrays, where various types of biological components are covalently immobilized on a plate. Because the immobilization is based on a photo-induced radical cross-linking reaction, it does not require specific functional groups on the immobilized components. Here, an aqueous solution of a photoreactive poly(ethylene glycol)-based polymer was spin-coated on a plate, and an aqueous solution of each allergen was microspotted on the coated plate and allowed to dry in air. Finally, the plate was irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp for covalent immobilization. An automated machine using these plates was developed for the assay of antigen-specific IgE. Initially, the patient serum was added to the microarray plate, and after reaction of the microspotted allergen with IgE, the adsorbed IgE was detected by a peroxidase-conjugated anti-IgE-antibody. The chemical luminescence intensity of the substrate decomposed by the peroxidase was automatically detected using a sensitive charge-coupled device camera. All the allergens were immobilized stably using this method, which was used to screen for allergen-specific IgE. The results were comparable with those using conventional specific IgE. Using this system, six different allergen-specific IgE were assayed using 10 μL of serum within a period of 20 min. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Factors modifying cord blood IgE levels - a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Petrovičová, O; Bánovčin, P; Babušíková, E; Jeseňák, M

    The complex influence of internal and external environmental factors on the individual and his/her immune system and the lack of suitable markers to assess and reduce the risk of the development of allergies during the lifetime can explain the continuous increase in the number of people affected by some form of allergy. According to the results of some studies, cord blood IgE level could be a useful early marker for assessing the risk of atopic diseases, but the studies showed controversial results. In addition, several authors discuss the origin of these antibodies (synthesis in utero, peripartum contamination from maternal blood or placental transfer). The aim of our pilot study was to investigate the possible influence of modifying factors on cord blood IgE level. Our group of patients consisted of 184 retrospectively selected neonates (98 boys, 53.3% and 86 girls, 46.7%) from whom cord blood was collected and cord blood IgE level was measured 25 years ago (PRIST method). The impact of selected modifying factors (sex, type of delivery or month of birth) on cord blood IgE level was assessed retrospectively. Higher cord blood IgE levels were found in boys than in girls, in neonates born by Caesarean section than in those born by natural delivery, and in those born in the winter months than in other seasons of the year. Our findings are in agreement with those of other authors. Based on our results and those of others, we assume that the selected factors affect the cord blood IgE levels to varying degrees. These facts should be taken into consideration while interpreting the cord blood IgE levels.

  11. Effect of urbanisation on the relationship between total serum IgE and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Checkley, William; Robinson, Colin L.; Baumann, Lauren M.; Romero, Karina; Combe, Juan M.; Gilman, Robert H.; Wise, Robert A.; Hamilton, Robert G.; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Cama, Vitaliano; Hansel, Nadia N.

    2017-01-01

    It is unclear if the relationship of total serum IgE with asthma varies with degree of urbanisation. We hypothesised that the relationship of total serum IgE to asthma is more pronounced in an urban versus a rural environment. We enrolled 1441 children aged 13–15 years in a peri-urban shanty town in Lima, Peru (n=725) and 23 villages in rural Tumbes, Peru (n=716). We asked participants about asthma and allergy symptoms, environmental exposures and sociodemographics; and performed spirometry, and exhaled nitric oxide and allergy skin testing. We obtained blood for total serum IgE in 1143 (79%) participants. Geometric means for total serum IgE were higher in Lima versus Tumbes (262 versus 192 kU·L−1; p<0.001). The odds of asthma increased by factors of 1.6 (95% CI 1.3–2.0) versus 1.4 (95% CI 0.9–2.1) per log unit increase in total serum in Lima versus Tumbes, respectively. Atopy was an effect modifier of the relationship of total serum IgE on asthma. Among atopics and non-atopics, the odds of asthma increased by a factor of 2.0 (95% CI 1.5–2.7) and 1.0 (95% CI 0.7–1.4) per log unit increase in total serum IgE, respectively. Total serum IgE was associated with atopic asthma but not with non-atopic asthma. Urbanisation did not appear to be an effect modifier of this relationship. PMID:22835619

  12. IgE Immunoadsorption Knocks Down the Risk of Food-Related Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Dahdah, Lamia; Ceccarelli, Stefano; Amendola, Silvia; Campagnano, Pietro; Cancrini, Caterina; Mazzina, Oscar; Fiocchi, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    The effects of an immunoadsorption procedure, specifically designed to remove immunoglobulin E (IgE), on food-induced anaphylaxis have never been evaluated. We evaluate the effects of IgE removal on the allergic thresholds to foods. A 6-year-old boy with anaphylaxis to multiple foods and steroid-resistant unstable allergic asthma displayed serum IgE levels of 2800 to 3500 kU/L. To lower IgE serum concentrations, which could be overridden by a high dose of omalizumab, 1.5 plasma volumes were exchanged in 8 apheresis sessions. During the procedure, serum IgE levels fell to 309 kU/L. After the procedure, the threshold of reactivity to baked milk increased from 0.125 to 5 g of milk protein (full tolerance) after the first session, and the threshold of reactivity to hazelnut increased from 0.037 to 0.142 g of protein after the first session, 0.377 g after the eighth, and 1.067 g (full tolerance) after the first administration of omalizumab. Immediately after the sixth IgE immunoadsorption, we started omalizumab therapy. In the next 40 days, the threshold of reactivity to hazelnut increased to 7.730 (full tolerance). Asthma control was obtained, treatment with montelukast was stopped, and fluticasone was tapered from 500 to 175 μg/day. The boy became partially or fully tolerant to all the tested foods, and quality of life was improved. IgE immunoadsorption, used to establish the starting basis for omalizumab administration, is able to increase the tolerance threshold to foods. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Mast cells and IgE in defense against venoms: Possible "good side" of allergy?

    PubMed

    Galli, Stephen J; Starkl, Philipp; Marichal, Thomas; Tsai, Mindy

    2016-01-01

    Physicians think of mast cells and IgE primarily in the context of allergic disorders, including fatal anaphylaxis. This 'bad side' of mast cells and IgE is so well accepted that it can be difficult to think of them in other contexts, particularly those in which they may have beneficial functions. However, there is evidence that mast cells and IgE, as well as basophils (circulating granulocytes whose functions partially overlap with those of mast cells), can contribute to host defense as components of adaptive type 2 immune responses to helminths, ticks and certain other parasites. Accordingly, allergies often are conceptualized as "misdirected" type 2 immune responses, in which IgE antibodies are produced against any of a diverse group of apparently harmless antigens, as well as against components of animal venoms. Indeed, certain unfortunate patients who have become sensitized to venoms develop severe IgE-associated allergic reactions, including fatal anaphylaxis, upon subsequent venom exposure. In this review, we will describe evidence that mast cells can enhance innate resistance to reptile or arthropod venoms during a first exposure to such venoms. We also will discuss findings indicating that, in mice which survive an initial encounter with venom, acquired type 2 immune responses, IgE antibodies, the high affinity IgE receptor (FcɛRI), and mast cells can contribute to acquired resistance to the lethal effects of both honeybee venom and Russell's viper venom. These findings support the hypothesis that mast cells and IgE can help protect the host against venoms and perhaps other noxious substances. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Interaction of human, rat, and mouse immunoglobulin A (IgA) with Staphylococcal superantigen-like 7 (SSL7) decoy protein and leukocyte IgA receptor.

    PubMed

    Wines, Bruce D; Ramsland, Paul A; Trist, Halina M; Gardam, Sandra; Brink, Robert; Fraser, John D; Hogarth, P Mark

    2011-09-23

    Host survival depends on an effective immune system and pathogen survival on the effectiveness of immune evasion mechanisms. Staphylococcus aureus utilizes a number of molecules to modulate host immunity, including the SSL family of which SSL7 binds IgA and inhibits Fcα receptor I (FcαRI)-mediated function. Other Gram-positive bacterial pathogens produce IgA binding proteins, which, similar to SSL7, also bind the Fc at the CH2/CH3 interface (the junction between constant domains 2 and 3 of the heavy chain). The opposing activities of the host FcαRI-IgA receptor ligand pair and the pathogen decoy proteins select for host and pathogen variants, which exert stronger protection or evasion, respectively. Curiously, mouse but not rat IgA contains a putative N-linked glycosylation site in the center of this host receptor and pathogen-binding site. Here, we demonstrate that this site is glycosylated and that the effect of amino acid changes and glycosylation of the CH2/CH3 interface inhibits interaction with the pathogen IgA binding protein SSL7, while maintaining binding of pIgR, essential to the biosynthesis and transport of SIgA.

  15. Simultaneous Subcutaneous and Intranasal Administration of a CAF01-Adjuvanted Chlamydia Vaccine Elicits Elevated IgA and Protective Th1/Th17 Responses in the Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Wern, Jeanette Erbo; Sorensen, Maria Rathmann; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The selection of any specific immunization route is critical when defining future vaccine strategies against a genital infection like Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.). An optimal Chlamydia vaccine needs to elicit mucosal immunity comprising both neutralizing IgA/IgG antibodies and strong Th1/Th17 responses. A strategic tool to modulate this immune profile and mucosal localization of vaccine responses is to combine parenteral and mucosal immunizations routes. In this study, we investigate whether this strategy can be adapted into a two-visit strategy by simultaneous subcutaneous (SC) and nasal immunization. Using a subunit vaccine composed of C.t. antigens (Ags) adjuvanted with CAF01, a Th1/Th17 promoting adjuvant, we comparatively evaluated Ag-specific B and T cell responses and efficacy in mice following SC and simultaneous SC and nasal immunization (SIM). We found similar peripheral responses with regard to interferon gamma and IL-17 producing Ag-specific splenocytes and IgG serum levels in both vaccine strategies but in addition, the SIM protocol also led to Ag-specific IgA responses and increased B and CD4+ T cells in the lung parenchyma, and in lower numbers also in the genital tract (GT). Following vaginal infection with C.t., we observed that SIM immunization gave rise to an early IgA response and IgA-secreting plasma cells in the GT in contrast to SC immunization, but we were not able to detect more rapid recruitment of mucosal T cells. Interestingly, although SIM vaccination in general improved mucosal immunity we observed no improved efficacy against genital infection compared to SC, a finding that warrants for further investigation. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel vaccination strategy that combines systemic and mucosal immunity in a two-visit strategy. PMID:28567043

  16. Phosphorylation of the rat hepatic polymeric IgA receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, J M; Sztul, E S; Palade, G E

    1986-01-01

    In vivo labeling with [35S]cysteine has identified three transmembrane forms of the rat hepatic polymeric IgA receptor: (i) a 105-kDa core glycosylated precursor; (ii) a terminally glycosylated 116-kDa intermediate; and (iii) a mature 120-kDa form. In the current study we show that the 120-kDa form is phosphorylated. After in vivo labeling with [32P]orthophosphate, all receptor forms were immunoprecipitated from hepatic total microsomes (TM) (with an antireceptor antiserum), separated by NaDodSO4/PAGE, and detected by autoradiography. The 120-kDa form was selectively phosphorylated, whereas the 116- and 105-kDa forms incorporated no detectable 32P. To determine the topology of the phosphorylation sites, hepatic TM isolated from rats labeled in vivo with either [35S]cysteine or [32P]orthophosphate were treated with trypsin. TM were solubilized and receptors were immunoprecipitated from lysates. With increasing trypsin concentrations, the [35S]cysteine-labeled receptor triplet was degraded to a trypsin-resistant doublet of approximately 95 and 85 kDa, indicating that approximately 20 kDa was removed from the receptor endodomain by trypsin. The same treatment removed all detectable 32P from labeled receptors. Furthermore, no 32P was detected in the 80-kDa biliary form of the receptor. Serine was identified as the only phosphorylated residue in acid hydrolysates of 32P-labeled immunoprecipitated receptor. These findings indicate that (i) the 120-kDa form is the only phosphorylated species of the receptor; and (ii) the phosphorylated residues are serine(s) located in the endodomain of the protein. Images PMID:3460069

  17. Human milk IgA concentrations during the first year of lactation

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, L.; Arthur, H.; Bunn, J.; Thomas, J.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To measure the concentrations of total IgA in the milk secreted by both breasts, throughout the first year of lactation, in a cohort of Gambian mothers of infants at high risk of infection.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS—Sixty five women and their infants were studied monthly from the 4th to 52nd postpartum week. Samples of milk were obtained from each breast by manual expression immediately before the infant was suckled. Milk intakes were measured by test weighing the infants before and after feeds over 12 hour periods; IgA concentrations were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.
RESULTS—A total of 1590 milk samples was measured. The median (interquartile range) concentration of IgA for all samples was 0.708(0.422-1.105) g/l; that in milk obtained from the left breast was 0.785 (0.458-1.247) g/l, and that in milk obtained from the right breast was 0.645 (0.388-1.011) g/l (p < 0.0001). There was no significant change in milk or IgA intakes with advancing infant age, but there was a close concordance of IgA concentrations between the two breasts, with "tracking" of the output of the left and right breasts. There was a significant (p < 0.01) negative correlation between maternal age and parity, and weight of milk ingested by infants. During the dry season (December to May) the median (interquartile range) IgA concentration was significantly higher at 0.853 (0.571-1.254) g/l than during the rainy season (June to November), when it was 0.518 (0.311-0.909) g/l (p < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS—Sustained IgA secretion is likely to protect suckling infants from microbial infection.

 PMID:9613353

  18. Cytokine profile of NALT during acute stress and its possible effect on IgA secretion.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Meza, Juan Manuel; Jarillo-Luna, Rosa Adriana; Rivera-Aguilar, Victor; Miliar-García, Angel; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael

    2017-08-01

    Stress stimuli affect the immune system responses that occur at mucosal membranes, particularly IgA secretion. It has been suggested that acute stress increases the levels of IgA and that sympathetic innervation plays an important role in this process. We herein explore in a murine model how acute stress affects the Th1/Th2/Treg cytokine balance in NALT, and the possible role of glucocorticoids in this effect. Nine-week-old male CD1 mice were divided into three groups: unstressed (control), stressed (subjected to 4h of immobilization), and stressed after pretreatment with a single dose of the corticosterone receptor antagonist RU-486. The parameters evaluated included plasma corticosterone and epinephrine, IgA levels in nasal fluid (by ELISA), the percentage of CD19 + B220 + IgA + lymphocytes and CD138 + IgA + plasma cells, and the mRNA expression of heavy α chain, J chain and pIgR. Moreover, the gene and protein expression of Th1 cytokines (TNFα, IL-2 and INF-γ), Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) and Treg cytokines (IL-10 and TGFβ) were determined in nasal mucosa. The results show that acute stress generated a shift towards the dominance of an anti-inflammatory immune response (Th2 and Treg cytokines), evidenced by a significant rise in the amount of T cells that produce IL4, IL-5 and IL-10. This immune environment may favor IgA biosynthesis by CD138 + IgA + plasma cells, a process mediated mostly by glucocorticoids. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapamycin ameliorates IgA nephropathy via cell cycle-dependent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jihua; Wang, Yanhong; Liu, Xinyan; Zhou, Xiaoshuang

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most frequent type of glomerulonephritis worldwide. The role of cell cycle regulation in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy has been studied. The present study was designed to explore whether rapamycin ameliorates IgA nephropathy via cell cycle-dependent mechanisms. After establishing an IgA nephropathy model, rats were randomly divided into four groups. Coomassie Brilliant Blue was used to measure the 24-h urinary protein levels. Renal function was determined using an autoanalyzer. Proliferation was assayed via Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry. Rat mesangial cells were cultured and divided into the six groups. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry were used to detect cell proliferation and the cell cycle phase. Western blotting was performed to determine cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, p27Kip1, p70S6K/p-p70S6K, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2/p- extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 protein expression. A low dose of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin prevented an additional increase in proteinuria, protected kidney function, and reduced IgA deposition in a model of IgA nephropathy. Rapamycin inhibited mesangial cell proliferation and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase. Rapamycin did not affect the expression of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. However, rapamycin upregulated p27Kip1 at least in part via AKT (also known as protein kinase B)/mTOR. In conclusion, rapamycin can affect cell cycle regulation to inhibit mesangial cell proliferation, thereby reduce IgA deposition, and slow the progression of IgAN. PMID:25349217

  20. Rapamycin ameliorates IgA nephropathy via cell cycle-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jihua; Wang, Yanhong; Liu, Xinyan; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Li, Rongshan

    2015-07-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most frequent type of glomerulonephritis worldwide. The role of cell cycle regulation in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy has been studied. The present study was designed to explore whether rapamycin ameliorates IgA nephropathy via cell cycle-dependent mechanisms. After establishing an IgA nephropathy model, rats were randomly divided into four groups. Coomassie Brilliant Blue was used to measure the 24-h urinary protein levels. Renal function was determined using an autoanalyzer. Proliferation was assayed via Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry. Rat mesangial cells were cultured and divided into the six groups. Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry were used to detect cell proliferation and the cell cycle phase. Western blotting was performed to determine cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, p27(Kip1), p70S6K/p-p70S6K, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2/p- extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 protein expression. A low dose of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin prevented an additional increase in proteinuria, protected kidney function, and reduced IgA deposition in a model of IgA nephropathy. Rapamycin inhibited mesangial cell proliferation and arrested the cell cycle in the G1 phase. Rapamycin did not affect the expression of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2. However, rapamycin upregulated p27(Kip1) at least in part via AKT (also known as protein kinase B)/mTOR. In conclusion, rapamycin can affect cell cycle regulation to inhibit mesangial cell proliferation, thereby reduce IgA deposition, and slow the progression of IgAN. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  1. Allergen-induced cytokine production, atopic disease, IgE, and wheeze in children.

    PubMed

    Contreras, J Paola; Ly, Ngoc P; Gold, Diane R; He, Hongzhen; Wand, Mathew; Weiss, Scott T; Perkins, David L; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Finn, Patricia W

    2003-12-01

    The early childhood allergen-induced immune responses associated with atopic disease and IgE production in early life are not well understood. We assessed the relationship of allergen-induced cytokine production by PBMCs to both atopic disease and to IgE increase in a cohort of children with a parental history of allergy or asthma (n = 112) at a median of 2 years of age. We examined cockroach (Bla g 1)-induced, house dust mite (Der f 1)-induced, and cat (Fel d 1)-induced cytokine secretion, including secretion of IFN-gamma, IL-13, IL-10, and TNF-alpha. We investigated whether distinct cytokine patterns associated with atopic disease can be detected in immune responses of children. PBMCs were isolated, and allergen-induced cytokine secretion was analyzed by means of ELISA. Atopic disease was defined as physician- or nurse-diagnosed eczema or hay fever. Increased IgE was defined as an IgE level of greater than 35 U/mL to dust mite, cockroach, cat, and egg white or a total IgE level of 60 U/mL or greater. Compared with children without atopic disease, children with atopic disease had lower Der f 1 (P =.005) and Bla g 2 (P =.03) allergen-induced IFN-gamma levels. Compared with children without increased IgE (n = 95), those with increased IgE (n = 16) had higher Der f 1-induced (P =.006) and Fel d 1-induced (P =.005) IL-13 levels and lower Bla g 2-induced (P =.03) IFN-gamma levels. Compared with children with neither atopic disease nor repeated wheeze, children with both atopic disease and repeated wheeze had lower levels of allergen-induced IFN-gamma (P =.01 for Der f 1 and P =.02 for Bla g 2) cytokine secretion. In young children at risk for asthma or allergy, decreased allergen-induced IFN-gamma secretion is associated with atopic disease and, in some cases, with increased IgE levels. Increased allergen-induced IL-13 secretion is most strongly associated with early life increase of IgE.

  2. Indel Group in Genomes (IGG) Molecular Genetic Markers1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Burkart-Waco, Diana; Kuppu, Sundaram; Britt, Anne; Chetelat, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Genetic markers are essential when developing or working with genetically variable populations. Indel Group in Genomes (IGG) markers are primer pairs that amplify single-locus sequences that differ in size for two or more alleles. They are attractive for their ease of use for rapid genotyping and their codominant nature. Here, we describe a heuristic algorithm that uses a k-mer-based approach to search two or more genome sequences to locate polymorphic regions suitable for designing candidate IGG marker primers. As input to the IGG pipeline software, the user provides genome sequences and the desired amplicon sizes and size differences. Primer sequences flanking polymorphic insertions/deletions are produced as output. IGG marker files for three sets of genomes, Solanum lycopersicum/Solanum pennellii, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Columbia-0/Landsberg erecta-0 accessions, and S. lycopersicum/S. pennellii/Solanum tuberosum (three-way polymorphic) are included. PMID:27436831

  3. Coexistence of Acute Crescent Glomerulonephritis and IgG4-Related Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zeyuan; Yin, Jianyong; Bao, Hongda; Jiao, Qiong; Wu, Huijuan; Wu, Rui; Xue, Qin; Wang, Niansong; Zhang, Zhigang; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder that may involve almost each organ or system. IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) refers to renal lesions associated with IgG4-RD. The most frequent morphological type of renal lesions is IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) which is associated with increased IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration and interstitial fibrosis. Herein, we present a rare case with coexisting IgG4-RKD and acute crescent glomerulonephritis with concomitant severe tubulointerstitial lesions instead of classic IgG4-TIN. IgG4-RKD and acute crescent glomerulonephritis can occur in the same patient. This case may give us a clearer viewpoint of the disease.

  4. Effects of astaxanthin-enriched yeast on mucosal IgA induction in the jejunum and ileum of weanling mice.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Tatsuhiko; Sugimoto, Miki; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Kume, Shinichi

    2014-04-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify the effects of astaxanthin-enriched yeast on the concentration of immunoglobulin A (IgA), the numbers of IgA antibody-secreting cells (ASC) and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of IgA C-region in the jejunum and ileum of weanling mice. Weanling mice were fed rodent feed or astaxanthin-enriched yeast-supplemented rodent feed for 7, 14 or 21 days. Supplemental astaxanthin-enriched yeast increased the numbers of IgA ASC in the jejunum and ileum after 7, 14 and 21 days of treatment. Supplemental astaxanthin-enriched yeast increased IgA concentrations in the jejunum after 21 days of treatment, but IgA concentrations in the ileum were not affected by the treatment. The mRNA expressions of IgA C-region in the jejunum after 14 and 21 days of treatment and the ileum after 14 days of treatment were enhanced by supplementation of astaxanthin-enriched yeast. These results indicate that supplementation of astaxanthin-enriched yeast is effective to enhance the numbers of IgA ASC in the jejunum and ileum and IgA concentrations in the ileum of weanling mice. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Persistence and evolution of allergen-specific IgE repertoires during subcutaneous specific immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Mattias; King, Jasmine J.; Glanville, Jacob; Jackson, Katherine J. L.; Looney, Timothy J.; Hoh, Ramona A.; Mari, Adriano; Andersson, Morgan; Greiff, Lennart; Fire, Andrew Z.; Boyd, Scott D.; Ohlin, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Background Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only treatment with proven long-term curative potential in allergic disease. Allergen-specific IgE is the causative agent of allergic disease, and antibodies contribute to SIT, but the effects of SIT on aeroallergen-specific B cell repertoires are not well understood. Objective To characterize the IgE sequences expressed by allergen-specific B cells, and track the fate of these B cell clones during SIT. Methods We have used high-throughput antibody gene sequencing and identification of allergen-specific IgE using combinatorial antibody fragment library technology to analyze immunoglobulin repertoires of blood and nasal mucosa of aeroallergen-sensitized individuals before and during the first year of subcutaneous SIT. Results Of 52 distinct allergen-specific IgE heavy chains from eight allergic donors, 37 were also detected by high-throughput antibody gene sequencing of blood, nasal mucosa, or both sample types. The allergen-specific clones had increased persistence, higher likelihood of belonging to clones expressing other switched isotypes, and possibly larger clone size than the rest of the IgE repertoire. Clone members in nasal tissue showed close mutational relationships. Conclusion Combining functional binding studies, deep antibody repertoire sequencing, and information on clinical outcomes in larger studies may in the future aid assessment of SIT mechanisms and efficacy. PMID:26559321

  6. Serodiagnosis of Acute Typhoid Fever in Nigerian Pediatric Cases by Detection of Serum IgA and IgG against Hemolysin E and Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Huw Davies, D.; Jain, Aarti; Nakajima, Rie; Liang, Li; Jasinskis, Algis; Supnet, Medalyn; Felgner, Philip L.; Teng, Andy; Pablo, Jozelyn; Molina, Douglas M.; Obaro, Stephen K.

    2016-01-01

    Inexpensive, easy-to-use, and highly sensitive diagnostic tests are currently unavailable for typhoid fever. To identify candidate serodiagnostic markers, we have probed microarrays displaying the full Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) proteome of 4,352 different proteins + lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), with sera from Nigerian pediatric typhoid and other febrile cases, Nigerian healthy controls, and healthy U.S. adults. Nigerian antibody profiles were broad (∼500 seropositive antigens) and mainly low level, with a small number of stronger “hits,” whereas the profile in U.S. adults was < 1/5 as broad, consistent with endemic exposure in Nigeria. Nigerian profiles were largely unaffected by clinical diagnosis, although the response against t1477 (hemolysin E) consistently emerged as stronger in typhoid cases. The response to LPS was also a strong discriminator of healthy controls and typhoid, although LPS did not discriminate between typhoid and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) disease. As a first step toward the development of a point-of-care diagnostic, t1477 and LPS were evaluated on immunostrips. Both provided good discrimination between healthy controls and typhoid/NTS disease. Such a test could provide a useful screen for salmonellosis (typhoid and NTS disease) in suspected pediatric cases that present with undefined febrile disease. PMID:27215295

  7. Serodiagnosis of Acute Typhoid Fever in Nigerian Pediatric Cases by Detection of Serum IgA and IgG Against Hemolysin E and Lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Davies, D Huw; Jain, Aarti; Nakajima, Rie; Liang, Li; Jasinskis, Algis; Supnet, Medalyn; Felgner, Philip L; Teng, Andy; Pablo, Jozelyn; Molina, Douglas M; Obaro, Stephen K

    2016-08-03

    Inexpensive, easy-to-use, and highly sensitive diagnostic tests are currently unavailable for typhoid fever. To identify candidate serodiagnostic markers, we have probed microarrays displaying the full Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) proteome of 4,352 different proteins + lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), with sera from Nigerian pediatric typhoid and other febrile cases, Nigerian healthy controls, and healthy U.S. adults. Nigerian antibody profiles were broad (∼500 seropositive antigens) and mainly low level, with a small number of stronger "hits," whereas the profile in U.S. adults was < 1/5 as broad, consistent with endemic exposure in Nigeria. Nigerian profiles were largely unaffected by clinical diagnosis, although the response against t1477 (hemolysin E) consistently emerged as stronger in typhoid cases. The response to LPS was also a strong discriminator of healthy controls and typhoid, although LPS did not discriminate between typhoid and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) disease. As a first step toward the development of a point-of-care diagnostic, t1477 and LPS were evaluated on immunostrips. Both provided good discrimination between healthy controls and typhoid/NTS disease. Such a test could provide a useful screen for salmonellosis (typhoid and NTS disease) in suspected pediatric cases that present with undefined febrile disease. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Analysis of Antigens of Mycobacterium leprae by Interaction to Sera IgG, IgM, and IgA Response to Improve Diagnosis of Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Avnish; Parkash, Om; Girdhar, Bhawneshwar K.

    2014-01-01

    Till 2010, several countries have declared less than one leprosy patient among population of 10,000 and themselves feeling as eliminated from leprosy cases. However, new leprosy cases are still appearing from all these countries. In this situation one has to be confident to diagnose leprosy. This review paper highlighted already explored antigens for diagnosis purposes and finally suggested better combinations of protein antigens of M. leprae versus immunoglobulin as detector antibody to be useful for leprosy diagnosis. PMID:25101267

  9. Development of the gut microbiota and mucosal IgA responses in twins and gnotobiotic mice

    PubMed Central

    Planer, Joseph D.; Peng, Yangqing; Kau, Andrew L.; Blanton, Laura V.; Ndao, I. Malick; Tarr, Phillip I.; Warner, Barbara B.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA), the major class of antibody secreted by the gut mucosa, is an important contributor to gut barrier function1–3. The repertoire of IgA bound to gut bacteria reflects both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways4,5, plus glycans present on the antibody’s secretory component6. Human gut bacterial taxa targeted by IgA in the setting of intestinal barrier dysfunction are capable of producing intestinal pathology when isolated and transferred to gnotobiotic mice7,8. A complex reorientation of gut immunity occurs as infants transition from passively acquired IgA present in breast milk to host-derived IgA9–11. How IgA responses co-develop with assembly of the microbiota during this period remains poorly understood. Here, we (i) identify a set of age-discriminatory bacterial taxa whose representations define a program of microbiota assembly/maturation during the first 2 postnatal years that is shared across 40 healthy USA twin pairs; (ii) describe a pattern of progression of gut mucosal IgA responses to bacterial members of the microbiota that is highly distinctive for family members (twin pairs) during the first several postnatal months then generalizes across pairs in the second year; and (iii) assess the effects of zygosity, birth mode and breast feeding. Age-associated differences in these IgA responses can be recapitulated in young germ-free mice, colonized with fecal microbiota obtained from two twin pairs at 6 and 18 months of age, and fed a sequence of human diets that simulate the transition from milk feeding to complementary foods. The majority of these responses were robust to diet suggesting that ‘intrinsic’ properties of community members play a dominant role in dictating IgA responses. The approach described can be used to define gut mucosal immune development in health and disease states and help discover ways for repairing or preventing perturbations in this facet of host immunity. PMID:27279225

  10. Vertically transmitted fecal IgA levels distinguish extra-chromosomal phenotypic variation

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Meghan A.; D, Carey-Ann; Burnham; Virgin, Herbert W.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The proliferation of genetically modified mouse models has exposed phenotypic variation between investigators and institutions that has been challenging to control1-5. In many cases, the microbiota is the presumed culprit of the variation. Current solutions to account for phenotypic variability include littermate and maternal controls or defined microbial consortia in gnotobiotic mice6,7. In conventionally raised mice, the microbiome is transmitted from the dam2,8,9. Here we show that microbially–driven dichotomous fecal IgA levels in WT mice within the same facility mimic the effects of chromosomal mutations. We observed in multiple facilities that vertically-transmissible bacteria in IgA-Low mice dominantly lowered fecal IgA levels in IgA-High mice after cohousing or fecal transplantation. In response to injury, IgA-Low mice showed increased damage that was transferable by fecal transplantation and driven by fecal IgA differences. We found that bacteria from IgA-Low mice degraded the secretory component (SC) of SIgA as well as IgA itself. These data indicate that phenotypic comparisons between mice must take into account the non-chromosomal hereditary variation between different breeders. We propose fecal IgA as one marker of microbial variability and conclude that cohousing and/or fecal transplantation enables analysis of progeny from different dams. PMID:25686606

  11. PetIGA: A framework for high-performance isogeometric analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Dalcin, Lisandro; Collier, Nathaniel; Vignal, Philippe; ...

    2016-05-25

    We present PetIGA, a code framework to approximate the solution of partial differential equations using isogeometric analysis. PetIGA can be used to assemble matrices and vectors which come from a Galerkin weak form, discretized with Non-Uniform Rational B-spline basis functions. We base our framework on PETSc, a high-performance library for the scalable solution of partial differential equations, which simplifies the development of large-scale scientific codes, provides a rich environment for prototyping, and separates parallelism from algorithm choice. We describe the implementation of PetIGA, and exemplify its use by solving a model nonlinear problem. To illustrate the robustness and flexibility ofmore » PetIGA, we solve some challenging nonlinear partial differential equations that include problems in both solid and fluid mechanics. Lastly, we show strong scaling results on up to 4096 cores, which confirm the suitability of PetIGA for large scale simulations.« less

  12. Prominent role for plasmacytoid dendritic cells in mucosal T cell-independent IgA induction.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Hiroyuki; Abe, Yukiko; Asano, Jumpei; Sato, Taku; Liu, Jiajia; Iwata, Makoto; Ohteki, Toshiaki

    2011-02-25

    Although both