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Sample records for ige-mediated food allergy

  1. Ige-mediated food allergy - current problems and future perspectives (review).

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, T; Gotua, M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of FA have changed over time, and many studies have indeed suggested a true rise in prevalence over the past 10-20 years. Recent studies showed that prevalence of self-reported food allergy is 17, 3%, versus challenged confirmed - 0.9%. The majority of allergic reactions to foods, particularly in children, are suggested to be caused primarily by eight foods, namely cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. Clinical symptoms of FA include skin, gastrointestinal and systemic reaction anaphylaxis that might be life-threatening and cause fatal reaction. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on SPT, sIgE measurements, component resolved diagnostics (CRD) and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) tests. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the causal foods. Patients should be provided an emergency action plan, including how to administer an epinephrine autoinjector. It is recommended that all infants be exclusively breast-fed, without maternal diet restriction of allergens, until 4 to 6 months of age. Recent studies have shown that oral immunotherapy (OIT) can induce desensitization and modulate allergen-specific immune responses. Further work to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of this therapy is ongoing and needed before they are used in the main-stream care of children or adults with food allergy. PMID:25693219

  2. Ige-mediated food allergy - current problems and future perspectives (review).

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, T; Gotua, M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of FA have changed over time, and many studies have indeed suggested a true rise in prevalence over the past 10-20 years. Recent studies showed that prevalence of self-reported food allergy is 17, 3%, versus challenged confirmed - 0.9%. The majority of allergic reactions to foods, particularly in children, are suggested to be caused primarily by eight foods, namely cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. Clinical symptoms of FA include skin, gastrointestinal and systemic reaction anaphylaxis that might be life-threatening and cause fatal reaction. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on SPT, sIgE measurements, component resolved diagnostics (CRD) and double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) tests. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the causal foods. Patients should be provided an emergency action plan, including how to administer an epinephrine autoinjector. It is recommended that all infants be exclusively breast-fed, without maternal diet restriction of allergens, until 4 to 6 months of age. Recent studies have shown that oral immunotherapy (OIT) can induce desensitization and modulate allergen-specific immune responses. Further work to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of this therapy is ongoing and needed before they are used in the main-stream care of children or adults with food allergy.

  3. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ AllergiesFood Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, ...

  4. [Food allergy or food intolerance?].

    PubMed

    Maître, S; Maniu, C-M; Buss, G; Maillard, M H; Spertini, F; Ribi, C

    2014-04-16

    Adverse food reactions can be classified into two main categories depending on wether an immune mechanism is involved or not. The first category includes immune mediated reactions like IgE mediated food allergy, eosinophilic oesophagitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and celiac disease. The second category implies non-immune mediated adverse food reactions, also called food intolerances. Intoxications, pharmacologic reactions, metabolic reactions, physiologic, psychologic or reactions with an unknown mechanism belong to this category. We present a classification of adverse food reactions based on the pathophysiologic mechanism that can be useful for both diagnostic approach and management.

  5. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  6. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish Other Organizations Food Allergy ...

  7. Living with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is among the most common of the allergic disorders, with a prevalence of 6-8 per cent in children up to the age of three. However, many people self-diagnose, putting their children at risk of malnutrition, possibly as a result of lack of awareness by health professionals of food allergy as a potential cause of conditions such as infantile eczema, chronic diarrhoea, faltering growth and gastrooesophageal reflux. NICE (The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) recently published guidelines, which they hope will help to improve the diagnosis of food allergies within the community. If food allergy or lactose intolerance is suspected, the mainstay of a diagnostic work up should comprise of a detailed allergy-focused clinical history, part of which will involve determining whether the adverse reaction is typically an immediate (IgE mediated) or more delayed-type (non-IgE mediated) allergic reaction, or whether it may be lactose intolerance; a form of non-allergic hypersensitivity. PMID:21980692

  8. Ultrasensitive carbohydrate-peptide SPR imaging microarray for diagnosing IgE mediated peanut allergy

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Amit A.; Peczuh, Mark W.; Kumar, Challa V.; Rusling, James F

    2014-01-01

    Severity of peanut allergies is linked to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in blood, but diagnostics from assays using glycoprotein allergen mixtures may be inaccurate. Measuring IgEs specific to individual peptide and carbohydrate epitopes of allergenic proteins is promising. We report here the first immunoarray for IgEs utilizing both peptide and carbohydrate epitopes. A surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) microarray was equipped with peptide and β-xylosyl glycoside (BXG) epitopes from major peanut allergen glycoprotein Arachis hypogaea h2 (Ara-h2). A monoclonal anti-IgE antibody was included as positive control. IgEs were precaptured onto magnetic beads loaded with polyclonal anti-IgE antibodies to enhance sensitivity and minimize non-specific binding. As little as 0.1 attomole (0.5 pg/mL) IgE was detected from dilute serum in 45 min. IgEs binding to Ara-h2 peptide and BXG were quantified in 10 μL of patient serum and correlated with standard ImmunoCAP values. PMID:25259443

  9. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed. PMID:26934173

  10. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed.

  11. Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are common and seem to be increasing in prevalence. Preventive measures have become far more evident in the public arena (schools, camps, sports venues, and so forth). Evaluation and management of food allergies has evolved such that primary care practitioners may choose to provide initial diagnostic and treatment care or refer to allergists for similar care. Food allergies, once considered incurable, are now being diminished in intensity by new strategies. PMID:27545729

  12. [Food allergy].

    PubMed

    Kanny, Gisile

    2007-06-30

    The prevalence of food allergies increases in industrialized countries: 3% in general population, up to 6% of children. Food allergy has a genetic basis. The recent increase is thought to be due to a change in environmental factors, including changes in diet and reduced exposure to early childhood infection. Food allergies present with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including anaphylaxis, urticaria, angioedema, atopic dermatitis, oral syndrome, asthma, rhinitis, gastrointestinal disorders. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on history, detailed dietary analysis, skin testing, measuring specific IgE, avoidance diet and challenge tests. The mainstay of diagnosis and management of food allergies is correct identification and avoidance of the offending antigen. Children often develop tolerance to cow's milk, egg, wheat by school age, whereas allergies to nuts, fish and seafood are generally not outgrown no matter at what age they develop.

  13. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy appears to be increasing in prevalence and is estimated to affect >2% and possibly up to 10% of the population. Food allergies are defined by an immune response triggered by food proteins. Emerging data suggest that carbohydrate moieties on food proteins, specifically mammalian meats, may also elicit allergic responses. Food is the most common trigger of anaphylaxis in the community, which can be fatal. The underlying mechanisms of food allergy usually involve food-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies, but cell-mediated disorders account for a variety of chronic or subacute skin and gastrointestinal reactions. Eosinophilic esophagitis is an emerging food-related chronic disorder. The diagnosis of food allergy is complicated by the observation that detection of food-specific immunoglobulin E (sensitization) does not necessarily indicate clinical allergy. Diagnosis requires a careful medical history, laboratory studies, and, in many cases, oral food challenges to confirm a diagnosis. Novel diagnostic methods, many of which rely upon evaluating immune responses to specific food proteins or epitopes, may improve diagnosis and prognosis in the future. Current management relies upon allergen avoidance and preparation to promptly treat severe reactions with epinephrine. Studies suggest that some children with milk or egg allergy might tolerate extensively heated forms, for example milk or egg baked into muffins, without symptoms and possibly with some immunotherapeutic benefits. Novel therapeutic strategies are under study, including oral and sublingual immunotherapy, Chinese herbal medicine, anti-immunoglobulin E antibodies, and modified vaccines.

  14. Clinical manifestations of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Perry, Tamara T; Pesek, Robbie D

    2013-06-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are a diverse group of clinical syndromes resulting from immunologic and non-immunologic responses to food ingestion. Symptoms can range from mild, self-limiting reactions to severe, life-threatening reactions depending on the mechanism. This review primarily focuses on the clinical manifestations of immunologically derived adverse food reactions or food allergies.The true prevalence of food allergy is unknown. Up to 25% of the general population believes that they may be allergic to some food; however, the actual prevalence of food allergy diagnosed by a provider appears to be 1.5% to 2% of the adult population and approximately 6% to 8% of children. This discrepancy makes it imperative that clinicians are aware of the different food allergy syndromes. With a clear understanding of the clinical manifestations of food allergies, an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan can be formulated. Failing to do so may result in unnecessary dietary restrictions that may adversely affect nutritional status, growth, and quality of life.Most food allergic reactions are secondary to a limited number of foods, and the most common foods causing allergic reactions in children include milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, and fish. In adolescents and adults, allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish are most prevalent. Food allergies can result from immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated, non-IGE-mediated, or mixed IgE/non-IgE mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical manifestations of each of these types of food allergy.

  15. Probiotics and food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the “hygiene hypothesis” low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions. Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells. Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders. PMID:23895430

  16. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Waserman, Susan; Watson, Wade

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic response to a dietary protein. Food-related reactions are associated with a broad array of signs and symptoms that may involve many bodily systems including the skin, gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and cardiovascular system. Food allergy is a leading cause of anaphylaxis and, therefore, referral to an allergist for appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment is imperative. Diagnosis involves a careful history and diagnostic tests, such as skin prick testing, serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing and, if indicated, oral food challenges. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is confirmed, strict elimination of the offending food allergen from the diet is generally necessary. For patients with significant systemic symptoms, the treatment of choice is epinephrine administered by intramuscular injection into the lateral thigh. Although most children "outgrow" allergies to milk, egg, soy and wheat, allergies to peanut, tree nuts, fish and shellfish are often lifelong. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with food allergy.

  17. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Walker, E C

    1988-07-01

    Although common, food allergy is vastly overestimated by patients. The main food allergens include cow's milk, eggs, nuts, shellfish and whitefish. Other types of adverse food reactions are numerous; their cause represent a spectrum of toxins, infectious organisms and pharmacologic agents. A definitive diagnosis may be difficult. Recommended measures include prevention through breast feeding, avoidance of known offenders and symptomatic therapy when reactions occur.

  18. Food Allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...

  19. Differentiating food allergies from food intolerances.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, Stefano; Newland, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Adverse reactions to foods are extremely common, and generally they are attributed to allergy. However, clinical manifestations of various degrees of severity related to ingestion of foods can arise as a result of a number of disorders, only some of which can be defined as allergic, implying an immune mechanism. Recent epidemiological data in North America showed that the prevalence of food allergy in children has increased. The most common food allergens in the United States include egg, milk, peanut, tree nuts, wheat, crustacean shellfish, and soy. This review examines the various forms of food intolerances (immunoglobulin E [IgE] and non-IgE mediated), including celiac disease and gluten sensitivity. Immune mediated reactions can be either IgE mediated or non-IgE mediated. Among the first group, Immediate GI hypersensitivity and oral allergy syndrome are the best described. Often, but not always, IgE-mediated food allergies are entities such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteropathy. Non IgE-mediated immune mediated food reactions include celiac disease and gluten sensitivity, two increasingly recognized disorders. Finally, non-immune mediated reactions encompass different categories such as disorders of digestion and absorption, inborn errors of metabolism, as well as pharmacological and toxic reactions.

  20. Prevalence of food allergy in 137 latex-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, K T; Hussain, H

    1999-01-01

    There have been reports of increased prevalence of certain food allergies in patients with Type I latex allergy (LA). A detailed food allergy history was obtained from 137 patients with LA. Latex allergy was defined by positive history of IgE mediated reactions to contact with latex and positive skin prick test to latex and/or positive in vitro test (AlaSTAT and/or Pharmacia CAP). Food allergy was diagnosed by a convincing history of possible IgE mediated symptoms occurring within 60 minutes of ingestion. We identified 49 potential allergic reactions to foods in 29 (21.1%) patients. Foods responsible for these reactions include banana 9 (18.3%), avocado 8 (16.3%), shellfish 6 (12.2%), fish 4 (8.1%), kiwi 6 (12.2%), tomato 3 (6.1%), watermelon, peach, carrot 2 (4.1%) each, and apple, chestnut, cherry, coconut, apricot, strawberry, loquat, one (2.0%) each. Reactions to foods included local mouth irritation, angioedema, urticaria, asthma, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rhinitis, or anaphylaxis. Our study confirms the earlier reports of increased prevalence of food allergies in patients with LA. We also report increased prevalence of shellfish and fish allergy not previously reported. The nature of cross reacting epitopes or independent sensitization between latex and these foods is not clear.

  1. Clinical spectrum of food allergies: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ho, Marco H-K; Wong, Wilfred H-S; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immune response towards food proteins or as a form of a food intolerance associated with a hypersensitive immune response. It should also be reproducible by a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Many reported that food reactions are not allergic but are intolerances. Food allergy often presents to clinicians as a symptom complex. This review focuses on the clinical spectrum and manifestations of various forms of food allergies. According to clinical presentations and allergy testing, there are three types of food allergy: IgE mediated, mixed (IgE/Non-IgE), and non-IgE mediated (cellular, delayed type hypersensitivity). Recent advances in food allergy in early childhood have highlighted increasing recognition of a spectrum of delayed-onset non-IgE-mediated manifestation of food allergy. Common presentations of food allergy in infancy including atopic eczema, infantile colic, and gastroesophageal reflux. These clinical observations are frequently associated with food hypersensitivity and respond to dietary elimination. Non-IgE-mediated food allergy includes a wide range of diseases, from atopic dermatitis to food protein-induced enterocolitis and from eosinophilic esophagitis to celiac disease. The most common food allergies in children include milk, egg, soy, wheat, peanut, treenut, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergies are usually outgrown, but peanut and treenut allergy tends to persist. The prevalence of food allergy in infancy is increasing and may affect up to 15-20 % of infants. The alarming rate of increase calls for a public health approach in the prevention and treatment of food allergy in children.

  2. Common food allergies.

    PubMed

    McKevith, Brigid; Theobald, Hannah

    The incidence of allergic disease, including food allergy, appears to be increasing in the UK (Gupta et al 2003). Although any food has the potential to cause an allergic reaction, certain foods are more common causes of allergy than others. If diagnosed, food allergy is manageable. Correct diagnosis is important to ensure optimal management and a nutritionally balanced diet.

  3. Recent Advances in Management of Pediatric Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Swan, Kate; Fox, Adam T.

    2015-01-01

    Many children now suffer with a food allergy, immunoglobulin E (IgE) and/or non-IgE mediated. Food allergies have a significant impact on the child’s quality of life, as well as that of their family, due to the resultant dietary restrictions and the constant threat of a potentially life-threatening reaction. At present, there is no cure for food allergies, but there are exciting advances occurring in the management of IgE mediated allergies, including a more active approach to management with anticipatory screening testing, early introduction of common food allergens, active tolerance induction, use of biologics and active risk management. These areas will be discussed in this review. PMID:27417375

  4. Kids with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosed Real Families Faces of Food Allergies Rising Stars Gracie's Silver Linings Daniel's Confidence Ciara Builds a ... all recall alerts See all recent news Rising Stars Life As a Tween with Food Allergies MEET ...

  5. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  6. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... products Cow's milk and dairy products ( lactose intolerance ) Wheat and other grains that contain gluten ( celiac disease ) ... in children) Tree nuts (people of all ages) Wheat (people of all ages) In rare cases, food ...

  7. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... trigger allergic reactions include fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts, such as walnuts. Problem foods for children can include eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. The allergic reaction may ...

  8. Food allergy: current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

  9. [Food allergy].

    PubMed

    Del Río-Navarro, B E; Sienra-Monge, J J

    1993-06-01

    We are exposed to a large amount of potentially antigenic substances when we take aliments. Normally the mechanic, enzymatic and immunitary functions avoid the development of deleterious phenomena. Thus, when these mechanisms fail intolerance, idiosyncrasy or allergic reaction could be presented to the diet components. The adverse reactions to the aliments are present in one to three percent of the general population, while this occurs in the eight percent of the children under three years old. The clinical manifestations may comprise from abdominal pain pictures to anaphylactic shock. The symptomatology depends on age of the patient and the amount and kind of ingested food. The diagnosis must be establish on bases of careful anamnesis and physical examination. To confirm the diagnosis cutaneous test for immediate hypersensibility and the determination of specific IgE antibodies (RAST, ELISA) are used. The basic treatment consists in the withdrawal of the causative aliment and not on non-proper diets for the patient. PMID:8517939

  10. [Food allergies in paediatrics: Current concepts].

    PubMed

    Plaza-Martin, Ana María

    2016-07-01

    The concept of allergic reaction currently includes all those where an immunological reaction depends on a reaction mediated by IgE, as well as those that involve other immune mechanisms, such as T-cell regulators. There are many different clinical situations, like the classic immediate reactions (IgE mediated) such as urticaria, angioedema, immediate vomiting, abdominal pain, both upper respiratory (aphonia or rhinitis) and lower (wheezing or dyspnoea) symptom, and cardiovascular symptoms. The reactions that involve more than one organ, such as anaphylaxis, which could be an anaphylactic shock if there is cardiovascular involvement. The clinical signs and symptoms produced by non-IgE mediated reactions are usually more insidious in how they start, such as vomiting hours after the ingestion of food in enterocolitis, diarrhoea after days or weeks from starting food, dermatitis sometime after starting food. In these cases it is more difficult to associate these clinical symptoms directly with food. In this article, we attempt to clarify some concepts such as sensitisation/allergy, allergen/allergenic source, or the relationship of different clinical situations with food allergy, in order to help the paediatrician on the one hand, to prescribe strict diets in case of a suspicion based on the cause/effect relationship with the food, and on the other hand not to introduce unnecessary diets that very often have to last an excessively long time, and could lead to nutritional deficiencies in the children.

  11. Management of food allergies.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Matthew I; Spergel, Jonathan M

    2003-07-01

    Worldwide, approximately 8 and 2% of children and adults, respectively, suffer from food allergy. Cow's milk, egg, peanut, soy, wheat, fish, shellfish and tree nuts are responsible for the majority of allergic reactions to foods. Allergic reactions to food can occur by a variety of immune mechanisms including: IgE-mediated; non-IgE-mediated (T-cell-mediated); and combined IgE- and T-cell-mediated. Food allergies can affect any organ system, but most frequently involve the gastrointestinal system, the skin and the respiratory system. Knowledge of the spectrum of food allergies is important in order to identify patients at risk for severe or life-threatening allergic reactions. This article will review the mechanisms of specific food allergy disorders. It will also summarise the diagnosis of food allergy including the history of a food reaction, skin tests and laboratory tests. The management of food allergy will also be discussed with particular emphasis on the avoidance of food allergens and the pharmacotherapy of allergic reactions. Future therapy for food allergies will also be discussed.

  12. Food allergies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  13. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life. PMID:27207694

  14. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life.

  15. [Food allergy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence.

  16. [Food allergy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence. PMID:27207693

  17. [New food allergies].

    PubMed

    Dutau, G; Rittié, J L; Rancé, F; Juchet, A; Brémont, F

    1999-09-25

    RISING INCIDENCE OF FOOD ALLERGIES: Food allergies are becoming more and more common, concerning 3 to 4% of the general population. One out of four persons allergic to nuts, the most frequent food allergen, have severe signs and symptoms. A CLASSICAL DIAGNOSIS: Certain diagnosis of food allergy is established on the basis of labial and oral tests. The dose required to induce a reaction is established by the oral test, giving information about the severity of the allergy and its progression. OTHER ALLERGENS: "Emerging" food allergens include spices and condiments, exotic fruits (kiwi, avocado, cashew and pecan nuts, Brazil nuts), sesame seeds, psyllium, sunflower seeds. Endurance exercise following ingestion of a food allergen can lead to severe anaphylactic reactions. Allergen associations "food-pollen", "latex-food", "mitessnails" have been described. INDISPENSABLE PREVENTION: Avoiding contact is essential. Many allergens are "masked" within prepared foods. Precise labeling, with particular attention to nut content, must be reinforced. Individualized counseling on food allergies should be available for school children. Persons with severe allergies should keep at hand an emergency kit with antihistamines, injectable rapid action corticoids and adrenalin (1 mg/ml).

  18. [Food allergy in children].

    PubMed

    Bidat, E

    2006-10-01

    Food allergy is an adverse reaction to food protein by an immunological mechanism (IgE or non IgE-mediated). Signs can involve all organs, but atopic dermatitis remains the main manifestation. In children, only few allergens are involved. In France, it is cow milk, hen eggs, kiwi, peanut, fish, nuts, shrimp. Diagnosis is based on clinical history, skin tests, specific IgE and, sometimes, food challenge. Treatment is based on specific eviction. Regime can be total or sometimes limited to large among of the specific food, or only raw food. Food allergy disappears sometimes. Tolerance or food desensitization is in progress.

  19. Update on food allergy.

    PubMed

    Carrard, A; Rizzuti, D; Sokollik, C

    2015-12-01

    Food allergies are a global health issue with increasing prevalence. Allergic reactions can range from mild local symptoms to severe anaphylactic reactions. Significant progress has been made in diagnostic tools such as component-resolved diagnostics and its impact on risk stratification as well as in therapeutic approaches including biologicals. However, a cure for food allergy has not yet been achieved and patients and their families are forced to alter eating habits and social engagements, impacting their quality of life. New technologies and improved in vitro and in vivo models will advance our knowledge of the pathogenesis of food allergies and multicenter-multinational cohort studies will elucidate interactions between genetic background, lifestyle, and environmental factors. This review focuses on new insights and developments in the field of food allergy and summarizes recently published articles. PMID:26443043

  20. History of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Brunello

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we will first consider whether there is real evidence on the basis of literature for early descriptions in antiquity of pathogenic reactions after food intake that could be comparable to allergy, for instance in the scriptures of Hippocrates or Lucretius. On this topic we are skeptical, which is in agreement with the medical historian Hans Schadewaldt. We also assert that it is unlikely that King Richard III was the first food-allergic individual in medical literature. Most probably it was not a well-planned poisoning ('allergy') with strawberries, but rather a birth defect ('… his harm was ever such since his birth') that allowed the Lord Protector to bring Mylord of Ely to the scaffold in the Tower, as we can read in The History of King Richard III by Thomas More (1478-1535; published by his son-in-law, Rastell, in 1557). In 1912, the American pediatrician Oscar Menderson Schloss (1882-1952) was probably the first to describe scratch tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. Milestones in the practical diagnosis of food allergy are further discussed, including scratch tests, intradermal tests, modified prick tests and prick-to-prick tests. False-negative results can be attributed to the phenomenon of a 'catamnestic reaction' according to Max Werner (1911-1987), or to the fermentative degradation of food products. Prior to the discovery of immunoglobulin E, which marked a turning point in allergy diagnosis, and the introduction of the radioallergosorbent test in 1967, several more or less reliable techniques were used in the diagnosis of food allergy, such as pulse rate increase after food intake according to Coca, the leukopenic index, drop in basophils or drastic platelet decrease. The 'leukocytotoxic test' (Bryan's test), today called the 'ALCAT' test, shows no scientific evidence. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy. For the future, component-resolved diagnostics

  1. 9. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Sampson, Hugh A

    2006-02-01

    Food allergy, defined as an adverse immune response to food proteins, affects as many as 6% of young children and 3% to 4% of adults. Food-induced allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract and might be caused by IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated (cellular) mechanisms. Our understanding of how food allergy represents an abrogation of normal oral tolerance is evolving. Although any food can provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of significant food-induced allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. A systematic approach to diagnosis includes a careful history, followed by laboratory studies, elimination diets, and often food challenges to confirm a diagnosis. Many food allergens have been characterized at a molecular level, which has increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of food allergy and might soon lead to novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and to initiate therapy in case of an unintended ingestion.

  2. Chapter 23: Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Robison, Rachel G; Pongracic, Jacqueline A

    2012-01-01

    The onset of IgE-mediated food allergy is usually within minutes to 2 hours of food ingestion. Risk factors for fatal food-induced anaphylaxis include presence of asthma (which is a risk factor for anaphylaxis in general), failure to use epinephrine autoinjectors promptly, history of prior severe reactions, known food allergy, denial of symptoms, and adolescent/young adult age. The most commonly implicated foods are cow's milk, eggs, peanuts, soy, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, and wheat. Allergies to peanut, tree nuts, and seafood are the most common food allergens in adults. The major food allergens are glycoproteins that are generally water soluble and stable to the effects of heat, proteases, and acids. Food proteins that escape proteolysis are taken up by intestinal epithelial cells and presented to primed T cells. This process leads to the generation of T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells that produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Recent studies have found that tolerance can be acquired with >70% of children becoming tolerant to cow's milk and eggs by age 16 years. Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, and seafood are frequently lifelong. Food-allergic patients or their care givers should be taught when and how to administer injectable epinephrine. In terms of prevention, the American Academy of Pediatrics concluded that there is no convincing evidence that delaying the introduction of solid foods, including common allergens, beyond 4-6 months of age has a protective effect on the development of atopic disease.

  3. 9. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-02-01

    Food allergies affect as many as 6% of young children, most of whom "outgrow" the sensitivity, and about 2% of the general population. Although any food may provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of food allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. Many of these food allergens have been characterized at a molecular level, which has increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of many responses and may soon lead to novel immunotherapeutic approaches. Food allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract and may be due to IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. A systematic approach including history, laboratory studies, elimination diets, and often food challenges will lead to the correct diagnosis. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and to initiate therapy in case of an unintended ingestion.

  4. Update on food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Hugh A

    2004-05-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of food-based allergic disorders over the past 5 years. Recent epidemiologic studies suggest that nearly 4% of Americans are afflicted with food allergies, a prevalence much higher than appreciated in the past. In addition, the prevalence of peanut allergy was found to have doubled in American children less than 5 years of age in the past 5 years. Many food allergens have been characterized at the molecular level, which has contributed to our increased understanding of the immunopathogenesis of many allergic disorders and might soon lead to novel diagnostic and immunotherapeutic approaches. The management of food allergies continues to consist of educating patients on how to avoid relevant allergens, to recognize early symptoms of an allergic reaction in case of an accidental ingestion, and to initiate the appropriate emergency therapy. However, the recent successful clinical trial of anti-IgE therapy in patients with peanut allergy and the number of immunomodulatory therapies in the pipeline provide real hope that we will soon be able to treat patients with food allergy.

  5. Food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Radlović, Vladimir; Simić, Dusica; Ristić, Dragana; Vuletić, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy represents a highly up-to-date and continually increasing problem of modern man. Although being present in all ages, it most often occures in children aged up to three years. Sensitization most often occurs by a direct way, but it is also possible to be caused by mother's milk, and even transplacentally. Predisposition of inadequate immune response to antigen stimulation, reaginic or nonreaginic, is of non-selective character so that food allergy is often multiple and to a high rate associated with inhalation and/or contact hypersensitivity. Also, due to antigen closeness of some kinds of food, cross-reactive allergic reaction is also frequent, as is the case with peanuts, legumes and tree nuts or cow's, sheep's and goat's milk. Most frequent nutritive allergens responsible for over 90% of adverse reactions of this type are proteins of cow's milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Allergy intolerance of food antigens is characterized by a very wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Highly severe systemic reactions, sometimes fatal, are also possible.The diagnosis of food allergy is based on a detailed personal and family medical history, complete clinical examination, and corresponding laboratory and other examinations adapted to the type of hypersensitivity and the character of patient's complaints, and therapy on the elimination diet. A positive effect of elimination diet also significantly contributes to the diagnosis. Although most children "outgrow" their allergies, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods are generally life-long allergies. PMID:27276868

  6. Food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Radlović, Vladimir; Simić, Dusica; Ristić, Dragana; Vuletić, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy represents a highly up-to-date and continually increasing problem of modern man. Although being present in all ages, it most often occures in children aged up to three years. Sensitization most often occurs by a direct way, but it is also possible to be caused by mother's milk, and even transplacentally. Predisposition of inadequate immune response to antigen stimulation, reaginic or nonreaginic, is of non-selective character so that food allergy is often multiple and to a high rate associated with inhalation and/or contact hypersensitivity. Also, due to antigen closeness of some kinds of food, cross-reactive allergic reaction is also frequent, as is the case with peanuts, legumes and tree nuts or cow's, sheep's and goat's milk. Most frequent nutritive allergens responsible for over 90% of adverse reactions of this type are proteins of cow's milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Allergy intolerance of food antigens is characterized by a very wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Highly severe systemic reactions, sometimes fatal, are also possible.The diagnosis of food allergy is based on a detailed personal and family medical history, complete clinical examination, and corresponding laboratory and other examinations adapted to the type of hypersensitivity and the character of patient's complaints, and therapy on the elimination diet. A positive effect of elimination diet also significantly contributes to the diagnosis. Although most children "outgrow" their allergies, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods are generally life-long allergies.

  7. Food allergy to proteins.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food proteins. Class 1 food allergens are represented by peanut, egg white, and cow's milk; they are heat- and acid-stable glycoproteins that induce allergic sensitization via gastrointestinal tract and cause systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are homologous to proteins in birch tree pollen and class 2 food allergy develops as a consequence of respiratory sensitization to the cross-reactive pollen. Class 2 food allergens are very heat-labile and tend to induce reactions limited to oral allergy symptoms. In contrast, plant nonspecific lipid transfer proteins are resistant to heating and tend to induce systemic reactions. Analysis of IgE-binding epitopes with SPOT membranes revealed that cow's milk-, egg- and peanut-allergic subjects without IgE antibodies against certain sequential epitopes of the major allergens were more likely to achieve tolerance than subjects whose IgE antibodies were directed against those epitopes. Subsequently, peptide microarray showed a correlation between reaction severity and the intensity of IgE binding and the number of epitopes recognized of patients' immune responses against peanut allergens. Taken together, these data suggest that the epitope recognition pattern and intensity of IgE binding are important determinants of severity and duration of food allergy.

  8. Food allergies and food intolerances.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, Claudio; Pastorello, Elide A

    2006-01-01

    Adverse reactions to foods, aside from those considered toxic, are caused by a particular individual intolerance towards commonly tolerated foods. Intolerance derived from an immunological mechanism is referred to as Food Allergy, the non-immunological form is called Food Intolerance. IgE-mediated food allergy is the most common and dangerous type of adverse food reaction. It is initiated by an impairment of normal Oral Tolerance to food in predisposed individuals (atopic). Food allergy produces respiratory, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and cardiovascular symptoms but often generalized, life-threatening symptoms manifest at a rapid rate-anaphylactic shock. Diagnosis is made using medical history and cutaneous and serological tests but to obtain final confirmation a Double Blind Controlled Food Challenge must be performed. Food intolerances are principally caused by enzymatic defects in the digestive system, as is the case with lactose intolerance, but may also result from pharmacological effects of vasoactive amines present in foods (e.g. Histamine). Prevention and treatment are based on the avoidance of the culprit food. PMID:16782524

  9. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development.

  10. Food Allergy: An Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... A version of the guidelines for the general public is also available on the NIAID Web site. 25 NIAID I FOOD ALLERGY Glossary allergen —a substance that causes an allergic reaction. allergenic —describes a substance that produces an allergic ...

  11. Immunotherapy in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Toral; Bryce, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    Food allergies are caused by immune responses to food proteins and represent a breakdown of oral tolerance. They can range from mild pruritus to life-threatening anaphylaxis. The only current consensus for treatment is food avoidance, which is fraught with compliance issues. For this reason, there has been recent interest in immunotherapy, which may induce desensitization and possibly even tolerance. Through these effects, immunotherapy may decrease the potential for adverse serious reactions with accidental ingestions while potentially leading to an overall health benefit. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of food allergy and give an overview of the various immunotherapeutic options and current supporting evidence, as well as look towards the future of potential novel therapeutic modalities.

  12. Overview of food allergy diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    MANEA, IRENA; AILENEI, ELENA; DELEANU, DIANA

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a condition with significant social and economic impact and a topic of intense concern for scientists and clinicians alike. Worldwide, over 220 million people suffer from some form of food allergy, but the number reported is just the tip of the iceberg. Recent years have brought new perspectives in diagnosing food allergy. Elucidating incriminated immunological mechanisms, along with drawing the clinical phenotype of food hypersensitivity reactions ensures an accurate diagnosis of food allergy. Moreover, molecular based allergy diagnosis, which is increasingly used in routine care, is a stepping-stone to improved management of food allergy patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the topic of IgE-mediated food allergy from the perspective of current diagnostic methods. PMID:27004019

  13. [Diagnosis of food allergy].

    PubMed

    Leśniak, Małgorzata; Juda, Maciej; Dyczek, Łukasz; Czarnobilska, Maria; Leśniak, Magdalena; Czarnobilska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is most often linked to the type I allergic reaction, while IgE-dependent mechanism causes symptoms in only about 50% of patients. If symptoms are coming from other types of allergic reactions we do not have enough standardized diagnostic methods. The purpose of our review is to discuss the possibilities of diagnosis of food allergies. Regardless of the causal mechanism the interview has the most important role in the diagnosis, and the gold standard is a double blind placebo controlled food challenge. Additional tests that can be performed in suspected IgE-mediated reactions include: skin prick tests, specific IgE measurement, component-resolved diagnostics and in doubtful cases basophil activation test (BAT). Due to the fact that the spectrum of the symptoms of the type I food hypersensitivity can include potentially life-threatening reactions, diagnosis is often limited to in vitro assays. In these cases BAT may play an important role--in a recent publication, for the first time BAT reactivity reflected the allergy severity and BAT sensitivity reflected the threshold of response to allergen in an oral food challenge. Atopy patch tests are valuable diagnostic tool in suspected type IV food hypersensitivity, but due to the lack of standardization they are not used routinely. The cytotoxic test has been developed on the basis of the observations that leucopenia developing in the type II hypersensitivity reaction mechanism may be one of the symptoms of food allergy. Unfortunately its use is not justified in any method fulfill the criteria of controlled clinical trial. Food allergy can also develop in the type III hypersensitivity reaction, but there is lack of research supporting the role of IgG measurement in the detection of allergens responsible for symptoms. Each result of additional diagnostic tests before the introduction of food elimination should be confirmed in double-blind, placebo-controlled or open food challenge, because non proper diet is

  14. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Ward, Alister C.; Vuillermin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field. PMID:24351744

  15. Epidemiology of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Venter, Carina; Arshad, S Hasan

    2011-04-01

    Food allergy (FA) is perceived as a common problem, especially during childhood. Accurate assessment of incidence and prevalence of FA has been difficult to establish, however, due to lack of universally accepted diagnostic criteria. Although many foods are reported to cause IgE-mediated FA, most studies focus on 4 common food groups: cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut/tree nuts, and fish/shellfish. There may be variation in the prevalence of FA in regions of the world and a likely increase in prevalence has been observed in recent decades. This cannot be stated with confidence, however, without the use of consistent methodology and diagnostic criteria.

  16. Food Allergy Treatment for Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)

  17. Food Allergies and Eczema.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Sabrina

    2015-07-01

    Eczema is one of the most common skin conditions of childhood. Patients with eczema suffer in a chronic cycle of itch, scratch, and inflammation. For children with severe eczema, constant itching and scratching can have many consequences including skin infections, behavioral issues, and sleep problems. Parents often find themselves searching for a trigger for their child's eczema flare, and after they have switched detergents, applied a thick moisturizer and topical steroids, and removed all wool clothing from their child's wardrobe, they wonder, "Could food allergies be playing a role?"

  18. Food Allergies: The Basics

    PubMed Central

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. PMID:25680669

  19. Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities Page Content Article Body Human breast milk typically ... your pediatrician about your family’s medical history. Food Sensitivities A few mothers notice minor reactions to other ...

  20. Dose-dependent food allergy induction against ovalbumin under acid-suppression: A murine food allergy model

    PubMed Central

    Diesner, S.C.; Knittelfelder, R.; Krishnamurthy, D.; Pali-Schöll, I.; Gajdzik, L.; Jensen-Jarolim, E.; Untersmayr, E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal models are essential for analyzing the allergenic potential of food proteins and for investigating mechanisms underlying food allergy. Based on previous studies revealing acid-suppression medication as risk factor for food allergy induction, we aimed to establish a mouse model mimicking the natural route of sensitization in patients. Methods The effect of acid-suppressing medication on murine gastric pH was assessed by intragastric pH measurements after two injections of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). To investigate dose-dependency, mice were fed different concentrations of ovalbumin (OVA; 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 mg) either with or without anti-ulcer medication. Additionally, different routes of exposure (i.p. vs. oral) were compared in a second immunization experiment. Sera were screened for OVA-specific antibody titers (IgG1, IgG2a and IgE) in ELISA and RBL assay. Clinical reactivity was evaluated by measuring rectal temperature after oral challenge and by type I skin tests. Results Two intravenous injections of PPI significantly elevated the gastric pH from 2.97 to 5.3. Only oral immunization with 0.2 mg OVA under anti-acid medication rendered elevated IgG1, IgG2a and IgE titers compared to all other concentrations. Protein feeding alone altered antibody titers only marginally. Even though also i.p. immunizations induced high levels of specific IgE, only oral immunizations under anti-acids induced anaphylactic reactions evidenced by a significant decrease of body temperature. Conclusion Only low-dosage ovalbumin feedings under anti-acid medication resulted in IgE mediated food allergy. Based on this knowledge we have established a suitable food allergy model for further investigations of food adverse reactions. PMID:18824031

  1. Gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergies in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Careaga, Manuel; Kerner, John A

    2005-10-01

    Foods that account for 90% of allergic reactions in children are cow's milk protein, eggs, peanut, soy, tree nuts, fish, and wheat. Food allergy can manifest as urticaria/angioedema, anaphylaxis, atopic dermatitis, respiratory symptoms, or a gastrointestinal (GI) disorder. GI allergic manifestations can be classified as immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated (immediate GI hypersensitivity and oral allergy syndrome); "mixed" GI allergy syndromes (involving some IgE components and some non-IgE or T-cell-mediated components) include eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic gastroenteritis. Non-IgE-mediated or T-cell-mediated allergic GI disorders include dietary protein enteropathy, protein-induced enterocolitis, and proctitis. All these conditions share a common denominator: the response of the immune system to a specific protein leading to pathologic inflammatory changes in the GI tract. This immunological response can elicit symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, dysphagia, constipation, or GI blood loss, symptoms consistent with a GI disorder. The detection of food allergies can be accomplished by the use of radioallergosorbent (RAST) testing and skin prick tests in helping to assess the IgE-mediated disorders. Patch tests may help evaluate delayed hypersensitivity reactions. Treatment of GI allergic disorders ranges from strict dietary elimination of offending food(s), use of protein hydrolysates, and use of L-amino acid-based formula when protein hydrolysates fail. Treatment with topical (for eosinophilic esophagitis) or systemic steroids is used if all dietary measures are unsuccessful. Maternal breast feeding or the use from birth of hydrolysate formulas (extensive or partial hydrolysates) may be efficacious in the prevention of atopic disease in "high-risk" families (with at least 1 parent or sibling with a history of atopic disease).

  2. Comparison of School Food Allergy Emergency Plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's Standard Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for…

  3. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... up within a week. Learn More about Allergies Food Allergies: What You Need to Know Environmental Protection Agency ... Resources for You Allergy Relief for Your Child Food Allergies: Reducing the Risks Allergy Meds Could Affect Your ...

  4. Managing Food Allergies in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1997-01-01

    The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…

  5. Novel approaches to food allergy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-06-01

    Food allergies have increased in recent decades. However, they cannot be effectively treated by the current management, which is limited to the identification and avoidance of foods that induce allergies and to the use of medicines for symptoms relief. To meet the medical need of prevention and cure of food allergies, several therapeutic strategies are under investigation. Some newly developed biologics such as anti-IgE antibody and anti-interleukin (IL)-5 antibody directed against significant molecules in the allergic process have shown their potential for the treatment of food allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the therapy that induces immune tolerance and may reduce the need for conventional medication, severity of allergic symptoms and eliminate hypersensitivity. In this article, clinical studies of immunotherapy via subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous routes are extensively reviewed for their safety and effectiveness on various food allergies. In addition, to reduce the risk of anaphylaxis and increase toleragenic immunity, many studies are focusing on the modification of traditional allergens used for immunotherapy. Moreover, a Chinese herbal formulation with potential anti-allergic effects is being evaluated for its efficacy in patients with peanut allergy. Although more studies are needed, accumulated data of current studies represent compelling evidence of curative effects of some strategies and give a hope that food allergies are likely to be successfully treated in the future.

  6. 4. Food allergy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Katrina J; Hill, David J; Heine, Ralf G

    2006-10-01

    Food allergies in children present with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including anaphylaxis, urticaria, angioedema, atopic dermatitis and gastrointestinal symptoms (such as vomiting, diarrhoea and failure to thrive). Symptoms usually begin in the first 2 years of life, often after the first known exposure to the food. Immediate reactions (occurring between several minutes and 2 hours after ingestion) are likely to be IgE-mediated and can usually be detected by skin prick testing (SPT) or measuring food-specific serum IgE antibody levels. Over 90% of IgE-mediated food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cows milk, hens egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts (and seeds), wheat, fish and shellfish. Anaphylaxis is a severe and potentially life-threatening form of IgE-mediated food allergy that requires prescription of self-injectable adrenaline. Delayed-onset reactions (occurring within several hours to days after ingestion) are often difficult to diagnose. They are usually SPT negative, and elimination or challenge protocols are required to make a definitive diagnosis. These forms of food allergy are not usually associated with anaphylaxis. The mainstay of diagnosis and management of food allergies is correct identification and avoidance of the offending antigen. Children often develop tolerance to cows milk, egg, soy and wheat by school age, whereas allergies to nuts and shellfish are more likely to be lifelong.

  7. Food allergies in rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was.

  8. Food allergies in rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was. PMID:27605899

  9. Future therapies for food allergies.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Sampson, Hugh A

    2011-03-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries, and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. A number of therapeutic strategies are under investigation targeting foods that most frequently provoke severe IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions (peanut, tree nuts, and shellfish) or are most common in children, such as cow's milk and hen's egg. Approaches being pursued are both food allergen specific and nonspecific. Allergen-specific approaches include oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy (desensitization) with native food allergens and mutated recombinant proteins, which have decreased IgE-binding activity, coadministered within heat-killed Escherichia coli to generate maximum immune response. Diets containing extensively heated (baked) milk and egg represent an alternative approach to food oral immunotherapy and are already changing the paradigm of strict dietary avoidance for patients with food allergy. Nonspecific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, which might increase the threshold dose for food allergen in patients with food allergy, and a Chinese herbal formulation, which prevented peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model and is currently being investigated in clinical trials. The variety of strategies for treating food allergy increases the likelihood of success and gives hope that accomplishing an effective therapy for food allergy is within reach.

  10. Food allergy overview in children.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Sujatha

    2008-04-01

    Food allergies have increased significantly in the past decade. An accurate history is crucial in approaching the management. At the outset, food intolerance must be distinguished from food allergies and, furthermore, these allergies should be classified into either an IgE, Non-IgE, or a mixed response. The clinical features vary from life-threatening anaphylaxis to milder IgE-mediated responses, atopic dermatitis, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The severity of the reaction and the potential risk for anaphylaxis on reexposure should be assessed. Milk, soy, egg, wheat, and peanut allergies are common in children, whereas peanut, tree nut, fish, shell fish allergies, and allergies to fruits and vegetables are common in adults. Structural proteins are important determinants of the severity of the reactions and may often predict the natural history and cross reactivity. Diagnostic work up must be guided by the clinical history. Skin testing and food-specific IgE done by standard methods are very useful, whereas oral challenges may be indicated in some situations. Majority of the patients outgrow their allergies to milk, soy, egg, and wheat, and some to peanut also, therefore, patients should be periodically reassessed. Novel diagnostic techniques which detect specific allergenic epitopes have been developed. Several newer therapies are promising.

  11. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Allison J; Sood, Puja; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with no approved therapies, apart from avoidance and injectable epinephrine for acute allergic reactions. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an experimental treatment in which food-allergic patients consume gradually increasing quantities of the food to increase their threshold for allergic reaction. This therapy carries significant risk of allergic reactions. The ability of OIT to desensitize patients to particular foods is well-documented, although the ability to induce tolerance has not been established. This review focuses on recent studies for the treatment of food allergies such as cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut.

  12. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Allison J; Sood, Puja; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with no approved therapies, apart from avoidance and injectable epinephrine for acute allergic reactions. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an experimental treatment in which food-allergic patients consume gradually increasing quantities of the food to increase their threshold for allergic reaction. This therapy carries significant risk of allergic reactions. The ability of OIT to desensitize patients to particular foods is well-documented, although the ability to induce tolerance has not been established. This review focuses on recent studies for the treatment of food allergies such as cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut. PMID:26617227

  13. Gastrointestinal food allergy and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Assa'ad, Amal H

    2006-10-01

    GI symptoms are a common manifestation of food allergy and intolerance. The primary physician is the first to evaluate these symptoms. A systematic evaluation using an accurate and detailed history, tests to identify the offending food(s), and procedures that may identify underlying pathologic disorders of the GI tract would lead to an accurate diagnosis and better targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:17048714

  14. Mucosal Immunology of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Berin, M. Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2013-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune deviation that results in IgE sensitization and allergic reactivity to foods. The intestinal epithelium forms the interface between the external environment and the mucosal immune system, and emerging data suggest that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells is of particular importance in determining the outcome of immune responses to dietary antigens. Exposure to food allergens through non-oral routes, in particular through the skin, is increasingly recognized as a potentially important factor in the increasing rate of food allergy. There are many open questions on the role of environmental factors such as dietary factors and microbiota in the development of food allergy, but data suggest that both have an important modulatory effect on the mucosal immune system. Finally, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of immune mechanisms of clinical manifestations of food allergy. New experimental tools, particularly in the field of genomics and microbiome, are likely to shed light on factors responsible for the growing clinical problem of food allergy. PMID:23660362

  15. Asthma and Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  16. Managing food allergies in schools.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Jay M; Shroba, Jodi

    2014-10-01

    Food allergies are estimated to affect as many as 8 % of children with 2.5 % being allergic to peanut products. Based on the results of recent surveys, this prevalence has been increasing over the last few decades for unknown reasons. As children with food allergies reach school age, the issue is becoming more common in schools. For that reason, schools are now required to be prepared to take responsibility for the safety of food-allergic students. This review discusses the common problems surrounding management of food allergies in the school setting along with reasonable recommendations for addressing those problems. The most important component of food allergy management is for the student to get an accurate diagnosis and to then discuss development of an anaphylaxis action plan with their health-care provider. Each school should insist that a copy of such a plan be provided for each student with food allergy and that epinephrine is readily available should a student have an anaphylactic reaction. In addition to epinephrine, it is essential that school personnel be properly trained to recognize and treat allergic reactions should they occur. Known deficiencies in school preparedness have been documented in previous literature, and consequently, both state and the federal government have begun to implement policies to help with school preparedness.

  17. Egg allergy: are all childhood food allergies the same?

    PubMed

    Allen, Clare Wendy; Campbell, Dianne Elizabeth; Kemp, Andrew Stewart

    2007-04-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in childhood affecting about 1-2% of preschool children and differs in a number of ways from other common childhood food allergies such as cows milk and peanut. Common egg allergens are altered both by heat and gastric enzymes. Compared with peanuts/tree nuts and milk, egg allergy appears less likely to cause severe life-threatening reactions or fatal anaphylaxis. Children are much more likely to outgrow egg allergy by school age as compared with peanut allergy. While the MMR vaccine is no longer contraindicated in egg allergy, influenza vaccine is contraindicated in children with anaphylaxis to egg. An understanding of the similarities and differences in these common food allergies of childhood is helpful in the management of these common and increasing problems.

  18. Industrial dimensions of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Crevel, René

    2005-11-01

    Serious attempts to estimate the impact of allergic reactions to foods on public health did not begin until the 1980s. Until about 15 years ago food allergy was considered a minor aspect of food safety. Two developments probably prompted a radical re-appraisal of that situation. The first was the apparently inexorable rise in the prevalence of atopic diseases, of which food allergy forms a part, with its possible consequences highlighted by some well-publicised severe reactions. The second was the growth of genetic modification technology, manifested by the commercialisation of transgenic crops. Each of these developments impacted on the food industry in distinct ways. On the one hand, consumers with food allergies had to be enabled to avoid specific allergens in products formulated with existing ingredients. Food manufacturers therefore had to identify those specific allergens down to trace amounts in all the ingredients forming the product and label or remove them. On the other hand, the introduction of products using ingredients from novel sources required an assessment of the allergenicity of these ingredients as an integral part of safety assurance. The approaches used by the food industry to protect existing consumers who have food allergies and those at potential risk of sensitisation from novel proteins will be illustrated, emphasising how they need to be built into every stage of the life cycle of a product.

  19. Communicating with Parents about Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…

  20. Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing

    MedlinePlus

    Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI If you have ever experienced red, itchy skin, swell- ... food, you may wonder if you have a food allergy. While diagnosing food allergies can be tricky, an ...

  1. Determinants of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Masilamani, Madhan; Commins, Scott; Shreffler, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Much has been learned by identifying the molecules that can be recognized by IgE from patients with allergies. Increasingly, by correlating patterns of sensitization with clinical features, it has become possible to distinguish molecules responsible for primary sensitization (complete allergens) from those that are more likely cross-reactive targets. In the case of animal allergens, evolutionary distance seems to be an important factor in determining allergenicity. However, until more is understood regarding the mechanistic details of primary sensitization, including the participation of molecules that stimulate innate immune responses and the repertoire of T-cell antigens, molecules that may or may not themselves be important B-cell antigens, we will not be able to explain fundamental questions, such as why peanut allergy is more severe than soy allergy or why tick exposure is associated with clinically relevant sensitization to a carbohydrate epitope. PMID:22244230

  2. Future Therapies for Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy . A number of therapeutic strategies are under investigation targeting foods that most frequently provoke severe IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions (peanut, tree nuts, shellfish) or are most common in children, such as cow’s milk and hen’s egg. Approaches being pursued are both food allergen-specific and non-specific. Allergen-specific approaches include oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy (desensitization) with native food allergens, and mutated recombinant proteins, which have decreased IgE-binding activity, co-administered within heat-killed E.coli to generate maximum immune response. Diets containing extensively heated (baked) milk and egg represent an alternative approach to food oral immunotherapy and are already changing the paradigm of strict dietary avoidance for food-allergic patients. Non-specific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, which may increase the threshold dose for food allergen in food-allergic patients, and a Chinese herbal formulation, which prevented peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a mouse model, and is currently being investigated in clinical trials. The variety of strategies for treating food allergy increases the likelihood of success and gives hope that accomplishing an effective therapy for food allergy is within reach. PMID:21277625

  3. Food allergy: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Dan

    2008-03-01

    A rise in food allergy, accompanied by heightened public awareness, guarantees that clinicians will increasingly be consulted to accurately distinguish adverse reactions to foods from other disorders. The potential impact of inaccurately labeling a food as a cause of symptoms includes delaying appropriate treatment for another disorder or needlessly removing a food from the diet, with potential adverse nutritional and social consequences. When symptoms are triggered by food ingestion, determining the type of adverse reaction to the food responsible is important because of the implications regarding the mechanism involved, reproducibility, and the prognosis.

  4. Managing the Student with Severe Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Joanne M.; Ficca, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting.…

  5. [Food allergy, food intolerance or functional disorder?].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    2009-04-01

    The term "food allergy" is widely misused for all sorts of symptoms and diseases caused by food. Food allergy (FA) is an adverse reaction to food (food hypersensitivity) occurring in susceptible individuals, which is mediated by a classical immune mechanism specific for the food itself. The best established mechanism in FA is due to the presence of IgE antibodies against the offending food. Food intolerance (FI) are all non-immune-mediated adverse reactions to food. The subgroups of FI are enzymatic (e.g. lactose intolerance due to lactase deficiency), pharmacological (reactions against biogenic amines, histamine intolerance), and undefined food intolerance (e.g. against some food additives). The diagnosis of an IgE-mediated FA is made by a carefully taken case history, supported by the demonstration of an IgE sensitization either by skin prick tests or by in vitro tests, and confirmed by positive oral provocation. For scientific purposes the only accepted test for the confirmation of FA/FI is a properly performed double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). A panel of recombinant allergens, produced as single allergenic molecules, may in future improve the diagnosis of IgE-mediated FA. Due to a lack of causal treatment possibilities, the elimination of the culprit "food allergen" from the diet is the only therapeutic option for patients with real food allergy. PMID:19340768

  6. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  7. Food Allergy: Tips to Remember

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, eggs, peanuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish and tree nuts. In some food groups, especially tree nuts and seafood, an allergy to one member ... listed in common language (milk, egg, fish, shellfish, tree nuts, wheat, peanuts and soybeans). • Carry and know ...

  8. Food allergies: detection and management.

    PubMed

    Kurowski, Kurt; Boxer, Robert W

    2008-06-15

    Family physicians play a central role in the suspicion and diagnosis of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergies, but they are also critical in redirecting the evaluation for symptoms that patients are falsely attributing to allergies. Although any food is a potential allergen, more than 90 percent of acute systemic reactions to food in children are from eggs, milk, soy, wheat, or peanuts, and in adults are from crustaceans, tree nuts, peanuts, or fish. The oral allergy syndrome is more common than anaphylactic reactions to food, but symptoms are transient and limited to the mouth and throat. Skin-prick and radioallergosorbent tests for particular foods have about an 85 percent sensitivity and 30 to 60 percent specificity. Intradermal testing has a higher false-positive rate and greater risk of adverse reactions; therefore, it should not be used for initial evaluations. The double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge remains the most specific test for confirming diagnosis. Treatment is through recognition and avoidance of the responsible food. Patients with anaphylactic reactions need emergent epinephrine and instruction in self-administration in the event of inadvertent exposure. Antihistamines can be used for more minor reactions.

  9. Food allergy is associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections during childhood

    PubMed Central

    Woicka-Kolejwa, Katarzyna; Zaczeniuk, Magdalena; Majak, Paweł; Pawłowska-Iwanicka, Kamila; Kopka, Monika; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; Jerzyńska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To find out whether children with food allergy have an increased risk of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections and of asthma. Aim To describe the clinical profile of children diagnosed with food allergy referred to the Allergy Clinic. Material and methods We conducted a retrospective study to assess the patients’ demographic, anthropometric and clinical data. The analysis included data of all children by the age of 10 years (registered with the Allergy Clinic between 2012 and 2013) in whom IgE mediated food allergy had been diagnosed during 18 months of observation. Results We included 280 children into the analysis. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (rRTI), asthma and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were observed in 153 (54.6%), 96 (34.3%), 39 (13.9%), respectively, with a significant increasing trend across age-subgroups. In children from 1 to 2 years old, sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.03–14.87). In older children sensitization to allergens other than milk or egg decreases the risk of rRTI (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.62); sensitization to egg decreased the risk of asthma diagnosis (OR = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01–0.75). We did not identify food allergens which change the risk of GI symptoms in children. This finding was consistent throughout all age-subgroups. Conclusions Sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI in children under 2 years of age nearly four times. The presence of sensitization to food allergens above 3 years of age did not increase the risk of developing clinical presentation of food allergy other than atopic dermatitis. PMID:27279819

  10. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Feuille, Elizabeth; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising investigational therapy for food allergy. Clinical trials in peanut, milk, egg, and wheat allergy provide evidence that OIT can effectively desensitize a majority of individuals to a food allergen. While a portion of subjects demonstrate sustained unresponsiveness, the majority regain sensitivity with allergen avoidance. The safety and tolerability of OIT continue to limit its use in some patients. Virtually all studies report adverse reactions that are more frequent during dose escalation but may also occur during maintenance therapy. Recent studies have identified adjunctive therapies (such as omalizumab) which may mitigate adverse effects. There is a paucity of data on the long-term safety and efficacy of OIT. Further study is required before OIT is ready for routine clinical practice. This review is intended to provide the reader with an up-to-date understanding of OIT, including its mechanisms, efficacy, safety profile, and potential utility in clinical practice. PMID:27355816

  11. Food allergies and migraine.

    PubMed

    Grant, E C

    1979-05-01

    60 migraine patients completed elimination diets after a 5-day period of withdrawal from their normal diet. 52 (87%) of these patients had been using oral contraceptive steroids, tobacco, and/or ergotamine for an average of 3 years, 22 years, and 7.4 years respectively. The commonest foods causing reactions were wheat (78%), orange (65%), eggs (45%), tea and coffee (40% each), chocolate and milk (37%) each), beef (35%), and corn, cane sugar, and yeast (33% each). When an average of ten common foods were avoided there was a dramatic fall in the number of headaches per month, 85% of patients becoming headache-free. The 25% of patients with hypertension became normotensive. Chemicals in the home environment can make this testing difficult for outpatients. Both immunological and non-immunological mechanisms may play a part in the pathogenesis of migraine caused by food intolerance.

  12. Food and environmental allergies.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Miranda M

    2015-03-01

    Immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic responses to food and environmental allergens can cause symptoms ranging from mild allergic rhinitis and rashes to gastrointestinal distress and, most seriously, anaphylaxis. The diagnosis can be difficult, as it relies on complex interplay between patient history and diagnostic tests with low specificity. Adding to the difficulty in confirming the diagnosis is an increased public interest in food intolerances, which can be inappropriately attributed to an allergic response. Treatment of allergic diseases with avoidance strategies and pharmacologic treatments can improve quality of life and control of other chronic conditions, such as asthma and eczema.

  13. Japanese Guideline for Food Allergy 2014.

    PubMed

    Urisu, Atsuo; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Ito, Komei; Aihara, Yukoh; Ito, Setsuko; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Kohno, Yoichi; Kondo, Naomi

    2014-09-01

    A food allergy is defined as "a phenomenon in which adverse reactions are caused through antigen-specific immunological mechanisms after exposure to given food." Various symptoms of food allergy occur in many organs. Food allergies are classified roughly into 4 clinical types: (1) neonatal and infantile gastrointestinal allergy, (2) infantile atopic dermatitis associated with food allergy, (3) immediate-type food allergy (urticaria, anaphylaxis, etc.), and (4) food dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis and oral allergy syndrome (i.e., specific forms of immediate food allergy). The therapy for food allergies includes treatment of and prophylactic measures against hypersensitivity such as anaphylaxis. A fundamental prophylactic measure is the elimination diet. However, elimination diets should be used only if necessary because of the patient-related burden. For this purpose, it is very important that causative foods be accurately identified. There are a number of means available to identify causative foods, including the history taking, a skin prick test, detection of antigen-specific IgE antibodies in the blood, the basophil histamine release test, the elimination diet test, and the oral challenge test, etc. Of these, the oral challenge test is the most reliable. However, it should be conducted under the supervision of experienced physicians because it may cause adverse reactions, such as anaphylaxis.

  14. Skin manifestations of food allergies.

    PubMed

    Martin, B L

    1999-03-01

    The role of dietary factors in chronic skin diseases has been a subject of controversy, but several investigators have shown the effectiveness of elimination diets in the management of some patients with atopic dermatitis. Chronic skin diseases are common, complex, and often difficult to treat; therefore, the physician should consider all possible causes. More people consider themselves to have food allergies than can actually be documented to have an immunologic reaction to foods. Six foods--egg, peanut, cow's milk, soy, fish, and wheat--account for most skin reactions to food in children, with egg, peanut, and cow's milk being most common. Elimination of the offending food can be an effective form of treatment, but it must be done with caution, and while ensuring that the patient maintains adequate nutrition.

  15. Gastrointestinal manifestations of food allergies.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jaime Liou; Aceves, Seema S

    2011-04-01

    The rates of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders appear to be increasing. The most common of these is eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) which is a clinicopathologic condition consisting of characteristic symptoms and endoscopic features accompanied by a pan-esophageal, acid resistant epithelial eosinophilia of greater than equal to 15 per high power field. Typical symptoms include dysphagia and abdominal pain. Typical endoscopic features include pallor, plaques, furrows, concentric rings. Complications include food impactions and strictures. EoE resolution with food elimination diets provides evidence that EoE is a food-antigen driven process. In vitro and microarray studies have identified specific immunologic factors underlying EoE pathogenesis. Other gastrointestinal manifestations of food intolerances/allergy include food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome.

  16. [Food allergy in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Wichmann, K; Heratizadeh, A; Werfel, T

    2012-04-01

    Food allergy predominantly affects children rather than adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Early sensitization to foods has been found to be significantly associated with AD. Three different patterns of clinical reactions to food allergens in AD patients exist: i. immediate-type reaction, ii. isolated late-type reaction, iii. combined reaction (i. + ii.). While in children allergens from cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, wheat, fish, peanut or tree nuts are mostly responsible for allergic reactions, birch-pollen related food allergens seem to play a major role in adolescent and adults with AD in Central and Northern Europe. Defects of the epidermal barrier function seem to facilitate the development of sensitization to allergens following epicutaneous exposure. The relevance of defects of the gut barrier as well as genetic characteristics associated with an increased risk for food allergy remain to be further investigated. Numerous studies focus on prevention strategies which include breast-feeding or feeding with hydrolyzed milk substitute formula during the first 4 months of life.

  17. Update on food allergy in adults.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Rabia Quddus; Oppenheimer, John J

    2012-08-01

    Though much has been studied and written about food allergy, the majority of the available literature focuses on food allergies in the pediatric population. Unfortunately, it is likely that in regard to food allergies, adults are not just big children, and extrapolating findings from pediatric to adult patient populations might lead to erroneous assumptions. Thus, it is important to validate the correlation between pediatric and adult data, gather data regarding adult food allergy and understand the specific nuances of subsets of adults to better treat their food allergy. This review was conducted by identifying potentially relevant studies regarding food allergies in adults through electronic databases, including PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar. The search terms included "allergy", "food" and "adults". Parameters of 19+ years of age were added to search terms and all journals were written in or translated to English. From these search results, focus was placed on studies from 2010 to 2012. This systematic update on food allergy in adults found that the evidence regarding prevalence, diagnosis and management of food allergies is very limited, with the majority of data derived from children and young adults.

  18. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.

  19. The Natural History of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica; Sicherer, Scott; Wood, Robert

    2016-01-01

    On a population level, it is well recognized that some IgE-mediated childhood food allergies, such as milk and egg allergies, are more likely to resolve than others, such as peanut and tree nuts allergies. Unfortunately, some studies suggest that resolution rates may have slowed compared with impressions from past decades. The clinician can apply the knowledge of the epidemiology of these allergies to describe likely patient outcomes, and direct management in a general manner. However, the ability to evaluate and predict the natural course of specific food allergies for individual patients is essential to inform personalized patient care. Data are accumulating to assist in identifying whether a child's allergy has likely resolved, informing the timing of oral food challenges or subsequent testing. Exciting recent studies are increasingly identifying early prognostic markers as well. Emerging food allergy therapies carry risks and costs. Identifying which egg-allergic patient has likely persistent allergy, and which patient with peanut allergy may experience natural resolution, is becoming an important goal to identify the best candidates for these therapies. Although more work needs to be done to identify reliable predictive markers and validate them, there is already much known about the natural course of food allergies that can be applied by the clinician to improve patient care. PMID:26968958

  20. Comparison of school food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's standard plan.

    PubMed

    Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna

    2007-10-01

    Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for comparison. Although two-thirds used food allergy plans, only 15% used the current FAAN plan. Plans were missing essential components, including emergency contact information, medication administration instructions, and health history information. School nurses must adhere to current clinical guidelines to provide an accurate resource for personnel in charge of a food allergy reaction in school. Professional associations and state school health agencies must create and market a resource that provides easy, one-stop access to current best-practice guidelines and tool kits. PMID:17894522

  1. Comparison of school food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's standard plan.

    PubMed

    Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna

    2007-10-01

    Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for comparison. Although two-thirds used food allergy plans, only 15% used the current FAAN plan. Plans were missing essential components, including emergency contact information, medication administration instructions, and health history information. School nurses must adhere to current clinical guidelines to provide an accurate resource for personnel in charge of a food allergy reaction in school. Professional associations and state school health agencies must create and market a resource that provides easy, one-stop access to current best-practice guidelines and tool kits.

  2. Food Allergy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Food Allergy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Food Allergy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  3. Emerging therapies for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Keet, Corinne A.; Wood, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is a common condition for which there are currently no approved treatments except avoidance of the allergenic food and treatment of accidental reactions. There are several potential treatments that are under active investigation in animal and human studies, but it is not yet clear what the best approach may be. Here, we review approaches that are currently in clinical trials, including oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy, immunotherapy combined with anti-IgE, and Chinese herbal medicine as well as approaches that are in preclinical or early clinical investigation, including modified protein immunotherapy, adjuvants, DNA vaccines, and helminth administration. We discuss the importance of fully exploring the risks and benefits of any treatment before it is taken to general clinical practice and the need for clarity about the goals of treatment. PMID:24789880

  4. Reducing food allergy: is there promise for food applications?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy has been increasing in recent years. Food allergy can be deadly, and strict avoidance of foods containing allergenic proteins is the only effective way to prevent food-induced allergic reaction. This approach poses challenges, because allergens are not always accurately...

  5. [Special aspects of food allergy in children].

    PubMed

    Niggemann, B

    2012-04-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions to foods represent the earliest and most important manifestation of allergic diseases in childhood. Sensitization to foods may happen very early in life. Basic options for alimentary allergy prevention are breast-feeding of at least 4 months and in case nursing is impossible, use of an alternative hypoallergenic formula. The most common food allergens in childhood are cow's milk, hen's egg, peanuts, tree nuts and wheat. The prevalence of food allergies in childhood is 2 to 6%. In up to 50% of infants and children with atopic eczema, food allergies play a role; vice versa 95% of children with an IgE-mediated food allergy have atopic eczema as an underlying disease. Diagnostic reliability in suspected allergic reactions to food is only achieved in most cases by performing controlled oral food challenges. The long-term prognosis is good for cow's milk and hen's egg allergy, while peanut and tree nut allergies often last life-long. The most important therapeutic option is a specific elimination diet; especially in infancy, a nutritionally adequate substitution diet has to be considered. Children who might inadvertently get into contact with their potentially life threatening food allergen, should be provided with an epinephrine autoinjector.

  6. Stress and food allergy: mechanistic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Hannah M.C.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a marked increase in food allergy prevalence among children, particularly in Western countries, that cannot be explained by genetic factors alone. This has resulted in an increased effort to identify environmental risk factors underlying food allergies and to understand how these factors may be modified through interventions. Food allergy is an immune-mediated adverse reaction to food. Consequently, considerations of candidate risk factors have begun to focus on environmental influences that perturb the healthy development of the emerging immune system during critical periods of development (eg, prenatally and during early childhood), particularly in the gut. Given that psychosocial stress is known to play an important role in other allergic and inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, its potential role in food allergy is a growing area of research. However, research to date has largely focused on animal studies. This review synthesizes relevant animal research and epidemiological data, providing proof of concept for moderating influences of psychological stress on food allergy outcomes in humans. Pathways that may underlie associations between psychosocial stress and the expression of food allergy are discussed. PMID:24428964

  7. Food Allergy: Common Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavisha Y; Volcheck, Gerald W

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is a growing concern, and recognition of symptoms, knowledge of common food allergens, and management of reactions are important for patients and practitioners. Symptoms of a classic IgE-mediated food allergy vary in severity and can include any combination of laryngeal edema, wheezing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urticaria, angioedema, and hypotension. Many foods can induce an allergic reaction, but the most commonly implicated foods include cow's milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergy generally develop and are outgrown in childhood. Peanut and tree nut allergy can occur during childhood or adulthood, are less likely to be outgrown, and tend to cause more fatal reactions. Given the possibility of life-threatening reactions, it is important to recognize the potential for cross-reactivity among food groups. Diagnosis of food allergy includes skin prick testing, specific serum IgE testing, and oral food challenges. Management is centered on avoidance of allergenic and cross-reacting foods and early recognition and immediate treatment of reactions. Treatment protocols to desensitize patients to food are currently under investigation. PMID:26434966

  8. Food Allergy: Common Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavisha Y; Volcheck, Gerald W

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is a growing concern, and recognition of symptoms, knowledge of common food allergens, and management of reactions are important for patients and practitioners. Symptoms of a classic IgE-mediated food allergy vary in severity and can include any combination of laryngeal edema, wheezing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urticaria, angioedema, and hypotension. Many foods can induce an allergic reaction, but the most commonly implicated foods include cow's milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergy generally develop and are outgrown in childhood. Peanut and tree nut allergy can occur during childhood or adulthood, are less likely to be outgrown, and tend to cause more fatal reactions. Given the possibility of life-threatening reactions, it is important to recognize the potential for cross-reactivity among food groups. Diagnosis of food allergy includes skin prick testing, specific serum IgE testing, and oral food challenges. Management is centered on avoidance of allergenic and cross-reacting foods and early recognition and immediate treatment of reactions. Treatment protocols to desensitize patients to food are currently under investigation.

  9. Food allergy in adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K

    2015-01-01

    In young children, food allergy is usually acquired via the gastrointestinal tract and directed toward egg and milk. Adolescent and adult patients, however, mainly acquire food allergy via primary sensitization to inhalant allergens on the basis of cross-reactivity between proteins in inhalant sources and in food. This type of food allergy is frequently mediated by sensitization to broadly represented allergens, or so-called panallergens. Food allergic reactions in adult patients - similar to those in children - range in severity from very mild and local symptoms, as in contact urticaria of the oral mucosa, to systemic symptoms involving distal organs, to a fatal outcome. Plant foods, such as fruits, nuts, and vegetables, are the most prevalent allergenic foods in this age group. PMID:26022864

  10. [Treatment and management of food allergy].

    PubMed

    Urisu, Atsuo

    2009-11-01

    Management for food allergy consists of treatment for hypersensitive reactions by causative foods and prophylactic control of food allergy. The former is administration of histamine H1 receptor antagonist, adrenaline and steroid. It is recommended that all patients with a history of severe reactions carry a device for self-injection of adrenaline (Epipen). The latter is avoidance of the relevant food allergens. Nutritional instruction by skillful dietitians is important to prevent the nutritional defect and improve the quality of life of food-allergic patients. PMID:19899529

  11. [Treatment and management of food allergy].

    PubMed

    Urisu, Atsuo

    2009-11-01

    Management for food allergy consists of treatment for hypersensitive reactions by causative foods and prophylactic control of food allergy. The former is administration of histamine H1 receptor antagonist, adrenaline and steroid. It is recommended that all patients with a history of severe reactions carry a device for self-injection of adrenaline (Epipen). The latter is avoidance of the relevant food allergens. Nutritional instruction by skillful dietitians is important to prevent the nutritional defect and improve the quality of life of food-allergic patients.

  12. [Immunological background and pathomechanisms of food allergies].

    PubMed

    Schülke, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in immunology have greatly improved our understanding of the pathomechanisms of food allergies. Food allergies are caused and maintained by complex interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system involving antigen-presenting cells (APC), T cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), epithelial cells (EC) and effectors cells. Additionally, epigenetic factors, the intestinal microbiome and nutritional factors modulating the gastrointestinal lymphatic tissue probably have a significant impact on allergy development. However, why certain individuals develop tolerance while others mount allergic responses, the factors defining the allergenicity of food proteins, as well as the immunological mechanisms triggering allergy development have yet to be analyzed in detail. PMID:27177897

  13. Infant food allergy: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Joneja, Janice M

    2012-01-01

    For many years, the prevailing maxim for prevention of food allergy in at-risk infants was to reduce allergic sensitization by avoiding exposure to highly allergenic foods until the baby's immune and digestive systems were sufficiently developed to cope with the allergen. Current thinking is completely different: exposure to food in the early stages of development may be the way to induce tolerance. Exclusive breastfeeding until 4-6 months, followed by introduction of complementary foods individually, is recommended. Any restrictions on mother's diet, other than avoidance of her own allergens during pregnancy and breastfeeding, are contraindicated. If a baby at high risk for allergy (defined as having 1 first-degree relative with diagnosed allergy) cannot be exclusively breastfed to 4-6 months of age, the preferred method of feeding for the prevention of atopic disease is an extensively hydrolyzed formula. There appears to be no value in delaying the introduction of any food beyond 6 months of age. Most food allergy is outgrown in childhood, but allergy to some foods tends to persist. Induction of tolerance to foods to which a child is allergic may be achieved by low-dose exposure in a process known as specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI). Early results indicate that some probiotic strains of bacteria, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or Lactobacillus F19, may reduce allergic sensitization.

  14. Manifestations of food allergy: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, S H

    1999-01-15

    The term "food allergy" refers to adverse immunologic reactions to food. Food allergy is usually mediated by IgE antibody directed to specific food proteins, but other immunologic mechanisms can also play a role. The primary target organs for food allergic reactions are the skin, the gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory system. Both acute reactions (hives and anaphylaxis) and chronic disease (asthma, atopic dermatitis and gastrointestinal disorders) may be caused or exacerbated by food allergy. The foods most commonly causing these reactions in children are milk, egg, peanuts, soy, wheat, tree nuts, fish and shellfish; in adults, they are peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish and fish. The diagnosis of food allergy requires a careful search for possible causes, confirmation of the cause(s) with supporting tests, including specific tests for IgE (i.e., prick skin tests, radioallergosorbent tests) and, in some cases, oral food challenges. Treatment consists of elimination of the causal food(s) along with medical treatment, including the prompt self-administration of epinephrine in the event of a serious reaction.

  15. South African food allergy consensus document 2014.

    PubMed

    Levin, M E; Gray, C L; Goddard, E; Karabus, S; Kriel, M; Lang, A C; Manjra, A I; Risenga, S M; Terblanche, A J; van der Spuy, D A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing worldwide and is an important cause of anaphylaxis. There are no local South African food allergy guidelines. This document was devised by the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES) and the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA). Subjects may have reactions to more than one food, and different types and severity of reactions to different foods may coexist in one individual. A detailed history directed at identifying the type and severity of possible reactions is essential for every food allergen under consideration. Skin-prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (ImmunoCAP) tests prove IgE sensitisation rather than clinical reactivity. The magnitude of sensitisation combined with the history may be sufficient to ascribe causality, but where this is not possible an incremental oral food challenge may be required to assess tolerance or clinical allergy. For milder non-IgE-mediated conditions a diagnostic elimination diet may be followed with food re-introduction at home to assess causality. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food/s, taking into account nutritional status and provision of alternative sources of nutrients. Acute management of severe reactions requires prompt intramuscular administration of adrenaline 0.01 mg/kg and basic resuscitation. Adjunctive therapy includes antihistamines, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Subjects with food allergy require risk assessment and those at increased risk for future severe reactions require the implementation of risk-reduction strategies, including education of the patient, families and all caregivers (including teachers), the provision of a written emergency action plan, a MedicAlert necklace or bracelet and injectable adrenaline (preferably via auto-injector) where necessary.

  16. Adverse reactions to food: allergies and intolerances.

    PubMed

    Montalto, Massimo; Santoro, Luca; D'Onofrio, Ferruccio; Curigliano, Valentina; Gallo, Antonella; Visca, Dina; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    All the anomalous reactions secondary to food ingestion are defined as 'adverse reactions to food'. In 1995 the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology suggested a classification on the basis of the responsible pathogenetic mechanism; according to this classification, non-toxic reactions can be divided into 'food allergies' when they recognize immunological mechanisms, and 'food intolerances' when there are no immunological implications. The diagnostic approach to adverse reactions to food is based on accurate clinical history and objective examination, and further execution of specific tests when allergy or intolerance is suspected. The therapy for food allergies is the elimination of the food to which hypersensibility has been found; this strategy can lead, especially in pediatric age, to tolerance. If elimination diets cannot be completely performed, or if it is not possible to identify the food to eliminate, some drugs (e.g. antihistaminics, steroids, etc.) can be administered. Specific allergen immunotherapy has been recently introduced. Fundamental is food allergy prevention, especially in high-risk subjects. The therapeutic approach to secondary food intolerances is based principally on primitive disease resolution; on the other hand, some specific treatments (e.g. beta-galactosidases in lactose malabsorption) are available in case of primary intolerance. PMID:18431058

  17. Summary of the NIAID-sponsored food allergy guidelines.

    PubMed

    Yawn, Barbara P; Fenton, Matthew J

    2012-07-01

    Patients with suspected food allergies are commonly seen in clinical practice. Although up to 15 percent of parents believe their children have food allergies, these allergies have been confirmed in only 1 to 3 percent of all Americans. Family physicians must be able to separate true food allergies from food intolerance, food dislikes, and other conditions that mimic food allergy. The most common foods that produce allergic symptoms are milk, eggs, seafood, peanuts, and tree nuts. Although skin testing and in vitro serum immunoglobulin E assays may help in the evaluation of suspected food allergies, they should not be performed unless the clinical history suggests a specific food allergen to which testing can be targeted. Furthermore, these tests do not confirm food allergy. Confirmation requires a positive food challenge or a clear history of an allergic reaction to a food and resolution of symptoms after eliminating that food from the diet. More than 70 percent of children will outgrow milk and egg allergies by early adolescence, whereas peanut allergies usually remain throughout life. The most serious allergic response to food allergy is anaphylaxis. It requires emergency care that should be initiated by the patient or family using an epinephrine autoinjector, which should be carried by anyone with a diagnosed food allergy. These and other recommendations presented in this article are derived from the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States, published by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

  18. Food allergy knowledge, perception of food allergy labeling, and level of dietary practice: A comparison between children with and without food allergy experience

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yongmi; Ju, Seyoung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of food allergies in Korean children aged 6 to 12 years increased from 10.9% in 1995 to 12.6% in 2012 according to nationwide population studies. Treatment for food allergies is avoidance of allergenic-related foods and epinephrine auto-injector (EPI) for accidental allergic reactions. This study compared knowledge and perception of food allergy labeling and dietary practices of students. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted with the fourth to sixth grade students from an elementary school in Yongin. A total of 437 response rate (95%) questionnaires were collected and statistically analyzed. RESULTS The prevalence of food allergy among respondents was 19.7%, and the most common food allergy-related symptoms were urticaria, followed by itching, vomiting and nausea. Food allergens, other than 12 statutory food allergens, included cheese, cucumber, kiwi, melon, clam, green tea, walnut, grape, apricot and pineapple. Children with and without food allergy experience had a similar level of knowledge on food allergies. Children with food allergy experience thought that food allergy-related labeling on school menus was not clear or informative. CONCLUSION To understand food allergies and prevent allergic reactions to school foodservice among children, schools must provide more concrete and customized food allergy education. PMID:25671074

  19. Prospects for Prevention of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Katrina J; Koplin, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    A rise in both prevalence and public awareness of food allergy in developed countries means that clinicians and researchers are frequently asked to explain reasons for the increase in food allergy, and families are eager to know whether they can take steps to prevent food allergy in their children. In this review, we outline leading theories on risk factors for early life food allergy. We summarize the leading hypotheses to explain the increase in food allergy as "the 5 Ds": dry skin, diet, dogs, dribble (shared microbial exposure), and vitamin D. We discuss currently available evidence for these theories and how these can be translated into clinical recommendations. With the exception of dietary intervention studies, evidence for each of these theories is observational, and we describe the implications of this for explaining risk to families. Current infant feeding recommendations are that infants should be introduced to solids around the age of 4 to 6 months irrespective of family history risk and that allergenic solids do not need to be avoided, either by infants at the time of solid food introduction or by mothers whilst pregnant or lactating. Additional potential strategies currently being explored include optimization of early life skin barrier function through a decrease in drying soaps and detergents and an increase in the use of nonallergenic moisturizers. The investigation of the role of microbiota and vitamin D is ongoing and cannot yet be translated into clinical recommendations. PMID:26755097

  20. Prospects for Prevention of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Katrina J; Koplin, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    A rise in both prevalence and public awareness of food allergy in developed countries means that clinicians and researchers are frequently asked to explain reasons for the increase in food allergy, and families are eager to know whether they can take steps to prevent food allergy in their children. In this review, we outline leading theories on risk factors for early life food allergy. We summarize the leading hypotheses to explain the increase in food allergy as "the 5 Ds": dry skin, diet, dogs, dribble (shared microbial exposure), and vitamin D. We discuss currently available evidence for these theories and how these can be translated into clinical recommendations. With the exception of dietary intervention studies, evidence for each of these theories is observational, and we describe the implications of this for explaining risk to families. Current infant feeding recommendations are that infants should be introduced to solids around the age of 4 to 6 months irrespective of family history risk and that allergenic solids do not need to be avoided, either by infants at the time of solid food introduction or by mothers whilst pregnant or lactating. Additional potential strategies currently being explored include optimization of early life skin barrier function through a decrease in drying soaps and detergents and an increase in the use of nonallergenic moisturizers. The investigation of the role of microbiota and vitamin D is ongoing and cannot yet be translated into clinical recommendations.

  1. Attitudes and preferences of consumers toward food allergy labeling practices by diagnosis of food allergies

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Se-young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-earn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. RESULTS The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P < 0.001). All respondents reported that all six items (bold font, font color, box frame, warning statement, front label, and addition of potential allergens) were necessary for an improved food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. CONCLUSIONS An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers. PMID:26425282

  2. Preventing Food Allergies by Tricking Dendritic Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies are adverse responses to components (usually proteins) within the foods we eat, which result in a self-damaging response from our immune system. A myriad of cellular and molecular components are involved in the decision to tolerate or respond to foreign molecules that pass through the...

  3. Food allergy: nuts and tree nuts.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Jesus F; James, John M; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Consuelo; Rodriguez, Julia

    2006-11-01

    Nuts are a well-defined cause of food allergy, which affect approximately 1 % of the general population in the UK and the USA. There do appear to be differences in the frequency of nut allergy between different countries because of different dietary habits and cooking procedures. For example, in the USA and France, peanuts are one of the most frequent causes of food allergy, but in other countries, it seems to be less common. Genetic factors, in particular, appear to play a role in the development of peanut allergy. While the majority of nut allergens are seed storage proteins, other nut allergens are profilins and pathogenesis-related protein homologues, considered as panallergens because of their widespread distribution in plants. The presence of specific IgE antibodies to several nuts is a common clinical finding, but the clinical relevance of this cross-reactivity is usually limited. Allergic reactions to nuts appear to be particularly severe, sometimes even life-threatening, and fatal reactions following their ingestion have been documented. Food allergy is diagnosed by identifying an underlying immunological mechanism (i.e. allergic testing), and establishing a causal relationship between food ingestion and symptoms (i.e. oral challenges). In natural history investigations carried out in peanut-allergic children, approximately 20 % of the cases outgrew their allergy or developed oral tolerance. The treatment of nut allergies should include patient and family education about avoiding all presentations of the food and the potential for a severe reaction caused by accidental ingestion. Patients and families should be instructed how to recognise early symptoms of an allergic reaction and how to treat severe anaphylaxis promptly.

  4. Prevalence of celiac disease in patients with severe food allergy.

    PubMed

    Pillon, R; Ziberna, F; Badina, L; Ventura, A; Longo, G; Quaglia, S; De Leo, L; Vatta, S; Martelossi, S; Patano, G; Not, T; Berti, I

    2015-10-01

    The association between food allergy and celiac disease (CD) is still to be clarified. We screened for CD 319 patients with severe food allergy (IgE > 85 kU/l against food proteins and a history of severe allergic reactions) who underwent specific food oral immunotherapy (OIT), together with 128 children with mild allergy who recovered without OIT, and compared the prevalence data with our historical data regarding healthy schoolchildren. Sixteen patients (5%) with severe allergy and one (0.8%) with mild allergy tested positive for both genetic and serological CD markers, while the prevalence among the schoolchildren was 1%. Intestinal biopsies were obtained in 13/16 patients with severe allergy and in the one with mild allergy, confirming the diagnosis of CD. Sufferers from severe food allergy seem to be at a fivefold increased risk of CD. Our findings suggest that routine screening for CD should be recommended in patients with severe food allergy.

  5. Food Allergies Linked to Raised Risk of Asthma, Hay Fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... policy. More Health News on: Asthma Children's Health Food Allergy Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Asthma Children's Health Food Allergy About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ...

  6. An update on immunotherapy for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Scurlock, Amy M.; Jones, Stacie M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the review Recent investigation has resulted in significant advances toward definitive therapeutic options for food allergy. In this review, we will explore novel immunotherapeutic interventions for the active treatment of food allergy. Recent findings Because the injection route for allergen immunotherapy to foods has been associated with an unacceptable risk of severe anaphylactic reactions, use of mucosally targeted therapeutic strategies is of significant interest for food allergy. Allergen-specific immunotherapeutic approaches such as oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, and peptide immunotherapy have demonstrated efficacy in increasing threshold dose and inducing immunologic changes associated with both desensitization and oral tolerance in animal and human trials. More global immunomodulatory strategies, such as Traditional Chinese Medicine and anti-IgE therapy have been shown to effectively target the allergic response, and clinical trials are ongoing to determine the efficacy and safety in human food allergy. Summary The advent of therapies that target the mucosal immune response to promote oral tolerance have shown great promise in the treatment of food hypersensitivity. However, there is still significant risk of adverse reactions associated with these therapeutic strategies and further study is needed to carefully advance these therapeutic modalities toward general clinical implementation. PMID:20856110

  7. Special considerations for managing food allergies.

    PubMed

    Hays, Tiffani

    2012-01-01

    When caring for patients with severe, multiple food allergies, special considerations are necessary for achieving the best quality of care. The most important consideration is to confirm all food allergies so that the patient does not unnecessarily restrict foods. Retest or challenge any foods with a questionable diagnosis. Second, because strict allergen avoidance remains the appropriate treatment for food allergy, provide the patient and family with adequate education about allergen avoidance and include plans for reintroduction of foods during follow-up care. Following a strict allergen avoidance diet often places the patient at nutrition risk. Another consideration includes conducting a complete nutrition assessment and monitoring for nutrient deficiencies on an ongoing basis. Food substitutions and hypoallergenic formulas and supplements are often required to meet the patient's needs. Last, consider evaluating medication ingredients as causes of persistent symptoms in extremely sensitive food allergic patients. Including the above considerations will result in food allergic patients enjoying the safest variety of foods and reaching their full growth potential.

  8. Food allergy as seen by an allergist.

    PubMed

    Cox, Helen E

    2008-11-01

    The clinical expression of allergic disease is the consequence of a series of complex gene-environment interactions that occur at the materno-fetal interface and throughout infancy, leading to persistence of the Th2 immune response. It has been proposed that atopic eczema is the cutaneous manifestation of a systemic disorder that also gives rise to asthma, food allergy, and allergic rhinitis. The recent emergence of genes regulating epidermal barrier function has raised the question of whether the skin barrier in atopic eczema is defective from the outset, rendering the epidermis "leaky," thereby increasing the risk of allergen penetration and the succeeding inflammatory reaction that contributes to atopic eczema. Food allergic sensitisation and eczema frequently coexist during the first 2 years of life, and food allergy is more prevalent in infants and children with moderate to severe eczematous inflammation. The majority of food allergic reactions are caused by 8 foods, with milk, egg, and peanut occurring with greatest frequency. The acquisition of food-specific tolerance occurs predominantly with foods in which the epitopes are grouped together in a conformational structure (milk, egg, wheat, soy), whilst it rarely occurs in patients allergic to foods in which the epitopes are arranged in a linear fashion (nuts, seeds, fish). Better tests and novel therapies, such as immunotherapy and oral tolerance induction, are required for the management of food allergy.

  9. Food allergy to Helix terrestre (snail).

    PubMed

    de la Cuesta, C G; García, B E; Córdoba, H; Diéguez, I; Oehling, A

    1989-01-01

    Among the rare foods capable of producing food allergies is the snail (Helix terrestre). The snail is a delicacy eaten in Spain, France and Portugal. This study presents the findings of an allergic study of 10 patients with this infrequent food allergy during the past 10 years. The shock organ in the majority (80%) of these patients was the bronchial tree. Six of them did not have any digestive or skin symptoms which are usually seen in cases of food allergy. All patients manifested the symptomatology after ingestion of Helix terrestre. Two also had reactions after eating Patella vulgata (limpet). The snail and the limpet are within the phylogenetic line of molluscs, i.e. of gastropods. All patients tolerated the ingestion of cephalopods and bivalves which belong to two other phylogenetic lines. Skin tests to seafoods (squids, prawns, lobsters and clams) were negative for all patients. This suggests that the sensitizing antigen is probably a protein found only in gastropod molluscs. Skin tests along with the histamine release test were valid diagnostic methods for this food allergy. The limited bibliography on this subject is probably due to the fact that the consumption of snails as well as limpets is limited to specific geographical areas.

  10. Factors affecting the development of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2002-11-01

    Food allergy is an important health issue. The estimated prevalence among adults in Western Europe is thought to be between 1 and 2%, with the frequency in infants being greater (approximately 5%). Most confirmed food allergies are associated with a relatively limited range of produce, including cow's milk, eggs, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, fish and shellfish, although the prevalence of allergy to individual foods is known to vary geographically, due largely to differences in dietary practices. Although formal evidence is lacking, it is assumed that (in line with other forms of atopic disease) the incidence of food allergy is increasing. There is no doubt that genetic predisposition is an important determinant. However, acquisition of sensitisation to food proteins and subsequent allergic disease is known to be influenced by a variety of environmental factors and the timing, duration and extent of exposure. Moreover, the nature of the allergen itself may have an important impact on the severity and persistence of clinical disease. The purpose here is to discuss the relevance of some of these variables in the context of immunoglobulin E antibody-mediated allergic responses.

  11. Food Allergies: Being Aware and Planning for Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graville, Iris

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, parents and early childhood educators have become increasingly aware of food allergies in childhood. And since food allergies account for about 150 deaths a year, there is good reason to be concerned. The early childhood program can provide valuable learning for those without food allergies through explanations about why certain…

  12. Optimizing the Diagnosis of Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Sicherer, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Making an accurate diagnosis when evaluating a patient with a possible food allergy is particularly important both to avoid unnecessary dietary restrictions and to prevent life threatening reactions. The testing modalities used routinely in clinical practice, including skin prick testing and food specific IgE levels, have limited accuracy, and a physician-supervised oral food challenge is often required to make a definitive diagnosis. Given the labor-intensive nature of this test and the risk of inducing an allergic reaction, researchers have investigated a number of alternative diagnostic modalities to improve the accuracy of food allergy testing. Testing for IgE antibodies to particular protein components in foods has already shown promise to improve diagnostics and has entered clinical practice. Additional modalities are under study that show potential including epitope binding, T cell studies, basophil activation and others. PMID:25459577

  13. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of food allergy and food tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chinthrajah, R Sharon; Hernandez, Joseph D; Boyd, Scott D; Galli, Stephen J; Nadeau, Kari C

    2016-04-01

    Ingestion of innocuous antigens, including food proteins, normally results in local and systemic immune nonresponsiveness in a process termed oral tolerance. Oral tolerance to food proteins is likely to be intimately linked to mechanisms that are responsible for gastrointestinal tolerance to large numbers of commensal microbes. Here we review our current understanding of the immune mechanisms responsible for oral tolerance and how perturbations in these mechanisms might promote the loss of oral tolerance and development of food allergies. Roles for the commensal microbiome in promoting oral tolerance and the association of intestinal dysbiosis with food allergy are discussed. Growing evidence supports cutaneous sensitization to food antigens as one possible mechanism leading to the failure to develop or loss of oral tolerance. A goal of immunotherapy for food allergies is to induce sustained desensitization or even true long-term oral tolerance to food allergens through mechanisms that might in part overlap with those associated with the development of natural oral tolerance.

  14. What Principals Should Know About Food Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Describes what principals should know about recent research findings on food allergies (peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat) that can produce severe or life-threatening reactions in children. Asserts that every school should have trained staff and written procedures for reacting quickly to allergic reactions. (PKP)

  15. The Prevalence and Natural History of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Kattan, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of food allergy is increasing. Not only are more children being diagnosed with food allergies, but studies suggest that when people outgrow their food allergies, it is taking longer than was previously thought. Studies in recent years have noted factors that may lead to a lower likelihood of developing a food allergy, including the early introduction of common food allergens, having a sufficient vitamin D level, or having a higher maternal intake of peanut early in pregnancy. Given a recent report that sensitization to common food allergens did not increase from the late 1980s/early 1990s to the mid-2000s, further studies will need to examine if the rise in food allergy prevalence is due to a change in the relationship between sensitization and clinical allergy or changes in the recognition and diagnosis of food allergy. PMID:27333776

  16. Common methodologies in the evaluation of food allergy: pitfalls and prospects of food allergy prevalence studies.

    PubMed

    Shu, Shang-an; Chang, Christopher; Leung, Patrick S C

    2014-06-01

    Global and regional studies on the prevalence of food allergies are plagued by inconsistent methodologies, variations in interpretation of results, and non-standardized study design. Hence, it becomes difficult to compare the prevalence of food allergies in different communities. This information would be useful in providing critical data that will enhance research to elucidate the nature of food allergies, and the role of gene-environment interactions in the sensitization of children and adults to foods. Testing methodologies range from questionnaires to objective in vitro and in vivo testing, to the gold standard, double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Although considered the most accurate and reliable method in detecting the prevalence of food allergy, DBPCFC is not always practical in epidemiological studies of food allergy. On the other hand, multiple logistic regression studies have been done to determine predictability of the outcome of food challenges, and it appears that skin prick testing and in vitro-specific serum IgE are the best predictors. Future studies directed towards confirming the validity of these methods as well as developing algorithms to predict the food challenge outcomes are required, as they may someday become accessory tools to complement DBPCFC.

  17. Signs and Symptoms of Food Allergy and Food-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hemant P; Bansil, Shweta; Uygungil, Burcin

    2015-12-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence. In order for pediatric clinicians to appropriately diagnose and manage food allergies, the characteristic signs and symptoms of these potentially severe reactions must be recognized. Unlike nonimmunologic adverse food reactions (such as lactose intolerance and food poisoning), food allergies by definition are immune-mediated responses that occur reproducibly on food ingestion. The varying clinical presentations of food allergy include IgE-mediated disorders, mixed IgE- and cell-mediated disorders, and cell-mediated food allergies. This review describes the clinical manifestations of each of these categories of food allergy, with special emphasis on recognition of food-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:26456438

  18. [Diagnostics and management of food allergies in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Spiesz, Karin; Huttegger, Isidor

    2015-09-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies is increasing with large regional variability. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (cow`s milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Food reactions can be categorized in IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves mainly strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy.

  19. [Diagnostics and management of food allergies in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Spiesz, Karin; Huttegger, Isidor

    2015-09-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies is increasing with large regional variability. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (cow`s milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Food reactions can be categorized in IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves mainly strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. PMID:26442851

  20. Food allergy: opportunities and challenges in the clinical practice of allergy and immunology.

    PubMed

    James, John M

    2004-10-01

    Food allergy offers numerous opportunities and challenges for the allergy and clinical immunology specialist. Physicians with board certification in allergy and clinical immunology should be the main source of reliable clinical information to educate patients with food-related disorders. There has been a wealth of reliable information published related to food allergy that can be utilized by health care providers in clinical practice. This includes information about the cross-reactivity of food allergens, the evaluation of potential new therapies, and the practical application of new diagnostic methods and management strategies. This article addresses some of the new developments in food allergy, with an emphasis on cross-reactvity of food allergens, recombinant food allergens, and potential future therapies for food allergy.

  1. [Food-induced anaphylaxis in latex allergy].

    PubMed

    Abeck, D; Börries, M; Kuwert, C; Steinkraus, V; Vieluf, D; Ring, J

    1994-06-01

    Contact uticaria and anaphylactic reactions to latex-containing rubber products are being recognized with increasing frequency in all kinds of medical disciplines. Recently a number of reports have been published describing anaphylactic reactions to food items in patients with latex allergy. The cases of three patients who developed anaphylactic reactions to both latex and food items are presented, and the importance of the association of latex and cross-reactivity with food items is stressed. The food items that led to anaphylactic reactions were banana and avocado; banana, avocado and buckwheat; and banana, avocado and tomato. The cross-reactivity of latex to buckwheat and tomato has not been reported before.

  2. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines. Primary prevention of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Halken, S; Arshad, S H; Beyer, K; Dubois, A E J; Du Toit, G; Eigenmann, P A; Grimshaw, K E C; Hoest, A; Lack, G; O'Mahony, L; Papadopoulos, N G; Panesar, S; Prescott, S; Roberts, G; de Silva, D; Venter, C; Verhasselt, V; Akdis, A C; Sheikh, A

    2014-05-01

    Food allergy can have significant effects on morbidity and quality of life and can be costly in terms of medical visits and treatments. There is therefore considerable interest in generating efficient approaches that may reduce the risk of developing food allergy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Prevention and is part of the EAACI Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis. It aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for primary prevention of food allergy. A wide range of antenatal, perinatal, neonatal, and childhood strategies were identified and their effectiveness assessed and synthesized in a systematic review. Based on this evidence, families can be provided with evidence-based advice about preventing food allergy, particularly for infants at high risk for development of allergic disease. The advice for all mothers includes a normal diet without restrictions during pregnancy and lactation. For all infants, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for at least first 4-6 months of life. If breastfeeding is insufficient or not possible, infants at high-risk can be recommended a hypoallergenic formula with a documented preventive effect for the first 4 months. There is no need to avoid introducing complementary foods beyond 4 months, and currently, the evidence does not justify recommendations about either withholding or encouraging exposure to potentially allergenic foods after 4 months once weaning has commenced, irrespective of atopic heredity. There is no evidence to support the use of prebiotics or probiotics for food allergy prevention.

  3. Reducing food allergy: is there promise for food applications?

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is on the rise and has become a growing food safety concern. The main treatment is strictly avoiding allergens in the diet. However, this is difficult to do because foods are sometimes contaminated with allergens due to processing of different foods with the same machinery. For this reason, accidental ingestion of trace amount of allergenic proteins is common. For children with severe food allergy, this could be life-threatening. Food products with reduced allergenic proteins, if developed, could be beneficial and may raise the threshold of the amount of allergenic proteins required to trigger an allergic reaction. As a result, the number of serious allergic reactions may decrease. Moreover, such less allergenic products may be useful or replace regular products in studies such as oral tolerance induction or early exposure experiments, where children with severe peanut allergy are usually excluded due to their severe intolerance. This review focuses on recent findings and progress made in approaches to reduce allergenic proteins in foods. Modifying methods may include physical and chemical treatments as well as lifestyle changes and the use of supplements. We discuss the benefits and drawbacks these methods present for production of hypoallergenic food products and food allergy prevention.

  4. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: managing patients with food allergy in the community.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Agache, I; Clark, A; Sheikh, A; Roberts, G; Akdis, C A; Borrego, L M; Higgs, J; Hourihane, J O'B; Jorgensen, P; Mazon, A; Parmigiani, D; Said, M; Schnadt, S; van Os-Medendorp, H; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Wickman, M

    2014-08-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines, managing patients with food allergy (FA) in the community, intend to provide guidance to reduce the risk of accidental allergic reactions to foods in the community. This document is intended to meet the needs of early-childhood and school settings as well as providers of non-prepackaged food (e.g., restaurants, bakeries, takeaway, deli counters, and fast-food outlets) and targets the audience of individuals with FA, their families, patient organizations, the general public, policymakers, and allergists. Food allergy is the most common trigger of anaphylaxis in the community. Providing children and caregivers with comprehensive information on food allergen avoidance and prompt recognition and management of allergic reactions are of the utmost importance. Provision of adrenaline auto-injector devices and education on how and when to use these are essential components of a comprehensive management plan. Managing patients at risk of anaphylaxis raises many challenges, which are specific to the community. This includes the need to interact with third parties providing food (e.g., school teachers and restaurant staff) to avoid accidental exposure and to help individuals with FA to make safe and appropriate food choices. Education of individuals at risk and their families, their peers, school nurses and teachers as well as restaurant and other food retail staff can reduce the risk of severe/fatal reactions. Increased awareness among policymakers may improve decision-making on legislation at local and national level.

  5. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines: managing patients with food allergy in the community.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Agache, I; Clark, A; Sheikh, A; Roberts, G; Akdis, C A; Borrego, L M; Higgs, J; Hourihane, J O'B; Jorgensen, P; Mazon, A; Parmigiani, D; Said, M; Schnadt, S; van Os-Medendorp, H; Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; Wickman, M

    2014-08-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines, managing patients with food allergy (FA) in the community, intend to provide guidance to reduce the risk of accidental allergic reactions to foods in the community. This document is intended to meet the needs of early-childhood and school settings as well as providers of non-prepackaged food (e.g., restaurants, bakeries, takeaway, deli counters, and fast-food outlets) and targets the audience of individuals with FA, their families, patient organizations, the general public, policymakers, and allergists. Food allergy is the most common trigger of anaphylaxis in the community. Providing children and caregivers with comprehensive information on food allergen avoidance and prompt recognition and management of allergic reactions are of the utmost importance. Provision of adrenaline auto-injector devices and education on how and when to use these are essential components of a comprehensive management plan. Managing patients at risk of anaphylaxis raises many challenges, which are specific to the community. This includes the need to interact with third parties providing food (e.g., school teachers and restaurant staff) to avoid accidental exposure and to help individuals with FA to make safe and appropriate food choices. Education of individuals at risk and their families, their peers, school nurses and teachers as well as restaurant and other food retail staff can reduce the risk of severe/fatal reactions. Increased awareness among policymakers may improve decision-making on legislation at local and national level. PMID:24905609

  6. Food allergy in Asia: how does it compare?

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Thalayasingam, Meera; Lee, Bee Wah

    2013-01-01

    Asia is a populous and diverse region and potentially an important source of information on food allergy. This review aims to summarize the current literature on food allergy from this region, comparing it with western populations. A PubMed search using strategies "Food allergy AND Asia", "Food anaphylaxis AND Asia", and "Food allergy AND each Asian country" was made. Overall, 53 articles, published between 2005 and 2012, mainly written in English were reviewed. The overall prevalence of food allergy in Asia is somewhat comparable to the West. However, the types of food allergy differ in order of relevance. Shellfish is the most common food allergen from Asia, in part due to the abundance of seafood in this region. It is unique as symptoms vary widely from oral symptoms to anaphylaxis for the same individual. Data suggest that house dust mite tropomysin may be a primary sensitizer. In contrast, peanut prevalence in Asia is extremely low compared to the West for reasons not yet understood. Among young children and infants, egg and cow's milk allergy are the two most common food allergies, with prevalence data comparable to western populations. Differences also exist within Asia. Wheat allergy, though uncommon in most Asian countries, is the most common cause of anaphylaxis in Japan and Korea, and is increasing in Thailand. Current food allergy data from Asia highlights important differences between East and West, and within the Asian region. Further work is needed to provide insight on the environmental risk factors accounting for these differences.

  7. Misdiagnosed food allergy resulting in severe malnutrition in an infant.

    PubMed

    Alvares, Michael; Kao, Leon; Mittal, Vineeta; Wuu, Alice; Clark, April; Bird, J Andrew

    2013-07-01

    As food allergies become increasingly prevalent and testing methods to identify "food allergy" increase in number, the importance of careful diagnosis has become even more critical. Misdiagnosis of food allergy and inappropriate use of unproven testing modalities may lead to a harmful food-elimination diet. This case is an example of an infant who was placed on an overly restrictive elimination diet at the recommendation of her health care providers, resulting in kwashiorkor and acquired acrodermatitis enteropathica.

  8. Food allergy in Singapore: opening a new chapter.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi

    2014-05-01

    With the exception of shellfish, the overall food allergy rates in Singapore have not reached the epidemic proportions of the West. The rates of egg, milk and fish allergies remain low. However, the patterns of some food allergies in Singapore have changed over the last decade. For example, peanut allergy, once rare in Singapore, is now the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children. Studies analysing lifestyle practices, particularly with respect to prevention of food allergy, are necessary in order for practitioners to understand global differences and maintain this low prevalence.

  9. Food allergy in Singapore: opening a new chapter

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi

    2014-01-01

    With the exception of shellfish, the overall food allergy rates in Singapore have not reached the epidemic proportions of the West. The rates of egg, milk and fish allergies remain low. However, the patterns of some food allergies in Singapore have changed over the last decade. For example, peanut allergy, once rare in Singapore, is now the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children. Studies analysing lifestyle practices, particularly with respect to prevention of food allergy, are necessary in order for practitioners to understand global differences and maintain this low prevalence. PMID:24862746

  10. Understanding Food Allergies and Intolerances

    MedlinePlus

    ... eat some amount of fructose without problems. By keeping a food diary, you can determine how much fructose is too much for you. Limit intake of: Fruit, fruit juices and dried fruit. Honey. Sodas and ...

  11. Food allergy: a practice parameter update-2014.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Hugh A; Aceves, Seema; Bock, S Allan; James, John; Jones, Stacie; Lang, David; Nadeau, Kari; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Oppenheimer, John; Perry, Tamara T; Randolph, Christopher; Sicherer, Scott H; Simon, Ronald A; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, John; Portnoy, Jay; Randolph, Christopher; Schuller, Diane; Spector, Sheldon; Tilles, Stephen A; Wallace, Dana; Sampson, Hugh A; Aceves, Seema; Bock, S Allan; James, John; Jones, Stacie; Lang, David; Nadeau, Kari; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna; Oppenheimer, John; Perry, Tamara T; Randolph, Christopher; Sicherer, Scott H; Simon, Ronald A; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert

    2014-11-01

    This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (JCAAI). The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing "Food Allergy: A practice parameter update-2014." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing one, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single individual, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, ACAAI, and JCAAI. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion.

  12. Clinical Management of Psychosocial Concerns Related to Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda; Shemesh, Eyal; Bender, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that 4% to 8% of children in the United States are diagnosed with food allergy, and more than 40% of US children with food allergy experience severe allergic reactions. Families trying to avoid foods that may trigger an allergic reaction and ensure adequate treatment of allergic reactions that do occur face numerous challenges. The rise in the number of children diagnosed with food allergies underscores the importance of food allergy-related interventions to address elevated psychosocial concerns, such as parenting stress, anxiety, and worries about bullying. This review provides an overview of common psychosocial concerns among children with food allergy and their families across the developmental spectrum, and offers guidance to medical providers regarding the identification and treatment of food allergy-related psychosocial challenges. PMID:26968959

  13. Prevalence and severity of food allergy--need for control.

    PubMed

    Hourihane, J O

    1998-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly recognized manifestation of atopy. Patient and public awareness of food allergy is also increasing. Justifiable demands are being made for better medical guidance of the practice of food labelling for industry and catering businesses. Such advice must bear in mind the relative frequency and severity of allergies to certain foods. Some commonly allergenic foods (milk, egg, soya, wheat) are staple components of the diets of populations, used widely in prepared foods. The frequency of the allergies to these foods and their widespread uses means they and their derivatives must be declared on food labels. Less commonly used foods such as fish, shellfish, peanut, and tree nuts demand declaration due to the severity of reactions induced in the admittedly more rare, but increasingly common, sufferers of these allergies. Reactions to more unusual foods are increasingly being identified, and the "minimum" list is likely to be extended in the future.

  14. Food allergy and its relevance to industrial food proteins.

    PubMed

    Mills, E N C; Breiteneder, H

    2005-09-01

    Food allergies can be defined as IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions and are quite distinct from food intolerances, such as Coeliac disease, with symptoms usually appearing within a matter of minutes of exposure. Around 1-2% of adults and up to 5-7% of children suffer from some type of food allergy with foods such as peanuts, tree nuts, wheat and soy, cow's milk, egg, fish and shellfish being responsible for the majority of reactions. The macromolecules recognised by IgE (generally proteinaceous in nature) are termed allergens. A brief description of the allergenic components present in the major allergenic foods is given followed by a short discussion regarding their importance in industrial proteins in the light of recent food labelling legislation for allergens.

  15. Allergy Capitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ...

  16. Living with food allergy: allergen avoidance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jennifer S; Sicherer, Scott H

    2011-04-01

    The primary treatment of food allergy is to avoid the culprit foods. This is a complex undertaking that requires education about reading the labels of manufactured products, understanding how to avoid cross-contact with allergens during food preparation, and communicating effectively with persons who are providing allergen-safe meals including relatives and restaurant personnel. Successful avoidance also requires a knowledge of nuances such as appropriate cleaning practices, an understanding of the risks of ingestion compared to skin contact or inhalation, that exposure could occur through unanticipated means such as through sharing utensils or passionate kissing, and that food may be a component of substances that are not ingested such as cosmetics, bath products, vaccines and medications. The authors review the necessary tools of avoidance that physicians and medical practitioners can use to guide their patients through the complexities of food avoidance.

  17. A practical view of immunotherapy for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is common and sometimes life threatening for Korean children. The current standard treatment of allergen avoidance and self-injectable epinephrine does not change the natural course of food allergy. Recently, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapies have been studied for their effectiveness against food allergy. While various rates of desensitization (36% to 100%) and tolerance (28% to 75%) have been induced by immunotherapies for food allergy, no single established protocol has been shown to be both effective and safe. In some studies, immunologic changes after immunotherapy for food allergy have been revealed. Adverse reactions to these immunotherapies have usually been localized, but severe systemic reactions have been observed in some cases. Although immunotherapy cannot be recommended for routine practice yet, results from recent studies demonstrate that immunotherapies are promising for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:26958062

  18. Quality of Life in Food Allergy Patients and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Walkner, Madeline; Warren, Christopher; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric food allergy is a growing health problem in the United States that has been found to adversely impact the quality of life of both affected children and their caregivers. This article provides a review of how food allergy affects the quality of life of patients and their families within the domains of school, social activities, relationships, and daily life. Efforts to improve food allergy-related quality of life among caregivers are also discussed. PMID:26456443

  19. Food allergy diagnosis and therapy: where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Aleena; Kohli, Arunima; Nadeau, Kari C

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is a growing worldwide epidemic that adversely effects up to 10% of the population. Causes and risk factors remain unclear and diagnostic methods are imprecise. There is currently no accepted treatment for food allergy. Therefore, there is an imminent need for greater understanding of food allergies, revised diagnostics and development of safe, effective therapies. Oral immunotherapy provides a particularly promising avenue, but is still highly experimental and not ready for clinical use. PMID:23998729

  20. Food Allergy Treatment and Avoidance (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... come in contact with the food during the manufacturing process. As an example, a blueberry muffin may ... are reading. Allergic and asthmatic reactions to food additives Clinical manifestations of food allergy: An overview Clinical ...

  1. Can we prevent food allergy by manipulating the timing of food exposure?

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Kirsi M; Fleischer, David M

    2012-02-01

    Prevention of food allergies by maternal and infant feeding practices serves as a simple, inexpensive approach to address the growing number of subjects with food allergies in comparison with any emerging interventional therapies for existing food allergies, such as oral immunotherapy. This article provides a careful evaluation of the rationale and existing data on the effect of timing of the introduction of food allergens (during pregnancy, lactation, and early childhood) on the development of specific food allergies.

  2. Genetically engineered foods: implications for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L; Hefle, Susan L

    2002-06-01

    The products of agricultural biotechnology, including such common foods as corn and soybeans, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Consumer exposure to such foods is already fairly significant, particularly in the USA. Thus far, no reports exist regarding allergic reactions to the crops that have been approved for introduction into the food supply. These crops have been modified to only a minor extent by comparison with their traditional counterparts, and the level of expression of new and novel proteins is quite low. Thus, consumer exposure to these novel proteins is very low and unlikely to result in allergic sensitization. Nevertheless, foods produced through agricultural biotechnology must be assessed for safety, including their potential allergenicity, before they may be approved by worldwide regulatory agencies for entry into the food supply. However, the adequacy of the current approach to the assessment of the potential allergenicity of foods produced through agricultural biotechnology has been the subject of considerable scientific and regulatory debate. PMID:12045422

  3. Genetically engineered foods: implications for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L; Hefle, Susan L

    2002-06-01

    The products of agricultural biotechnology, including such common foods as corn and soybeans, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Consumer exposure to such foods is already fairly significant, particularly in the USA. Thus far, no reports exist regarding allergic reactions to the crops that have been approved for introduction into the food supply. These crops have been modified to only a minor extent by comparison with their traditional counterparts, and the level of expression of new and novel proteins is quite low. Thus, consumer exposure to these novel proteins is very low and unlikely to result in allergic sensitization. Nevertheless, foods produced through agricultural biotechnology must be assessed for safety, including their potential allergenicity, before they may be approved by worldwide regulatory agencies for entry into the food supply. However, the adequacy of the current approach to the assessment of the potential allergenicity of foods produced through agricultural biotechnology has been the subject of considerable scientific and regulatory debate.

  4. Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... only ease the symptoms. Preventing a food allergy reaction There are no drugs or treatments available that ... wheat, shellfish, and fish. Treating a Food Allergy Reaction Unintentional exposure When you have food allergies, you ...

  5. Food Allergy Educational Needs of Pediatric Dietitians: A Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groetch, Marion E.; Christie, Lynn; Vargas, Perla A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Sicherer, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine pediatric dietitians' self-reported proficiency, educational needs, and preferences regarding food allergy (FA) management. Design and Setting: An Internet-based, anonymous survey was distributed to the Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group (PNPG) of the American Dietetic Association. Participants: Respondents (n = 311) were…

  6. Update on Early Nutrition and Food Allergy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Eun

    2016-01-01

    With growing evidence of an increase in the prevalence, food allergy has been emerged as a new public health problem. As treatment and management of food allergy remain challenging, more attention has been paid to the importance of prevention of food allergy. Although the exact mechanism of recent epidemic is not fully understood, it is suggested that nutritional exposure in early life may play an important role in food allergy development. The underlying hypothesis is that nutritional status or food exposure in the critical period of fetal development can affect the programming of immune system and modify the risk of immunologic reactions to foods in postnatal life. We review accumulating epidemiological studies to examine an association between nutritional exposure during pregnancy or early infancy and food allergy development in children. We also discuss recent advances in the studies of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of food allergy and evaluate the role of early nutrition in food allergy development to provide a new perspective on the prevention of food allergy. PMID:26996550

  7. Update on Early Nutrition and Food Allergy in Children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Eun; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2016-05-01

    With growing evidence of an increase in the prevalence, food allergy has been emerged as a new public health problem. As treatment and management of food allergy remain challenging, more attention has been paid to the importance of prevention of food allergy. Although the exact mechanism of recent epidemic is not fully understood, it is suggested that nutritional exposure in early life may play an important role in food allergy development. The underlying hypothesis is that nutritional status or food exposure in the critical period of fetal development can affect the programming of immune system and modify the risk of immunologic reactions to foods in postnatal life. We review accumulating epidemiological studies to examine an association between nutritional exposure during pregnancy or early infancy and food allergy development in children. We also discuss recent advances in the studies of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of food allergy and evaluate the role of early nutrition in food allergy development to provide a new perspective on the prevention of food allergy.

  8. The rise of food allergy: Environmental factors and emerging treatments.

    PubMed

    Benedé, Sara; Blázquez, Ana Belen; Chiang, David; Tordesillas, Leticia; Berin, M Cecilia

    2016-05-01

    Food allergy has rapidly increased in prevalence, suggesting an important role for environmental factors in disease susceptibility. The immune response of food allergy is characterized by IgE production, and new findings from mouse and human studies indicate an important role of the cytokine IL-9, which is derived from both T cells and mast cells, in disease manifestations. Emerging evidence suggests that route of exposure to food, particularly peanut, is important. Exposure through the skin promotes sensitization while early exposure through the gastrointestinal tract promotes tolerance. Evidence from mouse studies indicate a role of the microbiome in development of food allergy, which is supported by correlative human studies showing a dysbiosis in food allergy. There is no approved treatment for food allergy, but emerging therapies are focused on allergen immunotherapy to provide desensitization, while pre-clinical studies are focused on using adjuvants or novel delivery approaches to improve efficacy and safety of immunotherapy. PMID:27322456

  9. Impact of dietary factors and food processing on food allergy.

    PubMed

    Lepski, Silke; Brockmeyer, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Allergic reactions to food can significantly reduce the quality of life and even result in life-threatening complications. In addition, the prevalence of food allergy has increased in the last decades in industrialized countries and the mechanisms underlying (increased) sensitization are still not fully understood. It is believed that the development and maintenance of oral tolerance to food antigens is a process actively mediated by the immune system and that this reaction is essential to inhibit sensitization. Ongoing research indicates that different dietary factors also may contribute to immune homeostasis and oral tolerance to food and that food processing modulates allergenicity. One of the major questions in food allergy research is therefore which impact nutrition and food processing may have on allergenicity of food and perhaps on sensitization. We summarize in this review the different dietary factors that are believed to contribute to induction of oral tolerance and discuss the underlying mechanisms. In addition, the functional consequences of allergen modification will be emphasized in the second part as severity of allergic reactions and perhaps sensitization to food is influenced by structural modifications of food allergens.

  10. Food allergy: what are the issues?

    PubMed

    Kimber, I; Dearman, R J

    2001-03-31

    With a growing interest in the development of genetically modified crop plants there is a need for appropriate approaches to safety assessment. Among the issues that have to be addressed is consideration of whether the products of novel genes have the potential to cause allergic sensitization. Resulting from a collaboration between the International Food Biotechnology Council and the International Life Sciences Institute recommendations have been made for a step-wise approach to the assessment of allergenic potential based upon considerations of serological identity, and sequence or structural homology, with known allergens and examination of the stability of the test protein in a simulated gastric fluid. In parallel there has been interest in the development of animal models, which would permit a more direct evaluation of potential allergenic activity. Progress in these areas is reviewed briefly in the context of what is known of food allergy and some of the important issues, which must be addressed in designing safety assessment strategies identified.

  11. Labial food challenge in children with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Rance, F; Dutau, G

    1997-02-01

    The current increase in the prevalence of food allergies appears to have several causes including better screening, improved diagnosis and changes in both the techniques used by food manufacturers and eating habits. Labial food challenge (LFC)is simple, rapid to perform and is associated with only low risks of systemic reaction. It is thus an appealing alternative to the oral food challenge (OFC) for pediatric use. We report a series of 202 LFC performed over two years in 142 children with food allergy suspected from the case history, positive skin prick tests and specific serum IgE assays: 156 LFC were positive; and 46 negative, followed by positive single-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (SBPCFC). The foods provoking reactions were egg white (75 cases), peanut (60 cases), mustard (23 cases), cow's milk (13 cases), cod (8 cases), kiwi fruit, shrimp (4 cases each), chicken, peanut oil (3 cases each), hazel nuts (2 cases), and snails, apple, fennel, garlic, chilli peppers, pepper, and duck (1 case each). LFC positivity was mostly (89.7% of cases) manifested as a labial edema with contiguous urticaria. There were systemic reactions in 4.5% of cases: generalized urticaria, hoarseness and rapid-onset and generalized eczema. The 46 infants with negative LFC results had positive SBPCFC. The reactions were in 34 cases generalized urticaria, 10 cases asthma attacks, 2 cases early and generalized eczema, and in one case general anaphylactic shock. The sensitivity of the LFC was 77%. The LFC was easy to perform with children. Positive results indicate the presence of food allergy, but negative results require further investigations preferably double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC).

  12. Coping with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues / Spring 2011 Table of Contents Allergic reactions to food can range from the uncomfortable to ... avoid and treat them. What Is an Allergic Reaction to Food? An allergy is an adverse health ...

  13. Food Allergy Education for School Nurses: A Needs Assessment Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Suzanna K.; Vargas, Perla A.; Noone, Sally; Steele, Pam; Sicherer, Scott H.; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy is increasing in school-age children. School nurses are a primary health care resource for children with food allergy and must be prepared to manage allergen avoidance and respond in the event of an allergic reaction. An anonymous survey was administered to school nurses attending their association meetings to determine their…

  14. Food allergy prevalence: new possibilities for therapy and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan

    2012-12-01

    Food allergy is an important clinical problem of increasing prevalence worldwide. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic responses are the most widely recognized form of food allergy. The prevalence of food allergy is influenced by country, age, culture, and dietary habits. Strategies for the prevention of food allergy have been extensively studied. There is currently no standard treatment for food allergy and allergen-specific immunotherapy has been hindered by severe side effects in the past. A mutated recombinant major apple allergen is clinically hypoallergenic, which paves the way toward safer immunotherapy for the treatment of food-allergic patients.Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest medical practices in the world. A Chinese Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) has been used as a therapy for food allergy patients. FAHF-2 was shown to be remarkably effective against food anaphylaxis in an animal model and in human clinical trial with the potential to be a long-lasting therapy.

  15. Children’s Food Allergies: Development of the Food Allergy Management and Adaptation Scale

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Fedele, David A.; Faino, Anna; Strand, Matthew; Robinson, Jane; Atkins, Dan; Fleischer, David M.; O’B. Hourihane, Jonathan; Cohen, Sophia; Fransen, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Objective Develop a measure that evaluates effective pediatric food allergy (FA) management, child and parent FA anxiety, and integration of FA into family life. Methods A semistructured family interview was developed to evaluate FA management using a pilot sample (n = 27). Rating scales evaluated eight dimensions of FA management (FAMComposite), child anxiety, parent anxiety, and overall balanced integration (BI). Families of children with IgE-mediated food allergies (n = 60, child age: 6–12) were recruited for interview and rating scale validation. Results FAMComposite was correlated with physician ratings for families’ food avoidance and reaction response readiness. FA anxiety was correlated with general anxiety measures for children, but not parents. Parents’ FA anxiety was correlated with expectations of negative outcomes from FA. Low BI was associated with poor quality of life and negative impact on family functioning. Conclusions Preliminary analyses support Food Allergy Management and Adaptation Scale validity as a measure of family adaptation to pediatric FA. PMID:25797945

  16. Impact of food allergies on school nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Christopher; Muñoz-Furlong, Anne; Furlong, Terence J; Arbit, Julie

    2004-10-01

    Food allergies affect 11 million Americans, including 6-8% of children. The rate of peanut allergies in children doubled from 1997 to 2002. There is no cure; therefore, strict avoidance of the allergen is the only way to avoid a reaction. Fatalities are associated with delays in or lack of epinephrine administration. Severe reactions, called anaphylaxis, have occurred in schools. In a nationwide telephone survey of 400 elementary school nurses, 44% reported an increase in children with food allergies in their schools over the last 5 years; more than one third had 10 or more students with food allergies; 78% did staff training as a preventive strategy, with 74% developing their own training guidelines; and 90% stated students' epinephrine was stored in the nurse's office. Standardized training in food allergies as well as timely access to epinephrine is needed to respond appropriately to an anaphylactic reaction in the school setting.

  17. Diagnosis, Management, and Investigational Therapies for Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Mike; Wright, Benjamin L.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies have increased in prevalence over the past 20 years, now becoming an important public health concern. Although there are no therapies currently available for routine clinical care, recent reports have indicated that immunotherapies targeting the mucosal immune system may be effective. Oral immunotherapy is conducted by administering small, increasing amounts of food allergen; it has shown promise for desensitizing individuals with peanut, egg, or milk allergies. Sublingual immunotherapy also desensitizes allergic patients to foods—2 major studies have examined the effects of sublingual immunotherapy in subjects with peanut allergies. We review the complex nature of IgE-mediated food allergies and the therapies being evaluated in clinical trials. We focus on the diagnosis and management of food allergies and investigational therapies. PMID:25633563

  18. [Food allergy: definition, diagnosis, epidemiology, clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    1996-05-01

    Contrary to the lay and media perception, adverse reactions to foods (and food additives) occur less often than believed by the patients. The term food intolerance (FI) is widely misused as a cause of all sorts of symptoms and diseases. This diagnosis is often based on "alternative" techniques. Food allergy (FA) is the correct diagnosis if the symptoms resulting from the ingestion of a food (or an ingredient) are due to an immune mechanism. This diagnosis is seldom difficult in the case of a severe reaction immediately after ingestion of the food and when skin prick tests and/or IgE antibodies to the incriminated food are clearly positive. However, the best way to establish FA/FI is-apart from exclusion from the diet, which tends to have a marked placebo effect-the performance of proper double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC). Evidently, there are difficulties in conducting studies of this nature in a large population sample, and so far only three prevalence studies in Dutch and English adults have been based on DBPCFC. The reported prevalences of FA/FI (questionnaire answers) were 12% to 19%, whereas the confirmed prevalences varied from 0.8% to 2.4%. For additive intolerance the prevalence varied between 0.01 to 0.23%. The consequences of mistaken perception of FA/FI, which can have a major social impact in financial and health terms, require an information campaign for doctors, lay and media in connection with these problems.

  19. Food allergy update: more than a peanut of a problem.

    PubMed

    Husain, Zain; Schwartz, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    Food allergies have become a significant medical and legal concern for children worldwide, as there is a rising incidence of potentially fatal hypersensitivity reactions. The most common foods implicated include cow milk, wheat, egg, soy, peanut, tree nuts such as walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, and pistachios, fish and shellfish. The majority of food allergies represent an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to specific proteins found in foods. Peanut allergy, in particular, is a significant food allergy responsible for the majority of patients with food-induced anaphylaxis. Even trace quantities to food proteins in the sensitized individual can lead to fatal reactions. There is often a rapid onset of symptoms after exposure, with prominent cutaneous findings of urticaria, angioedema, or diffuse nonspecific dermatitis. The majority of children outgrow allergies to milk, soy, egg, and wheat. However, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, and seafood are usually lifelong conditions, as few outgrow it. Children with food allergies and their families should be knowledgeable of management strategies for the condition, including carrying and properly administering self-injectable epinephrine. New immunotherapeutic options are being investigated and appear promising.

  20. Cockroach Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... regularly. Avoid leaving pet food out in a bowl. Clean the bowl regularly, like other dirty dishes. Fix leaky pipes ... Medical Review October 2015. Insect Allergies Cockroach Allergy Dust Mite Allergy Types of Allergies Drug Allergy Food ...

  1. Food allergy--towards predictive testing for novel foods.

    PubMed

    Oehlschlager, S; Reece, P; Brown, A; Hughson, E; Hird, H; Chisholm, J; Atkinson, H; Meredith, C; Pumphrey, R; Wilson, P; Sunderland, J

    2001-12-01

    The risks associated with IgE-mediated food allergy highlight the need for methods to screen for potential food allergens. Clinical and immunological tests are available for the diagnosis of food allergy to known food allergens, but this does not extend to the evaluation, or prediction of allergenicity in novel foods. This category, includes foods produced using novel processes genetically modified (GM) foods, and foods that might be used as alternatives to traditional foods. Through the collation and analysis of the protein sequences of known allergens and their epitopes, it is possible to identify related groups which correlate with observed clinical cross-reactivities. 3-D modelling extends the use of sequence data and can be used to display eptiopes on the surface of a molecule. Experimental models support sequence analysis and 3-D modelling. Observed cross-reactivities can be examined by Western blots prepared from native 2-D gels of a whole food preparation (e.g. hazelnut, peanut), and common proteins identified. IgEs to novel proteins can be raised in Brown Norway rat (a high IgE responder strain) and the proteins tested in simulated digest to determine epitope stability. Using the CSL serum bank, epitope binding can be examined through the ability of an allergen to cross-link the high affinity IgE receptor and thereby release mediators using in vitro cell-based models. This range of methods, in combination with data mining, provides a variety of screening options for testing the potential of a novel food to be allergenic, which does not involve prior exposure to the consumer.

  2. Food allergy--towards predictive testing for novel foods.

    PubMed

    Oehlschlager, S; Reece, P; Brown, A; Hughson, E; Hird, H; Chisholm, J; Atkinson, H; Meredith, C; Pumphrey, R; Wilson, P; Sunderland, J

    2001-12-01

    The risks associated with IgE-mediated food allergy highlight the need for methods to screen for potential food allergens. Clinical and immunological tests are available for the diagnosis of food allergy to known food allergens, but this does not extend to the evaluation, or prediction of allergenicity in novel foods. This category, includes foods produced using novel processes genetically modified (GM) foods, and foods that might be used as alternatives to traditional foods. Through the collation and analysis of the protein sequences of known allergens and their epitopes, it is possible to identify related groups which correlate with observed clinical cross-reactivities. 3-D modelling extends the use of sequence data and can be used to display eptiopes on the surface of a molecule. Experimental models support sequence analysis and 3-D modelling. Observed cross-reactivities can be examined by Western blots prepared from native 2-D gels of a whole food preparation (e.g. hazelnut, peanut), and common proteins identified. IgEs to novel proteins can be raised in Brown Norway rat (a high IgE responder strain) and the proteins tested in simulated digest to determine epitope stability. Using the CSL serum bank, epitope binding can be examined through the ability of an allergen to cross-link the high affinity IgE receptor and thereby release mediators using in vitro cell-based models. This range of methods, in combination with data mining, provides a variety of screening options for testing the potential of a novel food to be allergenic, which does not involve prior exposure to the consumer. PMID:11761121

  3. Interpreting IgE sensitization tests in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence, and with it, IgE testing to foods is becoming more commonplace. Food-specific IgE tests, including serum assays and prick skin tests, are sensitive for detecting the presence of food-specific IgE (sensitization), but specificity for predicting clinical allergy is limited. Therefore, positive tests are generally not, in isolation, diagnostic of clinical disease. However, rationale test selection and interpretation, based on clinical history and understanding of food allergy epidemiology and pathophysiology, makes these tests invaluable. Additionally, there exist highly predictive test cutoff values for common allergens in atopic children. Newer testing methodologies, such as component resolved diagnostics, are promising for increasing the utility of testing. This review highlights the use of IgE serum tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. PMID:26666347

  4. The impact of food allergies on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bacal, Liane R

    2013-07-01

    CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES 1. Recognize and appreciate the impact of food allergies on psychosocial health. 2. List the factors that have been shown to negatively affect health-related quality of life. 3. Understand how physicians can directly help to improve a child's quality of life while living with food allergies. Food allergy is a serious problem affecting a growing number of children worldwide. There is a large body of evidence supporting the detrimental effects that food allergy can have on a child's quality of life. With validated tools, we can identify these children and focus on how to protect, guide, and help them to live a safe life. Recent research articulates how food allergies impact health-related quality of life (HRQL). There are studies reported from the child's perspective, as well as studies reported from the parent's perspective. With the development of validated disease and age-specific questionnaires, researchers can reliably gather data on the psychological aspect of children with food allergies. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature examining the psycho-social impact of food allergies on children. This article was designed to outline suggestions to help physicians care for the whole child - both mind and body. PMID:23805962

  5. Fatal food allergy and opportunities for risk minimisation.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jan

    2013-05-31

    IgE-mediated food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 2% of adults. Fatal food allergic reactions are rare. Management of food allergy requires accurate identification of allergen(s), risk assessment, education on allergen avoidance / management of allergic reaction, and follow up. A case of fatal allergic reaction to cashew ingestion is reported, illustrating the importance of these aspects of management. PMID:23824029

  6. Hygiene factors associated with childhood food allergy and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anne Marie; Walkner, Madeline; Caruso, Deanna; Bryce, Paul J.; Wang, Xiaobin; Pongracic, Jacqueline A.; Smith, Bridget M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood food allergy and asthma rates are increasing. The hygiene hypothesis has been proposed as an explanation for the increased incidence of allergic disease. Objective: To describe the association of childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors, such as the number of siblings, antibiotic use, infection history, pet exposure, child care exposure, and maternal–child factors. Methods: Children ages 0–21 years old (N = 1359) were recruited for a cross-sectional family-based study, including children with food allergy and children without food allergy, and their siblings. We assessed the associations between childhood food allergy and asthma with hygiene factors. Results: Of the 1359 children, 832 (61.2%) had food allergy, and 406 (30%) had asthma. In the adjusted analysis, the prevalence of food allergy was increased if there was a history of skin infection (prevalence ratio [RRR] 1.12 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01–1.24]) or eczema (RRR 1.89 [95% CI, 1.70–2.10]). The prevalence of asthma was increased with a history of respiratory syncytial virus infection (RRR 1.60 [95% CI, 1.34–1.90]) or eczema (RRR 1.54 [95% CI, 1.27–1.86]). A greater number of siblings were associated with a decreased prevalence of food allergy (RRR 0.79 [95% CI, 0.75–0.84]) and asthma (RRR 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74–0.91]). Conclusion: Our findings supported the accumulating evidence of an association between skin infections and eczema with food allergy. Because these results could be subject to recall bias, additional prospective studies are needed to substantiate these findings.

  7. Equine allergy therapy: update on the treatment of environmental, insect bite hypersensitivity, and food allergies.

    PubMed

    Marsella, Rosanna

    2013-12-01

    Allergies are common in horses. It is important to identify and correct as many factors as possible to control pruritus and make the patient comfortable. Culicoides hypersensitivity is a common component in allergic horses. The main treatment continues to be rigorous fly control and avoidance of insect bites. Environmental allergies are best addressed by early identification of the offending allergens and formulation of allergen-specific immunotherapy to decrease the need for rescue medications. Food allergy is best managed with food avoidance. Urticaria is one of the manifestations of allergic disease wherein detection of the triggering cause is essential for management.

  8. The optimal diagnostic workup for children with suspected food allergy.

    PubMed

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Di Costanzo, Mara; Troncone, Riccardo

    2011-10-01

    Food allergy is defined as an abnormal immunologic reaction to food proteins that causes an adverse clinical reaction. In addition to well-known acute allergic reactions and anaphylaxis triggered by immunoglobulin E antibody-mediated immune responses to food proteins, there is an increasing recognition of cell-mediated disorders such as eosinophilic esophagitis and food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. More than 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. The diagnostic workup for a child with suspected food allergy includes a detailed medical history, physical examination, food allergy screening tests, and responses to an elimination diet and an oral food challenge. None of the screening tests, alone or in combination, can definitely diagnose or exclude a food allergy. Novel diagnostic methods including those that focus on immune responses to specific food proteins or epitopes of specific proteins are under active study. Unconventional diagnostic methods are increasingly used, but they lack scientific rationale, standardization, and reproducibility. In selected cases, such as eosinophilic esophageal gastroenteropathies or food protein-induced gastroesophageal reflux disease, invasive procedures are mandatory for an accurate diagnosis. Properly done, an oral food challenge is still the gold standard in the diagnostic workup. An incorrect diagnosis is likely to result in unnecessary dietary restrictions, which, if prolonged, may adversely affect the child's nutritional status and growth.

  9. Impact of Food Allergies on School Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Christopher; Munoz-Furlong, Anne; Furlong, Terence J.; Arbit, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Food allergies affect 11 million Americans, including 6-8% of children. The rate of peanut allergies in children doubled from 1997 to 2002. There is no cure; therefore, strict avoidance of the allergen is the only way to avoid a reaction. Fatalities are associated with delays in or lack of epinephrine administration. Severe reactions, called…

  10. [Food allergy:definitions, prevalence, diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K; Wong, Gary Wk; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Gao, Zhongshan; Jia, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is phenotypically an extremely heterogeneous group of diseases affecting multiple organs, sometimes in an isolated way, sometimes simultaneously, with the severity of reactions ranging from mild and local to full-blown anaphylaxis. Mechanistically, it is defined as a Th2-driven immune disorder in which food-specific IgE antibodies are at the basis of immediate-type adverse reactions. The sites of sensitization and symptoms do not necessarily overlap. Food allergy, which is the theme of this paper, is often confused with other adverse reactions to food of both animmune (e.g., celiac disease) and non-immune (e.g., lactose intolerance) nature. To reliably diagnose food allergy, a careful history (immediate-type reactions) needs to be complemented with demonstration of specific IgE (immune mechanism) and confirmed by an oral challenge. Co-factors such as exercise, medication, and alcohol may help trigger food allergy and further complicate accurate diagnosis. Where food extract-based diagnostic tests are poorly correlated to symptom severity, new generation molecular diagnostics that measure IgE against individual food allergens provide clinicians and patients with more reliable symptom severity risk profiles. Molecular diagnostics also support establishing whether food sensitization originates directly from exposure to food or indirectly (cross-reactivity) from pollen sensitization. Epidemiological surveys have indicated that allergy to peach primarily originates from peach consumption in Europe, whereas in China it is the result of primary sensitization to mugwort pollen, in both cases mediated by an allergen molecule from the same family. Epidemiological surveys give insight into the etiology of food allergy, the size of the problem (prevalence), and the risk factors involved, which together support evidence-based strategies for prevention. Over the past decade, food allergy has increased in the affluent world. Economic growth and urbanization in

  11. [Food allergy:definitions, prevalence, diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K; Wong, Gary Wk; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Gao, Zhongshan; Jia, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is phenotypically an extremely heterogeneous group of diseases affecting multiple organs, sometimes in an isolated way, sometimes simultaneously, with the severity of reactions ranging from mild and local to full-blown anaphylaxis. Mechanistically, it is defined as a Th2-driven immune disorder in which food-specific IgE antibodies are at the basis of immediate-type adverse reactions. The sites of sensitization and symptoms do not necessarily overlap. Food allergy, which is the theme of this paper, is often confused with other adverse reactions to food of both animmune (e.g., celiac disease) and non-immune (e.g., lactose intolerance) nature. To reliably diagnose food allergy, a careful history (immediate-type reactions) needs to be complemented with demonstration of specific IgE (immune mechanism) and confirmed by an oral challenge. Co-factors such as exercise, medication, and alcohol may help trigger food allergy and further complicate accurate diagnosis. Where food extract-based diagnostic tests are poorly correlated to symptom severity, new generation molecular diagnostics that measure IgE against individual food allergens provide clinicians and patients with more reliable symptom severity risk profiles. Molecular diagnostics also support establishing whether food sensitization originates directly from exposure to food or indirectly (cross-reactivity) from pollen sensitization. Epidemiological surveys have indicated that allergy to peach primarily originates from peach consumption in Europe, whereas in China it is the result of primary sensitization to mugwort pollen, in both cases mediated by an allergen molecule from the same family. Epidemiological surveys give insight into the etiology of food allergy, the size of the problem (prevalence), and the risk factors involved, which together support evidence-based strategies for prevention. Over the past decade, food allergy has increased in the affluent world. Economic growth and urbanization in

  12. The importance of educating postgraduate pediatric physicians about food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Adeli, Mehdi; Hendaus, Mohamed A; Abdurrahim, Lukman I; Alhammadi, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    Background Food allergy is an increasing public health burden, and is considered among the most common chronic noncommunicable diseases in children. Proper diagnosis and management of food allergy by a health care provider is crucial in keeping affected children safe while simultaneously averting unnecessary avoidance. Objective The rationale of the study was to estimate the knowledge of pediatric residents and academic general pediatric fellows with regard to food allergies in children. Methods A cross-sectional and prospective study was carried out at Hamad Medical Corporation, the only tertiary care, academic and teaching hospital in the State of Qatar. The study took place between January 1, 2015 and September 30, 2015. Results Out of the 68 questionnaires distributed, 68 (100%) were returned by the end of the study. Among the participants, 15 (22%) were in post-graduate year-1 (PGY-1), 16 (23.5%) in PGY-2, 17 (25%) in PGY-3, 12 (16%) in PGY-4, and 8 (12%) were academic general pediatric fellows. Our trainees answered 60.14% of knowledge based questions correctly. In the section of treatment and management of food allergy in childhood, 23 (34%) of respondents’ main concern when taking care of a patient with food allergies was making sure the patient is not exposed to food allergen, while 22 (33%) reported no concerns. In the section of treatment and management of food allergy in childhood, 22 (33%) of participants reported no concerns in taking care of a child with food allergy, while 23 (34%) of respondents’ main concern was making sure the patient is not exposed to food allergen. In the teaching and training section, 56% of participants stated that they have not received formal education on how to recognize and treat food allergies, while 59% claimed not being trained on how to administer injectable epinephrine. Furthermore, approximately 60% of all participants expressed the need of additional information about recognizing and treating food allergies and

  13. Infant Feeding: Foods, Nutrients and Dietary Strategies to Prevent Allergy.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a common disease. In recent years, recommendations for the prevention of food allergy have been shifted from avoidance strategies to active oral tolerance induction. Due to evidence from observational studies, it has been suggested that sensitization occurs via the skin especially in children with atopic dermatitis due to skin barrier defects, whereas early oral introduction of the allergenic food(s) will promote tolerance. The current evidence does not justify recommendations about either withholding or encouraging exposure to potentially allergenic food(s) after 4 months once weaning has commenced, irrespective of atopic heredity. However, intervention studies are currently conducted to prove this hypothesis generated by observational studies.

  14. Utility of Component-Resolved Diagnostics in Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Tuano, Karen S; Davis, Carla M

    2015-06-01

    Allergen component-resolved diagnostic testing (CRD) is a new methodology in clinical food allergy diagnosis, improving the ability to identify specific clinical phenotypes. Instead of relying on the crude allergen extracts used in standard allergy diagnostics, CRD utilizes purified or recombinant allergens for identification of specific molecules causing sensitization or allergy. This method is able to determine risk of the severity of allergic reactions in specific cases, like soy, peanut, and hazelnut allergy. The severity of allergic reaction can be predicted in peanut allergy with Ara h 2, and clinically relevant disease in pollen-allergic patients can be identified. However, age and geographic differences affect CRD results and it should always be utilized in the context of a clinical history. In the future, clinical phenotypes may be differentiated with larger prospective studies utilizing food challenges.

  15. Mechanisms of type I food allergy.

    PubMed

    Untersmayr, Eva; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2006-12-01

    The gastrointestinal tract represents the biggest immune organ of the human body and has 3 distinct functions: (1) barrier and defense against potential pathogens, (2) ignorance or tolerance of innocuous agents, and (3) digestion and nutritional uptake of alimentary compounds. Recent studies have indicated that especially structural features of dietary proteins seem to be a precondition for the induction of immediate type immune responses. Crystallographic studies of allergen molecules have been fundamental for epitope studies in a 3-dimensional format using peptides or mimotopes. The identified IgE epitopes were all conformational and responsible for high-affinity interactions with specific IgE. Moreover, numerous studies have indicated that allergens, among them food allergens, preferentially form di-, tri-, or multimers, thus leading to a repetitive display of epitopes. As B-lymphocytes are pattern recognizers, this feature is essential for a memory response, but may also be critical for the very first allergen contact and initiation of the IgE response. Here we review the key candidate cells in the gut, which are capable of recognizing conformation and molecular patterns, but may also be involved in skewing the immune response towards Th2. Animal models have been basic for understanding the molecular principles of food allergy and they will be increasingly indispensable for the definition of novel vaccination strategies. Therefore, the available models are critically analyzed in this review.

  16. Food allergy education for school nurses: a needs assessment survey by the consortium of food allergy research.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Suzanna K; Vargas, Perla A; Noone, Sally; Steele, Pam; Sicherer, Scott H; Burks, A Wesley; Jones, Stacie M

    2010-10-01

    Food allergy is increasing in school-age children. School nurses are a primary health care resource for children with food allergy and must be prepared to manage allergen avoidance and respond in the event of an allergic reaction. An anonymous survey was administered to school nurses attending their association meetings to determine their educational needs regarding children with food allergy. With 199 school nurses responding, their self-reported proficiency for critical areas of food allergy knowledge and management varied, with weaknesses identified particularly for emergency plan development, staff education, delegation, developing guidelines for banning foods and planning school trips. Nurses reported a high interest in obtaining educational materials in these areas and prefer video and Internet resources that could be promoted through professional organizations.

  17. Food Allergy and Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zheng Feei; Majid, Noorizan A.; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Based on the hygiene hypothesis, a low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection may explain the recent high prevalence of allergic diseases including food allergy. However, there are very few studies that investigate the relationship between H. pylori and food allergy. Summary: We searched for PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane library for relevant articles published in English from inception to November 2015. The inverse relationship between H. pylori and food allergy remains unproven because of contradictory and limited evidence at the moment. Likewise, only limited studies have examined the relationship between CagA; one of H. pylori virulence factor and food allergy. On the other hand, in vitro evidence seems to point out a role of H. pylori in the causation of food allergy. The inconsistent results from epidemiological data may be due to small sample size, heterogeneous populations and unstandardised methods or food allergens. Conclusion: Available studies do not support the role of H. pylori in food allergy. PMID:27047479

  18. IgE-mediated food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Longo, Giorgio; Berti, Irene; Burks, A Wesley; Krauss, Baruch; Barbi, Egidio

    2013-11-16

    Food allergy is a serious health issue affecting roughly 4% of children, with a substantial effect on quality of life. Prognosis is good for the most frequent allergens with almost all children outgrowing their allergy. However, the long-term implications for disease burden are substantial for children with persistent allergies (eg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish) and for those with high concentrations of milk, egg, and wheat IgE. Antigen avoidance has been the time-honoured approach both for prevention and treatment. However, findings from studies done in the past 5 years show that early contact with food can induce tolerance and desensitisation to foods. We review the epidemiology, natural history, and management of food allergy, and discuss the areas of controversy and future directions in research and clinical practice.

  19. Milk, eggs and peanuts: food allergies in children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J A

    1997-10-01

    True food allergies are much less prevalent than is generally believed. They are more common in infants and children under age three than in older children and adults. Infant colic generally is not caused by a food allergy. In infants, urticaria, eczema or gastrointestinal bleeding may be due to foods such as milk and eggs, but clinical tolerance usually develops within a few years. Peanuts, tree nuts, seafood and seeds, as well as milk and eggs, can cause anaphylaxis in highly allergic children, and reexposure to such foods presents the risk of life-threatening reactions. Immediate-reacting allergy skin tests and in vitro IgE antibody tests can be used to screen for food allergy. Only food challenge, however, can confirm a reaction to a particular food. Management of food allergy, once the initial symptoms are confirmed, consists of avoidance of specific foods, sometimes for a lifetime. All children at risk for food anaphylaxis should be identified, and their parents or caretakers should be prepared to administer epinephrine before taking the child to the emergency room.

  20. Managing Food Allergies in School: What Educators Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrow, Eleanor

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 2.2 million school-age children in the United States have food allergies, and that number seems to be on the rise. What's more, survey studies indicate that one out of six kids with food allergies will have an allergic reaction while in school and that 25% of these reactions will be first-time reactions. If a district has not yet…

  1. Oral immunotherapy for food allergy: mechanisms and role in management.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, A; Albin, S

    2015-02-01

    With the emergence of food allergy as an important public health problem, it has become clear that there is an unmet need in regard to treatment. In particular, IgE-mediated food allergy that is associated with risk of fatal anaphylaxis has been the subject of multiple studies in the past decade. The growing body of evidence derived from multiple centres and various study designs indicates that for IgE-mediated food allergy, immunomodulation through food immunotherapy is possible; however, the extent of protection afforded by such treatment is highly variable. At this time, the capacity for food immunotherapy to restore permanent tolerance to food has not been demonstrated conclusively. This review will discuss these topics as they apply to the most important studies of food oral immunotherapy.

  2. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Protecting consumers with food allergies: understanding food consumption, meeting regulations and identifying unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Holzhauser, T; Poulsen, L K; Gowland, M H; Akdis, C A; Mills, E N C; Papadopoulos, N; Roberts, G; Schnadt, S; van Ree, R; Sheikh, A; Vieths, S

    2014-11-01

    Individuals suffering from IgE-mediated food allergy usually have to practise life-long food allergen avoidance. This document aims to provide an overview of recent evidence-based recommendations for allergen risk assessment and management in the food industry and discusses unmet needs and expectations of the food allergic consumer in that context. There is a general duty of care on the food industry and obligations in European Union legislation to reduce and manage the presence of allergens alongside other food hazards. Current evidence enables quantification of allergen reference doses used to set-up reliable food safety management plans for some foods. However, further work is required to include a wider variety of foods and to understand the impact of the food matrix as well as additional factors which affect the progression and severity of symptoms as a function of dose. Major concerns have been raised by patients, carers and patient groups about the use of precautionary 'may contain' labelling to address the issue of unintended presence of allergens; these therefore need to be reconsidered. New and improved allergen detection methods should be evaluated for their application in food production. There is an urgent requirement for effective communication between healthcare professionals, patient organizations, food industry representatives and regulators to develop a better approach to protecting consumers with food allergies.

  3. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Protecting consumers with food allergies: understanding food consumption, meeting regulations and identifying unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Holzhauser, T; Poulsen, L K; Gowland, M H; Akdis, C A; Mills, E N C; Papadopoulos, N; Roberts, G; Schnadt, S; van Ree, R; Sheikh, A; Vieths, S

    2014-11-01

    Individuals suffering from IgE-mediated food allergy usually have to practise life-long food allergen avoidance. This document aims to provide an overview of recent evidence-based recommendations for allergen risk assessment and management in the food industry and discusses unmet needs and expectations of the food allergic consumer in that context. There is a general duty of care on the food industry and obligations in European Union legislation to reduce and manage the presence of allergens alongside other food hazards. Current evidence enables quantification of allergen reference doses used to set-up reliable food safety management plans for some foods. However, further work is required to include a wider variety of foods and to understand the impact of the food matrix as well as additional factors which affect the progression and severity of symptoms as a function of dose. Major concerns have been raised by patients, carers and patient groups about the use of precautionary 'may contain' labelling to address the issue of unintended presence of allergens; these therefore need to be reconsidered. New and improved allergen detection methods should be evaluated for their application in food production. There is an urgent requirement for effective communication between healthcare professionals, patient organizations, food industry representatives and regulators to develop a better approach to protecting consumers with food allergies. PMID:24888964

  4. Active management of food allergy: an emerging concept.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Stiefel, Gary; Brough, Helen; du Toit, George; Lack, Gideon; Fox, Adam T

    2015-04-01

    IgE-mediated food allergies are common and currently there is no cure. Traditionally, management has relied upon patient education, food avoidance and the provision of an emergency medication plan. Despite this, food allergy can significantly impact on quality of life. Therefore, in recent years, evolving research has explored alternative management strategies. A more active approach to management is being adopted, which includes early introduction of potentially allergenic foods, anticipatory testing, active monitoring, desensitisation to food allergens and active risk management. This review will discuss these areas in turn.

  5. Therapeutics in food allergy: the current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Otsu, Kanao; Fleischer, David M

    2012-02-01

    Food allergy is an increasing public health dilemma in Westernized countries, yet no viable treatments are currently available for those who are afflicted. The only options available for patients with food allergies are prevention of reactions by strict avoidance of the offending food(s) and symptomatic treatment of any adverse effects from accidental exposures. Approaches are being pursued to develop treatments, and allergen-specific therapies such as oral immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy, and epicutaneous immunotherapy with different foods have shown promise. Other modalities are also being investigated, potentially leading to the discovery of novel therapeutic options.

  6. Food Allergy in childhood: phenotypes, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Silvia; Cipriani, Francesca; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in childhood increased in the last decades, especially in Westernized countries where this phenomenon has been indicated as a second wave of the allergic epidemic. In parallel, scientific interest also increased with the effort to explain the reasons of this sudden rise and to identify potential protective and risk factors. A great attention has been focused on early exposures to allergenic foods, as well as on other nutritional factors or supplements that may influence the immune system in a positive direction. Both interventions on maternal diet before birth or during breastfeeding and then directly on infant nutrition have been investigated. Furthermore, the natural history of food allergy also seems to be changing over time; IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy and egg allergy seem to be more frequently a persistent rather than a transient disease in childhood, as described in the last years. Food avoidance and the emergency drugs in case of an adverse event, such as epinephrine self-injector, are currently the first-line treatment in patients with food allergies, with a resulting impairment in the quality of life and social behaviour. During the last decade, oral immunotherapy emerged as an optional treatment with remarkable results, offering a novel perspective in the treatment for and management of food allergy. PMID:26595763

  7. Food Allergy in Korean Patients with Chronic Urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Bo Young; Cho, Yong Se; Kim, Hye One

    2016-01-01

    Background The etiology of chronic urticaria (CU) remains unknown in most patients. Possible causes in some cases include food, but the role of allergy to food antigens in patients with CU remains controversial. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between food allergy and CU. Methods Korean patients with CU were assessed for a previous history of food allergy that caused symptoms of CU. Blood samples were taken from 350 patients to measure food allergen-specific IgE. Based on history and laboratory results, open oral food challenge (OFC) tests were performed. Results Of 350 participants, 46 (13.1%) claimed to have experienced previous food hypersensitivity. Pork (n=16) was the main food mentioned, followed by beef (n=7), shrimp (n=6), and mackerel (n=6). We found that 73 participants (20.9%) had elevated levels of food-specific IgE, with pork (n=30), wheat (n=25), and beef (n=23) being the most common. However, when the open OFC tests were conducted in 102 participants with self-reported food hypersensitivity or raised levels of food-specific IgE, only four participants showed a positive reaction to pork (n=3) or crab (n=1). Conclusion Although some participants claimed to have a history of CU related to food intake, when an open OFC test was conducted, few of them had positive results. We therefore conclude that food allergy is an uncommon cause of chronic CU. PMID:27746634

  8. Immunotherapy for food allergies: a myth or a reality?

    PubMed

    Praticò, Andrea D; Leonardi, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is a worldwide issue, with an estimated prevalence of 2-10%. An effective treatment is not available for people affected and the only management is the avoidance of the allergen. Oral immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy have been tested by several authors, in particular for milk, egg and peanuts allergy, with significant results in term of desensitization induction. The achievement of tolerance is by the contrary doubtful, with different results obtained. In this review, we reviewed protocols of oral and sublingual immunotherapy for food allergy published in literature, mainly against milk, egg and peanut. At present, immunotherapy does not represent the gold standard in the treatment of food allergy, even if it can desensitize patients.

  9. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    PubMed

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life.

  10. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    PubMed

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life. PMID:27608473

  11. The SAFE project: 'plant food allergies: field to table strategies for reducing their incidence in Europe' an EC-funded study.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K

    2005-04-01

    The true prevalence of food allergy as an IgE mediated reaction is still under discussion. Using apple as a model allergen source a multidisciplinary consortium worked together at developing various strategies for reducing the incidence of fruit allergies in an EC-funded project. Patient allergen profiles were established using in vitro and in vivo tests with respect to geographic area and mild or severe symptoms. Apple allergens (Mal d 1-Mal d 4) were characterised, variants identified, cloned and sequenced. These individual allergens were used to increase the sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis. Furthermore, they provided better prognosis of disease severity. RT-PCR and ELISA were developed for determining the allergen specific mRNA and expressed allergenic protein in a large number of apple cultivars. Similarly, changes in allergen characteristics from harvest through storage to processing and the impact of agronomic practices were investigated. Allergen genes were mapped on a molecular linkage map of apple. The biological function of Mal d 1 was studied using the RNA interference strategy. Finally, consumer attitudes in Northern, Central and Southern Europe were gauged on the acceptability of low allergen cultivars or a GMO and its impact on product quality.

  12. Quality of life in patients with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Amérigo, Darío; Manso, Luis; Caminati, Marco; de la Hoz Caballer, Belén; Cerecedo, Inmaculada; Muriel, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mercedes; Barbarroja-Escudero, José; Sánchez-González, María José; Huertas-Barbudo, Beatriz; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy has increased in developed countries and can have a dramatic effect on quality of life, so as to provoke fatal reactions. We aimed to outline the socioeconomic impact that food allergy exerts in this kind of patients by performing a complete review of the literature and also describing the factors that may influence, to a greater extent, the quality of life of patients with food allergy and analyzing the different questionnaires available. Hitherto, strict avoidance of the culprit food(s) and use of emergency medications are the pillars to manage this condition. Promising approaches such as specific oral or epicutaneous immunotherapy and the use of monoclonal antibodies are progressively being investigated worldwide. However, even that an increasing number of centers fulfill those approaches, they are not fully implemented enough in clinical practice. The mean annual cost of health care has been estimated in international dollars (I$) 2016 for food-allergic adults and I$1089 for controls, a difference of I$927 (95 % confidence interval I$324-I$1530). A similar result was found for adults in each country, and for children, and interestingly, it was not sensitive to baseline demographic differences. Cost was significantly related to severity of illness in cases in nine countries. The constant threat of exposure, need for vigilance and expectation of outcome can have a tremendous impact on quality of life. Several studies have analyzed the impact of food allergy on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adults and children in different countries. There have been described different factors that could modify HRQL in food allergic patients, the most important of them are perceived disease severity, age of the patient, peanut or soy allergy, country of origin and having allergy to two or more foods. Over the last few years, several different specific Quality of Life questionnaires for food allergic patients have been developed and translated to different

  13. Quality of life in patients with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Amérigo, Darío; Manso, Luis; Caminati, Marco; de la Hoz Caballer, Belén; Cerecedo, Inmaculada; Muriel, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mercedes; Barbarroja-Escudero, José; Sánchez-González, María José; Huertas-Barbudo, Beatriz; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy has increased in developed countries and can have a dramatic effect on quality of life, so as to provoke fatal reactions. We aimed to outline the socioeconomic impact that food allergy exerts in this kind of patients by performing a complete review of the literature and also describing the factors that may influence, to a greater extent, the quality of life of patients with food allergy and analyzing the different questionnaires available. Hitherto, strict avoidance of the culprit food(s) and use of emergency medications are the pillars to manage this condition. Promising approaches such as specific oral or epicutaneous immunotherapy and the use of monoclonal antibodies are progressively being investigated worldwide. However, even that an increasing number of centers fulfill those approaches, they are not fully implemented enough in clinical practice. The mean annual cost of health care has been estimated in international dollars (I$) 2016 for food-allergic adults and I$1089 for controls, a difference of I$927 (95 % confidence interval I$324-I$1530). A similar result was found for adults in each country, and for children, and interestingly, it was not sensitive to baseline demographic differences. Cost was significantly related to severity of illness in cases in nine countries. The constant threat of exposure, need for vigilance and expectation of outcome can have a tremendous impact on quality of life. Several studies have analyzed the impact of food allergy on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adults and children in different countries. There have been described different factors that could modify HRQL in food allergic patients, the most important of them are perceived disease severity, age of the patient, peanut or soy allergy, country of origin and having allergy to two or more foods. Over the last few years, several different specific Quality of Life questionnaires for food allergic patients have been developed and translated to different

  14. Food from genetically modified organisms and potential for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L

    1997-11-01

    Crops produced through genetic modification are beginning to reach the market and many genetically-modified crops are under development. Since genetic modification results in the introduction of new proteins into the food plant the safety of the newly introduced proteins must be assessed. The potential allergenicity of the newly introduced protein is a major consideration in that safety assessment. All allergens are proteins but only a few of the many proteins found in foods are allergenic. The assessment of the allergenicity of the newly introduced proteins should focus on the source of the gene, the sequence homology of the newly introduced protein to known allergens, the immunochemical reactivity of the newly introduced protein with IgE from the blood serum of individuals with known allergies to the source of the transferred genetic material, and the physicochemical properties of the newly introduced protein.

  15. Evaluation of food allergy in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Marcel M; Caubet, Jean-Christoph; Boguniewicz, Mark; Eigenmann, Philippe A

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease characterized by inflammatory, chronically relapsing and pruritic eczematous flares. Its estimated incidence is 10% to 30% in children. Food allergy has been well documented in approximately one-third of children with a moderate-to-severe AD. Cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, wheat, soy, nuts, and fish are responsible for >90% of food allergy in children with AD. The incidence and type of food can vary with age. In infants, cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, and soy and, in older children, wheat, fish, tree nuts, and shellfish are the most common food allergens. Birch-associated foods have also been described as potential triggers of AD in children as well as in adults. The diagnosis of food allergy in AD is currently based on the clinical history, skin prick tests, or blood test screening, followed by an elimination diet and/or standardized oral food challenge. Once an underlying food allergy is confirmed, the avoidance of the incriminated food is generally recommended and usually leads to an improvement of the AD. Follow-up clinical evaluation with a detailed history and tracking of the level of specific IgE to implicated foods are typically used to evaluate the development of clinical tolerance, further confirmed by an oral food challenge.

  16. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Kim, Jennifer S; Barnathan, Julia A; Amsden, Laura B; Tummala, Lakshmi S; Holl, Jane L

    2008-01-01

    Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups), physicians (3 groups), and the general public (2 groups). A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected. PMID:18803842

  17. Going to School with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... which can take several weeks to arrive. In addition to your child's name and type of allergies, consider including that epinephrine should be given in case of a severe reaction and listing your emergency contact number. At the ...

  18. Fish and shellfish allergy in children: review of a persistent food allergy.

    PubMed

    Tsabouri, Sophia; Triga, Maria; Makris, Michael; Kalogeromitros, Dimitris; Church, Martin K; Priftis, Kostas N

    2012-11-01

    The increased consumption of fish and shellfish has resulted in more frequent reports of adverse reactions to seafood, emphasizing the need for more specific diagnosis and treatment of this condition and exploring reasons for the persistence of this allergy. This review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish and shellfish allergy. New allergens and important potential cross-reacting allergens have been identified within the fish family and between shellfish, arachnids, and insects. The diagnostic approach may require prick to-prick tests using crude extracts of both raw and cooked forms of seafood for screening seafood sensitization before a food challenge or where food challenge is not feasible. Allergen-specific immunotherapy can be important; mutated less allergenic seafood proteins have been developed for this purpose. The persistence of allergy because of seafood proteins' resistance after rigorous treatment like cooking and extreme pH is well documented. Additionally, IgE antibodies from individuals with persistent allergy may be directed against different epitopes than those in patients with transient allergy. For a topic as important as this one, new areas of technological developments will likely have a significant impact, to provide more accurate methods of diagnosing useful information to patients about the likely course of their seafood allergy over the course of their childhood and beyond.

  19. Allergenicity of common foods restricted in respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Sharman, J; Kumar, L; Singh, S

    2000-10-01

    Although hypersensitivity to foods is often linked to exacerbations of symptoms of respiratory allergy, no such information is available regarding the foods traditionally considered to play a probable etiological role in respiratory allergy in India, which are in fact quite different from the ones implicated in the West. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the practice of withholding certain common foods by parents and practitioners of indigenous systems of medicine (i.e. Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine) in children suffering from respiratory allergy had any scientific basis or explanation as judged by modern techniques of investigation. Skin prick tests were performed on 64 children with symptoms pertaining to respiratory allergy (32 each in study and control group) using crude antigenic food extracts. Oral food challenges were administered to children to confirm or rule out allergenicity of food (s) incriminated on the basis of the clinical history and/or a positive skin test. Parental history of food restriction alone, in absence of positive skin prick test was of little value in predicting a positive response to the food challenges (1 challenge positive out of 77 based on food restriction: 1.29%). Only 27.02% and 18.75% of positive skin tests were found to be clinically significant in study and control groups respectively. Traditionally, food beliefs were upheld in only 12.5% children for immediate onset clinical reactions (with 5.31% of the foods restricted in their diet) and 9.37% children for delayed onset clinical reactions (with 3.19% of the foods restricted in their diet). The present study shows that even though food restriction is a common practice in patients with respiratory allergy in India, objective documentation of Type I reactions due to these foods cannot be obtained in a majority of such children. PMID:11105420

  20. Pharmacologic options for the treatment and management of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kobernick, Aaron K; Chambliss, Jeffrey; Burks, A Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy affects approximately 5% of adults and 8% of children in developed countries, and there is currently no cure. Current pharmacologic management is limited to using intramuscular epinephrine or oral antihistamines in response to food allergen exposure. Recent trials have examined the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy, with varying levels of efficacy and safety demonstrated. Bacterial adjuvants, use of anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, and Chinese herbal formulations represent exciting potential for development of future pharmacotherapeutic agents. Ultimately, immunotherapy may be a viable option for patients with food allergy, although efficacy and safety are likely to be less than ideal. PMID:26289224

  1. Role of immunoglobulin G antibodies in diagnosis of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents current views on the role of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the reactions with food antigens in the digestive tract and their role in the diagnosis of food allergy based on the assays of specific IgG class antibodies, with a special focus on contemporary practice guidelines. In the light of current scientific knowledge, the IgG-specific antibody-mediated reactions are a body's natural and normal defensive reactions to infiltrating food antigens, which are considered as pathogens. On the other hand, specific IgG antibodies against food allergens play a crucial role in the induction and maintaining of immunological tolerance to food antigens. The statements of many scientific societies stress that sIgG are of no significant importance in the diagnosis of food allergy since their presence is associated with a normal immune response to food allergens and attests to a protracted exposure to food antigens.

  2. Role of immunoglobulin G antibodies in diagnosis of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents current views on the role of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the reactions with food antigens in the digestive tract and their role in the diagnosis of food allergy based on the assays of specific IgG class antibodies, with a special focus on contemporary practice guidelines. In the light of current scientific knowledge, the IgG-specific antibody-mediated reactions are a body's natural and normal defensive reactions to infiltrating food antigens, which are considered as pathogens. On the other hand, specific IgG antibodies against food allergens play a crucial role in the induction and maintaining of immunological tolerance to food antigens. The statements of many scientific societies stress that sIgG are of no significant importance in the diagnosis of food allergy since their presence is associated with a normal immune response to food allergens and attests to a protracted exposure to food antigens. PMID:27605894

  3. Role of immunoglobulin G antibodies in diagnosis of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Gocki, Jacek; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents current views on the role of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the reactions with food antigens in the digestive tract and their role in the diagnosis of food allergy based on the assays of specific IgG class antibodies, with a special focus on contemporary practice guidelines. In the light of current scientific knowledge, the IgG-specific antibody-mediated reactions are a body's natural and normal defensive reactions to infiltrating food antigens, which are considered as pathogens. On the other hand, specific IgG antibodies against food allergens play a crucial role in the induction and maintaining of immunological tolerance to food antigens. The statements of many scientific societies stress that sIgG are of no significant importance in the diagnosis of food allergy since their presence is associated with a normal immune response to food allergens and attests to a protracted exposure to food antigens. PMID:27605894

  4. Current advances of murine models for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiange; Navarro, Severine; Lopata, Andreas L

    2016-02-01

    Food allergy affects an increasing population in Western world but also developing countries. Researchers have been taking great efforts in identifying and characterising food allergens using molecular tools. However, there are still many mechanistic hypotheses that need to be tested using an appropriate in vivo experimental platform. To date, a number of mouse models for food allergy have been established and provided valuable insights into food allergenicity, development of therapies and allergic inflammation mechanisms. Nevertheless, a large diversity of protocols have been developed for the establishment of relevant mouse models. As a result, comparisons of outcomes between different models are very difficult to be conducted. The phenotypes of mouse models are greatly influenced by genetic background, gender, route of allergen exposure, the nature and concentration of food allergens, as well as the usage of adjuvants. This review focuses on IgE-mediated food allergy, compares the differential approaches in developing appropriate murine models for food allergy and details specific findings for three major food allergens, peanut, milk and shellfish. PMID:26759987

  5. Current advances of murine models for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiange; Navarro, Severine; Lopata, Andreas L

    2016-02-01

    Food allergy affects an increasing population in Western world but also developing countries. Researchers have been taking great efforts in identifying and characterising food allergens using molecular tools. However, there are still many mechanistic hypotheses that need to be tested using an appropriate in vivo experimental platform. To date, a number of mouse models for food allergy have been established and provided valuable insights into food allergenicity, development of therapies and allergic inflammation mechanisms. Nevertheless, a large diversity of protocols have been developed for the establishment of relevant mouse models. As a result, comparisons of outcomes between different models are very difficult to be conducted. The phenotypes of mouse models are greatly influenced by genetic background, gender, route of allergen exposure, the nature and concentration of food allergens, as well as the usage of adjuvants. This review focuses on IgE-mediated food allergy, compares the differential approaches in developing appropriate murine models for food allergy and details specific findings for three major food allergens, peanut, milk and shellfish.

  6. SENSITIZATION PATTERN AND CLINICAL PECULARITIES OF FOOD ALLERGY IN GEORGIA.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Abramidze, T; Gotua, T; Dolidze, N; Gotua, M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate sensitization pattern to food allergens in different age groups of atopic patients in Georgia and reveal the associations between food sensitization and clinical manifestations of allergic disease reflecting the development of atopic march. 1000 patients (children-783, adult-217) with different clinical manifestations were involved in the study. Specific IgE antibodies to food mix, cow's milk, casein, egg, wheat, fish, nuts mixture and inhalant allergens were measured by using ImmunoCap (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden). The prevalence of positive specific IgE to food mix was - 7.08%, cow's milk-4.61%, casein - 4.68%, hen's egg - 2.72%, fish mix - 0.77%, wheat -1.57% and to nuts mixture - 2.86%. The frequency of atopic dermatitis (p<0.0017), urticaria (p<0.0223) and anaphylactic shock (p<0.001) were significantly increased in patients with specific IgE to food mix. Allergic skin manifestations to ingested food were age-dependent, more frequent in children groups. Cow's milk and hen's egg are the commonest food allergens in the age group of <2 years. Sensitization to food mix, cow's milk, casein, hen's egg and wheat were predominated in male patients. Egg allergy was significantly associated with atopic dermatitis, fish allergy to bronchial asthma and severe milk allergy to anaphylactic shock. Present study is a first comprehensive investigation, providing unique data of the prevalence of food allergies in Georgian population. The results of this study are contributing to a better understanding of the disease, serving as a basis for the development of strategies for preventing and treating food allergies. PMID:27249439

  7. A European perspective on immunotherapy for food allergies.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten

    2012-05-01

    Food allergies are common, and frequently, the only treatment option is strict avoidance. Unfortunately, many patients accidentally ingest allergenic foods, which can result in severe anaphylactic reactions. Several immunotherapies are being developed for food allergies; these involve oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, or subcutaneous administration of small amounts of native or modified allergens to induce immune tolerance. Oral immunotherapy seems to be the most promising approach based on results from small uncontrolled and controlled studies. However, it is a challenge to compare results among immunotherapy trials because of differences in protocols. Studies conducted thus far have tested the most prevalent food allergens: it is not clear whether their results can be extended to other allergens. Sublingual administration of immunotherapy has shown some efficacy and fewer side effects than oral administration in some trials, yet neither approach can be recommended for routine practice. Controlled studies with larger numbers of subjects are needed to determine short- and long-term efficacy and side effects. In Europe immunotherapy trials for food allergies face many ethical and regulatory issues. Guidelines from the European Medicine Agency on the clinical development of products for specific immunotherapy of allergic diseases do not adequately address immunotherapy for food allergies, especially for therapies that orally administer native food or that include pediatric patients.

  8. Allergen Component Testing in the Diagnosis of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Schussler, Edith; Kattan, Jacob

    2015-09-01

    IgE-mediated food allergies are an important public health problem, affecting 5 % of adults and 8 % of children, with numerous studies indicating that the prevalence is increasing. Food allergic reactions can range in severity from mild to severe and life threatening. Accurate diagnosis of food allergy is necessary not only to provide appropriate and potentially life-saving preventive measures but also to prevent unwarranted dietary restrictions. The diagnosis of food allergy has traditionally been based on clinical history and food specific IgE (sIgE) testing, including skin prick testing (SPT), serum tests, or both. These tests tend to be extremely sensitive, but positive test results to foods that are tolerated are common. Studies of allergen component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) show that adjuvant use of this modality may provide a more accurate assessment in the diagnosis of food allergy, though the reported benefits are questionable for a number of major allergens. Furthermore, diagnostic cutoff values have been difficult to determine for allergens where component testing has been demonstrated to be beneficial.

  9. [Food Allergy and Intolerance : Distinction, Definitions and Delimitation].

    PubMed

    Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Waßmann-Otto, Anja; Mönnikes, Hubert

    2016-06-01

    Immunologically mediated hypersensitivity to foods is defined as food allergy, mainly due to immunglobulins of class E (IgE) triggering immediate reactions (type I hypersensitivity) with possible involvement of mucosa, skin, airways, intestinal tract, and the vascular system. Primary food allergy is based on (early) IgE sensitization against animal (e. g., cow's milk, hen's eggs) or plant proteins (e. g. peanut, hazelnut or wheat). In the case of secondary food allergies, IgE against pollen proteins (e. g., birch) reacts to structurally related food proteins (with cross-reactions to stone and pit fruits). Non-immunological food intolerance reactions are mostly based on carbohydrate malassimilation (e. g., lactose intolerance, fructose malabsorption) and are rarely due to pseudo-allergies (e. g., flavors, dyes, preservatives) primarily in patients with chronic urticaria. Common intestinal symptoms are mainly due to functional disorders (e. g., irritable bowel disease), rarely because of inflammatory intestinal diseases (e. g., celiac disease). Histamine intolerance, gluten hypersensitivity, and so-called food type III hypersensitivities are controversial diagnoses. The aforementioned disease entities/models are of variable importance for the affected individuals, the public health system, and society in general.

  10. [Food Allergy and Intolerance : Distinction, Definitions and Delimitation].

    PubMed

    Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Waßmann-Otto, Anja; Mönnikes, Hubert

    2016-06-01

    Immunologically mediated hypersensitivity to foods is defined as food allergy, mainly due to immunglobulins of class E (IgE) triggering immediate reactions (type I hypersensitivity) with possible involvement of mucosa, skin, airways, intestinal tract, and the vascular system. Primary food allergy is based on (early) IgE sensitization against animal (e. g., cow's milk, hen's eggs) or plant proteins (e. g. peanut, hazelnut or wheat). In the case of secondary food allergies, IgE against pollen proteins (e. g., birch) reacts to structurally related food proteins (with cross-reactions to stone and pit fruits). Non-immunological food intolerance reactions are mostly based on carbohydrate malassimilation (e. g., lactose intolerance, fructose malabsorption) and are rarely due to pseudo-allergies (e. g., flavors, dyes, preservatives) primarily in patients with chronic urticaria. Common intestinal symptoms are mainly due to functional disorders (e. g., irritable bowel disease), rarely because of inflammatory intestinal diseases (e. g., celiac disease). Histamine intolerance, gluten hypersensitivity, and so-called food type III hypersensitivities are controversial diagnoses. The aforementioned disease entities/models are of variable importance for the affected individuals, the public health system, and society in general. PMID:27215624

  11. [Clinical and diagnostic contribution of childhood food allergy].

    PubMed

    Berjón, M C; Andión, R; Linares, P; Fernández, L A; Blanco, A

    1987-02-01

    Two thousand six hundred and ninety are reviewed and 148 cases of food allergy are found, aged 1 month to 14 years. Food allergy is 5.5%. Diagnosis was based on history, positive of dietary elimination-challenge and immunological investigations (skin tests, total serum IgE and RAST). Ninety four children (64%) were multisensitized. Ninety three children (63%) had multisystem involvement. The onset of iron deficiency anemia without responsive to the therapy was the manifestation in 7.8% of cow's milk protein or egg allergy children. There were not significative different between breast or bottle fed children. The symptoms occurred at the first known exposure to egg in 23.7% of egg hypersensitivity children and the same feature was observed in 17% of fish allergic children. The date indicate that food allergy has a clinical complexity. It may be useful to make easy its diagnosis to know some aspects regarding to sensitisation, immunological mechanism, effects of breast-feeding and pathogenesis of iron deficiency anemia without responsive to the therapy, an uncommon manifestation of food allergy. PMID:3565960

  12. Parents of Kids with Food Allergies Believe They're Allergic, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_161454.html Parents of Kids With Food Allergies Believe They're Allergic, Too But fewer than one-third tested positive for food allergies, study finds To use the sharing features ...

  13. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States Download your copy of the Guidelines Summary ... Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States: Summary for Patients, Families, and Cargivers summarizes ...

  14. Prevalence of sensitization to food allergens and challenge proven food allergy in patients visiting allergy centers in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Inam, Muhammad; Shafique, Rubaba Hamid; Roohi, Nabila; Irfan, Muhammad; Abbas, Shahid; Ismail, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the prevalence of food allergy in the adult allergic patients of Rawalpindi and Islamabad , Pakistan, based on self-report, skin prick test (SPT) and oral food challenge test (OFC). SPT was used for the estimation of sensitization to wheat, egg, milk, beef, chicken, mutton, fish, corn, lentils, rice, soya, peanut and banana. Among 689 patients, 39.19 % showed sensitivity to one or more foods, where, sensitization to wheat (156; 22.6 %) was highest, followed by egg (148; 21.48 %) and milk (138; 20.03 %). Sensitization to various proteins ranged between 15.53-15.97 %, while lentils, corn, rice, soya and peanut sensitization was 15.4, 16, 12.5, 12 and 11.5 % respectively. Only 7.1 % patients were SPT positive for banana allergen. SPT was performed in patients with self-reported food allergy (341/689) and also with no self-reported history of food allergy (348/689). SPT results were positive in 69.8 % of the self-report group, whereas, in the patients with no self-reported food allergy 9.2 % were found sensitized to one or more tested food allergens. 101 patients were recruited for OFC, 61 % of these were confirmed of food allergy. The prevalence of food allergy in the study population was 9 %. Food specific OFC results show that wheat allergy is affecting 1.6 % (95 % CI 0.9-2.84 %) of the total allergy patients, followed by egg allergy 1.31 % (95 % CI 0.70-2.47 %). Furthermore, corn allergy, rice allergy and peanut allergy were 1.02, 0.87 and 0.73 %, respectively. In conclusion, wheat allergy is the most prevalent, followed by egg, chicken, beef and fish allergy, respectively. PMID:27563525

  15. Infant Formulas for Food Allergy Treatment and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Hetu; Bahna, Sami L

    2016-04-01

    The number of infant formulas intended for food allergy treatment or prevention has been increasing. Some products fulfill the criteria for hypoallergenicity, such as extensively hydrolyzed protein (casein or whey) and synthesized amino acid formulas (elemental diet). Numerous partially hydrolyzed formulas have been derived from bovine milk, soybean, and rice. They are not hypoallergenic and are not recommended for children allergic to the parent protein, yet certain preparations have shown efficacy for allergy prevention. Soybean-derived preparations, although not hypoallergenic, have been tolerated by a majority of children allergic to bovine milk. Studies on the addition of probiotics or prebiotics to infant formulas have shown inconsistent findings. Numerous hypoallergenic formulas or milk substitutes are available for pediatricians to choose for children with food allergy. Caution is needed in prescribing formulas that are erroneously marketed as hypoallergenic.

  16. Food allergy. Part 1: immunopathogenesis and clinical disorders.

    PubMed

    Sampson, H A

    1999-05-01

    Up to 8% of children less than 3 years of age and approximately 2% of the adult population experience food-induced allergic disorders. A limited number of foods are responsible for the vast majority of food-induced allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, fish, and tree nuts in children and peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish in adults. Food-induced allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract and may be caused by IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. In part 1 of this series, immunopathogenic mechanisms and clinical disorders of food allergy are described.

  17. Food Allergy Concerns in Primary Classrooms: Keeping Children Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelen, Peggy; Cameron, Elizabeth Ann

    2012-01-01

    Food-allergy awareness and management have only lately come to the forefront in early childhood settings, although advocacy organizations have been working on the issue for more than a decade. A national poll (C.S. Mott Children's Hospital 2009) asked parents with children in early education settings if they were aware of what their program does…

  18. Food allergy in infants and children: clinical evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Levy, Y; Kornbroth, B; Ofer, I; Garty, B Z; Danon, Y L

    1994-12-01

    A total of 122 infants and children up to age 17 (69 males and 53 females) who were referred for food allergy to the Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit were evaluated by complete history, emphasizing the implicated foods, clinical presentation and involvement of various organ systems, physical examination, and prick skin tests to food allergens. Fourteen infants with a history of egg white allergy and positive skin tests to egg white also underwent skin tests (prick and intradermal in 1:100 dilution) to measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine; 35 children under 3 years old had 41 oral challenges with the suspected foods; and 9 children over 3 years old had 12 oral challenges with the suspected foods. We found that cow milk/humanized milk formula, egg white, soybean, and peanut are the main allergenic foods in the pediatric population. Thirteen children had 13 positive oral challenges: 12 to cow milk/humanized milk formula and one to egg white. Symptoms reproduced by oral challenges included urticarial and erythematous rash, conjunctival itching, angioedema, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and rhinorrhea. No anaphylactic shock was reported. Negative skin test has an excellent predictive accuracy for negative oral challenge with the suspected food in children > 3 years old. The negative predictive accuracy of cow milk skin test in children < 3 years was 73%. Positive skin test is not a good predictor of a clinical reaction to food. Oral food challenge performed cautiously in a medical setting is the "gold standard" for diagnosis. MMR vaccine can be safely administered to infants with egg white allergy after skin tests with the vaccine are performed.

  19. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Milk Allergy KidsHealth > For Teens > Milk Allergy Print A ... on to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, ...

  20. Exploring Perceptions and Experiences of Food Allergy among New Canadians from Asia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Stephanie K; Elliott, Susan J; Clarke, Ann E

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In Canada, perceived prevalence of food allergy surpasses systematic estimates. Canadian immigrants have been found more likely to rate the risk of food allergy as "high" compared to nonimmigrants. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 3 key informants and 18 allergic individuals of East and Southeast Asian descent in order to capture their lived experience with food allergies. Results. Participants found food allergies to be more common in Canada than in Asia. Participants also agreed that having a food allergy is more manageable in Canada as a result of the policy environment (e.g., food labelling and school policies). In addition, participants had dealt with skepticism and disbelief about their food allergy in Asia, resulting in social exclusion and impacting quality of life. Discussion. Findings demonstrate the need to recognize the varied impacts and experiences of food allergy among new Canadians, given that immigrants represent a large and growing proportion of the Canadian population.

  1. A global survey of changing patterns of food allergy burden in children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    While food allergies and eczema are among the most common chronic non-communicable diseases in children in many countries worldwide, quality data on the burden of these diseases is lacking, particularly in developing countries. This 2012 survey was performed to collect information on existing data on the global patterns and prevalence of food allergy by surveying all the national member societies of the World Allergy Organization, and some of their neighbouring countries. Data were collected from 89 countries, including published data, and changes in the health care burden of food allergy. More than half of the countries surveyed (52/89) did not have any data on food allergy prevalence. Only 10% (9/89) of countries had accurate food allergy prevalence data, based on oral food challenges (OFC). The remaining countries (23/89) had data largely based on parent-reporting of a food allergy diagnosis or symptoms, which is recognised to overestimate the prevalence of food allergy. Based on more accurate measures, the prevalence of clinical (OFC proven) food allergy in preschool children in developed countries is now as high as 10%. In large and rapidly emerging societies of Asia, such as China, where there are documented increases in food allergy, the prevalence of OFC-proven food allergy is now around 7% in pre-schoolers, comparable to the reported prevalence in European regions. While food allergy appears to be increasing in both developed and developing countries in the last 10–15 years, there is a lack of quality comparative data. This survey also highlights inequities in paediatric allergy services, availability of adrenaline auto-injectors and standardised National Anaphylaxis Action plans. In conclusion, there remains a need to gather more accurate data on the prevalence of food allergy in many developed and developing countries to better anticipate and address the rising community and health service burden of food allergy. PMID:24304599

  2. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans.

  3. Application of gamma irradiation for inhibition of food allergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon; Yook, Hong-Sun; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Hee-Yun

    2002-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the application of food irradiation technology as a method for reducing food allergy. Milk β-lactoglobulin, chicken egg albumin, and shrimp tropomyosin were used as model food allergens for experiments on allergenic and molecular properties by gamma irradiation. The amount of intact allergens in an irradiated solution was reduced by gamma irradiation depending upon the dose. These results showed that epitopes on the allergens were structurally altered by radiation treatment and that the irradiation technology can be applied to reduce allergenicity of allergic foods.

  4. Effects of omalizumab in patients with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Rafi, Asif; Do, LanAnh T; Katz, Roger; Sheinkopf, Lee E; Simons, Caroline Watson; Klaustermeyer, William

    2010-01-01

    Omalizumab is a novel therapy approved for treating patients with moderate to severe persistent allergic asthma with a serum IgE ranging from 30 to 700 IU/mL. We examined the efficacy of omalizumab as a treatment for IgE-mediated food allergy. An Institutional Review Board-approved prospective pilot study was performed to assess the efficacy of omalizumab in 22 patients with persistent asthma and concomitant IgE-mediated food allergy. All patients showed skin test positivity to foods and experienced allergic food reactions based on history. Patients were interviewed on unintentional and/or unauthorized exposures to sensitized foods. Thirteen female and nine male patients (range, 4-66 years old; mean, 38 years) were evaluated in a private practice setting. Mean IgE level was 1120.74 IU/mL. Sensitized allergens included fish, shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, egg, soybean, and wheat. All 22 (100%) patients maintained significant improvement as shown by a decrease/lack of clinical symptoms on reexposure to sensitized foods. Clinical improvement by the sixth dosage of omalizumab (150-300 mg q. 2-4 weeks) was noted by history and physical examination. Eight patients noted a decrease in their food-induced atopic dermatitis, 13 patients noted a decrease in their food-induced asthma symptoms, 3 patients noted a decrease in their food-induced urticaria, 6 patients noted a decrease in their food-induced rhinosinusitis symptoms, and 9 patients showed efficacy for angioedema and/or anaphylaxis. While treating asthma patients with omalizumab, patients subjectively observed a reduction in their concomitant IgE-mediated food allergy symptoms.

  5. The frequency of food allergy in Australia and Asia.

    PubMed

    Hill, D J; Hosking, C S; Zhie, C Y; Leung, R; Baratwidjaja, K; Iikura, Y; Iyngkaran, N; Gonzalez-Andaya, A; Wah, L B; Hsieh, K H

    1997-11-01

    A review of the development of food allergy in a birth cohort of 620 Australian infants at high risk for development of atopic disease has recently been completed. Extrapolating to a random community population showed that at the age of two, egg appears the most frequent food allergen (3.2%), while cow milk (2.0%), and peanut are of similar frequency (1.9%). The prevalence of hypersensitivity to wheat and soy appears similar to sesame seed, cashew nut, hazelnut and walnut, but allergy to fish, brazil nut and shell fish are uncommon. Despite a different methodology, reports from several Asian centres suggest a similar frequency of hypersensitivity to these foods in young children although hypersensitivity to shellfish and seafood was more common than for nuts, peanut and wheat, if seafoods are part of the staple infant diet. Rice hypersensitivity was rare in both Australia and Asian countries.

  6. Allergy to foods in patients monosensitized to Artemisia pollen.

    PubMed

    Garcia Ortiz, J C; Cosmes, P M; Lopez-Asunsolo, A

    1996-12-01

    It is known that patients with pollinosis may display clinical characteristics caused by allergy to certain fruits and vegetables, but subjects allergic to Artemisia seem to show particularly peculiar characteristics. The clinical features of 84 patients with rhinitis, asthma, urticaria, and/or anaphylaxis whose inhalant allergy was exclusively to Artemisia vulgaris were studied and compared with a control group of 50 patients monosensitized to grass pollen. The mean age for the beginning of symptoms was 30.2 years, and this was higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). We found the main incidence to be in women (70.2%). Some 42.3% had family history of atopia, lower than in the control group (P < 0.05), while the prevalence of asthma and urticaria was significantly higher (P < 0.05). Food hypersensitivity was reported by 23 patients (27.3%) allergic to Artemisia. The foods responsible (with respective numbers of cases) were honey (14), sunflower seeds (11), camomile (four), pistachio (three), hazelnut (two), lettuce (two), pollen (two), beer (two), almond (one), peanut (one), other nuts (one), carrot (one), and apple (one). None of the patients monosensitized to grass had food allergy. CAP inhibition experiments were carried out on a single patient. Results showed the existence of common antigenic epitopes in pistachio and Artemisia pollen for this patient. We concluded that mugwort hay fever can be associated with the Compositae family of foods, but that it is not normally associated with other foods. PMID:9020422

  7. Epinephrine autoinjector availability among children with food allergy.

    PubMed

    DeMuth, Karen A; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    Epinephrine is the treatment of choice for anaphylaxis. Delay in administration of epinephrine is a known risk factor for food allergy reaction-related mortality; however, individuals with food allergy may not have epinephrine readily available. This study was designed to determine the percent of food-allergic children that have an epinephrine autoinjector readily available and factors associated with epinephrine autoinjector carriage rates. Parents completed a questionnaire on food allergy and food allergy preparedness. Staff recorded whether an epinephrine autoinjector and medical alert bracelet was immediately available in clinic. Parental responses from 63 food-allergic children were included. Fifty-nine percent (37/63) had an epinephrine autoinjector present in the clinic, and 79% (50/63) reported receiving training in epinephrine autoinjector use. There was no correlation between epinephrine autoinjector presence in the clinic and parental report of having an epinephrine autoinjector available at all times (phi = 0.21). Epinephrine autoinjector training was associated with increased odds of having an epinephrine autoinjector immediately available (adjusted odds ratio, 8.74 [1.69, 45.04]). Fewer school aged children (≥5 years old) reportedly had their epinephrine autoinjector with them when eating lunch (25% [8/32] versus 42% [13/31]; p = 0.002) or snacks (28% [9/32] versus 37% [13/31]; p = 0.005) when compared with those <5 years old. Many children do not have their epinephrine autoinjectors readily available despite parental report. Epinephrine autoinjector training improved the odds of having an epinephrine autoinjector readily available. Continued patient education on the importance of having an epinephrine autoinjector easily accessible, especially when eating, is important. PMID:21781405

  8. Married...with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... This includes cream, cheese, butter, and milk. When did you start having problems with food allergies? Joanna: ... immediately started swelling up and turning blue. How did you find out what the allergies were? Did ...

  9. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Joshua A.; Assa'ad, Amal; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Wood, Robert A.; Plaut, Marshall; Cooper, Susan F.; Fenton, Matthew J.; Arshad, S. Hasan; Bahna, Sami L.; Beck, Lisa A.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Camargo, Carlos A.; Eichenfield, Lawrence; Furuta, Glenn T.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Jones, Carol; Kraft, Monica; Levy, Bruce D.; Lieberman, Phil; Luccioli, Stefano; McCall, Kathleen M.; Schneider, Lynda C.; Simon, Ronald A.; Simons, F. Estelle R.; Teach, Stephen J.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Schwaninger, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is an important public health problem that affects children and adults and may be increasing in prevalence. Despite the risk of severe allergic reactions and even death, there is no current treatment for food allergy: the disease can only be managed by allergen avoidance or treatment of symptoms. The diagnosis and management of food allergy also may vary from one clinical practice setting to another. Finally, because patients frequently confuse nonallergic food reactions, such as food intolerance, with food allergies, there is an unfounded belief among the public that food allergy prevalence is higher than it truly is. In response to these concerns, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, working with 34 professional organizations, federal agencies, and patient advocacy groups, led the development of clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. These Guidelines are intended for use by a wide variety of health care professionals, including family practice physicians, clinical specialists, and nurse practitioners. The Guidelines include a consensus definition for food allergy, discuss comorbid conditions often associated with food allergy, and focus on both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated reactions to food. Topics addressed include the epidemiology, natural history, diagnosis, and management of food allergy, as well as the management of severe symptoms and anaphylaxis. These Guidelines provide 43 concise clinical recommendations and additional guidance on points of current controversy in patient management. They also identify gaps in the current scientific knowledge to be addressed through future research. PMID:21134576

  10. Food allergy and anaphylaxis in pediatrics: update 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Santos, Alexandra F; Lack, Gideon

    2012-12-01

    This review highlights the progress made in food allergy (FA) and anaphylaxis research in pediatrics published in the journal Pediatric Allergy and Immunology since 2010. Putative risk factors for FA are as follows: a family history of allergic disease, particularly in the mother, low birth order, season of birth, and severe atopic eczema. Obstetric practices, antibiotic use, and home environment are factors deserving further research. Diagnostic decision levels and component-specific IgE are useful in the diagnosis of FA; however, oral food challenges remain the gold standard and may also be a means to reduce parental anxiety and to improve education. Oral immunotherapy studies show promise in increasing the threshold of reactivity of allergic patients and therefore improving their quality of life. In single-nut-allergic patients, introduction of other nuts allows broadening the diet and thus reducing the psychological impact of allergen avoidance. Nutritional deficiencies are not uncommon in food-allergic children and should be specifically assessed. The prescription of injectable adrenaline is still insufficient and not consistent among practitioners, requiring improved training and implementation of guidelines. Current research into the epidemiology and immunological mechanisms of FA and tolerance will enable us to devise strategies to both prevent and treat food allergies.

  11. Food allergy: Insights into etiology, prevention and treatment provided by murine models

    PubMed Central

    Oyoshi, Michiko K.; Oettgen, Hans C.; Chatila, Talal A.; Geha, Raif S.; Bryce, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is a rapidly growing public health concern due to its increasing prevalence and its life threatening potential. Animal models of food allergy have emerged as a tool for identifying mechanisms involved in the development of sensitization to normally harmless food allergens as well as delineating the critical immune components of the effector phase of allergic reactions to food. However, the role animal models might play in understanding human diseases remain contentious. This review summarizes how animal models have provided insights on the etiology of human food allergy, experimental corroboration for epidemiological findings that might facilitate prevention strategies, and validation for the utility of new therapies for food allergy. Improved understanding of food allergy from the study of animal models together with human studies are likely to contribute to the development of novel strategies to prevent and treat food allergy. PMID:24636470

  12. Parental Perception, Prevalence and Primary Care Physicians’ Knowledge on Childhood Food Allergy in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Voskresensky Baricic, Tamara; Catipovic, Marija; Cetinic, Erina L.; Krmek, Vlado; Horvat, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy in children is increasing and the perception of food allergy among parents is even more common. In a questionnaire-based study of 702 children aged 6 to 48 months in four primary care settings, the aim was to determine the prevalence of perception vs. proven food allergy, parental anxiety and general pediatrician knowledge of food allergy. In 95/702 children (13.5%) parentally-reported food was associated reactions. IgE and/or skin prick test (SPT) and/or an open provocation test were performed in 48 (6.8%) and allergy was proven in 38 (5.4%) children. Discrepancy between parental perception and proven allergy is significant (p < 0.001), especially for food other than milk, egg and peanut (p < 0.001). Allergy to milk was the most common. Allergy to peanut was significantly more common in children ≥2 years (p < 0.05). Severe reactions occurred in 5/95 (5.2%) of all children and in 5/38 (13.1%) of allergic children, in 3/5 caused by peanut. Parents of children with proven allergy do not experience high degree of anxiety. The perception of food allergy among general pediatricians is limited, and in children with severe reactions precautionary measures and information to parents were insufficient. Parents and general pediatricians need additional education in food allergy. PMID:27417365

  13. A review of food allergy and nutritional considerations in the food-allergic adult

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, the prevalence of adults with food allergies is approximately 2 percent to 3 percent. Theoretically, any food can cause an allergic reaction; however, some foods are clearly more allergenic than others are. In adults, peanuts, tree nuts, finned fish, crustaceans, fruit, and veg...

  14. Mutations in the filaggrin gene and food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Lidia; Wróblewska, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The results of long-term epidemiological studies show that the number of people suffering from allergic diseases, especially from food allergies and atopic dermatitis (AD), is still increasing. Although the research thus far has been conducted mainly in Europe, North America, and Asia, there are also data appearing from the first studies in that field among the African population. This may indicate the importance of the problem of allergic diseases. The discovery that loss-of-function mutations in the gene coding filaggrin (FLG) are the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris marked a significant breakthrough in understanding the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The presence of mutations in the filaggrin gene is also an important factor that predisposes to such allergic diseases as: allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, atopic asthma, and food allergy. So far, over 40 loss-of-function mutations and numerous silent mutations in filaggrin have been discovered. PMID:25276250

  15. Cow's milk protein allergy and other food hypersensitivities in infants.

    PubMed

    Venter, Carina

    2009-01-01

    Food hypersensitivity (FHS) is the umbrella term used to describe both food allergy, which involves the immune system, and food intolerances, which do not. It is therefore important that the diagnosis is made by a specialist health care professional such as a paediatrician or allergist. Some experienced dietitians and health visitors may be able to assist in making a diagnosis. The diagnostic work-up includes a medical history and blood tests/skin tests (where applicable). A food and symptom diary followed by a special test diet to identify the foods causing the infant's symptoms may also be needed. Once a diagnosis is made, dietary advice should be given to eliminate or reduce the intake of the offending foods. For cow's milk hypersensitivity in infants, this will include choosing the most appropriate specialised infant formula. PMID:19953752

  16. Hypoallergenicity: a principle for the treatment of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    Food allergy is a common disease with the treatment of choice being complete avoidance of the incriminated food. In cow's milk allergy a hypoallergenic milk substitute is necessary during infancy and childhood. Hypoallergenic formulas are produced through enzymatic hydrolysis of different sources such as bovine casein or whey followed by further processing such as heat treatment and/or ultrafiltration. According to the degree of protein hydrolysis the resulting products have been classified into 'extensively' or 'partially' hydrolyzed. Reduction of allergenicity should be assessed in vitro and in vivo. Hypoallergenic formulas might also be based on amino acid mixtures. These elementary diets can be considered as nonallergenic. Several novel therapies are currently being explored in food allergy. One of the most promising approaches is the immunotherapy with mutated proteins. For this approach, alteration of the IgEbinding sites through single amino acid substitution is performed resulting in reduced to complete loss of IgE binding. For the major peanut allergens such mutations were introduced into the cDNA sequences and successfully expressed as hypoallergenic recombinant proteins. In peanut-sensitized mice, the use of these modified proteins co-administered with adjuvant such as heat-killed Escherichia coli showed promising results for future therapeutic approaches.

  17. Milk formulae in the prevention of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Guesry, P R; Secretin, M C; Jost, R; Pahud, J J; Monti, J C

    1991-01-01

    Because food allergy is frequent and severe, all possible means should be used to try to prevent its manifestations or at least to delay them until the child is older and stronger and therefore better able to follow an exclusion diet. The capacity of breast-feeding for preventing food allergy has been challenged in the past, but a consensus seems to be emerging now that breast-feeding can indeed prevent food allergy if it is started at birth and is exclusive for at least 4, and preferably 6, months. In the most "at-risk" babies the breast-feeding mother should try to eliminate the most potent allergens (eggs, fish, soya, nuts, and cow's milk) from her diet. If a substitute or a complement to breast milk is necessary, neither goat's milk nor soy milk formula are adequate. Heat treatment alone will not be sufficient to make cow's milk hypoallergenic. Only a combination of protein hydrolysis and managed heat treatment can make cow's milk hypoallergenic and retain its nutritional value. This nutritional value should be assessed by animal studies and also by studying infant growth. The hypoallergenicity of a formula can be studied in vitro and with animal tests, but only clinical trials on human infants will prove its efficacy. PMID:1936969

  18. Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R; Hamilton, Robert G; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-06-01

    Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advised the U.S. government and international organizations on risk assessment for allergenicity of food proteins. These committees have created decision trees largely based on assessment of IgE-mediated food allergenicity. Difficulties include the limited availability of allergen-specific IgE antisera from allergic persons as validated source material, the utility of specific IgE assays, limited characterization of food proteins, cross-reactivity between food and other allergens, and modifications of food proteins by processing. StarLink was a corn variety modified to produce a (Italic)Bacillus thuringiensis(/Italic) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry9C. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after the announcement that StarLink, allowed for animal feed, was found in the human food supply. Allergic reactions were not confirmed, but tools for postmarket assessment were limited. Workers in agricultural and food preparation facilities have potential inhalation exposure to plant dusts and flours. In 1999, researchers found that migrant health workers can become sensitized to certain Bt spore extracts after exposure to Bt spraying.

  19. Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R; Hamilton, Robert G; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-01-01

    Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advised the U.S. government and international organizations on risk assessment for allergenicity of food proteins. These committees have created decision trees largely based on assessment of IgE-mediated food allergenicity. Difficulties include the limited availability of allergen-specific IgE antisera from allergic persons as validated source material, the utility of specific IgE assays, limited characterization of food proteins, cross-reactivity between food and other allergens, and modifications of food proteins by processing. StarLink was a corn variety modified to produce a (Italic)Bacillus thuringiensis(/Italic) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry9C. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after the announcement that StarLink, allowed for animal feed, was found in the human food supply. Allergic reactions were not confirmed, but tools for postmarket assessment were limited. Workers in agricultural and food preparation facilities have potential inhalation exposure to plant dusts and flours. In 1999, researchers found that migrant health workers can become sensitized to certain Bt spore extracts after exposure to Bt spraying. PMID:12826483

  20. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    PubMed

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved.

  1. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    PubMed

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved. PMID:27240596

  2. [Allergy to egg proteins in children].

    PubMed

    Góngora-Meléndez, Marco Antonio; Magaña-Cobos, Armando; Montiel-Herrera, Juan Manuel; Pantoja-Minguela, Cinthya Lorena; Pineda-Maldonado, Mario Luis; Piñeyro-Beltrán, Eduardo Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1), ovoalbumin (Gal d2), ovotransferrin (Gal d3), lysozyme (Gal d4) and albumin (Gal d5). Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice.

  3. Socio-Cultural Matrix of Raising a Child with Food Allergies: Experiences of a Migrant Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2004-01-01

    Children with life-threatening food allergies are increasing in number in Australia. A variety of foods such as dairy milk, peanut and tree nuts, fish and egg can cause severe allergic reactions in some children. The foods that cause allergies could trigger severe breathing difficulties (anaphylaxis) for these children and, if not treated…

  4. Preparing School Personnel to Assist Students with Life-Threatening Food Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Genevieve H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of and preparation for life-threatening food allergies will enable school personnel to better respond to students who have severe allergic reactions. Given the high incidence of food-related anaphylaxis in public places, teachers and school personnel should be aware of and prepared to handle severe food allergy reactions. (SM)

  5. Impact of Food Allergy on Asthma in Children

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  6. Occupational asthma and food allergy due to carmine.

    PubMed

    Acero, S; Tabar, A I; Alvarez, M J; Garcia, B E; Olaguibel, J M; Moneo, I

    1998-09-01

    Carmine (E120), a natural red dye extracted from the dried females of the insect Dactylopius coccus var. Costa (cochineal), has been reported to cause hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of occupational asthma and food allergy due to carmine in a worker not engaged in dye manufacturing. A 35-year-old nonatopic man, who had worked for 4 years in a spice warehouse, reported asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis for 5 months, related to carmine handling in his work. Two weeks before the visit, he reported one similar episode after the ingestion of a red-colored sweet containing carmine. Peak flow showed drops higher than 25% related to carmine exposure. Prick tests with the cochineal insect and carmine were positive, but negative to common aeroallergens, several mites, foods, and spices. The methacholine test was positive. Specific bronchial challenge test with a cochineal extract was positive with a dual pattern (20% and 24% fall in FEV1). Double-blind oral challenge with E120 was positive. The patient's sera contained specific IgE for various high-molecular-weight proteins from the cochineal extract, as shown by immunoblotting. Carmine proteins can induce IgE-mediated food allergy and occupational asthma in workers using products where its presence could be easily overlooked, as well as in dye manufacture workers. PMID:9788693

  7. The Role of Skin Barrier in the Pathogenesis of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Neema; Luu, Minnelly; Ong, Peck Y.; Tam, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is a serious public health problem with an increasing prevalence. Current management is limited to food avoidance and emergency treatment. Research into the pathogenesis of food allergy has helped to shape our understanding of how patients become sensitized to an allergen. Classically, food sensitization was thought to occur through the gastrointestinal tract, but alternative routes of sensitization are being explored, specifically through the skin. Damaged skin barrier may play a crucial role in the development of food sensitization. Better understanding of how patients initially become sensitized may help lead to the development of a safe and effective treatment for food allergies or better prevention strategies. PMID:27417371

  8. Food Allergies and the UK Catering Industry: A Study of the Training Needs for the Industry to Serve Those with Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratten, John; Towers, Neil

    2004-01-01

    This study looks at the ability of retail food outlets to provide suitable meals for those with special dietary needs. Thus, some food allergies are described briefly and the personnel involved in food preparation and service are examined. Groups of owners of catering outlets were interviewed to discover from them their knowledge of food allergies…

  9. Epigenetics and development of food allergy (FA) in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-09-01

    This review aims to highlight the latest advance on epigenetics in the development of food allergy (FA) and to offer future perspectives. FA, a condition caused by an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to food, has emerged as a major clinical and public health problem worldwide in light of its increasing prevalence, potential fatality, and significant medical and economic impact. Current evidence supports that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in immune regulation and that the epigenome may represent a key "missing piece" of the etiological puzzle for FA. There are a growing number of population-based epigenetic studies on allergy-related phenotypes, mostly focused on DNA methylation. Previous studies mostly applied candidate-gene approaches and have demonstrated that epigenetic marks are associated with multiple allergic diseases and/or with early-life exposures relevant to allergy development (such as early-life smoking exposure, air pollution, farming environment, and dietary fat). Rapid technological advancements have made unbiased genome-wide DNA methylation studies highly feasible, although there are substantial challenge in study design, data analyses, and interpretation of findings. In conclusion, epigenetics represents both an important knowledge gap and a promising research area for FA. Due to the early onset of FA, epigenetic studies of FA in prospective birth cohorts have the potential to better understand gene-environment interactions and underlying biological mechanisms in FA during critical developmental windows (preconception, in utero, and early childhood) and may lead to new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of FA and provide novel targets for future drug discovery and therapies for FA. PMID:25096861

  10. Food, risk and place: agency and negotiations of young people with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Stjerna, Marie-Louise

    2015-02-01

    Potentially life-threatening food allergies are increasing among children in the Western world. Informed by childhood studies, this article explores young people's management of food allergy risk and highlights their agency in relation to food, eating and place. Drawing on individual interviews with 10 young people who took part in a larger multi-method study of young people's experiences of food allergies, the findings demonstrate that the management of health risks means, to some extent, trying to control the uncontrollable. A reaction can occur at any time and to experience a severe reaction entails a temporarily loss of control. The strategies the young people develop to avoid allergic reactions can be understood both as responses to this uncertainty and as manifestations of their agency. Their risk experiences vary with place; at school and in other public places they face social as well as health risks. What we see is not agency as a voluntary choice but that young people with food allergies experience tensions between their own competence to manage different types of risks and their dependence on others to adjust to their needs. Thus, the relational aspects of young people's agency come to the fore.

  11. Development of an Educational Packet for Persons with Life-Threatening Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Bradley F.; Teuber, Suzanne; Bruhn, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that those with severe food allergies have significant gaps in knowledge about their disease and how to prevent recurrences. The purpose of this study was to address these deficiencies by creating and testing an educational packet, "Coping with Food Allergies." Participants included 46 of 58 adults with documented…

  12. Guidelines for Managing Life-Threatening Food Allergies in Massachusetts Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheetz, Anne H.; Goldman, Patricia G.; Millett, Kathleen; Franks, Jane C.; McIntyre, C. Lynne; Carroll, Constance R.; Gorak, Diane; Harrison, Christanne Smith; Carrick, Michele Abu

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade, prevalence of food allergies among children increased. Caring for children with life-threatening food allergies has become a major challenge for school personnel Prior to 2002, Massachusetts did not provide clear guidelines to assist schools in providing a safe environment for these children and preparing for an emergency…

  13. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents with food-allergic children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Springston, Elizabeth E; Smith, Bridget; Kim, Jennifer S; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin; Holl, Jane

    2010-09-01

    Parents of food-allergic children are responsible for risk assessment and management of their child's condition. Such practices are likely informed by parental knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of food allergy. Our objective was to characterize food allergy knowledge and perceptions among parents with food-allergic children. Parents were recruited nationally between January 2008 and 2009 to complete the validated, web-based Chicago Food Allergy Research Survey for Parents of Children with Food Allergy. Findings were analyzed to provide composite/itemized knowledge scores, describe attitudes and beliefs, and examine the effects of participant characteristics on response. A sample of 2945 parents was obtained. Participants had an average knowledge score of 75% correct (range 19-100%). Strengths were observed in each content domain; e.g., 95% of participants accurately identified the signs of a milk-induced reaction. Weaknesses were limited to items assessing food allergy triggers/environmental risks and perceptions of susceptibility/prevalence; e.g., 52% of parents incorrectly believed young children are at higher risk for fatal anaphylaxis than adolescents. Parental attitudes/beliefs were diverse, although 85% agreed children should carry an EpiPen at school and 91% felt schools should have staff trained in food allergy. One in four parents reported food allergy caused a strain on their marriage/relationship, and 40% reported experiencing hostility from other parents when trying to accommodate their child's food allergy. In conclusion, parents in our study exhibited solid baseline knowledge although several important misconceptions were identified. While a broad spectrum of parental perceptions was observed, a large proportion of parents reported that their child's food allergy had an adverse impact on personal relationships and also agreed on certain policies to address food allergy in schools. PMID:20492544

  14. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents with food-allergic children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Springston, Elizabeth E; Smith, Bridget; Kim, Jennifer S; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin; Holl, Jane

    2010-09-01

    Parents of food-allergic children are responsible for risk assessment and management of their child's condition. Such practices are likely informed by parental knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of food allergy. Our objective was to characterize food allergy knowledge and perceptions among parents with food-allergic children. Parents were recruited nationally between January 2008 and 2009 to complete the validated, web-based Chicago Food Allergy Research Survey for Parents of Children with Food Allergy. Findings were analyzed to provide composite/itemized knowledge scores, describe attitudes and beliefs, and examine the effects of participant characteristics on response. A sample of 2945 parents was obtained. Participants had an average knowledge score of 75% correct (range 19-100%). Strengths were observed in each content domain; e.g., 95% of participants accurately identified the signs of a milk-induced reaction. Weaknesses were limited to items assessing food allergy triggers/environmental risks and perceptions of susceptibility/prevalence; e.g., 52% of parents incorrectly believed young children are at higher risk for fatal anaphylaxis than adolescents. Parental attitudes/beliefs were diverse, although 85% agreed children should carry an EpiPen at school and 91% felt schools should have staff trained in food allergy. One in four parents reported food allergy caused a strain on their marriage/relationship, and 40% reported experiencing hostility from other parents when trying to accommodate their child's food allergy. In conclusion, parents in our study exhibited solid baseline knowledge although several important misconceptions were identified. While a broad spectrum of parental perceptions was observed, a large proportion of parents reported that their child's food allergy had an adverse impact on personal relationships and also agreed on certain policies to address food allergy in schools.

  15. Improving the safety of oral immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Ortiz, Marta; Turner, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Food allergy is a major public health problem in children, impacting upon the affected individual, their families and others charged with their care, for example educational establishments, and the food industry. In contrast to most other paediatric diseases, there is no established cure: current management is based upon dietary avoidance and the provision of rescue medication in the event of accidental reactions, which are common. This strategy has significant limitations and impacts adversely on health-related quality of life. In the last decade, research into disease-modifying treatments for food allergy has emerged, predominantly for peanut, egg and cow's milk. Most studies have used the oral route (oral immunotherapy, OIT), in which increasing amounts of allergen are given over weeks-months. OIT has proven effective to induce immune modulation and 'desensitization' - that is, an increase in the amount of food allergen that can be consumed, so long as regular (typically daily) doses are continued. However, its ability to induce permanent tolerance once ongoing exposure has stopped seems limited. Additionally, the short- and long-term safety of OIT is often poorly reported, raising concerns about its implementation in routine practice. Most patients experience allergic reactions and, although generally mild, severe reactions have occurred. Long-term adherence is unclear, which rises concerns given the low rates of long-term tolerance induction. Current research focuses on improving current limitations, especially safety. Strategies include alternative routes (sublingual, epicutaneous), modified hypoallergenic products and adjuvants (anti-IgE, pre-/probiotics). Biomarkers of safe/successful OIT are also under investigation. PMID:26593873

  16. Improving the safety of oral immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Ortiz, Marta; Turner, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Food allergy is a major public health problem in children, impacting upon the affected individual, their families and others charged with their care, for example educational establishments, and the food industry. In contrast to most other paediatric diseases, there is no established cure: current management is based upon dietary avoidance and the provision of rescue medication in the event of accidental reactions, which are common. This strategy has significant limitations and impacts adversely on health-related quality of life. In the last decade, research into disease-modifying treatments for food allergy has emerged, predominantly for peanut, egg and cow's milk. Most studies have used the oral route (oral immunotherapy, OIT), in which increasing amounts of allergen are given over weeks-months. OIT has proven effective to induce immune modulation and 'desensitization' - that is, an increase in the amount of food allergen that can be consumed, so long as regular (typically daily) doses are continued. However, its ability to induce permanent tolerance once ongoing exposure has stopped seems limited. Additionally, the short- and long-term safety of OIT is often poorly reported, raising concerns about its implementation in routine practice. Most patients experience allergic reactions and, although generally mild, severe reactions have occurred. Long-term adherence is unclear, which rises concerns given the low rates of long-term tolerance induction. Current research focuses on improving current limitations, especially safety. Strategies include alternative routes (sublingual, epicutaneous), modified hypoallergenic products and adjuvants (anti-IgE, pre-/probiotics). Biomarkers of safe/successful OIT are also under investigation.

  17. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause an anaphylactic reaction in some people. Airborne particles. Often called environmental allergens, these are the most common allergens. Examples of airborne particles that can cause allergies are dust mites (tiny ...

  18. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... which are white blood cells containing the chemical histamine. As more antibodies are produced, they cause the mast cells to release histamine. Histamine then produces allergy symptoms. A stuffy and ...

  19. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  20. Immunologic Features of Infants with Milk or Egg Allergy Enrolled in an Observational Study (CoFAR) of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Sicherer, Scott H.; Wood, Robert A.; Stablein, Donald; Burks, A. Wesley; Liu, Andrew H.; Jones, Stacie M.; Fleischer, David M.; Leung, Donald YM; Grishin, Alexander; Mayer, Lloyd; Shreffler, Wayne; Lindblad, Robert; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Immune features of infants with food allergy have not been delineated. Objectives To explore basic mechanisms responsible for food allergy and identify biomarkers, e.g. prick skin tests (PST), food-specific IgE, and mononuclear cell responses in a cohort of infants with likely milk/egg allergy at increased risk of developing peanut allergy. Methods Infants aged 3–15 months were enrolled with a positive PST to milk or egg and either a corresponding convincing clinical history of allergy to milk or egg, or with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD). Infants with known peanut allergy were excluded. Results Overall, 512 infants (67% males) were studied with 308 (60%) having a history of a clinical reaction. Skin tests and/or detectable food-specific IgE revealed sensitization as follows: milk-78%, egg-89% and peanut-69%. PST and food-specific IgE levels were discrepant for peanut: 15% IgE ≥ 0.35 kUA/L/PST- versus 8% PST+/IgE < 0.35, p = 0.001. Mononuclear cell allergen stimulation screening for CD25, CISH, FOXP3, GATA3, IL-10, IL-4, IFN-gamma and TBET expression using casein, egg white and peanut revealed that only allergen-induced IL-4 expression was significantly increased in those with clinical allergy to milk (compared to non-allergic) and in those sensitized to peanut, despite the absence of an increase in GATA-3 mRNA expression. Conclusions Infants with likely milk/egg allergy are at considerably high risk of having elevated peanut-specific IgE (potential allergy). Peanut-specific serum IgE was a more sensitive indicator of sensitization than PST. Allergen-specific IL-4 expression may be a marker of allergic risk. Absence of an increase in GATA-3 mRNA expression suggests that allergen-specific IL-4 may not be of T cell origin. PMID:20451041

  1. Relationship between respiratory and food allergy and evaluation of preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Vega, F; Panizo, C; Dordal, M T; González, M L; Velázquez, E; Valero, A; Sánchez, M C; Rondón, C; Montoro, J; Matheu, V; Lluch-Bernal, M; González, R; Fernández-Parra, B; Del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Colás, C; Campo, P; Antón, E; Navarro, A M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy and respiratory allergy are two frequently associated diseases and with an increasing prevalence. Several reports show the presence of respiratory symptoms in patients with food allergy, while certain foods may be related to the development or exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The present update focuses on this relationship, revealing a pathogenic and clinical association between food and respiratory allergy. This association is even more intense when the food hypersensitivity is persistent or starts in the early years of life. Food allergy usually precedes respiratory allergy and may be a risk factor for allergic rhinitis and asthma, becoming a relevant clinical marker for severe atopic asthma. Furthermore, the presence of co-existing asthma may enhance life-threatening symptoms occurring during a food allergic reaction. Recommendations for dietary restrictions during pregnancy and breastfeeding to prevent the development of respiratory allergy are controversial and not supported by consistent scientific data. Current recommendations from medical societies propose exclusive breastfeeding during the first four months of life, with the introduction of solid food in the fourth to the seventh month period of life. A delayed introduction of solid food after this period may increase the risk of developing subsequent allergic conditions. Further studies are encouraged to avoid unjustified recommendations involving useless dietary restrictions. PMID:26316421

  2. Are Children and Adolescents with Food Allergies at Increased Risk for Psychopathology?

    PubMed Central

    Shanahan, Lilly; Zucker, Nancy; Copeland, William E.; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Objective Living with food allergy is a unique and potentially life-threatening stressor that requires constant vigilance to food-related stimuli, but little is known about whether adolescents with food allergies are at increased risk for psychopathology—concurrently and over time. Methods Data came from the prospective-longitudinal Great Smoky Mountains Study. Adolescents (N = 1,420) were recruited from the community, and interviewed up to six times between ages 10 to 16 for the purpose of the present analyses. At each assessment, adolescents and one parent were interviewed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, resulting in N = 5,165 pairs of interviews. Results Cross-sectionally, food allergies were associated with more symptoms of separation and generalized anxiety, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anorexia nervosa. Longitudinally, adolescents with food allergy experienced increases in symptoms of generalized anxiety and depression from one assessment to the next. Food allergies were not, however, associated with a higher likelihood of meeting diagnostic criteria for a psychiatric disorder. Conclusion The unique constellation of adolescents’ increased symptoms of psychopathology in the context of food allergy likely reflects an adaptive increase in vigilance rather than cohesive syndromes of psychopathology. Support and guidance from health care providers is needed to help adolescents with food allergies and their caregivers achieve an optimal balance between necessary vigilance and hypervigilance and unnecessary restriction. PMID:25454290

  3. Sex Disparity in Food Allergy: Evidence from the PubMed Database.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Caleb; Gangur, Venu

    2009-01-01

    Food allergies are potentially fatal immune-mediated disorders that are growing globally. The relationship between sex and food allergy remains incompletely understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that, should sex influence the clinical response to food allergens, this would be reflected by a sex disparity in published studies of food allergy. We performed a systematic search of the PubMed literature for IgE-mediated allergy to 11 allergenic foods of international regulatory importance. No date restriction was used and only articles in English were considered. Of the 4744 articles retrieved, 591 met the inclusion criteria representing 17528 subjects with food allergies. Whereas among children with food allergies, 64.35% were males and 35.65% were females (male/female ratio, 1.80), among adults 34.82% were males and 65.18% were females (male/female ratio, 0.53). Consequently, these data argue that there is need for further investigation to define the role of sex in the pathogenesis of food allergy.

  4. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools. PMID:23059601

  5. Is it food allergy? Differentiating the causes of adverse reactions to food.

    PubMed

    Guarderas, J C

    2001-04-01

    Foods can produce adverse symptoms in various ways, and the patient's history can help determine whether allergy or some other mechanism is responsible. The history has limitations, however, as it is primarily subjective. Therefore, diagnostic confirmation is very important. Strict avoidance of the allergenic food is the primary course of treatment. Education is imperative to ensure that patients understand food labels and recognize the different names used to designate a specific food. Prompt treatment with epinephrine when an acute reaction occurs can make a life-or-death difference. PMID:11317463

  6. Food allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis: what do we do?

    PubMed

    Chehade, Mirna; Aceves, Seema S; Furuta, Glenn T; Fleischer, David M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory disease of the esophagus triggered by foods and possibly environmental allergens. Common conditions that mimic EoE include gastroesophageal reflux disease and proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. These need to be excluded before confirming the diagnosis of EoE. Identification of food triggers for EoE using standard allergy tests remains challenging. Dietary therapy for EoE so far consists of test-directed elimination of foods, empiric elimination of common food allergens, or exclusive feeding of amino acid-based formulas, with variable success. No FDA-approved medications yet exist for EoE. Topical corticosteroids to the esophagus are being used. EoE is a chronic disease; therefore, long-term therapy seems to be necessary to avoid potential long-term complications such as esophageal remodeling and strictures. Optimal long-term therapies and follow-ups are still not established; therefore, discussion with patients and families regarding the choice of therapy is important to ensure the best possible outcomes from a medical and social standpoint. In this article, we discuss all the above issues in detail by using a hypothetical case; highlighting in a stepwise manner what is known with respect to diagnosis, work-up, and management of EoE; and discussing gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed in the future. PMID:25577614

  7. Relationship between treatment with antacid medication and the prevalence of food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    DeMuth, Karen; Stecenko, Arlene; Sullivan, Kevin; Fitzpatrick, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy affects 8% of preschool children, but factors responsible for food allergy in children are poorly understood. Use of antacid medication may be a contributing factor. The purpose of this study was to determine if parent-reported antacid medication use was associated with higher prevalence of food allergy in atopic children. In this cross-sectional study, parents of children with atopic diseases completed a questionnaire relating to a history of treatment with antacid medication and food allergy. Charts were independently reviewed for food-specific IgE and/or skin-prick test results. Food allergy was defined as a reaction to a food consistent with the anaphylaxis consensus statement and either an elevated food-specific IgE or a positive food skin-prick test. One hundred four questionnaires were completed. Mean age of the participating children was 7.0 ± 4.3 years (range, 5 months to 18 years of age). Forty-seven (45%) individuals were reported to have taken an antacid medication in the past. History of taking antacid medication was associated with an increased prevalence (57% (27)/47 versus 32% (18)/57) and higher prevalence of food allergy of having food allergy (aPR, 1.7 [1.1-2.5]). Mean peanut food-specific IgE was higher in those with a history of taking antacid medication (11.0 ± 5.0 versus 2.0 ± 5.5.; p = 0.01). History of treatment with antacid medication is associated with an increased prevalence of having food allergy.

  8. Mechanisms of immune tolerance relevant to food allergy.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Brian P; Scurlock, Amy M; Jones, Stacie M; Burks, A Wesley

    2011-03-01

    The intestine has an unenviable task: to identify and respond to a constant barrage of environmental stimuli that can be both dangerous and beneficial. The proper execution of this task is central to the homeostasis of the host, and as a result, the gastrointestinal tract contains more lymphocytes than any other tissue compartment in the body, as well as unique antigen-presenting cells with specialized functions. When antigen is initially encountered through the gut, this system generates a robust T cell-mediated hyporesponsiveness called oral tolerance. Although seminal observations of oral tolerance were made a century ago, the relevant mechanisms are only beginning to be unraveled with the use of modern investigational techniques. Food allergy is among the clinical disorders that occur from a failure of this system, and therapies that seek to re-establish tolerance are currently under investigation. PMID:21277624

  9. Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance Relevant to Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Brian P.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2011-01-01

    The intestine has an unenviable task: to identify and respond to a constant barrage of environmental stimuli that can be both dangerous and beneficial. The proper execution of this task is central to the homeostasis of the host, and as a result the gastrointestinal tract contains more lymphocytes than any other tissue compartment in the body, as well as unique antigen presenting cells with specialized functions. When antigen is initially encountered through the gut, this system generates a robust T-cell mediated hyporesponsiveness called oral tolerance. Although seminal observations of oral tolerance were made a century ago, the relevant mechanisms are only beginning to be unraveled with the use of modern investigational techniques. Food allergy is among the clinical disorders that occur from a failure of this system, and therapies that seek to reestablish tolerance are currently under investigation. PMID:21277624

  10. Asthma and Food Allergy in Children: Is There a Connection or Interaction?

    PubMed Central

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Garrubba, Marilena; Greco, Chiara; Mastrorilli, Carla; Povesi Dascola, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    This review explores the relationship between food allergy and asthma. They can share the same risk factors, such as parental allergy, atopic eczema, and allergen sensitization, and they often coincide in the same child. Coexistence may negatively influence the severity of both conditions. However, it remains to be determined whether food allergy may directly affect asthma control. An early food sensitization in the first year of life can predict the onset of asthma. Furthermore, asthmatic symptoms could rarely be caused by ingestion or inhalation of the offending food. Asthma caused by food allergy is severe and may be associated with anaphylactic symptoms. Therefore, an accurate identification of the offending foods is necessary in order to avoid exposure. Patients should be instructed to treat asthmatic symptoms quickly and to use self-injectable epinephrine. PMID:27092299

  11. Role of selenium and zinc in the pathogenesis of food allergy in infants and young children

    PubMed Central

    Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Pyziak, Konrad; Kamer-Bartosińska, Anna; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Pasowska, Renata

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Selenium and zinc are indispensable microelements for normal functioning and development of the human body. They are cofactors of many enzymes of the antioxidative barrier (selenium – glutathione peroxidase; zinc – superoxide dismutase). The aim of the study was to evaluate the importance of selenium and zinc in the pathogenesis of food allergy in small children. Material and methods The study was performed in 134 children with food allergy, aged 1 to 36 months. The control group was composed of 36 children at the same age, without clinical symptoms of food intolerance. Each child had estimated serum levels of zinc and selenium. Furthermore, the authors evaluated activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in erythrocyte lysates and serum. Tests were performed twice, before and after 6-month administration of elimination diet. Results The obtained results showed that children with food allergy had significantly lower concentrations of selenium, zinc and examined enzymes in comparison to children from the control group. Concentration of selenium and zinc as well as activity of examined enzymes increased after application of eliminative diet. Conclusions In children with allergy decreased concentrations of selenium and zinc, and lower values of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase which increased after elimination diet were affirmed. These observations suggest their role in pathogenesis of food allergy. Conducted observations indicate the need to monitor trace elements content in the diet in children with food allergy. The results showed that children with food allergy had a weakened antioxidative barrier. PMID:23319985

  12. Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Katz, Yitzhak; Mehr, Sam Soheil; Koletzko, Sibylle

    2015-05-01

    Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food-induced allergic disorders (non-IgE-GI-FAs) account for an unknown proportion of food allergies and include food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP), and food protein-induced enteropathy (FPE). Non-IgE-GI-FAs are separate clinical entities but have many overlapping clinical and histologic features among themselves and with eosinophilic gastroenteropathies. Over the past decade, FPIES has emerged as the most actively studied non-IgE-GI-FA, potentially because of acute and distinct clinical features. FPIAP remains among the common causes of rectal bleeding in infants, while classic infantile FPE is rarely diagnosed. The overall most common allergens are cow's milk and soy; in patients with FPIES, rice and oat are also common. The most prominent clinical features of FPIES are repetitive emesis, pallor, and lethargy; chronic FPIES can lead to failure to thrive. FPIAP manifests with bloody stools in well-appearing young breast-fed or formula-fed infants. Features of FPE are nonbloody diarrhea, malabsorption, protein-losing enteropathy, hypoalbuminemia, and failure to thrive. Non-IgE-GI-FAs have a favorable prognosis; the majority resolve by 1 year in patients with FPIAP, 1 to 3 years in patients with FPE, and 1 to 5 years in patients with FPIES, with significant differences regarding specific foods. There is an urgent need to better define the natural history of FPIES and the pathophysiology of non-IgE-GI-FAs to develop biomarkers and novel therapies.

  13. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Boye, Joyce Irene

    2012-01-01

    Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc.), soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat), and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities. PMID:23256652

  14. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc.), soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat), and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities. PMID:23256652

  15. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Boye, Joyce Irene

    2012-01-01

    Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc.), soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat), and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities.

  16. Mental health and quality-of-life concerns related to the burden of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Ravid, N L; Annunziato, R A; Ambrose, M A; Chuang, K; Mullarkey, C; Sicherer, S H; Shemesh, E; Cox, A L

    2012-02-01

    As food allergy increases, more research is devoted to its influence on patient and family mental health and quality of life (QoL). This article discusses the effects on parent and child QoL, as well as distress, while appraising the limitations of knowledge given the methods used. Topics include whether QoL and distress are affected compared with other illnesses, assessment of distress and QoL in parents compared with children, concerns about food allergy-related bullying, and the necessity for evidence-based interventions. Suggestions are offered for how to improve QoL and reduce distress on the way to better coping with food allergy.

  17. Overview of Evidence in Prevention and Aetiology of Food Allergy: A Review of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Lodge, Caroline J.; Allen, Katrina J.; Lowe, Adrian J.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of food allergy appears to be increasing. Early life environmental factors are implicated in the aetiology of this global epidemic. The largest burden of disease is in early childhood, where research efforts aimed at prevention have been focused. Evidence synthesis from good quality systematic reviews is needed. We performed an overview of systematic reviews concerning the prevention and aetiology of food allergy, retrieving 14 systematic reviews, which covered three broad topics: formula (hydrolysed or soy) for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization; maternal and infant diet and dietary supplements for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization and hygiene hypothesis-related interventions. Using the AMSTAR criteria for assessment of methodological quality, we found five reviews to be of high quality, seven of medium quality and two of low quality. Overall we found no compelling evidence that any of the interventions that had been systematically reviewed were related to the risk of food allergy. Updating of existing reviews, and production of new systematic reviews, are needed in areas where evidence is emerging for interventions and environmental associations. Furthermore, additional primary studies, with greater numbers of participants and objective food allergy definitions are urgently required. PMID:24192789

  18. Manifestations of food protein induced gastrointestinal allergies presenting to a single tertiary paediatric gastroenterology unit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Food protein induced gastrointestinal allergies are difficult to characterise due to the delayed nature of this allergy and absence of simple diagnostic tests. Diagnosis is based on an allergy focused history which can be challenging and often yields ambiguous results. We therefore set out to describe a group of children with this delayed type allergy, to provide an overview on typical profile, symptoms and management strategies. Methods This retrospective analysis was performed at Great Ormond Street Children’s Hospital. Medical notes were included from 2002 – 2009 where a documented medical diagnosis of food protein induced gastrointestinal allergies was confirmed by an elimination diet with resolution of symptoms, followed by reintroduction with reoccurrence of symptoms. Age of onset of symptoms, diagnosis, current elimination diets and food elimination at time of diagnosis and co-morbidities were collected and parents were phoned again at the time of data collection to ascertain current allergy status. Results Data from 437 children were analysis. The majority (67.7%) of children had an atopic family history and 41.5% had atopic dermatitis at an early age. The most common diagnosis included, non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal food allergy (n = 189) and allergic enterocolitis (n = 154) with symptoms of: vomiting (57.8%), back-arching and screaming (50%), constipation (44.6%), diarrhoea (81%), abdominal pain (89.9%), abdominal bloating (73.9%) and rectal bleeding (38.5%). The majority of patients were initially managed with a milk, soy, egg and wheat free diet (41.7%). At a median age of 8 years, 24.7% of children still required to eliminate some of the food allergens. Conclusions This large retrospective study on children with food induced gastrointestinal allergies highlights the variety of symptoms and treatment modalities used in these children. However, further prospective studies are required in this area of food allergy. PMID:23919257

  19. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Mothers of Children with Food Allergy: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Knibb, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food allergy affects quality of life in patients and parents and mothers report high levels of anxiety and stress. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) may be helpful in reducing the psychological impact of food allergy. The aim of this study was to examine the appropriateness and effectiveness of CBT to improve psychological outcomes in parents of children with food allergy. Methods: Five parents (all mothers) from a local allergy clinic requested to have CBT; six mothers acted as controls and completed questionnaires only. CBT was individual and face-to face and lasted 12 weeks. All participants completed measures of anxiety and depression, worry, stress, general mental health, generic and food allergy specific quality of life at baseline and at 12 weeks. Results: Anxiety, depression and worry in the CBT group significantly reduced and overall mental health and QoL significantly improved from baseline to 12 weeks (all p < 0.05) in mothers in the CBT group; control group scores remained stable. Conclusions: CBT appears to be appropriate and effective in mothers of children with food allergy and a larger randomised control trial now needs to be conducted. Ways in which aspects of CBT can be incorporated into allergy clinic visits need investigation. PMID:27417820

  20. The Learning Early About Peanut Allergy Study: The Benefits of Early Peanut Introduction, and a New Horizon in Fighting the Food Allergy Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    Observational studies have explored associations between timing of peanut, egg, and milk introduction and food allergy development, noting significant associations with reduced respective rates of milk, egg, and peanut allergy associated with earlier timing of introduction. Interventional studies developed to more definitively explore these outcomes have been published for egg and peanut, and are ongoing for multiple other allergens. This review focuses on the recent publication regarding the LEAP (Learning Early About Peanut Allergy) study, its highly favorable results, the policy implications of its findings, and the horizon for primary prevention as a realistic strategy to prevent food allergy. PMID:26456447

  1. Effect of educational and electronic medical record interventions on food allergy management

    PubMed Central

    Zelig, Ari; Harwayne-Gidansky, Ilana; Gault, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Background: The growing prevalence of food allergies indicates a responsibility among primary care providers to ensure that their patients receive accurate diagnosis and management. Objective: To improve physician knowledge and management of food allergies by implementing educational and electronic medical record interventions. Methods: Pre- and posttest scores of pediatric residents and faculty were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of an educational session designed to improve knowledge of food allergy management. One year later, a best practice advisory was implemented in the electronic medical record to alert providers to consider allergy referral whenever a diagnosis code for food allergy or epinephrine autoinjector prescription was entered. A review of charts 6 months before and 6 months after each intervention was completed to determine the impact of both interventions. Outcome measurements included referrals to an allergy clinic, prescription of self-injectable epinephrine, and documentation that written emergency action plans were provided. Results: There was a significant increase in test scores immediately after the educational intervention (mean, 56.2 versus 84.3%; p < 0.001). Posttest scores remained significantly higher than preintervention scores 6 months later (mean score, 68.0 versus 56.2%; p = 0.006). Although knowledge improved, there was no significant difference in the percentage of patients who were provided allergy referral, were prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector, or were given an emergency action plan before and after both interventions. Conclusion: Neither intervention resulted in improvements in the management of children with food allergies at our pediatrics clinic. Further studies are needed to identify effective strategies to improve management of food allergies by primary care physicians.

  2. Effect of educational and electronic medical record interventions on food allergy management

    PubMed Central

    Zelig, Ari; Harwayne-Gidansky, Ilana; Gault, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Background: The growing prevalence of food allergies indicates a responsibility among primary care providers to ensure that their patients receive accurate diagnosis and management. Objective: To improve physician knowledge and management of food allergies by implementing educational and electronic medical record interventions. Methods: Pre- and posttest scores of pediatric residents and faculty were analyzed to assess the effectiveness of an educational session designed to improve knowledge of food allergy management. One year later, a best practice advisory was implemented in the electronic medical record to alert providers to consider allergy referral whenever a diagnosis code for food allergy or epinephrine autoinjector prescription was entered. A review of charts 6 months before and 6 months after each intervention was completed to determine the impact of both interventions. Outcome measurements included referrals to an allergy clinic, prescription of self-injectable epinephrine, and documentation that written emergency action plans were provided. Results: There was a significant increase in test scores immediately after the educational intervention (mean, 56.2 versus 84.3%; p < 0.001). Posttest scores remained significantly higher than preintervention scores 6 months later (mean score, 68.0 versus 56.2%; p = 0.006). Although knowledge improved, there was no significant difference in the percentage of patients who were provided allergy referral, were prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector, or were given an emergency action plan before and after both interventions. Conclusion: Neither intervention resulted in improvements in the management of children with food allergies at our pediatrics clinic. Further studies are needed to identify effective strategies to improve management of food allergies by primary care physicians. PMID:27657525

  3. Parsing the Peanut Panic: The Social Life of a Contested Food Allergy Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Miranda R.

    2013-01-01

    As medical reports over the last decade indicate that food allergies among children are on the rise, peanut allergies in particular have become a topic of intense social debate. While peanut allergies are potentially fatal, they affect very few children at the population level. Yet, peanut allergies are characterized in medical and popular literature as a rising “epidemic,” and myriad and broad-based social responses have emerged to address peanut allergy risk in public spaces. This analysis compares medical literature to other textual sources, including media reports, legislation, and advocacy between 1980 and 2010 in order to examine how peanut allergies transformed from a rare medical malady into a contemporary public health problem. I argue that the peanut allergy epidemic was co-constructed through interactions between experts, publics, biomedical categories, and institutions, while social reactions to the putative epidemic expanded the sphere of surveillance and awareness of peanut allergy risk. The characterization of the peanut allergy problem as an epidemic was shaped by mobility across social sites, with both discursive and material effects. PMID:23746608

  4. Diagnostic Utility of Total IgE in Foods, Inhalant, and Multiple Allergies in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Mughales, Jamil A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the diagnostic significance of total IgE in foods, inhalant, and multiple allergies. Methods. Retrospective review of the laboratory records of patients who presented with clinical suspicion of food or inhalant allergy between January 2013 and December 2014. Total IgE level was defined as positive for a value >195 kU/L; and diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of specific IgE (golden standard) for at least one food or inhalant allergen and at least two allergens in multiple allergies. Results. A total of 1893 (male ratio = 0.68, mean age = 39.0 ± 19.2 years) patients were included. Total IgE had comparable sensitivity (55.8% versus 59.6%) and specificity (83.9% versus 84.4%) in food versus inhalant allergy, respectively, but a superior PPV in inhalant allergy (79.1% versus 54.4%). ROC curve analysis showed a better diagnostic value in inhalant allergies (AUC = 0.817 (95% CI = 0.796-0.837) versus 0.770 (95% CI = 0.707-0.833)). In multiple allergies, total IgE had a relatively good sensitivity (78.6%), while negative IgE testing (<195 kU/L) predicted the absence of multiple allergies with 91.5% certitude. Conclusion. Total IgE assay is not efficient as a diagnostic test for foods, inhalant, or multiple allergies. The best strategy should refer to specific IgE testing guided by a comprehensive atopic history. PMID:27314052

  5. Diagnosis and management of food allergies: new and emerging options: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    O’Keefe, Andrew W; De Schryver, Sarah; Mill, Jennifer; Mill, Christopher; Dery, Alizee; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    It is reported that 6% of children and 3% of adults have food allergies, with studies suggesting increased prevalence worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, our diagnostic capabilities and techniques for managing patients with food allergies remain limited. We have conducted a systematic review of literature published within the last 5 years on the diagnosis and management of food allergies. While the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, this assessment is resource intensive and impractical in most clinical situations. In an effort to reduce the need for the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, several risk-stratifying tests are employed, namely skin prick testing, measurement of serum-specific immunoglobulin E levels, component testing, and open food challenges. Management of food allergies typically involves allergen avoidance and carrying an epinephrine autoinjector. Clinical research trials of oral immunotherapy for some foods, including peanut, milk, egg, and peach, are under way. While oral immunotherapy is promising, its readiness for clinical application is controversial. In this review, we assess the latest studies published on the above diagnostic and management modalities, as well as novel strategies in the diagnosis and management of food allergy. PMID:25368525

  6. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  7. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  8. [Individualized Reception Project at school and for school food services for children with a food allergy].

    PubMed

    Deniaud-Morin, A

    2001-03-01

    The circulars of 1992, 1993 and more recently of 10th November 1999, illustrate the significant progress of schools in the reception of sick children and the help in execution of the medical regulations. The National Education physician is a privileged interlocutor of families, the treating physician and the education authority to make the link between the caregivers and the school. Application of the 1999 circular, which has the objective of taking into account the food allergies in the 1993 plan of action, raises difficulties of three types: Difficulties of a medical type raised by the frequent confusion between the Protocol for urgent intervention and the individualised reception plan. The Protocol for urgent intervention, of which the National Education physician is the recipient, must be accompanied by a letter from the allergy physician that takes into consideration simple immunological sensitization and true allergy and to appreciate the risks that concern food disparities that are not always the same. The almost systematic prescription of adrenaline in protocols for urgent intervention, without argument and in the absence of commercialisation of an auto-injectable pen at the time of distribution of the circular, was a source of resistance by education authorities to catering services. Difficulties of a human type concerning the creation of fear in families, in the education authorities, in the catering services and the time-lag between some families and their careful vigilance with regard to the dietary observance and the conduct to be taken in the case of acute symptoms. Difficulties of administrative or legal types knowing that the scholars catering is a service which does not have the obligatory character of the teaching plan, and which accepts the sole competence of the authorities for 1st degree education. In total the teaching plan and pupil catering for children with a food allergy needs making the parents aware of the responsibility between the

  9. The threshold concept in food safety and its applicability to food allergy.

    PubMed

    O'B Hourihane, J

    2001-01-01

    Down the years there have been many clinical reports of exquisite sensitivity to low doses of food allergens. There are many factors that may contribute to a variation of threshold in an individual exposed to an allergen during the course of his or her daily life. Some of these factors are intrinsic and unavoidable. Other factors may be predictable but not easily controllable, such as asthma, exposure to allergens during the pollen season and predicting situations that may be risky. Other factors may be out of the control of the individual. The most important one of these is the adequate training and awareness of manufacturers and caterers who aim to provide safe and nutritious meals to their allergic and non-allergic customers alike. Clinical histories of reactions in the community and the use of labial exposure during food challenge show that most non-ingestion exposures to peanut usually result in easily treated minor reactions. Formal, oral food challenges have shown that low dose reactivity is relatively common but studies have not yet had the power to investigate whether peanut allergy is more commonly associated with very low dose reactivity than other foods. This means that industry must not concentrate only on peanut and tree nuts when looking at issues of contamination just because they are associated with the majority of severe reactions. There are more milk and egg allergic children in the general population and they deserve the same protection from allergen exposure as sufferers of peanut or tree nut allergies. PMID:11298018

  10. Infant feeding and the development of food allergies and atopic eczema: An update.

    PubMed

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Allen, Katrina J; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-05-01

    There is an increasing awareness of food allergies in the community. Dermatologists frequently see patients with atopic eczema, where parents are extremely concerned about the role of food allergy. Advice given to parents regarding the timing of introduction of solid foods has changed markedly over the past decade. Whereas previous advice advocated delaying the introduction of solid foods until the infant's gastrointestinal system had matured, recent studies suggest that the introduction of solids from around 4 to 6 months may actually prevent the development of allergies. Studies on maternal dietary restrictions during pregnancy and lactation have led researchers to believe that antigen avoidance does not play a significant role in the prevention of atopic disease. Breastfeeding exclusively for 4 to 6 months has multiple benefits for mother and child, however, it does not convincingly prevent food allergies or decrease atopic eczema. New evidence suggests that the use of hydrolysed formulas does not delay or prevent atopic eczema or food allergy. This article aims to highlight current evidence and provide an update for dermatologists on the role of food exposure in the development of atopic disease, namely atopic eczema.

  11. Food allergy: gambling your life on a take-away meal.

    PubMed

    Leitch, I S; Walker, M J; Davey, R

    2005-04-01

    This study investigates whether or not it is possible to buy meals suitable for peanut allergy sufferers and assesses the training and guidance needs of catering staff and Environmental Health Officers (EHOs) in Northern Ireland with respect to serious food allergies. Meal samples purchased in food premises in the local authority regions of Northern Ireland (NI) were subjected to chemical analysis to check the assertions of the premises staff that they were suitable for peanut allergy sufferers. Officers also assessed if the customer was provided with any information on the allergenic status of foods produced by the establishment; if the EHOs taking the samples had received any training or guidance in allergy-related issues and to gauge the need for such training and guidance. Approximately one in five (13/62) of the premises provided meals which could possibly have triggered a fatal reaction in the purchaser. Most front of house staff did not check the allergen status of the meal with those doing the cooking and most EHOs felt that they needed more training in the subject of food allergen control in commercial food premises. It is important for food allergy sufferers and their medical advisers to be made aware of the limitations of avoidance advice and that false assurances persist of the absence of peanut protein in takeaway foods.

  12. Exploring Low-Income Families' Financial Barriers to Food Allergy Management and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Minaker, Leia M.; Elliott, Susan J.; Clarke, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Low-income families may face financial barriers to management and treatment of chronic illnesses. No studies have explored how low-income individuals and families with anaphylactic food allergies cope with financial barriers to anaphylaxis management and/or treatment. This study explores qualitatively assessed direct, indirect, and intangible costs of anaphylaxis management and treatment faced by low-income families. Methods. In-depth, semistructured interviews with 23 participants were conducted to gain insight into income-related barriers to managing and treating anaphylactic food allergies. Results. Perceived direct costs included the cost of allergen-free foods and allergy medication and costs incurred as a result of misinformation about social support programs. Perceived indirect costs included those associated with lack of continuity of health care. Perceived intangible costs included the stress related to the difficulty of obtaining allergen-free foods at the food bank and feeling unsafe at discount grocery stores. These perceived costs represented barriers that were perceived as especially salient for the working poor, immigrants, youth living in poverty, and food bank users. Discussion. Low-income families report significant financial barriers to food allergy management and anaphylaxis preparedness. Clinicians, advocacy groups, and EAI manufacturers all have a role to play in ensuring equitable access to medication for low-income individuals with allergies. PMID:24693292

  13. Food Allergy - Basic Mechanisms and Applications to Identifying Risks Associated with Plant Incorporated Pesticides and Other Genetically Modified Crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    Food allergy is a relatively new concern for toxicologists as a result of the incorporation of novel proteins into food crops in order to promote resistance to pests and other stresses, improve nutrition, or otherwise modify the phenotype. Food allergy can manifest as inflammatio...

  14. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District

    PubMed Central

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes. PMID:27417367

  15. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District.

    PubMed

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes. PMID:27417367

  16. Epicutaneous immunotherapy for food allergy as a novel pathway for oral tolerance induction.

    PubMed

    Mondoulet, Lucie; Dioszeghy, Vincent; Thébault, Claude; Benhamou, Pierre-Henri; Dupont, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Epicutaneous immunotherapy is a developing technique, aiming at desensitizing patients with food allergy with less risks that oral ingestion or injection could generate. Several clinical trials have been performed and are currently running, in milk and peanut allergy, assessing the safety of the technique and its efficacy. Preclinical models indicate a major role in the mechanisms of desensitization, for example, Tregs and epigenetic modifications. PMID:26584421

  17. What do school personnel know, think and feel about food allergies?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of food allergy is such that most schools will be attended by at least one food allergic child, obliging school personnel to cope with cases at risk of severe allergic reactions. Schools need to know about food allergy and anaphylaxis management to ensure the personal safety of an increasing number of students. The aim of this study was to investigate Italian school teachers and principals’ knowledge, perceptions and feelings concerning food allergy and anaphylaxis, to deeply understand how to effectively support schools to manage a severely allergic child. In addition a further assessment of the impact of multidisciplinary courses on participants was undertaken. Methods 1184 school teachers and principals attended courses on food allergy and anaphylaxis management at school were questioned before and after their course. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the resulting data. Results Participants tended to overestimate the prevalence of food allergy; 79.3% were able to identify the foods most likely involved and 90.8% knew the most frequent symptoms. 81.9% were familiar with the typical symptoms of anaphylaxis but, while the majority (65.4%) knew that “adrenaline” is the best medication for anaphylaxis, only 34.5% knew indications of using adrenaline in children. 48.5% thoroughly understood dietary exclusion. School personnel considered that food allergic students could have social difficulties (10.2%) and/or emotional consequences (37.2%) because of their condition. “Concern” was the emotion that most respondents (66.9%) associated with food allergy. At the end of the course, the number of correct answers to the test increased significantly. Conclusions Having adequately trained and cooperative school personnel is crucial to significantly reduce emergencies and fatal reactions. The results emphasize the need for specific educational interventions and improvements in school health policies to support

  18. [Pseudoallergic reactions. Intolerance to natural and synthetic food constituents masquerading as food allergy].

    PubMed

    Kurek, M

    1996-09-01

    Adverse hypersensitivity reactions to natural foods and certain drugs and food additives are mediated by immunological (allergy) or non-immunological mechanisms. Some clinical and physiological similarities have been noted between these allergic and non-allergic reactions. This observation has led to the concept of "pseudoallergic reactions-PAR". PAR can be triggered in various ways such as: interactions with the central or peripherical nervous system, non-specific release of mediators, enzyme inhibition due to hereditary or pharmacologically induced enzyme deficiencies and pharmacological properties of some natural food constituents such as biogenic amines. The prevalence of adverse reactions to food additives has been calculated to be about 0.1%. PAR to food additives occurs frequently in patients suffering from urticaria, asthma and may be accompanied by history of aspirin or NSAI pseudoallergic reactions. The same additives (azo dyes, sulphites, benzoates) are used in various drug formulations and may be responsible for eliciting PAR. In Poland, labelling of food additives, following the "E number system", has been mandatory since 1993. Unfortunately, this satisfactory trend has not yet been applied to drug additives. The diagnosis of PAR to food additives is based on the anamnesis with analysis of the patient's drug and dietary intake. Skin tests and "in vitro" tests are only sporadically informative. In each individual patient, a specific challenge with additives is desirable. Food additives may be tested according to the schedule based on DBPCFC principle. Individually performed exclusion regimes are the principal methods of prevention. PMID:8927481

  19. Why Does Australia Appear to Have the Highest Rates of Food Allergy?

    PubMed

    Allen, Katrina J; Koplin, Jennifer J

    2015-12-01

    Australia has reported the highest rates of food allergy, using the gold standard, oral food challenge. This phenomenon, which appears linked to the "modern lifestyle" and has coincided with the explosion of the new diseases of affluence in the 21st century, dubbed "affluenza," has spurred a multitude of theories and academic investigations. This review focuses on potentially modifiable lifestyle factors for the prevention of food allergy and presents the first data to emerge in the Australian context that centers around the dual allergen exposure hypothesis, the vitamin D hypothesis, and the hygiene hypothesis. PMID:26456442

  20. Exploring the Determinants of the Perceived Risk of Food Allergies in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Daniel W.; Elliott, Susan J.; Clarke, Ann E.; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Godefroy, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Food allergies are emerging health risks in much of the Western world, and some evidence suggests prevalence is increasing. Despite lacking scientific consensus around prevalence and management, policies and regulations are being implemented in public spaces (e.g., schools). These policies have been criticized as extreme in the literature, in the media, and by the non-allergic population. Backlash appears to be resulting from different perceptions of risk between different groups. This article uses a recently assembled national dataset (n = 3,666) to explore how Canadians perceive the risks of food allergy. Analyses revealed that almost 20% self-report having an allergic person in the household, while the average respondent estimated the prevalence of food allergies in Canada to be 30%. Both of these measures overestimate the true clinically defined prevalence (7.5%), indicating an inflated public understanding of the risks of food allergies. Seventy percent reported food allergies to be substantial risks to the Canadian population. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed important determinants of risk perception including demographic, experience-based, attitudinal, and regional predictors. Results are discussed in terms of understanding emerging health risks in the post-industrial era, and implications for both policy and risk communication. PMID:23172987

  1. Parenting and Independent Problem-Solving in Preschool Children With Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Power, Thomas G.; Hahn, Amy L.; Hoehn, Jessica L.; Thompson, Caitlin C.; Herbert, Linda J.; Law, Emily F.; Bollinger, Mary Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine autonomy-promoting parenting and independent problem-solving in children with food allergy. Methods 66 children with food allergy, aged 3–6 years, and 67 age-matched healthy peers and their mothers were videotaped while completing easy and difficult puzzles. Coders recorded time to puzzle completion, children’s direct and indirect requests for help, and maternal help-giving behaviors. Results Compared with healthy peers, younger (3- to 4-year-old) children with food allergy made more indirect requests for help during the easy puzzle, and their mothers were more likely to provide unnecessary help (i.e., explain where to place a puzzle piece). Differences were not found for older children. Conclusions The results suggest that highly involved parenting practices that are medically necessary to manage food allergy may spill over into settings where high levels of involvement are not needed, and that young children with food allergy may be at increased risk for difficulties in autonomy development. PMID:25326001

  2. Potential mechanisms for the association between fall birth and food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Keet, Corinne A.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Savage, Jessica H.; Neuman-Sunshine, Dara L.; Skripak, Justin; Peng, Roger D.; Wood, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Season of birth has been reported as a risk factor for food allergy, but the mechanisms by which it acts are unknown. METHODS Two populations were studied; 5862 children from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III, 1514 well-characterized food allergic children from the Johns Hopkins Pediatric Allergy Clinic (JHPAC). Food allergy was defined as self report of an acute reaction to a food (NHANES), or as milk, egg and peanut allergy. Logistic regression compared fall or non-fall birth between (1) food allergic and non-allergic subjects in NHANES, adjusted for ethnicity, age, income and sex, and (2) JHPAC subjects and the general Maryland population. For NHANES, stratification by ethnicity and for JHPAC, eczema, was examined. RESULTS Fall birth was more common among food allergic subjects in both NHANES (OR: 1.91, 95%CI: 1.31–2.77) and JHPAC/Maryland (OR: 1.31, 95%CI: 1.18–1.47). Ethnicity interacted with season (OR 2.34, 95%CI 1.43–3.82 for Caucasians, OR 1.19, 95%CI 0.77–1.86 for non-Caucasians, p=0.04 for interaction), as did eczema (OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.29–1.67 with eczema, OR 1.00, 95%CI 0.80–1.23 without eczema, p=0.002 for interaction). Conclusions Fall birth is associated with increased risk of food allergy, and this risk is greatest among those most likely to have seasonal variation in vitamin D during infancy (Caucasians) and those at risk for skin barrier dysfunction (subjects with a history of eczema), suggesting that vitamin D and the skin barrier may be implicated in seasonal associations with food allergy. PMID:22515802

  3. Pearls and Pitfalls in Diagnosing IgE-Mediated Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Stukus, David R; Mikhail, Irene

    2016-05-01

    The term "food allergy" is used by many patients and clinicians to describe a range of symptoms that occur after ingestion of specific foods. However, not all symptoms occurring after food exposure are due to an allergic, or immunologic, response. It is important to properly evaluate and diagnose immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy as this results in reproducible, immediate onset, allergic reactions that can progress toward life-threatening anaphylaxis. Proper diagnosis requires understanding of the common foods that cause these reactions in addition to key historical elements such as symptoms, timing and duration of reaction, and risk factors that may predispose to development of IgE-mediated food allergy. Diagnostic testing for food-specific IgE can greatly aid the diagnosis. However, false-positive test results are very common and can lead to overinterpretation, misdiagnosis, and unnecessary dietary elimination. This review discusses important aspects to consider during evaluation of a patient for suspected IgE-mediated food allergy. PMID:27039392

  4. Generating a Natural Porcine Model of Gastrointestinal Food Allergy to Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an extremely potent allergen and is one of the most life-threatening food sensitivities known. Peanuts cause the majority of food-related anaphylaxis in children, adolescents, and adults. There is no good animal model currently in place to study peanut allergies. Exp...

  5. Pearls and Pitfalls in Diagnosing IgE-Mediated Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Stukus, David R; Mikhail, Irene

    2016-05-01

    The term "food allergy" is used by many patients and clinicians to describe a range of symptoms that occur after ingestion of specific foods. However, not all symptoms occurring after food exposure are due to an allergic, or immunologic, response. It is important to properly evaluate and diagnose immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy as this results in reproducible, immediate onset, allergic reactions that can progress toward life-threatening anaphylaxis. Proper diagnosis requires understanding of the common foods that cause these reactions in addition to key historical elements such as symptoms, timing and duration of reaction, and risk factors that may predispose to development of IgE-mediated food allergy. Diagnostic testing for food-specific IgE can greatly aid the diagnosis. However, false-positive test results are very common and can lead to overinterpretation, misdiagnosis, and unnecessary dietary elimination. This review discusses important aspects to consider during evaluation of a patient for suspected IgE-mediated food allergy.

  6. DIGESTIBILITY AND ORAL TOLERANCE IN A MOUSE MODEL FOR FOOD ALLERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An animal model for food allergy is needed to test novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential allergenicity. We demonstrate that mice can distinguish allergens from non-allergens when exposed to foods orally, both in terms of oral tolerance and allergic antibody ...

  7. Allergic Reactions to Foods in Preschool-Aged Children in a Prospective Observational Food Allergy Study

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Tamara T.; Atkins, Dan; Wood, Robert A.; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.; Henning, Alice K.; Stablein, Donald; Sampson, Hugh A.; Sicherer, Scott H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine circumstances of allergic reactions to foods in a cohort of preschool-aged children. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, 5-site observational study of 512 infants aged 3 to 15 months with documented or likely allergy to milk or egg, and collected data prospectively examining allergic reactions. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 36 months (range: 0–48.4), the annualized reaction rate was 0.81 per year (367/512 subjects reporting 1171 reactions [95% confidence interval: 0.76–0.85]). Overall, 269/512 (52.5%) reported >1 reaction. The majority of reactions (71.2%) were triggered by milk (495 [42.3%]), egg (246 [21.0%]), and peanut (93 [7.9%]), with accidental exposures attributed to unintentional ingestion, label-reading errors, and cross-contact. Foods were provided by persons other than parents in 50.6% of reactions. Of 834 reactions to milk, egg, or peanut, 93 (11.2%) were attributed to purposeful exposures to these avoided foods. A higher number of food allergies (P < .0001) and higher food-specific immunoglobulin E (P < .0001) were associated with reactions. Of the 11.4% of reactions (n = 134) that were severe, 29.9% were treated with epinephrine. Factors resulting in undertreatment included lack of recognition of severity, epinephrine being unavailable, and fears about epinephrine administration. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high frequency of reactions caused by accidental and nonaccidental exposures. Undertreatment of severe reactions with epinephrine was a substantial problem. Areas for improved education include the need for constant vigilance, accurate label reading, avoidance of nonaccidental exposure, prevention of cross-contamination, appropriate epinephrine administration, and education of all caretakers. PMID:22732173

  8. The Relationship Between the Status of Unnecessary Accommodations Being Made to Unconfirmed Food Allergy Students and the Presence or Absence of a Doctor’s Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ganaha, Yurika; Kobayashi, Minoru; Asikin, Yonathan; Gushiken, Taichi; Shinjo, Sumie

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the current state of unnecessary children food allergy accommodation and the medical efforts to confirm the existence of food allergies in school lunch service kitchens in Okinawa, Japan, including kitchens accommodating food allergy students by requiring medical documentation at the start and during provisions being made (Double Diagnosis), requiring medical documentation at the start only (Single Diagnosis), and with no medical documentation (Non-Diagnosis). Unnecessary accommodations are being made to unconfirmed food allergy students, wherein the more medical consultation was required, the lower the food allergy incident rate was and the more food allergens were diagnosed (Non-Diagnosis > Single Diagnosis > Double Diagnosis). This study suggests the possibility that unconfirmed food allergy students may be receiving unnecessary food allergy accommodations per school lunches, and the number of unnecessary food allergy provisions being made could be reduced by requiring medical documentation at the start and during these provisions. PMID:27417361

  9. Prevalence of common food allergies in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nwaru, B I; Hickstein, L; Panesar, S S; Roberts, G; Muraro, A; Sheikh, A

    2014-08-01

    Allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish constitutes the majority of food allergy reactions, but reliable estimates of their prevalence are lacking. This systematic review aimed to provide up-to-date estimates of their prevalence in Europe.Studies published in Europe from January 1, 2000, to September 30, 2012, were identified from searches of four electronic databases. Two independent reviewers appraised the studies and extracted the estimates of interest. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. Fifty studies were included in a narrative synthesis and 42 studies in the meta-analyses. Although there were significant heterogeneity between the studies, the overall pooled estimates for all age groups of self-reported lifetime prevalence of allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish were 6.0% (95% confidence interval: 5.7-6.4), 2.5% (2.3-2.7), 3.6% (3.0-4.2), 0.4% (0.3-0.6), 1.3% (1.2-1.5), 2.2% (1.8-2.5), and 1.3% (0.9-1.7), respectively. The prevalence of food-challenge-defined allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, soy, peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish was 0.6% (0.5-0.8), 0.2% (0.2-0.3), 0.1% (0.01-0.2), 0.3% (0.1-0.4), 0.2% (0.2-0.3), 0.5% (0.08-0.8), 0.1% (0.02-0.2), and 0.1% (0.06-0.3), respectively. Allergy to cow's milk and egg was more common among younger children, while allergy to peanut, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish was more common among the older ones. There were insufficient data to compare the estimates of soy and wheat allergy between the age groups. Allergy to most foods, except soy and peanut, appeared to be more common in Northern Europe. In summary, the lifetime self-reported prevalence of allergy to common foods in Europe ranged from 0.1 to 6.0%. The heterogeneity between studies was high, and participation rates varied across studies reaching as low as <20% in some studies. Standardizing the methods of assessment of food allergies and initiating strategies

  10. Is Propofol Safe For Food Allergy Patients? A Review of the Evidence.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Allergic cross-reactivity between propofol and food is frequently considered as a risk factor for perioperative allergic hypersensitivity reactions and anaphylaxis during dental anaesthesia and sedation. Better understanding of of this cross-reactivity is important to providing safe care. There are, however, conflicting assumptions about anaphylactic reactions to propofol in patients reporting allergy to certain type of the food. Egg and/or soya allergy are often cited as contraindications to propofol administration but the evidence remains unclear. The main goal of this article is to review the available advice and evidence about the cross-reactivity between propofol and foods. A literature search was undertaken. The current published evidence does not elucidate that propofol allergy and food allergies are linked directly, but this drug should be used with caution in atopic patients with allergies to egg and/or soya bean oil. Clinical audit projects may gather data on anaphylactic events during anaesthesia and may aid the profession in this dilemma.

  11. The relevance of anti-food antibodies for the diagnosis of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Johansson, S G; Dannaeus, A; Lilja, G

    1984-12-01

    All individuals are exposed to large amounts of potentially immunogenic food proteins. Most people respond by producing IgG, IgA, or IgM antibodies. The presence of such antibodies in serum is a normal, but not necessarily physiologic phenomenon. In certain groups of individuals, such as young infants, persons with a selective IgA deficiency and patients with inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders, especially high levels of such antibodies are commonly found despite complete tolerance to intake of the food in question. Obviously the finding of IgG, IgA or IgM antibodies to food proteins in serum is of limited clinical relevance. The presence in serum of IgE antibodies to food antigens is not uncommon in some patients with atopic dermatitis, although the clinical relevance of the antibodies for the dermatitis is not always clear. Young, atopic children have low levels of such antibodies as a normal, transient phenomenon. High concentrations of IgE antibodies not only to classical food antigens such as egg, fish, cow's milk, nuts, shellfish, peanuts and cereals but also to less typical allergens such as celery, some spices and other vegetables often indicate a pronounced food allergy that can give rise to a serious reaction upon contact. In contrast to the case with non-IgE antibodies, the presence of IgE antibodies in serum is a non-physiologic state of clinical relevance.

  12. The role of gene-environment interactions in the development of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Neeland, Melanie R; Martino, David J; Allen, Katrina J

    2015-01-01

    The rates of IgE-mediated food allergy have increased globally, particularly in developed countries. The rising incidence is occurring more rapidly than changes to the genome sequence would allow, suggesting that environmental exposures that alter the immune response play an important role. Genetic factors may also be used to predict an increased predisposition to these environmental risk factors, giving rise to the concept of gene-environment interactions, whereby differential risk of environmental exposures is mediated through the genome. Increasing evidence also suggests a role for epigenetic mechanisms, which are sensitive to environmental exposures, in the development of food allergy. This paper discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the environmental and genetic risk factors for food allergy and how environmental exposures may interact with immune genes to modify disease risk or outcome. PMID:26357960

  13. Consecutive Food and Respiratory Allergies Amplify Systemic and Gut but Not Lung Outcomes in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bouchaud, Gregory; Gourbeyre, Paxcal; Bihouée, Tiphaine; Aubert, Phillippe; Lair, David; Cheminant, Marie-Aude; Denery-Papini, Sandra; Neunlist, Michel; Magnan, Antoine; Bodinier, Marie

    2015-07-22

    Epidemiological data suggest a link between food allergies and the subsequent development of asthma. Although this progression may result from the additional effects of exposure to multiple allergens, whether both allergies amplify each other's effects remains unknown. This study investigated whether oral exposure to food allergens influences the outcomes of subsequent respiratory exposure to an asthma-inducing allergen. Mice were sensitized and orally challenged with wheat (FA) and then exposed to house dust mite (HDM) extract (RA). Immunoglobulin (Ig), histamine, and cytokine levels were assayed by ELISA. Intestinal and lung physiology was assessed. Ig levels, histamine release, and cytokine secretion were higher after exposure to both allergens than after separate exposure to each. Intestinal permeability was higher, although airway hyper-responsiveness and lung inflammation remained unchanged. Exposure to food and respiratory allergens amplifies systemic and gut allergy-related immune responses without any additional effect on lung function and inflammation.

  14. Bioanalytical methods for food allergy diagnosis, allergen detection and new allergen discovery.

    PubMed

    Gasilova, Natalia; Girault, Hubert H

    2015-01-01

    For effective monitoring and prevention of the food allergy, one of the emerging health problems nowadays, existing diagnostic procedures and allergen detection techniques are constantly improved. Meanwhile, new methods are also developed, and more and more putative allergens are discovered. This review describes traditional methods and summarizes recent advances in the fast evolving field of the in vitro food allergy diagnosis, allergen detection in food products and discovery of the new allergenic molecules. A special attention is paid to the new diagnostic methods under laboratory development like various immuno- and aptamer-based assays, including immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis. The latter technique shows the importance of MS application not only for the allergen detection but also for the allergy diagnosis.

  15. Mental health and quality-of-life concerns related to the burden of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Ravid, N L; Annunziato, R A; Ambrose, M A; Chuang, K; Mullarkey, C; Sicherer, S H; Shemesh, E; Cox, A L

    2012-02-01

    As food allergy increases, more research is devoted to its influence on patient and family mental health and quality of life (QoL). This article discusses the effects on parent and child QoL, as well as distress, while appraising the limitations of knowledge given the methods used. Topics include whether QoL and distress are affected compared with other illnesses, assessment of distress and QoL in parents compared with children, concerns about food allergy-related bullying, and the necessity for evidence-based interventions. Suggestions are offered for how to improve QoL and reduce distress on the way to better coping with food allergy. PMID:22244234

  16. Ethical principles as a guide in implementing policies for the management of food allergies in schools.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Jason

    2010-06-01

    Food allergy in children is a growing public health problem that carries a significant risk of anaphylaxis such that schools and child care facilities have enacted emergency preparedness policies for anaphylaxis and methods to prevent the inadvertent consumption of allergens. However, studies indicate that many facilities are poorly prepared to handle the advent of anaphylaxis and policies for the prevention of allergen exposure are missing essential components. Furthermore, certain policies are inappropriate because they are blatantly discriminatory. This article aims to provide further guidance for school health officials involved in creating food allergy policies. By structuring policies around ethical principles of confidentiality and anonymity, fairness, avoiding stigmatization, and empowerment, policy makers gain another method to support better policy making. The main ethical principles discussed are adapted from key values in the bioethics and public health ethics literatures and will be framed within the specific context of food allergy policies for schools.

  17. Consecutive Food and Respiratory Allergies Amplify Systemic and Gut but Not Lung Outcomes in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bouchaud, Gregory; Gourbeyre, Paxcal; Bihouée, Tiphaine; Aubert, Phillippe; Lair, David; Cheminant, Marie-Aude; Denery-Papini, Sandra; Neunlist, Michel; Magnan, Antoine; Bodinier, Marie

    2015-07-22

    Epidemiological data suggest a link between food allergies and the subsequent development of asthma. Although this progression may result from the additional effects of exposure to multiple allergens, whether both allergies amplify each other's effects remains unknown. This study investigated whether oral exposure to food allergens influences the outcomes of subsequent respiratory exposure to an asthma-inducing allergen. Mice were sensitized and orally challenged with wheat (FA) and then exposed to house dust mite (HDM) extract (RA). Immunoglobulin (Ig), histamine, and cytokine levels were assayed by ELISA. Intestinal and lung physiology was assessed. Ig levels, histamine release, and cytokine secretion were higher after exposure to both allergens than after separate exposure to each. Intestinal permeability was higher, although airway hyper-responsiveness and lung inflammation remained unchanged. Exposure to food and respiratory allergens amplifies systemic and gut allergy-related immune responses without any additional effect on lung function and inflammation. PMID:26172436

  18. [Use of component-resolved diagnosis in the follow-up of children with plant food allergy].

    PubMed

    Villarreal Balza De Vallejo, Olga; Velasco Azagra, Marta; López Picado, Amanda; Bernedo Belar, Nagore; Uriel Villate, Olga; Frías Jiménez, Marta; Audicana Berasategui, Maite; Muñoz Lejarazu, Daniel; Arruti Oyarzabal, Nagore; Girao Popolizio, Italo N; Martínez Arcediano, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Food allergy poses a major problem during childhood. Component-resolved diagnosis detects allergy to proteins isolated in food. This descriptive study analyzes the use of customized and standardized recommendations in a sample made up of 22 children aged 2 to 16 years old with plant food allergy and assesses sensitivity to four plant panallergens. According to component-resolved diagnosis results, therapy was personalized, guidelines on what foods or components to avoid were provided, and co-factors that may favor food allergic reactions were explained. No new reactions were referred by 20/22 cases. Oral allergy syndrome developed in 2/22 patients with allergy to profilin because they did not follow the recommendations. Component-resolved diagnosis was useful for the diagnosis and management of these children. Standardized recommendations, based on each patient's component-resolved diagnosis, prevented severe food allergic reactions. PMID:26593800

  19. FAST: towards safe and effective subcutaneous immunotherapy of persistent life-threatening food allergies.

    PubMed

    Zuidmeer-Jongejan, Laurian; Fernandez-Rivas, Montserrat; Poulsen, Lars K; Neubauer, Angela; Asturias, Juan; Blom, Lars; Boye, Joyce; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Clausen, Michael; Ferrara, Rosa; Garosi, Paula; Huber, Hans; Jensen, Bettina M; Koppelman, Stef; Kowalski, Marek L; Lewandowska-Polak, Anna; Linhart, Birgit; Maillere, Bernard; Mari, Adriano; Martinez, Alberto; Mills, Clare En; Nicoletti, Claudio; Opstelten, Dirk-Jan; Papadopoulos, Nikos G; Portoles, Antonio; Rigby, Neil; Scala, Enrico; Schnoor, Heidi J; Sigurdardottir, Sigurveig T; Stavroulakis, George; Stolz, Frank; Swoboda, Ines; Valenta, Rudolf; van den Hout, Rob; Versteeg, Serge A; Witten, Marianne; van Ree, Ronald

    2012-03-09

    The FAST project (Food Allergy Specific Immunotherapy) aims at the development of safe and effective treatment of food allergies, targeting prevalent, persistent and severe allergy to fish and peach. Classical allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), using subcutaneous injections with aqueous food extracts may be effective but has proven to be accompanied by too many anaphylactic side-effects. FAST aims to develop a safe alternative by replacing food extracts with hypoallergenic recombinant major allergens as the active ingredients of SIT. Both severe fish and peach allergy are caused by a single major allergen, parvalbumin (Cyp c 1) and lipid transfer protein (Pru p 3), respectively. Two approaches are being evaluated for achieving hypoallergenicity, i.e. site-directed mutagenesis and chemical modification. The most promising hypoallergens will be produced under GMP conditions. After pre-clinical testing (toxicology testing and efficacy in mouse models), SCIT with alum-absorbed hypoallergens will be evaluated in phase I/IIa and IIb randomized double-blind placebo-controlled (DBPC) clinical trials, with the DBPC food challenge as primary read-out. To understand the underlying immune mechanisms in depth serological and cellular immune analyses will be performed, allowing identification of novel biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. FAST aims at improving the quality of life of food allergic patients by providing a safe and effective treatment that will significantly lower their threshold for fish or peach intake, thereby decreasing their anxiety and dependence on rescue medication.

  20. Gut Microbiome and the Development of Food Allergy and Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Prince, Benjamin T; Mandel, Mark J; Nadeau, Kari; Singh, Anne Marie

    2015-12-01

    The impact of gut microbiome on human development, nutritional needs, and disease has become evident with advances in the ability to study these complex communities of microorganisms, and there is growing appreciation for the role of the microbiome in immune regulation. Several studies have examined associations between changes in the commensal microbiota and the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and asthma, but far less have evaluated the impact of the microbiome on the development of food allergy. This article reviews the human gastrointestinal microbiome, focusing on the theory and evidence for its role in the development of IgE-mediated food allergy and other allergic diseases.

  1. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and IgE-mediated food allergy.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Minervini, Fabio; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-07-01

    Food allergy is recognized as one of the major health concerns. It is estimated that ca. 4% of the population is affected by food allergenic disorders. Food allergies are defined as IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Foods such as peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, cow's milk, egg, fish and shellfish are regarded as responsible for the majority of reactions. The ubiquitous presence of allergens in the human foods coupled with an increased awareness of food allergies warrants to undertake appropriate preventive measures for protecting sensitive consumers from unwanted exposure to offending food allergens. 2-DE followed by immunoblotting and identification of IgE-reactive proteins, as a proteomic approach to identify new allergens in foods, are reviewed. Specific examples of identification of allergens in foods and beverages by using 2-DE and IgE are described. Protein profiling using 2-DE and allergens detection by IgE has become a powerful method for analyzing changes of allergens content in complex matrix during food processing.

  2. Disease-specific health-related quality of life instruments for IgE-mediated food allergy.

    PubMed

    Salvilla, S A; Dubois, A E J; Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; Panesar, S S; Worth, A; Patel, S; Muraro, A; Halken, S; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; DunnGalvin, A; Hourihane, J O'B; Regent, L; de Jong, N W; Roberts, G; Sheikh, A

    2014-07-01

    This is one of seven interlinked systematic reviews undertaken on behalf of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology as part of their Guidelines for Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis, which focuses on instruments developed for IgE-mediated food allergy. Disease-specific questionnaires are significantly more sensitive than generic ones in measuring the response to interventions or future treatments, as well as estimating the general burden of food allergy. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to identify which disease-specific, validated instruments can be employed to enable assessment of the impact of, and investigations and interventions for, IgE-mediated food allergy on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Using a sensitive search strategy, we searched seven electronic bibliographic databases to identify disease-specific quality of life (QOL) tools relating to IgE-mediated food allergy. From the 17 eligible studies, we identified seven disease-specific HRQL instruments, which were then subjected to detailed quality appraisal. This revealed that these instruments have undergone formal development and validation processes, and have robust psychometric properties, and therefore provide a robust means of establishing the impact of food allergy on QOL. Suitable instruments are now available for use in children, adolescents, parents/caregivers, and adults. Further work must continue to develop a clinical minimal important difference for food allergy and for making these instruments available in a wider range of European languages.

  3. The Evaluation of a Food Allergy and Epinephrine Autoinjector Training Program for Personnel Who Care for Children in Schools and Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Ann; Stephens, Hilary; Ruffo, Mark; Jones, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    With the dramatic increase in the incidence of food allergies, nurses and other school personnel are likely to encounter a child with food allergies. The objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of in-person training on enhancing knowledge about food allergies and improving self-confidence in preventing, recognizing, and treating…

  4. [Allergen-specific immunotherapy for food allergies in childhood. Current options and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Trendelenburg, Valérie; Blümchen, Katharina

    2016-07-01

    During recent years increasing research has been conducted on casual treatment options for food allergy, with focus on oral immunotherapy (OIT) for hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut allergy. Several studies could show that OIT leads to desensitization or an increase of threshold. However, severe adverse events during this treatment are not uncommon. Whether OIT leads to a sustained, 'robust' development of tolerance in patients has not yet been thoroughly investigated. Besides OIT, some studies on sublingual (SLIT) and epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) were performed, aiming to improve the safety profile. Furthermore, there are some pilot studies investigating a combined treatment of SLIT and OIT or a combined use of anti-IgE treatment or probiotic supplementation with OIT. Further placebo-controlled trials with larger sample size are needed in order to develop standardized protocols before immunotherapy may be used as a therapeutic option for food allergy outside of clinical trials. PMID:27324376

  5. The changing epidemiology of food allergy--implications for New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Christine; Ameratunga, Rohan; Simmons, Greg; Jorgensen, Penny; Wall, Clare; Brewerton, Maia; Sinclair, Jan; Steele, Richard; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2008-04-01

    Food allergy (FA) is recognised as an important public health problem in developed countries. Recent studies suggest a significant proportion of the general population has a definable FA. The methods used to study FA influence published estimates of incidence and prevalence. In particular, studies relying on self-assessment are likely to overestimate the condition compared to studies using a comprehensive approach including symptoms, allergy testing, rigorously conducted laboratory tests, and food challenges. Currently there are no reliable data on the prevalence of FA in New Zealand. This has had several adverse consequences including the lack of public hospital services for patients with severe allergies. In this article we summarise the epidemiological data on FA and discuss the implications for New Zealand.

  6. Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Allergy: Development and Reproducibility of a Questionnaire for Clinical Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lyra, Nilza R. S.; Motta, Maria E. F. A.; Rocha, Luiz A. R.; Solé, Dirceu; Peixoto, Décio M.; Rizzo, José A.; Taborda-Barata, Luis; Sarinho, Emanuel S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To develop a questionnaire as a screening tool for adverse reactions to foods in children and to assess the technical reproducibility by test-retest. Methods. Reproducibility of the questionnaire was performed by the literature review, preparing the preliminary questionnaire, peer review, pretest, and retest analysis. The study of the test-retest reproducibility was cross-sectional and descriptive. Kappa coefficient was used to study the reproducibility of the questionnaire. The sample consisted of 125 2–4 year-old children from 15 daycare centers in Recife, Brazil, and interviews with parents or caregivers were used to collect data. Results. From the total children, sixty-three were boys (50.4%), forty-six were two years old (36.8%), forty-seven were three years old (37.6%), and thirty-two were four years old (25.6%). Forty caregivers reported that their child had health problems with food. Most frequently reported offending foods were milk, peanuts, shrimp, and chocolate. Nine questions showed a good Kappa index (≥0,6). Conclusions. The questionnaire used needs to be resized and reshaped on the basis of the issues with good internal consistency and reproducibility. The use of a validated and reproducible questionnaire in the children represents an important contribution towards assessing an eventual rise in overt food allergy. PMID:24198840

  7. Perinatal stress and food allergy: a preliminary study on maternal reports.

    PubMed

    Polloni, L; Ferruzza, E; Ronconi, L; Lazzarotto, F; Toniolo, A; Bonaguro, R; Muraro, A

    2015-01-01

    Maternal stress in fetal and early life has been associated with the development of respiratory allergies, but no studies exist about food allergy. Stressful events and the quality of caregiving provided, as they affect the emotional and physiologic regulation of the infant, could alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and immune system, facilitating an increased allergic response. This study aimed to investigate the influence of perinatal stress, as perceived by mothers, on developing food allergy in childhood. A survey on pregnancy and the first three months after giving birth was submitted to 59 Italian mothers of at least one child suffering from severe food allergy and one completely healthy child, for a total of 118 children examined. The presence of stressful events and the quality of perinatal period for each child were assessed retrospectively. The food allergic children's data were compared to siblings' data through inferential statistics. The results showed a significantly higher number of stressful events occurred during patients' perinatal period, compared to siblings, in particular bereavements in pregnancy and parenting difficulties in postpartum. Mothers reported harder pregnancies and more stressful, harder, and, in general, worse postpartum when referring to their food-allergic children, in comparison with their siblings (p < .05). Psychological aspects are demonstrated to be involved in the development of allergic diseases. This study constitutes the first step to examine the role of early stress and perinatal psychosocial factors in the pathogenesis of food allergy; further studies are necessary to understand individual psychological impact and its relations with genetic and biological factors. PMID:25531062

  8. Citrus Tachibana Leaf Extract Mitigates Symptoms of Food Allergy by Inhibiting Th2-Associated Responses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Min-Yu; Shin, Hee Soon; Choi, Dae Woon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-06-01

    Although the incidence of food allergy continues to rise, there have been no effective therapeutic strategies. Citrus fruits contain a number of bioactive flavonoids with immune-regulatory functions. The objective of this study was to determine whether Citrus tachibana (fruit body with peel, leaves, and branch) can protect against the development of food allergy and the mechanism behind it, and to identify the active compound(s) responsible. We found that C. tachibana leaf extract (CLE) mitigated ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy symptoms including increased rectal temperature, diarrhea, and anaphylaxis. This mitigation was likely due to CLE-mediated decreases in cytokine release from T-helper 2 cells (Th2 cells) in mesenteric lymph nodes. Moreover, higher levels of CLE attenuated systemic Th2 cell-mediated responses in mouse splenocytes sensitized with OVA+Alum. This was evidenced by CLE-mediated reductions in Th2 cytokine release, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13, but not the Th1 cytokines IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ, which was attributable to decreased gene expression levels. We also identified kaempferol as the most potent compound for reducing Th2-associated responses in splenocytes. The findings of this study suggest that CLE suppresses Th2-cell-mediated immune responses, contributing to alleviation of food allergy symptoms, and that kaempferol is a flavonoid with potential antiallergenic activity that targets Th2 cell-induced responses. PMID:27121925

  9. RELATIVE POTENCY OF ORAL ANTIGENS IN PROVOKING FOOD ALLERGY IN THE MOUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: An animal model for food allergy is needed to test novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential allergenicity. While the oral route is the most relevant method of exposure, oral tolerance is an impediment. We demonstrate that mice can distinguish...

  10. Ethical Principles as a Guide in Implementing Policies for the Management of Food Allergies in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrmann, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy in children is a growing public health problem that carries a significant risk of anaphylaxis such that schools and child care facilities have enacted emergency preparedness policies for anaphylaxis and methods to prevent the inadvertent consumption of allergens. However, studies indicate that many facilities are poorly prepared to…

  11. Experiences of Parents of Pre-K to Grade Four Children with Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia; Vandergriff, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of parents of pre-K to grade four children who had food allergies. Also examined were the management strategies put in place by the participants to assist the children deal with their unique situations. An in-depth interview was conducted with ten parents whose children had food…

  12. Immune Modulation by Vitamin D and Its Relevance to Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Suaini, Noor H. A.; Zhang, Yuxia; Vuillermin, Peter J.; Allen, Katrina J.; Harrison, Leonard C.

    2015-01-01

    Apart from its classical function in bone and calcium metabolism, vitamin D is also involved in immune regulation and has been linked to various cancers, immune disorders and allergic diseases. Within the innate and adaptive immune systems, the vitamin D receptor and enzymes in monocytes, dendritic cells, epithelial cells, T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes mediate the immune modulatory actions of vitamin D. Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency early in life has been identified as one of the risk factors for food allergy. Several studies have observed an association between increasing latitude and food allergy prevalence, plausibly linked to lower ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and vitamin D synthesis in the skin. Along with mounting epidemiological evidence of a link between vitamin D status and food allergy, mice and human studies have shed light on the modulatory properties of vitamin D on the innate and adaptive immune systems. This review will summarize the literature on the metabolism and immune modulatory properties of vitamin D, with particular reference to food allergy. PMID:26225992

  13. Cohort Profile: The HealthNuts Study: Population prevalence and environmental/genetic predictors of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Koplin, Jennifer J; Wake, Melissa; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Matheson, Melanie; Tang, Mimi L K; Gurrin, Lyle C; Dwyer, Terry; Peters, Rachel L; Prescott, Susan; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lowe, Adrian J; Allen, Katrina J

    2015-08-01

    HealthNuts is a single-centre, multi-wave, population-based longitudinal study designed to assess prevalence, determinants, natural history and burden of allergy (particularly food allergy) in the early years of life. It is novel in the use of serial food challenge measures within its population frame to confirm food allergy. The cohort comprises 5276 children initially recruited at age 12 months from council-run immunization sessions across Melbourne, Australia. As well as parent-completed questionnaires and researcher-observed eczema status, all infants underwent skin-prick testing to egg, peanut, sesame and either cow's milk or shellfish, and those with detectable wheals underwent food challenges to determine clinical allergy. In wave 2, conducted at age 4 years, validated questionnaires collected data on asthma, allergic rhinitis (hay fever), eczema and food allergies. Food challenges were repeated in children previously identified as food allergic to determine resolution. In wave 3, all children (irrespective of food allergy status) were invited for clinical assessment at age 6 years, including lung function, physical measurements, skin-prick testing to foods and aeroallergens and food challenges if food sensitized. Biological specimens (blood, cheek swabs) were collected at each wave for ancillary immunological, genetic and epigenetic studies. Applications to access data and/or samples can be submitted to [katrina.allen@mcri.edu.au].

  14. Food allergy in irritable bowel syndrome: The case of non-celiac wheat sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Pasquale; D'Alcamo, Alberto; Seidita, Aurelio; Carroccio, Antonio

    2015-06-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders, having a prevalence of 12%-30% in the general population. Most patients with IBS attribute their symptoms to adverse food reactions. We review the role of diet in the pathogenesis of IBS and the importance of dietary factors in the management of these patients. The MEDLINE electronic database (1966 to Jan 2015) was searched using the following keywords: "food", "diet", "food allergy", "food hypersensitivity", "food intolerance", "IBS", "epidemiology", "pathogenesis", "pathophysiology", "diagnosis", "treatment". We found 153 eligible papers; 80 were excluded because: not written in English, exclusive biochemical and experimental research, case reports, reviews, and research otherwise not relevant to our specific interest. We selected 73 papers: 43 original papers, 26 reviews and 4 letters to the editor. These papers focused on IBS pathogenesis, the association between IBS and atopy, and between IBS and food allergy, the relationship between IBS and non-celiac wheat sensitivity, the role of diet in IBS. Pending further scientific evidence, a cautious approach is advisable but the concept of food allergy should be included as a possible cause of IBS, and a dietary approach may have a place in the routine clinical management of IBS.

  15. Food allergy in irritable bowel syndrome: The case of non-celiac wheat sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Mansueto, Pasquale; D'Alcamo, Alberto; Seidita, Aurelio; Carroccio, Antonio

    2015-06-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders, having a prevalence of 12%-30% in the general population. Most patients with IBS attribute their symptoms to adverse food reactions. We review the role of diet in the pathogenesis of IBS and the importance of dietary factors in the management of these patients. The MEDLINE electronic database (1966 to Jan 2015) was searched using the following keywords: "food", "diet", "food allergy", "food hypersensitivity", "food intolerance", "IBS", "epidemiology", "pathogenesis", "pathophysiology", "diagnosis", "treatment". We found 153 eligible papers; 80 were excluded because: not written in English, exclusive biochemical and experimental research, case reports, reviews, and research otherwise not relevant to our specific interest. We selected 73 papers: 43 original papers, 26 reviews and 4 letters to the editor. These papers focused on IBS pathogenesis, the association between IBS and atopy, and between IBS and food allergy, the relationship between IBS and non-celiac wheat sensitivity, the role of diet in IBS. Pending further scientific evidence, a cautious approach is advisable but the concept of food allergy should be included as a possible cause of IBS, and a dietary approach may have a place in the routine clinical management of IBS. PMID:26109796

  16. The diagnostic value of the histamine release test in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Oehling, A; Ona, J; Trento, H; Sanz, M L; Domínguez, M A

    1984-01-01

    One hundred and nine patients were selected in this study. All had food allergies (Urticaria, Quincke's Oedema and Bronchial Asthma) diagnosed by either clinical history or skin test results later confirmed by oral challenge. Since many of these patients had multiple sensitivities to various food allergens, the study was performed on 175 blood samples classifying the results according to personal history and results of the skin test. The diagnostic value of histamine release in whole blood of a patient suffering from food allergy is optimally reliable. The study is complemented by providing a better understanding of the dynamics involved in the hypersensitivity response. The results from this comparative study with RAST, once again demonstrate the uselessness in using this technique in food allergy since the existence of other cytotropic antibodies, IgG4 capable of provoking the basophil to produce a clearly detectable and significant histamine release has been well demonstrated. Once again the importance of other antibodies which are not exactly cytotropic or anaphylactic (IgG, IgM, etc.) in nature in hypersensitivity response is brought to light. These are readily detected with a great degree of reliability (78%) using hemagglutination. This method is highly sensitive and is strongly recommended in the diagnoses of allergy because of its simplicity and affordability. The study of the parameters studied shows us once again that there are several mechanisms involved in the hypersensitivity response as well as a variation from one individual to another depending, of course on the class of antigen. Finally we must keep in mind the complexity of the antigen involved in food allergies which in many cases are haptenic.

  17. Pharmacological and immunological effects of individual herbs in the Food Allergy Herbal Formula-2 (FAHF-2) on peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Kattan, Jacob D; Srivastava, Kamal D; Zou, Zhong Mei; Goldfarb, Joseph; Sampson, Hugh A; Li, Xiu-Min

    2008-05-01

    It was previously shown that a Chinese herbal formula, Food Allergy Herbal Formula 2 (FAHF-2) composed of nine herbs, blocked peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine model. The current study was designed to investigate the pharmacological actions of individual herbs comprising FAHF-2 on peanut-induced anaphylactic reactions in a murine model of peanut allergy and to determine if all nine herbs are necessary to prevent an anaphylactic reaction, or if a simplified formula containing fewer herbs would be equally effective. Some individual herbs reduced peanut-induced anaphylactic symptoms but no single herb offered full protection from anaphylactic symptoms equivalent to FAHF-2. The herbs had highly variable effects on histamine release, as well as peanut-specific serum IgE and IgG2a levels. The herbs also had variable effects on IL-4, IL-5 and IFN-gamma levels. A simplified formula comprising the most efficacious tested individual herbs showed only partial efficacy and was not able to reproduce comparably the effects of FAHF-2, suggesting that component herbs of FAHF-2 may work synergistically to produce the curative therapeutic effects produced by the whole formula, which appears to be the best option for future clinical trials.

  18. [A Survey of School Lunch Provision for Elementary School Students with Food Allergy in Seven Cities of Osaka Prefecture].

    PubMed

    Kiyota, Kyohei; Takemoto, Akiko; Okajima, Saori; Morino, Shizuka; Kakoi, Satoru; Sakuma, Junko; Yoshimitsu, Masato; Akutsu, Kazuhiko; Kajimura, Keiji

    2015-01-01

    The number of students with food allergy is currently increasing. Moreover, the unintentional mixing or accidental ingestion of allergy-causing food materials in school lunches has attracted great attention. The aim of this study was to verify the current status of elementary school lunch provision for students with food allergy. We investigated the elementary school lunch services in seven cities in Osaka prefecture. The egg elimination diet was provided in five of the seven cities. In four of these five cities, we did not detect the presence of egg residue either on the surface of various cookware used to prepare the egg elimination diet or in the food itself. In this investigation, the egg elimination diet was provided properly, but we observed differences among the cities in the manual preparation of foods for food allergy diets. To step up these efforts, our results suggest the necessity of preparing a manual to consider individual conditions of school lunch services. PMID:26346859

  19. [Prospective study of a commercial hypoallergenic diet in 18 dogs with food allergy].

    PubMed

    Vroom, M W

    1994-10-15

    A diagnosis of food allergy was made in eighteen dogs after they were fed on a hypoallergenic diet of lambs meat and rice. The skin complaints returned after the dogs were challenged with the original food. A commercial hypoallergenic diet was given once the skin complaints had disappeared after refeeding of the lamb and rice diet. Six of the eighteen dogs developed skin complaints (pruritus, scaly skin, and erythema) on the commercial diet.

  20. Food allergy in irritable bowel syndrome: new facts and old fallacies

    PubMed Central

    Isolauri, E; Rautava, S; Kalliomäki, M

    2004-01-01

    The notion of food allergy in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not new. However, recent evidence suggests significant reduction in IBS symptom severity in patients on elimination diets, provided that dietary elimination is based on foods against which the individual had raised IgG antibodies. These findings should encourage studies dissecting the mechanisms responsible for IgG production against dietary antigens and their putative role in IBS PMID:15361481

  1. Hydrolyzed whey protein prevents the development of food allergy to β-lactoglobulin in sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Santos, Ana Cristina; Fonseca, Roberta Cristelli; Lemos, Luisa; Reis, Daniela Silva; Moreira, Thaís Garcias; Souza, Adna Luciana; Silva, Mauro Ramalho; Silvestre, Marialice Pinto Coelho; Cara, Denise Carmona; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is an adverse immune response to dietary proteins. Hydrolysates are frequently used for children with milk allergy. However, hydrolysates effects afterwards are poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological consequences of hydrolyzed whey protein in allergic mice. For that, we developed a novel model of food allergy in BALB/c mice sensitized with alum-adsorbed β-lactoglobulin. These mice were orally challenged with either whey protein or whey hydrolysate. Whey-challenged mice had elevated levels of specific IgE and lost weight. They also presented gut inflammation, enhanced levels of SIgA and IL-5 as well as decreased production of IL-4 and IL-10 in the intestinal mucosa. Conversely, mice challenged with hydrolyzate maintained normal levels of IgE, IL-4 and IL-5 and showed no sign of gut inflammation probably due to increased IL-12 production in the gut. Thus, consumption of hydrolysate prevented the development of clinical signs of food allergy in mice.

  2. The role of protein digestibility and antacids on food allergy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Untersmayr, Eva; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2008-06-01

    Digestion assays with simulated gastric fluid have been introduced for characterization of food proteins to imitate the effect of stomach proteolysis on dietary compounds in vitro. By using these tests, dietary proteins can be categorized as digestion-resistant class 1 (true allergens triggering direct oral sensitization) or as labile class 2 allergens (nonsensitizing elicitors). Thus the results of these digestion assays mirror situations of intact gastric proteolysis. Alterations in the gastric milieu are frequently experienced during a lifetime either physiologically in the very young and the elderly or as a result of gastrointestinal pathologies. Additionally, acid-suppression medications are frequently used for treatment of dyspeptic disorders. By increasing the gastric pH, they interfere substantially with the digestive function of the stomach, leading to persistence of labile food protein during gastric transit. Indeed, both murine and human studies reveal that antiulcer medication increases the risk of food allergy induction. Gastric digestion substantially decreases the potential of food proteins to bind IgE, which increases the threshold dose of allergens required to elicit symptoms in patients with food allergy. Thus antiulcer agents impeding gastric protein digestion have a major effect on the sensitization and effector phase of food allergy.

  3. [House dust mite-crustaceans-molluscs syndrome. A rare variant of food allergy in primary sensitization to inhaled allergens].

    PubMed

    Kütting, B; Brehler, R

    2001-08-01

    80% of all cases in food allergy in adults are preceded by a clinical or subclinical sensitisation to inhalative allergens. Food allergy is caused by cross-reactions between ingested food and inhaled particles. We report a patient suffering from the house-dust mite-crustaceans-molluscs-syndrome. Here, house-dust mite is the sensitising agent, therefore even first ingestion of invertebrates such as snails, shrimps, mussels or oysters can lead to severe anaphylaxis.

  4. Probiotics and Prebiotics for Prevention of Food Allergy: Indications and Recommendations by Societies and Institutions.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Sibylle

    2016-07-01

    Probiotics are defined as "live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host". Unfortunately, misuse of the term probiotic is very common. According to the regulation of the European food safety authority (EFSA) health claims on pre- and probiotics are not judged as favorable. Scientific societies should give guidance to the consumers and health care professionals on the use of probiotics and prebiotics for prevention and disease management. There is currently no positive recommendation from international scientific medical societies to use prebiotics or probiotics for treatment of food allergy or other allergic manifestations and for prevention of food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. Discrepant recommendations exist for probiotics for prevention of eczema in high risk infants. PMID:27380601

  5. Oral allergy syndrome (OAS): symptoms of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to foods.

    PubMed

    Amlot, P L; Kemeny, D M; Zachary, C; Parkes, P; Lessof, M H

    1987-01-01

    Eighty highly atopic patients were selected for study because they had either atopic eczema (fifty cases) or atopic reactivity to foods, as judged by a positive skin-prick test (thirty cases). In all, sixty-five out of eighty subjects (81%) described symptoms of some kind provoked by foods, but correspondingly positive skin tests were found in only half of these, thirty-three out of eighty (41%). The symptoms experienced by thirty-one of the thirty-three patients with positive skin tests were immediate in onset (within 1 hr) and were at first confined to the upper gastrointestinal tract, the most frequent symptoms being oral irritation and throat tightness. In a proportion of these patients, further symptoms such as urticaria, asthma or anaphylaxis developed following the initial oral symptoms, which suggested the term 'oral allergy syndrome'. In the absence of the oral allergy, symptoms such as asthma, urticaria, migraine or eczema starting later than 1 hr after food were seldom associated with positive skin tests. In the oral allergy syndrome, the characteristic symptoms (strong association with positive skin tests and RAST, time of onset and sites at which symptoms are expressed) suggest a causative relationship between exposure to food antigens and specific IgE-induced release of mediators. In cases of food intolerance that lack a characteristic symptom pattern and a positive skin test or radio-allergo-sorbent test, it seems appropriate to consider non-IgE-mediated causes. PMID:3829369

  6. Allergic status of schoolchildren with food allergy to eggs, milk or wheat in infancy.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Takashi; Morimoto, Takeshi; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Heike, Toshio; Fujii, Tatsuya; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi

    2009-11-01

    Although children allergic to eggs, milk or wheat in infancy tend to become tolerant by school age, the allergic status of these children at school age has not been well evaluated. To investigate the allergic status of schoolchildren who avoided eggs, milk or wheat because of an immediate-type allergic reaction at <1-yr-old (food avoiders in infancy), we conducted a large-scale questionnaire-based survey of schoolchildren. A questionnaire on allergic diseases was distributed to the parents of 14,669 schoolchildren aged 7 to 15 yr in 30 schools in Kyoto, Japan. Of these, 13,215 responded (response rate, 90.1%). The rate of 7-yr-old children who were food avoiders in infancy was 5.4%. This rate decreased as the current age of the children increased, down to 3% in 15-yr-old children, indicating that food allergy in infancy tended to become more prevalent over the past 8 yr. Although more than 80% became tolerant to these foods by school age, the prevalence of bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis were significantly higher in this group. Moreover, avoidance of other foods (buckwheat, shellfish, fruits and others) at school age was seen at much higher frequencies than in non-food avoiders in infancy (adjusted odds ratio, 7.7; confidence interval, 5.9-10.2). This risk did not differ significantly between those who did and did not develop tolerance to eggs, milk and wheat by 3 yr old. In conclusion, food avoiders in infancy appear to have a higher risk of not only other allergic diseases ('atopic march') but also allergy to other foods ('food allergen march') at school age, indicating the need for continuous attention to food allergy.

  7. Low-Dose IL-2 Induces Regulatory T Cell-Mediated Control of Experimental Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Benjamin; Vigneron, James; Levacher, Béatrice; Vazquez, Thomas; Pitoiset, Fabien; Brimaud, Faustine; Churlaud, Guillaume; Klatzmann, David; Bellier, Bertrand

    2016-07-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are pivotal for maintenance of immune self-tolerance and also regulate immune responses to exogenous Ags, including allergens. Both decreased Treg number and function have been reported in allergic patients, offering new therapeutic perspectives. We previously demonstrated that Tregs can be selectively expanded and activated by low doses of IL-2 (ld-IL-2) inducing immunoregulation without immunosuppression and established its protective effect in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated the ability of ld-IL-2 to control allergy in an experimental model of food allergy. Ld-IL-2 induced Treg expansion and activation that elicited protection against clinical manifestations of food allergy in two mouse models with OVA and peanut. This clinical effect was lost in Treg-depleted mice, demonstrating the major contribution of Tregs in ld-IL-2 efficacy. Mechanistic studies further indicated that protection from allergy could be explained by a Treg-dependent local modification of the Th1/Th2 balance and an inhibition of mast cell recruitment and activation. Preventive and therapeutic effects of ld-IL-2 were observed over a 7-mo-period, highlighting its long-term efficacy. This study demonstrated that ld-IL-2 is efficient to prevent and to treat allergic immune responses, and thus represents a promising therapeutic strategy for managing allergic diseases. PMID:27259854

  8. [Analysis of food allergy incidence in children up to 5 years of age in the Wielikopolska region].

    PubMed

    Hofman, T

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this study was found the most frequent food allergens and analysis of food allergy incidence in children with food allergy from region Wielkopolska. 78 children in age from 2 months to 5 years of life with the first symptoms of food allergy: gastrointestinals symptoms and atopic dermatitis was examined. The specific IgE using the immunoenzymatic Quidel and AlaSTAT method to wheat, peanut, hazel nut, tomato, soya been, cow milk, egg, corn, orange and cod was percentage of the lymphocytes ThCD4+ in peripheral blood of allergy children was estimated. The normal results ranging from 29-42%. During the analysis established that in children from region Wielkopolska the most frequent allergen in each age was cow milk. Allergy to wheat found in 50% children with food allergy. It was observed increase allergy to new products as soya been, corn and nuts which are the more frequent used in our region. The causes apparent the food allergy among the children in age to 5 years are: so early given the cow's milk and other foreign protein to diet of infants, and infections the intestinal, airways and urine tracts. It is necessary breast-feeding the infants minimum up to 6 months of life and varying light diet without a big amounts of cow's milk or other foreign proteins during lactation and pregnancy. About a half of patients had a decreased number of lymphocytes T CD4+. Among the causes of food allergy the most important are in 40% the genetic factors but in 60% the infections factors and feedings defects.

  9. Soy Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Soy” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  10. Wheat Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Wheat” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  11. Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Peanut” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  12. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific fish used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  13. Exploring racial differences in IgE-mediated food allergy in the WHEALS birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Christine L.M.; Zoratti, Edward M.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Havstad, Suzanne; Nicholas, Charlotte; Nageotte, Christian; Misiak, Rana; Enberg, Robert; Ezell, Jerel; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2016-01-01

    Background Suspected food allergies are the cause of more than 200,000 visits to the emergency department annually. Racial differences in the prevalence of food allergy have also been reported, but the evidence is less conclusive. Researchers continue to struggle with the identification of food allergy for epidemiologic studies. Objective To explore racial differences in IgE-mediated food allergy (IgE-FA) in a birth cohort. Methods We used a panel of board-certified allergists to systematically identify IgE-FA to egg, milk, or peanut in a multiethnic birth cohort in which patient medical history, patient symptoms, and clinical data were available through 36 months of age. Results Of the 590 infants analyzed, 52.9% were male and 65.8% African American. Sensitization (serum specific IgE >0.35 IU/mL) to the food allergens was significantly higher for African American children compared with non–African American children as has been previously reported. No statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in IgE-FA were observed; however, a higher proportion of African American children were designated as having peanut allergy, and the percentage of African American children with an IgE level greater than 95% predictive decision points for peanut was 1.7% vs 0.5% for non–African American children. With the use of logistic regression, race/ethnicity was not significantly associated with IgE-FA (adjusted odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.58–2.17; P = .75) but was associated with sensitization to more than 1 of the food allergens (adjusted odds ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.22–2.65; P = .003). Conclusion We did not observe an elevated risk of IgE-FA for African American children, although established differences in sensitization were observed. Racial/ethnic differences in sensitization must be taken into consideration when investigating disparities in asthma and allergy. PMID:26837607

  14. [Diagnosis of food allergy caused by fruit and vegetables in children with atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Ottolenghi, A; De Chiara, A; Arrigoni, S; Terracciano, L; De Amici, M

    1995-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (A.D.) is a frequent, complex and multifactorial disease: Food Allergy (F.A.), probably underestimated, especially for fruits and vegetables, seems to play an important pathogenetic role in children. The purpose of this study is to estimate, on a sample of children with A.D., the prevalence of F.A. (for fruits and vegetables), and the reliability of diagnosis of Prick+Prick test compared with the usual Prick test, RAST and challenge. Twentysix patients (17 M and 9 F), ranging in age from 5 months to 8 years, were enrolled in the study. All fulfilled the criteria of Hanifin and Rajka for the diagnosis of A.D. Food RAST, prick tests with inhalant and food extracts and Prick+Prick tests with fresh fruits and vegetables were carried out. In the case of positive result to fruits and vegetables with skin tests and/or RAST, open challenge for every type of food considered responsible was carried out, after healing or improvement of dermatitis. Three children (11.53%) suffered from F.A. for fruits and vegetables: allergy to celery of one patient was discovered only by usual Prick test; allergy to tomato and kiwi in another patient was spotted by Prick+Prick only; while in another case by both tests. In this last patient Prick+Prick test revealed a real allergy for 5 aliments (carrot, tomato, celery, cucumber, fennel) of which only 2 (carrot and celery) also caused a reaction with the Prick test. The combined use of both tests made it possible to increase the diagnosis of F.A. both for the number of patients and for a complete identification of implicated foods. PMID:8668588

  15. Translation, Adaptation and Initial Validation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire: Child form in Greek.

    PubMed

    Morou, Zoe; Lyrakos, Georgios N; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D K

    2016-06-23

    The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Food Allergy Quality of life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF). After linguistic validation, the Greek FAQLQ-CF, Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used by a physician to interview children diagnosed with food allergy and aged 8-12 via telephone. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate reliability, and factor analysis to assess construct validity. The correlation between FAQLQ-CF and FAIM was moderate (rho=0.509, P<0.001) and internal consistency was strong (Cronbach's alpha 0.905). FAQLQ-CF discriminated well each question's contribution to children's quality of life deterioration (32-80%), each child's quality of life (17-89%), children differing in doing things with others (total score 3.55 vs 2.57, difference =0.98 > minimal clinical importance difference = 0.5; P<0.001), but not children differing in reporting anaphylaxis. The total FAQLQ-CF score correlated with the total PedsQL™ score and with the score of one of PedsQL™ subscales, demonstrating convergent validity. Factor analysis uncovered an underlying structure of four factors, explaining 50% of the variance. We can conclude that Greek FAQLQ-CF is a reliable, valid, discriminant tool for interviewing food allergic children aged 8-12, detecting those in need for immediate care. PMID:27403459

  16. Translation, Adaptation and Initial Validation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire: Child form in Greek.

    PubMed

    Morou, Zoe; Lyrakos, Georgios N; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D K

    2016-06-23

    The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Food Allergy Quality of life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF). After linguistic validation, the Greek FAQLQ-CF, Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used by a physician to interview children diagnosed with food allergy and aged 8-12 via telephone. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate reliability, and factor analysis to assess construct validity. The correlation between FAQLQ-CF and FAIM was moderate (rho=0.509, P<0.001) and internal consistency was strong (Cronbach's alpha 0.905). FAQLQ-CF discriminated well each question's contribution to children's quality of life deterioration (32-80%), each child's quality of life (17-89%), children differing in doing things with others (total score 3.55 vs 2.57, difference =0.98 > minimal clinical importance difference = 0.5; P<0.001), but not children differing in reporting anaphylaxis. The total FAQLQ-CF score correlated with the total PedsQL™ score and with the score of one of PedsQL™ subscales, demonstrating convergent validity. Factor analysis uncovered an underlying structure of four factors, explaining 50% of the variance. We can conclude that Greek FAQLQ-CF is a reliable, valid, discriminant tool for interviewing food allergic children aged 8-12, detecting those in need for immediate care.

  17. Dominant, non-MHC genetic control of food allergy in an adjuvant-free mouse model.

    PubMed

    Parvataneni, S; Birmingham, N P; Gonipeta, B; Gangur, V

    2009-10-01

    Food allergy is a potentially fatal immune-mediated disorder with incompletely understood mechanisms. We studied the genetic control of food allergy using major histocompatibility complex-identical mice (H2(s)) and an adjuvant-free method of sensitization. Whereas, transdermal exposure to hazelnut - a model allergenic food, elicited robust IgG1 response in both strains, an IgE response was evident only in A.SW mice. Following oral challenge, only A.SW but not SJL mice exhibited signs of systemic anaphylaxis and hypothermia. In addition, (A.SW x SJL) F1 hybrids exhibited IgE responsiveness, systemic anaphylaxis and hypothermia similar to A.SW, indicating dominant inheritance of these traits. Furthermore, whereas A.SW and F1 mice but not SJL elicited robust interleukin (IL)-4 response, all three strains elicited IL-5 and IL-13 responses by spleen cells. These data demonstrate for the first time, dominant non-MHC genetic control of food allergy and a critical role of IL-4 but not IL-5 or IL-13 in this model. PMID:19624800

  18. Food allergy: a clinician's criteria for including sera in a serum bank.

    PubMed

    Ballmer-Weber, B K; Fernández-Rivas, M

    2008-10-01

    Safety assessment for genetically-engineered crop plants includes assessment for allergic responses. To facilitate this assessment, serum banks should contain well-characterised sera from patients with confirmed food allergies. A serum is defined as well-characterised if it is taken from a patient who has a convincing history of allergic responses to a known allergen or an allergen-containing food, a positive skin prick test (or elevated IgE response), and a positive response in a clinical food challenge.

  19. [Allergy to iodinated drugs and to foods rich in iodine: Iodine is not the allergenic determinant].

    PubMed

    Dewachter, Pascale; Mouton-Faivre, Claudie

    2015-11-01

    "Iodine allergy" does not exist. The concept of "iodine allergy" should be abandoned since it may result in inappropriate measures such as drug, food or environmental eviction. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast media is not infrequent. The corresponding allergens have not been identified. Iodine is not involved. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to povidone iodine is rare. The corresponding allergen is povidone in case of immediate hypersensitivity while nonoxynol might be involved during non-immediate hypersensitivity. Seafood allergens belong to a group of muscle proteins. Immediate drug hypersensitivity or food hypersensitivity is assessed by immediate-reading skin tests while non-immediate drug hypersensitivity is investigated by delayed-reading skin testing. Combined histamine and tryptase measurement is invaluable during the diagnostic approach of immediate hypersensitivity. Other biological tests are being evaluated. Allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast agents does not contraindicate the use of other iodinated drugs.

  20. [Allergy to iodinated drugs and to foods rich in iodine: Iodine is not the allergenic determinant].

    PubMed

    Dewachter, Pascale; Mouton-Faivre, Claudie

    2015-11-01

    "Iodine allergy" does not exist. The concept of "iodine allergy" should be abandoned since it may result in inappropriate measures such as drug, food or environmental eviction. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast media is not infrequent. The corresponding allergens have not been identified. Iodine is not involved. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to povidone iodine is rare. The corresponding allergen is povidone in case of immediate hypersensitivity while nonoxynol might be involved during non-immediate hypersensitivity. Seafood allergens belong to a group of muscle proteins. Immediate drug hypersensitivity or food hypersensitivity is assessed by immediate-reading skin tests while non-immediate drug hypersensitivity is investigated by delayed-reading skin testing. Combined histamine and tryptase measurement is invaluable during the diagnostic approach of immediate hypersensitivity. Other biological tests are being evaluated. Allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast agents does not contraindicate the use of other iodinated drugs. PMID:26387623

  1. The influence of early life exposures on food sensitization and food allergy in an inner-city birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Emily C.; Bloomberg, Gordon R.; Gergen, Peter J.; Visness, Cynthia M.; Jaffee, Katy F.; Sandel, Megan; O’Connor, George; Kattan, Meyer; Gern, James; Wood, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Previous data suggest that food allergy may be more common in inner-city children; however, these studies have not collected data on both sensitization and clinical reactivity, or early life exposures. Methods Children in the URECA birth cohort were followed through age 5 years. Household exposures, diet, clinical history, and physical examinations were assessed yearly; specific-IgE to milk, egg, and peanut were measured at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years. Based on sensitization (IgE≥0.35 kU/L) and clinical history over the five-year period, children were classified as food allergic (FA), possibly allergic, sensitized but tolerant, or not allergic/not sensitized. Results 516 children were included. Overall, 55.4% were sensitized (milk 46.7%, egg 31.0%, peanut 20.9%), while 9.9% were categorized as FA (peanut 6.0%, egg 4.3%, milk 2.7%, 2.5% >1 food). The remaining children were categorized as possibly allergic (17.0%), sensitized but tolerant (28.5%), and not sensitized (44.6%). Eighteen (3.5%) reported reactions to foods for which IgE was not measured. Food-specific IgE levels were similar in FA versus sensitized but tolerant children, except for egg, which was higher in FA at ages 1 and 2. FA was associated with recurrent wheeze, eczema, aeroallergen sensitization, male gender, breastfeeding, and lower endotoxin exposure in year 1, but not with race/ethnicity, income, tobacco exposure, maternal stress, or early introduction of solid foods. Conclusions Even given that this was designed to be a high-risk cohort, the cumulative incidence of food allergy is extremely high, especially considering the strict definition of food allergy that was applied and that only 3 common allergens were included. PMID:25129677

  2. In vivo and in vitro correlates of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Chua, Y Y; Bremner, K; Lakdawalla, N; Llobet, J L; Kokubu, H L; Orange, R P; Collins-Williams, C

    1976-08-01

    Sera of 86 patients clinically sensitive to foods were tested by passive sensitization of human and/or monkey lung (127 tests) and the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) (72 tests), using whole-food antigens; the results were compared with skin (prick) testing. Results of the prick test correlated with history in 76% of cases; lung sensitization correlated with history in 37% and with prick test in 57%; and RAST correlated with history in 54% and prick test in 72%. It is concluded that a very large percentage of adverse reactions to foods are IgE-mediated. The prick test is of use in diagnosis, particularly when combined with RAST; the lung sensitization test is technically impractical and not a reliable indicator. The best diagnostic method is careful history with food challenge and withdrawal and rechallenge; the latter is safe except in patients with a history of violent reaction.

  3. [Management of children with a food allergy and the Individualized Reception Plan].

    PubMed

    Antoine, L C

    2001-11-01

    Management of children with a food allergy can be difficult, because it depends in practice on several factors (the anaphylactic aspect of the allergen first). The success of this undertaking follows from the good education to manage the allergic risk. So, this undertaking is mainly based on the determining of the allergic risk. This risk is itself determined by a diagnosis and an allergic check-up which has to be as pertinent as possible. For the time being, the IRP is applicable at school, but its measures have to cover all the places where the child can be away from his family. Its two main goals are to fight against exclusion and to avert the anaphylactic risk, putting a protocol for urgent intervention (first-aid kit and its instructions leaflet) at disposal at school, and training the scholar catering staff and the teachers in schools. We can distinguish some indisputable indications and others depending on the allergist's assessment (interest of the oral food challenge and an "Allergo-vigilance" used for example by the CICBAA). The parents of a child with a food allergy, the allergy physician, the National Education physician, the headmaster, are responsible for the application of the IRP. In Nantes, every IRP which needs adrenalin includes an auto-injectible pen, ANAPEN, according to a temporary authorization of use protocol.

  4. Heredity of food allergies in an unselected child population: an epidemiological survey from Finland.

    PubMed

    Pyrhönen, Kaisa; Hiltunen, Liisa; Kaila, Minna; Näyhä, Simo; Läärä, Esa

    2011-02-01

    The heredity of food allergies (FA) has not previously been addressed in a large unselected child population. Our target population comprised all children born from April 2001 to March 2006 resident in one province of South-East Finland (n c. 6000), as identified from the national population register. In a questionnaire survey conducted in 2005-2006, data were obtained on allergic manifestations (FA symptoms, atopic rash, allergic asthma, hay fever/pollen allergy, or animal allergy) in the biologic parents of 3800 children (64% of the total). Concurrently with the survey but independently of it, results of specific immunoglobulin E antibodies (sIgE), skin prick tests (SPT), and open food challenges (OFC) in the offspring were collected from patient records throughout the province. Up to the age of 4 yr, the incidences of any positive FA test, a positive SPT or sIgE for food items, and a positive OFC in these children were threefold higher if both parents reported having an allergic manifestation and twofold higher if either mother or father had such a manifestation when compared with children whose parents did not report any of these conditions. The estimated risk of any positive FA test increased by a factor of 1.3 (95% CI 1.2-1.4) for each additional allergic manifestation in the parents. Positive FA tests in the offspring were relatively strongly associated with the reports of allergic phenotypes and the number of these phenotypes in their biologic parents.

  5. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population completed validated measures of QoL, anxiety, depression, and stress. Results. Parents of children with food allergy (PA or MA) reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression than the control group (all p < 0.05). Parents of children with MA reported poorer food allergy related QoL compared to parents of children with PA (p < 0.05); parents of children with PA reported poorer general QoL compared to parents of children with MA (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Parents of children with food allergy have significantly poorer mental health compared to healthy controls, irrespective of whether food allergy is medically diagnosed or not. It is important to encourage parents to have their child medically tested for food allergy and to recognise and refer for psychological support where needed. PMID:27429624

  6. INCIDENCE OF APNEA ATTACK AS ALLERGIC REACTION AFTER ORAL FOOD CHALLENGE IN PATIENT WITH IgE-MEDIATED WHEAT ALLERGY.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and might cause death. Although wheezes, dyspnea or loss of consciousness are known to occur with severe allergic reactions with IgE-mediated food allergy, reports of apnea attack associated with IgE-mediated food allergy are rare. In this case, 9-year-old boy with IgE-mediated wheat allergy experienced apnea attack with strong desaturation after an immediate allergic reaction including erythema, abdominal pain, vomiting, and anaphylactic shock. The patient had asphyxia and cyanosis confirmed by medical staff when his oxygen saturation decreased to the 60% level, and he had occasional asphyxia over 10 seconds with no thoracic motion after a desaturation episode. Central apnea attack might be occurred in patient with IgE-mediated food allergy. However, the exact mechanism responsible remains unknown and further research is needed. PMID:27616176

  7. Food allergy: which tests are worth doing and which are not?

    PubMed

    Lock, Robert J; Unsworth, David J

    2011-07-01

    Adverse reactions to foods may arise by a variety of mechanisms, both immune (IgE and non-IgE) and non-immune mediated. This article considers those assays useful in the diagnosis of Type 1 hypersensitivity to foods (IgE-based) and, importantly, discusses those assays where evidence is lacking for their use. In all cases of suspected food allergy, a full clinical history is indispensable in facilitating diagnosis. Total serum IgE is not a suitable screen for food allergy. Suspect allergens may be confirmed by either skin prick testing or serological assays for specific IgE. Several studies suggest concentrations of food-specific IgE at which there is a high probability of reaction on food challenge. These cut-off levels are now being used by physicians to direct clinical advice. However, it is important to note that not all studies agree on these limits and the chosen cut-off is dependent on the population studied and the assay used.

  8. Food allergy in irritable bowel syndrome: The case of non-celiac wheat sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Mansueto, Pasquale; D’Alcamo, Alberto; Seidita, Aurelio; Carroccio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders, having a prevalence of 12%-30% in the general population. Most patients with IBS attribute their symptoms to adverse food reactions. We review the role of diet in the pathogenesis of IBS and the importance of dietary factors in the management of these patients. The MEDLINE electronic database (1966 to Jan 2015) was searched using the following keywords: “food”, “diet”, “food allergy”, “food hypersensitivity”, “food intolerance”, “IBS”, “epidemiology”, “pathogenesis”, “pathophysiology”, “diagnosis”, “treatment”. We found 153 eligible papers; 80 were excluded because: not written in English, exclusive biochemical and experimental research, case reports, reviews, and research otherwise not relevant to our specific interest. We selected 73 papers: 43 original papers, 26 reviews and 4 letters to the editor. These papers focused on IBS pathogenesis, the association between IBS and atopy, and between IBS and food allergy, the relationship between IBS and non-celiac wheat sensitivity, the role of diet in IBS. Pending further scientific evidence, a cautious approach is advisable but the concept of food allergy should be included as a possible cause of IBS, and a dietary approach may have a place in the routine clinical management of IBS. PMID:26109796

  9. The evaluation of a food allergy and epinephrine autoinjector training program for personnel who care for children in schools and community settings.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Ann; Stephens, Hilary; Ruffo, Mark; Jones, Amanda L

    2015-04-01

    With the dramatic increase in the incidence of food allergies, nurses and other school personnel are likely to encounter a child with food allergies. The objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of in-person training on enhancing knowledge about food allergies and improving self-confidence in preventing, recognizing, and treating food allergy reactions and to collect information about prior training and participation in response to food allergy incidents. A total of 4,818 individuals at 247 schools and community sites participated in the training program, which was delivered by a licensed registered nurse. Written evaluations, online surveys, and phone interviews were used to measure the impact including content retention, confidence, and behavior changes. The results of this study show that in-person training can increase participant's knowledge about food allergies and improve self-confidence in preventing, recognizing, and treating allergic reactions and that these gains were sustained over time. PMID:24643758

  10. The evaluation of a food allergy and epinephrine autoinjector training program for personnel who care for children in schools and community settings.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Ann; Stephens, Hilary; Ruffo, Mark; Jones, Amanda L

    2015-04-01

    With the dramatic increase in the incidence of food allergies, nurses and other school personnel are likely to encounter a child with food allergies. The objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of in-person training on enhancing knowledge about food allergies and improving self-confidence in preventing, recognizing, and treating food allergy reactions and to collect information about prior training and participation in response to food allergy incidents. A total of 4,818 individuals at 247 schools and community sites participated in the training program, which was delivered by a licensed registered nurse. Written evaluations, online surveys, and phone interviews were used to measure the impact including content retention, confidence, and behavior changes. The results of this study show that in-person training can increase participant's knowledge about food allergies and improve self-confidence in preventing, recognizing, and treating allergic reactions and that these gains were sustained over time.

  11. The role of natural color additives in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Lucas, C D; Hallagan, J B; Taylor, S L

    2001-01-01

    A critical evaluation of the available information demonstrates that reactions to natural color additives are rare. Studies of turmeric and carotenoid pigments administered in mixtures with other food colorings failed to definitely identify reactions to either color additive. For carotenoids, the one case report of an adverse reaction was not conclusive. An anaphylactic reaction to saffron does suggest an IgE-mediated reaction, but the high use of saffron as compared with this single report of an adverse reaction suggests that sensitivity to saffron is extremely rare. Numerous reports of reactions to grapes or grape products have been reported in the literature, but no reports of sensitivities to grape skin extract or grape color extract were found. In rare cases, annatto dye may provoke a severe, adverse reaction in individuals with an uncommon hypersensitivity, and may aggravate the symptoms of patients suffering from recurrent urticaria. In its long history of use, there has been only one reported case of anaphylaxis resulting from the ingestion of annatto. Studies designed to investigate the role of annatto in recurrent urticaria sufferers were limited due to the absence of double-blind challenge and placebo controls. A number of cases of adverse reactions to carmine following ingestion have been reported in the literature. These adverse reactions suggest an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. In many of the reported cases, the cause of sensitization to carmine was topical exposure from the use of carmine-containing cosmetics or occupational exposure to carmine and not from ingestion of carmine-containing foods and beverages. Following sensitization, affected individuals would be sensitive to carmine and the amounts present in foods and beverages could elicit allergic reactions. It is not known whether all individuals with carmine sensitivity induced through topical use are sensitive to the ingestion of carmine in foods. However, reactions to carmine solely because

  12. Anaphylaxis: a history with emphasis on food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Stephen R.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Summary In the century since Paul Portier and Charles Richet described their landmark findings of severe fatal reactions in dogs re-exposed to venom after vaccination with sea anemone venom, treatment for anaphylaxis continues to evolve. The incidence of anaphylaxis continues to be difficult to measure. Underreporting due to patients not seeking medical care as well as failure to identify anaphylaxis affects our understanding of the magnitude of the disease. Treatment with intramuscular epinephrine continues to be the recommended first line therapy although studies indicate that education of both the patients and the medical community is needed. Adverse food reactions continue to be the leading cause of anaphylaxis presenting for emergency care. Current therapy for food-induced anaphylaxis is built on the foundation of strict dietary avoidance, rapid access to injectable epinephrine, and education to recognize signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis. Investigation into therapy with oral and sublingual immunotherapy as well as other modalities holds hope for improved treatment of food-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:21682750

  13. Antigen exposure in the late light period induces severe symptoms of food allergy in an OVA-allergic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kana; Kitagawa, Eri; Wada, Misaki; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Orihara, Kanami; Tahara, Yu; Nakao, Atsuhito; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-09-30

    The mammalian circadian clock controls many physiological processes that include immune responses and allergic reactions. Several studies have investigated the circadian regulation of intestinal permeability and tight junctions known to be affected by cytokines. However, the contribution of circadian clock to food allergy symptoms remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of the circadian clock in determining the severity of food allergies. We prepared an ovalbumin food allergy mouse model, and orally administered ovalbumin either late in the light or late in the dark period under light-dark cycle. The light period group showed higher allergic diarrhea and weight loss than the dark period group. The production of type 2 cytokines, IL-13 and IL-5, from the mesenteric lymph nodes and ovalbumin absorption was higher in the light period group than in the dark period group. Compared to the dark period group, the mRNA expression levels of the tight junction proteins were lower in the light period group. We have demonstrated that increased production of type 2 cytokines and intestinal permeability in the light period induced severe food allergy symptoms. Our results suggest that the time of food antigen intake might affect the determination of the severity of food allergy symptoms.

  14. Translation, Adaptation and Initial Validation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire: Child form in Greek

    PubMed Central

    Morou, Zoe; Lyrakos, Georgios N.; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D.K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Food Allergy Quality of life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF). After linguistic validation, the Greek FAQLQ-CF, Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used by a physician to interview children diagnosed with food allergy and aged 8-12 via telephone. Cronbach’s alpha was used to evaluate reliability, and factor analysis to assess construct validity. The correlation between FAQLQ-CF and FAIM was moderate (rho=0.509, P<0.001) and internal consistency was strong (Cronbach’s alpha 0.905). FAQLQ-CF discriminated well each question’s contribution to children’s quality of life deterioration (32-80%), each child’s quality of life (17-89%), children differing in doing things with others (total score 3.55 vs 2.57, difference =0.98 > minimal clinical importance difference = 0.5; P<0.001), but not children differing in reporting anaphylaxis. The total FAQLQ-CF score correlated with the total PedsQL™ score and with the score of one of PedsQL™ subscales, demonstrating convergent validity. Factor analysis uncovered an underlying structure of four factors, explaining 50% of the variance. We can conclude that Greek FAQLQ-CF is a reliable, valid, discriminant tool for interviewing food allergic children aged 8-12, detecting those in need for immediate care. PMID:27403459

  15. Disclosing food allergy status in schools: health-related stigma among school children in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Dean, Jennifer; Fenton, Nancy E; Shannon, Sara; Elliott, Susan J; Clarke, Ann

    2016-09-01

    In 2006, 3 years after the tragic death of 13-year-old Sabrina Shannon, the Province of Ontario (Canada) passed Sabrina's Law ushering in a new era of focus and concern for severe food allergic children at risk of anaphylaxis. Questions were raised at the time regarding the potential of doing more harm than good with the new legislation. This paper reports the experiences of health-related stigma among food allergic children at risk of anaphylaxis who were required to disclose their health status under this new legislation. In 2008, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 children and youth and their parents in order to explore the experiences living with a severe food allergy. This particular study explores their experiences of felt and enacted stigma in the school setting as a result of the disclosure process. Interviews were tape recorded with permission and transcribed for subsequent thematic analysis using NVIVO, a qualitative analysis software package. Results indicate that participants were stigmatised as a result of protective school policies under the law, and that created tension between their physical safety and social well-being. Sabrina's Law also led to a cultural shift in awareness of food allergies that resulted in some participants normalising their health status, offering promising directions for the future.

  16. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... fish allergy. Shellfish fall into two different groups: crustaceans (like shrimp, crab, or lobster) and mollusks (like ... shellfish on food labels, they are referring to crustacean shellfish. If you are allergic to mollusks, then ...

  17. Recommendations for the management of food allergies in a preschool/childcare setting and prevention of anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Ford, Lara S; Turner, Paul J; Campbell, Dianne E

    2014-07-01

    Food allergy and anaphylaxis occur most commonly in children under five, the majority of whom attend preschool and early childcare. Children under five differ significantly from school-aged children, as do their care environments, yet specific strategies for managing food allergies in early childcare settings are generally lacking in existing guidelines and legislation. In this review, we outline the scope of the problem, the unique challenges encountered in the preschool environment and existing policy and legislation in Australia, the US, Canada and the UK. We outline the management guidelines and resources available from specialist societies, and the evidence base for specific management strategies including voluntary versus legislative approaches, staff training and education, banning of foods, and availability of multiple and generic adrenaline auto-injectors. We call for greater uniformity and consistency of policy in regards to the recognition and management of infants and children with food allergy in the preschool environment and specific programmes and policies tailored to this environment.

  18. [Neurodermatitis and food allergy. Clinical relevance of testing procedures].

    PubMed

    Stiening, H; Szczepanski, R; von Mühlendahl, K E; Kalveram, C

    1990-12-01

    In 132 children with neurodermitis, we measured specific IgG and IgE antibodies against components of cow's milk, soy milk, and egg. In addition we performed epidermal tests by rubbing the nutrients onto the intact skin. The results were compared to the effect of complete omission of milk, egg, and soy during four weeks and with the outcome of subsequent reexposition. We used standardized scales to evaluate the neurodermitis and the skin reactions and for the clinical response to the oral challenge. The best prediction for the outcome of the oral challenge was obtained by the epidermal test which had to be done with whole milk, soy milk and egg white; there was no further advantage in testing egg yolk or soy oil. IgE antibodies followed next in their predictive value. No further precision was gained by the combination of epidermal testing with IgE results, by the measurement of IgE antibodies to the constituents of cow's milk, of IgG antibodies, and of the platelet count during oral challenging. Positive reactions to oral administration after four weeks' omission of allergenic food were relatively frequent in the age group below three years, but rare in school children and adolescents. PMID:2087240

  19. Does LEAP change the screening paradigm for food allergy in infants with eczema?

    PubMed

    Allen, K J; Koplin, J J

    2016-01-01

    The LEAP randomized controlled trial provides the first direct evidence that delayed introduction of peanut in an infant's diet significantly increases the risk of peanut allergy. However, as often is the case in ground-breaking research, the LEAP study raises almost as many questions as it resolves. Although the quality of design and excellence in study execution is unquestioned, the particular difficulty this study raises is how to generalize results from a trial of high-risk infants, which screened infants for the presence of peanut allergy prior to peanut introduction, to the general population. Although many existing infant feeding guidelines already allow for the introduction of allergenic foods from 4 to 6 months of age irrespective of co-existent risk factors for peanut allergy, these will now need to be revised to more strongly state that avoidance may be harmful. Interim guidelines have already been published which incorporate these recommendations. However, the question as to how to achieve timely introduction of peanut into an infant's diet in a safe and cost-effective way, particularly in high-risk infants, remains unresolved.

  20. Development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys: assessing knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Kim, Jennifer S; Springston, Elizabeth E; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin; Holl, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Background Parents of children with food allergy, primary care physicians, and members of the general public play a critical role in the health and well-being of food-allergic children, though little is known about their knowledge and perceptions of food allergy. The purpose of this paper is to detail the development of the Chicago Food Allergy Research Surveys to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among these three populations. Methods From 2006–2008, parents of food-allergic children, pediatricians, family physicians, and adult members of the general public were recruited to assist in survey development. Preliminary analysis included literature review, creation of initial content domains, expert panel review, and focus groups. Survey validation included creation of initial survey items, expert panel ratings, cognitive interviews, reliability testing, item reduction, and final validation. National administration of the surveys is ongoing. Results Nine experts were assembled to oversee survey development. Six focus groups were held: 2/survey population, 4–9 participants/group; transcripts were reviewed via constant comparative methods to identify emerging themes and inform item creation. At least 220 participants per population were recruited to assess the relevance, reliability, and utility of each survey item as follows: cognitive interviews, 10 participants; reliability testing ≥ 10; item reduction ≥ 50; and final validation, 150 respondents. Conclusion The Chicago Food Allergy Research surveys offer validated tools to assess food allergy knowledge and perceptions among three distinct populations: a 42 item parent tool, a 50 item physician tool, and a 35 item general public tool. No such tools were previously available. PMID:19664230

  1. Severe reaction in a child with asymptomatic codfish allergy: Food challenge reactivating recurrent pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An 8-year-old child during the first year of life manifested severe atopic dermatitis and chronic diarrhea with mucorrhea and rectal bleeding; a fish-free diet was started based on weakly positive skin-prick tests to codfish extract. At the age of 4 years the child began to suffer of recurrent pancreatitis. When he came to our attention for the evaluation of his fish allergy, he was asymptomatic; a weak reactivity to codfish was observed (SPTs: cod, 4 mm, sIgE ImmunoCAP: cod, 1.30kU/l). The food challenge test with cod was negative. When the child ate cod again, within 5 minutes, developed anaphylactic reaction and complained of abdominal pain compatible with pancreatitis (enzyme serum levels risen and parenchymal oedema at ultrasonography), that resolved within 7 days after specific therapy. This case raises two issues: the elimination diet in asymptomatic food allergy on the basis only of SPT and the ethicality of food challenge in gastrointestinal chronic disease. PMID:22571554

  2. [Use of the granulocytic myeloperoxidase release reaction to diagnose food additive allergies].

    PubMed

    Titova, N D

    2011-03-01

    Adverse reactions to food additives are difficult to diagnose due to the diversity of mechanisms involved in their realization and to the absence of reasonably reliable methods for their determination. Eighty-three patients with allergic diseases were examined using the granulocytic myeloperoxidase release reaction (MRR) to diagnose intolerance reactions to food additives (E102, E122, E124, E132, E110, E2111). MRR revealed leukocyte hypersensitivity to tartrazine in 10.8%, sunset yellow in 4.8%, ponceau in 13.2%, indigo carmine in 8.4%, carmoisine and benzoate in 9.6%. The findings were correlated with history data and the levels of IgE antibodies to these dyes. The practical use of the proposed MRR method makes it possible to enhance the accuracy of diagnosis of allergy to food additives. PMID:21584968

  3. Food sensitivity reported by patients with asthma and hay fever. A relationship between food sensitivity and birch pollen-allergy and between food sensitivity and acetylsalicylic acid intolerance.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, N E

    1978-08-01

    Among adult patients with bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis undergoing allergological investigation with skin test, nasal provocation test and RAST, 1129 answered a questionaire regarding food sensitivity (FS). 276 (24%) of the patients reported some kind of allergic symptoms on eating or handling various foods, of which hazel nut, apple and shell fish were the most often named. Females reported FS more often than males. A correlation was found between birch pollen allergy and FS with nuts, apple, peach, cherry, pear, plum, carrot and new potato. The higher the degree of birch pollen allergy, according to skin test, RAST or provocation test, the higher the frequency of FS. A correlation was found too between acetylsalicylic acid intolerance and FS with some foods, e.g. nuts, strawberry, almond, green pepper, hip, chocolate, egg, cabbage, milk and wine. The connection between birch pollen allergy and FS is probably explained by the structural relationship between birch pollen allergen and some allergens of the foodstuffs, whereas the high incidence of FS in acetylsalicylic acid-intolerant patients is probably explained by additives in foods as well as salicylates or benzoates naturally occurring in some food. PMID:717703

  4. Duration of a cow-milk exclusion diet worsens parents’ perception of quality of life in children with food allergies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Italy, rigorous studies obtained with specific and validated questionnaires that explore the impact of exclusion diets on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children with food allergies are lacking. In this cross-sectional study, we wished to validate the Italian version of a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire, and assess the impact of exclusion diets on the HRQoL in a cohort of Italian children with IgE-mediated food allergies. Methods Children on an exclusion diet for ≥1 food were enrolled consecutively, and their parents completed the validated Italian version of the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire–Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF) and Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM). Results Ninety-six parents of children aged 0–12 years answered the FAQLQ–PF. The validity of the construct of the questionnaire was assessed by correlation between the FAQLQ–PF and FAIM–PF (r = 0.85). The Italian version of the FAQLQ had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α >0.70). Factors that mainly influenced the HRQoL were older age, severity of food allergy, and the duration of the cow milk-exclusion diet. Conclusions The FAQLQ–PF, validated in Italian, is a reliable instrument. Worse QoL scores were observed among older children, those with severe systemic reactions, and those with a prolonged cow milk-free diet. It is very important to consider the QoL assessment as an integral part of food-allergy management. These results emphasize the need to administer exclusion diets only for the necessary time and the importance of assessment of the HRQoL in these patients. PMID:24308381

  5. "We don't have such a thing, that you may be allergic": Newcomers' understandings of food allergies in Canada.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Daniel W; Dean, Jennifer; Wilson, Kathi; Qamar, Zafar

    2015-06-01

    Food allergies are emerging as important public health risks in Canada, affecting 3-4% of adults and 6-7% of children. Despite much lower prevalence rates among recent immigrants (i.e. in the country less than 10 years), evidence has shown this population to be more concerned about the risks of food allergies than the general population and have unique experiences around purchasing foods for allergen-free environments. As a substantial and growing segment of the Canadian population, it is important to understand newcomers' perceptions and knowledge of food allergies and related policies developed to protect allergic children (e.g. nut-free schools and or classrooms). This paper draws upon the results of focus groups conducted with newcomers from food allergic households (i.e. directly affected), as well as those with school-aged children who have to prepare or buy foods for allergen-controlled classrooms or schools (i.e. indirectly affected) living in Mississauga, Ontario. Results indicate unique challenges and understandings of food allergies as a new and unfamiliar risk for most newcomers, particularly as the indirectly affected participants negotiate the policy landscape. The directly affected group highlights the supportive environment in Canada resulting from the same policies and increased awareness in the general population. PMID:25085906

  6. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  7. "We don't have such a thing, that you may be allergic": Newcomers' understandings of food allergies in Canada.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Daniel W; Dean, Jennifer; Wilson, Kathi; Qamar, Zafar

    2015-06-01

    Food allergies are emerging as important public health risks in Canada, affecting 3-4% of adults and 6-7% of children. Despite much lower prevalence rates among recent immigrants (i.e. in the country less than 10 years), evidence has shown this population to be more concerned about the risks of food allergies than the general population and have unique experiences around purchasing foods for allergen-free environments. As a substantial and growing segment of the Canadian population, it is important to understand newcomers' perceptions and knowledge of food allergies and related policies developed to protect allergic children (e.g. nut-free schools and or classrooms). This paper draws upon the results of focus groups conducted with newcomers from food allergic households (i.e. directly affected), as well as those with school-aged children who have to prepare or buy foods for allergen-controlled classrooms or schools (i.e. indirectly affected) living in Mississauga, Ontario. Results indicate unique challenges and understandings of food allergies as a new and unfamiliar risk for most newcomers, particularly as the indirectly affected participants negotiate the policy landscape. The directly affected group highlights the supportive environment in Canada resulting from the same policies and increased awareness in the general population.

  8. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy. PMID:27424134

  9. The biochemical basis and clinical evidence of food allergy due to lipid transfer proteins: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Van Winkle, R Christopher; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are ubiquitous proteins that are found in divergent plant species. Although the exact function of LTPs is not fully understood, LTPs are conserved across a broad range of plant species. Because LTPs share structural features, there is an increased probability for significant allergic cross-reactivity. The molecular features of LTPs also decrease the probability of degradation due to cooking or digestion, thereby increasing the probability of systemic absorption and severe allergic reactions. LTP allergy, unlike other forms of anaphylaxis, tends to occur more frequently in areas of lower latitude. The geographic distribution of LTP allergy, along with evidence of increased sensitization after respiratory exposure, has led to the hypothesis that LTP-related food allergy may be secondary to sensitization via the respiratory route. Clinical reactions associated with LTPs have broad clinical phenotypes and can be severe in nature. Life-threatening clinical reactions have been associated with ingestion of a multitude of plant products. Component-resolved diagnosis has played a significant role in research applications for LTP allergy. In the future, component-resolved diagnosis may play a significant role in day-to-day clinical care. Also, quantitative analysis of LTPs in foodstuffs may allow for the identification and/or production of low-LTP foods, thereby decreasing the risk to patients with LTP allergy. Furthermore, sublingual immunotherapy may provide a therapeutic option for patients with LTP allergy.

  10. Don't Forget to Pack My EpiPen[R] Please: What Issues Does Food Allergy Present for Children's Starting School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy impairs the health-related quality of life of both the affected children and their families. In particular, parents and children become anxious about the potential risks and consequences of food allergy, including disruptions in families' and children's social activities, the need for constant vigilance, children's safety, and the…

  11. An assessment of the mental health care needs and utilization by families of children with a food allergy.

    PubMed

    Annunziato, Rachel A; Shemesh, Eyal; Weiss, Christopher C; Izzo, Genevieve N; D'Urso, Christine; Sicherer, Scott H

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether caretakers of children with a food allergy experience distress and to determine their family's mental health-care needs and utilization. An anonymous survey was given to a sample of 454 caretakers during conferences hosted by the Food Allergy & Anaphylaxis Network. Overall, 32 percent of caretakers reported above threshold levels of distress while 70 percent stated that mental health support would have been helpful, but only 23 percent sought it. Even when mental health support was desired and available, few received it. Routine discussion of mental health needs with families receiving medical care may help address barriers to utilization.

  12. The challenge of making the school environment safe for children with food allergies.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, J M

    2000-04-01

    An ever-increasing number of children are entering schools with life-threatening food allergies. Despite efforts of well-educated school nurses, Sampson, Mendelson, and Rosen (1992) found more children succumbed to a fatal anaphylactic shock at school than at home or another setting. The strain on the school nurse who works on the front lines in an attempt to keep these children safe is evident. Because so many schools do not have a full-time nurse, it is essential for faculty to recognize when children are having a reaction and know what emergency steps to take. The school nurse has the responsibility for devising an emergency plan for the school in the event of her absence. Disseminating general information about anaphylactic reactions and specific information about how to read a label in order to avoid an allergen is essential. Legal ramifications regarding the children's right to privacy and the right to be educated along with their peers as well as laws that protect the non-nursing professional who gives nursing care, including use of an Epi-pen, need to be explained to staff. Because parents of children with food allergies are often frightened of the dangers their children may encounter when in the school environment, they require support and affirmation. PMID:11151543

  13. Potential role of antioxidant food supplements, preservatives and colorants in the pathogenesis of allergy and asthma.

    PubMed

    Zaknun, Daniela; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Kurz, Katharina; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    A significant increase in the incidence of allergy and asthma has been observed during the past decades. The background of this phenomenon has not been well explained, but changes in lifestyle and habits are heavily discussed as contributing factors. Among these is a too clean environment, which may predispose individuals to increased sensitivity to allergic responses. Also the increase in dietary supplements including preservatives and colorants may contribute to this. In vitro, we and others have shown in freshly isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells that antioxidant compounds like vitamins C and E as well as food preservatives and colorants exert significant suppressive effects on the Th1 immune activation cascade. The effects observed may be based on the interaction of antioxidant compounds with proinflammatory cascades involving important signal transduction elements such as nuclear factor-κB. Although only obtained in vitro, these results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity. This review article discusses the potential role of increased use of antioxidant food supplements as well as preservatives and colorants in the increase in allergy and asthma in the Western world.

  14. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools, Datasets, & Services NIAID offers resources such as technologies available for licensing or collaboration, computer applications, and ... Substitution Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Transmission Electron Microscopy ... Transfer & Intellectual Property Model Agreements & Definitions Model Licenses ...

  15. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... form of belly cramps, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Respiratory system. Symptoms can range from a runny or stuffy ... more of the body systems above (skin, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems), such as hives combined with abdominal pain, or ...

  16. Learning about Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Well, you and your dad may have allergies. Chain Reaction An allergy (say: al -ur-jee) is your immune system's reaction to certain plants, animals, foods, insect bites , or other things. Your immune system ...

  17. Parental anxiety before and after food challenges in children with suspected peanut and hazelnut allergy.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, Wieneke T; Flinterman, Annebeth E; Soeters, Lotte; Knulst, André C; Sinnema, Gerben; L'Hoir, Monique P; Pasmans, Suzanne G

    2010-03-01

    As ingestion of peanut and hazelnut by allergic children is potentially life threatening, parents of these children need to be vigilant about their child's dietary intake. This may cause high levels of anxiety. To assess parental anxiety about food-allergic reaction in their child (state anxiety) and their personal disposition to anxiety (trait anxiety). Parental anxiety was investigated again after food challenges. Fifty-seven children (3-16 yr, mean age 7.2) with suspected peanut or hazelnut allergy (mean specific IgE 20.9) were evaluated by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Thirty-two children (56%) developed an allergic reaction. All parents completed the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) prior to DBPCFC and 2 wk, 3 months and 1 yr thereafter. The mean anxiety scores on these moments were compared with each other and with general Dutch norms. The STAI was also investigated in a group that refused DBPCFC. Prior to DBPCFC, parents had high levels of state anxiety in contrast to a lower trait anxiety compared to the norm group. After DBPCFC, the state anxiety was significantly lower, regardless of a positive or negative outcome (pallergy show high levels of anxiety about a food-allergic reaction. After DBPCFC, the anxiety was significantly lower, even in the group with a positive outcome.

  18. Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Marcello; D'Auria, Enza; Caffarelli, Carlo; Verduci, Elvira; Barberi, Salvatore; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Iacono, Iride Dello; Martelli, Alberto; Riva, Enrica; Bernardini, Roberto

    2014-01-03

    Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy.It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth. Nutritional intervention depends on the subject's nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis. The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history. It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly. The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet. The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern.

  19. Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Marcello; D'Auria, Enza; Caffarelli, Carlo; Verduci, Elvira; Barberi, Salvatore; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Iacono, Iride Dello; Martelli, Alberto; Riva, Enrica; Bernardini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy.It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth. Nutritional intervention depends on the subject's nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis. The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history. It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly. The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet. The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern. PMID:24386882

  20. Baicalein induces CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and enhances intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Kwon, Da-Ae; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy, which is triggered by allergen permeation of the gastrointestinal tract followed by a T-helper (Th) 2-mediated immune response, has been increasing annually worldwide. We examined the effects of baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis used in oriental herbal medicine, on regulatory T (Treg) cell induction and intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions in a mouse model of food allergy. An allergic response was induced by oral challenge with ovalbumin, and the incidence of allergic symptoms and T cell-related activity in the mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed with and without the presence of baicalein. Our results demonstrated that the administration of baicalein ameliorated the symptoms of food allergy and attenuated serum IgE and effector T cells. However, Treg-related factors were up-regulated by baicalein. Furthermore, baicalein was shown to enhance intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions. We also found that baicalein treatment induced the differentiation of Treg cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs). Thus, the action of baicalein as an agonist of AhR can induce Treg differentiation and enhance barrier function, suggesting that baicalein might serve as an effective immune regulator derived from foods for the treatment of food allergy.

  1. Baicalein induces CD4+Foxp3+ T cells and enhances intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Kwon, Da-Ae; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy, which is triggered by allergen permeation of the gastrointestinal tract followed by a T-helper (Th) 2-mediated immune response, has been increasing annually worldwide. We examined the effects of baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis used in oriental herbal medicine, on regulatory T (Treg) cell induction and intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions in a mouse model of food allergy. An allergic response was induced by oral challenge with ovalbumin, and the incidence of allergic symptoms and T cell-related activity in the mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed with and without the presence of baicalein. Our results demonstrated that the administration of baicalein ameliorated the symptoms of food allergy and attenuated serum IgE and effector T cells. However, Treg-related factors were up-regulated by baicalein. Furthermore, baicalein was shown to enhance intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions. We also found that baicalein treatment induced the differentiation of Treg cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs). Thus, the action of baicalein as an agonist of AhR can induce Treg differentiation and enhance barrier function, suggesting that baicalein might serve as an effective immune regulator derived from foods for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:27561877

  2. Baicalein induces CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and enhances intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Kwon, Da-Ae; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy, which is triggered by allergen permeation of the gastrointestinal tract followed by a T-helper (Th) 2-mediated immune response, has been increasing annually worldwide. We examined the effects of baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis used in oriental herbal medicine, on regulatory T (Treg) cell induction and intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions in a mouse model of food allergy. An allergic response was induced by oral challenge with ovalbumin, and the incidence of allergic symptoms and T cell-related activity in the mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed with and without the presence of baicalein. Our results demonstrated that the administration of baicalein ameliorated the symptoms of food allergy and attenuated serum IgE and effector T cells. However, Treg-related factors were up-regulated by baicalein. Furthermore, baicalein was shown to enhance intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions. We also found that baicalein treatment induced the differentiation of Treg cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs). Thus, the action of baicalein as an agonist of AhR can induce Treg differentiation and enhance barrier function, suggesting that baicalein might serve as an effective immune regulator derived from foods for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:27561877

  3. Allergy Testing.

    PubMed

    Tourlas, Konstantinos; Burman, Deepa

    2016-09-01

    Allergic diseases are common in outpatient primary care. Allergy testing can guide management to determine allergy as a cause of symptoms and target therapeutic interventions. This article provides a review of common methods of allergy testing available so that physicians may counsel and refer patients appropriately. Immediate-type hypersensitivity skin tests can be used for airborne allergens, foods, insect stings, and penicillin. Radioallergosorbent testing can be used to evaluate immediate-type hypersensitivity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity or patch-type skin tests are used in patients with suspected contact dermatitis. PMID:27545728

  4. Safety assessment of biotechnology products for potential risk of food allergy: implications of new research.

    PubMed

    Selgrade, MaryJane K; Bowman, Christal C; Ladics, Gregory S; Privalle, Laura; Laessig, Susan A

    2009-07-01

    Food allergy is a potential risk associated with use of transgenic proteins in crops. Currently, safety assessment involves consideration of the source of the introduced protein, in silico amino acid sequence homology comparisons to known allergens, physicochemical properties, protein abundance in the crop, and, when appropriate, specific immunoglobulin E binding studies. Recently conducted research presented at an International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute-hosted workshop adds to the scientific foundation for safety assessment of transgenic proteins in five areas: structure/activity, serum screening, animal models, quantitative proteomics, and basic mechanisms. A web-based tool is now available that integrates a database of allergenic proteins with a variety of computational tools which could be used to improve our ability to predict allergenicity based on structural analysis. A comprehensive strategy and model protocols have been developed for conducting meaningful serum screening, an extremely challenging process. Several animal models using oral sensitization with adjuvant and one dermal sensitization model have been developed and appear to distinguish allergenic from non-allergenic food extracts. Data presented using a mouse model suggest that pepsin resistance is indicative of allergenicity. Certain questions remain to be addressed before considering animal model validation. Gel-free mass spectrometry is a viable alternative to more labor-intensive approaches to quantitative proteomics. Proteomic data presented on four nontransgenic varieties of soy suggested that if known allergen expression in genetically modified crops falls within the range of natural variability among commercial varieties, there appears to be no need to test further. Finally, basic research continues to elucidate the etiology of food allergy. PMID:19363142

  5. Safety assessment of biotechnology products for potential risk of food allergy: implications of new research.

    PubMed

    Selgrade, MaryJane K; Bowman, Christal C; Ladics, Gregory S; Privalle, Laura; Laessig, Susan A

    2009-07-01

    Food allergy is a potential risk associated with use of transgenic proteins in crops. Currently, safety assessment involves consideration of the source of the introduced protein, in silico amino acid sequence homology comparisons to known allergens, physicochemical properties, protein abundance in the crop, and, when appropriate, specific immunoglobulin E binding studies. Recently conducted research presented at an International Life Sciences Institute/Health and Environmental Sciences Institute-hosted workshop adds to the scientific foundation for safety assessment of transgenic proteins in five areas: structure/activity, serum screening, animal models, quantitative proteomics, and basic mechanisms. A web-based tool is now available that integrates a database of allergenic proteins with a variety of computational tools which could be used to improve our ability to predict allergenicity based on structural analysis. A comprehensive strategy and model protocols have been developed for conducting meaningful serum screening, an extremely challenging process. Several animal models using oral sensitization with adjuvant and one dermal sensitization model have been developed and appear to distinguish allergenic from non-allergenic food extracts. Data presented using a mouse model suggest that pepsin resistance is indicative of allergenicity. Certain questions remain to be addressed before considering animal model validation. Gel-free mass spectrometry is a viable alternative to more labor-intensive approaches to quantitative proteomics. Proteomic data presented on four nontransgenic varieties of soy suggested that if known allergen expression in genetically modified crops falls within the range of natural variability among commercial varieties, there appears to be no need to test further. Finally, basic research continues to elucidate the etiology of food allergy.

  6. Scurvy in the present times: vitamin C allergy leading to strict fast food diet.

    PubMed

    Shaath, Tarek; Fischer, Ryan; Goeser, Megan; Rajpara, Anand; Aires, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    Scurvy results from a deficiency of vitamin C, a nutrient otherwise known as ascorbic acid. Today, scurvy is rare yet emerges in select patients. The patient reported herein developed scurvy secondary to deliberate avoidance of vitamin C-rich foods. Classic cutaneous manifestations of scurvy include follicular hyperkeratosis and perifollicular hemorrhage encompassing coiled "corkscrew" hairs and hairs bent into "swan-neck" deformities. Ecchymoses, purpura, and petechiae are also characteristically prominent. Classic oral abnormalities include erythematous, swollen gingivae that hemorrhage from subtle microtrauma.Subungual linear splinter hemorrhages may also manifest as a sign of the disease. To establish the diagnosis requirements include characteristic physical exam findings, evidence of inadequate dietary intake, and rapid reversal of symptoms upon supplementation. Although unnecessary for diagnosis, histological findings demonstrate perifollicular inflammation and hemorrhage, fibrosis, and hyperkeratosis, amongst dilated hair follicles and keratin plugging. Although citrus fruit allergies have been historically documented, ascorbic acid has not been previously reported as an allergen. Although lacking absolute certainty, this report suggests a presumed case of ascorbic acid allergy based on patient history and favorable response to ascorbic acid desensitization therapy.

  7. Scurvy in the present times: vitamin C allergy leading to strict fast food diet.

    PubMed

    Shaath, Tarek; Fischer, Ryan; Goeser, Megan; Rajpara, Anand; Aires, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Scurvy results from a deficiency of vitamin C, a nutrient otherwise known as ascorbic acid. Today, scurvy is rare yet emerges in select patients. The patient reported herein developed scurvy secondary to deliberate avoidance of vitamin C-rich foods. Classic cutaneous manifestations of scurvy include follicular hyperkeratosis and perifollicular hemorrhage encompassing coiled "corkscrew" hairs and hairs bent into "swan-neck" deformities. Ecchymoses, purpura, and petechiae are also characteristically prominent. Classic oral abnormalities include erythematous, swollen gingivae that hemorrhage from subtle microtrauma.Subungual linear splinter hemorrhages may also manifest as a sign of the disease. To establish the diagnosis requirements include characteristic physical exam findings, evidence of inadequate dietary intake, and rapid reversal of symptoms upon supplementation. Although unnecessary for diagnosis, histological findings demonstrate perifollicular inflammation and hemorrhage, fibrosis, and hyperkeratosis, amongst dilated hair follicles and keratin plugging. Although citrus fruit allergies have been historically documented, ascorbic acid has not been previously reported as an allergen. Although lacking absolute certainty, this report suggests a presumed case of ascorbic acid allergy based on patient history and favorable response to ascorbic acid desensitization therapy. PMID:26990475

  8. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice, the staple food of South and East Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16 kDa, 26 kDa, 33 kDa and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Re...

  9. Use of a chemically defined hypoallergenic diet (Vivonex in the management of patients with suspected food allergy/intolerance.

    PubMed

    Dockhorn, R J; Smith, T C

    1981-10-01

    The use of a hypoallergenic diet was evaluated in patients suspected of food allergy/intolerance. Symptom scores for one week of regular diet were compared with symptom scores while taking Vivonex. Results indicate that patients had fewer symptoms while on Vivonex than during the preceding week of normal diet.

  10. Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies. A Selective Bibliography. Exceptional Child Bibliography Series No. 602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    The annotated bibliography on Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies contains approximately 65 abstracts and associated indexing information for documents or journal articles published from 1968 to 1975 and selected from the computer files of the Council for Exceptional Children's Information Services and the Education Resources…

  11. Mold Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Allergist Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Mold Allergy What Is a Mold Allergy? If you have an allergy that occurs ... or basement. What Are the Symptoms of a Mold Allergy? The symptoms of mold allergy are very ...

  12. Fennel allergy is a lipid-transfer protein (LTP)-related food hypersensitivity associated with peach allergy.

    PubMed

    Pastorello, Elide A; Farioli, Laura; Stafylaraki, Chrysi; Scibilia, Joseph; Giuffrida, Maria G; Mascheri, Ambra; Piantanida, Marta; Baro, Cristina; Primavesi, Laura; Nichelatti, Michele; Schroeder, Jan W; Pravettoni, Valerio

    2013-01-23

    Fennel allergy has been rarely reported, and the association with peach allergy has never been described. Our aim was to (i) study the correlation between symptom severity of peach and fennel and (ii) identify fennel allergens and the role of rPru p 3 antibodies in severe reactions to fennel. In 148 patients with peach allergy, we investigated 58 patients with symptoms and IgE antibodies positive to fennel. IgE to rPru p 1, 3, and 4 and rBet v 1, 2, and 4 were measured by immunoblotting, and the N-terminal amino acid sequences and relevant allergens were determined. We found significant association between severe reactions to fennel and peach (p = 0.0009). A major allergen was ~9 kDa lipid-transfer protein (LTP), cross-reactive with Pru p 3, a 15 kDa protein identified as a pathogenesis-related protein 1 of the Bet v 1 family. In conclusion, peach and fennel severe allergic symptoms are significantly related, and LTP is a major fennel allergen. Fennel should be included in the LTP syndrome.

  13. Translation to Portuguese and cultural adaptation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF).

    PubMed

    Couto, M; Silva, D; Piedade, S; Borrego, Lm; Flokstra-de Blok, B; Dunn Galvin, A; Morais-Almeida, M

    2016-05-01

    Food allergy is a health problem with significant negative impact in Quality of Life (QoL). We aimed to translate into Portuguese and culturally adapt to our population the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF). Cross-cultural translation was performed according to guidelines. Linguistic validation consisted in 3 steps: forward translation, backward translation and comprehensibility testing. A consensual version was obtained and tested in parents of food allergic children by cognitive debriefing. Twelve questionnaires were fulfilled, all completed in ≤ 15 min. No comments, doubts or suggestions were posed, except for 2 parents regarding a question about the number of food their children had to avoid. Two gave special positive feedback about the utility of FAQLQ-PF. Changes have been included after this pre-test in accordance to doubts and suggestions of participants, and the Portuguese version is now able to be used in clinics and research.

  14. [Basic principles of diet therapy in food allergy in young infants].

    PubMed

    Ladodo, K S; Kuvaeva, I B; Borovik, T E; Rybakova, E P; Veselova, O L

    1983-01-01

    Altogether 101 infants aged 3 weeks to 1 year with exudative-catarrhal diathesis and apotic dermatitis were examined. Sensitization of the infants with different protein fractions of cow's milk and egg protein was studied by the passive hemagglutination test with the use of antigenic erythrocyte diagnostic agents. In the majority of exudative-catarrhal diathesis cases and in medium-severe apotic dermatitis, sensitization with 2-3 antigens was noted, while in severe atopic dermatitis, sensitization with 4-5 antigens was recorded in over 40% of cases. On the basis of the data obtained there have been developed scientifically validated principles of dietetics for infants suffering from food allergy. PMID:6836998

  15. Mold Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Mold Allergy Share | Mold Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Mold Allergy Overview Molds are tiny fungi whose spores ...

  16. Flagellin modulates IgE expression in B cells to initiate food allergy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Jing; Ma, Na; Zeng, Lu; Mo, Li-Hua; Li, Xiao-Xi; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Yang, Bo; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Feng, Bai-Sui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The initiation mechanism of IgE expression has not been fully understood. Flagellin (FGN) is an important microbial factor in the regulation of immune responses in the intestine. This study tests a hypothesis that FGN plays a crucial role in the isotype switching of IgE in B cells and the initiation of food allergy. In this study, the expression of IgE in B cells was analyzed by real time RT-PCR, Western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation. A mouse model was developed to assess the role of Toll like receptor-5 in the development of IgE-mediated allergic reaction in the intestinal mucosa. The results showed that exposure to FGN suppressed the expression of Bcl6 in B cells via increasing the levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 7; the latter up regulated the levels of methylated H3K9 and H3K27, down regulated RNA polymerase II and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) at the Bcl6 promoter locus. Exposure to FGN and IL-4 markedly increased the expression of IgE in B cells via activating p300, H3K4, Pol II and STAT6 at the IgE promoter locus. As compared with the sensitized wild mice, the sensitized TLR5-deficient mice showed no detectable OVA-specific IgE in the serum; mast cells in the intestinal mucosa were not activated, no apparent allergic symptoms were evoked after the specific antigen challenge. In conclusion, FGN facilitates the initiation of food allergy in mice by triggering IgE transcription in B cells in a Th2 polarization environment via activating HDAC7 and suppressing Bcl6 expression. PMID:27398157

  17. Skin testing and food challenges for the evaluation of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Williams, L W

    2001-01-01

    Skin testing by prick technique has an excellent safety record in the evaluation of food hypersensitivity. Skin prick tests for the common food allergens are excellent tools for identifying those at very low risk of reaction on eating the food but are of variable value in identifying patients who will be positive on challenge. Intradermal skin tests to foods are less safe and appear to add no predictive information. Skin tests to less common food allergens, especially fruits, are less well characterized and may require use of the food item itself as the source of allergen rather than a commercial extract. For a few foods, the CAP system fluorescent enzyme immunoassay (Pharmacia, Peapack, NJ) recently has been shown to have good ability to identify patients at very high probability of reaction on oral challenge. Oral challenge remains the definitive method of demonstrating sensitivity or tolerance to a food. The double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge is the gold standard of diagnosis, but in many situations, simpler open or single-blind challenge procedures may be substituted. With careful, incremental dosing and a low starting dose, oral challenges for food hypersensitivity have an excellent safety record. Skin prick tests are of little value in the evaluation of adverse food reactions not mediated by IgE. Oral challenge is relied upon in this situation for definitive diagnosis, but challenges may be cumbersome if the time course of the presumed reaction is not rapid.

  18. Hypoallergenic legume crops and food allergy: factors affecting feasibility and risk.

    PubMed

    Riascos, John J; Weissinger, Arthur K; Weissinger, Sandra M; Burks, A Wesley

    2010-01-13

    Currently, the sole strategy for managing food hypersensitivity involves strict avoidance of the trigger. Several alternate strategies for the treatment of food allergies are currently under study. Also being explored is the process of eliminating allergenic proteins from crop plants. Legumes are a rich source of protein and are an essential component of the human diet. Unfortunately, legumes, including soybean and peanut, are also common sources of food allergens. Four protein families and superfamilies account for the majority of legume allergens, which include storage proteins of seeds (cupins and prolamins), profilins, and the larger group of pathogenesis-related proteins. Two strategies have been used to produce hypoallergenic legume crops: (1) germplasm lines are screened for the absence or reduced content of specific allergenic proteins and (2) genetic transformation is used to silence native genes encoding allergenic proteins. Both approaches have been successful in producing cultivars of soybeans and peanuts with reduced allergenic proteins. However, it is unknown whether the cultivars are actually hypoallergenic to those with sensitivity. This review describes efforts to produce hypoallergenic cultivars of soybean and peanut and discusses the challenges that need to be overcome before such products could be available in the marketplace.

  19. Allergies: The Hidden Hazard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1990-01-01

    Children can suffer from allergies that can markedly affect their behavior and school performance. Once an allergy is suspected, teachers and principals can consider allergens inside the school, outside the school, and related to problem foods or chemicals. A sidebar lists some allergy clues to watch for. Includes nine references. (MLH)

  20. Worldwide food allergy labeling and detection of allergens in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L

    2015-01-01

    The labeling of allergenic foods is an important public health measure to assist food-allergic consumers in avoiding foods that can cause allergic reactions. The regulatory framework for such labeling depends upon the selection of priority allergenic foods, which vary among countries. Most countries include milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, soybeans, and cereal sources of gluten on the priority allergenic foods list, as recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. However, a variety of other foods appear on the priority lists of some countries but not on others. Sesame seeds, molluscan shellfish, buckwheat, and mustard are identified in two or more countries. In most countries, all ingredients derived from these priority allergen sources must also be declared on labels by source. However, exemptions exist for some ingredients in some countries but not in others. Detection methods are critical for the enforcement of allergen labeling regulations and for the investigation of allergic reactions in the community by public health officials. The development of detection methods has advanced considerably over the past several decades and will be briefly reviewed in this chapter. Because of the emphasis on labeling and the development of detection methods, the ingredient statement on packaged food labels now contains more information than ever before to assist food-allergic consumers. PMID:26022883

  1. Worldwide food allergy labeling and detection of allergens in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L

    2015-01-01

    The labeling of allergenic foods is an important public health measure to assist food-allergic consumers in avoiding foods that can cause allergic reactions. The regulatory framework for such labeling depends upon the selection of priority allergenic foods, which vary among countries. Most countries include milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, soybeans, and cereal sources of gluten on the priority allergenic foods list, as recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. However, a variety of other foods appear on the priority lists of some countries but not on others. Sesame seeds, molluscan shellfish, buckwheat, and mustard are identified in two or more countries. In most countries, all ingredients derived from these priority allergen sources must also be declared on labels by source. However, exemptions exist for some ingredients in some countries but not in others. Detection methods are critical for the enforcement of allergen labeling regulations and for the investigation of allergic reactions in the community by public health officials. The development of detection methods has advanced considerably over the past several decades and will be briefly reviewed in this chapter. Because of the emphasis on labeling and the development of detection methods, the ingredient statement on packaged food labels now contains more information than ever before to assist food-allergic consumers.

  2. Occurrence of parent-reported food hypersensitivities and food allergies among children aged 1-4 yr.

    PubMed

    Pyrhönen, Kaisa; Näyhä, Simo; Kaila, Minna; Hiltunen, Liisa; Läärä, Esa

    2009-06-01

    Food allergies (FAs) and hypersensitivities (FHSs) have rarely been studied in large unselected child populations. This population-based cross-sectional survey estimated the occurrence of FHS as perceived by parents and that of FA diagnosed by a physician among children aged 1-4 yr in south-eastern Finland. Before the scheduled annual follow-up visit to the local child health clinic, the parents of children who were born between 1 April, 2001 and 31 March, 2005, and living in the Province of South Karelia (data from Finnish Population Register) were mailed a questionnaire containing items on the child's background, physician-diagnosed FAs and FHSs perceived by the parents. The questionnaires were returned during the visit. Three thousand three hundred and eight (69%) out of the 4779 questionnaires were returned. The lifetime prevalence of physician-diagnosed FAs was 9%. In an additional 21%, FHSs were perceived by the parents only. In a further 19% at least one food item had been eliminated from the diet without any perception of symptoms, this proportion having a downward trend by age. Physician-diagnosed FAs were more common in boys than in girls. Cow's milk was the most commonly reported cause of food-associated symptoms (13% of all children). One-third of the children aged 1-4 yr suffered from food-associated symptoms, and in an additional fifth at least one food item had been eliminated from their diet, implying that every other child had possibly been subjected to some form of elimination diet. PMID:19538354

  3. Specific immunotherapy plus Clostridium butyricum alleviates ulcerative colitis in patients with food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Bin Lan, B; Yang, Fan; Lu, Dong; Lin, Zhenlv

    2016-01-01

    The aberrant T cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis (UC). C. butyricum (Cb) is a probiotic and has been employed in the treatment of immune diseases. This study tests a hypothesis that specific immunotherapy (SIT) plus oral Cb (an over-the-counter probiotic) alleviates the UC symptoms. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical study at our hospital. A total of 80 patients with relapsing-remitting ulcerative colitis and high levels of specific IgE antibody was randomly divided into 4 groups, and were treated with SIT or/and Cb, or placebo, respectively for 1 year. The results showed that a food antigen-specific Th2 polarization immune response was observed in UC patients with food allergy (FA). The frequency of regulatory B cells was significantly less in UC patients with FA as compared with healthy subjects. The UC patients with FA were treated with SIT and Cb showed significant amelioration of UC clinical symptoms, reduction of using UC-control medicines, and suppression of the skewed Th2 polarization, which did not occur in those treated with either SIT alone, or Cb alone, or placebo. In conclusion, combination of SIT and Cb efficiently alleviates a fraction of UC patients. PMID:27167186

  4. Identification of rice proteins recognized by the IgE antibodies of patients with food allergies.

    PubMed

    Goliáš, Jaroslav; Humlová, Zuzana; Halada, Petr; Hábová, Věra; Janatková, Ivana; Tučková, Ludmila

    2013-09-18

    Similarity among food allergens is a great problem affecting the specificity of diagnosis and treatment of allergic patients. We have observed that 80% of patients with food (including wheat) and pollen allergies have increased IgE antibodies against rice proteins. By immunoblotting, we documented that boiling decreased solubility and IgE reactivity of PBS-extracted rice and wheat proteins, yet in SDS extracts this reactivity was only slightly changed. The sera of patients highly positive on the IgE immunoblot and positive in basophil activation and skin prick test with boiled rice components were used for characterizing the IgE-binding proteins separated by 1D or 2D electrophoresis. Using mass spectrometry, we identified 22 rice SDS soluble proteins. Six of them were new thermostable potential rice allergens: glutelin C precursor, granule-bound starch synthase 1 protein, disulfide isomerase-like 1-1 protein, hypothetical protein OsI_13867, putative acid phosphatase precursor 1, and a protein encoded by locus Os02g0453600. All of the identified rice proteins differed from known wheat allergens, except proteins belonging to the α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family. Furthermore, we would suggest that in patients with high IgE reactivity to wheat and rice components, the IgE immunoblot and skin prick test with boiled rice proteins could be beneficial before diet recommendation.

  5. Bugs for atopy: the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strategy for food allergy prevention and treatment in children.

    PubMed

    Cosenza, L; Nocerino, R; Di Scala, C; di Costanzo, M; Amoroso, A; Leone, L; Paparo, L; Pezzella, C; Aitoro, R; Berni Canani, R

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) is a major health issue for children living in Western countries. At this time the only proven treatment for FA is elimination of offender antigen from the diet. It is becoming clear that the development of gut microbiota exerts a profound influence on immune system maturation and tolerance acquisition. Increasing evidence suggests that perturbations in gut microbiota composition of infants are implicated in the pathogenesis of FA. These findings have unveiled new strategies to prevent and treat FA using probiotics bacteria or bacterial substance to limit T-helper (Th)/Th2 bias, which changes during the disease course. Selected probiotics administered during infancy may have a role in the prevention and treatment of FA. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is the most studied probiotic in this field. Administration of LGG in early life have a role in FA prevention. Preliminary evidence shows that LGG accelerates oral tolerance acquisition in cow's milk allergic infants. We are understanding the mechanisms elicited by LGG and metabolites in influencing food allergen sensitization. A deeper definition of these mechanisms is opening the way to new immunotherapeutics for children affected by FA that can efficiently limit the disease burden.

  6. Food allergy, a summary of eight cases in the UK criminal and civil courts: effective last resort for vulnerable consumers?

    PubMed

    Gowland, M Hazel; Walker, Michael J

    2015-08-15

    Food allergy has a forensic context. The authors describe eight cases in the UK courts involving fatalities, personal injury or criminal non-compliance with food law from mainly 'grey' literature sources. The potentially severe consequences for people with food allergy of contraventions of labelling law have led to enforcement action up to criminal prosecution for what might otherwise be regarded as 'trivial' non-compliance. The authors suggest there should be central collation of such cases. Non-compliances should be followed up in a more rapid and robust manner. Evidence of fraud in the catering supply chain supports recent calls for zero tolerance of food fraud. Businesses must guard against gaps in allergen management, for which there are readily available sources of training and guidance, but also against fraudulent substitution in the supply chain, about which training and guidance should be developed. New allergen labelling legislation and case law appear to place responsibility on food businesses even for the forensically problematic area of allergen cross-contamination. The courts can be an effective last resort for vulnerable consumers; however, there is evidence of knowledge and skill gaps in both the investigation and prosecution of potentially serious incidents of food allergen mismanagement and mislabelling. Thorough investigation of food allergy deaths is required with a tenacious and skilled approach, including early realisation that samples of the food and/or stomach contents from a post mortem examination should be retained and analysed. The supply chain must be rigorously examined to find out where adulteration or contamination with the fatal allergen occurred.

  7. School Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Management for the Pediatrician--Extending the Medical Home with Critical Collaborations.

    PubMed

    Pistiner, Michael; Devore, Cynthia DiLaura; Schoessler, Sally

    2015-12-01

    Community pediatricians, working in consultation with allergists, create a medical home that is the central focus of care for the child with life-threatening food allergies. They participate in coordinating mutual and critical collaborations within schools that support families and children. They can provide leadership and guidance to both families and schools to safeguard children and adolescents, thereby extending the medical home goals into the school setting. PMID:26456441

  8. [SEAFOOD ALLERGY IN ISRAEL].

    PubMed

    Rottem, Menachem

    2015-10-01

    Allergy to seafood such as shrimps, crab, lobster and fish eggs is relatively infrequent in Israel compared to fish allergies and allergies to other foods. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the population and restaurants preserve and maintain Kosher food. Changes in the population eating habits, partly due to immigration, were followed by increased frequency of such sensitivities in recent years. We describe three typical cases that illustrate the characteristics of allergy to sea foods. Allergy to seafood can present as a single sensitivity or be part of an allergic tendency, atopy, with other allergic manifestations. Diagnosis by allergy skin test or laboratory evaluation by specific IgE is available for most sea foods but not for fish eggs. The current therapeutic approach is strict avoidance and all patients should be provided with and carry with them an epinephrine auto-injector. PMID:26742225

  9. Raised number of jejunal IgG2-producing cells in untreated adult coeliac disease compared with food allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Rognum, T O; Kett, K; Fausa, O; Bengtsson, U; Kilander, A; Scott, H; Gaarder, P I; Brandtzaeg, P

    1989-01-01

    The subclass distribution of IgG-producing immunocytes was studied by two colour immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies in jejunal biopsy specimens from 10 adults with untreated coeliac disease, 11 coeliac disease patients on a gluten free diet, and seven patients with established food allergy. Paired immunofluorescence staining was performed with subclass specific murine monoclonal antibodies in combination with polyclonal rabbit antibody reagent to total IgG; the proportion of cells belonging to each subclass could thereby be determined. The ratio of IgG2 immunocytes was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in untreated coeliac disease patients (median, 35.2%; range, 26.7-65.2%) than in those on a gluten free diet (median, 7.3%; range, 0-31.9%) or those having food allergy (median, 12.5%; range, 0-36.5%). The disparity in the local IgG2 response between patients with untreated coeliac disease and those with food allergy might be due to differences in the nature of the antigenic stimuli, dissimilar genetic 'make-up' of the subjects, or both. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2599444

  10. Lack of Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor Attenuates Experimental Food Allergy but Not Its Metabolic Alterations regarding Adipokine Levels

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Nathália Vieira; Fonseca, Roberta Cristelli; Perez, Denise; Pereira, Rafaela Vaz Sousa; de Lima Alves, Juliana; Pinho, Vanessa; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; Cara, Denise Carmona

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is known to be an important mediator of anaphylaxis. However, there is a lack of information in the literature about the role of PAF in food allergy. The aim of this work was to elucidate the participation of PAF during food allergy development and the consequent adipose tissue inflammation along with its alterations. Our data demonstrated that, both before oral challenge and after 7 days receiving ovalbumin (OVA) diet, OVA-sensitized mice lacking the PAF receptor (PAFR) showed a decreased level of anti-OVA IgE associated with attenuated allergic markers in comparison to wild type (WT) mice. Moreover, there was less body weight and adipose tissue loss in PAFR-deficient mice. However, some features of inflamed adipose tissue presented by sensitized PAFR-deficient and WT mice after oral challenge were similar, such as a higher rate of rolling leukocytes in this tissue and lower circulating levels of adipokines (resistin and adiponectin) in comparison to nonsensitized mice. Therefore, PAF signaling through PAFR is important for the allergic response to OVA but not for the adipokine alterations caused by this inflammatory process. Our work clarifies some effects of PAF during food allergy along with its role on the metabolic consequences of this inflammatory process. PMID:27314042

  11. Molluscan shellfish allergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L

    2008-01-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the worldwide population. Immediate-type food allergies are mediated by the production of IgE antibodies to specific proteins that occur naturally in allergenic foods. Symptoms are individually variable ranging from mild rashes and hives to life-threatening anaphylactic shock. Seafood allergies are among the most common types of food allergies on a worldwide basis. Allergies to fish and crustacean shellfish are very common. Molluscan shellfish allergies are well known but do not appear to occur as frequently. Molluscan shellfish allergies have been documented to all classes of mollusks including gastropods (e.g., limpet, abalone), bivalves (e.g., clams, oysters, mussels), and cephalopods (e.g., squid, octopus). Tropomyosin, a major muscle protein, is the only well-recognized allergen in molluscan shellfish. The allergens in oyster (Cra g 1), abalone (Hal m 1), and squid (Tod p 1) have been identified as tropomyosin. Cross-reactivity to tropomyosin from other molluscan shellfish species has been observed with sera from patients allergic to oysters, suggesting that individuals with allergies to molluscan shellfish should avoid eating all species of molluscan shellfish. Cross-reactions with the related tropomyosin allergens in crustacean shellfish may also occur but this is less clearly defined. Occupational allergies have also been described in workers exposed to molluscan shellfish products by the respiratory and/or cutaneous routes. With food allergies, one man's food may truly be another man's poison. Individuals with food allergies react adversely to the ingestion of foods and food ingredients that most consumers can safely ingest (Taylor and Hefle, 2001). The allergens that provoke adverse reactions in susceptible individuals are naturally occurring proteins in the specific foods (Bush and Hefle, 1996). Molluscan shellfish, like virtually all foods that contain protein, can provoke allergic reactions in some

  12. Allergy assessment of foods or ingredients derived from biotechnology, gene-modified organisms, or novel foods.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Lars K

    2004-11-01

    The introduction of novel proteins into foods carries a risk of eliciting allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to the introduced protein and a risk of sensitizing susceptible individuals. No single predictive test exists to perform a hazard assessment in relation to allergenic properties of newly expressed proteins in gene-modified organisms (GMOs). Instead, performance of a weighted risk analysis based on the decision tree approach has been suggested. The individual steps of this analysis comprise sequence homology to known allergens, specific or targeted serum screens for immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactions to known allergens, digestability studies of the proteins in simulated gastric and/or intestinal fluids, and animal studies. These steps are discussed and five examples of risk evaluation of GMOs or novel foods are presented. These include ice-structuring protein derived from fish, microbial transglutaminase, GMO-soybeans, amylase and the Nangai nut.

  13. Validation of the English Version of the Scale for Psychosocial Factors in Food Allergy and the Relationship with Mental Health, Quality of Life, and Self-Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Knibb, Rebecca C; Cortes, Aaron; Barnes, Christopher; Stalker, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Scale for Psychosocial Factors in Food Allergy (SPS-FA) is based on the biopsychosocial model of health and was developed and validated in Chile to measure the interaction between psychological variables and allergy symptoms in the child. We sought to validate this scale in an English speaking population and explore its relationship with parental quality of life, self-efficacy, and mental health. Methods. Parents (n = 434) from the general population in the UK, who had a child with a clinical diagnosis of food allergy, completed the SPS-FA and validated scales on food allergy specific parental quality of life (QoL), parental self-efficacy, and general mental health. Findings. The SPS-FA had good internal consistency (alphas = .61-.86). Higher scores on the SPS-FA significantly correlated with poorer parental QoL, self-efficacy, and mental health. All predictors explained 57% of the variance in SPS-FA scores with QoL as the biggest predictor (β = .52). Discussion. The SPS-FA is a valid scale for use in the UK and provides a holistic view of the impact of food allergy on the family. In conjunction with health-related QoL measures, it can be used by health care practitioners to target care for patients and evaluate psychological interventions for improvement of food allergy management. PMID:27688785

  14. Validation of the English Version of the Scale for Psychosocial Factors in Food Allergy and the Relationship with Mental Health, Quality of Life, and Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Christopher; Stalker, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Scale for Psychosocial Factors in Food Allergy (SPS-FA) is based on the biopsychosocial model of health and was developed and validated in Chile to measure the interaction between psychological variables and allergy symptoms in the child. We sought to validate this scale in an English speaking population and explore its relationship with parental quality of life, self-efficacy, and mental health. Methods. Parents (n = 434) from the general population in the UK, who had a child with a clinical diagnosis of food allergy, completed the SPS-FA and validated scales on food allergy specific parental quality of life (QoL), parental self-efficacy, and general mental health. Findings. The SPS-FA had good internal consistency (alphas = .61–.86). Higher scores on the SPS-FA significantly correlated with poorer parental QoL, self-efficacy, and mental health. All predictors explained 57% of the variance in SPS-FA scores with QoL as the biggest predictor (β = .52). Discussion. The SPS-FA is a valid scale for use in the UK and provides a holistic view of the impact of food allergy on the family. In conjunction with health-related QoL measures, it can be used by health care practitioners to target care for patients and evaluate psychological interventions for improvement of food allergy management. PMID:27688785

  15. Validation of the English Version of the Scale for Psychosocial Factors in Food Allergy and the Relationship with Mental Health, Quality of Life, and Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Christopher; Stalker, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Scale for Psychosocial Factors in Food Allergy (SPS-FA) is based on the biopsychosocial model of health and was developed and validated in Chile to measure the interaction between psychological variables and allergy symptoms in the child. We sought to validate this scale in an English speaking population and explore its relationship with parental quality of life, self-efficacy, and mental health. Methods. Parents (n = 434) from the general population in the UK, who had a child with a clinical diagnosis of food allergy, completed the SPS-FA and validated scales on food allergy specific parental quality of life (QoL), parental self-efficacy, and general mental health. Findings. The SPS-FA had good internal consistency (alphas = .61–.86). Higher scores on the SPS-FA significantly correlated with poorer parental QoL, self-efficacy, and mental health. All predictors explained 57% of the variance in SPS-FA scores with QoL as the biggest predictor (β = .52). Discussion. The SPS-FA is a valid scale for use in the UK and provides a holistic view of the impact of food allergy on the family. In conjunction with health-related QoL measures, it can be used by health care practitioners to target care for patients and evaluate psychological interventions for improvement of food allergy management.

  16. [Gluten--mechanisms of intolerance, symptoms and treatment possibilities of IgE-related allergy for gluten in the light of actual clinical and immunological studies].

    PubMed

    Obtułowicz, Krystyna; Waga, Jacek; Dyga, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Gluten is the product of a chemical bond of wheat prolamin proteins (glia- dins and glutenins) in an aqueous me- dium. IgE mediated gluten allergy can be induced either by gluten as an in- gredient in foods or wheat prolamines present in the air. The aim of the study was clinical analysis of 13 patients, who demonstrated elevated levels of gluten specific IgE and identification of the most allergenic protein fractions from several samples of wheat using serum of examined subjects. Clinical analysis showed the occupational allergy to gluten in the form of rhinitis, asthma and airborne dermatistis in 9 subjects, whose symptoms disappeared during isolation from occupational exposure despite the use of a normal diet. In case of 4 patients with severe forms of chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis, who are also allergic to grass pollen at the same time, the introduction of a gluten-free diet resulted in improvement of health conditions. The study of wheat protein fractions revealed a significant polymorphism dependent on the wheat sample. In the protein fractions, low and high molecular glutenin fractions, and alpha, beta, gamma, and omega-gliadins were separated. It has been shown that the strongest immunogenic effect causes omega-5 gliadin fraction. The removal of this fraction resulted in reduction of skin reactivity evaluated by skin prick test in the studied patients.

  17. Prevalence of immediate-type food allergy in Korean schoolchildren: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Chae, Yoomi; Park, Yong Mean; Han, Man Yong; Lee, Kee-Jae; Kim, Ja Kyoung; Yang, Eun Seok; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2012-01-01

    Although the prevalence and causes of food allergy (FA) vary by geographic location, large well-designed epidemiological studies in Asia are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of immediate-type FA in the general population of Korean schoolchildren. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using a stratified two-stage cluster-sampling design. In this survey, children aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years were randomly selected, and the presence of FA was determined by a questionnaire survey and assessment of specific IgE. After adjustment for missing data, 3907 children aged 6-7 years and 3975 students aged 12-13 years who completed the questionnaire were included in this study. In children aged 6-7 years, the prevalence of confirmed immediate-type FA was 0.3%, and the prevalence of possible immediate-type FA was 0.3%. By contrast, 0.6 and 1.0% of children aged 12-13 years had confirmed immediate-type FA and possible immediate-type FA, respectively. In 6- to 7-year-old children, egg was the most frequent causative food associated with a confirmed or possible immediate-type FA. In 12- to 13-year-old children, crustaceans were the most frequent cause of confirmed immediate-type FA, and fruit was most frequently involved in possible immediate-type FA. This is the first nationwide population-based study of FA in Korean schoolchildren. Unlike in western countries, the prevalence of immediate-type FA seems to be low. In 12- to 13 year-old children with confirmed immediate-type FA, peanuts/tree nuts are not common causes, whereas crustaceans are frequent triggers. PMID:23394505

  18. Fighting Allergies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…

  19. Morphometric analysis of small intestine of BALB/c mice in models developed for food allergy study.

    PubMed

    Coura Oliveira, Tatiana; Gouveia Pelúzio, Maria do Carmo; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; da Silveira Mezêncio, Jose Mário; Bressan, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Although some animal models of food allergy in have already have been described, none of them uses the allergen in the animals' diet. This work describes the comparison between two developed models of food allergy in BALB/c mice, based in the administration of the allergen in the diet or by intragastric way. The experiment last for 28 days and the animals had been sensitized by means of subcutaneous injection in 1st and 14th days with in natura extract milk, bovine extract meat or frog extract meat. The experimental model that uses the allergen in the unbroken form presented morphometric alterations when compared with the one that used the heat treat allergen. It was noticed the existence of some more resistant proteins than others related to the denaturation, once compared the results of the two models; the differences had been more prominent for the milk and frog allergens. These results confirm the epidemiologic data of allergy incidence in the world's population.

  20. Proposal for a standardized interpretation of the atopy patch test in children with atopic dermatitis and suspected food allergy.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G; Verstege, Andrea; Mehl, Anne; Staden, Ute; Rolinck-Werninghaus, Claudia; Niggemann, Bodo

    2006-05-01

    The interpretation of the atopy patch test (APT) to foods is not standardized. This study aimed to validate the reading of the APT in terms of the diagnostic accuracy of individual skin signs. Eighty-seven children (mean age 2.4 +/- 2.5 yr, range 0.5-13.5; 57 male) with atopic dermatitis (AD) and suspected food allergies underwent APT to cow's milk, hen's egg, wheat and soy. Twelve-millimetre Finn chambers were applied for 48 h, and results were read after 48 and 72 h. Skin changes were graded for erythema, induration, papule formation and 'crescendo' phenomenon (increase of skin sign severity from 48 to 72 h). Food allergy was assessed by double blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC). Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for each skin signs in relation to challenge outcome. Of 165 DBPCFC children, 75 (45%) were positive. The combination of any skin induration plus papules (seven or more), or of moderate erythema plus any induration plus seven or more papules had a positive predictive value (PPV) and specificity for the challenge outcome of 100%; however, the sensitivity was low (8% and 15%). The best diagnostic accuracy for single signs was found for induration beyond the Finn chamber margin (PPV 88%, specificity 99%, sensitivity 9%) and presence of at least seven papules (PPV 80%, specificity 96% sensitivity 21%). Presence of both induration and of at least seven papules at 72 h were the APT skin signs with the greatest diagnostic accuracy for food allergy in children with AD.

  1. Tree Nut Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... tree nut used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  2. Development and Characterization of an Effective Food Allergy Model in Brown Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abril-Gil, Mar; Garcia-Just, Alba; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Background Food allergy (FA) is an adverse health effect produced by the exposure to a given food. Currently, there is no optimal animal model of FA for the screening of immunotherapies or for testing the allergenicity of new foods. Objective The aim of the present study was to develop an effective and rapid model of FA in Brown Norway rats. In order to establish biomarkers of FA in rat, we compared the immune response and the anaphylactic shock obtained in this model with those achieved with only intraperitoneal immunization. Methods Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) with alum and toxin from Bordetella pertussis, and 14 days later, OVA by oral route daily for three weeks (FA group). A group of rats receiving only the i.p. injection (IP group) were also tested. Serum anti-OVA IgE, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgA antibodies were quantified throughout the study. After an oral challenge, body temperature, intestinal permeability, motor activity, and mast cell protease II (RMCP-II) levels were determined. At the end of the study, anti-OVA intestinal IgA, spleen cytokine production, lymphocyte composition of Peyer’s patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, and gene expression in the small intestine were quantified. Results Serum OVA-specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b concentrations rose with the i.p. immunization but were highly augmented after the oral OVA administration. Anti-OVA IgE increased twofold during the first week of oral OVA gavage. The anaphylaxis in both IP and FA groups decreased body temperature and motor activity, whereas intestinal permeability increased. Interestingly, the FA group showed a much higher RMCP II serum protein and intestinal mRNA expression. Conclusions These results show both an effective and relatively rapid model of FA assessed by means of specific antibody titres and the high production of RMCP-II and its intestinal gene expression. PMID:25923134

  3. Prevention of Birch Pollen-Related Food Allergy by Mucosal Treatment with Multi-Allergen-Chimers in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoflehner, Elisabeth; Hufnagl, Karin; Schabussova, Irma; Jasinska, Joanna; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bohle, Barbara; Maizels, Rick M.; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Background Among birch pollen allergic patients up to 70% develop allergic reactions to Bet v 1-homologue food allergens such as Api g 1 (celery) or Dau c 1 (carrot), termed as birch pollen-related food allergy. In most cases, specific immunotherapy with birch pollen extracts does not reduce allergic symptoms to the homologue food allergens. We therefore genetically engineered a multi-allergen chimer and tested if mucosal treatment with this construct could represent a novel approach for prevention of birch pollen-related food allergy. Methodology BALB/c mice were poly-sensitized with a mixture of Bet v 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1 followed by a sublingual challenge with carrot, celery and birch pollen extracts. For prevention of allergy sensitization an allergen chimer composed of immunodominant T cell epitopes of Api g 1 and Dau c 1 linked to the whole Bet v 1 allergen, was intranasally applied prior to sensitization. Results Intranasal pretreatment with the allergen chimer led to significantly decreased antigen-specific IgE-dependent β-hexosaminidase release, but enhanced allergen-specific IgG2a and IgA antibodies. Accordingly, IL-4 levels in spleen cell cultures and IL-5 levels in restimulated spleen and cervical lymph node cell cultures were markedly reduced, while IFN-γ levels were increased. Immunomodulation was associated with increased IL-10, TGF-β and Foxp3 mRNA levels in NALT and Foxp3 in oral mucosal tissues. Treatment with anti-TGF-β, anti-IL10R or anti-CD25 antibodies abrogated the suppression of allergic responses induced by the chimer. Conclusion Our results indicate that mucosal application of the allergen chimer led to decreased Th2 immune responses against Bet v 1 and its homologue food allergens Api g 1 and Dau c 1 by regulatory and Th1-biased immune responses. These data suggest that mucosal treatment with a multi-allergen vaccine could be a promising treatment strategy to prevent birch pollen-related food allergy. PMID:22768077

  4. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  5. Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Role of the Registered Dietitian Nutritionist in the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sherry Coleman

    2016-10-01

    Incidence of food allergy has increased significantly over the past decade and represents an important health issue for millions of Americans. Diagnosis of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergies is sometimes difficult because blood and skin tests have high rates of false positives, and oral food challenges are uncommon due to the expense and potential for serious reactions. Accurate diagnosis is crucial to avoid unnecessary dietary restriction, especially in children. Because registered dietitian nutritionists often work independently, receiving referrals for dietary education and guidance for a patient who is followed by one or several other practitioners, navigating the data available and making the appropriate follow-up contact optimizes treatment. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance to the registered dietitian nutritionists and nutrition and dietetics technician, registered on appropriate and evidence-based nutrition counseling for diagnosis and management of food allergies. PMID:27671759

  6. Practice Paper of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Role of the Registered Dietitian Nutritionist in the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sherry Coleman

    2016-10-01

    Incidence of food allergy has increased significantly over the past decade and represents an important health issue for millions of Americans. Diagnosis of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergies is sometimes difficult because blood and skin tests have high rates of false positives, and oral food challenges are uncommon due to the expense and potential for serious reactions. Accurate diagnosis is crucial to avoid unnecessary dietary restriction, especially in children. Because registered dietitian nutritionists often work independently, receiving referrals for dietary education and guidance for a patient who is followed by one or several other practitioners, navigating the data available and making the appropriate follow-up contact optimizes treatment. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance to the registered dietitian nutritionists and nutrition and dietetics technician, registered on appropriate and evidence-based nutrition counseling for diagnosis and management of food allergies.

  7. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children. PMID:19674349

  8. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children.

  9. Early Introduction of Eggs, Peanuts May Cut Kids' Allergy Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Early Introduction of Eggs, Peanuts May Cut Kids' Allergy Risk: Study Allergy specialist suggests existing guidelines on introducing foods may ... on may help reduce their risk of food allergies, a new analysis finds. Researchers reviewed 146 previous ...

  10. 497 Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging: New Tool for Immunodiagnostics of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Chakra, Oussama Abou; Vollmer, Nathalie; Boujday, Souhir; Poncet, Pascal; Chardin, Hélène; Peltre, Gabriel; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Sénéchal, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    Background Food allergy affects as many as 5 to 8% of children and 2 to 3% of adults. The milk is an important source of food allergens. The Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi) is an optical technique used for measuring simultaneously several hundreds of biomolecular interactions (about 400 interactions) in real-time and in a label free environment. The aim of our study was to measure avidity of milk allergens with their antibodies by the SPRi. Methods The biochip gold surface was functionalized by mixed layers of acid and alcohol. Milk allergens (β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin) and ovalbumin (used as negative control) were then immobilized by covalent bonds on the biochip surface. After saturation step, some solutions with different concentrations of polyclonal antibodies - whole serum and purified antibodies - were injected in the SPRi-plex™ system (Horiba Scientific, Genoptics). The surface coverage and the detection limits of the target antibody were measured. The avidity of the couple antigen/antibody was then calculated. Results For the couple β-lactoglobulin and whole serum from rabbit sensitized with this allergen, the surface coverage of antibody increased from 0.7 to 1160 pg/mm2, when we injected 4 and 340 nM of antibody, respectively. The avidity of this couple is 0.7 nM. The detection limits are 2 and 0.8 nM by SPRi and ELISA, respectively. For the couple α-lactalbumin/purified anti-α-lactalbumin antibody, the surface coverage of antibody increased from 20 to 1000 pg/mm2, when we injected 10 nM and 100 μM of antibody, respectively. The avidity of this couple is about 5.2 nM and 60 nM by SPRi and capilary electrophoresis, respectively. The rate of antibody detection limit obtained by SPRi compared to what is obtained by ELISA is 35%. Conclusions A Good proportionality of SPRi and ELISA signals was observed according to antibody concentrations. A high specificity binding and an excellent avidity between allergens and their antibodies was

  11. Characterisation of immune mediator release during the immediate response to segmental mucosal challenge in the jejunum of patients with food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Santos, J; Bayarri, C; Saperas, E; Nogueiras, C; Antolin, M; Mourelle, M; Cadahia, A; Malagelada, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Food allergy is a common complaint among patients with a broad spectrum of abdominal and extra-abdominal symptoms that must be distinguished from other more common non-immunological food intolerances.
AIMS—To investigate whether human intestinal hypersensitivity reactions are associated with detectable release of inflammatory mediators from activated cells, which may serve as a biological marker of true allergic reactions.
PATIENTS/METHODS—In eight patients with food allergy and seven healthy volunteers, a closed-segment perfusion technique was used to investigate the effects of jejunal food challenge on luminal release of tryptase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, eosinophil cationic protein, peroxidase activity, and water flux.
RESULTS—Intraluminal administration of food antigens induced a rapid increase in intestinal release of tryptase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, and peroxidase activity (p<0.05 v basal period) but not eosinophil cationic protein. The increased release of these mediators was associated with a notable water secretory response.
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that human intestinal hypersensitivity reactions are characterised by prompt activation of mast cells and other immune cells, with notable and immediate secretion of water and inflammatory mediators into the intestinal lumen. Analysis of the profile of markers released into the jejunum after food provocation may be useful for the objective diagnosis of food allergy.


Keywords: food allergy; intestinal perfusion; mast cells PMID:10486364

  12. Regulation of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy by IL-9 Producing Mucosal Mast Cells and Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee-Boong

    2016-08-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence and number of life-threatening cases, food allergy has emerged as a major health concern. The classic immune response seen during food allergy is allergen-specific IgE sensitization and hypersensitivity reactions to foods occur in the effector phase with often severe and deleterious outcomes. Recent research has advanced understanding of the immunological mechanisms occurring during the effector phase of allergic reactions to ingested food. Therefore, this review will not only cover the mucosal immune system of the gastrointestinal tract and the immunological mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated food allergy, but will also introduce cells recently identified to have a role in the hypersensitivity reaction to food allergens. These include IL-9 producing mucosal mast cells (MMC9s) and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). The involvement of these cell types in potentiating the type 2 immune response and developing the anaphylactic response to food allergens will be discussed. In addition, it has become apparent that there is a collaboration between these cells that contributes to an individual's susceptibility to IgE-mediated food allergy. PMID:27574500

  13. Regulation of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy by IL-9 Producing Mucosal Mast Cells and Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence and number of life-threatening cases, food allergy has emerged as a major health concern. The classic immune response seen during food allergy is allergen-specific IgE sensitization and hypersensitivity reactions to foods occur in the effector phase with often severe and deleterious outcomes. Recent research has advanced understanding of the immunological mechanisms occurring during the effector phase of allergic reactions to ingested food. Therefore, this review will not only cover the mucosal immune system of the gastrointestinal tract and the immunological mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated food allergy, but will also introduce cells recently identified to have a role in the hypersensitivity reaction to food allergens. These include IL-9 producing mucosal mast cells (MMC9s) and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). The involvement of these cell types in potentiating the type 2 immune response and developing the anaphylactic response to food allergens will be discussed. In addition, it has become apparent that there is a collaboration between these cells that contributes to an individual's susceptibility to IgE-mediated food allergy. PMID:27574500

  14. Food allergy and cross-reactivity-chickpea as a test case.

    PubMed

    Bar-El Dadon, Shimrit; Pascual, Cristina Y; Reifen, Ram

    2014-12-15

    Chickpea has become one of the most abundant crops consumed in the Mediterranean and also in western world. Chickpea allergy is reported in specific geographic areas and is associated with lentil and/or pea allergy. We investigated cross-reactivity between chickpea and pea/lentil/soybean/hazelnut. The IgE-binding profiles of chickpea globulin and pea/lentil/soybean/hazelnut extracts were analyzed by immunoblotting and immunoblot-inhibition studies. Inhibition-assay with pea/lentil completely suppressed IgE-binding to chickpea globulin allergens, while not so in the reciprocal inhibition. Pre-absorption of sera with chickpea globulin caused the disappearance of IgE-binding to protein on an immunoblot of soybean/hazelnut protein extract. These results suggest that cross-reactivity exists between chickpea and pea/lentil/soybean/hazelnut. Chickpea allergy is associated with lentil and/or pea allergy, but evidently may not present independently. This, together with the described asymmetric cross-reactivity and phylogenetic aspects, suggest that chickpea allergy is merely an expression of cross-reactivity, caused by pea and/or lentil as the "primary" allergen.

  15. Parental satisfaction with oral peanut food challenges; perception of outcomes and impact on management of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Michelle; Wainstein, Brynn Kevin; Hu, Wendy; Ziegler, John B

    2010-12-01

    Oral peanut food challenges (OPFC) are the 'gold standard' for diagnosing peanut allergy in children. However, there are few data on parental perception of such challenges. We aimed to investigate the parental experience of and satisfaction with OPFC and reported dietary management of children with a history of peanut allergy following OPFC. Telephone interviews were conducted with parents of children who had undergone an open-label OPFC at a specialist paediatric allergy centre. Forty-six of 76 eligible parents participated. Of those parents, 54% were very satisfied with the OPFC. The highest levels of satisfaction were reported in relation to (i) clarification of the severity of the child's peanut allergy (ii) the support provided by staff and (iii) determining the child was tolerant of peanut or assessed to be at low risk of anaphylaxis from accidental peanut exposure. When the outcome of the challenge was perceived to be equivocal, levels of parental satisfaction were lower. Other areas of dissatisfaction included difficulties inducing peanut ingestion, parental distress at seeing their child unwell and perception of inadequate follow-up. Ninety-four per cent of parents could not remember the amount of peanut ingested, and 24% could not remember whether management advice was given after the OPFC or reported that none was given. Reported compliance with recalled advice to avoid peanut was found in all cases but one, whilst recalled advice to reintroduce peanuts following a negative challenge was followed in 5/9 cases. Although 12 parents reported that their child had an allergic reaction caused by accidental exposure to peanut since the OPFC, only four were certain peanut was the cause. Comprehensive education, counselling and follow-up subsequent to an OPFC are required. Parents of children whose challenge outcome is inconclusive should be targeted for support.

  16. CD4+ T cell responses in Balb/c mice with food allergy induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen-Yi; Bai, Jie; Hu, Tian-Yong; Cheng, Bao-Hui; Ma, Li; Fan, Xiao-Qin; Yang, Ping-Chang; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The rapid increase in atopic diseases is potentially linked to increased hapten exposure, however, the role of haptens in the pathogenesis of food allergy remains unknown. Further studies are required to elucidate the cluster of differentiation 4 positive (CD4+) T cell response to food allergy induced by haptens. Dendritic cells were primed by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) as a hapten or ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, in a cell culture model. BALB/c mice were sensitized using TNBS and/or OVA. Intestinal Th1/Th2 cell and ovalbumin specific CD4+ T cells proliferation, intestinal cytokines (interleukin‑4 and interferon‑γ) in CD4+ T cells were evaluated. TNBS increased the expression of T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain‑4 and tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 4 in dendritic cells. Skewed Th2 cell polarization, extensive expression of interleukin‑4, reduced expression of interferon‑γ and forkhead box protein P3 were elicited following concomitant exposure to TNBS and OVA, with reduced regulatory T cells in the mouse intestinal mucosa, whereas a Th1 response was detected when challenged by TNBS or OVA alone. This data suggests that TNBS, as a hapten, combined with food antigens may lead to a Th2 cell response in the intestinal mucosa.

  17. Insect venom allergy: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Valentine, M D

    1984-03-01

    Allergy to insect venom is IgE mediated. Untreated, it occasionally terminates fatally and often causes temporary illness. Medical intervention with venom immunotherapy in patients with prior systemic reactions presents reactions to stings by inducing IgG-antibody formation, although in some groups of patients this results in little real benefit. Emergency self-treatment kits (Epi-Pen and Epi-Pen Jr., Center Laboratories, Port Washington, N.Y.; Ana Kit, Hollister-Stier, Spokane, Wash.), if promptly and intelligently used, may reverse most moderate sting reactions. Some severe reactions require aggressive therapy. Until better treatment criteria are available, the most certain way of reducing the risk of systemic reactions to stings is with venom immunotherapy. PMID:6366028

  18. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Background Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Methods Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Results Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in <65% of the sera. No significant correlation was observed between plant food allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Conclusion Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. PMID:25327982

  19. Expression of IL-17A concentration and effector functions of peripheral blood neutrophils in food allergy hypersensitivity patients.

    PubMed

    Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Pałgan, Krzysztof; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Kuźmiński, Andrzej; Przybyszewski, Michał; Socha, Ewa; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    Lymphocytes Th17 and other types of immune system cells produce IL17. By induction of cytokines and chemokines, the IL17 cytokine is involved in mechanisms of allergic reaction with participation of neutrophil granulocytes. It affects activation, recruitment, and migration of neutrophils to the tissues, regulating inflammatory reaction intensity. Excited neutrophils secrete inter alia elastase and reactive oxygen species (ROS)--significant mediators of inflammation process responsible for tissues damage.The aim of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of serum interleukin 17A, serum neutrophil elastase, and ROS production by neutrophils in patients with food allergy.The study included 30 patients with food allergy diagnosed based on interview, clinical symptoms, positive SPT, placebo controlled double-blind oral provocation trial, and the presence of asIgE in blood serum against selected food allergens using fluoro-immuno-enzymatic method FEIA UNICap 100. The control group consisted of 10 healthy volunteers. The concentrations of IL17A were determined in all patients using ELISA method with eBioscience kits, and elastase using BenderMed Systems kits. Chemiluminescence of non-stimulated neutrophils was evaluated using luminol-dependent kinetic method for 40 min on Luminoskan (Labsystems luminometer).The results of serum IL-17A concentrations and the values of chemiluminescence obtained by non-activated neutrophils, as well as elastase concentrations, were higher in patients with food allergic hypersensitivity compared to healthy volunteers.This study demonstrates a significance of IL-17A and activated neutrophil granulocytes in the course of diseases with food allergic hypersensitivity. PMID:26684636

  20. Peanut allergy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Clarke, Ann E; Kagan, Rhoda S

    2003-05-13

    Peanut allergy accounts for the majority of severe food-related allergic reactions. It tends to present early in life, and affected individuals generally do not outgrow it. In highly sensitized people, trace quantities can induce an allergic reaction. In this review, we will discuss the prevalence, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, natural history and management of peanut allergy.

  1. Effects of a pre-existing food allergy on the oral introduction of food proteins: findings from a murine model.

    PubMed

    Kulis, M; Burks, A W

    2015-01-01

    Cashew-allergic mice develop elevated walnut-specific IgE upon oral feeding of walnut proteins. Ingestion of tree nuts in the presence of a known nut allergy could lead to additional sensitizations and anaphylaxis following subsequent exposure. PMID:25155558

  2. Role of Maternal Dietary Peanut Exposure in Development of Food Allergy and Oral Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Kirsi M.; Westfall, Jennifer; De Jesus, Magdia; Mantis, Nicholas J.; Carroll, Jessica A.; Metzger, Dennis W.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Berin, M. Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of maternal ingestion of peanut during pregnancy and lactation on an offspring’s risk for peanut allergy is under debate. Objective To investigate the influence of maternal dietary peanut exposure and breast milk on an offspring’s allergy risk. Methods Preconceptionally peanut-exposed C3H/HeJ females were either fed or not fed peanut during pregnancy and lactation. The offsprings’ responses to peanut sensitization or oral tolerance induction by feeding antigen prior to immunization were assessed. We also assessed the impact of immune murine milk on tolerance induction pre- or post-weaning. For antigen uptake studies, mice were gavaged with fluorescent peanut in the presence or absence of immune murine milk; Peyer’s patches were harvested for immunostaining. Results Preconceptional peanut exposure resulted in the production of varying levels of maternal antibodies in serum (and breast milk), which were transferred to the offspring. Despite this, maternal peanut exposure either preconceptionally or during pregnancy and lactation, when compared to no maternal exposure, had no impact on peanut allergy. When offspring were fed peanut directly, dose-dependent tolerance induction, unaltered by maternal feeding of peanut, was seen. Although peanut uptake into the gut-associated lymphoid tissues was enhanced by immune milk as compared to naïve milk, tolerance induction was not affected by the co-administration of immune milk either pre- or post-weaning. Conclusion Maternal peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation has no impact on the development of peanut allergy in the offspring. Tolerance to peanut can be induced early, even pre-weaning, by giving moderate amounts of peanut directly to the infant, and this is neither enhanced nor impaired by concurrent exposure to immune milk. PMID:26656505

  3. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Egg Allergy Print A ... labels carefully. It's work, but it's important. About Egg Allergy Eggs in themselves aren't bad, but ...

  4. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Egg Allergy Print A ... with no problem after that. What Is an Egg Allergy? You probably know that some people are ...

  5. Allergies to Insect Venom

    MedlinePlus

    ... The smell of food attracts these insects.  Use insect repellents and keep insecticide available. Treatment tips:  Venom immunotherapy (allergy shots to insect venom(s) is highly effective in preventing subsequent sting ...

  6. Allergy Testing

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  7. Changes in prevalence and characteristics of IgE-mediated food allergies in children referred to a tertiary care center in 2003 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Amin, Anik J; Davis, Carla M

    2012-01-01

    Although epidemiological trends in peanut allergy have been determined, there are limited data for changes in prevalence and clinical characteristics for other common food allergens. This study was performed to determine the trends in prevalence and clinical characteristics of physician-diagnosed pediatric food allergy (FA) at a large urban-based tertiary care center from 2003 to 2008. The electronic medical record system was searched to identify all unique patients with FA as a diagnosis for 2003 and 2008. Included patients had either a definite clinical reaction on ingestion and (1) a positive specific IgE or skin-prick test or (2) food-specific IgE of >90% specificity. Patients with allergies to cow's milk, eggs, fish, peanuts, sesame, shellfish, soy, tree nuts, and wheat were included. The percentage of FA clinic patients increased from 3 to 8% over 5 years. The severity of initial reactions to food also increased from 2003 to 2008 (p < 0.05). Mean initial food-specific IgE decreased from 52 kU/L in 2003 to 40 kU/L in 2003 (p = 0.002). The age at diagnosis decreased from 2003 to 2008 for cow's milk (2.64-1.36 years; p < 0.05) and fish (5.10-2.86 years; p < 0.05) allergies. Peanuts and shellfish were associated with anaphylaxis and severe symptoms in 2008. Clinical characteristics of food-allergic reactions in this large tertiary care center worsened in severity over 5 years and reactions were associated with a lower specific IgE at presentation for peanut and shellfish allergy. Clinical presentation of FA may change over time and this phenomenon warrants study to determine contributory factors.

  8. Immunoglobulin-E-binding epitopes of wheat allergens in patients with food allergy to wheat and in mice experimentally sensitized to wheat proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sera were obtained from 39 patients suffering from food allergy to wheat. Balb/c mice were sensitized to gliadins or LTP1 by intraperitoneal immunizations. Continuous epitopes bound by IgE were delineated by the Pepscan technique. The response to reduced, alkylated LTP1 was compared to that of the n...

  9. Letter to the editor for the article "Auto-injector needle length may be inadequate to deliver epinephrine intramuscularly in women with confirmed food allergy".

    PubMed

    Song, T Ted

    2014-01-01

    Letter to the Editor for "Auto-injector needle length may be inadequate to deliver epinephrine intramuscularly in women with confirmed food allergy" by Tsai et al. There are limitations of this study note mentioning such as method of compression, role of propulsion, defining those patients who are at risk of prophylaxis and future studies.

  10. EPA Science To Achieve Results (STAR) Food Allergy/Genetically Engineered Food Research: Progress, Findings and Recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advancements in food technology, pesticide development and genetic modification to food crops may provide benefits compared to more conventional approaches. However, the introduction of a novel protein into the food supply and the possibility of unintentional introduction of a ne...

  11. Contemporary issues in food allergy: seafood toxin-induced disease in the differential diagnosis of allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Chegini, Soheil; Metcalfe, Dean D

    2005-01-01

    Seafood, including fish, shrimp, lobster, crab, crayfish, mussel, and clam are among the most frequent causes of food allergy. Seafood poisoning, including reactions to natural toxins, frequently masquerades as an allergic reaction on presentation. Ingestion of contaminated shellfish results in a wide variety of symptoms, depending on the toxins present, their concentrations in the shellfish, and the amount of contaminated shellfish consumed. Five types of shellfish poisoning have been identified clearly including paralytic, neurotoxic, diarrhetic, amnestic, and azaspiracid shellfish poisonings. Based on the presence or absence of the toxin at the time of capture, fish poisoning can be considered conceptually in two categories. In ciguatera and puffer fish poisoning, the toxin is present in live fish, whereas in scombroid, it is produced only after capture, in the fish flesh, by contaminating bacteria because of improper refrigeration. Most shellfish-associated illness is infectious in nature (bacterial or viral), with the Norwalk virus accounting for most cases of gastroenteritis.

  12. Auto-injector needle length may be inadequate to deliver epinephrine intramuscularly in women with confirmed food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epinephrine auto-injectors are the standard first aid treatment for anaphylaxis. Intramuscular delivery into the anterolateral aspect of the thigh is recommended for optimal onset of action of epinephrine. The most frequently prescribed auto-injector in North America and Canada is the EpiPen®, which has a needle length of 15.2 mm. Currently, it is unknown whether this needle length is adequate for intramuscular delivery of epinephrine in adult patients at risk of anaphylaxis. Methods One hundred consecutive adult patients with confirmed food allergy requiring an epinephrine auto-injector were recruited. Skin to muscle depth (STMD) at the right mid-anterolateral thigh was measured using ultrasound under minimal (min) and maximum (max) pressure. The EpiPen® needle length was considered adequate if STMDmax was ≤15.2 mm. Baseline characteristics including age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI) were compared in patients with STMDmax ≤15.2 mm vs. >15.2 mm. Results The EpiPen® needle length of 15.2 mm was inadequate for intramuscular delivery in 19 of the 100 enrolled patients (19%), all of whom were female; 28% of women had a STMDmax >15.2 mm. The mean STMDmax in the ≤15.2-mm and >15.2-mm groups were 9 ± 4 mm and 20 ± 4 mm, respectively (p = 0.0001). Linear regression analysis found BMI to be significantly associated with STMDmax after adjusting for age (p < 0.001). Conclusions The needle length of the epinephrine auto-injectors may not be adequate for intramuscular delivery of epinephrine in a large proportion of women with food allergy; this may impact morbidity and mortality from anaphylaxis in this patient population. PMID:25071856

  13. [A case of anaphylaxis due to rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream with pollen food allergy syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kitabayashi, Taeru; Sato, Sayuri; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2013-05-01

    We experienced a 10-year-old boy who had anaphylaxis after eating rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream. The patient felt a sense of discomfort in his throat when eating apple, peach, loquat, Japanese pear, and kiwi fruit. Therefore, we measured specific IgE antibodies to allergen components by ImmunoCAP ISAC. Consequently, the patient gave positive results for all PR-10 proteins from birch, alder, hazel, apple, peach, peanut, hazelnut, and soybean, so we diagnosed him with Pollen Food Allergy Syndrome (PFAS) induced by cross reactivity with pollens of birch family and fruits of rose family. When we conducted the skin prick test as is for red rose syrup because of the belief that anaphylaxis was caused by the rose ingredient contained in rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream, the patient gave a strong positive result. However, the results were negative for rose essence and Food Red No. 2 contained. Subsequently, it was found that red rose syrup contained apple juice. Therefore, we conducted the prick-prick test for apple, and the patient was confirmed to be strongly positive to apple. We thus identified apple as the cause of anaphylaxis. Since there is no legal obligation of labeling specific raw materials when directly selling manufactured and processed food products to general consumers, it is possible for general consumers to mistakenly take them in without knowing the containment of allergic substances. It is believed that the labeling method should be improved in the future.

  14. Epidemiology of childhood peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Ashley A; Rivkina, Victoria; Perumal, Dhivya; Smeltzer, Brandon M; Smith, Bridget M; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2015-01-01

    Although peanut allergy is among the most common food allergies, no study has comprehensively described the epidemiology of the condition among the general pediatric population. Our objective was to better characterize peanut allergy prevalence, diagnosis trends, and reaction history among affected children identified from a representative sample of United States households with children. A randomized, cross sectional survey was administered to parents from June 2009 to February 2010. Data from 38,480 parents were collected and analyzed in regard to demographics, allergic symptoms associated with food ingestion, and methods of food allergy diagnosis. Adjusted models were estimated to examine association of these characteristics with odds of peanut allergy. Of the 3218 children identified with food allergy, 754 (24.8%) were reported to have a peanut allergy. Peanut allergy was reported most often among 6- to 10-year-old children (25.5%), white children (47.7%), and children from households with an annual income of $50,000-$99,999 (41.7%). Although peanut allergy was diagnosed by a physician in 76% of cases, significantly more peanut allergy reactions were severe as compared with reactions to other foods (53.7% versus 41.0%, p < 0.001). Parents were significantly less likely to report tolerance to peanut as compared with the odds of tolerance reported for other foods (odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.5-0.9). Childhood peanut allergy, which represents nearly a quarter of all food allergy, presents more severe reactions and is least likely to be outgrown. Although it is diagnosed by a physician in nearly three-fourths of all cases, socioeconomic disparities in regard to diagnosis persist.

  15. [Atopic dermatitis and allergy].

    PubMed

    Karila, C

    2013-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a very common chronic inflammatory skin disease in childhood, often the first step in the atopic march. It seems justified to look for a food or a respiratory allergy, being worsening or responsible for the AD. At infant age, some clinical features are consistent with a food allergy: a severe AD, with an early onset, uncontrolled by topical corticosteroids, and a history of immediate-type reactions. As sensitization to food allergens is very common (positive skin prick-test, atopy patch-test or specific IgE), the role of food allergens in worsening AD is difficult to affirm. So, it could be necessary to ask the advice of an allergist, to avoid unnecessary elimination diets. At older age, exposure to aeroallergens cans worsen AD. Looking for an aeroallergen allergy can help to choose the specific immunotherapy, which clinical efficacy on AD seems interesting.

  16. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.
REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis.
CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological

  17. Allergies - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... an infection. Skin testing is the most common method of allergy testing: The prick test involves placing ... Chiriac AM, Bousquet J, Demoly P. In vivo methods for the study and diagnosis of allergy. In: ...

  18. Allergy shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... reaction. Examples of allergens include: Mold spores Dust mites Animal dander Pollen Insect venom A health care ... sensitivity Eczema , a skin condition that a dust mite allergy can make worse Allergy shots are effective ...

  19. Environmental Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... system to a normally harmless substance called an allergen. A variety of environmental allergens, such as pollen and animal dander, can trigger ... allergies. Understanding Environmental Allergies Cause Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Immunotherapy Last Updated April 22, 2015 CONNECT WITH NIAID ...

  20. Going Nuts over Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Some 600,000 children in the US are allergic to peanuts. Of 400 elementary school nurses, 44% cite increased food-allergic students in the past five years. Peanut allergy doubled in children from 1997 to 2002, and yet peanuts are only one of six foods most often causing allergic reactions in children, including milk, eggs, wheat, soy, and tree…