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Sample records for igg antibody responses

  1. Abnormal IgG4 antibody response to aeroallergens in allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Jeannin, P; Delneste, Y; Tillie-Leblond, I; Wallaert, B; carlier, A; Pestel, J; Tonnel, A B

    1994-01-01

    Various studies have suggested the involvement of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies (Ab) in the physiopathology of allergic disorders. Recently, an abnormal IgG4 Ab production in response to immunization has been reported in some atopic patients. Thus, in order to evidence in allergic patients, a potential abnormal IgG4 Ab response to aeroallergens following natural exposure, we compared, in 34 patients sensitive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and in 16 healthy subjects, the IgG4 Ab response to D. pteronyssinus, grass pollen and cat dander, using a solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Since some patients were also sensitive to grass pollen and/or to cat dander, we analyzed, in all patients, the IgG4 Ab responses both towards the allergen(s) they were sensitive to (sensitizing allergen) or not (unrelated allergen). The results showed that 90% of the patients produced levels of antisensitizing allergen(s) IgG4 Ab significantly higher than the controls; this IgG4 Ab response was correlated with the corresponding specific IgE Ab level. In addition, among these patients, around 40% presented high levels of IgG4 Ab to the unrelated allergen(s). Thus, in allergic patients, while specific IgE Ab define the nature of the sensitizing allergen, the presence of IgG4 Ab directed against various allergens seems in relation with an abnormal isotype regulation associated with atopic disorders.

  2. Spontaneous Development of IgM Anti-Cocaine Antibodies in Habitual Cocaine Users: Effect on IgG Antibody Responses to a Cocaine Cholera Toxin B Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Orson, Frank M.; Rossen, Roger D.; Shen, Xiaoyun; Lopez, Angel Y.; Wu, Yan; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives In cocaine vaccine studies, only a minority of subjects made strong antibody responses. To investigate this issue, IgG and IgM antibody responses to cocaine and to cholera toxin B (CTB—the carrier protein used to enhance immune responses to cocaine) were measured in sera from the 55 actively vaccinated subjects in a Phase IIb randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial (TA-CD 109). Methods Isotype specific ELISAs were used to measure IgG and IgM anti-cocaine and anti-CTB antibody in serial samples collected prior to and at intervals after immunization. We assessed IgG anti-cocaine responses of patients with pre-vaccination IgM anti-cocaine antibodies. Competitive inhibition ELISA was used to evaluate antibody specificity. Results and Conclusions Before immunization, 36/55 subjects had detectable IgM antibodies to cocaine, and 9 had IgM levels above the 95% confidence limit of 11 µg/ml. These nine had significantly reduced peak IgG anti-cocaine responses at 16 weeks, and all were below the concentration (40 µg/ml) considered necessary to discourage recreational cocaine use. The IgG anti-CTB responses of these same subjects were also reduced. Scientific Significance Subjects who develop an IgM antibody response to cocaine in the course of repeated recreational exposure to this drug are significantly less likely to produce high levels of IgG antibodies from the cocaine conjugate vaccine. The failure may be due to recreational cocaine exposure induction of a type 2 T-cell independent immune response. Such individuals will require improved vaccines and are poor candidates for the currently available vaccine. PMID:23414504

  3. HIV-Specific Functional Antibody Responses in Breast Milk Mirror Those in Plasma and Are Primarily Mediated by IgG Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Genevieve G.; Yates, Nicole L.; Pollara, Justin; Shen, Xiaoying; Overman, Glenn R.; Mahlokozera, Tatenda; Wilks, Andrew B.; Kang, Helen H.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Salazar, Maria G.; Kalilani, Linda; Meshnick, Steve R.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Shaw, George M.; Lovingood, Rachel V.; Denny, Thomas N.; Haynes, Barton; Letvin, Norman L.; Ferrari, Guido; Montefiori, David C.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Permar, Sallie R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite months of mucosal virus exposure, the majority of breastfed infants born to HIV-infected mothers do not become infected, raising the possibility that immune factors in milk inhibit mucosal transmission of HIV. HIV Envelope (Env)-specific antibodies are present in the milk of HIV-infected mothers, but little is known about their virus-specific functions. In this study, HIV Env-specific antibody binding, autologous and heterologous virus neutralization, and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses were measured in the milk and plasma of 41 HIV-infected lactating women. Although IgA is the predominant antibody isotype in milk, HIV Env-specific IgG responses were higher in magnitude than HIV Env-specific IgA responses in milk. The concentrations of anti-HIV gp120 IgG in milk and plasma were directly correlated (r = 0.75; P < 0.0001), yet the response in milk was 2 logarithm units lower than in plasma. Similarly, heterologous virus neutralization (r = 0.39; P = 0.010) and ADCC activity (r = 0.64; P < 0.0001) in milk were directly correlated with that in the systemic compartment but were 2 log units lower in magnitude. Autologous neutralization was rarely detected in milk. Milk heterologous virus neutralization titers correlated with HIV gp120 Env-binding IgG responses but not with IgA responses (r = 0.71 and P < 0.0001, and r = 0.17 and P = 0.30). Moreover, IgGs purified from milk and plasma had equal neutralizing potencies against a tier 1 virus (r = 0.65; P < 0.0001), whereas only 1 out of 35 tested non-IgG milk fractions had detectable neutralization. These results suggest that plasma-derived IgG antibodies mediate the majority of the low-level HIV neutralization and ADCC activity in breast milk. PMID:21734046

  4. Epitope-Specific Suppression of IgG Responses by Passively Administered Specific IgG: Evidence of Epitope Masking.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Joakim J E; Xu, Hui; Heyman, Birgitta

    2017-01-01

    Specific IgG, passively administered together with particulate antigen, can completely prevent induction of antibody responses to this antigen. The ability of IgG to suppress antibody responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) is intact in mice lacking FcγRs, complement factor 1q, C3, or complement receptors 1 and 2, suggesting that Fc-dependent effector functions are not involved. Two of the most widely discussed explanations for the suppressive effect are increased clearance of IgG-antigen complexes and/or that IgG "hides" the antigen from recognition by specific B cells, so-called epitope masking. The majority of data on how IgG induces suppression was obtained through studies of the effects on IgM-secreting single spleen cells during the first week after immunization. Here, we show that IgG also suppresses antigen-specific extrafollicular antibody-secreting cells, germinal center B-cells, long-lived plasma cells, long-term IgG responses, and induction of memory antibody responses. IgG anti-SRBC reduced the amount of SRBC in the spleens of wild-type, but not of FcγR-deficient mice. However, no correlation between suppression and the amount of SRBC in the spleen was observed, suggesting that increased clearance does not explain IgG-mediated suppression. Instead, we found compelling evidence for epitope masking because IgG anti-NP administered with NP-SRBC suppressed the IgG anti-NP, but not the IgG anti-SRBC response. Vice versa, IgG anti-SRBC administered with NP-SRBC, suppressed only the IgG anti-SRBC response. In conclusion, passively transferred IgG suppressed all measured parameters of an antigen-specific antibody/B cell response and an important mechanism of action is likely to be epitope masking.

  5. ANTIDOG IgG SECONDARY ANTIBODY SUCCESSFULLY DETECTS IgG IN A VARIETY OF AQUATIC MAMMALS.

    PubMed

    Roehl, Katherine; Jankowski, Mark; Hofmeister, Erik

    2016-12-01

    Serological tests play an important role in the detection of wildlife diseases. However, while there are many commercial assays and reagents available for domestic species, there is a need to develop efficient serological assays for wildlife. In recent years, marine mammals have represented a wildlife group with emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. However, with the exception of disease-agent-specific assays or functional assays, few reports describe the use of antibody detection assays in marine mammals. In an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) or an immunofluorescence assay, antibody is detected using an antitarget species secondary conjugated antibody. The sensitivity of the assay depends on the avidity of the binding reaction between the bound antibody and the detection antibody. A commercial polyclonal antidog IgG conjugated antibody was tested in an EIA for its ability to sensitively detect the IgG of seven marine mammals including sea otter ( Enhydra lutris ), polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ), grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus ), harbor seal ( Phoca vitulina ), northern elephant seal ( Mirounga angustirostris ), California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus ), Pacific walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus ) and one freshwater mammal: Asian small-clawed otter ( Aonyx cinerea ). With the exception of Asian small-clawed sea otters, the detection of IgG in these marine mammals either exceeded or was nearly equal to detection of dog IgG. The use of the tested commercial antidog IgG antibody may be a valid approach to the detection of antibody response to disease in sea mammals.

  6. OVA-bound nanoparticles induce OVA-specific IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b responses with low IgE synthesis.

    PubMed

    Yanase, Noriko; Toyota, Hiroko; Hata, Kikumi; Yagyu, Seina; Seki, Takahiro; Harada, Mitsunori; Kato, Yasuki; Mizuguchi, Junichiro

    2014-10-14

    There is an urgent requirement for a novel vaccine that can stimulate immune responses without unwanted toxicity, including IgE elevation. We examined whether antigen ovalbumin (OVA) conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles (NPs) (OVA-NPs) with average diameter of 110nm would serve as an immune adjuvant. When BALB/c mice were immunized with OVA-NPs, they developed sufficient levels of OVA-specific IgG1 antibody responses with low levels of IgE synthesis, representing helper T (Th)2-mediated humoral immunity. OVA-specific IgG2a and IgG2b responses (i.e., Th1-mediated immunity) were also induced by secondary immunization with OVA-NPs. As expected, immunization with OVA in alum (OVA-alum) stimulated humoral immune responses, including IgG1 and IgE antibodies, with only low levels of IgG2a/IgG2b antibodies. CD4-positive T cells from mice primed with OVA-NPs produced substantial levels of IL-21 and IL-4, comparable to those from OVA-alum group. The irradiated mice receiving OVA-NPs-primed B cells together with OVA-alum-primed T cells exhibited enhanced anti-OVA IgG2b responses relative to OVA-alum-primed B cells and T cells following stimulation with OVA-NPs. Moreover, when OVA-NPs-primed, but not OVA-alum-primed, B cells were cultured in the presence of anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, IL-4, and IL-21, or LPS plus TGF-β in vitro, OVA-specific IgG1 or IgG2b antibody responses were elicited, suggesting that immunization with OVA-NPs modulates B cells to generate IgG1 and IgG2b responses. Thus, OVA-NPs might exert their adjuvant action on B cells, and they represent a promising potential vaccine for generating both IgG1 and IgG2a/IgG2b antibody responses with low IgE synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum IgG titres, but not avidity, correlates with neutralizing antibody response after H5N1 vaccination.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Gabriel Kristian; Höschler, Katja; Øie Solbak, Sara Marie; Bredholt, Geir; Pathirana, Rishi Delan; Afsar, Aram; Breakwell, Lucy; Nøstbakken, Jane Kristin; Raae, Arnt Johan; Brokstad, Karl Albert; Sjursen, Haakon; Zambon, Maria; Cox, Rebecca Jane

    2014-07-31

    Influenza H5N1 virus constitutes a pandemic threat and development of effective H5N1 vaccines is a global priority. Anti-influenza antibodies directed towards the haemagglutinin (HA) define a correlate of protection. Both antibody concentration and avidity may be important for virus neutralization and resolving influenza disease. We conducted a phase I clinical trial of a virosomal H5N1 vaccine adjuvanted with the immunostimulating complex Matrix M™. Sixty adults were intramuscularly immunized with two vaccine doses (21 days apart) of 30 μg HA alone or 1.5, 7.5 or 30 μg HA adjuvanted with Matrix M™. Serum H5 HA1-specific antibodies and virus neutralization were determined at days 0, 21, 42, 180 and 360 and long-term memory B cells at day 360 post-vaccination. The binding of the HA specific antibodies was measured by avidity NaSCN-elution ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The H5 HA1-specific IgG response peaked after the second dose (day 42), was dominated by IgG1 and IgG3 and was highest in the adjuvanted vaccine groups. IgG titres correlated significantly with virus neutralization at all time points (Spearman r≥0.66, p<0.0001). By elution ELISA, serum antibody avidity was highest at days 180 and 360 post vaccination and did not correlate with virus neutralization. Long-lasting H5 HA1-specific memory B cells produced high IgG antibody avidity similar to serum IgG. Maturation of serum antibody avidity continued up to day 360 after influenza H5N1 vaccination. Virus neutralization correlated with serum H5 HA1-specific IgG antibody concentrations and not antibody avidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-dog IgG secondary antibody successfully detects IgG in a variety of aquatic mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roehl, Katherine; Jankowski, Mark D.; Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2016-01-01

    Serological tests play an important role in the detection of wildlife diseases. However, while there are many commercial assays and reagents available for domestic species, there is a need to develop efficient serological assays for wildlife. In recent years, marine mammals have represented a wildlife group with emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. However, with the exception of disease-agent-specific assays or functional assays, few reports describe the use of antibody detection assays in marine mammals. In an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) or an immunofluorescence assay, antibody is detected using an antitarget species secondary conjugated antibody. The sensitivity of the assay depends on the avidity of the binding reaction between the bound antibody and the detection antibody. A commercial polyclonal antidog IgG conjugated antibody was tested in an EIA for its ability to sensitively detect the IgG of seven marine mammals including sea otter (Enhydra lutris), polar bear (Ursus maritimus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) and one freshwater mammal: Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea). With the exception of Asian small-clawed sea otters, the detection of IgG in these marine mammals either exceeded or was nearly equal to detection of dog IgG. The use of the tested commercial antidog IgG antibody may be a valid approach to the detection of antibody response to disease in sea mammals.

  9. Anti-food and anti-microbial IgG subclass antibodies in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Anke; Mandić, Ana D; Bennek, Eveline; Frehn, Lisa; Verdier, Julien; Tebrügge, Irene; Lutz, Holger; Streetz, Konrad; Trautwein, Christian; Sellge, Gernot

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly Crohn's disease (CD), is associated with increased microbial-specific IgG and IgA antibodies, whereas alterations of anti-food antibodies are still disputed. The knowledge about IgG subclass antibodies in IBD is limited. In this study we analysed IgG subclass antibodies specific for nutritional and commensal antigens in IBD patients and controls. Serum IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 specific for wheat and milk extracts, purified ovalbumin, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis lysates and mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analysed by ELISA in patients with CD (n = 56), ulcerative colitis (UC; n = 29), acute gastroenteritis/colitis (n = 12) as well as non-inflammatory controls (n = 62). Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) of all IgG subclasses and anti-B. fragilis IgG1 levels were increased in CD patients compared to UC patients and controls. The discriminant validity of ASCA IgG2 and IgG4 was comparable with that of ASCA pan-IgG and IgA, whereas it was inferior for ASCA IgG1/IgG3 and anti-B. fragilis IgG1. Complicated CD defined by the presence of perianal, stricturing or penetrating disease phenotypes was associated with increased ASCA IgG1/IgG3/IgG4, anti-B. fragilis IgG1 and anti-E. coli IgG1 levels. Anti-food IgG subclass levels were not different between IBD patients and controls and did not correlate with food intolerance. In contrast to anti-microbial Abs, food-specific IgG responses were predominately of the IgG4 isotype and all food-specific IgG subclass levels correlated negatively with age. Our study supports the notion that the adaptive immune recognition of food and commensal antigens are differentially regulated.

  10. Isotype Diversification of IgG Antibodies to HIV Gag Proteins as a Therapeutic Vaccination Strategy for HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    French, Martyn A.; Abudulai, Laila N.; Fernandez, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    The development of vaccines to treat and prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been hampered by an incomplete understanding of “protective” immune responses against HIV. Natural control of HIV-1 infection is associated with T-cell responses against HIV-1 Gag proteins, particularly CD8+ T-cell responses restricted by “protective” HLA-B alleles, but other immune responses also contribute to immune control. These immune responses appear to include IgG antibodies to HIV-1 Gag proteins, interferon-α-dependant natural killer (NK) cell responses and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) responses. Here, it is proposed that isotype diversification of IgG antibodies against HIV-1 Gag proteins, to include IgG2, as well as IgG3 and IgG1 antibodies, will broaden the function of the antibody response and facilitate accessory cell responses against HIV-1 by NK cells and pDCs. We suggest that this should be investigated as a vaccination strategy for HIV-1 infection. PMID:26344116

  11. Isotype Diversification of IgG Antibodies to HIV Gag Proteins as a Therapeutic Vaccination Strategy for HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    French, Martyn A; Abudulai, Laila N; Fernandez, Sonia

    2013-08-09

    The development of vaccines to treat and prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been hampered by an incomplete understanding of "protective" immune responses against HIV. Natural control of HIV-1 infection is associated with T-cell responses against HIV-1 Gag proteins, particularly CD8⁺ T-cell responses restricted by "protective" HLA-B alleles, but other immune responses also contribute to immune control. These immune responses appear to include IgG antibodies to HIV-1 Gag proteins, interferon-a-dependant natural killer (NK) cell responses and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) responses. Here, it is proposed that isotype diversification of IgG antibodies against HIV-1 Gag proteins, to include IgG2, as well as IgG3 and IgG1 antibodies, will broaden the function of the antibody response and facilitate accessory cell responses against HIV-1 by NK cells and pDCs. We suggest that this should be investigated as a vaccination strategy for HIV-1 infection.

  12. Fc receptors for mouse IgG1 on human monocytes: polymorphism and role in antibody-induced T cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Tax, W J; Hermes, F F; Willems, R W; Capel, P J; Koene, R A

    1984-09-01

    In previous studies, it was shown that there is polymorphism in the mitogenic effect of mouse IgG1 monoclonal antibodies against the T3 antigen of human T cells. This polymorphism implies that IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies are not mitogenic for T cells from 30% of healthy individuals. The present results demonstrate that this polymorphism is caused by polymorphism of an Fc receptor for mouse IgG1, present on human monocytes. The Fc receptor for murine IgG1 could be detected by a newly developed rosetting assay on monocytes from all individuals responsive to the mitogenic effect of IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies. This Fc receptor was not detectable on monocytes from those individuals exhibiting no mitogenic responses to IgG1 anti-T3 monoclonal antibodies. Cross-linking of T3 antigens appears to be essential for antibody-induced mitosis of T cells, because mononuclear cells that did not proliferate in response to WT 31 (an IgG1 antibody against T3 antigen) showed a proliferative response to Sepharose beads coated with WT 31. The Fc receptor--if functionally present--may be involved in the cross-linking of T3 antigens through anti-T3 antibodies. Further evidence for the involvement of this Fc receptor in antibody-induced T cell proliferation was provided by inhibition studies. Immune complexes containing IgG1 antibodies were able to inhibit the proliferative response to IgG1 anti-T3 antibodies. This inhibition by immune complexes appears to be mediated through the monocyte Fc receptor for mouse IgG1. These findings are important for the interpretation of previously described inhibitory effects of anti-T cell monoclonal antibodies on T cell proliferation, and show that such inhibitory effects may be monocyte-mediated (via immune complexes) rather than caused by a direct involvement of the respective T cell antigens in T cell mitosis. The Fc receptor for mouse IgG1 plays a role in antibody-induced T cell proliferation. Its polymorphism may have important implications for the

  13. Natural Mosquito-Pathogen Hybrid IgG4 Antibodies in Vector-Borne Diseases: A Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Cardenas, Jenny C; Troupin, Andrea; Colpitts, Tonya M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to antigens may favor the production of IgG4 antibodies over other antibody types. Recent studies have shown that up to a 30% of normal human IgG4 is bi-specific and is able to recognize two antigens of different nature. A requirement for this specificity is the presence of both eliciting antigens in the same time and at the same place where the immune response is induced. During transmission of most vector-borne diseases, the pathogen is delivered to the vertebrate host along with the arthropod saliva during blood feeding and previous studies have shown the existence of IgG4 antibodies against mosquito salivary allergens. However, there is very little ongoing research or information available regarding IgG4 bi-specificity with regard to infectious disease, particularly during immune responses to vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, filariasis, or dengue virus infection. Here, we provide background information and present our hypothesis that IgG4 may not only be a useful tool to measure exposure to infected mosquito bites, but that these bi-specific antibodies may also play an important role in modulation of the immune response against malaria and other vector-borne diseases in endemic settings.

  14. IgG4 subclass antibodies impair antitumor immunity in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gilbert, Amy E.; Josephs, Debra H.; Ali, Niwa; Dodev, Tihomir; Saul, Louise; Correa, Isabel; Roberts, Luke; Beddowes, Emma; Koers, Alexander; Hobbs, Carl; Ferreira, Silvia; Geh, Jenny L.C.; Healy, Ciaran; Harries, Mark; Acland, Katharine M.; Blower, Philip J.; Mitchell, Tracey; Fear, David J.; Spicer, James F.; Lacy, Katie E.; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2013-01-01

    Host-induced antibodies and their contributions to cancer inflammation are largely unexplored. IgG4 subclass antibodies are present in IL-10–driven Th2 immune responses in some inflammatory conditions. Since Th2-biased inflammation is a hallmark of tumor microenvironments, we investigated the presence and functional implications of IgG4 in malignant melanoma. Consistent with Th2 inflammation, CD22+ B cells and IgG4+-infiltrating cells accumulated in tumors, and IL-10, IL-4, and tumor-reactive IgG4 were expressed in situ. When compared with B cells from patient lymph nodes and blood, tumor-associated B cells were polarized to produce IgG4. Secreted B cells increased VEGF and IgG4, and tumor cells enhanced IL-10 secretion in cocultures. Unlike IgG1, an engineered tumor antigen-specific IgG4 was ineffective in triggering effector cell–mediated tumor killing in vitro. Antigen-specific and nonspecific IgG4 inhibited IgG1-mediated tumoricidal functions. IgG4 blockade was mediated through reduction of FcγRI activation. Additionally, IgG4 significantly impaired the potency of tumoricidal IgG1 in a human melanoma xenograft mouse model. Furthermore, serum IgG4 was inversely correlated with patient survival. These findings suggest that IgG4 promoted by tumor-induced Th2-biased inflammation may restrict effector cell functions against tumors, providing a previously unexplored aspect of tumor-induced immune escape and a basis for biomarker development and patient-specific therapeutic approaches. PMID:23454746

  15. [Serum immunoglobulin IgG subclass distribution of antibody responses to pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin of Bordetella pertussis in patients with whooping cough].

    PubMed

    Rastawicki, Waldemar; Smietańska, Karolina; Rokosz-Chudziak, Natalia; Jagielski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the IgG subclass distribution against pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) of Bordetella pertussis in patients with whooping cough. The total number of 222 serum samples obtained from patients suspected in clinical investigation for pertussis were tested separately by in-house ELISA for the presence of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin. The percentage distribution of specific anti-PT and anti-FHA IgG subclass response was calculated only on the basis of group of sera confirmed in the present study as positive for total IgG antibodies (183 sera to PT antigen and 129 to FHA antigen). Paired serum specimens were obtained from 36 patients. Based on the results of determining the level of antibodies in the sera of 40 blood donors, the cut-off limit of serum antibodies for each subclass was set at arithmetic mean plus two standard deviations. Antibodies of IgG1 to pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin were diagnosed in 151 (82.5%) and 99 (76.7%), IgG2 in 72 (39.0%) and 50 (38.8%), IgG3 in 17 (9.3%) and 43 (33.3%), IgG4 in 55 (30.1%) and 53 (41.1%) serum samples, respectively. There were no significant differences in percentage of sera with IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 in relation to age of the patients. However, the frequency of occurrence of IgG4 antibodies was highest in the group of the youngest children to the age of 6 years old (61.8% for PT and 68.0% for FHA), and decrease with age, reaching the minimum in the group of patients above 40 years old (13.2% and 4.2% for PT and FHA, respectively). We also found significantly higher frequency of IgG4 to PT and FHA antigens in men than in women. Statistically significant, essential changes in the pattern of IgG subclass during the course of infection were not found. In conclusion, this study showed that all four subclasses of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin are produced during whooping cough.

  16. Specific IgG antibodies in sera in patients with penicillin allergy.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hai-Ling; Gao, Na; Jia, Lin-Jing; Yang, Jing; Tian, Xin

    2009-06-01

    The role of IgG antibodies in inducing or modifying allergic reaction has not been sufficiently clarified. The objective of this investigation is to elucidate the relationship between IgG antibodies and penicillin allergy, between IgG and IgE antibodies in allergic patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Radioallergosorbent test were used to examine eight kinds of specific IgG and IgE antibodies, including major antigenic determinants: benzylpenicilloyl (BPO), ampicilloyl (APO), amoxicilloyl (AXO) and phenoxomethylpenicilloyl (PVO), and minor antigenic determinants: benzylpenicillanyl (BPA), ampicillanyl (APA), amoxicillanyl (AXA) and phenoxomethylpenicillany (PVA), in the sera of 249 patients with penicillin allergy. Except BPA-IgG, seven kinds of antigenic determinants IgG antibodies levels were significantly higher than that of control group (P < 0.05). Positive rates of specific IgG and IgE were 47.0 and 57.8%, while positive rate of IgE and IgG together was 77.9%. The positive rate of IgG antibodies to major antigenic determinants (42.2%) was significantly higher than that of minor antigenic determinants (8.8%) (P < 0.05). The positive rate of IgG antibodies of patients with typical clinical symptoms after penicillin administration when skin tests were negative was significantly higher than that of patients with positive skin test (P < 0.01). There were no differences between the IgG positive rates to three kinds of determinants and that of all of eight kinds. The study indicates that IgG may be important in penicillin allergy with negative skin test and IgG antibodies to major antigenic determinants probably play a more important role in the process of allergic reaction.

  17. Defective anti-polysaccharide IgG vaccine responses in IgA deficient mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    IgA deficient patients often show defects in antibody responses following immunization with polysaccharide vaccines. We now show that IgA-/- mice exhibit specific defects in IgG antibody responses to various polysaccharide vaccines, but not protein vaccines. Defects in anti-polysaccharide IgG resp...

  18. Serologic Cross-Reactivity of Human IgM and IgG Antibodies to Five Species of Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, Adam; Reed, Zachary; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2011-01-01

    Five species of Ebola virus (EBOV) have been identified, with nucleotide differences of 30–45% between species. Four of these species have been shown to cause Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) in humans and a fifth species (Reston ebolavirus) is capable of causing a similar disease in non-human primates. While examining potential serologic cross-reactivity between EBOV species is important for diagnostic assays as well as putative vaccines, the nature of cross-reactive antibodies following EBOV infection has not been thoroughly characterized. In order to examine cross-reactivity of human serologic responses to EBOV, we developed antigen preparations for all five EBOV species, and compared serologic responses by IgM capture and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in groups of convalescent diagnostic sera from outbreaks in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of Congo (n = 24), Gulu, Uganda (n = 20), Bundibugyo, Uganda (n = 33), and the Philippines (n = 18), which represent outbreaks due to four different EBOV species. For groups of samples from Kikwit, Gulu, and Bundibugyo, some limited IgM cross-reactivity was noted between heterologous sera-antigen pairs, however, IgM responses were largely stronger against autologous antigen. In some instances IgG responses were higher to autologous antigen than heterologous antigen, however, in contrast to IgM responses, we observed strong cross-reactive IgG antibody responses to heterologous antigens among all sets of samples. Finally, we examined autologous IgM and IgG antibody levels, relative to time following EHF onset, and observed early peaking and declining IgM antibody levels (by 80 days) and early development and persistence of IgG antibodies among all samples, implying a consistent pattern of antibody kinetics, regardless of EBOV species. Our findings demonstrate limited cross-reactivity of IgM antibodies to EBOV, however, the stronger tendency for cross-reactive IgG antibody responses can largely

  19. Timothy-specific IgG antibody levels vary with the pollen seasons.

    PubMed

    Nordvall, S L; Larsson, P H; Johansson, S G

    1986-11-01

    Serum samples were collected from eight grass pollen hypersensitive children during a 4-year period. The sera were assayed for contents of timothy-specific IgE antibodies by RAST. Timothy-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were quantified by a refined ELISA in which covalent binding of the antigen to the polystyrene solid phase had been performed. IgG antibodies were also assayed by a Sepharose-protein-A technique with radiolabelled timothy allergens as the antigen. It was possible to register clearcut seasonal variations with postseasonally boosted antibody levels not only of timothy-specific IgE but also of IgG antibody. Both IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies specific for timothy showed seasonal variations of a similar degree. It was not possible to register seasonal variations of the same magnitude of timothy-specific IgA antibodies.

  20. Metastability Gap in the Phase Diagram of Monoclonal IgG Antibody.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Jacob B; Cancel, Rachel A; Evangelous, Tyler D; Flynn, Rhiannon P; Pechenov, Sergei; Subramony, J Anand; Zhang, Jifeng; Wang, Ying

    2017-10-17

    Crystallization of IgG antibodies has important applications in the fields of structural biology, biotechnology, and biopharmaceutics. However, a rational approach to crystallize antibodies is still lacking. In this work, we report a method to estimate the solubility of antibodies at various temperatures. We experimentally determined the full phase diagram of an IgG antibody. Using the full diagram, we examined the metastability gaps, i.e., the distance between the crystal solubility line and the liquid-liquid coexistence curve, of IgG antibodies. By comparing our results to the partial phase diagrams of other IgGs reported in literature, we found that IgG antibodies have similar metastability gaps. Thereby, we present an equation with two phenomenological parameters to predict the approximate location of the solubility line of IgG antibodies with respect to their liquid-liquid coexistence curves. We have previously shown that the coexistence curve of an antibody solution can be readily determined by the polyethylene glycol-induced liquid-liquid phase separation method. Combining the polyethylene glycol-induced liquid-liquid phase separation measurements and the phenomenological equation in this article, we provide a general and practical means to predict the thermodynamic conditions for crystallizing IgG antibodies in the solution environments of interest. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. IgG Donor-Specific Anti-Human HLA Antibody Subclasses and Kidney Allograft Antibody-Mediated Injury.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, Carmen; Viglietti, Denis; Bentlejewski, Carol; Duong van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Vernerey, Dewi; Aubert, Olivier; Verine, Jérôme; Jouven, Xavier; Legendre, Christophe; Glotz, Denis; Loupy, Alexandre; Zeevi, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies may have different pathogenicities according to IgG subclass. We investigated the association between IgG subclasses of circulating anti-human HLA antibodies and antibody-mediated kidney allograft injury. Among 635 consecutive kidney transplantations performed between 2008 and 2010, we enrolled 125 patients with donor-specific anti-human HLA antibodies (DSA) detected in the first year post-transplant. We assessed DSA characteristics, including specificity, HLA class specificity, mean fluorescence intensity (MFI), C1q-binding, and IgG subclass, and graft injury phenotype at the time of sera evaluation. Overall, 51 (40.8%) patients had acute antibody-mediated rejection (aABMR), 36 (28.8%) patients had subclinical ABMR (sABMR), and 38 (30.4%) patients were ABMR-free. The MFI of the immunodominant DSA (iDSA, the DSA with the highest MFI level) was 6724±464, and 41.6% of patients had iDSA showing C1q positivity. The distribution of iDSA IgG1-4 subclasses among the population was 75.2%, 44.0%, 28.0%, and 26.4%, respectively. An unsupervised principal component analysis integrating iDSA IgG subclasses revealed aABMR was mainly driven by IgG3 iDSA, whereas sABMR was driven by IgG4 iDSA. IgG3 iDSA was associated with a shorter time to rejection (P<0.001), increased microcirculation injury (P=0.002), and C4d capillary deposition (P<0.001). IgG4 iDSA was associated with later allograft injury with increased allograft glomerulopathy and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy lesions (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Integrating iDSA HLA class specificity, MFI level, C1q-binding status, and IgG subclasses in a Cox survival model revealed IgG3 iDSA and C1q-binding iDSA were strongly and independently associated with allograft failure. These results suggest IgG iDSA subclasses identify distinct phenotypes of kidney allograft antibody-mediated injury. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. A novel antibody engineering strategy for making monovalent bispecific heterodimeric IgG antibodies by electrostatic steering mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Leng, Esther C; Gunasekaran, Kannan; Pentony, Martin; Shen, Min; Howard, Monique; Stoops, Janelle; Manchulenko, Kathy; Razinkov, Vladimir; Liu, Hua; Fanslow, William; Hu, Zhonghua; Sun, Nancy; Hasegawa, Haruki; Clark, Rutilio; Foltz, Ian N; Yan, Wei

    2015-03-20

    Producing pure and well behaved bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) on a large scale for preclinical and clinical testing is a challenging task. Here, we describe a new strategy for making monovalent bispecific heterodimeric IgG antibodies in mammalian cells. We applied an electrostatic steering mechanism to engineer antibody light chain-heavy chain (LC-HC) interface residues in such a way that each LC strongly favors its cognate HC when two different HCs and two different LCs are co-expressed in the same cell to assemble a functional bispecific antibody. We produced heterodimeric IgGs from transiently and stably transfected mammalian cells. The engineered heterodimeric IgG molecules maintain the overall IgG structure with correct LC-HC pairings, bind to two different antigens with comparable affinity when compared with their parental antibodies, and retain the functionality of parental antibodies in biological assays. In addition, the bispecific heterodimeric IgG derived from anti-HER2 and anti-EGF receptor (EGFR) antibody was shown to induce a higher level of receptor internalization than the combination of two parental antibodies. Mouse xenograft BxPC-3, Panc-1, and Calu-3 human tumor models showed that the heterodimeric IgGs strongly inhibited tumor growth. The described approach can be used to generate tools from two pre-existent antibodies and explore the potential of bispecific antibodies. The asymmetrically engineered Fc variants for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity enhancement could be embedded in monovalent bispecific heterodimeric IgG to make best-in-class therapeutic antibodies. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Antibody response to the Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in healthy and infection-prone individuals with IgG3 subclass deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hahn-Zoric, M; Ulanova, M; Friman, V; Björkander, J; Oxelius, V A; Lucas, A; Hanson, L A

    2004-09-01

    Searching for a possible explanation for the phenotypic heterogeneity in IgG3 deficiency, we studied the antibody response to a polysaccharide and a protein antigen in IgG3-deficient (IgG3d) adults after vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (Hib CP) conjugated to tetanus toxoid. Distribution of isotypes, idiotypes, clonotypes, and Gm allotypes were compared. All the vaccinated individuals, irrespective of the level of IgG3 and proneness to infections, developed protective levels of anti-Hib CP. Significantly lower prevaccination levels of IgG2 (p < 0.05) and IgG4 anti-Hib CP (p < 0.04 and p < 0.03) were noted among the infection-prone compared to the healthy IgG3d individuals and/or controls. Seventy percent of the IgG3d patients and none of the controls had the low responding Gm(ga-n/ga-n) genotype, while the majority of the controls had the alternative Gm(bfn/bfn) genotype. The conjugate ACT-HIB vaccine efficiently overcomes the IgG3 subclass deficiency state and the genetic predisposition for lower responsiveness, providing protection against Hib and tetanus infections. The proneness to infection in some IgG3d individuals may relate to their low prevaccination antibody levels.

  4. [Prevalence of anti-mumps IgG antibodies in a pediatric population].

    PubMed

    Suárez, J; Castañeda, M R; Gutiérrez, C; Tascón, R; Rodríguez, E F

    1992-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of IgG antibodies against mumps virus, using an enzyme-linked immune assay, among a pediatric population aged from 2 to 14 years. Using a systematic sampling technique among rural and urban pediatric population in a sanitary Spanish area (Leon, Spain) we enrolled 800 children in the study. In all cases the vaccination status, prior history of mumps and also data regarding the place where the vaccination took place were recorded. The presence or absence of IgG antibodies against mumps virus was determined using a standard commercially-available technique (EIA Stat IgG Mumps). Of all children enrolled in the study, a 76.87% +/- 2.92% showed a positive antibody response against mumps virus. The percentage of susceptible children to mumps virus was therefore deemed to be 27.13% +/- 2.9%. A total of 100 children (25.8%) of all 387 who were previously vaccinated did not show presence of antibodies against mumps. In our study, the immunity pattern did not showed statistical positive correlation with all variables assessed: sex, place where the vaccine was given, residence (rural/urban). The high rates of vaccination coverage achieved among children aged 2 to 14 had induced a major change in the immune status, a 71.20% of children had IgG antibodies against mumps, that in nearly all cases had been generated by the use of the mumps vaccine.

  5. Anti-pituitary antibodies against corticotrophs in IgG4-related hypophysitis.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Naoko; Iwama, Shintaro; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Yasuda, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Kohtaro; Takeuchi, Seiji; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Ito, Yoshihiro; Suga, Hidetaka; Goto, Motomitsu; Banno, Ryoichi; Caturegli, Patrizio; Koike, Teruhiko; Oshida, Yoshiharu; Arima, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    IgG4-related disease is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into multiple organs, including the pituitary gland. Autoimmunity is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of IgG4-related disease. The diagnosis of IgG4-related hypophysitis (IgG4-RH) is difficult because its clinical features, such as pituitary swelling and hypopituitarism, are similar to those of other pituitary diseases, including lymphocytic hypophysitis and sellar/suprasellar tumors. The presence and significance of anti-pituitary antibodies (APA) in IgG4-RH is unclear. In this case-control study, we used single indirect immunofluorescence on human pituitary substrates to assess the prevalence of serum APA in 17 patients with IgG4-RH, 8 control patients with other pituitary diseases (lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis, 3; craniopharyngioma, 2; germinoma, 3), and 9 healthy subjects. We further analyzed the endocrine cells targeted by the antibodies using double indirect immunofluorescence. APA were found in 5 of 17 patients with IgG4-RH (29%), and in none of the pituitary controls or healthy subjects. The endocrine cells targeted by the antibodies in the 5 IgG4-RH cases were exclusively corticotrophs. Antibodies were of the IgG1 subclass, rather than IgG4, in all 5 cases, suggesting that IgG4 is not directly involved in the pathogenesis. Finally, antibodies recognized pro-opiomelanocortin in 2 of the cases. Our study suggests that autoimmunity is involved in the pathogenesis of IgG4-RH and that corticotrophs are the main antigenic target, highlighting a possible new diagnostic marker for this condition.

  6. Differential Decline in Leishmania Membrane Antigen-Specific Immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgE, and IgG Subclass Antibodies in Indian Kala-Azar Patients after Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Anam, Khairul; Afrin, Farhat; Banerjee, Dwijadas; Pramanik, Netai; Guha, Subhasis K.; Goswami, Rama P.; Saha, Shiben K.; Ali, Nahid

    1999-01-01

    Pathogenesis in kala-azar is associated with depressed cellular immunity and significant elevation of antileishmanial antibodies. Since these antibodies are present even after cure, analysis of the parasite-specific isotypes and immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses in kala-azar patients may shed new light on the immune responses during progression and resolution of infection. Using leishmanial membrane antigenic extracts, we investigated the relative levels of specific IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgG subclasses in Indian kala-azar patient sera during disease, drug resistance, and cure. Acute-phase sera showed strong stimulation of IgG, followed by IgE and IgM and lastly by IgA antibodies. IgG subclass analysis revealed expression of all of the subclasses, with a predominance of IgG1 during disease. Following sodium stibogluconate (SAG) resistance, the levels of IgG, IgM, IgE, and IgG4 remained constant, while there was a decrease in the titers of IgG2 and IgG3. In contrast, a significant (2.2-fold) increase in IgG1 was observed in these individuals. Cure, in both SAG-responsive and unresponsive patients, correlated with a decline in the levels of IgG, IgM, IgE, and all of the IgG subclasses. The stimulation of IgG1 and the persistence, most importantly, of IgE and IgG4 following drug resistance, along with a decline in IgE, IgG4, and IgG1 with cure, demonstrate the potential of these isotypes as possible markers for monitoring effective treatment in kala-azar. PMID:10569788

  7. Antiviral Functions of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)-Specific IgG Antibodies: Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy and Implications for Therapeutic HIV-1 Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    French, Martyn A.; Tjiam, M. Christian; Abudulai, Laila N.; Fernandez, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective and tolerable for long periods of time but cannot eradicate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection by either elimination of viral reservoirs or enhancement of HIV-1-specific immune responses. Boosting “protective” HIV-1-specific immune responses by active or passive immunization will therefore be necessary to control or eradicate HIV-1 infection and is currently the topic of intense investigation. Recently reported studies conducted in HIV patients and non-human primate (NHP) models of HIV-1 infection suggest that HIV-1-specific IgG antibody responses may contribute to the control of HIV-1 infection. However, production of IgG antibodies with virus neutralizing activity by vaccination remains problematic and while vaccine-induced natural killer cell-activating IgG antibodies have been shown to prevent the acquisition of HIV-1 infection, they may not be sufficient to control or eradicate established HIV-1 infection. It is, therefore, important to consider other functional characteristics of IgG antibody responses. IgG antibodies to viruses also mediate opsonophagocytic antibody responses against virions and capsids that enhance the function of phagocytic cells playing critical roles in antiviral immune responses, particularly conventional dendritic cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Emerging evidence suggests that these antibody functions might contribute to the control of HIV-1 infection. In addition, IgG antibodies contribute to the intracellular degradation of viruses via binding to the cytosolic fragment crystallizable (Fc) receptor tripartite motif containing-21 (TRIM21). The functional activity of an IgG antibody response is influenced by the IgG subclass content, which affects binding to antigens and to Fcγ receptors on phagocytic cells and to TRIM21. The IgG subclass content and avidity of IgG antibodies is determined by germinal center (GC) reactions in follicles of lymphoid

  8. Characteristics of antibody responses induced in mice by protein allergens.

    PubMed

    Hilton, J; Dearman, R J; Sattar, N; Basketter, D A; Kimber, I

    1997-12-01

    Whereas many foreign proteins are immunogenic, only a proportion is also allergenic, having the capacity to induce the quality of immune response necessary to support the production of IgE antibody. We have demonstrated previously that intraperitoneal administration to mice of proteins such as ovalbumin (OVA) or the industrial enzyme A. oryzae lipase, which possess significant allergenic potential, stimulates the production of both IgG and IgE antibody. Identical exposure to bovine serum albumin (BSA), a protein with limited potential to cause immediate respiratory or gastrointestinal hypersensitivity reactions, induced IgG responses only. In the current investigations, the quality of immune responses induced following exposure to these proteins via mucosal tissue (intranasal) has been compared with those provoked following administration via a non-mucosal (intraperitoneal) route of exposure. Intranasal or intraperitoneal administration of BSA, OVA or A. oryzae lipase elicited in each case vigorous IgG and IgG1 antibody responses. For all three proteins, at every concentration tested, and via both routes of exposure, IgG1 antibody titres paralleled closely IgG titres. However, the three materials displayed a differential potential to provoke IgE responses and this correlated with their known allergenic potential in humans. Thus, OVA and A. oryzae lipase stimulated strong IgE antibody responses, whereas BSA provoked low titre IgE only at the highest concentration tested (5% administered intraperitoneally). The quality of induced responses was not affected by the route of exposure. It would appear, therefore, that the stimulation of IgG and IgG1 antibody responses is a reflection of protein immunogenicity whereas protein allergenicity is associated with the induction of strong IgE responses.

  9. Immunization of chickens with an agonistic monoclonal anti-chicken CD40 antibody-hapten complex: rapid and robust IgG response induced by a single subcutaneous injection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Hsin; Abi-Ghanem, Daad; Waghela, Suryakant D; Chou, Wen-Ko; Farnell, Morgan B; Mwangi, Waithaka; Berghman, Luc R

    2012-04-30

    Producing diagnostic antibodies in chicken egg yolk represents an alternate animal system that offers many advantages including high productivity at low cost. Despite being an excellent counterpart to mammalian antibodies, chicken IgG from yolk still represents an underused resource. The potential of agonistic monoclonal anti-CD40 antibodies (mAb) as a powerful immunological adjuvant has been demonstrated in mammals, but not in chickens. We recently reported an agonistic anti-chicken CD40 mAb (designated mAb 2C5) and showed that it may have potential as an immunological adjuvant. In this study, we examined the efficacy of targeting a short peptide to chicken CD40 [expressed by the antigen-presenting cells (APCs)] in enhancing an effective IgG response in chickens. For this purpose, an immune complex consisting of one streptavidin molecule, two directionally biotinylated mAb 2C5 molecules, and two biotinylated peptide molecules was produced. Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with doses of this complex ranging from 10 to 90 μg per injection once, and relative quantification of the peptide-specific IgG response showed that the mAb 2C5-based complex was able to elicit a strong IgG response as early as four days post-immunization. This demonstrates that CD40-targeting antigen to chicken APCs can significantly enhance antibody responses and induce immunoglobulin isotype-switching. This immunization strategy holds promise for rapid production of hapten-specific IgG in chickens. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum IgG subclass antibodies to a variety of food antigens in patients with coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hvatum, M; Scott, H; Brandtzaeg, P

    1992-01-01

    Levels of serum IgA, IgG, and IgG subclass antibodies to a variety of dietary antigens were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays in 14 adults with untreated coeliac disease and in 10 disease controls selected because of raised total IgG activities. The untreated coeliacs showed somewhat higher total IgG activity (p approximately 0.05) and significantly raised IgA and IgG1 + IgG3 activities to gliadin but reduced IgG4 activity (p less than 0.02) compared with the controls. High IgA and IgG1 + IgG3 activities were positively correlated (r = 0.67, p less than 0.01), and so were IgG and IgG4 activities (r = 0.64, p less than 0.02). Conversely, a high IgG2 response to gliadin appeared related to a low IgA response (r = 0.55, p less than 0.05). The IgG2 response was most prominent to oat flour antigens, followed by IgG1; and the main response to soy antigens resided in IgG1, followed by IgG2 in both disease groups. There was no difference in antibody activities to oat and soy between the two groups, and raised activity to bovine serum albumin was seldom encountered. The IgA activity to alpha-lactalbumin and ovalbumin tended to be increased in the coeliacs compared with the controls. The IgG4 subclass dominated the IgG response to beta-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin and was often raised to alpha-lactalbumin, especially in the disease controls. The IgG subclass pattern to casein parallelled that to gliadin with dominance of the IgG1- and IgG3-subclass activities, especially in the coeliacs. The phlogistic potential of a response in these two subclasses might be relevant to the pathogenesis of coeliac disease and could contribute to a raised IgA gliadin response by increasing mucosal permeability. IgA activity seemed to be highest against antigens usually involved in IgE mediated food allergy. PMID:1612478

  11. Progress in overcoming the chain association issue in bispecific heterodimeric IgG antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Christian; Sustmann, Claudio; Thomas, Markus; Stubenrauch, Kay; Croasdale, Rebecca; Schanzer, Jürgen; Brinkmann, Ulrich; Kettenberger, Hubert; Regula, Jörg T.; Schaefer, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The development of bispecific antibodies has attracted substantial interest, and many different formats have been described. Those specifically containing an Fc part are mostly tetravalent, such as stabilized IgG-scFv fusions or dual-variable domain (DVD) IgGs. However, although they exhibit IgG-like properties and technical developability, these formats differ in size and geometry from classical IgG antibodies. Thus, considerable efforts focus on bispecific heterodimeric IgG antibodies that more closely mimic natural IgG molecules. The inherent chain association problem encountered when producing bispecific heterodimeric IgG antibodies can be overcome by several methods. While technologies like knobs-into-holes (KiH) combined with a common light chain or the CrossMab technology enforce the correct chain association, other approaches, e.g., the dual-acting Fab (DAF) IgGs, do not rely on a heterodimeric Fc part. This review discusses the state of the art in bispecific heterodimeric IgG antibodies, with an emphasis on recent progress. PMID:22925968

  12. IgG Antibody Responses to Recombinant gp120 Proteins, gp70V1/V2 Scaffolds, and a CyclicV2 Peptide in Thai Phase I/II Vaccine Trials Using Different Vaccine Regimens.

    PubMed

    Karasavvas, Nicos; Karnasuta, Chitraporn; Savadsuk, Hathairat; Madnote, Sirinan; Inthawong, Dutsadee; Chantakulkij, Somsak; Rittiroongrad, Surawach; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Thongcharoen, Prasert; Siriyanon, Vinai; Andrews, Charla A; Barnett, Susan W; Tartaglia, James; Sinangil, Faruk; Francis, Donald P; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; Ngauy, Viseth; de Souza, Mark S; Paris, Robert M; Excler, Jean-Louis; Kim, Jerome H; O'Connell, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    RV144 correlates of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies to gp70V1V2 scaffolds inversely correlated with risk of HIV acquisition. We investigated IgG antibody responses in RV135 and RV132, two ALVAC-HIV prime-boost vaccine trials conducted in Thailand prior to RV144. Both trials used ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months and HIV-1 gp120MNgD and gp120A244gD in alum (RV135) or gp120SF2 and gp120CM235 in MF59 (RV132) at 3 and 6 months. We assessed ELISA binding antibodies to the envelope proteins (Env) 92TH023, A244gD and MNgD, cyclicV2, and gp70V1V2 CaseA2 (subtype B) and 92TH023 (subtype CRF01_AE), and Env-specific IgG1 and IgG3. Antibody responses to gp120 A244gD, MNgD, and gp70V1V2 92TH023 scaffold were significantly higher in RV135 than in RV132. Antibodies to gp70V1V2 CaseA2 were detected only in RV135 vaccine recipients and IgG1 and IgG3 antibody responses to A244gD were significantly higher in RV135. IgG binding to gp70V1V2 CaseA2 and CRF01_AE scaffolds was higher with the AIDSVAX(®)B/E boost but both trials showed similar rates of antibody decline post-vaccination. MF59 did not result in higher IgG antibody responses compared to alum with the antigens tested. However, notable differences in the structure of the recombinant proteins and dosage used for immunizations may have contributed to the magnitude and specificity of IgG induced by the two trials.

  13. Defective anti-polysaccharide IgG vaccine responses in IgA deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Yoichi; Kirimanjeswara, Girish S; Roberts, Sean; Racine, Rachael; Wilson-Welder, Jennifer; Sanfilippo, Alan M; Salmon, Sharon L; Metzger, Dennis W

    2017-09-05

    We report that IgA -/- mice exhibit specific defects in IgG antibody responses to various polysaccharide vaccines (Francisella tularensis LPS and Pneumovax), but not protein vaccines such as Fluzone. This defect further included responses to polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Prevnar and Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid vaccine). In agreement with these findings, IgA -/- mice were protected from pathogen challenge with protein- but not polysaccharide-based vaccines. Interestingly, after immunization with live bacteria, IgA +/+ and IgA -/- mice were both resistant to lethal challenge and their IgG anti-polysaccharide antibody responses were comparable. Immunization with live bacteria, but not purified polysaccharide, induced production of serum B cell-activating factor (BAFF), a cytokine important for IgG class switching; supplementing IgA -/- cell cultures with BAFF enhanced in vitro polyclonal IgG production. Taken together, these findings show that IgA deficiency impairs IgG class switching following vaccination with polysaccharide antigens and that live bacterial immunization can overcome this defect. Since IgA deficient patients also often show defects in antibody responses following immunization with polysaccharide vaccines, our findings could have relevance to the clinical management of this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by passive transfer of IgG antibodies from a multiple sclerosis patient responsive to immunoadsorption.

    PubMed

    Pedotti, Rosetta; Musio, Silvia; Scabeni, Stefano; Farina, Cinthia; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Colombo, Emanuela; Costanza, Massimo; Berzi, Angela; Castellucci, Fabrizio; Ciusani, Emilio; Confalonieri, Paolo; Hemmer, Bernhard; Mantegazza, Renato; Antozzi, Carlo

    2013-09-15

    The pathogenic role of antibodies in multiple sclerosis (MS) is still controversial. We transferred to mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), animal model of MS, IgG antibodies purified from a MS patient presenting a dramatic clinical improvement during relapse after selective IgG removal with immunoadsorption. Passive transfer of patient's IgG exacerbated motor paralysis and increased mouse central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and demyelination. Binding of patient's IgG was demonstrated in mouse CNS, with a diffuse staining of white matter oligodendrocytes. These data support a growing body of evidence that antibodies can play an important role in the pathobiology of MS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. IgG and IgE antibodies to Chironomidae in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, N; Ito, K; Nakagawa, T; Haida, M; Okudaira, H; Nakada, S; Miyamoto, T; Shibuya, T; Kamei, K; Sasa, M

    1987-01-01

    IgG antibodies to Chironomidae and its correlations to radioallergosorbent and skin reactions were examined with the aim of clarifying the relationship between asthma and Chironomidae. The level of specific IgG antibody in asthmatic patients (0.698 +/- 0.034, n = 104) was significantly greater than that in normal subjects (0.367 +/- 0.032, n = 52) (P less than 0.01). The specific IgG level was not correlated to skin reaction, nor to IgE RAST scores. Specific IgG1 and IgG4 levels in asthmatic patients were significantly greater than in control subjects (n = 14) (P less than 0.01). Images Fig. 5 PMID:3652516

  16. A methodological approach for production and purification of polyclonal antibody against dog IgG.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Somayeh; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Nozari, Samira; Majidi, Jafar

    2018-01-01

    Antibodies are a class of biomolecules that has an important role in the immune system and lots of applications in biotechnological methods and in pharmaceutics. Production and purification of antibodies in laboratory animals is one of the first ways to manufacture of these prominent tools. The obtained antibodies from these process could be used in various types of bioassay techniques such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), radioimmunoassay, etc. Also, antibodies employed in diagnostics applications in humans and other animals in order to detect specific antigens. In this study, we aimed to produce and purify anti-dog IgG via immunizing rabbits with dog IgG in combination with Freund's adjuvant. Polyclonal IgG were purified by ion exchange chromatography and then the purified antibody was labeled with horse radish peroxidase (HPR). Direct ELISA was used to determine the optimum titer and cross-reactivity of HRP conjugated IgG. The purity of various IgG preparations and the optimum dilution of prepared HRP conjugated IgG, respectively, was about 95.00% and 1:8000. This study showed that efficiency ion-exchange chromatography could be an appropriate method for purification of IgG antibodies. This antibody could be a useful tool for future dog immune diagnosis tests. This product characterization shown here sets the foundations for future work on dog IgGs.

  17. IgG subclass antibodies to human and bacterial HSP60 are not associated with disease activity and progression over time in axial spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Spondyloarthritis (SpA), an interrelated group of rheumatic diseases, has been suggested to be triggered by bacterial infections prior to the development of an autoimmune response that causes inflammation of the spinal and peripheral joints. Because human heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), recently renamed HSPD1, and bacterial HSP60 are highly homologous, immunological cross-reactivity has been proposed as a mechanism of disease initiation. However, previous investigations of the humoral immune response to HSP60 in SpA patients have lacked determination of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses and patient follow-up. In this study, we have focused on these parameters in a cohort of axial SpA patients with a well-established set of clinical characteristics, including MRI changes and human leukocyte antigen B27. Methods IgG subclass antibodies (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4) against recombinant HSP60 of three reactive arthritis-related bacteria; human HSP60; and the microorganisms Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae were determined by ELISA. Serum samples collected from 2004 to 2006 and in 2010 and 2011 from 39 axial SpA patients were analyzed and compared with samples from 39 healthy controls. The Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon matched pairs test were used to compare the antibody levels in different and paired groups, respectively. P < 0.01 was considered significant. The Spearman nonparametric correlation was used to determine correlation between antibody levels and between antibody levels and the disease parameters. Results Elevated levels of IgG1 and IgG3 to human HSP60 and IgG1 to HSP60 of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis were observed in SpA patients compared with healthy controls at both time points. The antibody levels were almost constant over time for IgG1, whereas high levels of IgG3 to human HSP60 tended to decrease over time. The antibody response to human HSP60 was predominantly of the IgG3 subclass, and patients with high levels of IgG3 to this

  18. Relation between IgG antibodies to foods and IgE antibodies to milk, egg, cat, dog and/or mite in a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Eysink, P E; De Jong, M H; Bindels, P J; Scharp-Van Der Linden, V T; De Groot, C J; Stapel, S O; Aalberse, R C

    1999-05-01

    Because IgG antibodies to foods can be detected before IgE antibodies to inhalants, increased levels of IgG antibodies to foods might be used as a predictor of IgE-mediated allergy in initially nonatopic children. To examine the cross-sectional relation between IgG to foods (i.e. mixture of wheat and rice, mixture of soybean and peanut, egg white, cow's milk, meat, orange and potato) and specific IgE to cat, dog, mite, milk and egg white in 1-year-old children. All atopic children (n = 120; 58 with and 62 without eczema) and a random sample of the nonatopic children (n = 144) of the Bokaal study were tested on their IgG response to foods. The IgG results of the food assays were dichotomized high or low using the 66th centile as a cut-off value. Atopic children more often had high IgG levels to foods than nonatopic children. IgG to egg white (OR = 7.50) and mixture of wheat and rice (OR = 4.79) were most strongly associated with positive specific IgE. In a stepwise logistic regression analysis egg white, mixture of wheat and rice, and orange were selected (OR = 3.76, OR = 2.43, and OR = 2.11, respectively). In children without eczema higher levels of IgG to foods were still significantly associated with atopy, which was most prominent for egg white, orange and cow's milk. An increased IgG antibody level to foods, especially to egg white, orange, and mixture of wheat and rice, indicates an increased risk of having IgE to cat, dog, mite, egg and/or milk allergens, even in the noneczematous group. Therefore, in another prospective study we are currently investigating the usefulness of IgG in early identification, i.e. before IgE antibodies can be detected, of children with an increased risk of developing allergic diseases in the future.

  19. Clinical relevance of IgG antibodies against food antigens in Crohn's disease: a double-blind cross-over diet intervention study.

    PubMed

    Bentz, S; Hausmann, M; Piberger, H; Kellermeier, S; Paul, S; Held, L; Falk, W; Obermeier, F; Fried, M; Schölmerich, J; Rogler, G

    2010-01-01

    Environmental factors are thought to play an important role in the development of Crohn's disease (CD). Immune responses against auto-antigens or food antigens may be a reason for the perpetuation of inflammation. In a pilot study, 79 CD patients and 20 healthy controls were examined for food immunoglobulin G (IgG). Thereafter, the clinical relevance of these food IgG antibodies was assessed in a double-blind cross-over study with 40 patients. Based on the IgG antibodies, a nutritional intervention was planned. The interferon (IFN)gamma secretion of T cells was measured. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin was quantified in stool. The pilot study resulted in a significant difference of IgG antibodies in serum between CD patients and healthy controls. In 84 and 83% of the patients, respectively, IgG antibodies against processed cheese and yeast were detected. The daily stool frequency significantly decreased by 11% during a specific diet compared with a sham diet. Abdominal pain reduced and general well-being improved. IFNgamma secretion of T cells increased. No difference for eosinophil-derived neurotoxin in stool was detected. A nutritional intervention based on circulating IgG antibodies against food antigens showed effects with respect to stool frequency. The mechanisms by which IgG antibodies might contribute to disease activity remain to be elucidated.

  20. T-cell-independent and T-cell-dependent antibody responses in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Beaman, M; Michael, J; MacLennan, I C; Adu, D

    1989-01-01

    Antibody responses against pneumococcal capsular antigens and tetanus toxoid were measured in 14 patients with chronic renal failure who were managed by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or haemodialysis (HD) and in eight healthy controls. IgG antipneumococcal responses were predominantly of the IgG2 and to a lesser extent IgG1 subclasses, while the IgG response against tetanus toxoid was largely IgG1 with smaller amounts of IgG4 and IgG3. The post-immunisation serum levels of IgG1 and IgM antibody against both antigens were significantly reduced in the uraemic patients compared with controls (P less than 0.05). All the uraemic patients had normal levels of IgG, IgA and IgM in the serum, but elevated levels of IgG3 prior to immunisation. The mechanisms responsible for the asymmetric depression of antibody responses in uraemia are unclear and may account in part for the increased susceptibility to infection in these patients.

  1. Raised serum IgG and IgA antibodies to mycobacterial antigens in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Tsoulfa, G; Rook, G A; Van-Embden, J D; Young, D B; Mehlert, A; Isenberg, D A; Hay, F C; Lydyard, P M

    1989-01-01

    Autoantigens cross reactive with mycobacteria are implicated in the pathogenesis of adjuvant arthritis in the rat, and there are reports of changes in the immune response to mycobacteria in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We have therefore examined the IgM, IgG, and IgA antibody levels to crude mycobacterial antigens and to two recombinant mycobacterial heat shock/stress proteins (65 kD and 71 kD) in sera from patients with RA, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Crohn's disease, and from healthy controls. IgA binding to the crude mycobacterial antigens was significantly raised in RA sera, though IgG and IgM binding tended to be lower than in controls. Both IgA and IgG binding to the heat shock proteins were significantly raised in the RA sera. Smaller significant rises in both classes were seen in sera from patients with SLE, and in the IgA class only to the 65 kD protein in Crohn's disease. The rises in IgG and IgA antibodies to the 65 kD protein in RA were significantly higher than in the other diseases, however. It is interesting that this protein is the one responsible for adjuvant arthritis in the rat. PMID:2930263

  2. The influence of antibody fragment format on phage display based affinity maturation of IgG

    PubMed Central

    Steinwand, Miriam; Droste, Patrick; Frenzel, Andrè; Hust, Michael; Dübel, Stefan; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Today, most approved therapeutic antibodies are provided as immunoglobulin G (IgG), whereas small recombinant antibody formats are required for in vitro antibody generation and engineering during drug development. Particularly, single chain (sc) antibody fragments like scFv or scFab are well suited for phage display and bacterial expression, but some have been found to lose affinity during conversion into IgG.   In this study, we compared the influence of the antibody format on affinity maturation of the CD30-specific scFv antibody fragment SH313-F9, with the overall objective being improvement of the IgG. The variable genes of SH313-F9 were randomly mutated and then cloned into libraries encoding different recombinant antibody formats, including scFv, Fab, scFabΔC, and FabΔC. All tested antibody formats except Fab allowed functional phage display of the parental antibody SH313-F9, and the corresponding mutated antibody gene libraries allowed isolation of candidates with enhanced CD30 binding. Moreover, scFv and scFabΔC antibody variants retained improved antigen binding after subcloning into the single gene encoded IgG-like formats scFv-Fc or scIgG, but lost affinity after conversion into IgGs. Only affinity maturation using the Fab-like FabΔC format, which does not contain the carboxy terminal cysteines, allowed successful selection of molecules with improved binding that was retained after conversion to IgG. Thus, affinity maturation of IgGs is dependent on the antibody format employed for selection and screening. In this study, only FabΔC resulted in the efficient selection of IgG candidates with higher affinity by combination of Fab-like conformation and improved phage display compared with Fab. PMID:24262918

  3. Maternal antibodies against tetanus toxoid do not inhibit potency of antibody responses to autologous antigen in newborn rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Ronald S; Lu, Yingjie; Xu, Huanbin; Ziani, Widade; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A; Ratterree, Marion S; Wang, Xiaolei

    2018-02-01

    Our previous study suggested newborns have competent immune systems with the potential to respond to foreign antigens and vaccines. In this study, we examined infant immune responses to tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination in the presence of maternal antibody to TT. We examined changes in plasma levels of tetanus toxoid-specific IgG1 (anti-TT IgG1) in a total of eight infant rhesus macaques from birth through 6 months of age using a commercial Monkey Anti-TT IgG1 ELISA kit. A significant correlation between anti-TT IgG1 levels in vaccinated dams and their paired newborn infants was detected in control (non-vaccinated) infants as previously reported. Maternal anti-TT IgG1 levels declined rapidly within 1 month of birth in non-vaccinated infants (n=4). In four infants vaccinated with TT at birth, we found two had rapid and robust antibody responses to vaccination. Interestingly, the other two first showed declining TT antibody levels for 2 weeks followed by increasing levels without additional vaccine boosts, indicating all four had good antibody responses to primary TT vaccination at birth, despite the presence of high levels of maternal antibodies to TT in all four infants. Our data indicate that newborn macaques have competent immune systems that are capable of generating their own primary antibody responses to vaccination, at least to tetanus antigens. Maternal antibodies thus do not significantly impair antibody response to the vaccination, even when received on the day of birth in infant rhesus macaques. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. IgG2 Antibodies against a Clinical Grade Plasmodium falciparum CSP Vaccine Antigen Associate with Protection against Transgenic Sporozoite Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schwenk, Robert; Nikki, Jennifer; Rein, Lisa; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea; Wightman, Paul D.; Ockenhouse, Christian F.; Dutta, Sheetij

    2014-01-01

    The availability of a highly purified and well characterized circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is essential to improve upon the partial success of recombinant CSP-based malaria vaccine candidates. Soluble, near full-length, Plasmodium falciparum CSP vaccine antigen (CS/D) was produced in E. coli under bio-production conditions that comply with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). A mouse immunogenicity study was conducted using a stable oil-in-water emulsion (SE) of CS/D in combination with the Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA/SE), or one of two TLR7/8 agonists: R848 (un-conjugated) or 3M-051 (covalently conjugated). Compared to Alum and SE, GLA/SE induced higher CS/D specific antibody response in Balb/c mice. Subclass analysis showed higher IgG2:IgG1 ratio of GLA/SE induced antibodies as compared to Alum and SE. TLR synergy was not observed when soluble R848 was mixed with GLA/SE. Antibody response of 3M051 formulations in Balb/c was similar to GLA/SE, except for the higher IgG2:IgG1 ratio and a trend towards higher T cell responses in 3M051 containing groups. However, no synergistic enhancement of antibody and T cell response was evident when 3M051 conjugate was mixed with GLA/SE. In C57Bl/6 mice, CS/D adjuvanted with 3M051/SE or GLA/SE induced higher CSP repeat specific titers compared to SE. While, 3M051 induced antibodies had high IgG2c:IgG1 ratio, GLA/SE promoted high levels of both IgG1 and IgG2c. GLA/SE also induced more potent T-cell responses compared to SE in two independent C57/BL6 vaccination studies, suggesting a balanced and productive TH1/TH2 response. GLA and 3M-051 similarly enhanced the protective efficacy of CS/D against challenge with a transgenic P. berghei parasite and most importantly, high levels of cytophilic IgG2 antibodies were associated with protection in this model. Our data indicated that the cGMP-grade, soluble CS/D antigen combined with the TLR4-containing adjuvant GLA/SE warrants further

  5. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS® Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS® Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS® CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) < 0.3 and a strong avidity as an AI > 0.6. The VIDAS® Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects. PMID:27556477

  6. First Attempt To Validate Human IgG Antibody Response to Nterm-34kDa Salivary Peptide as Biomarker for Evaluating Exposure to Aedes aegypti Bites

    PubMed Central

    Elanga Ndille, Emmanuel; Doucoure, Souleymane; Damien, Georgia; Mouchet, François; Drame, Papa Makhtar; Cornelie, Sylvie; Noukpo, Herbert; Yamadjako, Sandra; Djenontin, Armel; Moiroux, Nicolas; Misse, Dorothee; Akogbeto, Martin; Corbel, Vincent; Henry, Marie-Claire; Chandre, Fabrice; Baldet, Thierry; Remoue, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Background Much effort is being devoted for developing new indicators to evaluate the human exposure to Aedes mosquito bites and the risk of arbovirus transmission. Human antibody (Ab) responses to mosquito salivary components could represent a promising tool for evaluating the human-vector contact. Methodology/Principal findings To develop a specific biomarker of human exposure to Aedes aegypti bites, we measured IgG Ab response to Ae. aegypti Nterm-34 kDa salivary peptide in exposed children in 7 villages of Southern Benin (West Africa). Results showed that specific IgG response presented high inter-individual heterogeneity between villages. IgG response was associated with rainfall and IgG level increased from dry (low exposure) to rainy (high exposure) seasons. These findings indicate that IgG Ab to Nterm-34 kDa salivary peptide may represent a reliable biomarker to detect variation in human exposure to Ae. aegypti bites. Conclusion/Significance This preliminary study highlights the potential use of Ab response to this salivary peptide for evaluating human exposure to Ae. aegypti. This biomarker could represent a new promising tool for assessing the risk of arbovirus transmission and for evaluating the efficacy of vector control interventions. PMID:23166852

  7. Detection of specific antibody responses to vaccination in variable flying foxes (Pteropus hypomelanus).

    PubMed

    Wellehan, James F X; Green, Linda G; Duke, Diane G; Bootorabi, Shadi; Heard, Darryl J; Klein, Paul A; Jacobson, Elliott R

    2009-09-01

    Megachiropteran bats are biologically important both as endangered species and reservoirs for emerging human pathogens. Reliable detection of antibodies to specific pathogens in bats is thus epidemiologically critical. Eight variable flying foxes (Pteropus hypomelanus) were immunized with 2,4-dinitrophenylated bovine serum albumin (DNP-BSA). Each bat received monthly inoculations for 2 months. Affinity-purified IgG was used for production of polyclonal and monoclonal anti-variable flying fox IgG antibodies. ELISA and western blot analysis were used to monitor immune responses and for assessment of polyclonal and monoclonal antibody species cross-reactivity. Protein G, polyclonal antibodies, and monoclonal antibodies detected specific anti-DNP antibody responses in immunized variable flying foxes, with protein G being the most sensitive, followed by monoclonal antibodies and then polyclonal antibodies. While the polyclonal antibody was found to cross-react well against IgG of all bat species tested, some non-specific background was observed. The monoclonal antibody was found to cross-react well against IgG of six other species in the genus Pteropus and to cross-react less strongly against IgG from Eidolon helvum or Phyllostomus hastatus. Protein G distinguished best between vaccinated and unvaccinated bats, and these results validate the use of protein G for detection of bat IgG. Monoclonal antibodies developed in this study recognized immunoglobulins from other members of the genus Pteropus well, and may be useful in applications where specific detection of Pteropus IgG is needed.

  8. Vaccine-elicited SIV and HIV envelope-specific IgA and IgG memory B cells in rhesus macaque peripheral blood correlate with functional antibody responses and reduced viremia

    PubMed Central

    Brocca-Cofano, Egidio; McKinnon, Katherine; Demberg, Thorsten; Venzon, David; Hidajat, Rachmat; Xiao, Peng; Daltabuit-Test, Mara; Patterson, L. Jean; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    An effective HIV vaccine requires strong systemic and mucosal, cellular and humoral immunity. Numerous non-human primate studies have investigated memory T cells, but not memory B cells. Humoral immunologic memory is mediated by long-lived antibody-secreting plasma cells and differentiation of memory B cells into short-lived plasma blasts following re-exposure to immunizing antigen. Here we studied memory B cells in vaccinated rhesus macaques. PBMC were stimulated polyclonally using CD40 Ligand, IL-21 and CpG to induce B cell proliferation and differentiation into antibody secreting cells (ASC). Flow cytometry was used for phenotyping and evaluating proliferation by CFSE dilution. B cell responses were quantified by ELISPOT. Methodology was established using PBMC of vaccinated elite-controller macaques that exhibited strong, multi-functional antibody activities. Subsequently, memory B cells elicited by two replicating Ad-recombinant prime/envelope boost regimens were retrospectively evaluated pre- and post- SIV and SHIV challenges. The vaccine regimens induced SIV and HIV Env-specific IgG and IgA memory B cells. Prior to challenge, IgA memory B cells were more numerous than IgG memory B cells, reflecting the mucosal priming immunizations. Pre- and post-challenge memory B cells were correlated with functional antibody responses including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cell-mediated viral inhibition (ADCVI) and transcytosis inhibition. Post-challenge, Env-specific IgG and IgA memory B cells were correlated with reduced chronic viremia. We conclude that functional antibody responses elicited by our prime/boost regimen were effectively incorporated into the memory B cell pool where they contributed to control of viremia following re-exposure to the immunizing antigen. PMID:21382487

  9. Measurement of the IgG2 response to Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides may identify an antibody deficiency in individuals referred for immunological investigation.

    PubMed

    Parker, Antony; Irure Ventura, Juan; Sims, Dawn; Echeverría de Carlos, Ainara; Gómez de la Torre, Ricardo; Tricas Aizpún, Lourdes; Ocejo-Vinyals, J Gonzalo; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Wallis, Gregg; Harding, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    IgG2 is the most efficient subclass for providing protection against pneumococcal pathogens. We hypothesised that some individuals may be unable to mount an effective pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP) IgG2 response despite having a normal PCP IgG concentration (PCP IgG2 deficient). The median pre-vaccination PCP IgG2 concentration was significantly lower in individuals referred for immunological investigation compared to healthy controls (2.8 mg/L range, 95% CI 1.1-88 vs. 29.5mg/L, 95% CI 13.5-90, p = 0.0002). PCP IgG:IgG2 ratios were significantly higher for the referral population than for healthy controls suggesting the increased production of PCP specific subclasses other than IgG2. The percentage of individuals with PCP IgG2 deficiency was significantly higher in referral groups compared to controls (31% vs. 5%; p = 0.0009) and in an individual with PCP IgG2 deficiency, the balance of PCP specific IgG subclass antibodies post vaccination changed from IgG2>IgG1>IgG3>IgG4 to IgG1>IgG3>IgG2>IgG4. The median PCP IgG2 concentration in those with PCP IgG2 deficiency was significantly lower in the referral groups compared to controls (7.8 mg/L, 95% CI 1.1-12 vs. 12.7 mg/L, 95% CI 11.8-13.1; p = 0.006). The data suggests a defect in the production PCP IgG2 may be present in individuals with normal PCP IgG referred for immunological investigation.

  10. Seroprevalences of Specific IgG Antibodies to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella in Korean Infants.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hye Kyung; Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Han Wool; Kim, Sung Soon; Kang, Hae Ji; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the seroprevalences of measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies in infants were determined to assess the immunization strategy and control measures for these infectious diseases. Serum samples from infants < 1 year of age and their mothers were collected to measure the concentrations of specific IgG antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For selected infant serum samples, measles-specific neutralizing antibody levels were determined by using the plaque reduction neutralization test. The sera from 295 of infants and 80 of their mothers were analyzed. No infants had past measles, mumps, or rubella infections. Almost all infants < 2 months of age were positive for measles and rubella IgG antibodies. However, seroprevalence of measles and rubella antibodies decreased with age, and measles IgG and rubella IgG were barely detectable after 4 months of age. The seroprevalence of mumps antibodies was lower than that of measles and rubella antibodies in infants ≤ 4 months old, and mumps IgG was barely detectable after 2 months of age. The seropositivity of measles-specific neutralizing antibody was 63.6% in infants aged 2 months and undetectable in infants ≥ 6 months old. Because the seropositivity rates of measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies were low after the first few months of age in Korean infants, active immunization with vaccines is strongly recommended for infants aged 6-11 months when measles is epidemic. Timely administration of the first dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine at 12 months of age should be encouraged in non-epidemic situations.

  11. Seroprevalences of Specific IgG Antibodies to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella in Korean Infants

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the seroprevalences of measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies in infants were determined to assess the immunization strategy and control measures for these infectious diseases. Serum samples from infants < 1 year of age and their mothers were collected to measure the concentrations of specific IgG antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For selected infant serum samples, measles-specific neutralizing antibody levels were determined by using the plaque reduction neutralization test. The sera from 295 of infants and 80 of their mothers were analyzed. No infants had past measles, mumps, or rubella infections. Almost all infants < 2 months of age were positive for measles and rubella IgG antibodies. However, seroprevalence of measles and rubella antibodies decreased with age, and measles IgG and rubella IgG were barely detectable after 4 months of age. The seroprevalence of mumps antibodies was lower than that of measles and rubella antibodies in infants ≤ 4 months old, and mumps IgG was barely detectable after 2 months of age. The seropositivity of measles-specific neutralizing antibody was 63.6% in infants aged 2 months and undetectable in infants ≥ 6 months old. Because the seropositivity rates of measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies were low after the first few months of age in Korean infants, active immunization with vaccines is strongly recommended for infants aged 6–11 months when measles is epidemic. Timely administration of the first dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine at 12 months of age should be encouraged in non-epidemic situations. PMID:27822935

  12. Importance of IgG subclasses of anti-Rh antibodies for the detection of Fc-receptor-bearing human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zupańska, B; Maślanka, K; van Loghem, E

    1982-11-01

    13 anti-Rh sera were compared for their usefulness in the detection of Fc-receptor-bearing lymphocytes (EAhum test). IgG subclasses of anti-Rh antibodies were determined by the antiglobulin test with monospecific sera and by the detection of Gm allotypic markers in the haemagglutination inhibition test. Six sera with IgG1 + IgG3 or IgG1 + IgG2 + IgG3 antibodies and one with pure IgG3 antibodies were found to be useful, whereas six other sera with only IgG1 were unsuitable for the EAhum test. G3m markers were detected only on the anti-Rh antibodies which were capable of forming rosettes with lymphocytes. The data show that human peripheral lymphocytes possess Fc receptors for IgG3 immunoglobulins.

  13. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Dina, Julia; Creveuil, Christian; Gouarin, Stephanie; Viron, Florent; Hebert, Amelie; Freymuth, Francois; Vabret, Astrid

    2016-08-20

    The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS(®) Measles immunoglobulin (Ig)G assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost(®) Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens) and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA(®) (Microimmune). The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost(®) Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA(®) assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS(®) CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93) compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1) in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI) < 0.3 and a strong avidity as an AI > 0.6. The VIDAS(®) Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects.

  14. Placental Malaria Induces Variant-Specific Antibodies of the Cytophilic Subtypes Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG3 That Correlate with Adhesion Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Salenna R.; Brennan, Amy K.; Beeson, James G.; Tadesse, Eyob; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Brown, Graham V.; Rogerson, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    Antibodies targeting variant antigens on the surfaces of chondroitin sulfate A (CSA)-binding malaria-infected erythrocytes have been linked to protection against the complications of malaria in pregnancy. We examined the isotype/subtype profiles of antibodies that bound to variant surface antigens expressed by CSA-adherent Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant Malawian women with and without histologically defined placental malaria. Women in their first pregnancy with placental malaria produced significantly greater amounts of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG3 reactive with surface antigens of malaria-infected erythrocytes than uninfected women of the same gravidity. IgG1 and IgG3 levels in infected and control women in later pregnancies were similar to those in infected women in their first pregnancy. Levels of IgG2 and IgG4 were similarly low in infected and uninfected women of all gravidities. IgM that bound to the surface of CSA-adherent P. falciparum occurred in all groups of women and malaria-naïve controls. There was a significant correlation between IgG1 and IgG3 levels, indicating that women usually produced both subtypes. Levels of IgG1 and IgG3 correlated with the ability of serum or plasma to inhibit parasite adhesion to CSA. Taken together, these data suggest that IgG1 and IgG3 dominate the IgG response to placental-type variant surface antigens. They may function by blocking parasite adhesion to placental CSA, but given their cytophilic nature, they might also opsonize malaria-infected erythrocytes for interaction with Fc receptors on phagocytic cells. PMID:16113309

  15. Antituberculosis IgG Antibodies as a Marker of Active Mycobacterium tuberculosis Disease

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Ryan J.; Lawless, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis IgG antibodies may aid in the diagnosis of active M. tuberculosis disease. We studied whether anti-M. tuberculosis IgG antibodies are elevated in active M. tuberculosis disease and assessed factors contributing to false-positive and -negative results. A retrospective study of 2,150 individuals tested by the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) assay was conducted at the University of Utah, ARUP Laboratories, November 2008 to December 2010. All samples were tested with the InBios Active TbDetect antituberculosis (anti-TB) IgG antibody assay. Of 1,044 patients with a positive QFT-GIT, 59 (5.7%) were positive for M. tuberculosis antibodies. Fourteen of 1,106 (1.3%) with a negative or indeterminate QFT-GIT were positive for M. tuberculosis antibodies. M. tuberculosis antibody tests were positive in 61.5% with confirmed active M. tuberculosis disease and other mycobacterial infections. Over half of the false-negative M. tuberculosis antibody tests occurred in patients ≥90 years of age. False positives were seen in 12.9% of autoimmune patients. The odds ratio of being positive by the QFT-GIT and the InBios TB IgG assay increased with confirmed M. tuberculosis disease or highly suspected M. tuberculosis disease and was 86.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 34.4 to 218.5) in these two groups compared to patients negative by both tests. Although anti-M. tuberculosis antibodies can be detected in patients with active M. tuberculosis disease, caution should be used with patients where immunoglobulin levels may be decreased or patients with autoantibodies. PMID:22301692

  16. Measurement of heterophil antibody and antibodies to EB viral capsid antigen IgG and IgM in suspected cases of infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Blake, J M; Edwards, J M; Fletcher, W; McSwiggan, D A; Pereira, M S

    1976-09-01

    The EBV IgG titres in acute and convalescent specimens from 97 cases of infectious mononucleosis were compared with titres from acute and convalescent sera from 96 students with illnesses resembling infectious mononucleosis but without heterophil antibody, EB IgM or EB IgG seroconversion; and also with titres from 91 healthy students known to have had EB IgG antibody for at least six months. These titres were related to the titre of the Research Standard A.66/235 for infectious mononucleosis serum prepared by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. Serial sera were tested for heterophil antibody and EBVCA specific IgG and IgM from 61 university students with infectious mononucleosis. The period of persistence of heterophil antibody and EBV IgM after illness was outlined from the results of the tests. Single sera from 406 patients in hospital or general practice sent to the diagnostic laboratory for heterophil antibody tests were also tested for EBV antibodies without prior knowledge of the heterophil antibody result. The close agreement between heterophil antibody and EBV IgM results is shown. False positive EB IgM results were correlated with the presence of rheumatoid factor.

  17. Half molecular exchange of IgGs in the blood of healthy humans: chimeric lambda-kappa-immunoglobulins containing HL fragments of antibodies of different subclasses (IgG1-IgG4).

    PubMed

    Sedykh, Sergey E; Lekchnov, Evgenii A; Prince, Viktor V; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2016-10-20

    In the classic paradigm, immunoglobulins represent products of clonal B cell populations, each producing antibodies recognizing a single antigen (monospecific). There is a common belief that IgGs in mammalian biological fluids are monospecific molecules having stable structures and two identical antigen-binding sites. But the issue concerning the possibility of exchange by HL-fragments between the antibody molecules in human blood is still unexplored. Different physico-chemical and immunological methods for analysis of half-molecule exchange between human blood IgGs were used. Using eighteen blood samples of healthy humans we have shown unexpected results for the first time: blood antibodies undergo extensive post-transcriptional half-molecule exchange and IgG pools on average consist of 62.4 ± 6.5% IgGs containing kappa light chains (kappa-kappa-IgGs), 29.8.6 ± 5.4% lambda light chains (lambda-lambda-IgGs), and 8.8 ± 2.7% (range 2.6-16.8%) IgGs containing both kappa- and lambda-light chains. Kappa-kappa-IgGs and lambda-lambda-IgGs contained on average (%): IgG1 (36.0 and 32.3), IgG2 (50.9 and 51.4), IgG3 (9.7 and 9.9), and IgG4 (6.5 and 5.7), while chimeric kappa-lambda-IgGs consisted of (%): 25.5 ± 4.2 IgG1, 50.8 ± 3.9 IgG2, 9.1 ± 2.1 IgG3, and 14.5 ± 2.2 IgG4. Our unexpected data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between blood IgGs of various subclasses, raised against different antigens. The existence of blood chimeric bifunctional IgGs with different binding sites destroys the classic paradigm. Due to the phenomenon of polyspecificity and cross-reactivity of bifunctional IgGs containing HL-fragments of different types to different antigens, such IgGs may be important in human blood for widening their different biological functions.

  18. Bovine IgG1 antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis protein p34-cx improve association of bacteria and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mundo, Silvia L; Fontanals, Adriana M; García, Mariana; Durrieu, María; Alvarez, Elida; Gentilini, Elida R; Hajos, Silvia E

    2008-01-01

    Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), is a chronic granulomatous enteric disease in cattle. Among molecular components of Map, protein p34 was identified as specific and immunodominant for bovine B cells. In order to determine if specific antibodies could influence the course of Map pathogenesis, the interaction between bacteria and bovine macrophages was studied. Bovine polyclonal antibodies from 3 calves vaccinated with protein p34-cx, 6 calves vaccinated with heat-killed Map, 8 naturally infected, and 3 healthy calves -as negative controls- were used. Specific anti-Map, -p34-cx and -PPA-3 antibodies were evaluated and isotype characterized. Infected and Map vaccinated animals showed similar IgG1 and IgG2 response against Map whole bacteria. When p34-cx was used as the antigen, mainly IgG1 and IgG3 were detected in infected and only IgG1 in p34-cx vaccinated animals. Bovine polyclonal antibodies from three animals of each category were isolated and affinity purified through Map and p34-cx columns. The effect of these antibodies in association with Map and a transformed bovine peritoneal macrophage's cell line (Bov-Mac) as well as activation of NF-kappaB transcription factor was studied. Our results show that association of Map significantly increased in vitro after pretreatment with bovine anti-Map or anti-p34-cx antibodies obtained from vaccinated or infected cattle when compared with those of controls. Improved activation of NF-kappaB was detected in macrophages that ingested Map opsonized with either anti-Map or anti-p34-cx specific antibodies of infected or vaccinated calves, suggesting that both anti-Map and IgG1 anti-p34-cx antibodies support Map-macrophage interactions.

  19. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Subclass Distribution and IgG1 Avidity of Antibodies in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals after Revaccination with Tetanus Toxoid

    PubMed Central

    Kroon, F. P.; van Tol, M. J. D.; Jol-van der Zijde, C. M.; van Furth, R.; van Dissel, J. T.

    1999-01-01

    In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals the amount of antibodies formed after vaccination with T-cell-dependent recall antigens such as tetanus toxoid is proportional to the peripheral blood CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. To investigate whether the immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass distribution and avidity of the antibodies produced after vaccination are affected as well, we gave 13 HIV-infected adults with low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts (<200 × 106/liter; group I), 11 HIV-infected adults with intermediate CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts (≥200 × 106/liter; group II), and 5 healthy controls booster immunizations with tetanus toxoid. The prevaccination antibody concentrations against tetanus toxoid were similar in the HIV-infected and healthy adults. After vaccination the total IgG and the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibody concentrations were significantly lower in group I than in group II and the controls. The avidity of the IgG1 anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies formed by HIV-infected adults was within the range for healthy controls, irrespective of their CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts. PMID:10225835

  20. Presence of specific IgG antibody to grain dust does not go with respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Park, H. S.; Suh, C. H.; Nahm, D. H.; Kim, H. Y.

    1999-01-01

    A high prevalence of work-related symptoms in relation to grain dust exposure has been reported in grain dust workers, but the role of the specific IgG antibody is unknown. To study the possible role of specific IgG (sIgG) and specific IgG4 (sIgG4) in the development of work-related symptoms, sIgG and sIgG4 subclass antibodies against grain dust antigens were determined by ELISA in sera from 43 workers and 27 non-exposed controls. They were compared with results of specific IgE antibodies, exposure intensity and the presence of respiratory symptoms. SIgG and sIgG4 antibodies were detectable in almost all sera of exposed workers, and the prevalence were significantly higher than those of controls (p<0.05). Higher sIgG4 was noted in workers with specific IgE (p<0.05). The correlation between sIgG and exposure duration was significant (p<0.05). There was no association between the prevalence of sIgG and sIgG4 and the presence of respiratory symptoms, or work stations. In conclusion, these results suggest that the existence of sIgG and sIgG4 might represent a response to grain dust exposure and may unlikely play a role in the etiology of respiratory symptoms. PMID:10102522

  1. Presence of specific IgG antibody to grain dust does not go with respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Park, H S; Suh, C H; Nahm, D H; Kim, H Y

    1999-02-01

    A high prevalence of work-related symptoms in relation to grain dust exposure has been reported in grain dust workers, but the role of the specific IgG antibody is unknown. To study the possible role of specific IgG (sIgG) and specific IgG4 (sIgG4) in the development of work-related symptoms, sIgG and sIgG4 subclass antibodies against grain dust antigens were determined by ELISA in sera from 43 workers and 27 non-exposed controls. They were compared with results of specific IgE antibodies, exposure intensity and the presence of respiratory symptoms. SIgG and sIgG4 antibodies were detectable in almost all sera of exposed workers, and the prevalence were significantly higher than those of controls (p<0.05). Higher sIgG4 was noted in workers with specific IgE (p<0.05). The correlation between sIgG and exposure duration was significant (p<0.05). There was no association between the prevalence of sIgG and sIgG4 and the presence of respiratory symptoms, or work stations. In conclusion, these results suggest that the existence of sIgG and sIgG4 might represent a response to grain dust exposure and may unlikely play a role in the etiology of respiratory symptoms.

  2. Variable Food-Specific IgG Antibody Levels in Healthy and Symptomatic Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liu-Xin; Li, Hong; Sun, Zhi-Jian; Li, Jing-Bo; Jiang, Hong-Xia; Chen, Zhi-Heng; Wang, Qi-Bin; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background The presence of food-specific IgG antibodies in human serum may be useful for diagnosis of adverse food reactions. However, the clinical utility of tesing for such antibodies remains very controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels and population distribution of food-specific IgGs and their association with chronic symptoms in a large-scale Chinese population. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 21305 adult participants from different regions of China had 14 type of food-specific serum IgG antibodies that were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Amongthese, 5,394 participants were randomly chosen to complete follow-up questionnaire surveys on their dietary characteristics and chronic symptoms. The concentrations of food-specific IgGs against 14 foods ranged from a median (interquartile range) of 7.3 (3.8, 12.6) U/mL of pork-specfic IgG to 42.3 (28.8, 60.2) U/mL of crab-specific IgG. The concentration of food-specific IgGs was closely related to gender; after adjustment for region and age, women had higher concentrations of food-specific IgGs against all of the 14 foods except chicken (regression coefficient (95% CI): 0.01 (−0.003, 0.023); P = 0.129) and corn (0.002 (−0.013, 0.016); P = 0.825). Similar results were also found in the relationship of geographic region to the food-specific IgG concentrations for the 14 foods. Chronic symptoms were negatively associated with the concentrations of a few food-specific IgGs, and were positively associated with the concentrations of other food-specific IgGs. Conclusions The levels of food-specific IgGs were variable both in healthy and in symptomatic Chinese adults. These findings raise awareness that demographic factors, the type of food and specific chronic symptoms should be considered before food elimination treatment based on IgG testing in patients with chronic symptoms is used in clinical practice. PMID:23301096

  3. Secondary IgG responses to type III pneumococcal polysaccharide. II. Different cellular requirements for induction and elicitation.

    PubMed

    Braley-Mullen, H

    1976-04-01

    Mice primed with a thymus- (T) dependent form of Type III pneumococcal polysaccharide (S3), i.e., S3 coupled to erythrocytes (S3-RBC) produce S3-specific IgG antibody after secondary challenge with either S3 or S3-RBC. The production of IgG antibody by mice challenged with S3 was shown to be T independent since secondary responses were enhanced when mice were treated with anti-lymphocyte serum (ALS) at the time of secondary challenge with S3 and T-depleted spleen cells responded as well as unfractionated spleen cells to S3 in an adoptive transfer system. Secondary S3-specific IgG responses in mice challenged with S3-RBC were shown to be T dependent by the same criteria. The results obtained by using S3 as the antigen indicate that IgG-producing B cells (B lambda cells) can recognize and respond to antigen in the absence of helper T cells. On the other hand, T cells were required for the induction of S3-specific memory B lambda cells since mice depleted of T cells by treatment with ALS at the time of priming with S3-RBC failed to produce S3-specific IgG antibody after secondary challenge with either S3-specific IgG antibody after secondary chall-nge with either S3 or S3rbc. Since RBC-specific memory cells were induced in T-deprived mice the results suggest that T cell regulation of IgG antibody production may vary for different antigens.

  4. Involvement of CD28 cosignalling in the T cell-mediated suppression of the IgG antibody response against the TI-2 antigen alpha(1-->3) dextran.

    PubMed

    Specht, C; Junker, R; Krüger, A; Rademaekers, A; Redlich, H; Kölsch, E

    1999-09-01

    The humoral immune response against alpha(1-->3) dextran (Dex) in BALB/c mice is characterized by the formation of predominantly IgM antibodies bearing the J558 idiotype. IgG antibodies do not appear in euthymic mice. In athymic animals, however, the response proceeds to a vigorous IgG production. In euthymic mice formation of IgG is suppressed by J558 idiotype specific regulatory T cells recognizing in association with I-Ed and in cognate T/B interaction the V(H) CDR3 derived peptide of the J558 idiotype. Only B-2 lymphocytes produce IgG whereas B-1 cells do not participate in the production of this Ig class. Using novel synthetic all alpha(1-->3)-D-gluco configured tetrasaccharide the Dex-specific B cells can for the first time be analyzed in FACS. In experiments using this newly designed low molecular Dex no signs of B cell apoptosis can be found. This demonstrates a true silencing of persisting Bgamma memory cells as previously suggested by adoptive transfer experiments. In this suppression a further involvement of CD28 and B7-1 interaction can be demonstrated which delivers a necessary costimulatory suppression signal in addition to the cognate TCR/peptide-I-Ed interaction between J558 specific T cells and J558 idiotype bearing B cells.

  5. Suppression of in vivo polyclonal IgE responses by monoclonal antibody to the lymphokine B-cell stimulatory factor 1.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelman, F D; Katona, I M; Urban, J F; Snapper, C M; Ohara, J; Paul, W E

    1986-01-01

    The lymphokine B-cell stimulatory factor 1 (BSF-1) has been shown to greatly enhance the differentiation of lipopolysaccharide-activated B cells into IgG1- and IgE-secreting cells in vitro. To determine whether in vivo IgG1 and IgE antibody responses are BSF-1 dependent, the ability of a monoclonal rat IgG1 anti-BSF-1 antibody, 11B11, to affect polyclonal IgG1 and IgE production in mice infected with the nematode parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis or injected with a purified goat antibody to mouse IgD was studied. 11B11-containing ascites fluid or purified 11B11 strongly inhibited IgE production in both systems but did not affect IgG1 production, while control ascites or normal rat IgG1 had no IgE-inhibitory activity. These results indicate an important physiologic role for BSF-1 in the generation of IgE antibody responses and suggest means for limiting the production of antibodies responsible for allergic reactions without inhibiting protective antibody responses. PMID:3491987

  6. High CMV IgG antibody levels are associated to a lower CD4+ RESPONSE to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Marina; Pirillo, Maria Franca; Liotta, Giuseppe; Andreotti, Mauro; Jere, Haswell; Sagno, Jean-Baptiste; Ciccacci, Fausto; Amici, Roberta; Marazzi, Maria Cristina; Vella, Stefano; Palombi, Leonardo; Mancinelli, Sandro

    2017-11-01

    Virtually all HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa have evidence of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and levels of specific anti-CMV IgG have been suggested to represent more intense reactivation of subclinical infection. Studies have also shown direct influence of CMV on lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to determine if levels of anti-CMV specific antibodies could impact on the immunological response to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV-infected pregnant women. CMV-specific IgG were measured in HIV-infected pregnant women at 26 weeks of gestation (before ART initiation). Women received ART until 6 months postpartum or indefinitely according to local guidelines at the time of the study. Immunological and virological responses were assessed 6 months and 24 months after delivery. A total of 81 women were studied. At baseline high levels (above the median) of specific IgG were associated to a low CD4+ cell count (P<0.001), a high viral load (P=0.003), and to an older age (P=0.051). In a multivariate model adjusting for baseline CD4+ count, baseline viral load and age, the presence of low levels of CMV IgG was the only independent predictor of a a CD4+ count above 500/mm 3 24 months after delivery among women on continuous therapy. In this cohort, levels of CVM IgG had a significant influence on the immunological response to ART, adding information to the known impact of CMV infection in the HIV-positive population, and underlining the need of new strategies to contain the infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulation of Antibody-Mediated Immune Response by Probiotics in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Hamid R.; Gong, Jianhua; Gyles, Carlton L.; Hayes, M. Anthony; Sanei, Babak; Parvizi, Payvand; Gisavi, Haris; Chambers, James R.; Sharif, Shayan

    2005-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria, including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, have been shown to enhance antibody responses in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a probiotic product containing the above bacteria in addition to Streptococcus faecalis on the induction of the chicken antibody response to various antigens, both systemically and in the gut. The birds received probiotics via oral gavage and subsequently were immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) to evaluate antibody responses in serum or with tetanus toxoid (TT) to measure the mucosal antibody response in gut contents. Control groups received phosphate-buffered saline. Overall, BSA and SRBC induced a detectable antibody response as early as week 1 postimmunization (p.i.), which lasted until week 3 p.i. Probiotic-treated birds had significantly (P ≤ 0.001) more serum antibody (predominantly immunoglobulin M [IgM]) to SRBC than the birds that were not treated with probiotics. However, treatment with probiotics did not enhance the serum IgM and IgG antibody responses to BSA. Immunization with TT resulted in the presence of specific IgA and IgG antibody responses in the gut. Again, treatment with probiotics did not change the level or duration of the antibody response in the gut. In conclusion, probiotics enhance the systemic antibody response to some antigens in chickens, but it remains to be seen whether probiotics have an effect on the generation of the mucosal antibody response. PMID:16339061

  8. Serum, uterine, and vaginal mucosal IgG antibody responses against Tritrichomonas foetus after administration of a commercial killed whole T foetus vaccine in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Palomares, R A; Hurley, D J; Crum, L T; Rollin, E; Collop, T; Williard, A; Felton, J; Parrish, J; Corbeil, L B

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level and duration of IgG antibodies induced against killed whole Tritrichomonas foetus and T foetus-purified surface antigen (TF1.17) in serum, vaginal, and uterine secretions after systemic immunization of beef cows with a vaccine containing killed whole T foetus. Twenty nonpregnant beef cows were randomly assigned to vaccine or control groups as follows: Vaccine (n = 10): cows received 2 mL of a commercial vaccine containing killed whole T foetus subcutaneously and a 2-mL booster 2 weeks later. Control (n = 10): cows received 2 mL of sterile saline on the same schedule. Vaginal secretions and blood samples were collected on Days 0, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50, 60, 75, 89, 110, 146, and 182 relative to day of primary vaccination. Uterine flush fluid was collected on Days 0, 15, 29, and 43 after the day of primary vaccination. Samples were assayed for IgG antibodies to the killed whole T foetus and surface antigen TF1.17 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum whole T foetus-specific IgG levels were significantly increased (between Days 15 and 182) following vaccination with T foetus or with saline. No differences between vaccinates and controls in uterine responses to whole-cell antigen were detected. Serum anti-TF1.17 IgG responses to vaccination were significantly higher than Day 0 throughout the immunization period (P < 0.001) and were higher than responses in control animals on each day post immunization through Day 146 (P < 0.001). A significant rise in TF1.17-specific IgG levels was observed in vaginal and uterine fluids from Day 15 post vaccination compared to the Day 0 levels. These levels remained significantly elevated in vaginal and uterine fluids through Days 75 (P < 0.05) and 43 (P < 0.001) after primary vaccination, respectively. Antibody levels in serum, vaginal, and uterine secretions against TF1.17 remained low in the control group throughout the study. In conclusion, vaccination of

  9. Infectious Mononucleosis Triggers Generation of IgG Auto-Antibodies against Native Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Kakalacheva, Kristina; Regenass, Stephan; Wiesmayr, Silke; Azzi, Tarik; Berger, Christoph; Dale, Russell C.; Brilot, Fabienne; Münz, Christian; Rostasy, Kevin; Nadal, David; Lünemann, Jan D.

    2016-01-01

    A history of infectious mononucleosis (IM), symptomatic primary infection with the Epstein Barr virus, is associated with the development of autoimmune diseases and increases the risk to develop multiple sclerosis. Here, we hypothesized that immune activation during IM triggers autoreactive immune responses. Antibody responses towards cellular antigens using a HEp-2 based indirect immunofluorescence assay and native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) using a flow cytometry-based assay were determined in 35 patients with IM and in 23 control subjects. We detected frequent immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactivity to vimentin, a major constituent of the intermediate filament family of proteins, in IM patients (27/35; 77%) but rarely in control subjects (2/23; 9%). IgG autoantibodies binding to HEp-2 cells were absent in both groups. In contrast, IgG responses to native MOG, present in up to 40% of children with inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), were detectable in 7/35 (20%) patients with IM but not in control subjects. Normalization of anti-vimentin IgM levels to increased total IgM concentrations during IM resulted in loss of significant differences for anti-vimentin IgM titers. Anti-MOG specific IgG responses were still detectable in a subset of three out of 35 patients with IM (9%), even after normalization to increased total IgG levels. Vimentin-specific IgM and MOG-specific IgG responses decreased following clinical resolution of acute IM symptoms. We conclude from our data that MOG-specific memory B cells are activated in subset of patients with IM. PMID:26907324

  10. Infectious Mononucleosis Triggers Generation of IgG Auto-Antibodies against Native Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Kakalacheva, Kristina; Regenass, Stephan; Wiesmayr, Silke; Azzi, Tarik; Berger, Christoph; Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne; Münz, Christian; Rostasy, Kevin; Nadal, David; Lünemann, Jan D

    2016-02-12

    A history of infectious mononucleosis (IM), symptomatic primary infection with the Epstein Barr virus, is associated with the development of autoimmune diseases and increases the risk to develop multiple sclerosis. Here, we hypothesized that immune activation during IM triggers autoreactive immune responses. Antibody responses towards cellular antigens using a HEp-2 based indirect immunofluorescence assay and native myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) using a flow cytometry-based assay were determined in 35 patients with IM and in 23 control subjects. We detected frequent immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactivity to vimentin, a major constituent of the intermediate filament family of proteins, in IM patients (27/35; 77%) but rarely in control subjects (2/23; 9%). IgG autoantibodies binding to HEp-2 cells were absent in both groups. In contrast, IgG responses to native MOG, present in up to 40% of children with inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), were detectable in 7/35 (20%) patients with IM but not in control subjects. Normalization of anti-vimentin IgM levels to increased total IgM concentrations during IM resulted in loss of significant differences for anti-vimentin IgM titers. Anti-MOG specific IgG responses were still detectable in a subset of three out of 35 patients with IM (9%), even after normalization to increased total IgG levels. Vimentin-specific IgM and MOG-specific IgG responses decreased following clinical resolution of acute IM symptoms. We conclude from our data that MOG-specific memory B cells are activated in subset of patients with IM.

  11. Comparison of four commercially available avidity tests for Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Villard, O; Breit, L; Cimon, B; Franck, J; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Godineau, N; Houze, S; Paris, L; Pelloux, H; Villena, I; Candolfi, E

    2013-02-01

    Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women may cause congenital toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of infection is based on serological tests aimed at detecting IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. However, IgM antibodies are not an accurate marker for discriminating between acute and latent infection. Detection of residual or persistent IgM may occur months or even years after primary infection, while the IgG avidity test is a rapid means of identifying latent infections in pregnant women who exhibit both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing during pregnancy. In this study, we assessed and compared the performances of four commercially available Toxoplasma IgG avidity tests in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients with acute and latent toxoplasmosis. The positive predictive value of high avidity to confirm latent toxoplasmosis was 100% for all the assays, indicating that high avidity is a hallmark of latent infection. However, the negative predictive value of high avidity ranged from 99.2% (bioMérieux) to 95.3% (Abbott), indicating that acute toxoplasmosis could not be reliably diagnosed based on low IgG avidity alone. Thus, the avidity test provides a rapid means for identifying latent Toxoplasma infection in immunocompetent pregnant women presenting both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing. In terms of cost-effectiveness, avidity testing is a powerful tool that optimizes screening and follow-up of pregnant women while minimizing the costs of screening by avoiding subsequent costly maternal and fetal investigation and unnecessary treatment. The cheapest assay, Vidas Toxo IgG Avidity, also had the best performance for the diagnosis of latent toxoplasmosis.

  12. Comparison of Four Commercially Available Avidity Tests for Toxoplasma gondii-Specific IgG Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Breit, L.; Cimon, B.; Franck, J.; Fricker-Hidalgo, H.; Godineau, N.; Houze, S.; Paris, L.; Pelloux, H.; Villena, I.

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women may cause congenital toxoplasmosis. Diagnosis of infection is based on serological tests aimed at detecting IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. However, IgM antibodies are not an accurate marker for discriminating between acute and latent infection. Detection of residual or persistent IgM may occur months or even years after primary infection, while the IgG avidity test is a rapid means of identifying latent infections in pregnant women who exhibit both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing during pregnancy. In this study, we assessed and compared the performances of four commercially available Toxoplasma IgG avidity tests in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients with acute and latent toxoplasmosis. The positive predictive value of high avidity to confirm latent toxoplasmosis was 100% for all the assays, indicating that high avidity is a hallmark of latent infection. However, the negative predictive value of high avidity ranged from 99.2% (bioMérieux) to 95.3% (Abbott), indicating that acute toxoplasmosis could not be reliably diagnosed based on low IgG avidity alone. Thus, the avidity test provides a rapid means for identifying latent Toxoplasma infection in immunocompetent pregnant women presenting both IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma antibodies on initial testing. In terms of cost-effectiveness, avidity testing is a powerful tool that optimizes screening and follow-up of pregnant women while minimizing the costs of screening by avoiding subsequent costly maternal and fetal investigation and unnecessary treatment. The cheapest assay, Vidas Toxo IgG Avidity, also had the best performance for the diagnosis of latent toxoplasmosis. PMID:23239801

  13. The significance of specific IgG4 antibodies to methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride in occupationally exposed subjects.

    PubMed

    Yokota, K; Yamaguchi, K; Takeshita, T; Morimoto, K

    1998-06-01

    A definitive role for allergen-specific IgG4 as either an anaphylactic or a blocking antibody, or both, remains controversial. A population of 148 workers from two condenser plants (A and B) using epoxy resin with methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA) was studied to evaluate the significance of MTHPA-specific IgG4 antibody. The workers were evaluated through questionnaire and serological investigations. Ninety-seven (66%) of the currently exposed workers had positive MTHPA-specific IgE. IgE-sensitized workers in each plant had significantly more eye and nose complaints than unsensitized workers (P < 0.03). As the result of multiple logistic analysis, specific IgE antibodies was the most important predictor of work-related symptoms and its effect was greater than that of specific IgG4 (odds ratio 16.7 and 3.68, respectively). These indicate an IgE-mediated mechanism in most cases of work-related symptoms associated with MTHPA exposure. However, it cannot be denied that specific IgG4 is an anaphylactic antibody. Furthermore, IgE-sensitized workers in these plants displayed work-related symptoms despite the presence of specific IgG4. The frequency of positive specific IgG4 in continuously exposed workers was significantly (P < 0.02) higher in plant A than in plant B, reflecting the difference of the MTHPA levels between the two plants. In plant A, the frequency of positive specific IgG4 was significantly (P < 0.002) higher in continuously exposed workers than in intermittently exposed workers. Multiple regression analysis also confirmed that plant and exposure style contributed significantly (P < 0.01) to the determination of specific IgG4 levels. These results suggest that work-related eye and nasal symptoms are likely to be IgE-mediated, and that specific IgG4 may reflect the intensity of MTHPA exposure and may not act as a blocking antibody.

  14. Neurofascin-155 IGG4 Neuropathy: Pathophysiological Insights, Spectrum of Clinical Severity and Response To treatment.

    PubMed

    Garg, Nidhi; Park, Susanna B; Yiannikas, Con; Vucic, Steve; Howells, James; Noto, Yu-Ichi; Mathey, Emily K; Pollard, John D; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2018-05-01

    Sensorimotor neuropathy associated with IgG4 antibodies to neurofascin-155 (NF155) was recently described. The clinical phenotype is typically associated with young onset, distal weakness, and in some cases, tremor. From a consecutive cohort of 55 patients diagnosed with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, screening for anti-NF155 antibodies was undertaken. Patients underwent clinical assessment, diagnostic neurophysiology, including peripheral axonal excitability studies and nerve ultrasound. Three of 55 chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy patients (5%) tested positive for anti-NF155 IgG4. Patients presenting with more severe disease had higher antibody titers. Ultrasound demonstrated diffuse nerve enlargement. Axonal excitability studies were markedly abnormal, with subsequent mathematical modeling of the results supporting disruption of the paranodal seal. A broad spectrum of disease severity and treatment response may be observed in anti-NF155 neuropathy. Excitability studies support the pathogenic role of anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies targeting the paranodal region. Muscle Nerve 57: 848-851, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Immunoglobulin M antibody response to measles virus following primary and secondary vaccination and natural virus infection.

    PubMed

    Erdman, D D; Heath, J L; Watson, J C; Markowitz, L E; Bellini, W J

    1993-09-01

    The use of IgM antibody detection for the classification of the primary and secondary measles antibody response in persons following primary and secondary vaccination and natural measles virus infection was examined. Of 32 nonimmune children receiving primary measles vaccination, 31 (97%) developed IgM antibodies, consistent with a primary antibody response. Of 21 previously vaccinated children with low levels of preexisting IgG antibodies who responded to revaccination, none developed detectable IgM antibodies, whereas 33 of 35 (94%) with no detectable preexisting IgG antibodies developed an IgM response. Of a sample of 57 measles cases with a prior history of vaccination, 55 (96%) had detectable IgM antibodies. Of these, 30 (55%) were classified as having a primary antibody response and 25 (45%) a secondary antibody response based on differences in their ratios of IgM to IgG antibodies. Differences in the severity of clinical symptoms between these 2 groups were consistent with this classification scheme. These findings suggest that 1) an IgM response follows primary measles vaccination in the immunologically naive, 2) an IgM response is absent on revaccination of those previously immunized, and 3) an IgM response may follow clinical measles virus infection independent of prior immunization status.

  16. Serum or breast milk immunoglobulins mask the self-reactivity of human natural IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Djoumerska-Alexieva, Iglika; Manoylov, Iliyan; Dimitrov, Jordan D; Tchorbanov, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    B cells producing IgG antibodies specific to a variety of self- or foreign antigens are a normal constituent of the immune system of all healthy individuals. These naturally occurring IgG antibodies are found in the serum, external secretions, and pooled human immunoglobulin preparations. They bind with low affinity to antigens, which can also be targets for pathologic autoantibodies. An enhancement of naturally occurring IgG autoantibody activity was observed after treatment of human IgG molecules with protein-destabilizing agents. We have investigated the interactions of human immunoglobulins that were obtained from serum or from breast milk of healthy individuals or IVIg with human liver antigens. Proteins from an individual serum or milk were isolated by two methods, one of which included exposure to low pH and the other did not. Purified serum, mucosal IgM, IgA, and the fraction containing immunoglobulin G F(ab')2 fragments each inhibited the binding of a single donor or pooled IgG to human liver antigens. Our study presents findings regarding the role of the breast milk or serum antibodies in blocking the self-reactivity of IgG antibodies. It supports the suggestion that not IVIg only, but also the pooled human IgM and IgA might possess a potent beneficial immunomodulatory activity in autoimmune patients. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Relationship between exposure to vector bites and antibody responses to mosquito salivary gland extracts.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Albin; Pascual, Aurélie; Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Diouf, Ibrahima; Remoué, Franck; Pagès, Frédéric; Fusaï, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. Serological responses to mosquito saliva proteins may be useful in estimating individual exposure to bites from mosquitoes transmitting these diseases. However, the relationships between the levels of these IgG responses and mosquito density as well as IgG response specificity at the genus and/or species level need to be clarified prior to develop new immunological markers to assess human/vector contact. To this end, a kinetic study of antibody levels against several mosquito salivary gland extracts from southeastern French individuals living in three areas with distinct ecological environments and, by implication, distinct Aedes caspius mosquito densities were compared using ELISA. A positive association was observed between the average levels of IgG responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts and spatial Ae. caspius densities. Additionally, the average level of IgG responses increased significantly during the peak exposure to Ae. caspius at each site and returned to baseline four months later, suggesting short-lived IgG responses. The species-specificity of IgG antibody responses was determined by testing antibody responses to salivary gland extracts from Cx. pipiens, a mosquito that is present at these three sites at different density levels, and from two other Aedes species not present in the study area (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). The IgG responses observed against these mosquito salivary gland extracts contrasted with those observed against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts, supporting the existence of species-specific serological responses. By considering different populations and densities of mosquitoes linked to environmental factors, this study shows, for the first time, that specific IgG antibody responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts may be related to the seasonal and geographical variations in Ae. caspius density. Characterisation of such immunological

  18. Relationship between Exposure to Vector Bites and Antibody Responses to Mosquito Salivary Gland Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Diouf, Ibrahima; Remoué, Franck; Pagès, Frédéric; Fusaï, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe; Almeras, Lionel

    2011-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are major health problems worldwide. Serological responses to mosquito saliva proteins may be useful in estimating individual exposure to bites from mosquitoes transmitting these diseases. However, the relationships between the levels of these IgG responses and mosquito density as well as IgG response specificity at the genus and/or species level need to be clarified prior to develop new immunological markers to assess human/vector contact. To this end, a kinetic study of antibody levels against several mosquito salivary gland extracts from southeastern French individuals living in three areas with distinct ecological environments and, by implication, distinct Aedes caspius mosquito densities were compared using ELISA. A positive association was observed between the average levels of IgG responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts and spatial Ae. caspius densities. Additionally, the average level of IgG responses increased significantly during the peak exposure to Ae. caspius at each site and returned to baseline four months later, suggesting short-lived IgG responses. The species-specificity of IgG antibody responses was determined by testing antibody responses to salivary gland extracts from Cx. pipiens, a mosquito that is present at these three sites at different density levels, and from two other Aedes species not present in the study area (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). The IgG responses observed against these mosquito salivary gland extracts contrasted with those observed against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts, supporting the existence of species-specific serological responses. By considering different populations and densities of mosquitoes linked to environmental factors, this study shows, for the first time, that specific IgG antibody responses against Ae. caspius salivary gland extracts may be related to the seasonal and geographical variations in Ae. caspius density. Characterisation of such immunological

  19. Toxicological and pharmacological assessment of AGEN1884, a novel human IgG1 anti-CTLA-4 antibody

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ana; Manrique, Mariana; Chand, Dhan; Savitsky, David; Morin, Benjamin; Breous-Nystrom, Ekaterina; Dupont, Christopher; Ward, Rebecca A.; Mundt, Cornelia; Duckless, Benjamin; Tang, Hao; Findeis, Mark A.; Schuster, Andrea; Waight, Jeremy D.; Underwood, Dennis; Clarke, Christopher; Ritter, Gerd; Merghoub, Taha; Schaer, David; Wolchok, Jedd D.; van Dijk, Marc; Buell, Jennifer S.; Cuillerot, Jean-Marie; Stein, Robert; Drouin, Elise E.

    2018-01-01

    CTLA-4 and CD28 exemplify a co-inhibitory and co-stimulatory signaling axis that dynamically sculpts the interaction of antigen-specific T cells with antigen-presenting cells. Anti-CTLA-4 antibodies enhance tumor-specific immunity through a variety of mechanisms including: blockade of CD80 or CD86 binding to CTLA-4, repressing regulatory T cell function and selective elimination of intratumoral regulatory T cells via an Fcγ receptor-dependent mechanism. AGEN1884 is a novel IgG1 antibody targeting CTLA-4. It potently enhanced antigen-specific T cell responsiveness that could be potentiated in combination with other immunomodulatory antibodies. AGEN1884 was well-tolerated in non-human primates and enhanced vaccine-mediated antigen-specific immunity. AGEN1884 combined effectively with PD-1 blockade to elicit a T cell proliferative response in the periphery. Interestingly, an IgG2 variant of AGEN1884 revealed distinct functional differences that may have implications for optimal dosing regimens in patients. Taken together, the pharmacological properties of AGEN1884 support its clinical investigation as a single therapeutic and combination agent. PMID:29617360

  20. Production and characterization of anti-human IgG F(ab')2 antibody fragment.

    PubMed

    Valedkarimi, Zahra; Nasiri, Hadi; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Esparvarinha, Mojghan; Majidi, Jafar

    2018-04-10

    In present study an optimized protocol for the separation of antibodies into antigen-binding fragments F(ab')2 using pepsin digestion was investigated. The production of these fragments is a consequential step in the development of medical research, treatment and diagnosis. For production of polyclonal antibody rabbit received antigen in four steps. The rabbit serum at 1/128000 dilution showed high absorbance in reaction with human IgG at the designed ELISA method. Rabbit IgG was purified by Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) method. Purity was assessed by SDS-PAGE method. In non-reduced condition only one band was seen in about 150 kDa MW position and in reduced form, two bands were seen in 50 and 25 kDa MW positions. Rabbit IgG was digested by pepsin enzyme. The antibody fragments solution was applied to Gel filtration column to isolate the F(ab')2. Non-reduced SDS-PAGE for determining the purity of F(ab')2 fragment resulted in one band in 100 kDa corresponds to F(ab')2 fragment and a band in 150 kDa MW position corresponds to undigested IgG antibodies. The activities of FITC conjugated F(ab')2 fragment and commercial ones were compared using flowcytometry method. The activity results implied that the FITC conjugated- anti human F(ab')2 fragment worked as efficiently as the commercial one.

  1. Contribution of anti-Hsp70.1 IgG antibody levels to the diagnostic certainty of clinically suspected ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Chumpitazi, Bernabé F F; Bouillet, Laurence; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Lacharme, Tiffany; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Massot, Christian; Chiquet, Christophe; Pelloux, Hervé

    2010-11-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis, the major cause of posterior uveitis worldwide, can be improved. Heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 is involved in cellular infection by Toxoplasma gondii but also in the immune response to this parasite. The authors postulate that infected patients may exhibit serum IgG anti-Hsp70.1 antibodies and that determining the presence of these antibodies could improve the diagnosis of suspected ocular toxoplasmosis. This retrospective case-control study included 26 laboratory-confirmed cases of ocular toxoplasmosis (group A), 41 clinically suspected cases (group B), and 67 currently healthy blood donors who were chronically infected with T. gondii (group C). Laboratory and clinical data were analyzed according to the ocular presentation and Goldmann-Witmer's coefficient. Serum and aqueous humor were sampled at the time of uveitis. Serum anti-Hsp70.1 antibody levels were obtained by ELISA. The probability of ocular toxoplasmosis was estimated by a logistic regression analysis that combined data from serum IgG anti-Hsp70.1 and aqueous-humor IgG anti-T. gondii antibody levels. Serum IgG anti-Hsp70.1 antibody levels were significantly increased in groups A and B when compared to the levels in control group C (P ≤ 0.0034). These levels correlated with the retinal lesion size (r = 0.301; P < 0.0349). Logistic probability and anti-Hsp70.1 antibodies in sera confirmed that 10 of 23 cases in group B were true ocular toxoplasmosis. Anti-Hsp70 may play a role in the immunopathogenesis of ocular Toxoplasma infection. This study showed that the anti-Hsp70.1 antibody and the logistic probability test can confirm clinically suspected ocular toxoplasmosis.

  2. Transcutaneous immunization with an outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis without adjuvant elicits marked antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Y; Kurita-Ochiai, T; Yamamoto, M

    2008-04-01

    We have previously reported that specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies induced by transcutaneous immunization (TCI) with a 40-kDa outer membrane protein (40k-OMP) of Porphyromonas gingivalis, with cholera toxin (CT) as adjuvant, inhibited coaggregation by P. gingivalis. In this study, we further pursue the potential of the 40k-OMP as a transcutaneous vaccine. TCI of rats administered 40k-OMP elicited significant 40k-OMP-specific serum IgG and IgA, as well as salivary IgG antibody titers. Importantly, these antibody responses were induced without adjuvant. Thus, both serum and saliva antibody titers induced by TCI with the 40k-OMP alone were identical to those of 40k-OMP plus cholera toxin as adjuvant. The serum antibody responses induced by 40k-OMP persisted for more than 140 days. On the other hand, salivary IgG anti-40k-OMP antibodies were gradually decreased. Analysis of antibody-forming cells (AFCs) confirmed the antibody titers by detecting high numbers of 40k-OMP-specific IgG AFCs in spleen and cervical lymph node. Since 40k-OMP-specific IgG inhibited the coaggregation of P. gingivalis with Streptococcus gordonii, and the hemagglutinin activity of P. gingivalis, TCI with the 40k-OMP may be important as an adjuvant-free immunogen for the prevention of chronic periodontitis.

  3. Seroprevalence of dengue IgG antibodies in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals three years after an outbreak in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shuying; Cui, Weihong; Li, Chan; Ling, Feng; Fu, Tao; Liu, Qiyong; Ren, Jiangping; Sun, Jimin

    2018-02-23

    Cross-reacting antibodies enhanced dengue infection in humans and antibody dependent enhancement (ADE) have been proposed as early mechanisms underlying DHF/DSS. However, the duration of dengue IgG antibodies in the body as well as factors associated with said duration remain unclear. Blood samples from 59 dengue symptomatic persons and 48 asymptomatic individuals were collected. Study participant demographic information (including age in 2009, gender, and place of residence) were also collected. Serum samples were tested for dengue specific IgG by Panbio dengue IgG indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis of dengue IgG antibodies seroprevalence divided by gender, age groups, and symptomatic or asymptomatic infection were conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Overall, 70 (65.42%) blood samples were seropositive for dengue IgG antibodies with similar seroprevalences found when dividing by gender and different age groups. However, seroprevalence of dengue IgG antibodies in samples from dengue symptomatic persons was significantly higher than that in samples from asymptomatic individuals (96.61% vs 27.08%) according to multivariable logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) of the factor was 76.731. Dengue IgG antibodies were detectable in samples from most individuals three years after infection. Dengue symptomatic persons had a higher dengue IgG prevalence compared to asymptomatic individuals.

  4. Subclass distribution of IgG antibodies to the rat oesophagus stratum corneum (so-called anti-keratin antibodies) in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, C; Serre, G; Basile, J P; Lestra, H C; Girbal, E; Sebbag, M; Soleilhavoup, J P

    1990-01-01

    Serum IgG, labelling the stratum corneum of the rat oesophagus epithelium, so-called anti-keratin antibodies (AKA) constitute the most specific marker for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we investigated 31 IgG AKA-positive rheumatoid sera and 21 control sera from patients with non-rheumatoid inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The serum level of IgG1,2,3 and 4 was determined by radial immunodiffusion and the subclass distribution of IgG AKA by a three-step semi-quantitative immunofluorescence assay using standard monoclonal antibodies specific for each of the four human IgG subclasses. In the rheumatoid sera, the serum level of IgG1 was found to be significantly increased and the level of IgG2 significantly decreased with regard to the control sera, while the levels of IgG3 and 4 as well as total IgG were in the normal range. IgG1,2,3, and 4 AKA were detected in 27 (87%), 6 (19%), 4 (13%) and 11 (35%) of the 31 rheumatoid sera, respectively, and were found to be independent of the clinical and biological indices of the disease. In spite of inter-individual heterogeneity, two predominant profiles were distinguished: IgG1 (alone) and IgG(1 + 4), which together represented 18 sera (58%). The large predominance of IgG1 AKA and the quasi-absence of IgG2 AKA suggest that the recognized antigen may be partly comprised of protein. Moreover, the high frequency of occurrence of IgG4 AKA might result from chronic exposure to the eliciting antigen, which could be a genuine autoantigen since we demonstrated that it is also present in the stratum corneum of human epidermis. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1696185

  5. Global Structure of HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibody IgG1 b12 is Asymmetric

    SciTech Connect

    Ashish, F.; Solanki, A; Boone, C

    2010-01-01

    Human antibody IgG1 b12 is one of the four antibodies known to neutralize a broad range of human immunodeficiency virus-1. The crystal structure of this antibody displayed an asymmetric disposition of the Fab arms relative to its Fc portion. Comparison of structures solved for other IgG1 antibodies led to a notion that crystal packing forces entrapped a 'snap-shot' of different conformations accessible to this antibody. To elucidate global structure of this unique antibody, we acquired small-angle X-ray scattering data from its dilute solution. Data analysis indicated that b12 adopts a bilobal globular structure in solution with a radius of gyrationmore » and a maximum linear dimension of {approx}54 and {approx}180 {angstrom}, respectively. Extreme similarity between its solution and crystal structure concludes that non-flexible, asymmetric shape is an inherent property of this rare antibody.« less

  6. Synthesis of IgM and IgG antibodies in mice irradiated with x rays and immunized with tetanus toxoid (in Polish)

    SciTech Connect

    Galazka, A.; Albrycht, H.; Aleksandrowicz, J.

    1972-01-01

    White mice were immunized with adsorbed tetanus toxoid 1 to 2 hrs following irradiation with a dose of 300 R. The antibody response was tested in whole sera 7, 14, 28, and 42 days after immunization; it was found to be delayed and repressed compared with controls. In tests for antibody activity of different classes of immunoglobulins, isolated on Sephadex G-200, the IgM- producing mechanisms were found to be highly radiosensitive; peak of the response was greatly delayed (28 days); and peak titers were threefold lower than in controls. IgG antibody production also was delayed and in the initial periodmore » it was repressed. Six weeks after irradiation, IgG antibody levels were equal in the irradiated and control mice. The present results concerning radiosensitivity of IgM-producing mechanisms are discordant with data of other authors, who immunized animals with other antigens or investigated the metabolism of immunoglobulins in irradiated but nonimmunized animals. (auth)« less

  7. Human IgG1 antibodies suppress angiogenesis in a target-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanovich, Sasha; Kim, Younghee; Mizutani, Takeshi; Yasuma, Reo; Tudisco, Laura; Cicatiello, Valeria; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Kerur, Nagaraj; Hirano, Yoshio; Baffi, Judit Z; Tarallo, Valeria; Li, Shengjian; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Arpitha, Parthasarathy; Fowler, Benjamin J; Wright, Charles B; Apicella, Ivana; Greco, Adelaide; Brunetti, Arturo; Ruvo, Menotti; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Nozaki, Miho; Ijima, Ryo; Kaneko, Hiroki; Ogura, Yuichiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Ambati, Balamurali K; Leusen, Jeanette HW; Langdon, Wallace Y; Clark, Michael R; Armour, Kathryn L; Bruhns, Pierre; Verbeek, J Sjef; Gelfand, Bradley D; De Falco, Sandro; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant angiogenesis is implicated in diseases affecting nearly 10% of the world’s population. The most widely used anti-angiogenic drug is bevacizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets human VEGFA. Although bevacizumab does not recognize mouse Vegfa, it inhibits angiogenesis in mice. Here we show bevacizumab suppressed angiogenesis in three mouse models not via Vegfa blockade but rather Fc-mediated signaling through FcγRI (CD64) and c-Cbl, impairing macrophage migration. Other approved humanized or human IgG1 antibodies without mouse targets (adalimumab, alemtuzumab, ofatumumab, omalizumab, palivizumab and tocilizumab), mouse IgG2a, and overexpression of human IgG1-Fc or mouse IgG2a-Fc, also inhibited angiogenesis in wild-type and FcγR humanized mice. This anti-angiogenic effect was abolished by Fcgr1 ablation or knockdown, Fc cleavage, IgG-Fc inhibition, disruption of Fc-FcγR interaction, or elimination of FcRγ-initated signaling. Furthermore, bevacizumab’s Fc region potentiated its anti-angiogenic activity in humanized VEGFA mice. Finally, mice deficient in FcγRI exhibited increased developmental and pathological angiogenesis. These findings reveal an unexpected anti-angiogenic function for FcγRI and a potentially concerning off-target effect of hIgG1 therapies. PMID:26918197

  8. Antibody responses to a 33 kDa cysteine protease of Trypanosoma congolense: relationship to 'trypanotolerance' in cattle.

    PubMed

    Authié, E; Duvallet, G; Robertson, C; Williams, D J

    1993-08-01

    A cysteine protease of Trypanosoma congolense (congopain) elicited IgG1 antibodies in those cattle which exhibited a degree of resistance to disease during experimental infections (Authié et al. 1992, 1993). The aim of the present study was to investigate further the association between anti-congopain antibodies and resistance to trypanosomiasis, and to provide a lead into the mechanisms responsible for the differential responses to congopain in cattle. Isotype characteristics and kinetics of the antibody response to congopain were studied in three N'Dama (trypanoresistant) and three Boran (susceptible) cattle during primary infection with T. congolense ILNat 3.1. In both groups an IgM response to congopain was elicited, thus demonstrating that congopain is antigenic in both types of cattle. Most of the IgM appeared to be incorporated into immune complexes. IgG was detected as free antibody; IgG1 but not IgG2 was detected. All three N'Dama, but none of the three Boran cattle, mounted a significant IgG response to congopain. Sera from 70 primary-infected cattle belonging to five breeds of differing susceptibility were tested for their reactivity to congopain. High levels of IgG to congopain were observed in the two trypanotolerant breeds, whereas the three susceptible breeds had lower levels of these antibodies. Crosses between N'Dama and Boran cattle, which exhibit an intermediate susceptibility, had intermediate levels of antibodies. Thus, the results from experimental infections confirmed our initial observations. However, under natural tsetse challenge, repeated infections and trypanocidal treatments in Zebu cattle stimulated as high anti-congopain antibody levels as in non-treated trypanotolerant taurine cattle.

  9. Atopic eczema is associated with delayed maturation of the antibody response to Pneumococcal vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Arkwright, P D; Patel, L; Moran, A; Haeney, M R; Ewing, C I; David, T J

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a previously undocumented observation, that children with atopic eczema under 9 years of age tended to have a poor antibody response to Pneumococcal vaccination. Thirty-five children (mean age 8·8 years, range 3–16 years) with moderate to severe atopic eczema but no history of systemic infection were studied retrospectively. Pneumococcal antibody responses after immunization with Pneumovax II were compared with a hospital control group consisting of 36 children (mean age 6·0 years, range 3–16 years) with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. Only 17% of children with atopic eczema aged 3–8 years responded to Pneumovax. This response was significantly poorer than that of the controls (57%) (odds ratio 0·20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·05–0·84, P = 0·03). There were no significant differences in the levels of total IgG2, the component of IgG associated with protective antibody responses to Pneumococcus between the two groups. Delay in maturation of the total IgG and IgG2 antibody response to Pneumococcus is a feature in this group of children with moderately severe atopic eczema. PMID:11012612

  10. Modulation of thymus-leukemia antigens on mouse leukemia cells induced by IgG, but not IgM, antibody.

    PubMed

    Stackpole, C W

    1980-04-01

    Exposure of mouse leukemia cells bearing thymus-leukemia (TL) surface antigens to whole TL alloantiserum has previously been shown to desensitize the cells to subsequent lysis by guinea pig complement (C) and fresh antiserum (antigenic modulation) and to correlate with the ability of cells to escape immune destruction in mice immunized against TL antigens. Tested in vitro, IgG of TL.1,2,3,5 antiserum modulated RADA1 leukemia cells (TL.1,2,3,5) completely within 2 hours at 37 degrees C when fully sensitizing amounts were used, with normal mouse serum as a source of C3. Similar results were obtained with IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b fractions of TL antiserum. An IgG2a monoclonal TL.3 antibody also completely modulated TL.3 antigens and partially modulated all antigens detected with TL.1,2,3,5 antiserum. IgM anti-TL.1,2,3,5 failed to modulate RADA1 cells even after 6 hours in vitro when fully sensitizing amounts of antibody were used. An IgM monoclonal TL antibody also failed to induce modulation. Modulation did occur on cells incubated with fully sensitizing amounts of IgG and IgM TL.1,2,3,5 antibody simultaneously, and nearly all cell-bound immunoglobulins were IgG. In mice passively immunized with IgG TL antibody, RADA1 cells modulated completely within 24 hours, whereas no modulation occurred during 4 days in mice immunized with IgM antibody. However, in both instances, tumor cells grew actively, which indicated that tumor escape did not depend on achievement of a modulated state.

  11. Allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Siman, Isabella Lima; de Aquino, Lais Martins; Ynoue, Leandro Hideki; Miranda, Juliana Silva; Pajuaba, Ana Claudia Arantes Marquez; Cunha-Júnior, Jair Pereira; Silva, Deise Aparecida Oliveira; Taketomi, Ernesto Akio

    2013-01-01

    One of the purposes of specific immunotherapy (SIT) is to modulate humoral immune response against allergens with significant increases in allergen-specific IgG levels, commonly associated with blocking activity. The present study investigated in vitro blocking activity of allergen-specific IgG antibodies on IgE reactivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) in sera from atopic patients. Dpt-specific IgG antibodies were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by protein-G affinity chromatography. Purity was checked by SDS-PAGE and immunoreactivity by slot-blot and immunoblot assays. The blocking activity was evaluated by inhibition ELISA. The electrophoretic profile of the ammonium sulfate precipitated fraction showed strongly stained bands in ligand fraction after chromatography, compatible with molecular weight of human whole IgG molecule. The purity degree was confirmed by detecting strong immunoreactivity to IgG, negligible to IgA, and no reactivity to IgE and IgM. Dpt-specific IgG fraction was capable of significantly reducing levels of IgE anti-Dpt, resulting in 35%-51% inhibition of IgE reactivity to Dpt in atopic patients sera. This study showed that allergen-specific IgG antibodies purified from mite-allergic patients sera block the IgE recognition of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigens. This approach reinforces that intermittent measurement of serum allergen-specific IgG antibodies will be an important objective laboratorial parameter that will help specialists to follow their patients under SIT.

  12. Serologic Tests of IgG and IgM Antibodies and IgG Avidity for Diagnosis of Ocular Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Zarei, Mohammad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Valian, Hossein Keshavarz; Shojaee, Saeedeh; Mahmoudzadeh, Raziyeh; Salabati, Mirataollah

    2018-04-01

    This prospective study was aimed to detect acute and chronic ocular toxoplasmosis by comparison of anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgM and IgG antibody levels and IgG avidity test. One hundred and seventeen patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) who referred to the Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran were included in this study. Of the patients, 77 cases were positive for anti- T. gondii IgG, and 8 cases were positive for anti- T. gondii IgM. IgG avidity test revealed 11, 4, and 102 cases were low, intermediate, and high, respectively, and 6.8% and 9.4% of cases were positive for IgM and IgG avidity tests, respectively ( P =0.632). Agreement (Kappa value) between paired tests IgG-IgM, IgG-IgG avidity, and IgM-IgG avidity was 0.080, 0.099, and 0.721, respectively ( P <0.05). This study showed that conventional serologic tests (IgM and IgG levels) and IgG avidity correlate well each other and can be used to differentiate recent infections from old OT. It seems that reactivated old infections rather than recently acquired infections are majority of Iranian OT patients.

  13. Human placenta: relative content of antibodies of different classes and subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) containing lambda- and kappa-light chains and chimeric lambda-kappa-immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Lekchnov, Evgenii A; Sedykh, Sergey E; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2015-06-01

    The specific organ placenta is much more than a filter: it is an organ that protects, feeds and regulates the growth of the embryo. Affinity chromatography, ELISA, SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry were used. Using 10 intact human placentas deprived of blood, a quantitative analysis of average relative content [% of total immunoglobulins (Igs)] was carried out for the first time: (92.7), IgA (2.4), IgM (2.5), kappa-antibodies (51.4), lambda-antibodies (48.6), IgG1 (47.0), IgG2 (39.5), IgG3 (8.8) and IgG4 (4.3). It was shown for the first time that placenta contains sIgA (2.5%). In the classic paradigm, Igs represent products of clonal B-cell populations, each producing antibodies recognizing a single antigen. There is a common belief that IgGs in mammalian biological fluids are monovalent molecules having stable structures and two identical antigen-binding sites. However, similarly to human milk Igs, placenta antibodies undergo extensive half-molecule exchange and the IgG pool consists of 43.5 ± 15.0% kappa-kappa-IgGs and 41.6 ± 17.0% lambda-lambda-IgGs, while 15.0 ± 4.0% of the IgGs contained both kappa- and lambda-light chains. Kappa-kappa-IgGs and lambda-lambda-IgGs contained, respectively (%): IgG1 (47.7 and 34.4), IgG2 (36.3 and 44.5), IgG3 (7.4 and 11.8) and IgG4 (7.5 and 9.1), while chimeric kappa-lambda-IgGs consisted of (%): 43.5 IgG1, 41.0 IgG2, 5.6 IgG3 and 7.9 IgG4. Our data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between placenta IgGs of various subclasses, raised against different antigens, which explains a very well-known polyspecificity and cross-reactivity of different human IgGs. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. IgG1 memory B cells keep the memory of IgE responses.

    PubMed

    He, Jin-Shu; Subramaniam, Sharrada; Narang, Vipin; Srinivasan, Kandhadayar; Saunders, Sean P; Carbajo, Daniel; Wen-Shan, Tsao; Hidayah Hamadee, Nur; Lum, Josephine; Lee, Andrea; Chen, Jinmiao; Poidinger, Michael; Zolezzi, Francesca; Lafaille, Juan J; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria A

    2017-09-21

    The unique differentiation of IgE cells suggests unconventional mechanisms of IgE memory. IgE germinal centre cells are transient, most IgE cells are plasma cells, and high affinity IgE is produced by the switching of IgG1 cells to IgE. Here we investigate the function of subsets of IgG1 memory B cells in IgE production and find that two subsets of IgG1 memory B cells, CD80 + CD73 + and CD80 - CD73 - , contribute distinctively to the repertoires of high affinity pathogenic IgE and low affinity non-pathogenic IgE. Furthermore, repertoire analysis indicates that high affinity IgE and IgG1 plasma cells differentiate from rare CD80 + CD73 + high affinity memory clones without undergoing further mutagenesis. By identifying the cellular origin of high affinity IgE and the clonal selection of high affinity memory B cells into the plasma cell fate, our findings provide fundamental insights into the pathogenesis of allergies, and on the mechanisms of antibody production in memory B cell responses.IgE is an important mediator of protective immunity as well as allergic reaction, but how high affinity IgE antibodies are produced in memory responses is not clear. Here the authors show that IgE can be generated via class-switch recombination in IgG1 memory B cells without additional somatic hypermutation.

  15. Antigenic modulation of the cytophilic binding of guinea-pig IgG and IgM antibodies to homologous macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, R O; Lawrence, D A

    1979-01-01

    The cytophilic binding of immune complexes by peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) from adjuvant-stimulated guinea-pigs was studied using 125I-labelled guinea-pig IgG1, IgG2 and IgM antibodies to the dinitrophenyl (DNP) group. The influence of hapten density upon cytophilic activity was studied by the addition of DNP-conjugated antigens to antibody in 2-200 molar ratios of DNP:antibody. Only IgG2 binding was enhanced by immune complex formation, and the increased binding of IgG2 anti-DNP was dependent on the number of DNP determinants per antigen molecule. Cytophilic activity with epsilon-DNP-L-lysine (DNP-LYS), alpha,epsilon-di-DNP-L-lysine (DNP-LYS-DNP), or DNP1-8-BSA was no greater than that seen in the absence of hapten. Increased cytophilic binding was noted only with DNP20-41-BSA. The binding of IgG2 and IgG2 anti-DNP:DNP-bovine serum albumin (BSA) complexes was inhibited by monomeric IgG2. The relative cytophilic capacities of guinea-pig immunoglobulins appeared as follows: IgG greater than IgG1 greater than IgM. IgG1 and IgM binding of DNP conjugates did not enhance their cytophilic activity; therefore, IgG1 and IgM cytophilic binding to PEC was considered biologically insignificant. This investigation provides further evidence that cytophilic binding of immune complexes to macrophages is due to the co-operative action of multiple Fc sites rather than a conformational change in the IgG2 antibodies, and serum proteins, notably complement components, can alter the binding and/or phagocytosis of IgG2 anti-DNP:DNP-BSA complexes. PMID:86509

  16. Antibody immobilization on to polystyrene substrate--on-chip immunoassay for horse IgG based on fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Darain, Farzana; Gan, Kai Ling; Tjin, Swee Chuan

    2009-06-01

    A simple microfluidic immunoassay card was developed based on polystyrene (PS) substrate for the detection of horse IgG, an inexpensive model analyte using fluorescence microscope. The primary antibody was captured onto the PS based on covalent bonding via a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of thiol to pattern the surface chemistry on a gold-coated PS. The immunosensor chip layers were fabricated from sheets by CO(2) laser ablation. The functionalized PS surfaces after each step were characterized by contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). After the antibody-antigen interaction as a sandwich immunoassay with a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated secondary antibody, the intensity of fluorescence was measured on-chip to determine the concentration of the target analyte. The present immunosensor chip showed a linear response range for horse IgG between 1 microg/ml and 80 microg/ml (r = 0.971, n = 3). The detection limit was found to be 0.71 microg/ml. The developed microfluidic system can be extended for various applications including medical diagnostics, microarray detection and observing protein-protein interactions.

  17. Neurofascin-155 IgG4 in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Devaux, Jérôme J.; Miura, Yumako; Fukami, Yuki; Inoue, Takayuki; Manso, Constance; Belghazi, Maya; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kokubun, Norito; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Wong, Anna Hiu Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We report the clinical and serologic features of Japanese patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) displaying anti-neurofascin-155 (NF155) immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies. Methods: In sera from 533 patients with CIDP, anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies were detected by ELISA. Binding of IgG antibodies to central and peripheral nerves was tested. Results: Anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies were identified in 38 patients (7%) with CIDP, but not in disease controls or normal participants. These patients were younger at onset as compared to 100 anti-NF155–negative patients with CIDP. Twenty-eight patients (74%) presented with sensory ataxia, 16 (42%) showed tremor, 5 (13%) presented with cerebellar ataxia associated with nystagmus, 3 (8%) had demyelinating lesions in the CNS, and 20 of 25 (80%) had poor response to IV immunoglobulin. The clinical features of the antibody-positive patients were statistically more frequent as compared to negative patients with CIDP (n = 100). Anti-NF155 IgG antibodies targeted similarly central and peripheral paranodes. Conclusion: Anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies were associated with a subgroup of patients with CIDP showing a younger age at onset, ataxia, tremor, CNS demyelination, and a poor response to IV immunoglobulin. The autoantibodies may serve as a biomarker to improve patients' diagnosis and guide treatments. PMID:26843559

  18. Neurofascin-155 IgG4 in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Devaux, Jérôme J; Miura, Yumako; Fukami, Yuki; Inoue, Takayuki; Manso, Constance; Belghazi, Maya; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kokubun, Norito; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Wong, Anna Hiu Yi; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    We report the clinical and serologic features of Japanese patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) displaying anti-neurofascin-155 (NF155) immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies. In sera from 533 patients with CIDP, anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies were detected by ELISA. Binding of IgG antibodies to central and peripheral nerves was tested. Anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies were identified in 38 patients (7%) with CIDP, but not in disease controls or normal participants. These patients were younger at onset as compared to 100 anti-NF155-negative patients with CIDP. Twenty-eight patients (74%) presented with sensory ataxia, 16 (42%) showed tremor, 5 (13%) presented with cerebellar ataxia associated with nystagmus, 3 (8%) had demyelinating lesions in the CNS, and 20 of 25 (80%) had poor response to IV immunoglobulin. The clinical features of the antibody-positive patients were statistically more frequent as compared to negative patients with CIDP (n = 100). Anti-NF155 IgG antibodies targeted similarly central and peripheral paranodes. Anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies were associated with a subgroup of patients with CIDP showing a younger age at onset, ataxia, tremor, CNS demyelination, and a poor response to IV immunoglobulin. The autoantibodies may serve as a biomarker to improve patients' diagnosis and guide treatments. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Structure of IgG and IgY molecules in ribosome-antibody complexes as studied by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Noll, F; Lutsch, G; Bielka, H

    1982-03-01

    The overall shape and dimensions of IgG (rabbit) and IgY (chicken) antibodies against ribosomal proteins have been studied in electron micrographs of ribosome-antibody complexes. The antibodies appear as Y-shaped molecules with an angle of about 90 degrees between their Fab arms. The length of one Fab arm amounts to about 10 nm. No differences between the IgG and IgY molecules could be detected electron microscopically. The data obtained on the shape of IgG and IgY correlate with those of earlier electron microscopic studies while the determined size of the Fab arms is in the range found by scattering methods.

  20. Prevalence of Cytomegalovirus IgG Antibodies among Pregnant Women Visiting Antenatal Clinic, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akende, Oluwatosin; Akanbi, Olusola Anuoluwapo; Oluremi, Adeolu Sunday; Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the predominant viral infections that lead to congenital diseases and teratogenic risks during the perinatal stage. There is paucity of seroepidemiological data on anti-CMV IgG antibody in pregnant women in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus IgG antibody among pregnant women visiting antenatal clinic, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. One hundred and seventy-four sera from the pregnant women were screened by Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibody. Data analysis was done using SPSS software. In this study, 105 of the 174 pregnant women were seropositive for CMV IgG antibodies giving an antibody prevalence of 60%. There was no association found between CMV IgG seropositivity and the subjects' demographic characteristics, however, the 60.0% prevalence of CMV-IgG antibody observed amongst pregnant women in this study demands for vaccines and regular testing for the presence of CMV and its related risk factors in antenatal clinic.

  1. Specific IgA and IgG antibodies in paired serum and breast milk samples in human strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Mota-Ferreira, Daniela M L; Gonçalves-Pires, Maria do Rosário F; Júnior, Alvaro Ferreira; Sopelete, Mônica C; Abdallah, Vânia O S; Costa-Cruz, Julia M

    2009-02-01

    Strongyloidiasis, caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis, is one of the major worldwide parasitic infections in humans. Breastfeeding may offer a potential protection against this infection. Feces, serum and milk samples were obtained from 90 lactating women from Clinical Hospital of Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Brazil. The fecal samples were collected for parasitological diagnosis and the serum and milk samples were examined for specific S. stercoralis IgA and IgG antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fecal examination showed that the rate of prevalence of S. stercoralis infection in the lactating women was 4.4%. IFAT manifested a 16.7% positivity rate for specific IgA antibody in serum and a 28.9% rate in milk samples; specific IgG was 41.1% in serum and 25.5% in milk samples. According to ELISA the positivity rate for specific IgA antibody was 21.1% in serum and 42.2% in milk samples; specific IgG was 40% in serum and 18.9% in milk samples. In serum samples, these immunological tests showed a concurrence of 91.1% and 94.4%, respectively, in detecting specific IgA and IgG antibodies. In milk samples, they showed a concurrence of 70% and 78.9%, respectively, in detecting specific IgA and IgG antibodies. There was a statistically significant difference between concordant and discordant results of immunological tests (P<0.0001). IFAT and ELISA highly concurred in their detection of specific S. stercoralis IgA and IgG antibodies in serum and in milk samples reconfirming prior studies that the serological method is a complement to the direct diagnosis of the parasite, and suggesting that immunological methods using milk samples can also be helpful. Furthermore, in endemic areas, infants may acquire antibodies to S. stercoralis from breast milk, possibly, contributing to the enhancement of specific mucosal immunity against this parasite.

  2. MuSK induced experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis does not require IgG1 antibody to MuSK.

    PubMed

    Küçükerden, Melike; Huda, Ruksana; Tüzün, Erdem; Yılmaz, Abdullah; Skriapa, Lamprini; Trakas, Nikos; Strait, Richard T; Finkelman, Fred D; Kabadayı, Sevil; Zisimopoulou, Paraskevi; Tzartos, Socrates; Christadoss, Premkumar

    2016-06-15

    Sera of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with muscle-specific receptor kinase-antibody (MuSK-Ab) predominantly display the non-complement fixing IgG4 isotype. Similarly, mouse IgG1, which is the analog of human IgG4, is the predominant isotype in mice with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) induced by MuSK immunization. The present study was performed to determine whether IgG1 anti-MuSK antibody is required for immunized mice to develop EAMG. Results demonstrated a significant correlation between clinical severity of EAMG and levels of MuSK-binding IgG1+, IgG2+ and IgG3+ peripheral blood B cells in MuSK-immunized wild-type (WT) mice. Moreover, MuSK-immunized IgG1 knockout (KO) and WT mice showed similar EAMG severity, serum MuSK-Ab levels, muscle acetylcholine receptor concentrations, neuromuscular junction immunoglobulin and complement deposit ratios. IgG1 and IgG3 were the predominant anti-MuSK isotypes in WT and IgG1 KO mice, respectively. These observations demonstrate that non-IgG1 isotypes can mediate MuSK-EAMG pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High Concentrations of Measles Neutralizing Antibodies and High-Avidity Measles IgG Accurately Identify Measles Reinfection Cases

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Jennifer S.; Hickman, Carole J.; Mercader, Sara; Redd, Susan; McNall, Rebecca J.; Williams, Nobia; McGrew, Marcia; Walls, M. Laura; Rota, Paul A.; Bellini, William J.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, approximately 9% of the measles cases reported from 2012 to 2014 occurred in vaccinated individuals. Laboratory confirmation of measles in vaccinated individuals is challenging since IgM assays can give inconclusive results. Although a positive reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay result from an appropriately timed specimen can provide confirmation, negative results may not rule out a highly suspicious case. Detection of high-avidity measles IgG in serum samples provides laboratory evidence of a past immunologic response to measles from natural infection or immunization. High concentrations of measles neutralizing antibody have been observed by plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) assays among confirmed measles cases with high-avidity IgG, referred to here as reinfection cases (RICs). In this study, we evaluated the utility of measuring levels of measles neutralizing antibody to distinguish RICs from noncases by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Single and paired serum samples with high-avidity measles IgG from suspected measles cases submitted to the CDC for routine surveillance were used for the analysis. The RICs were confirmed by a 4-fold rise in PRN titer or by RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay, while the noncases were negative by both assays. Discrimination accuracy was high with serum samples collected ≥3 days after rash onset (area under the curve, 0.953; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.854 to 0.993). Measles neutralizing antibody concentrations of ≥40,000 mIU/ml identified RICs with 90% sensitivity (95% CI, 74 to 98%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 82 to 100%). Therefore, when serological or RT-qPCR results are unavailable or inconclusive, suspected measles cases with high-avidity measles IgG can be confirmed as RICs by measles neutralizing antibody concentrations of ≥40,000 mIU/ml. PMID:27335386

  4. Monitoring the Systemic Human Memory B Cell Compartment of Melanoma Patients for Anti-Tumor IgG Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Amy E.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Dodev, Tihomir; Koers, Alexander; Lacy, Katie; Josephs, Debra H.; Takhar, Pooja; Geh, Jenny L. C.; Healy, Ciaran; Harries, Mark; Acland, Katharine M.; Rudman, Sarah M.; Beavil, Rebecca L.; Blower, Philip J.; Beavil, Andrew J.; Gould, Hannah J.; Spicer, James; Nestle, Frank O.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma, a potentially lethal skin cancer, is widely thought to be immunogenic in nature. While there has been much focus on T cell-mediated immune responses, limited knowledge exists on the role of mature B cells. We describe an approach, including a cell-based ELISA, to evaluate mature IgG antibody responses to melanoma from human peripheral blood B cells. We observed a significant increase in antibody responses from melanoma patients (n = 10) to primary and metastatic melanoma cells compared to healthy volunteers (n = 10) (P<0.0001). Interestingly, we detected a significant reduction in antibody responses to melanoma with advancing disease stage in our patient cohort (n = 21) (P<0.0001). Overall, 28% of melanoma patient-derived B cell cultures (n = 1,800) compared to 2% of cultures from healthy controls (n = 600) produced antibodies that recognized melanoma cells. Lastly, a patient-derived melanoma-specific monoclonal antibody was selected for further study. This antibody effectively killed melanoma cells in vitro via antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. These data demonstrate the presence of a mature systemic B cell response in melanoma patients, which is reduced with disease progression, adding to previous reports of tumor-reactive antibodies in patient sera, and suggesting the merit of future work to elucidate the clinical relevance of activating humoral immune responses to cancer. PMID:21559411

  5. Inverse Association of Plasma IgG Antibody to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and High C-Reactive Protein Levels in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Thanakun, Supanee; Pornprasertsuk-Damrongsri, Suchaya; Gokyu, Misa; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Izumi, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The association between clinically diagnosed periodontitis, a common chronic oral infection, and metabolic syndrome has been previously reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasma IgG levels against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, C-reactive protein, and periodontal status with metabolic syndrome. Plasma IgG levels and C-reactive protein were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and salivary levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Among 127 individuals aged 35-76 years, 57 participants had metabolic syndrome and severe periodontitis, 25 had metabolic syndrome and an absence of severe periodontitis, 17 healthy individuals had severe periodontitis, and 28 healthy individuals were without severe periodontitis. Patients with metabolic syndrome had reduced humoral immune response to A. actinomycetemcomitans (p = 0.008), regardless of their salivary levels or periodontitis status compared with healthy participants. The IgG antibody response to P. gingivalis, regardless of their salivary levels or participants' health condition, was significantly higher in severe periodontitis patients (p<0.001). Plasma IgG titers for P. intermedia were inconsistent among metabolic syndrome or periodontal participants. Our results indicate that the presence of lower levels of IgG antibodies to A. actinomycetemcomitans (OR = 0.1; 95%CI 0.0-0.7), but not P. gingivalis, a severe periodontitis status (OR = 7.8; 95%CI 1.1-57.0), high C-reactive protein levels (OR = 9.4; 95%CI 1.0-88.2) and body mass index (OR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.7-5.2), are associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. The role of the decreased IgG antibody response to A. actinomycetemcomitans, increased C-reactive protein levels on the association between periodontal disease and metabolic syndrome in a group of Thai patients is suggested.

  6. The immunological properties of haptens coupled to thymus-independent carrier molecules. IV. The IgG response to dinitrophenylated Ficoll.

    PubMed

    Klaus, G G; Phillips, J M; Humphrey, J H; Dresser, D W; Cross, A M

    1976-06-01

    Dinitrophenylated polysucrose (DNP-Ficoll) elicits T cell-independent IgM anti-DNP antibody formation in mice. This antigen also elicits a heterogeneous IgG1 and IgG2 anti-DNP response, which is operationally as T-independent as the IgM response. However, a concomitant graft-versus-host reaction markedly enhances the IgG response (allogeneic effect). These results confirm those of others, indicating that a certain proportion of the precursors of IgG-producing cells can be triggered by some T-independent antigens. However, our results suggest that even with such antigens optimal triggering of IgG precursors requires T cell help.

  7. Generation of Female Genital Tract Antibody Responses by Local or Central (Common) Mucosal Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hong-Yin; Abdu, Samira; Stinson, Dana; Russell, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    Genital antibody responses were compared in female mice immunized intravaginally (i.vag.) or intranasally (i.n.) with a bacterial protein antigen (AgI/II of Streptococcus mutans) coupled to the B subunit of cholera toxin. Serum and salivary antibodies were also evaluated as measures of disseminated mucosal and systemic responses. Although i.vag. immunization induced local vaginal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses, these were not disseminated to a remote secretion, the saliva, and only modest levels of serum antibodies were generated. In contrast, i.n. immunization was substantially more effective at inducing IgA and IgG antibody responses in the genital tract and in the circulation, as well as at inducing IgA antibodies in the saliva. Moreover, mucosal and systemic antibodies induced by i.n. immunization persisted for at least 12 months. Analysis of the molecular form of genital IgA indicated that the majority of both total IgA and specific IgA antibody was polymeric, and likely derived from the common mucosal immune system. PMID:10992451

  8. Hatchery workers' IgG antibody profiles to airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Paul; Gromöller, Silvana; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Wilharm, Gottfried; Jäckel, Udo

    2017-04-01

    Occupational exposure to high concentrations of airborne bacteria in poultry production is related to an increased risk of respiratory disorders. However, etiology and in particular microorganisms' potential role in pathogenesis still needs to be elucidated. Thus, detection of specific antibodies against occupational microbial antigens may lead to identification of potentially harmful species. For the purpose of IgG titer determination, indirect immunofluorescence on various bacterial isolates from duck hatchery air was combined with image-based quantification of fluorescence intensity. Moreover, in addition to established assays with pure bacterial cultures, a new approach utilized complex bioaerosol samples for detection of anti-microbial antibodies in human sera by determination of percentages of antibody-bound cells in different serum dilutions. Mean titers in sera from hatchery workers and a non-exposed control group did not display significant differences for most tested isolates and application of comprehensive cluster analysis to entire titer data revealed no structure reflecting workers and controls group. Furthermore, determination of immunoreactivity to the complete microbial community in workplace air displayed similar proportions of antibody-bound cells in both groups. Although no general differences in immunoreaction patterns were observed, mean titers to a Proteus mirabilis isolate and to 3 of 4 distinct Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were higher in the group of hatchery workers than in the reference group indicating a potential applicability as exposure markers. We conclude, despite long term bioaerosol exposure, hatchery workers' IgG antibody profiles to tested antigens did not differ substantially from those of the control group. However, increased workers' titers to A. baumannii and clinical relevance of this species should lead to further investigations regarding potential involvement in pathogenesis of occupational respiratory disorders

  9. Toxoplasmosis serology: an efficient hemagglutination procedure to detect IgG and IgM antibodies.

    PubMed

    Camargo, M E; Moura, M E; Leser, P G

    1989-01-01

    In search of an efficient but simple, low cost procedure for the serodiagnosis of Toxoplasmosis, especially suited for routine laboratories facing technical and budget limitations as in less developed countries, the diagnostic capability of Hematoxo, an hemagglutination test for toxoplasmosis, was evaluated in relation to a battery of tests including IgG- and IgM-immunofluorescence tests, hemagglutination and an IgM-capture enzymatic assay. Detecting a little as 5 I.U. of IgG antitoxoplasma antibodies, Hematoxo showed a straight agreement as to reactivity and non-reactivity for the 443 non-reactive and the 387 reactive serum samples, included in this study. In 23 cases presenting a serological pattern of acute toxoplasmosis and showing IgM antibodies, Hematoxo could detect IgM antibodies in 18, indicated by negativation or a significant decrease in titers as a result of treating samples with 2-mercapto-ethanol. However, a neat increase in sensitivity for IgM specific antibodies could be achieved by previously removing IgG from the sample, as demonstrated in a series of acute toxoplasmosis sera. A simple procedure was developed for this purpose, by reconstituting a lyophilized suspension of Protein A--rich Staphylococcus with the lowest serum dilution to be tested. Of low cost and easy to perform, Hematoxo affords not only a practical qualitative procedure for screening reactors and non-reactors, as in prenatal services, but also quantitative assays that permit to titrate antibodies as well as to identify IgM antibodies.

  10. Total serum IgE and parasite-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in human strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Rossi, C L; Takahashi, E E; Partel, C D; Teodoro, L G; da Silva, L J

    1993-01-01

    Total serum IgE, and Strongyloides-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were studied in 27 patients with parasitologically proven strongyloidiasis. Clinical manifestations in this case series were investigated by a retrospective study of the patient's records. Total serum IgE levels were elevated (greater than 250 IU/ml) in 59% of the patients (mean concentration = 1364 IU/ml). Parasite-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were detected by ELISA in the serum of 23 (85.2%) and 21 (77.8%) patients, respectively. Elevated serum IgE and clinical manifestations were not useful indexes of the presence of strongyloidiasis. On the other hand, our results support the view that serologic tests, particularly ELISA for detecting Strongyloides-specific IgG antibodies, can be usefully exploited for diagnostic purposes in strongyloidiasis.

  11. Effect of transmission intensity and age on subclass antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage antigens.

    PubMed

    Noland, Gregory S; Jansen, Paul; Vulule, John M; Park, Gregory S; Ondigo, Bartholomew N; Kazura, James W; Moormann, Ann M; John, Chandy C

    2015-02-01

    Cytophilic immunoglobulin (IgG) subclass responses (IgG1 and IgG3) to Plasmodium falciparum antigens have been associated with protection from malaria, yet the relative importance of transmission intensity and age in generation of subclass responses to pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage antigens have not been clearly defined. We analyzed IgG subclass responses to the pre-erythrocytic antigens CSP, LSA-1, and TRAP and the blood-stage antigens AMA-1, EBA-175, and MSP-1 in asymptomatic residents age 2 years or older in stable (n=116) and unstable (n=96) transmission areas in Western Kenya. In the area of stable malaria transmission, a high prevalence of cytophilic (IgG1 and IgG3) antibodies to each antigen was seen in all age groups. Prevalence and levels of cytophilic antibodies to pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage P. falciparum antigens increased with age in the unstable transmission area, yet IgG1 and IgG3 responses to most antigens for all ages in the unstable transmission area were less prevalent and lower in magnitude than even the youngest age group from the stable transmission area. The dominance of cytophilic responses over non-cytophilic (IgG2 and IgG4) was more pronounced in the stable transmission area, and the ratio of IgG3 over IgG1 generally increased with age. In the unstable transmission area, the ratio of cytophilic to non-cytophilic antibodies did not increase with age, and tended to be IgG3-biased for pre-erythrocytic antigens yet IgG1-biased for blood-stage antigens. The differences between areas could not be attributed to active parasitemia status, as there were minimal differences in antibody responses between those positive and negative for Plasmodium infection by microscopy in the stable transmission area. Individuals in areas of unstable transmission have low cytophilic to non-cytophilic IgG subclass ratios and low IgG3:IgG1 ratios to P. falciparum antigens. These imbalances could contribute to the persistent risk of clinical malaria in these

  12. Heritability analysis of IgG4 antibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Outschoorn, I M; Talor, M V; Burek, C L; Hoffman, W H; Rose, N R

    2014-08-01

    A study of IgG4 autoantibody levels in juvenile thyroid disease patients showed evidence of heritability using the ROMP screening method. These levels increased with time despite the fact that total IgG antibody decreased with time. Evidence of heritability was demonstrated only in patients with high titers of autoantibodies to both thyroglobulin (Tg) and thyroperoxidase (TPO) unlike family members who may show high titers of one or the other and be asymptomatic at the time of sampling. Since high and low IgG4 levels give different heritability plots, these findings may represent a more severe fibrotic form of thyroiditis with a distinct genetic background. Hence a simple predictive approach is offered by this screening tool for the disease in patients and family members which may be helpful in the future to identify IgG4-related thyroiditis early in the course of disease without the requirement for biopsy.

  13. Serum IgG and IgE antibodies against mold-derived antigens in patients with symptoms of hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Makkonen, K; Viitala, K I; Parkkila, S; Niemelä, O

    2001-03-01

    Exposure to mold in water-damaged buildings has been suggested to be responsible for various health problems such as hypersensitivity and upper respiratory tract diseases. However, only little information is available on possible diagnostic tools for examining mold-associated health problems. We used recently developed immunofluorometric IgG and IgE assays (UniCAP) to examine serum IgG and IgE antibodies against mold-derived allergens from 70 mold-exposed individuals with (n = 55) or without (n = 15) symptoms of sensitization. Controls were healthy individuals (n = 31) without any history of such exposure. The IgG titers exceeded the upper normal limits of control individuals (mean +/- 2 S.D.) in 35% of symptomatic men and in 25% of women. The IgG titers were usually higher in women than in men (P < 0.05) showing no significant association with the severity of symptoms. During follow-up of eight mold-exposed subjects for 9-12 months the IgG titers remained relatively constant. Elevated anti-mold IgEs were found in six (11%) of the exposed subjects who were all symptomatic. Measurements of anti-mold IgGs may help to confirm exposure in patients with hypersensitivity symptoms and evidence of mold growth in living or working environment. Some exposed symptomatic patients present IgE-mediated responses. Combined measurements of IgGs and IgEs may prove to be of value in the comprehensive assessment and treatment of such patients.

  14. Hypogammaglobulinaemia in nephrotic rats is attributable to hypercatabolism of IgG.

    PubMed Central

    Beaman, M; Oldfield, S; MacLennan, I C; Michael, J; Adu, D

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the nephrotic syndrome induced by puromycin aminonucleoside (PA) in rats on specific antibody responses to 2,4 dinitrophenyl (DNP) conjugated to either spider crab haemocyanin (MSH), a T cell-dependent antigen, or hydroxyethyl starch (HES), a T cell-independent type 2 antigen were studied. The serum IgG anti-DNP levels following immunization with both antigens were reduced in nephrotic animals compared with controls while IgM anti-DNP antibody titres were higher. The half-life of IgG anti-DNP antibodies passively transferred into non-immunized nephrotic rats was markedly reduced while the half-life of anti-DNP antibodies of the IgM class was comparable to that in controls. Low serum IgG and elevated IgM levels were seen in nephrotic animals compared to controls. Antibody-forming cells specific for DNP were demonstrated by immunohistology on rat spleens and the numbers of both IgG and IgM-producing cells were found to be significantly increased (P less than 0.05) in nephrotic animals in response to both DNP-HES and DNP-MSH. These data indicate that in nephrotic rats the alteration seen in the serum immunoglobulin levels is not attributable to reduced antibody production but increased catabolism of serum IgG antibodies. PMID:3233791

  15. Characterisation of antibody responses in pigs induced by recombinant oncosphere antigens from Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-12-14

    Recombinant antigens cloned from the oncosphere life cycle stage of the cestode parasite Taenia solium (T. solium) have been proven to be effective as vaccines for protecting pigs against infections with T. solium. Previous studies have defined three different host protective oncosphere antigens, TSOL18, TSOL16 and TSOL45. In this study, we evaluated the potential for combining the antigens TSOL16 and TSOL18 as a practical vaccine. Firstly, in a laboratory trial, we compared the immunogenicity of the combined antigens (TSOL16/18) versus the immunogenicity of the antigens separately. Secondly, in a field trial, we tested the ability of the TSOL16/18 vaccine to induce detectable antibody responses in animals living under environmental stress and traditionally reared in areas where T. solium cysticercosis is endemic; and finally, we characterised the immune response of the study population. Pigs of 8-16 weeks of age were vaccinated with 200 μg each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5mg of Quil-A. Specific total IgG, IgG(1) and IgG(2) antibody responses induced by TSOL16 and TSOL18 were determined with ELISA. The immunogenicity of both antigens was retained in the combined TSOL16/18 vaccine. The combined vaccine TSOL16/18 induced detectable specific anti-TSOL18 antibody responses in 100% (113/113) and specific anti-TSOL16 in 99% (112/113) of the vaccinated animals measured at 2 weeks following the booster vaccination. From the two IgG antibody subtypes analysed we found there was stronger response to IgG(2). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antibody responses of red wolves to canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus vaccination.

    PubMed

    Harrenstien, L A; Munson, L; Ramsay, E C; Lucash, C F; Kania, S A; Potgieter, L N

    1997-07-01

    Twenty captive red wolves (Canis rufus), including 16 intended for release into Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Cades Cove, Tennessee (USA), and four housed at Knoxville Zoological Gardens, Inc., Knoxville, Tennessee, were evaluated for immunologic response to vaccination between June 1994 and April 1995. Wolves were vaccinated with modified-live (MLV) canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV2). Sera were collected, and immunofluorescent staining was performed for determination of immunoglobulin titers (CDV IgM, CDV IgG, and CPV2 IgG). A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed for validation purposes, to confirm the reactivity of our standard diagnostic reagents with red wolf serum. All wolves produced a measurable antibody response to CDV and CPV2 vaccination. Titers against CDV and CPV2 varied widely among individual wolves, but between-litter differences in mean titers were not significant. No consistent response between the degree of response to CDV versus CPV2 vaccination was observed in individual wolves. No differences were seen between IgG responses of pups vaccinated with univalent vaccines given concurrently or during alternating weeks. Pups had an IgG response to CDV and CPV2 vaccination as early as 9 wk of age. Mean post-vaccination IgG titers against CDV were at or above the level normally measured in vaccinated domestic dogs. Mean post-vaccination IgG titers against CPV2 were below the level normally measured in domestic dogs. Adult previously-vaccinated wolves had measurable CDV and CPV2 IgG titers more than 1 yr after vaccination, but did not have significant IgG titer increases after revaccination. We conclude that red wolves are capable of producing an antibody response after vaccination with commercial canine products but that their response to CPV2 vaccination was minimal. This response can be assayed using tests developed for domestic dogs.

  17. Dissection of the Antibody Response against Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins in Naturally Infected Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen-Yu; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Ponce de Leon, Manuel; Lou, Huan; Wald, Anna; Krummenacher, Claude; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relatively little is known about the extent of the polyclonal antibody (PAb) repertoire elicited by herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins during natural infection and how these antibodies affect virus neutralization. Here, we examined IgGs from 10 HSV-seropositive individuals originally classified as high or low virus shedders. All PAbs neutralized virus to various extents. We determined which HSV entry glycoproteins these PAbs were directed against: glycoproteins gB, gD, and gC were recognized by all sera, but fewer sera reacted against gH/gL. We previously characterized multiple mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and mapped those with high neutralizing activity to the crystal structures of gD, gB, and gH/gL. We used a biosensor competition assay to determine whether there were corresponding human antibodies to those epitopes. All 10 samples had neutralizing IgGs to gD epitopes, but there were variations in which epitopes were seen in individual samples. Surprisingly, only three samples contained neutralizing IgGs to gB epitopes. To further dissect the nature of these IgGs, we developed a method to select out gD- and gB-specific IgGs from four representative sera via affinity chromatography, allowing us to determine the contribution of antibodies against each glycoprotein to the overall neutralization capacity of the serum. In two cases, gD and gB accounted for all of the neutralizing activity against HSV-2, with a modest amount of HSV-1 neutralization directed against gC. In the other two samples, the dominant response was to gD. IMPORTANCE Antibodies targeting functional epitopes on HSV entry glycoproteins mediate HSV neutralization. Virus-neutralizing epitopes have been defined and characterized using murine monoclonal antibodies. However, it is largely unknown whether these same epitopes are targeted by the humoral response to HSV infection in humans. We have shown that during natural infection, virus-neutralizing antibodies are principally

  18. Host protective ASP-based vaccine against the parasitic nematode Ostertagia ostertagi triggers NK cell activation and mixed IgG1-IgG2 response.

    PubMed

    González-Hernández, Ana; Van Coppernolle, Stefanie; Borloo, Jimmy; Van Meulder, Frederik; Paerewijck, Oonagh; Peelaers, Iris; Leclercq, Georges; Claerebout, Edwin; Geldhof, Peter

    2016-07-11

    The mucus-dwelling parasite Ostertagia ostertagi is one of the most important gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. Our group has previously demonstrated the protective capacity of a vaccine against this parasite based on a native activation-associated secreted protein ASP1 (nASP) in combination with the saponin adjuvant QuilA. The aim of the current study was to analyse the effect of both antigen and adjuvant on the cellular and humoral vaccine-induced immune responses by comparing the native ASP to a recombinant version expressed in Pichia pastoris (pASP) and replacing QuilA by Al(OH)3. Immunization of cattle with the protective nASP+QuilA vaccine was associated with antigen-induced proliferation of natural killer (NK) cells combined with IFN-γ secretion and the induction of a mixed IgG1/IgG2 antibody response. ASP-specific activation and proliferation of NK cells was also observed in mice following the same vaccination regime. Replacing QuilA by Al(OH)3 or nASP by pASP significantly decreased the capacity of the vaccines to trigger both NK cell activation and antibody responses and failed to induce protection against a challenge infection. Reduction of the structurally anchoring disulphide bonds of the nASP completely abolished its ability to induce NK cell activation and antibody responses, highlighting the importance of protein conformation for the immunostimulatory activity.

  19. Characterization of the Antibody Response after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ulndreaj, Antigona; Tzekou, Apostolia; Mothe, Andrea J.; Siddiqui, Ahad M.; Dragas, Rachel; Tator, Charles H.; Torlakovic, Emina E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The immune system plays a critical and complex role in the pathobiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), exerting both beneficial and detrimental effects. Increasing evidence suggests that there are injury level–dependent differences in the immune response to SCI. Patients with traumatic SCI have elevated levels of circulating autoantibodies against components of the central nervous system, but the role of these antibodies in SCI outcomes remains unknown. In rodent models of mid-thoracic SCI, antibody-mediated autoimmunity appears to be detrimental to recovery. However, whether autoantibodies against the spinal cord are generated following cervical SCI (cSCI), the most common level of injury in humans, remains undetermined. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the antibody responses following cSCI in a rat model of injury. We found increased immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies in the spinal cord in the subacute phase of injury (2 weeks), but not in more chronic phases (10 and 20 weeks). At 2 weeks post-cSCI, antibodies were detected at the injury epicenter and co-localized with the astroglial scar and neurons of the ventral horn. These increased levels of antibodies corresponded with enhanced activation of immune responses in the spleen. Higher counts of antibody-secreting cells were observed in the spleen of injured rats. Further, increased levels of secreted IgG antibodies and enhanced proliferation of T-cells in splenocyte cultures from injured rats were found. These findings suggest the potential development of autoantibody responses following cSCI in the rat. The impact of the post-traumatic antibody responses on functional outcomes of cSCI is a critical topic that requires further investigation. PMID:27775474

  20. Predictive value of Borrelia burgdorferi IgG antibody levels in patients referred to a tertiary Lyme centre.

    PubMed

    Zwerink, M; Zomer, T P; van Kooten, B; Blaauw, G; van Bemmel, T; van Hees, B C; Vermeeren, Y M; Landman, G W

    2018-03-01

    A two-step testing strategy is recommended in serological testing for Lyme borreliosis; positive and indeterminate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results are confirmed with immunoblots. Several ELISAs quantify the concentration of antibodies tested, however, no recommendation exists for an upper cut-off value at which an IgG ELISA is sufficient and the immunoblot can be omitted. The study objective was to determine at which IgG antibody level an immunoblot does not have any additional predictive value compared to ELISA results. Data of adult patients who visited a tertiary Lyme centre between 2008 and 2014 were analysed. Both an ELISA (Enzygnost Lyme link VlsE IgG) and immunoblot (recomLine blot Borrelia) were performed. Clinical data were extracted from the patient's digital medical record. Positive predictive values (PPVs) for either previous or active infection with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. were calculated for different cut-off ELISA IgG antibody levels where the immunoblot was regarded as reference test. In total, 1454 patients were included. According to the two-step test strategy, 486 (33%), 69 (5%) and 899 (62%) patients had positive, indeterminate and negative Borrelia IgG serology, respectively. At IgG levels of 500 IU/ml and higher, all immunoblots were positive, resulting in a 100% PPV (95% CI: 97.0-100). At IgG levels of 200 IU/ml and higher, the PPV was 99.3% (95% CI: 97.4-99.8). In conclusion, at IgG levels of 200 IU/ml and higher, an ELISA was sufficient to detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. At those IgG levels, a confirmatory immunoblot may be omitted in patients referred to a tertiary Lyme centre. Before these results can be implemented in routine diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, confirmation of the results is necessary in other patient populations and using other quantitative ELISAs and immunoblots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Mild leptospirosis with three-year persistence of IgG- and IgM-antibodies, initially manifesting as carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Sehnal, Ernst; Stanek, Gerold

    2005-08-01

    Long-term persistence of IgG- and IgM-antibodies against leptospira after mild leptospirosis has not been reported. In a 45-year-old female pet-shop worker with carpal tunnel syndrome, accompanied by arthralgias, coughing, repeatedly elevated temperature, followed by easy fatigability, personality change, memory and speech disturbance, blurred vision, myalgia and swollen lymph nodes, leptospirosis was diagnosed, based upon history, clinical findings, and serological investigations. After the described symptoms had disappeared following doxycyclin for 2 weeks, IgG- and IgM-antibodies against leptospira remained positive during the next three years. This case illustrates that leptospirosis may start as carpal tunnel syndrome and that the severity of leptospirosis does not seem to be related to the intensity of the humoral immune response against the causative agent.

  2. Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. Methods We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. Sera with low or high reactivity to modified food antigens were subjected to myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Results Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3–8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Conclusion We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. Antibodies against modified food antigens, by reacting with AGEs and tissue proteins, may cause perturbation in degenerative and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and neuroautoimmunity. PMID:19435515

  3. Changes of serum IgG antibody reactivity to protein antigens of Treponema pallidum in syphilis patients after treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, D K; Lee, M G; Lee, J B

    1989-06-01

    The changes of serum IgG antibody reactivity to protein antigens of Treponema pallidum after treatment of syphilis were observed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. Until 9 to 12 months after treatment, it was seen that there was a loss of several antibodies and some diminution in their reactivity in primary, secondary and early latent syphilis, but no changes occurred in late latent and reinfected syphilis. In primary syphilis, there was a significant loss of two IgG antibodies to the treponemal antigens of molecular weights 68,500 and 47,000 at 11 months after treatment. According to our previous study, the treponemal antigen of molecular weight 68,500 was T. pallidum specific and appeared only in primary syphilis, and that of molecular weight 47,000 was one of the major antigens of T. pallidum. The reaction between serum IgG antibodies of 14 patients who had been treated for secondary, early latent and late latent syphilis 2 to 14 years ago and major antigens of T. pallidum was observed and any loss or decrease in reactivity was not discovered. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the observation of serum IgG antibody reactivity to protein antigens of T. pallidum is not helpful in evaluating the efficacy of treatment in secondary, early latent, late latent and reinfected syphilis. However, serum IgG antibodies to treponemal antigens of molecular weights 68,500 and 47,000 could possibly be useful in the assessment of the efficacy of treatment in primary syphilis.

  4. Changes of serum IgG antibody reactivity to protein antigens of Treponema pallidum in syphilis patients after treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D. K.; Lee, M. G.; Lee, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    The changes of serum IgG antibody reactivity to protein antigens of Treponema pallidum after treatment of syphilis were observed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. Until 9 to 12 months after treatment, it was seen that there was a loss of several antibodies and some diminution in their reactivity in primary, secondary and early latent syphilis, but no changes occurred in late latent and reinfected syphilis. In primary syphilis, there was a significant loss of two IgG antibodies to the treponemal antigens of molecular weights 68,500 and 47,000 at 11 months after treatment. According to our previous study, the treponemal antigen of molecular weight 68,500 was T. pallidum specific and appeared only in primary syphilis, and that of molecular weight 47,000 was one of the major antigens of T. pallidum. The reaction between serum IgG antibodies of 14 patients who had been treated for secondary, early latent and late latent syphilis 2 to 14 years ago and major antigens of T. pallidum was observed and any loss or decrease in reactivity was not discovered. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the observation of serum IgG antibody reactivity to protein antigens of T. pallidum is not helpful in evaluating the efficacy of treatment in secondary, early latent, late latent and reinfected syphilis. However, serum IgG antibodies to treponemal antigens of molecular weights 68,500 and 47,000 could possibly be useful in the assessment of the efficacy of treatment in primary syphilis. PMID:2688687

  5. Antibody response to Ehrlichia risticii and antibody reactivity to the component antigens in horses with induced Potomac horse fever.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S K; Mattingly, B L; Shankarappa, B

    1989-10-01

    The antibody response and the antibody reactivity to component antigens of Ehrlichia risticii were studied in horses with induced Potomac horse fever. These horses had no detectable antibodies to E. risticii in their preinoculation (PrI) sera by indirect fluorescent-antibody assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All the horses exhibited typical disease features following experimental infection and responded with specific antibodies, as measured by ELISA and indirect fluorescent-antibody assay. A primary antibody response was detected in 70% of the horses, while a secondary-type antibody response was detected in 30% of the horses by ELISA. In the primary antibody response, a distinct titer was observed at 2 weeks postinoculation (PI), when the immunoglobulin M (IgM)/IgG ratio was 2 to 5, and the overall antibody titer peaked at 6 to 8 weeks PI. The secondary-type antibody response exhibited a characteristic titer at 1 week PI, the IgM and IgG titers were about equal at 2 weeks PI, and the overall antibody titer peaked at 6 weeks PI. A transient depression in the IgG response at 4 weeks PI was observed in both response types. The antibody was maintained at a high titer for over a year in all horses. Western immunoblot reactivity showed that the antisera collected from these infected horses at 4 to 5 weeks PI recognized some or all of the six major E. risticii component antigens (70, 55, 51, 44, 33, and 28 kilodaltons), all of which were apparent surface components. The 6- to 8-week PI antisera recognized up to 16 component antigens, including 9 major antigens (110, 86, 70, 55, 51, 49, 44, 33, and 28 kilodaltons). However, the PrI sera of these horses showed reactivity at various intensities with one to seven of the component antigens. There was no apparent correlation between this reactivity pattern and the subsequent antibody response types.

  6. Canine leishmaniasis: Genome-wide analysis and antibody response to Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva.

    PubMed

    Batista, Luís F S; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Silva, Thaís B F; Carneiro, Mariana M; Paiva, Joyr S F; Silva, Rafaela B; Tomokane, Thaíse Y; Rossi, Claudio N; Pacheco, Acácio D; Torrecilha, Rafaela B P; Silveira, Fernando T; Marcondes, Mary; Nunes, Cáris M; Laurenti, Márcia D

    2018-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory properties of sand fly saliva favor the establishment of the Leishmania infantum infection. In contrast, an antibody response against Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva is often associated with a protective cell-mediated response against canine visceral leishmaniasis. Genetic studies may demonstrate to what extent the ability to secrete anti-saliva antibodies depends on genetic or environmental factors. However, the genetic basis of canine antibody response against sand fly saliva has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to identify chromosomal regions associated with the anti-Lu. longipalpis salivary IgG response in 189 dogs resident in endemic areas in order to provide information for prophylactic strategies. Dogs were classified into five groups based on serological and parasitological diagnosis and clinical evaluation. Anti-salivary gland homogenate (SGH) IgG levels were assessed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples and genotyped using a SNP chip with 173,662 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The following linear regression model was fitted: IgG level = mean + origin + sex + age + use of a repellent collar, and the residuals were assumed as pseudo-phenotypes for the association test between phenotypes and genotypes (GWA). A component of variance model that takes into account polygenic and sample structure effects (EMMAX) was employed for GWA. Phenotypic findings indicated that anti-SGH IgG levels remained higher in exposed and subclinically infected dogs than in severely diseased dogs even in regression model residuals. Five associated markers were identified on chromosomes 2, 20 and 31. The mapped genes included CD180 (RP105) and MITF related to the rapid activation of B lymphocytes and differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells. The findings pointed to chromosomal segments useful for functional confirmation studies and a search for adjuvant molecules of the anti

  7. Development of a polyclonal anti-dugong immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody with evaluation of total plasma IgG in a living dugong (Dugong dugon) population.

    PubMed

    Wong, Arthur; Lanyon, Janet M; McKee, Sara J; Linedale, Richard; Woolford, Lucy; Long, Trevor; Leggatt, Graham R

    2018-06-01

    Species-specific antibodies (Ab) for the measurement of immunoglobulins (Ig) are valuable tools for determining the humoral immune status of threatened and endangered wildlife species such as dugongs. However, no studies have reported antibody reagents against dugong immunoglobulin. The object of this study was to develop an Ab with specificity for dugong IgG and apply this tool to survey total IgG levels in plasma samples from a live wild population of dugongs in southern Queensland, Australia. Dugong IgG was isolated from plasma by protein A/G column chromatography and a polyclonal antiserum was successfully raised against the dugong IgG through immunization of mice. The anti-dugong antiserum was reactive with dugong serum but not immunoglobulin from other species such as rats and humans. When tested against a panel of dugong plasma samples, relative IgG levels from dugongs (n = 116) showed biologically relevant relationships with pregnancy status and a principal component of Body Mass Index (BMI)/globulin/fecal glucocorticosteroid (chronic stress) levels combined, which together accounted for 9.2% of the variation in total Ig levels. Together these data suggest that dugongs show variation in total IgG and that this correlates with some physiological parameters of dugong health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Seroprevalence of diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies in children, adolescents and adults in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recommendations for diphtheria immunization are to apply an effective primary immunization in infancy and to maintain immunity throughout life. Immunity against diphtheria depends primarily on antibody to the diphtheria toxin. This study evaluated the seroprevalence of IgG diphtheria antitoxin in sera of healthy children, adolescents and adults in Poland. Methods A total of 1387 serum samples collected between 2010 and 2012 from individuals with ages ranging from 1 month to 85 years were investigated. Antibody concentrations were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Anti-Diphtheria Toxoid ELISA IgG, Euroimmun, Germany). Results The results showed that among 1387 individuals examined, 547 (39.4%) had anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibody levels below 0.1 IU/ml (36.9% ≤18 years and 40.5% >18 years old, respectively). The 212 (50.8%) children and 542 (55.9%) adults showed only basic protection (0.1-1.0 IU/ml) and need immediate booster. High levels of anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies (>1.0 IU/ml) were found more often in children and adolescent (12.2%) than in adults (3.6%) and this was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The proportion of seronegatives (< 0.1 IU/ml) in children below 2 years old, adolescents and young adults to 25 years old decreased from 53.5% to 17.4%. However, in older individuals the seronegative proportion tended to increase with age, from 22.7% in adults (26–30 years old) to 67.1% in subjects > 60 years old. Characteristically, in individuals > 40 years old high levels of anti-diphtheria toxoid IgG antibodies (>1.0 IU/ml) were not seen. There were no statistically significant differences in results in relation to gender. Conclusions The present study showed inadequate immunity levels to diphtheria amongst the Polish population, especially in adults > 40 years old and children ≤ 2 years old. To prevent reemergence of diphtheria an information campaign reminding people about

  9. IgA, IgM and IgG anti-M. leprae antibodies in babies of leprosy mothers during the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed Central

    Melsom, R; Harboe, M; Duncan, M E

    1982-01-01

    IgA, IgM and IgG anti-M. leprae antibody activity was estimated by solid phase radioimmunoassay in repeated serum samples from cord sera to sera taken 2 years after birth from 29 babies of mothers with lepromatous leprosy (Group 1) and 16 babies of mothers with tuberculoid leprosy and non-leprosy control mothers (Group 2). IgA anti-M. leprae antibody activity could be detected in 30% and IgM anti-M. leprae antibody activity in 50% of cord sera from Group 1, but not in any of the cord sera from Group 2. After birth, there was a significantly higher increase of IgA and IgM anti-M. leprae antibody activity in sera taken 3-6 months after birth from babies of Group 1 compared to Group 2, but the IgA and IgM activity in sera taken after 6 months of age showed the same increase in the two groups. IgG anti-M. leprae antibody activity showed a marked decrease in sera from both Groups 1 and 2 taken 3-6 and 6-9 months after birth compared to the activity in the cord sera. No increase of the IgG activity could be demonstrated even in sera taken 15-24 months after birth in any of the two groups. These findings are discussed in relation to possible transfer of M. leprae bacilli across the placenta, the influence of M. leprae and other mycobacteria exposure on the antibody activity, the poor IgG anti-M. leprae antibody response and subclinical leprosy infection in babies exposed to leprosy below 2 years of age. PMID:6756719

  10. Influence of IgG Subclass on Human Antimannan Antibody-Mediated Resistance to Hematogenously Disseminated Candidiasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nishiya, Casey T.; Boxx, Gayle M.; Robison, Kerry; Itatani, Carol; Kozel, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a yeast-like pathogen and can cause life-threatening systemic candidiasis. Its cell surface is enriched with mannan that is resistant to complement activation. Previously, we developed the recombinant human IgG1 antimannan antibody M1g1. M1g1 was found to promote complement activation and phagocytosis and protect mice from systemic candidiasis. Here, we evaluate the influence of IgG subclass on antimannan antibody-mediated protection. Three IgG subclass variants of M1g1 were constructed: M1g2, M1g3, and M1g4. The IgG subclass identity for each variant was confirmed with DNA sequence and subclass-specific antibodies. These variants contain identical M1 Fabs and exhibited similar binding affinities for C. albicans yeast and purified mannan. Yeast cells and hyphae recovered from the kidney of antibody-treated mice with systemic candidiasis showed uniform binding of each variant, indicating constitutive expression of the M1 epitope and antibody opsonization in the kidney. All variants promoted deposition of both murine and human C3 onto the yeast cell surface, with M1g4 showing delayed activation, as determined by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. M1g4-mediated complement activation was found to be associated with its M1 Fab that activates the alternative pathway in an Fc-independent manner. Treatment with each subclass variant extended the survival of mice with systemic candidiasis (P < 0.001). However, treatment with M1g1, M1g3, or M1g4, but not with M1g2, also reduced the kidney fungal burden (P < 0.001). Thus, the role of human antimannan antibody in host resistance to systemic candidiasis is influenced by its IgG subclass. PMID:26573736

  11. Human IgG Antibody Response to Aedes Nterm-34kDa Salivary Peptide, an Epidemiological Tool to Assess Vector Control in Chikungunya and Dengue Transmission Area.

    PubMed

    Elanga Ndille, Emmanuel; Doucoure, Souleymane; Poinsignon, Anne; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; D'Ortenzio, Eric; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Remoue, Franck

    2016-12-01

    Arboviral diseases are an important public health concerns. Vector control remains the sole strategy to fight against these diseases. Because of the important limits of methods currently used to assess human exposure to Aedes mosquito bites, much effort is being devoted to develop new indicators. Recent studies have reported that human antibody (Ab) responses to Aedes aegypti Nterm-34kDa salivary peptide represent a promising biomarker tool to evaluate the human-Aedes contact. The present study aims investigate whether such biomarker could be used for assessing the efficacy of vector control against Aedes. Specific human IgG response to the Nterm-34kDa peptide was assessed from 102 individuals living in urban area of Saint-Denis at La Reunion Island, Indian Ocean, before and after the implementation of vector control against Aedes mosquitoes. IgG response decreased after 2 weeks (P < 0.0001), and remained low for 4 weeks post-intervention (P = 0.0002). The specific IgG decrease was associated with the decline of Aedes mosquito density, as estimated by entomological parameters and closely correlated to vector control implementation and was not associated with the use of individual protection, daily commuting outside of the house, sex and age. Our findings indicate a probable short-term decrease of human exposure to Aedes bites just after vector control implementation. Results provided in the present study indicate that IgG Ab response to Aedes aegypti Nterm-34kDa salivary peptide could be a relevant short-time indicator for evaluating the efficacy of vector control interventions against Aedes species.

  12. Evaluation of the Human IgG Antibody Response to Aedes albopictus Saliva as a New Specific Biomarker of Exposure to Vector Bites

    PubMed Central

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Rutee, Abdul Hamid; Roca, Yelin; Walter, Annie; Hervé, Jean Pierre; Misse, Dorothée; Favier, François; Gasque, Philippe; Remoue, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Background The spread of Aedes albopictus, a vector for re-emergent arbovirus diseases like chikungunya and dengue, points up the need for better control strategies and new tools to evaluate transmission risk. Human antibody (Ab) responses to mosquito salivary proteins could represent a reliable biomarker for evaluating human-vector contact and the efficacy of control programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ELISA tests to evaluate specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to salivary gland extracts (SGE) in adults exposed to Aedes albopictus in Reunion Island. The percentage of immune responders (88%) and levels of anti-SGE IgG Abs were high in exposed individuals. At an individual level, our results indicate heterogeneity of the exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. In addition, low-level immune cross-reactivity between Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti SGEs was observed, mainly in the highest responders. Conclusion/Significance Ab responses to saliva could be used as an immuno-epidemiological tool for evaluating exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. Combined with entomological and epidemiological methods, a “salivary” biomarker of exposure to Aedes albopictus could enhance surveillance of its spread and the risk of arbovirus transmission, and could be used as a direct tool for the evaluation of Aedes albopictus control strategies. PMID:22363823

  13. Tofacitinib Suppresses Antibody Responses to Protein Therapeutics in Murine Hosts1

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Masanori; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Steward-Tharp, Scott; Thomas, Craig; O’Shea, John J.; Pastan, Ira H.; FitzGerald, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Immunogenicity remains the ‘Achilles’ heel’ of protein-based therapeutics. Anti-drug antibodies produced in response to protein therapeutics can severely limit both the safety and efficacy of this expanding class of agent. Here we report that monotherapy of mice with tofacitinib (the Janus kinase inhibitor) quells antibody responses to an immunotoxin derived from the bacterial protein, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, as well as to the model antigen, keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Thousandfold reductions in IgG1 titers to both antigens were observed 21 days post-immunization. In fact, suppression was evident for all IgG isotypes and IgM. A reduction in IgG3 production was also noted with a thymus-independent type II antigen. Mechanistic investigations revealed that tofacitinib treatment led to reduced numbers of CD127+ pro-B cells. Furthermore, we observed fewer germinal center B cells and the impaired formation of germinal centers of mice treated with tofacitinib. Since normal immunoglobulin levels were still present during the tofacitinib treatment, this agent specifically reduced anti-drug antibodies, thus preserving the potential efficacy of biological therapeutics, including those that are used as cancer therapeutics. PMID:24890727

  14. Thermodynamic and conformational analysis of the interaction between antibody binding proteins and IgG.

    PubMed

    Tanwar, Neetu; Munde, Manoj

    2018-06-01

    Studying interaction of IgG with bacterial proteins such as proA (Protein A) and proG is essential for development in the areas of drug discovery and biotechnology. Some solution studies in the past have hinted at the possibility of variable binding ratios for IgG with proA and proG. Since earlier crystallographic studies focussed mostly on monomeric complexes, the knowledge about the binding interfaces and protein conformational changes involved in multimeric complexes is scarce. In this paper, we observed that single proA molecule was able to bind to three IgG molecules (1:3, proA:IgG) in ITC accentuating the presence of conformational flexibility in proA, corroborated also by CD results. By contrast, proG binds with 1:1 stoichiometry to IgG, which also involves key structural rearrangement within the binding interface of IgG-proG complex, confirmed by fluorescence KI quenching study. It is implicit from CD and fluorescence results that IgG does not undergo any significant conformational changes, which further suggests that proA and proG dictate the phenomenon of recognition in antibody complexes. ANS as a hydrophobic probe helped in revealing the distinctive antibody binding mechanism of proA and proG. Additionally, the binding competition experiments using ITC established that proA and proG cannot bind IgG concurrently. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Transplacental rotavirus IgG interferes with immune response to live oral rotavirus vaccine ORV-116E in Indian infants.

    PubMed

    Appaiahgari, Mohan Babu; Glass, Roger; Singh, Shakti; Taneja, Sunita; Rongsen-Chandola, Temsunaro; Bhandari, Nita; Mishra, Sukhdev; Vrati, Sudhanshu

    2014-02-03

    The lower immune response and efficacy of live oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines tested in developing countries may be due in part to high levels of pre-existing RV antibodies transferred to the infant from mother via the placenta. The candidate RV vaccine strain 116E was isolated from a newborn indicating that it might grow well even in the presence of this transplacental rotavirus antibody. Since the immune response to this vaccine among infants in the Indian subcontinent has been greater than that of the commercially licensed vaccines, we questioned whether this might be due to the ability of RV 116E to grow well in infants despite the presence of maternal RV antibody. To this end, we tested pre-immunization sera from Indian infants enrolled in a phase Ia/IIb trial of candidate RV vaccine ORV-116E for transplacental RV IgG to see whether it affected the immune responses and seroconversion to the vaccine. We found that the high titers of transplacental RV IgG diminished the immune responses of infants to ORV-116E vaccine. However, the vaccine was able to overcome the inhibitory effect of this RV IgG in a dose-dependent manner. This report clearly demonstrates the interference of maternal antibody on RV vaccine immunogenicity in infants in a field study as well as the ability of ORV-116E to overcome this interference when used at a higher dose. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (Parp-1)-deficient mice demonstrate abnormal antibody responses

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Helen E; Willimott, Shaun; Beswick, Richard W; Dantzer, Françoise; de Murcia, Josiane Ménissier; Yelamos, José; Wagner, Simon D

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosylation) of acceptor proteins is an epigenetic modification involved in DNA strand break repair, recombination and transcription. Here we provide evidence for the involvement of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (Parp-1) in antibody responses. Parp-1−/− mice had increased numbers of T cells and normal numbers of total B cells. Marginal zone B cells were mildly reduced in number, and numbers of follicular B cells were preserved. There were abnormal levels of basal immunoglobulins, with reduced levels of immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) and increased levels of IgA and IgG2b. Analysis of specific antibody responses showed that T cell-independent responses were normal but T cell-dependent responses were markedly reduced. Germinal centres were normal in size and number. In vitro purified B cells from Parp-1−/− mice proliferated normally and showed normal IgM secretion, decreased switching to IgG2a but increased IgA secretion. Collectively our results demonstrate that Parp-1 has essential roles in normal T cell-dependent antibody responses and the regulation of isotype expression. We speculate that Parp-1 forms a component of the protein complex involved in resolving the DNA double-strand breaks that occur during class switch recombination. PMID:18778284

  17. Serum levels of IgG and IgG4 in Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Sachiko-Tsukamoto; Tagami, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kanako; Nanba, Kazutaka; Tamanaha, Tamiko; Usui, Takeshi; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Mori, Yusuke; Tsuji, Jun; Tanaka, Issei; Shimatsu, Akira

    2014-03-01

    Although IgG4-related disease is characterized by extensive infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and lymphocytes of various organs, the details of this systemic disease are still unclear. We screened serum total IgG levels in the patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) to illustrate the prevalence of IgG4-related thyroiditis in HT. Twenty-four of 94 patients with HT (25.5%) had elevated serum IgG levels and their serum IgG4 was measured. Five of the 24 cases had more than 135 mg/dL of IgG4, which is the serum criterion of IgG4-related disease. One was a female patient who was initially treated as Graves' disease and rapidly developed a firm goiter and hypothyroidism. The biopsy of her thyroid gland revealed that follicular cells were atrophic with squamous metaplasia, replaced with fibrosis, which was compatible with the fibrous variant of HT. Immunohistochemical examination revealed diffuse infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, and the serum IgG4 level was 179 mg/dL. The levels of IgG and IgG4 were positively correlated with the titers of anti-thyroglobulin antibody or anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody. In conclusion, at least a small portion of patients with HT with high titers of anti-thyroid antibodies may overlap the IgG4-related thyroiditis.

  18. Antibody Conjugation Approach Enhances Breadth and Potency of Neutralization of Anti-HIV-1 Antibodies and CD4-IgG

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilyuk, Julia; Ban, Hitoshi; Uehara, Hisatoshi; Sirk, Shannon J.; Saye-Francisco, Karen; Cuevas, Angelica; Zablowsky, Elise; Oza, Avinash; Seaman, Michael S.; Burton, Dennis R.

    2013-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing antibodies PG9 and PG16 effectively neutralize 70 to 80% of circulating HIV-1 isolates. In this study, the neutralization abilities of PG9 and PG16 were further enhanced by bioconjugation with aplaviroc, a small-molecule inhibitor of virus entry into host cells. A novel air-stable diazonium hexafluorophosphate reagent that allows for rapid, tyrosine-selective functionalization of proteins and antibodies under mild conditions was used to prepare a series of aplaviroc-conjugated antibodies, including b12, 2G12, PG9, PG16, and CD4-IgG. The conjugated antibodies blocked HIV-1 entry through two mechanisms: by binding to the virus itself and by blocking the CCR5 receptor on host cells. Chemical modification did not significantly alter the potency of the parent antibodies against nonresistant HIV-1 strains. Conjugation did not alter the pharmacokinetics of a model IgG in blood. The PG9-aplaviroc conjugate was tested against a panel of 117 HIV-1 strains and was found to neutralize 100% of the viruses. PG9-aplaviroc conjugate IC50s were lower than those of PG9 in neutralization studies of 36 of the 117 HIV-1 strains. These results support this new approach to bispecific antibodies and offer a potential new strategy for combining HIV-1 therapies. PMID:23427154

  19. Comparison of carbohydrate and peptide biotinylation on the immunological activity of IgG1 murine monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Miralles, F; Takeda, Y; Escribano, M J

    1991-07-05

    When the classical amino acid esterification procedure was used for the biotinylation of the IgG1 monoclonal antibody J28 it resulted in a loss of immunological activity. This antibody recognizes the fetoacinar pancreatic (FAP) antigen and the decrease in reactivity was directly proportional to the molar biotin/antibody ratio indicating substitutions at or near the antibody combining site. This effect was specific to J28 since the IgG1 Mab F22 which recognises the same antigen was not damaged by this procedure. Active Mab J28 conjugates were obtained using biotinylation via oligosaccharide moieties. The biotinylation efficiency using this method was dependent on the previous degree of antibody periodate oxidation and the maximal substitution was 3 mol biotin per mol of antibody. Using these conditions the sensitivity of the biotinylated J28 for the FAP antigen was similar to that obtained when using non-substituted antibody in the two antibodies technique.

  20. Fabry disease, enzyme replacement therapy and the significance of antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Patrick B

    2012-03-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked disorder caused by a deficiency of α-galactosidase A. This leads to a progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide in tissues throughout the body. Cardiac, renal and neurological manifestations are common and life expectancy is significantly reduced relative to the general population. Management of Fabry disease involves the administration of intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Two forms - agalsidase alfa and agalsidase beta - have been licensed in certain jurisdictions and are generally well tolerated; however, some patients develop antibodies to the infused enzyme, which may impair the efficacy and safety of treatment. Agalsidase alfa and agalsidase beta are produced in different systems; this leads to certain differences in post-translational modification that may affect immunogenicity. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies have frequently been reported in patients with Fabry disease receiving ERT; IgG responses are reported in a greater proportion of patients receiving agalsidase beta than in patients receiving agalsidase alfa. IgE antibodies are less common than IgG antibodies, and have not been observed in patients receiving agalsidase alfa. However, these data are difficult to interpret due to methodological differences in the assessment of seropositivity, and in the doses of enzyme used. The clinical impact of the development of IgG antibodies to ERT in patients with Fabry disease remains unclear, due to lack of data and to the marked heterogeneity of patients both in terms of disease manifestations and response to therapy. Further studies that examine the development of antibodies in patients with Fabry disease and the potential impact of such antibodies on the outcome of ERT are necessary.

  1. The chemiluminescent response of human monocytes to red cells sensitized with monoclonal anti-Rh(D) antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hadley, A G; Kumpel, B M; Merry, A H

    1988-01-01

    Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) was used to assess the metabolic response of human monocytes to red cells sensitized with known amounts of anti-Rh(D). Monoclonal antibodies were used to facilitate a comparison between the functional activities of IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses. The detection of CL provided a simple, rapid and semi-quantitative means of measuring monocyte response to sensitized red cells (IgG-RBC). Monocyte response to IgG3-RBC was quantitatively greater, more rapid and less susceptible to inhibition by fluid phase IgG than monocyte response to IgG1-RBC. The minimum levels of sensitization required to elicit CL from monocytes were approximately 2500 IgG3 molecules per red cell, or approximately 5000 IgG1 molecules per cell.

  2. Comparisons of the effect of naturally acquired maternal pertussis antibodies and antenatal vaccination induced maternal tetanus antibodies on infant's antibody secreting lymphocyte responses and circulating plasma antibody levels

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Alam, Md. Jahangir; Afsar, Md. Nure Alam; Huda, M. Nazmul; Kabir, Yearul; Qadri, Firdausi; Raqib, Rubhana; Stephensen, Charles B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The goal of this study was to explore the effects of trans-placental tetanus toxoid (TT) and pertussis (PT) antibodies on an infant's response to vaccination in the context of antenatal immunization with tetanus but not with pertussis. 38 mothers received a single dose of TT vaccine during pregnancy. Infants received tetanus and pertussis vaccines at 6, 10 and 14 wk of age. TT and PT anti-IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes was measured at 15 wk. Plasma antibodies were measured at 6 wk (pre-vaccination), 15 wk and 1 y of age. Prior to vaccination, TT and PT antibody were detected in 94.6% and 15.2% of infants. At 15 wk anti-TT-IgG and anti-PT-IgG in plasma was increased by 7–9 fold over pre-vaccination levels, while at 1 y plasma anti-TT-IgG was decreased by approximately 5-fold from the peak and had returned to near the pre-vaccination level. At 1 y plasma anti-PT-IgG was decreased by 2-fold 1 yfrom the 15 wk level. However, 89.5% and 82.3% of infants at 1 y had protective levels of anti-TT and anti-PT IgG, respectively. Pre-vaccination plasma IgG levels were associated with lower vaccine-specific IgG secretion by infant lymphocytes at 15 wk (p < 0.10). This apparent inhibition was seen for anti-TT-IgG at both 15 wk (p < 0.05) and t 1 y (p < 0.10) of age. In summary, we report an apparent inhibitory effect of passively derived maternal antibody on an infants' own antibody response to the same vaccine. However, since the cut-off values for protective titers are low, infants had protective antibody levels throughout infancy. PMID:27176823

  3. Time resolved native ion-mobility mass spectrometry to monitor dynamics of IgG4 Fab arm exchange and "bispecific" monoclonal antibody formation.

    PubMed

    Debaene, François; Wagner-Rousset, Elsa; Colas, Olivier; Ayoub, Daniel; Corvaïa, Nathalie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Beck, Alain; Cianférani, Sarah

    2013-10-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and derivatives such as antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) and bispecific antibodies (bsAb), are the fastest growing class of human therapeutics. Most of the therapeutic antibodies currently on the market and in clinical trials are chimeric, humanized, and human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). An increasing number of IgG2s and IgG4s that have distinct structural and functional properties are also investigated to develop products that lack or have diminished antibody effector functions compared to IgG1. Importantly, wild type IgG4 has been shown to form half molecules (one heavy chain and one light chain) that lack interheavy chain disulfide bonds and form intrachain disulfide bonds. Moreover, IgG4 undergoes a process of Fab-arm exchange (FAE) in which the heavy chains of antibodies of different specificities can dissociate and recombine in bispecific antibodies both in vitro and in vivo. Here, native mass spectrometry (MS) and time-resolved traveling wave ion mobility MS (TWIM-MS) were used for the first time for online monitoring of FAE and bsAb formation using Hz6F4-2v3 and natalizumab, two humanized IgG4s which bind to human Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A) and alpha4 integrin, respectively. In addition, native MS analysis of bsAb/JAM-A immune complexes revealed that bsAb can bind up to two antigen molecules, confirming that the Hz6F4 family preferentially binds dimeric JAM-A. Our results illustrate how IM-MS can rapidly assess bsAb structural heterogeneity and be easily implemented into MS workflows for bsAb production follow up and bsAb/antigen complex characterization. Altogether, these results provide new MS-based methodologies for in-depth FAE and bsAb formation monitoring. Native MS and IM-MS will play an increasing role in next generation biopharmaceutical product characterization like bsAbs, antibody mixtures, and antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) as well as for biosimilar and biobetter antibodies.

  4. Serum IgE and IgG responses to food antigens in normal and atopic dogs, and dogs with gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Foster, A P; Knowles, T G; Moore, A Hotston; Cousins, P D G; Day, M J; Hall, E J

    2003-05-12

    In human food allergy, with or without concurrent atopy, there may be significant increases in serum allergen-specific IgE. Serological methods have been tried but are not currently recommended for diagnosis of suspected food allergy in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate humoral immune responses to food antigens in dogs. Serum IgG and IgE antibodies specific for food antigens were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using polyclonal anti-dog IgG and IgE reagents. Antigens tested were beef, chicken, pork, lamb, chicken, turkey, white fish, whole egg, wheat, soybean, barley, rice, maize corn, potato, yeast and cow's milk. Three groups were examined: normal dogs, dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD); and dogs with one of four types of gastrointestinal (GI) disease: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), food-responsive disease, and infectious diarrhoea. Statistically significant differences in food-specific antibodies were not detected between the GI subgroups. There were statistically significant differences in the IgE concentration between the normal dogs, and dogs with atopic or GI disease, for all of the antigens tested. There were statistically significant differences in the average IgG concentrations between the normal dogs, and dogs with atopic or GI disease, for all of the antigens tested, except egg and yeast. The relationship of antigen responses for pooled data was analysed using principle component analysis and cluster plots. Some clustering of variables was apparent for both IgE and IgG. For example, all dogs (normal and diseased) made a similar IgG antibody response to chicken and turkey. Compared with other groups, atopic dogs had more food allergen-specific IgE and this would be consistent with a Th(2) humoral response to food antigens. Dogs with GI disease had more food allergen-specific IgG compared with the other groups. This may reflect increased antigen exposure due to increased

  5. Human IgG Antibody Response to Aedes Nterm-34kDa Salivary Peptide, an Epidemiological Tool to Assess Vector Control in Chikungunya and Dengue Transmission Area

    PubMed Central

    Elanga Ndille, Emmanuel; Doucoure, Souleymane; Poinsignon, Anne; Mouchet, François; Cornelie, Sylvie; D’Ortenzio, Eric; DeHecq, Jean Sébastien; Remoue, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Background Arboviral diseases are an important public health concerns. Vector control remains the sole strategy to fight against these diseases. Because of the important limits of methods currently used to assess human exposure to Aedes mosquito bites, much effort is being devoted to develop new indicators. Recent studies have reported that human antibody (Ab) responses to Aedes aegypti Nterm-34kDa salivary peptide represent a promising biomarker tool to evaluate the human-Aedes contact. The present study aims investigate whether such biomarker could be used for assessing the efficacy of vector control against Aedes. Methodology/Principal findings Specific human IgG response to the Nterm-34kDa peptide was assessed from 102 individuals living in urban area of Saint-Denis at La Reunion Island, Indian Ocean, before and after the implementation of vector control against Aedes mosquitoes. IgG response decreased after 2 weeks (P < 0.0001), and remained low for 4 weeks post-intervention (P = 0.0002). The specific IgG decrease was associated with the decline of Aedes mosquito density, as estimated by entomological parameters and closely correlated to vector control implementation and was not associated with the use of individual protection, daily commuting outside of the house, sex and age. Our findings indicate a probable short-term decrease of human exposure to Aedes bites just after vector control implementation. Conclusion/Significance Results provided in the present study indicate that IgG Ab response to Aedes aegypti Nterm-34kDa salivary peptide could be a relevant short-time indicator for evaluating the efficacy of vector control interventions against Aedes species. PMID:27906987

  6. The IgG2a antibody response to thyroglobulin is linked to the Igh locus in mouse.

    PubMed

    Kuppers, R C; Epstein, L D; Outschoorn, I M; Rose, N R

    1994-01-01

    The IgG-subclass usage by several strains of mice in the response to immunization with mouse thyroglobulin (mTg) was examined in the experimental autoimmune thyroiditis model. While the subclass usage by most mouse strains was similar, the Ighb allotype-bearing mice consistently produced lower IgG2a levels to mTg. Using CBA-Ighb congenic and recombinant inbred strains of mice, the lower level of IgG2a in the Ighb mouse was mapped to the Igh locus. The regulation of IgG2a appeared to be cis controlled, as the CBA x C57BL/6F1 mouse also produced reduced IgG2a of the Ighb (B6) allotype but not of the Ighj (CBA) allotype.

  7. Quantitation of IgG kappa and IgG lambda in the cerebrospinal fluid by sandwich ELISA method.

    PubMed

    Zeman, David; Kušnierová, Pavlína; Bojková, Jana; Všianský, František; Zapletalová, Olga

    2017-01-01

    IgG kappa and IgG lambda concentrations were quantified in 96 paired CSF and sera using Hevylite™ antibodies in an in-house developed sandwich ELISA method. In 56 of these samples, the results were compared with a qualitative isoelectric focusing/affinity-mediated immunoblotting assay for oligoclonal IgG kappa and IgG lambda. Normal IgG kappa/lambda ratio in the CSF was the same as in serum. In 19/33 patients with intrathecal oligoclonal IgG synthesis, skewed IgG kappa/lambda ratio was observed (increased in 16 and decreased in 3 cases). The analysis of light chain composition of intrathecally synthesised immunoglobulins could contribute to our understanding of intrathecal humoral immune response, although its diagnostic utility is limited.

  8. Role of the Antigen Capture Pathway in the Induction of a Neutralizing Antibody Response to Anthrax Protective Antigen.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anita; Ngundi, Miriam M; Price, Gregory A; Takeda, Kazuyo; Yu, James; Burns, Drusilla L

    2018-02-27

    Toxin neutralizing antibodies represent the major mode of protective immunity against a number of toxin-mediated bacterial diseases, including anthrax; however, the cellular mechanisms that lead to optimal neutralizing antibody responses remain ill defined. Here we show that the cellular binding pathway of anthrax protective antigen (PA), the binding component of anthrax toxin, determines the toxin neutralizing antibody response to this antigen. PA, which binds cellular receptors and efficiently enters antigen-presenting cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, was found to elicit robust anti-PA IgG and toxin neutralizing antibody responses. In contrast, a receptor binding-deficient mutant of PA, which does not bind receptors and only inefficiently enters antigen-presenting cells by macropinocytosis, elicited very poor antibody responses. A chimeric protein consisting of the receptor binding-deficient PA mutant tethered to the binding subunit of cholera toxin, which efficiently enters cells using the cholera toxin receptor rather than the PA receptor, elicited an anti-PA IgG antibody response similar to that elicited by wild-type PA; however, the chimeric protein elicited a poor toxin neutralizing antibody response. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the antigen capture pathway can dictate the magnitudes of the total IgG and toxin neutralizing antibody responses to PA as well as the ratio of the two responses. IMPORTANCE Neutralizing antibodies provide protection against a number of toxin-mediated bacterial diseases by inhibiting toxin action. Therefore, many bacterial vaccines are designed to induce a toxin neutralizing antibody response. We have used protective antigen (PA), the binding component of anthrax toxin, as a model antigen to investigate immune mechanisms important for the induction of robust toxin neutralizing antibody responses. We found that the pathway used by antigen-presenting cells to capture PA dictates the robustness of the

  9. In vivo trafficking and catabolism of IgG1 antibodies with Fc associated carbohydrates of differing structure.

    PubMed

    Wright, A; Sato, Y; Okada, T; Chang, K; Endo, T; Morrison, S

    2000-12-01

    We have now produced mouse-human chimeric IgG1 in wild-type Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines Pro-5 as well as in the glycosylation mutants Lec 2, Lec 8, and Lec 1. Analysis of the attached carbohydrates shows those present on IgG1-Lec 1 were mannose terminated. Carbohydrate present on IgG1-Lec8 was uniformly biantennary terminating in N-acetylglucosamine. The glycosylation profiles of IgG1-Lec 2 and IgG1-Pro-5 were heterogeneous. Only IgG1-Pro-5 was sialylated with sialic acid present on only a small percentage of the carbohydrate structures. When the in vivo fate of antibodies labeled with (125)I-lactotyramine was determined, it was found that the majority of all of the antibodies, irrespective of the structure of their attached carbohydrate, is catabolized in the skin and muscle. However, the attached carbohydrate structure does influence the amount that is catabolized in the liver and the liver serves as a major site for the catabolism of proteins bearing carbohydrate with the Lec2 (with terminal galactose) or Lec1(with terminal mannose) structure.

  10. Anti-rubella, Mumps and Measles IgG Antibodies in Medical Students of Tehran University.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Maryam; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein; Tebyanian, Majid; Shahkarami, Mohammad Kazem; Izad, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella are viral infectious diseases that may result in serious complications. Since the production of vaccines, the number of cases of these diseases has been dropped. Nevertheless, these infectious diseases are still one of the major health problems in developing countries. In this study, in order to evaluate the protective responses against measles, mumps and rubella, the level and avidity of virus-specific IgG antibodies were measured in 53 medical students of Tehran University, aged between 20-30 years. Except for mumps vaccine, all the students had been vaccinated against measles and rubella according to Iran's nationwide mass vaccination protocol for all persons aged 5-25 in 2003. Our results showed that 96.2% of the volunteers had a protective level (>15 IU/ml) of IgG against rubella, 79.2% had a protective level (>11 IU/ml) of IgG against measles and 64.16% had a protective level (>11 IU/ml) of IgG against mumps. Over ten years after nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign, most young adults aged 20-30 had protective levels of humoral immunity against measles and rubella. However, Iranian young population is still unvaccinated against mumps, and therefore relatively large number of young adults had no protective level of IgG against it. This finding may be due to reduction in circulating of wild strain. We recommend screening of medical students for immunity against infectious agents such as measles, mumps, rubella, because they are at a high risk of these infectious agents.

  11. Depigmented allergoids reveal new epitopes with capacity to induce IgG blocking antibodies.

    PubMed

    López-Matas, M Angeles; Gallego, Mayte; Iraola, Víctor; Robinson, Douglas; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of allergen-specific blocking IgGs that interact with IgE after allergen immunotherapy (SIT) has been related to clinical efficacy. The objectives were to investigate the epitope specificity of IgG-antibodies induced by depigmented-polymerized (Dpg-Pol) allergoids and unmodified allergen extracts, and examine IgE-blocking activity of induced IgG-antibodies. Rabbits were immunized with native and Dpg-Pol extracts of birch pollen, and serum samples were obtained. Recognition of linear IgG-epitopes of Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 and the capacity of these IgG-antibodies to block binding of human-IgE was determined. Serum from rabbits immunized with native extracts recognised 11 linear epitopes from Bet v 1, while that from Dpg-Pol-immunized animals recognised 8. For Bet v 2, 8 epitopes were recognized by IgG from native immunized animals, and 9 from Dpg-Pol immunized one. Dpg-Pol and native immunized serum did not always recognise the same epitopes, but specific-IgG from both could block human-IgE binding sites for native extract. Depigmented-polymerized birch extract stimulates the synthesis of specific IgG-antibodies which recognize common but also novel epitopes compared with native extracts. IgG-antibodies induced by Dpg-Pol effectively inhibit human-IgE binding to allergens which may be part of the mechanism of action of SIT.

  12. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris: Heritabilities and associations with parasitological findings.

    PubMed

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Göring, Harald Heinz Herbert; Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-07-30

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens or egg excretion with specific antibody levels. We set out to investigate the association between worm load and T. suis and A. suum specific serum antibody levels (IgG1, IgG2 and IgA) against excretory-secretory products of adults and third stage larvae, respectively, measured at 0, 7 and 14 weeks p.i. in a trickle-infected F1-resource-population of crossbred pigs (n=195). Furthermore, we wanted to determine the heritability of these antibody isotypes during the course of infection. Most pigs remained infected with A. suum throughout the experiment while they expelled T. suis between 7 and 14 weeks post infection (p.i.). Parasite specific IgG1 and IgA were significantly (P<0.001) elevated after 7 and 14 weeks of infection, whereas parasite specific IgG2 levels only changed slightly at 14 weeks p.i.. However, the observed association between specific antibody isotype levels and faecal egg counts and macroscopic worm load was weak. The relative heritabilities of the different parasite specific isotypes were assessed and resulted in significant heritability estimates for parasite specific IgG1 and IgA. The highest heritabilities were found for A. suum specific IgG1 (h(2)=0.41 and 0.46 at 7 and 14 weeks p.i., respectively). Thus, the present study demonstrates that host genetic factors influence the IgG1 and IgA antibody isotype responses specific to two of the most common gastrointestinal nematodes of swine whereas specific antibody levels were poorly associated with egg excretion and the presence of macroscopic worms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Desflurane Hepatitis Associated with Hapten and Autoantigen-Specific IgG4 Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, James S.; Rose, Noel R.; Martin, Jackie L.; Eger, Edmond I.; Njoku, Dolores B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Three cases of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) have been reported after desflurane anesthesia. However, no previous reports have detected serum autoantibodies such as that reported with DILI from halothane or isoflurane. METHODS AND RESULTS We describe the first documentation of cytochrome P450 2E1 IgG4 autoantibodies, as well as 58 kDa endoplasmic reticulum protein and trifluoroacetyl chloride hapten-specific IgG4 antibodies, in a patient who developed DILI after desflurane anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that allergic and autoimmune mechanisms have critical roles in the development of desflurane DILI. PMID:17513640

  14. An Enhanced Pre- and Postnatal Development Study in Cynomolgus Monkeys with Tabalumab: A Human IgG4 Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Breslin, William J; Hilbish, Kim G; Martin, Jennifer A; Halstead, Carolyn A; Newcomb, Deanna L; Chellman, Gary J

    2015-06-01

    Tabalumab, a human IgG4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) with neutralizing activity against both soluble and membrane B-cell activating factor (BAFF), has been under development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential adverse effects of maternal tabalumab exposure on pregnancy, parturition, and lactation of the mothers and on the growth, viability, and development of the offspring through postnatal day (PND) 204. Tabalumab was administered by subcutaneous injection to presumed pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (16-19 per group) every 2 weeks from gestation day (GD) 20 to 22 until parturition at doses of 0, 0.3, or 30 mg/kg. Evaluations in mothers and infants included clinical signs, body weight, toxicokinetics, blood lymphocyte phenotyping, T-cell-dependent antibody response (infants only), antitherapeutic antibody (ATA), organ weights (infants only), and gross and microscopic histopathology. Infants were also examined for external and visceral morphologic and neurobehavioral development. There were no adverse tabalumab-related effects on maternal or infant endpoints. An expected pharmacological decrease in peripheral blood B-lymphocytes occurred in adults and infants; however, B-cell recovery was evident by PND154 in adults and infants at 0.3 mg/kg and by PND204 in infants at 30 mg/kg. At 30 mg/kg, a reduced IgM antibody response to T-cell-dependent antigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was observed following primary immunization. Following secondary KLH immunization, all infants in both dose groups mounted anti-KLH IgM and IgG antibody responses similar to control. Placental and mammary transfer of tabalumab was demonstrated. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect level for maternal and developmental toxicity was 30 mg/kg, the highest dose tested. Exposures at 30 mg/kg provide a margin of safety of 16× the anticipated clinical exposure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Immunological studies on bee-keepers: specific IgG and subclass typing IgG against bee venom and bee venom components.

    PubMed

    Urbanek, R; Forster, J; Ziupa, J; Karitzky, D

    1980-11-17

    Specific IgE antibodies against bee venom and its components were studied in 23 bee-keepers. The highest IgG serum levels were observed for whole bee venom followed by phospholipase A. The serum levels of specific IgG antibodies against melittin and MCD-peptide were lower, the lowest serum levels being observed for apamin. After a 5 month absence from bee-keeping a fall in the serum levels of IgG antibodies was observed in all the bee-keepers studied. The investigation of the IgG subclass antibodies 1-4 against bee venom and phospholipase A demonstrated the highest serum levels for IgG 4 and IgG 2, the lowest levels were observed for IgG 1. The lowest IgG serum levels were associated with the least effective protection to bee stings. These findings support the concept that specific IgG antibodies prevent the development of allergic symptoms after bee sting.

  16. IgG4 anti-infliximab in treated patients: clinical impact and temporal evolution.

    PubMed

    Vultaggio, Alessandra; Nencini, Francesca; Carraresi, Alessia; Pratesi, Sara; Movérare, Robert; Eriksson, Camilla; Venemalm, Lennart; Maggi, Enrico; Matucci, Andrea

    2018-05-02

    Infliximab (IFX) carries potential risk of immunogenicity with the production of anti-drug antibodies (ADA). ADA may belong to different isotypes and are usually measured by ELISA bridging assay. This test is not designed to detect IgG4 antibodies. The aim was to measure IgG4 anti-IFX antibodies in a cohort of IFX-treated patients and to evaluate their relationship with ADA and their clinical impact. ADA were detected by using a bridging ELISA in the serum of 222 treated patients with different clinical outcomes to IFX. The same samples were analysed for IgG4 anti-IFX antibodies using an experimental ImmunoCAP assay with reduced serum IgG4 background levels. A longitudinal evaluation was performed in a subgroup of 38 patients to define the temporal evolution of IgG4 anti-IFX. IgG4 anti-IFX was found in 26.6% of patients. Eigthy out of 222 patients were ADA+ (36%) and the majority (57/80, 71.3%) had IgG4 anti-IFX. Two IgG4-positive but ADA-negative patients were identified. IgG4 anti-IFX levels correlated with the serum levels of ADA. IgG4 anti-IFX was more common in both reactive and non-responder patients than in tolerant/responder patients. Patients who had experienced IgE-mediated reactions displayed significantly higher IgG4 anti-IFX than IgE-negative reactive patients. The majority of patients tested positive for IgG4 anti-IFX after the first seven infusions. IgG4 anti-IFX is common in treated patients and a large part of ADA producing patients produce IgG4 antibodies. The IgG4 anti-IFX response does not prevent hypersensitivity reactions to IFX and correlates with the IgE anti-IFX response. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of age of first exposure to Plasmodium falciparum on antibody responses to malaria in children: a randomized, controlled trial in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of the age of first Plasmodium falciparum infection on the rate of acquisition of immunity to malaria and on the immune correlates of protection has proven difficult to elucidate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using monthly chemoprophylaxis with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus artesunate was conducted to modify the age of first P. falciparum erythrocytic exposure in infancy and assess antibodies and malaria risk over two years. Methods Participants (n = 349) were enrolled at birth to one of three groups: late exposure, early exposure and control group, and were followed up for malaria morbidity and immunological analyses at birth, 2.5, 5.5, 10.5, 15 and 24 months of age. Total IgG, IgG subclasses and IgM responses to MSP-119, AMA-1, and EBA-175 were measured by ELISA, and IgG against variant antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes by flow cytometry. Factors affecting antibody responses in relation to chemoprophylaxis and malaria incidence were evaluated. Results Generally, antibody responses did not vary significantly between exposure groups except for levels of IgM to EBA-175, and seropositivity of IgG1 and IgG3 to MSP-119. Previous and current malaria infections were strongly associated with increased IgG against MSP-119, EBA-175 and AMA-1 (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for exposure, only higher levels of anti-EBA-175 IgG were significantly associated with reduced clinical malaria incidence (IRR 0.67, p = 0.0178). Conclusions Overall, the age of first P. falciparum infection did not influence the magnitude and breadth of IgG responses, but previous exposure was critical for antibody acquisition. IgG responses to EBA-175 were the strongest correlate of protection against clinical malaria. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00231452. PMID:24674654

  18. Quantitative and temporal analyses of murine antibody response in serum and gut secretions to infection with Giardia muris.

    PubMed

    Snider, D P; Underdown, B J

    1986-04-01

    We analyzed the appearance and level of Giardia muris-specific antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG, and IgM isotypes, at weekly intervals, over the course of a 7-week infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Using sensitive immunoradiometric assays, we observed that IgA antibody was the only detectable anti-G. muris antibody in intestinal secretions throughout the course of infection. No secreted IgG or IgM anti-G. muris antibody was detected even in concentrated intestinal secretions. The expulsion of G. muris by the mice was associated closely with the appearance and increasing levels of secreted anti-G. muris IgA antibody. Both IgG and IgA serum antibody to G. muris were detected, but no serum IgM antibody was detected. Serum IgA and IgG anti-G. muris antibody remained at high levels up to 10 weeks following clearance of the parasite. An interesting observation indicated that serum IgA antibody to G. muris developed more slowly in response to infection than secreted IgA antibody. An analysis of the molecular weight distribution of total serum IgA in infected mice determined that infection produced a transient but significant shift in serum IgA to high-molecular-weight (greater than or equal to dimeric IgA) forms. The results indicate that a substantial IgA antibody response occurs in sera and in gut secretions of G. muris-resistant mice and that IgA antibody is the dominant and possibly the only effector antibody active in intestinal secretions during G. muris infection in mice.

  19. Mucosal adjuvanticity of fibronectin-binding peptide (FBP) fused with Echinococcus multilocularis tetraspanin 3: systemic and local antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Dang, Zhisheng; Feng, Jinchao; Yagi, Kinpei; Sugimoto, Chihiro; Li, Wei; Oku, Yuzaburo

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that a bacterial fibronectin attachment protein (FAP) is able to stimulate strong systemic and mucosal antibody responses when it is used alone or co-administrated with other antigens (Ags). Thus, it has been suggested to be a promising adjuvant candidate for the development of efficient vaccines. However, the co-administered Ags and FAP were cloned, expressed and purified individually to date. In a recent study, we first evaluated the adjuvanticity of a fibronectin-binding peptide (FBP, 24 amino acids) of Mycobacterium avium FAP fused with Echinococcus multilocularis tetraspanin 3 (Em-TSP3) by detecting systemic and local antibody responses in intranasally (i.n.) immunized BALB/c mice. Em-TSP3 and FBP fragments were linked with a GSGGSG linker and expressed as a single fusion protein (Em-TSP3-FBP) using the pBAD/Thio-TOPO expression vector. BALB/c mice were immunized i.n. with recombinant Em-TSP3-FBP (rEm-TSP3-FBP) and rEm-TSP3+CpG and the systemic and local antibody responses were detected by ELISA. The results showed that both rEm-TSP3-FBP and rEm-TSP3+CpG evoked strong serum IgG (p<0.001) and IgG1 responses (p<0.001), whereas only the latter induced a high level IgG2α production (p<0.001), compared to that of rEm-TSP3 alone without any adjuvant. There were no significant differences in IgG and IgG1 production between the groups. Low level of serum IgA and IgM were detected in both groups. The tendency of Th1 and Th2 cell immune responses were assessed via detecting the IgG1/IgG2α ratio after the second and third immunizations. The results indicated that i.n. immunization with rEm-TSP3-FBP resulted in an increased IgG1/IgG2α ratio (a Th2 tendency), while rEm-TSP3+CpG caused a rapid Th1 response that later shifted to a Th2 response. Immunization with rEm-TSP3-FBP provoked significantly stronger IgA antibody responses in intestine (p<0.05), lung (p<0.001) and spleen (p<0.001) compared to those by rEm-TSP3+CpG. Significantly high level Ig

  20. Contributions of direct versus indirect mechanisms for regulatory dendritic cell suppression of asthmatic allergen-specific IgG1 antibody responses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yanna; Dawicki, Wojciech; Zhang, Xiaobei

    2018-01-01

    IL-10-differentiated dendritic cells (DC10) can reverse the asthma phenotype in mice, but how they suppress the asthmatic B cell response is unclear. Herein we assessed the mechanism(s) by which DC10 and DC10-induced Treg affect IgG1 production in asthma. We observed a rapid decline in lung-resident OVA-specific IgG1-secreting B cells on cessation of airway allergen challenge, and intraperitoneal DC10 therapy did not amplify that (p>0.05). It did however increase the loss of IgG1-B cells from the bone marrow (by 45+/-7.2%; p≤0.01) and spleen (by 65+/-17.8%; p≤0.05) over 2 wk. Delivery of OVA-loaded DC10 directly into the airways of asthmatic mice decreased the lung IgG1 B cell response assessed 2 dy later by 33+/-9.7% (p≤0.01), while their co-culture with asthmatic lung cell suspensions reduced the numbers of IgG1-secreting cells by 56.5+/-9.7% (p≤0.01). This effect was dependent on the DC10 carrying intact allergen on their cell surface; DC10 that had phagocytosed and fully processed their allergen were unable to suppress B cell responses, although they did suppress asthmatic Th2 cell responses. We had shown that therapeutic delivery of DC10-induced Treg can effectively suppress asthmatic T and B cell (IgE and IgG1) responses; herein CD4+ cells or Treg from the lungs of DC10-treated OVA-asthmatic mice suppressed in vitro B cell IgG1 production by 52.2+/-8.7% (p≤0.001) or 44.6+/-12.2% (p≤0.05), respectively, but delivery of DC10-induced Treg directly into the airways of asthmatic mice had no discernible impact over 2 dy on the numbers of lung IgG1-secreting cells (p≥0.05). In summary, DC10 treatment down-regulates OVA-specific B cell responses of asthmatic mice. While DC10 that carry intact allergen on their cell surface can dampen this response, DC10-induced Treg are critical for full realization of this outcome. This suggests that infectious tolerance is an essential element in regulatory DC control of the B cell response in allergic asthma. PMID

  1. Depigmented Allergoids Reveal New Epitopes with Capacity to Induce IgG Blocking Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    López-Matas, M. Angeles; Gallego, Mayte; Iraola, Víctor; Robinson, Douglas; Carnés, Jerónimo

    2013-01-01

    Background. The synthesis of allergen-specific blocking IgGs that interact with IgE after allergen immunotherapy (SIT) has been related to clinical efficacy. The objectives were to investigate the epitope specificity of IgG-antibodies induced by depigmented-polymerized (Dpg-Pol) allergoids and unmodified allergen extracts, and examine IgE-blocking activity of induced IgG-antibodies. Methods. Rabbits were immunized with native and Dpg-Pol extracts of birch pollen, and serum samples were obtained. Recognition of linear IgG-epitopes of Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 and the capacity of these IgG-antibodies to block binding of human-IgE was determined. Results. Serum from rabbits immunized with native extracts recognised 11 linear epitopes from Bet v 1, while that from Dpg-Pol-immunized animals recognised 8. For Bet v 2, 8 epitopes were recognized by IgG from native immunized animals, and 9 from Dpg-Pol immunized one. Dpg-Pol and native immunized serum did not always recognise the same epitopes, but specific-IgG from both could block human-IgE binding sites for native extract. Conclusions. Depigmented-polymerized birch extract stimulates the synthesis of specific IgG-antibodies which recognize common but also novel epitopes compared with native extracts. IgG-antibodies induced by Dpg-Pol effectively inhibit human-IgE binding to allergens which may be part of the mechanism of action of SIT. PMID:24222901

  2. Impact of antigens, adjuvants and strains on sexually dimorphic antibody response to vaccines in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Guo, Sheng; Yang, Lei; Hua, Li; Li, Zhiqin; Hao, Xu; Yu, Yongli; Sun, Wei; Wang, Liying

    2017-07-01

    Sexually dimorphic antibody response to vaccines has long been noticed. In addition to sex hormones, other factors such as antigens, adjuvants and strains of mice, as shown by indirect evidence, could also impact the sexual dimorphism. To clarify this, we immunized both gender mice of distinct strains with inactivated FMDV or HBsAg with or without adjuvants, and detected the specific antibody response of the mice. We found that in absence of adjuvants, the recombinant HBsAg but not the inactivated FMDV induced enhanced IgG antibody response in the female BALB/c mice. The o/w emulsion could facilitate the HBsAg to induce the comparable level of IgG antibodies in the male BALB/c mice as that in the females. The o/w emulsion rather than ISA206, a w/o/w emulsion, could assist the inactivated FMDV to induce higher levels of IgM antibodies in the female BALB/c mice. Moreover, the sexually dimorphic antibody response varied among the ICR, BALB/c and the F1 (BALB/c × C57BL/6) mice. Thus the data suggest that antigens, adjuvants and strains all impact the sexually dimorphic antibody response to vaccines and may provide insights for developing gender-based vaccines. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM antibodies among pregnant women in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, Iyanda; Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Fagbami, Ademola Hezekiah

    2013-12-15

    Human parvovirus B19 causes a wide range of complications in pregnant women including abortion, severe fetal anemia, non-immune hydrops fetalis, and even intrauterine fetal death. However, there is a dearth of information on the prevalence of the virus among pregnant women in southwestern Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from 231 pregnant women and screened for antibodies to human parvovirus B19 IgM and IgG using an enzyme immunosorbent assay kits. Of the 231 women, 31 were in their first trimester, 146 were in their second trimester, and 54 were in their third trimester. Forty-five (20%) were positive for parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies, 10 (4%) were positive for parvovirus B19 IgM antibodies, and 176 (76%) had no detectable parvovirus B19 antibodies. Twenty-eight (19%) of the 146 pregnant women in their second trimester were positive for parvovirus B19 IgG antibody while three (2%) of the 146 were positive for parvovirus B19 IgM antibody. It is evident that there is a high prevalence of human parvovirus B19 among pregnant women in south-western Nigeria. This suggests that there is an active transmission of the virus in the community; it is therefore necessary to conduct more studies on the virus in pregnant women in Nigeria to ascertain its effect on the fetus.

  4. Amylolytic activity of IgM and IgG antibodies from patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Saveliev, Andrew N; Ivanen, Dina R; Kulminskaya, Anna A; Ershova, Nadezhda A; Kanyshkova, Tat'yana G; Buneva, Valentina N; Mogelnitskii, Alexander S; Doronin, Boris M; Favorova, Olga O; Nevinsky, Georgy A; Neustroev, Kirill N

    2003-05-01

    IgG and IgM antibodies from the sera of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were found to possess amylolytic activity hydrolyzing alpha-(1-->4)-glucosyl linkages of maltooligosaccharides, glycogen, and several artificial substrates. Individual IgM fractions isolated from 54 analyzed patients with the clinically definite diagnoses of MS had approximately three orders of magnitude higher specific amylolytic activity than that for healthy donors, whereas IgG from only a few patients had high amylolytic activity. Strict criteria were used to prove that the amylolytic activity of IgMs and IgGs is their intrinsic property and is not due to any enzyme contamination. Fab fragments produced from IgM and IgG fractions of the MS patients displayed the same amylolytic activity. IgMs from various patients demonstrated different modes of action in hydrolyzing maltooligosaccharides.

  5. Antibody response to experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection in chickens measured by ELISA.

    PubMed

    Hassan, J O; Barrow, P A; Mockett, A P; Mcleod, S

    1990-05-26

    An indirect ELISA has been developed to detect Salmonella typhimurium antibodies in chicken sera, using whole bacterial cell protein, flagellar protein or lipopolysaccharide as antigens. In experimental infections high concentrations of S typhimurium-specific IgG persisted after the faecal excretion of S typhimurium had ceased, whereas the specific IgM response was transitory. Some uninfected chickens placed in contact with experimentally infected birds developed high IgG titres in the absence of detectable faecal excretion. Other S typhimurium strains, which varied in their invasive abilities, also induced high titres of IgG. The ELISA allowed chickens infected experimentally with S typhimurium to be differentiated from chickens infected with 10 other serotypes, including S enteritidis. The use of whole blood in place of serum in the ELISA reduced the titres slightly. The storage of serum dried on to filter paper strips for four weeks produced little change in ELISA antibody titre, and the treatment of such strips with phenol or chloroform vapour had little or no effect on the antibody titre.

  6. Tetravalent dengue DIIIC protein together with alum and ODN elicits a Th1 response and neutralizing antibodies in mice.

    PubMed

    Zuest, Roland; Valdes, Iris; Skibinski, David; Lin, Yufang; Toh, Ying Xiu; Chan, Katherine; Hermida, Lisset; Connolly, John; Guillen, Gerardo; Fink, Katja

    2015-03-17

    Dengue disease is a global challenge for healthcare systems particularly during outbreaks, and millions of dollars are spent every year for vector control. An efficient and safe vaccine that is cost-effective could resolve the burden that dengue virus imposes on affected countries. We describe here the immunogenicity of a tetravalent formulation of a recombinant fusion protein consisting of E domain III and the capsid protein of dengue serotypes 1-4 (Tetra DIIIC). E domain III is an epitope for efficient neutralizing antibodies while the capsid protein contains T cell epitopes. Besides combining B and T cell epitopes, Tetra DIIIC is highly immunogenic due to its aggregate form and a two-component adjuvant. Following previous studies assessing the monovalent DIIIC formulations, we addressed here the quality and breadth of the T cell- and antibody response of Tetra DIIIC in mice. Tetra DIIIC induced a Th1-type response against all four DENV serotypes and dengue-specific antibodies were predominantly IgG1 and IgG2a and neutralizing, while the induction of neutralizing antibodies was dependent on IFN signaling. Importantly, the Th1 and IgG1/IgG2a profile of the DIIIC vaccine approach is similar to an efficient natural anti-dengue response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. "Default" versus "pre-atopic" IgG responses to foodborne and airborne pathogenesis-related group 10 protein molecules in birch-sensitized and nonatopic children.

    PubMed

    Hofmaier, Stephanie; Hatzler, Laura; Rohrbach, Alexander; Panetta, Valentina; Hakimeh, Dani; Bauer, Carl Peter; Hoffman, Ute; Forster, Johannes; Zepp, Fred; Schuster, Antje; Stock, Philippe; Wahn, Ulrich; Keil, Thomas; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria

    2015-05-01

    The route and dose of exposure are believed to be relevant factors in the sensitization process. Pathogenesis-related group 10 protein (PR-10) molecules are a family of allergenic proteins shared by many pollens (eg, birch and alder) and foods (eg, apple, peach, and soy). Children are exposed to both pollen-derived (inhaled) and food-derived (ingested) PR-10 molecules. We sought to investigate the role of route and dose of exposure in the evolution of IgG and IgE responses to recombinant PR-10 molecules. The German Multicentre Allergy Study examined a birth cohort born in 1990. Blood samples were collected at the ages of 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10, and 13 years. Participants were included in the present analysis if they had (1) at least 1 serum sample at each of the 4 age periods or time points (1-3 years, 5-7 years, 10 years, and 13 years) and (2) IgE responses to birch (children with birch atopy) or no IgE response at all to 9 common aeroallergens and food allergens (nonatopic children). Therefore serum IgE antibodies to a panel of 4 airborne and 5 foodborne extracts, as well as to Bet v 1, were measured in singleplex assays, whereas IgG and IgE antibodies to a panel of 3 airborne PR-10 molecules (rBet v 1, rAln g 1, and rCor a 1.0101) and 7 foodborne PR-10 molecules (rCor a 1.0401, rMal d 1, rPru p 1, rGly m 4, rAra h 8, rApi g 1, and rDau c 1) were tested by using a multiplex microarray. In the present analyses we included 28 children with birch atopy and randomly selected 28 nonatopic children from the 190 children fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Two different patterns of IgG responses to PR-10 molecules were identified. Among nonatopic subjects, a "default" IgG response was directed mostly against foodborne PR-10, started often before age 2 years, stayed weak, and was mostly transient. Among all atopic subjects, the default IgG response at age 1 year was overwhelmed after age 2 years by an "pre-atopic" IgG response, which started with or shortly before the Ig

  8. Comparison of humanized IgG and FvFc anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies expressed in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Serpieri, Flavia; Inocencio, Andre; de Oliveira, Jose Marcelino; Pimenta, Alécio A; Garbuio, Angélica; Kalil, Jorge; Brigido, Marcelo M; Moro, Ana Maria

    2010-07-01

    Two humanized monoclonal antibody constructs bearing the same variable regions of an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, whole IgG and FvFc, were expressed in CHO cells. Random and site-specific integration were used resulting in similar expression levels. The transfectants were selected with appropriate selection agent, and the surviving cells were plated in semi-solid medium for capture with FITC-conjugated anti-human IG antibody and picked with the robotic ClonePix FL. Conditioned media from selected clones were purified by affinity chromatography and characterized by SDS-PAGE, Western-blot, SEC-HPLC, and isoelectric focusing. Binding to the target present in healthy human mononuclear cells was assessed by flow cytometry, as well as by competition between the two constructs and the original murine monoclonal antibody. The humanized constructs were not able to dislodge the murine antibody while the murine anti-CD3 antibody could dislodge around 20% of the FvFc or IgG humanized versions. Further in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical analyses will be carried out to verify the ability of the humanized versions to demonstrate the immunoregulatory profile required for a humanized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody.

  9. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection by using pyloriset EIA-G and EIA-A for detection of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Granberg, C; Mansikka, A; Lehtonen, O P; Kujari, H; Grönfors, R; Nurmi, H; Räihä, I; Ståhlberg, M R; Leino, R

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of new enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits (Pyloriset; Orion Corporation, Orion Diagnostica, Espoo, Finland) for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies to Helicobacter pylori in serum. Serum samples from 195 patients with upper abdominal complaints were collected. Biopsy specimens of the gastric mucosae were taken for histological analysis and bacterial culture. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values, and efficacy of the Pyloriset EIA-G in detecting IgG antibodies to H. pylori were 92, 84, 88, 90, and 89%, respectively, when compared with those of the reference methods used. The corresponding data for detection of IgA antibodies were 80, 89, 89, 79, and 84%, respectively. The overall prevalence of defined H. pylori positivity was 54%. Moreover, the antibody tests showed a very good correlation with the biopsy findings. IgG antibodies were found in 93% of sera from patients with documented gastritis and H. pylori positivity, whereas only 4% of the sera from patients with documented gastritis and H. pylori-negative patients was positive. The results obtained for IgA antibodies were 81 and 6%, respectively. We conclude that the Pyloriset EIA-G, the test for IgG antibodies, is a good and reliable test for the detection of antibodies to H. pylori and as an indication of H. pylori infection. The determination of IgA antibodies may be used as a test that complements the IgG antibody assay. PMID:8314985

  10. Serum IgG antibodies from healthy subjects up to 100 years old react to JC polyomavirus.

    PubMed

    Bononi, Ilaria; Mazzoni, Elisa; Pietrobon, Silvia; Manfrini, Marco; Torreggiani, Elena; Rossini, Marika; Lotito, Francesca; Guerra, Giovanni; Rizzo, Paola; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro

    2018-08-01

    JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was identified in 1971 in the brain tissue of a patient (J.C.) affected by the progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCPyV encodes for the oncoproteins large T antigen (Tag) and small t-antigen (tag). These oncoproteins are responsible of the cell transformation and tumorigenesis in experimental animals. JCPyV is ubiquitous in human populations. After the primary infection, which is usually asymptomatic, JCPyV remains lifelong in the host in a latent phase. Its reactivation may occur in heathy subjects and immunocompromised patients. Upon reactivation, JCPyV could reach (i) the CNS inducing the PML, (ii) the kidney of transplant patients causing the organ rejection. Association between JCPyV, which is a small DNA tumor virus, and gliomas and colorectal carcinomas has been published. In the present investigation, we report on a new indirect ELISA with two specific synthetic peptides mimicking JCPyV VP1 immunogenic epitopes to detect specific serum IgG antibodies against JCPyV. Serum samples of healthy subjects (n = 355) ranging 2-100 years old, were analyzed by this new indirect ELISA. The linear peptides VP1 K and VP1 N resemble the natural JCPyV VP1 capsidic epitopes constituting a docking site for serum antibodies. Data from this innovative immunologic assay indicate that the overall prevalence of JCPyV-VP1 antibodies in healthy subjects is at 39%. The innovative indirect ELISA with JCPyV VP1 mimotopes seems to be a useful method to detect specific IgG antibodies against this virus, without cross-reactivity with the closely related SV40 and BKPyV polyomaviruses. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Frequency of anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgA, IgM, and IgG antibodies in high-risk pregnancies, in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Murata, Fernando Henrique Antunes; Ferreira, Marina Neves; Camargo, Natália Sahyoun; Santos, Gabriela Soria; Spegiorin, Lígia Cosentino Junqueira Franco; Silveira-Carvalho, Aparecida Perpétuo; Pereira-Chioccola, Vera Lucia; Mattos, Luiz Carlos de; Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão de

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can be severe; thus, it is essential to diagnose the disease via serological tests. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to investigate anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin A (IgA), M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies in 62 high-risk pregnant women. Forty-three (69.4%) women were positive for IgA, 31 (50%) for IgG, and 57 (91.9%) for IgM; 4 (6,5%) were positive for IgA but negative for IgM; 10 (16.1%) were negative for IgA and IgM but positive for IgG. Testing for these antibodies can help diagnose infection in pregnant women, thereby contributing to clinical management.

  12. Increased Levels of Circulating Anti-ANXA1 IgG Antibody in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tingting; Han, Zhifeng; Zhao, Huan; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Yao

    2018-06-01

    Our previous studies revealed that concentrations of circulating antibodies to annexin A1 (ANXA1) were increased in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC). This study was thus designed to replicate this initial finding with an independent sample set. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed in-house to examine plasma antiANXA1 IgG levels in 220 patients with NSCLC and 200 control subjects. Mann-Whitney U test showed that patients with NSCLC had significantly higher anti-ANXA1 IgG levels than control subjects (Z = -4.02, p < 0.001); male patients appeared to mainly contribute to the increased antibody level (Z = -3.09, p = 0.002). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed an overall area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.61 (95% CI: 0.56 - 0.67), with sensitivity of 8% against a specificity of 95.0%. Spearman's correlation analysis failed to show a significant correlation between the anti-ANXA1 IgG levels and the expression of three tumor-associated antigens including p53 (r = 0.156, p = 0.027), Ki67 (r = -0.048, p = 0.489), and EGFR (r = 0.02, p = 0.782). Increased levels of circulating anti-ANXA1 IgG antibody may have a prognostic value for NSCLC.

  13. Comparison of antibody and cytokine responses to primary Giardia muris infection in H-2 congenic strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, P; Finch, R G; Wakelin, D

    1996-11-01

    The course of primary infections with Giardia muris differs between BALB and B10 H-2 congenic strains of mice. In the first 3 weeks of infection, there is a more rapid decline in intestinal trophozoite and fecal cyst counts in B10 strains than in BALB strains. To determine whether this difference could be explained by variation in specific antibody responses, both secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) and serum antibody responses were compared between these strains. No significant differences in the timing, titer, or specificity of secretory or serum antibodies were found. However, on comparing specific anti-G. muris serum IgG subclass responses, we found that B10 strains produced IgG2a while BALB strains produced IgG1, suggesting differential involvement of T helper 1 and 2 subsets of lymphocytes. When cells harvested from mesenteric lymph nodes were stimulated with concanavalin A in vitro, both gamma interferon and interleukin-5 were secreted by cells from B10 mice, but only interleukin-5 was secreted by cells from BALB/c mice. Specific blockade of gamma interferon by monoclonal antibody administered to B10 mice resulted in an enhanced intensity of infection.

  14. Adsorption of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Agonist to Alum-Based Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Dampens Pro-T Helper 2 Activities and Enhances Antibody Responses.

    PubMed

    Bortolatto, Juliana; Mirotti, Luciana; Rodriguez, Dunia; Gomes, Eliane; Russo, Momtchilo

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum salts gels (alum) are TLR-independent adjuvants and have been used to boost antibody responses in alum-based vaccines such as diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus toxoid (DPT) triple vaccine. However, the pro-Th2 activity of alum-based vaccine formulations has not been fully appreciated. Here we found that alum-based tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine was biased toward a Th-2 profile as shown by TT-induced airway eosinophilic inflammation, type 2 cytokine production, and high levels of IgE anaphylactic antibodies. The adsorption into alum of prototypic TLR4 agonists such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from Escherichia coli consistently dampened TT-induced Th2 activities without inducing IFNγ or Th1-like responses in the lung. Conversely, adsorption of monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) extracted from Salmonella minnesota, which is a TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β- (TRIF-) biased TLR4 agonist, was less effective in decreasing Th-2 responses. Importantly, in a situation with antigenic competition (OVA plus TT), TT-specific IgG1 or IgG2a was decreased compared with TT sensitization. Notably, LPS increased the production of IgG1 and IgG2a TT-specific antibodies. In conclusion, the addition of LPS induces a more robust IgG1 and IgG2a TT-specific antibody production and concomitantly decreases Th2-cellular and humoral responses, indicating a potential use of alum/TLR-based vaccines.

  15. Distinct antibody responses of patients with mild and severe leptospirosis determined by whole proteome microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lessa-Aquino, Carolina; Lindow, Janet C.; Randall, Arlo; Wunder, Elsio; Pablo, Jozelyn; Nakajima, Rie; Jasinskas, Algis; Cruz, Jaqueline S.; Damião, Alcineia O.; Nery, Nívison; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Costa, Federico; Hagan, José E.; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I.; Medeiros, Marco Alberto; Felgner, Philip L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease worldwide. Humans usually present a mild non-specific febrile illness, but a proportion of them develop more severe outcomes, such as multi-organ failure, lung hemorrhage and death. Such complications are thought to depend on several factors, including the host immunity. Protective immunity is associated with humoral immune response, but little is known about the immune response mounted during naturally-acquired Leptospira infection. Methods and principal findings Here, we used protein microarray chip to profile the antibody responses of patients with severe and mild leptospirosis against the complete Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni predicted ORFeome. We discovered a limited number of immunodominant antigens, with 36 antigens specific to patients, of which 11 were potential serodiagnostic antigens, identified at acute phase, and 33 were potential subunit vaccine targets, detected after recovery. Moreover, we found distinct antibody profiles in patients with different clinical outcomes: in the severe group, overall IgM responses do not change and IgG responses increase over time, while both IgM and IgG responses remain stable in the mild patient group. Analyses of individual patients’ responses showed that >74% of patients in the severe group had significant IgG increases over time compared to 29% of patients in the mild group. Additionally, 90% of IgM responses did not change over time in the mild group, compared to ~51% in the severe group. Conclusions In the present study, we detected antibody profiles associated with disease severity and speculate that patients with mild disease were protected from severe outcomes due to pre-existing antibodies, while patients with severe leptospirosis demonstrated an antibody profile typical of first exposure. Our findings represent a significant advance in the understanding of the humoral immune response to Leptospira infection, and we have identified new

  16. The Effects of Antigen-Specific IgG1 Antibody for the Pulmonary-Hypertension-Phenotype and B Cells for Inflammation in Mice Exposed to Antigen and Fine Particles from Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Chen, Wen-Chi; Durmus, Nedim; Bleck, Bertram; Reibman, Joan; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Grunig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is known to exacerbate chronic inflammatory conditions of the lungs including pulmonary hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and autoimmune diseases. Directly pathogenic antibodies bind pro-inflammatory cell receptors and cause or exacerbate inflammation. In contrast, anti-inflammatory antibody isotypes (e.g. mouse immunoglobulin G1, IgG1) bind inhibitory cell receptors and can inhibit inflammation. Our previous studies showed that co-exposure to antigen and urban ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) induced severe pulmonary arterial thickening and increased right ventricular systolic pressures in mice via T-cell produced cytokines, Interleukin (IL)-13 and IL-17A. The aim of the current study was to understand how B cell and antibody responses integrate into this T cell cytokine network for the pulmonary hypertension phenotype. Special focus was on antigen-specific IgG1 that is the predominant antibody in the experimental response to antigen and urban ambient PM2.5. Wild type and B cell-deficient mice were primed with antigen and then challenged with antigen and urban particulate matter and injected with antibodies as appropriate. Our data surprisingly showed that B cells were necessary for the development of increased right ventricular pressures and molecular changes in the right heart in response to sensitization and intranasal challenge with antigen and PM2.5. Further, our studies showed that both, the increase in right ventricular systolic pressure and right ventricular molecular changes were restored by reconstituting the B cell KO mice with antigen specific IgG1. In addition, our studies identified a critical, non-redundant role of B cells for the IL-17A-directed inflammation in response to exposure with antigen and PM2.5, which was not corrected with antigen-specific IgG1. In contrast, IL-13-directed inflammatory markers, as well as severe pulmonary arterial remodeling induced by challenge with antigen and PM2.5 were similar in B cell

  17. Determination of serum IgG antibodies to Bacillus anthracis protective antigen in environmental sampling workers using a fluorescent covalent microsphere immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Biagini, R E; Sammons, D L; Smith, J P; Page, E H; Snawder, J E; Striley, C A F; MacKenzie, B A

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate potential exposure to Bacillis anthracis (Ba) spores in sampling/decontamination workers in the aftermath of an anthrax terror attack. Fifty six serum samples were obtained from workers involved in environmental sampling for Ba spores at the American Media, Inc. (AMI) building in Boca Raton, FL after the anthrax attack there in October 2001. Nineteen sera were drawn from individuals both pre-entry and several weeks after entrance into the building. Nine sera each were drawn from unique individuals at the pre-entry and follow up blood draws. Thirteen donor control sera were also evaluated. Individuals were surveyed for Ba exposure by measurement of serum Ba anti-protective antigen (PA) specific IgG antibodies using a newly developed fluorescent covalent microsphere immunoassay (FCMIA). Four sera gave positive anti-PA IgG results (defined as anti-PA IgG concentrations > or = the mean microg/ml anti-PA IgG from donor control sera (n = 13 plus 2 SD which were also inhibited > or = 85% when the serum was pre-adsorbed with PA). The positive sera were the pre-entry and follow up samples of two workers who had received their last dose of anthrax vaccine in 2000. It appears that the sampling/decontamination workers of the present study either had insufficient exposure to Ba spores to cause the production of anti-PA IgG antibodies or they were exposed to anthrax spores without producing antibody. The FCMIA appears to be a fast, sensitive, accurate, and precise method for the measurement of anti-PA IgG antibodies.

  18. Restoration of the antibody response upon rabies vaccination in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART.

    PubMed

    Gelinck, Luc B S; Jol-van der Zijde, Cornelia M; Jansen-Hoogendijk, Anja M; Brinkman, Daniëlle M C; van Dissel, Jaap T; van Tol, Maarten J D; Kroon, Frank P

    2009-11-27

    Rabies vaccine was used as a T-cell-dependent neoantigen to investigate several aspects of the primary and booster immune response in vivo in HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral treatment. Study participants received rabies vaccination twice, within a 3-month interval. Serum samples were taken before and 1, 2 and 4 weeks after both vaccinations and 1 and 5 years after the primary vaccination. Antirabies antibodies [immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG subclasses, immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM)] were determined; antibody avidity was measured after both vaccinations. T-cell subsets were characterized by flow cytometry. Eighteen healthy controls and 30 HIV-infected adults, treated with HAART for almost 4 years, with a median CD4(+) T-cell count of 537 cells/microl, were immunized. The postvaccination concentrations of antirabies IgG and IgM were significantly lower in HIV-infected individuals as compared with controls. Three T-cell-dependent processes, a true booster response, a class switch from IgM to IgG and avidity maturation were present in both healthy controls and HIV-infected individuals. Higher age was associated with lower postvaccination antirabies IgG and IgM titers. Five years after the primary vaccination, 63% of the HIV-infected individuals still had antibody titers above the protection threshold. Immune restoration in HIV-infected individuals treated with HAART, resulting in a CD4(+) T-cell count greater than 500 cells/microl, is incomplete. However, the majority of HIV-infected individuals are capable of mounting a long-lasting immune response, including several pivotal T-cell-dependent processes, upon vaccination with a neoantigen such as the rabies vaccine.

  19. Total immunoglobulin G and IgG1 subclass levels specific for the MSP-1(19) of Plasmodium falciparum are different in individuals with either processing-inhibitory, blocking or neutral antibodies.

    PubMed

    Omosun, Y O; Adoro, S; Anumudu, C I; Odaibo, A; Holder, A A; Nwagwu, M; Nwuba, R I

    2010-06-01

    Some MSP-1(19) specific antibodies that inhibit merozoite invasion also inhibit the secondary processing of MSP-1. However the binding of these inhibitory antibodies can be blocked by another group of antibodies, called blocking antibodies, which recognize adjacent or overlapping epitopes, but themselves have no effect on either MSP-1 processing or merozoite invasion. These antibodies have been reported to be present in individuals living in a malaria endemic area. Blood samples were obtained from children shown to have processing inhibitory, blocking, and neutral antibodies in a previous study. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was used to determine the total IgG, IgM and IgG subtypes. There was a significant difference in anti-MSP-1(19) IgG, while there was no significant difference in the anti-MSP-1(19) IgM. Only anti MSP-1(19) IgG1, amongst the IgG subtypes was significantly different between the groups. This study shows that antibodies against MSP-1 are different not only in specificity and function but also in the amount of total IgG and IgG subtype produced.

  20. Productivity and some properties of egg yolk antibody (IgY) against human rotavirus compared with rabbit IgG.

    PubMed

    Hatta, H; Tsuda, K; Akachi, S; Kim, M; Yamamoto, T

    1993-03-01

    Productivity and some properties of anti-Human Rotavirus (HRV) hen egg yolk antibody (IgY) were compared with those of anti-HRV rabbit serum antibody (IgG). The hens immunized with HRV (Wa strain, serotype 1 and Mo strain, serotype 3) were found to continuously to lay eggs without any change in the egg laying rate and the yolk of the eggs laid over a year showed a high level of neutralization titer against HRV. The production of anti-HRV IgY by a hen (one year) was at least 15 times (anti-Wa) and 120 times (anti-Mo) more effective than those by an immunized rabbit in the neutralization titer of the antibodies. The stability of anti-HRV IgY at temperature above 70 degrees C and low pH 2-3 was less than that of anti-HRV rabbit IgG. The temperature corresponding to the maximum of denaturation endotherm (Tmax) of IgY was 73.9 degrees C while that of rabbit IgG was 77.0 degrees C in the analysis by differential scanning calorimetry. This discrepancy in heat and acidic pH stability found between the two antibodies as discussed with regard to their protein structures.

  1. Performance characteristics of a quantitative, standardised varicella zoster IgG time resolved fluorescence immunoassay (VZV TRFIA) for measuring antibody following natural infection.

    PubMed

    Chris Maple, P A; Gray, Jim; Brown, Kevin; Brown, David

    2009-04-01

    Infection by Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) during pregnancy has been associated with adverse foetal development and more severe disease in the mother. Accurate determination of VZV immunity in pregnant women exposed to VZV, with no history of chickenpox, guides therapeutic interventions. The accepted gold standard assay for the determination of immunity/protection against Varicella Zoster virus was for many years the fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) assay which is labour intensive and subjective. A validated alternative is the Merck glycoprotein EIA (Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, West Point, PA, USA) which reports VZV IgG levels in enzyme units per ml (EU/ml) because an internal, non-international reference serum is used as calibrator. Comparison of different VZV IgG detection assays is hampered by a lack of an agreed cut-off in standardised units. A time resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) for VZV IgG using British Standard VZV antibody has been developed and standardised. The limit of detection of VZV IgG by this assay was of the order 39-78mIU/ml. Following comparison with the Merck glycoprotein EIA and the application of the USA Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended 5.0EU/ml cut-off the following standardised cut-offs in mIU/ml are proposed. A VZV TRFIA IgG cut-off of less than 100mIU/ml VZV IgG equates with susceptibility and an equivocal range of 100mIU/ml to less than 150mIU/ml is proposed. VZV IgG levels of 150mIU/ml, or greater, are indicative of natural infection at some time and the ability to mount a protective immune response is inferred.

  2. Local oral immunization with synthetic peptides induces a dual mucosal IgG and salivary IgA antibody response and prevents colonization of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, T; Haron, J; Bergmeier, L A; Mehlert, A; Beard, R; Dodd, M; Mielnik, B; Moore, S

    1989-01-01

    A small cell surface antigen of Streptococcus mutans was partially sequenced and the amino terminal peptides of 11, 15 and 20 amino acid residues and a dimer of the 15 and 20 residues peptides were synthesized. The synthetic peptides (SP) were used in topical oral immunization of the gingivomucosal epithelium of macaque monkeys. Sequential examination for antibodies over a period of up to 30 weeks revealed that six applications of the linear or cyclized SP11 and a random SP11 induced negligible or very low antibody levels. In contrast, the SP17 (SP15 with added cysteine at each terminus), SP21 (SP20 with one cysteine) and the dimer (SP35) induced significant anti-SP as well as anti-native streptococcal antibodies in the gingival fluid and in saliva. The functional significance of this immune response was examined by studying its effect on oral colonization of S. mutans following feeding of a carbohydrate-rich diet. Whereas control animals, sham-immunized with a random SP of 11 residues, showed increased colonization of the teeth by S. mutans, there was no colonization or a significant reduction in colonization of animals immunized with the cyclized SP17, linear SP21 or dimerized SP35. These experiments suggest that local immunization with SP derived from the sequences of a streptococcal cell surface antigen induce a dual local immune response of gingival IgG and salivary IgA antibodies against the SP and native SA. These antibodies may be involved in preventing colonization of S. mutans, which is the principal agent in the development of dental caries. PMID:2759661

  3. Optimization of incubation conditions of Plasmodium falciparum antibody multiplex assays to measure IgG, IgG1-4, IgM and IgE using standard and customized reference pools for sero-epidemiological and vaccine studies.

    PubMed

    Ubillos, Itziar; Jiménez, Alfons; Vidal, Marta; Bowyer, Paul W; Gaur, Deepak; Dutta, Sheetij; Gamain, Benoit; Coppel, Ross; Chauhan, Virander; Lanar, David; Chitnis, Chetan; Angov, Evelina; Beeson, James; Cavanagh, David; Campo, Joseph J; Aguilar, Ruth; Dobaño, Carlota

    2018-06-01

    The quantitative suspension array technology (qSAT) is a useful platform for malaria immune marker discovery. However, a major challenge for large sero-epidemiological and malaria vaccine studies is the comparability across laboratories, which requires the access to standardized control reagents for assay optimization, to monitor performance and improve reproducibility. Here, the Plasmodium falciparum antibody reactivities of the newly available WHO reference reagent for anti-malaria human plasma (10/198) and of additional customized positive controls were examined with seven in-house qSAT multiplex assays measuring IgG, IgG 1-4 subclasses, IgM and IgE against a panel of 40 antigens. The different positive controls were tested at different incubation times and temperatures (4 °C overnight, 37 °C 2 h, room temperature 1 h) to select the optimal conditions. Overall, the WHO reference reagent had low IgG2, IgG4, IgM and IgE, and also low anti-CSP antibody levels, thus this reagent was enriched with plasmas from RTS,S-vaccinated volunteers to be used as standard for CSP-based vaccine studies. For the IgM assay, another customized plasma pool prepared with samples from malaria primo-infected adults with adequate IgM levels proved to be more adequate as a positive control. The range and magnitude of IgG and IgG 1-4 responses were highest when the WHO reference reagent was incubated with antigen-coupled beads at 4 °C overnight. IgG levels measured in the negative control did not vary between incubations at 37 °C 2 h and 4 °C overnight, indicating no difference in unspecific binding. With this study, the immunogenicity profile of the WHO reference reagent, including seven immunoglobulin isotypes and subclasses, and more P. falciparum antigens, also those included in the leading RTS,S malaria vaccine, was better characterized. Overall, incubation of samples at 4 °C overnight rendered the best performance for antibody measurements against the antigens tested

  4. Production of human monoclonal IgG antibodies against Rhesus (D) antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Bron, D; Feinberg, M B; Teng, N N; Kaplan, H S

    1984-01-01

    An Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed human B-cell line ( LB4r ) producing anti-Rhesus [Rho(D) antigen] antibody was fused with a non-immunoglobulin-producing mouse-human heteromyeloma ( SHM - D33 ) and selected in hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine medium containing 0.5 microM ouabain. Surviving hybrids found to secrete specific anti-Rho(D) antibody were cloned by limiting dilution. Two clones (D4-B2 and E10-C1) producing high levels (12 and 20 micrograms/ml per 10(6) cells per 24 hr, respectively) of monospecific antibody (IgG3, lambda chain) were selected for expansion and further characterization. Compared to the parental cell line ( LB4r ), these hybridoma cell lines presented several advantages: antibody production was increased 10-fold, cloning efficiency was improved, and the EBV genome was not retained. Antibody production has been stable for greater than 8 months. These human monoclonal anti-Rho(D) antibodies have demonstrated utility in routine blood-group typing. They may also prove useful in the biochemical and genetic characterization of the Rh antigen system. Most important, they offer a source of Rh-immune globulin for the prevention of Rh immunization and alloimmune hemolytic disease of the newborn. Images PMID:6427767

  5. Removal of a C-terminal serine residue proximal to the inter-chain disulfide bond of a human IgG1 lambda light chain mediates enhanced antibody stability and antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yang; Zeng, Lin; Zhu, Aiping; Blanc, Tim; Patel, Dipa; Pennello, Anthony; Bari, Amtul; Ng, Stanley; Persaud, Kris; Kang, Yun (Kenneth); Balderes, Paul; Surguladze, David; Hindi, Sagit; Zhou, Qinwei; Ludwig, Dale L.; Snavely, Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Optimization of biophysical properties is a critical success factor for the developability of monoclonal antibodies with potential therapeutic applications. The inter-domain disulfide bond between light chain (Lc) and heavy chain (Hc) in human IgG1 lends structural support for antibody scaffold stability, optimal antigen binding, and normal Fc function. Recently, human IgG1λ has been suggested to exhibit significantly greater susceptibility to reduction of the inter Lc-Hc disulfide bond relative to the same disulfide bond in human IgG1κ. To understand the molecular basis for this observed difference in stability, the sequence and structure of human IgG1λ and human IgG1κ were compared. Based on this Lc comparison, three single mutations were made in the λ Lc proximal to the cysteine residue, which forms a disulfide bond with the Hc. We determined that deletion of S214 (dS) improved resistance of the association between Lc and Hc to thermal stress. In addition, deletion of this terminal serine from the Lc of IgG1λ provided further benefit, including an increase in stability at elevated pH, increased yield from transient transfection, and improved in vitro antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). These observations support the conclusion that the presence of the terminal serine of the λ Lc creates a weaker inter-chain disulfide bond between the Lc and Hc, leading to slightly reduced stability and a potential compromise in IgG1λ function. Our data from a human IgG1λ provide a basis for further investigation of the effects of deleting terminal serine from λLc on the stability and function of other human IgGantibodies. PMID:23567210

  6. Serum Antibody Response to Five Streptococcus pneumoniae Proteins during Acute Otitis Media in Otitis Prone and Non-Otitis Prone Children

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ravinder; Casey, Janet R.; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is one of the common bacteria responsible for episodic acute otitis media (AOM; non-otitis prone), recurrent AOM (otitis-prone) and AOM treatment failure (AOMTF) in children. Objective From a population of 268 children we sought to compare the serum IgG antibody titers to five different Spn proteins (PhtD, LytB, PcpA, PhtE and Ply) that are vaccine candidates in children with episodic AOM (n=34), who were otitis prone (n=35), and who had AOMTF (n=25) caused by Spn. Methods Antibody was quantitated by ELISA. Results At their acute AOM visit, anti-PhtD, -LytB, -PhtE and −Ply IgG antibody titers in otitis-prone children were significantly lower compared to non-otitis prone children (p <0.05) and children with AOMTF (p <0.05). Comparing acute to convalescent titers of antibody after AOM we found that otitis-prone, AOMTF and non-otitis prone children had no significant change in geometric mean IgG antibody titers against the five proteins (except for PhtE in children with AOMTF), but detailed analysis showed that about one-third of the children in each cohort had a 2-fold rise in antibody to the studied antigens. While non-otitis prone children had significant increases (p <0.001) between 6 and 24 months of age in anti-PhtD, PcpA, PhtE and Ply IgG antibody titers as a consequence of nasopharyngeal colonization and AOM, otitis-prone children either failed to show rises or the rises were significantly less than the non-otitis prone children. Conclusion Otitis-prone and AOMTF children mount less of an IgG serum antibody response than non-otitis prone children to Spn proteins following AOM and nasopharyngeal colonization. PMID:21487325

  7. Mitigation of reversible self-association and viscosity in a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody by rational, structure-guided Fv engineering

    PubMed Central

    Geoghegan, James C.; Fleming, Ryan; Damschroder, Melissa; Bishop, Steven M.; Sathish, Hasige A.; Esfandiary, Reza

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Undesired solution behaviors such as reversible self-association (RSA), high viscosity, and liquid-liquid phase separation can introduce substantial challenges during development of monoclonal antibody formulations. Although a global mechanistic understanding of RSA (i.e., native and reversible protein-protein interactions) is sufficient to develop robust formulation controls, its mitigation via protein engineering requires knowledge of the sites of protein-protein interactions. In the study reported here, we coupled our previous hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry findings with structural modeling and in vitro screening to identify the residues responsible for RSA of a model IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb-C), and rationally engineered variants with improved solution properties (i.e., reduced RSA and viscosity). Our data show that mutation of either solvent-exposed aromatic residues within the heavy and light chain variable regions or buried residues within the heavy chain/light chain interface can significantly mitigate RSA and viscosity by reducing the IgG's surface hydrophobicity. The engineering strategy described here highlights the utility of integrating complementary experimental and in silico methods to identify mutations that can improve developability, in particular, high concentration solution properties, of candidate therapeutic antibodies. PMID:27050875

  8. High-throughput screening and stability optimization of anti-streptavidin IgG1 and IgG2 formulations.

    PubMed

    Alekseychyk, Larysa; Su, Cheng; Becker, Gerald W; Treuheit, Michael J; Razinkov, Vladimir I

    2014-10-01

    Selection of a suitable formulation that provides adequate product stability is an important aspect of the development of biopharmaceutical products. Stability of proteins includes not only resistance to chemical modifications but also conformational and colloidal stabilities. While chemical degradation of antibodies is relatively easy to detect and control, propensity for conformational changes and/or aggregation during manufacturing or long-term storage is difficult to predict. In many cases, the formulation factors that increase one type of stability may significantly decrease another type under the same or different conditions. Often compromise is necessary to minimize the adverse effects of an antibody formulation by careful optimization of multiple factors responsible for overall stability. In this study, high-throughput stress and characterization techniques were applied to 96 formulations of anti-streptavidin antibodies (an IgG1 and an IgG2) to choose optimal formulations. Stress and analytical methods applied in this study were 96-well plate based using an automated liquid handling system to prepare the different formulations and sample plates. Aggregation and clipping propensity were evaluated by temperature and mechanical stresses. Multivariate regression analysis of high-throughput data was performed to find statistically significant formulation factors that alter measured parameters such as monomer percentage or unfolding temperature. The results of the regression models were used to maximize the stabilities of antibodies under different formulations and to find the optimal formulation space for each molecule. Comparison of the IgG1 and IgG2 data indicated an overall greater stability of the IgG1 molecule under the conditions studied. The described method can easily be applied to both initial preformulation screening and late-stage formulation development of biopharmaceutical products. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  9. Antibody Responses to MAP 1B and Other Cowdria ruminantium Antigens Are Down Regulated in Cattle Challenged with Tick-Transmitted Heartwater

    PubMed Central

    Semu, S. M.; Peter, T. F.; Mukwedeya, D.; Barbet, A. F.; Jongejan, F.; Mahan, S. M.

    2001-01-01

    Serological diagnosis of heartwater or Cowdria ruminantium infection has been hampered by severe cross-reactions with antibody responses to related ehrlichial agents. A MAP 1B indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that has an improved specificity and sensitivity for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies has been developed to overcome this constraint (A. H. M. van Vliet, B. A. M. Van der Zeijst, E. Camus, S. M. Mahan, D. Martinez, and F. Jongejan, J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:2405–2410, 1995). When sera were tested from cattle in areas of endemic heartwater infection in Zimbabwe, only 33% of the samples tested positive in this assay despite a high infection pressure (S. M. Mahan, S. M. Samu, T. F. Peter, and F. Jongejan, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci 849:85–87, 1998). To determine underlying causes for this observation, the kinetics of MAP 1B-specific IgG antibodies in cattle after tick-transmitted C. ruminantium infection and following recovery were investigated. Sera collected weekly over a period of 52 weeks from 37 cattle, which were naturally or experimentally infected with C. ruminantium via Amblyomma hebraeum ticks, were analyzed. MAP 1B-specific IgG antibody responses developed with similar kinetics in both field- and laboratory-infected cattle. IgG levels peaked at 4 to 9 weeks after tick infestation and declined to baseline levels between 14 and 33 weeks, despite repeated exposure to infected ticks and the establishment of a carrier state as demonstrated by PCR and xenodiagnosis. Some of the serum samples from laboratory, and field-infected cattle were also analyzed by immunoblotting and an indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT) to determine whether this observed seroreversion was specific to the MAP 1B antigen. Reciprocal IFAT and immunoblot MAP 1-specific antibody titres peaked at 5 to 9 weeks after tick infestation but also declined between 30 and 45 weeks. This suggests that MAP 1B-specific IgG antibody responses and antibody responses to other C

  10. IgE and IgG antibodies in skin allergy of the horse.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Bettina; Miller, William H; Morgan, Erin E; Hillegas, Julia M; Erb, Hollis N; Leibold, Wolfgang; Antczak, Douglas F

    2006-01-01

    In horses, allergies have been characterized by clinical signs and/or intradermal (i.d.) allergen testing. Our aim was to find the first direct evidence that immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediates equine allergy. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that immediate skin reactions in horses can also be mediated by IgG. Anti-IgE affinity columns were used to purify IgE from serum of one healthy horse and three horses affected with summer eczema, an allergic dermatitis which is believed to be induced by Culicoides midges. A modified Prausnitz-Küstner experiment was performed in four clinical healthy horses by i.d. injection of the purified serum IgE antibodies. The following day, Culicoides allergen was injected at the same sites. Skin reactions were not observed in response to allergen alone, and in two horses after stimulation at any previous IgE injection site. However, the other two horses showed an immediate skin reaction at the previous injection sites of IgE obtained from allergic horses. In addition, purified monoclonal antibodies to various equine immunoglobulin isotypes were injected i.d. into six healthy horses. Immediate skin reactions were observed in response to anti-IgE (6/6 horses) and anti-IgG(T) injections (5/6 horses). The specificities of both antibodies for IgE and IgG(T), respectively, were confirmed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. The results provide the first direct evidence that IgE mediates classical Type-I allergy in horses and plays a major role in the pathogenesis of summer eczema. The data also suggest that IgG(T) can bind to skin mast cells and might contribute to clinical allergy.

  11. Assessment of the neutrophilic antibody-dependent respiratory burst (ADRB) response to Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Kapelski, Stephanie; Klockenbring, Torsten; Fischer, Rainer; Barth, Stefan; Fendel, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Semi-immunity against Pf malaria is based on a combination of cellular and humoral immune responses. PMNs and IgGs are considered important components of this process, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We investigated the neutrophilic ADRB by analyzing the production of ROS in response to Pf antigen-specific IgGs bound to solid-phase immobilized antigens (sADRB) or whole merozoites (mADRB). We found that the PMN stimulations in each assay were based on different underlying mechanisms, demonstrating the importance of the assay set-up for the evaluation of antibody-triggered PMN responses. In the sADRB assay, ROS were produced externally, and by specific blocking of CD32(a)/FcγRII(a), the immediate neutrophilic response was abolished, whereas the removal of CD16(b)/FcγRIII(b) had no substantial effect. The key role of CD32(a) was confirmed using CD16(b)-deficient PMNs, in which similar changes of neutrophilic ADRB profiles were recorded after treatment. In the mADRB assay, ROS were produced almost exclusively within the cell, suggesting that the underlying mechanism was phagocytosis. This was confirmed using an additional phagocytosis assay, in which PMNs specifically ingested merozoites opsonized with Ghanaian plasma IgGs, seven times more often than merozoites opsonized with European plasma IgGs (P<0.001). Our data show that assay set-ups used to evaluate the responses of PMNs and perhaps other effector cells must be chosen carefully to evaluate the appropriate cellular responses. Our robust, stable, and well-characterized methods could therefore be useful in malaria vaccine studies to analyze the antimalarial effector function of antibodies. PMID:25118179

  12. The influence of intestinal parasites on Plasmodium vivax-specific antibody responses to MSP-119 and AMA-1 in rural populations of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Arcila, Juan Camilo; de França, Marcelle Marcolino; Pereira, Virginia Araujo; Vasconcelos, Mariana Pinheiro Alves; Têva, Antonio; Perce-da-Silva, Daiana de Souza; Neto, Joffre Rezende; Aprígio, Cesarino Junior Lima; Lima-Junior, Josue da Costa; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins; Soares, Irene Silva; Banic, Dalma Maria; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli

    2015-11-06

    Polyparasitism is a common condition in humans but its impact on the host immune system and clinical diseases is still poorly understood. There are few studies of the prevalence and the effect of malaria-intestinal parasite co-infections in the immune response to malaria vaccine candidates. The present study determines whether the presence of malaria and intestinal parasites co-infection is associated with impaired IgG responses to Plasmodium vivax AMA-1 and MSP-119 in a rural population of the Brazilian Amazon. A cross-sectional survey was performed in a rural area of Rondonia State and 279 individuals were included in the present study. At recruitment, whole blood was collected and Plasmodium and intestinal parasites were detected by microscopy and molecular tests. Blood cell count and haemoglobin were also tested and antibody response specific to P. vivax AMA-1 and MSP-119 was measured in plasma by ELISA. The participants were grouped according to their infection status: singly infected with Plasmodium (M); co-infected with Plasmodium and intestinal parasites (CI); singly infected with intestinal parasites (IP) and negative (N) for both malaria and intestinal parasites. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was significantly higher in individuals with malaria and protozoan infections were more prevalent. IgG antibodies to PvAMA-1 and/or PvMSP-119 were detected in 74 % of the population. The prevalence of specific IgG was similar for both proteins in all four groups and among the groups the lowest prevalence was in IP group. The cytophilic sub-classes IgG1 and IgG3 were predominant in all groups for PvAMA-1 and IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 for PvMSP-119. In the case of non-cytophilic antibodies to PvAMA-1, IgG2 was significantly higher in IP and N group when compared to M and CI while IgG4 was higher in IP group. The presence of intestinal parasites, mainly protozoans, in malaria co-infected individuals does not seem to alter the antibody immune responses to P. vivax AMA

  13. Contactin 1 IgG4 associates to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with sensory ataxia.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yumako; Devaux, Jérôme J; Fukami, Yuki; Manso, Constance; Belghazi, Maya; Wong, Anna Hiu Yi; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2015-06-01

    A Spanish group recently reported that four patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy carrying IgG4 autoantibodies against contactin 1 showed aggressive symptom onset and poor response to intravenous immunoglobulin. We aimed to describe the clinical and serological features of Japanese chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy patients displaying the anti-contactin 1 antibodies. Thirteen of 533 (2.4%) patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy had anti-contactin 1 IgG4 whereas neither patients from disease or normal control subjects did (P = 0.02). Three of 13 (23%) patients showed subacute symptom onset, but all of the patients presented with sensory ataxia. Six of 10 (60%) anti-contactin 1 antibody-positive patients had poor response to intravenous immunoglobulin, whereas 8 of 11 (73%) antibody-positive patients had good response to corticosteroids. Anti-contactin 1 IgG4 antibodies are a possible biomarker to guide treatment option. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Subclass specificities of rabbit antibodies to human antidextran.

    PubMed

    Outschoorn, I M

    1983-03-01

    Rabbits were immunized with purified antidextran containing IgG2. Half of the animals were treated with commercial human IgG intravenously to induce tolerance. The antisera were absorbed and/or eluted from IgG-Sepharose columns and the antibodies tested with a panel of at least eight human myeloma proteins of the four IgG subclasses, both kappa and lambda types. All animals produced mainly anti-IgG2 or IgG4, sometimes intechanged between these maxima or between kappa and lambda types over a series of bleedings. Absorption with IgG2 and/or IgG4 myeloma proteins resulted in sera or antibody preparations specific for the IgG1 or IgG3 subclasses, and the amount of those antibodies also varied between bleedings from the same animal. It may be concluded that anti-IgG2 and anti-IgG4 syntheses are related in a complementary manner or are equally likely to be produced in a response to IgG2; while IgG1 and IgG3 are also interrelated, but with an inverse relationship to IgG2 and IgG4. Alternatively anti-IgG2 and anti-IgG4 antibodies could be highly cross-reactive, and so could anti-IgG1 and anti-IgG3 antibodies.

  15. Subclass specificities of rabbit antibodies to human antidextran.

    PubMed Central

    Outschoorn, I M

    1983-01-01

    Rabbits were immunized with purified antidextran containing IgG2. Half of the animals were treated with commercial human IgG intravenously to induce tolerance. The antisera were absorbed and/or eluted from IgG-Sepharose columns and the antibodies tested with a panel of at least eight human myeloma proteins of the four IgG subclasses, both kappa and lambda types. All animals produced mainly anti-IgG2 or IgG4, sometimes intechanged between these maxima or between kappa and lambda types over a series of bleedings. Absorption with IgG2 and/or IgG4 myeloma proteins resulted in sera or antibody preparations specific for the IgG1 or IgG3 subclasses, and the amount of those antibodies also varied between bleedings from the same animal. It may be concluded that anti-IgG2 and anti-IgG4 syntheses are related in a complementary manner or are equally likely to be produced in a response to IgG2; while IgG1 and IgG3 are also interrelated, but with an inverse relationship to IgG2 and IgG4. Alternatively anti-IgG2 and anti-IgG4 antibodies could be highly cross-reactive, and so could anti-IgG1 and anti-IgG3 antibodies. PMID:6186599

  16. [Development of a SPA-ELISA method for detecting anti-coronavirus IgG antibodies in serum samples from fulvous fruit bats].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Liao, Yu-xue; Chen, Zhong; Li, Yu-chun; Gao, Lu-Lu; Chen, Yi-xiong; Cai, Lian-gong; Chen, Qing; Yu, Shou-yi

    2008-05-01

    To develop an simple and sensitive method for detecting anti-coronavirus IgG antibodies in bat sera based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A commercial ELISA kit for detecting SARS-CoV antibody was modified for detecting coronavirus antibodies in bat serum samples. The second antibody in the kit was replaced with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated protein-A (HRP-SPA) based on the characteristics of binding between Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SPA) and mammal IgG Fc fragment. The sera of 55 fulvous fruit bats (Rousettus dasymallus) were tested using the SPA-ELISA. The test results of the positive and negative controls in the kit and the serum samples from convalescent ;patient were consistent with expectation. Coronavirus antibody was detected in 2 out of the 55 bat serum samples. Serum neutralization test confirmed the validity of the SPA-ELISA method. This SPA-ELISA method is applicable for detecting coronavirus antibody in bat sera.

  17. Co-colonization by Haemophilus influenzae with Streptococcus pneumoniae enhances pneumococcal-specific antibody response in young children.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingfu; Pichichero, Michael E

    2014-02-03

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) are common bacterial pathogens of respiratory infections and common commensal microbes in the human nasopharynx (NP). The effect of interactions among theses bacteria during co-colonization of the NP on the host immune response has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of co-colonization by Hi or Mcat on the systemic antibody response to vaccine protein candidate antigens of Spn and similarly the impact of co-colonization by Spn and Mcat on antibody responses to Hi vaccine protein candidate antigens. Serum samples were collected from healthy children at 6, 9, 15, 18, and 24 months of age when they were colonized with Spn, Hi, Mcat or their combinations. Quantitative ELISA was used to determine serum IgA and IgG against three Spn antigens and three Hi antigens, and as well as whole cells of non-typeable (NT) Spn and Hi. NP colonization by Spn increased serum IgA and IgG titers against Spn antigens PhtD, PcpA and PlyD and whole cells of NTSpn, and co-colonization of Hi or Mcat with Spn resulted in further increases of serum pneumococcal-specific antibody levels. NP colonization by Hi increased serum IgA and IgG titers against Hi antigens P6, Protein D and OMP26 and whole cells of NTHi, but co-colonization of Spn or Mcat with Hi did not result in further increase of serum NTHi-specific antibody levels. Co-colonization of Hi or Mcat with Spn enhances serum antibody response to NTSpn whole cells and Spn vaccine candidate antigens PhtD, PcPA and PlyD1. Co-colonization appears to variably modulate pathogen species-specific host adaptive immune response. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Intranasal vaccination with an inactivated whole influenza virus vaccine induces strong antibody responses in serum and nasal mucus of healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Ainai, Akira; Tamura, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Tadaki; van Riet, Elly; Ito, Ryo; Odagiri, Takato; Tashiro, Masato; Kurata, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) titers as well as haemagglutinin (HA) specific antibody responses were examined in 50 healthy adults aged between 22 and 69 y old after two intranasal administrations of an inactivated whole virus vaccine derived from A/Victoria/210/2009 virus (45 μg HA per dose) at 3 week intervals. Serum HI titers after two-doses of the nasal vaccine showed >2.5-fold rise in the ratio of geometric mean titer upon vaccination, >40% of subjects with a ≥4-fold increase in titer and >70% of subjects with a titer of ≥1:40, all parameters associated with an effective outcome of vaccination in the criteria defined by the European Medicines Agency. Serum neutralizing antibody responses correlated with HI antibody responses, although NT titers were about 2-fold higher than HI titers. These high levels of serum responses were accompanied by high levels of HI and neutralizing antibody responses in nasal mucus as measured in concentrated nasal wash samples that were about 10 times diluted compared with natural nasal mucus. Serum and nasal HI and neutralizing antibody responses consisted of HA-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses, with IgG and IgA antibodies being dominant in serum and nasal responses, respectively. PMID:23896606

  19. High Antibody Responses against Plasmodium falciparum in Immigrants after Extended Periods of Interrupted Exposure to Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Alfons; Nhabomba, Augusto; Casas-Vila, Núria; Puyol, Laura; Campo, Joseph J.; Manaca, Maria Nelia; Aguilar, Ruth; Pinazo, María-Jesús; Almirall, Mercè; Soler, Cristina; Muñoz, José; Bardají, Azucena; Angov, Evelina; Dutta, Sheetij; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Alonso, Pedro L.; Gascón, Joaquim; Dobaño, Carlota

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria immunity is commonly believed to wane in the absence of Plasmodium falciparum exposure, based on limited epidemiological data and short-lived antibody responses in some longitudinal studies in endemic areas. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among sub-Saharan African adults residing in Spain for 1 up to 38 years (immigrants) with clinical malaria (n=55) or without malaria (n=37), naïve adults (travelers) with a first clinical malaria episode (n=20) and life-long malaria exposed adults from Mozambique (semi-immune adults) without malaria (n=27) or with clinical malaria (n=50). Blood samples were collected and IgG levels against the erythrocytic antigens AMA-1 and MSP-142 (3D7 and FVO strains), EBA-175 and DBL-α were determined by Luminex. IgG levels against antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes (IEs) were measured by flow cytometry. Results Immigrants without malaria had lower IgG levels than healthy semi-immune adults regardless of the antigen tested (P≤0.026), but no correlation was found between IgG levels and time since migration. Upon reinfection, immigrants with malaria had higher levels of IgG against all antigens than immigrants without malaria. However, the magnitude of the response compared to semi-immune adults with malaria depended on the antigen tested. Thus, immigrants had higher IgG levels against AMA-1 and MSP-142 (P≤0.015), similar levels against EBA-175 and DBL-α, and lower levels against IEs (P≤0.016). Immigrants had higher IgG levels against all antigens tested compared to travelers (P≤0.001), both with malaria. Conclusions Upon cessation of malaria exposure, IgG responses to malaria-specific antigens were maintained to a large extent, although the conservation and the magnitude of the recall response depended on the nature of the antigen. Studies on immigrant populations can shed light on the factors that determine the duration of malaria specific antibody responses and its effect on

  20. Immune response of mallard ducks treated with immunosuppressive agents: antibody response to erythrocytes and in vivo response to phytohemagglutinin-P.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrank, C.S.; Cook, M.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The ability of two in vivo tests to assay immune competence of mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) treated with various immunomodulatory agents was examined. Skin responses to phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) injected intradermally and serum antibody levels produced in response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) were measured. As measured by the skin response to PHA-P, ducks injected intramuscularly with cyclophosphamide or cyclosporine did not respond differently from control-injected ducks. Dexamethasone injected intramuscularly significantly suppressed the skin response to PHA-P. As measured by antibody levels in response to SRBC, ducks injected intramuscularly with cyclophosphamide responded with antibody titers similar to controls. Cyclosporine injected intramuscularly reduced the level of immunoglobulin (Ig) G significantly in one of two experiments. Dexamethasone injected intramuscularly reduced peak total and IgG titers. These experiments provide information on the viability of these two in vivo tests to reflect immune competence of mallard ducks.

  1. Studies of nontarget-mediated distribution of human full-length IgG1 antibody and its FAb fragment in cardiovascular and metabolic-related tissues.

    PubMed

    Davidsson, Pia; Söderling, Ann-Sofi; Svensson, Lena; Ahnmark, Andrea; Flodin, Christine; Wanag, Ewa; Screpanti-Sundqvist, Valentina; Gennemark, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics (PK) of full-length nontargeted antibody and its antigen-binding fragment (FAb) were evaluated for a range of tissues primarily of interest for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Mice were intravenously injected with a dose of 10 mg/kg of either human IgG1or its FAb fragment; perfused tissues were collected at a range of time points over 3 weeks for the human IgG1 antibody and 1 week for the human FAb antibody. Tissues were homogenized and antibody concentrations were measured by specific immunoassays on the Gyros system. Exposure in terms of maximum concentration (Cmax ) and area under the curve was assessed for all nine tissues. Tissue exposure of full-length antibody relative to plasma exposure was found to be between 1% and 10%, except for brain (0.2%). Relative concentrations of FAb antibody were the same, except for kidney tissue, where the antibody concentration was found to be ten times higher than in plasma. However, the absolute tissue uptake of full-length IgG was significantly higher than the absolute tissue uptake of the FAb antibody. This study provides a reference PK state for full-length whole and FAb antibodies in tissues related to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases that do not include antigen or antibody binding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Sensitive assays enable detection of serum IgG antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxin A and toxin B in healthy subjects and patients with Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuemei; Bender, Florent; Shukla, Rajiv; Kang, John J; Caro-Aguilar, Ivette; Laterza, Omar F

    2016-04-01

    Pathogenic Clostridium difficile produces two proinflammatory exotoxins, toxin A and toxin B. Low level of serum antitoxin IgG antibodies is a risk factor for the development of primary and recurrent C. difficile infection (CDI). We developed and validated two sensitive, titer-based electrochemiluminescence assays for the detection of serum antibody levels against C. difficile toxins A and B. These assays demonstrated excellent precision. The sensitivity of the assays allowed the detection of antitoxin A and antitoxin B IgG antibodies in all tested serum samples during assay validation. The validated titer-based assays enable assessment of antitoxin A and antitoxin B IgG antibodies as potential biomarkers to identify patients with CDI at increased risk for CDI recurrence.

  3. Cocoa Diet and Antibody Immune Response in Preclinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Abril-Gil, Mar; Franch, Angels; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Castell, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    The ability of cocoa to interact with the immune system in vitro and in vivo has been described. In the latter context, a cocoa-enriched diet in healthy rats was able to modify the immune system’s functionality. This fact could be observed in the composition and functionality of lymphoid tissues, such as the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. Consequently, immune effector mechanisms, such as antibody synthesis, were modified. A cocoa-enriched diet in young rats was able to attenuate the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, and IgA and also the intestinal IgM and IgA secretion. Moreover, in immunized rats, the intake of cocoa decreased specific IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2c, and IgM concentrations in serum. This immune-regulator potential was then tested in disease models in which antibodies play a pathogenic role. A cocoa-enriched diet was able to partially prevent the synthesis of autoantibodies in a model of autoimmune arthritis in rats and was also able to protect against IgE and T helper 2-related antibody synthesis in two rat models of allergy. Likewise, a cocoa-enriched diet prevented an oral sensitization process in young rats. In this review, we will focus on the influence of cocoa on the acquired branch of the immune function. Therefore, we will focus on how a cocoa diet influences lymphocyte function both in the systemic and intestinal immune system. Likewise, its potential role in preventing some antibody-induced immune diseases is also included. Although further studies must characterize the particular cocoa components responsible for such effects and nutritional studies in humans need to be carried out, cocoa has potential as a nutraceutical agent in some hypersensitivity status. PMID:28702458

  4. Cocoa Diet and Antibody Immune Response in Preclinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Camps-Bossacoma, Mariona; Massot-Cladera, Malen; Abril-Gil, Mar; Franch, Angels; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Castell, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    The ability of cocoa to interact with the immune system in vitro and in vivo has been described. In the latter context, a cocoa-enriched diet in healthy rats was able to modify the immune system's functionality. This fact could be observed in the composition and functionality of lymphoid tissues, such as the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. Consequently, immune effector mechanisms, such as antibody synthesis, were modified. A cocoa-enriched diet in young rats was able to attenuate the serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, and IgA and also the intestinal IgM and IgA secretion. Moreover, in immunized rats, the intake of cocoa decreased specific IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2c, and IgM concentrations in serum. This immune-regulator potential was then tested in disease models in which antibodies play a pathogenic role. A cocoa-enriched diet was able to partially prevent the synthesis of autoantibodies in a model of autoimmune arthritis in rats and was also able to protect against IgE and T helper 2-related antibody synthesis in two rat models of allergy. Likewise, a cocoa-enriched diet prevented an oral sensitization process in young rats. In this review, we will focus on the influence of cocoa on the acquired branch of the immune function. Therefore, we will focus on how a cocoa diet influences lymphocyte function both in the systemic and intestinal immune system. Likewise, its potential role in preventing some antibody-induced immune diseases is also included. Although further studies must characterize the particular cocoa components responsible for such effects and nutritional studies in humans need to be carried out, cocoa has potential as a nutraceutical agent in some hypersensitivity status.

  5. Systemic and local gut-specific antibody responses in preruminant calves sensitive to soya.

    PubMed

    Lallès, J P; Dréau, D; Huet, A; Toullec, R

    1995-07-01

    The systemic and local (gut) patterns of antibodies against various proteins from soyabean were analysed in preruminant calves fed milk substitutes based on skim milk powder (SMP) or heated soyabean flour (HSF) as the main protein sources. The titres of IgM, IgA, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies were determined against feed extracts and purified soyabean proteins by dot-blotting in plasma after three months and jejunal mucous secretions after six months of feeding the experimental diets. The calves fed HSF had higher levels of circulating IgA, IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies against raw or heated soya extracts and purified proteins including alpha-conglycinin, beta-conglycinin, Bowman-Birk protease inhibitors and lectins than the calves fed SMP. In contrast, the differences between the IgM titres of the groups were most often not significant. The patterns of specific antibodies present in the jejunum were broadly similar to those observed in the blood, although the differences between the groups of calves more often reached significance for IgG2 and IgM than for IgA and IgG1, when the purified soyabean proteins were considered.

  6. Construction, MD simulation, and hydrodynamic validation of an all-atom model of a monoclonal IgG antibody.

    PubMed

    Brandt, J Paul; Patapoff, Thomas W; Aragon, Sergio R

    2010-08-04

    At 150 kDa, antibodies of the IgG class are too large for their structure to be determined with current NMR methodologies. Because of hinge-region flexibility, it is difficult to obtain atomic-level structural information from the crystal, and questions regarding antibody structure and dynamics in solution remain unaddressed. Here we describe the construction of a model of a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody (trastuzumab) from the crystal structures of fragments. We use a combination of molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation, continuum hydrodynamics modeling, and experimental diffusion measurements to explore antibody behavior in aqueous solution. Hydrodynamic modeling provides a link between the atomic-level details of MD simulation and the size- and shape-dependent data provided by hydrodynamic measurements. Eight independent 40 ns MD trajectories were obtained with the AMBER program suite. The ensemble average of the computed transport properties over all of the MD trajectories agrees remarkably well with the value of the translational diffusion coefficient obtained with dynamic light scattering at 20 degrees C and 27 degrees C, and the intrinsic viscosity measured at 20 degrees C. Therefore, our MD results likely represent a realistic sampling of the conformational space that an antibody explores in aqueous solution. 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cardiovascular exercise intervention improves the primary antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in previously sedentary older adults.

    PubMed

    Grant, R W; Mariani, R A; Vieira, V J; Fleshner, M; Smith, T P; Keylock, K T; Lowder, T W; McAuley, E; Hu, L; Chapman-Novakofski, K; Woods, J A

    2008-08-01

    Based upon a prior cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that an aerobic exercise intervention in sedentary older adults would improve a primary T cell-dependent immune response. Participants were a subset of older subjects from a large, ongoing exercise intervention study who were randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise (Cardio, n=30, 68.9+0.8 years) or flexibility/balance (Flex, n=20, 69.9+1.2 years) intervention. The intervention consisted of either three aerobic sessions for 30-60 min at 55-70% VO(2 max) or two 60 min flexibility/balance sessions weekly for 10 months. Eight months into the intervention, samples were collected before intramuscular administration of KLH (125 microg), followed by sampling at 2, 3, and 6 weeks post-KLH. Serum anti-KLH IgM, IgG1, and IgG2 was measured by ELISA. Physiological and psychosocial measures were also assessed pre- and post-intervention. While there was no difference in the anti-KLH IgG2 response between groups, Cardio displayed significantly (p<0.05) higher anti-KLH IgG1 (at weeks 2, 3, and 6 post) and IgM responses when compared to Flex. Despite cardiovascular intervention-induced improvement in physical fitness (approximately 11% vs. 1% change in VO(2 peak) in Cardio vs. Flex, respectively), we found no relationship between improved fitness and enhanced anti-KLH antibody responses. Optimism, perceived stress, and affect were all associated with enhanced immune response. We have shown for the first time that cardiovascular training in previously sedentary elderly results in significantly higher primary IgG1 and IgM antibody responses, while having no effect on IgG2 production.

  8. Prevalence estimation of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies in dogs from Finland using novel dog anti-TBEV IgG MAb-capture and IgG immunofluorescence assays based on recombinant TBEV subviral particles.

    PubMed

    Levanov, Lev; Vera, Cristina Pérez; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most dangerous human neurological infections occurring in Europe and Northern parts of Asia with thousands of cases and millions vaccinated against it. The risk of TBE might be assessed through analyses of the samples taken from wildlife or from animals which are in close contact with humans. Dogs have been shown to be a good sentinel species for these studies. Serological assays for diagnosis of TBE in dogs are mainly based on purified and inactivated TBEV antigens. Here we describe novel dog anti-TBEV IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb)-capture assay which is based on TBEV prME subviral particles expressed in mammalian cells from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon as well as IgG immunofluorescence assay (IFA) which is based on Vero E6 cells transfected with the same SFV replicon. We further demonstrate their use in a small-scale TBEV seroprevalence study of dogs representing different regions of Finland. Altogether, 148 dog serum samples were tested by novel assays and results were compared to those obtained with a commercial IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA), hemagglutination inhibition test and IgG IFA with TBEV infected cells. Compared to reference tests, the sensitivities of the developed assays were 90-100% and the specificities of the two assays were 100%. Analysis of the dog serum samples showed a seroprevalence of 40% on Åland Islands and 6% on Southwestern archipelago of Finland. In conclusion, a specific and sensitive EIA and IFA for the detection of IgG antibodies in canine sera were developed. Based on these assays the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies in dogs from different regions of Finland was assessed and was shown to parallel the known human disease burden as the Southwestern archipelago and Åland Islands in particular had considerable dog TBEV antibody prevalence and represent areas with high risk of TBE for humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Serum antibody responses to polymorphic Cryptosporidium mucin antigen in Bangladeshi children with cryptosporidiosis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Olivia; Morris, Christopher; Ahmed, Sabeena; Karim, Mohammed Mahbubul; Khan, Wasif; Ward, Honorine; O'Connor, Roberta

    2011-09-01

    Cryptosporidium is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in children in developing countries. The sporozoite antigen Muc4 is important for infection of host cells, and could be a candidate vaccine antigen. However, this antigen is polymorphic between Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum. We investigated antibody responses to C. hominis Muc4 and C. parvum Muc4 antigen in children in Bangladesh infected with C. hominis. Antibody responses were compared between children with cryptosporidial diarrhea (cases) and uninfected children with diarrhea (controls). There was a significant IgM response to Muc4 from both species in cases compared with controls, which increased over time, and was higher in children with persistent diarrhea. Despite sequence polymorphisms, antibody responses to C. hominis Muc4 and C. parvum Muc4 were significantly correlated. These results suggest that the human antibody response to Muc4 is cross-reactive between species, but in young children does not mature to an IgG response within the period observed in this study.

  10. Assessment of pathogenesis of infective endocarditis by plasma IgG antibody titer test against periodontal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Isoshima, Daichi; Yamashiro, Keisuke; Matsunaga, Kazuyuki; Shinobe, Michitaka; Nakanishi, Nagako; Nakanishi, Izumi; Omori, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2017-10-01

    Oral bacteria cause infective endocarditis (IE), so severe periodontitis is thought to be high risk for IE. We suggest the identification of high-risk patients by an IgG antibody titer test against periodontal bacteria might become common screening test.

  11. Domestic cat microsphere immunoassays: detection of antibodies during feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wood, Britta A; Carver, Scott; Troyer, Ryan M; Elder, John H; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-10-31

    Microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) allow rapid and accurate evaluation of multiple analytes simultaneously within a biological sample. Here we describe the development and validation of domestic cat-specific MIAs for a) the quantification of total IgG and IgA levels in plasma, and b) the detection of IgG and IgA antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) capsid (CA) and surface (SU) proteins, and feline CD134 in plasma. These assays were used to examine the temporal antibody response of domestic cats infected with apathogenic and pathogenic FIVs, and domestic cats infected with parental and chimeric FIVs of varying pathogenicity. The results from these studies demonstrated that a) total IgG antibodies increase over time after infection; b) α-CA and α-SU IgG antibodies are detectable between 9 and 28 days post-infection and increase over time, and these antibodies combined represent a fraction (1.8 to 21.8%) of the total IgG increase due to infection; c) measurable α-CD134 IgG antibody levels vary among individuals and over time, and are not strongly correlated with viral load; d) circulating IgA antibodies, in general, do not increase during the early stage of infection; and e) total IgG, and α-CA and α-SU IgG antibody kinetics and levels vary with FIV viral strain/pathogenicity. The MIAs described here could be used to screen domestic cats for FIV infection, and to evaluate the FIV-specific or total antibody response elicited by various FIV strains/other diseases. © 2013.

  12. Domestic cat microsphere immunoassays: Detection of antibodies during feline immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Britta A.; Carver, Scott; Troyer, Ryan M.; Elder, John H.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Microsphere immunoassays (MIAs) allow rapid and accurate evaluation of multiple analytes simultaneously within a biological sample. Here we describe the development and validation of domestic cat-specific MIAs for a) the quantification of total IgG and IgA levels in plasma, and b) the detection of IgG and IgA antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) capsid (CA) and surface (SU) proteins, and feline CD134 in plasma. These assays were used to examine the temporal antibody response of domestic cats infected with apathogenic and pathogenic FIVs, and domestic cats infected with parental and chimeric FIVs of varying pathogenicity. The results from these studies demonstrated that a) total IgG antibodies increase over time after infection; b) α-CA and α-SU IgG antibodies are detectable between 9–28 days post-infection and increase over time, and these antibodies combined represent a fraction (1.8 to 21.8%) of the total IgG increase due to infection; c) measurable α-CD134 IgG antibody levels vary among individuals and over time, and are not strongly correlated with viral load; d) circulating IgA antibodies, in general, do not increase during the early stage of infection; and e) total IgG, and α-CA and α-SU IgG antibody kinetics and levels vary with FIV viral strain/pathogenicity. The MIAs described here could be used to screen domestic cats for FIV infection, and to evaluate the FIV-specific or total antibody response elicited by various FIV strains/other diseases. PMID:23954271

  13. A Secondary Antibody-Detecting Molecular Weight Marker with Mouse and Rabbit IgG Fc Linear Epitopes for Western Blot Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Wei; Chen, I-Ju; Cheng, Ta-Chun; Tung, Yi-Ching; Chu, Pei-Yu; Chuang, Chih-Hung; Hsieh, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chien-Chiao; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Kao, Chien-Han; Roffler, Steve R; Cheng, Tian-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Molecular weight markers that can tolerate denaturing conditions and be auto-detected by secondary antibodies offer great efficacy and convenience for Western Blotting. Here, we describe M&R LE protein markers which contain linear epitopes derived from the heavy chain constant regions of mouse and rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG Fc LE). These markers can be directly recognized and stained by a wide range of anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies. We selected three mouse (M1, M2 and M3) linear IgG1 and three rabbit (R1, R2 and R3) linear IgG heavy chain epitope candidates based on their respective crystal structures. Western blot analysis indicated that M2 and R2 linear epitopes are effectively recognized by anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies, respectively. We fused the M2 and R2 epitopes (M&R LE) and incorporated the polypeptide in a range of 15-120 kDa auto-detecting markers (M&R LE protein marker). The M&R LE protein marker can be auto-detected by anti-mouse and anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibodies in standard immunoblots. Linear regression analysis of the M&R LE protein marker plotted as gel mobility versus the log of the marker molecular weights revealed good linearity with a correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.9965, indicating that the M&R LE protein marker displays high accuracy for determining protein molecular weights. This accurate, regular and auto-detected M&R LE protein marker may provide a simple, efficient and economical tool for protein analysis.

  14. Serodiagnosis of Tuberculosis: Comparison of Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Response to Sulfolipid I with IgG and IgM Responses to 2,3-Diacyltrehalose, 2,3,6-Triacyltrehalose, and Cord Factor Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Julián, Esther; Matas, Lurdes; Pérez, Andrés; Alcaide, José; Lanéelle, Marie-Antoinette; Luquin, Marina

    2002-01-01

    Nonpeptidic antigens from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall are the focus of extensive studies to determine their potential role as protective antigens or serological markers of tuberculous disease. Regarding this latter role and using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we have made a comparative study of the immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibody responses to four trehalose-containing glycolipids purified from M. tuberculosis: diacyltrehaloses, triacyltrehaloses, cord factor, and sulfolipid I (SL-I). Sera from 92 tuberculosis patients (taken before starting antituberculosis treatment) and a wide group of control individuals (84 sera from healthy donors, including purified protein derivative-negative, -positive, healed, and vaccinated individuals, and 52 sera from nontuberculous pneumonia patients), all from Spain, were studied. The results indicated a significantly elevated IgG and IgA antibody response in tuberculosis patients, compared with controls, with all the antigens used. SL-I was the best antigen studied, showing test sensitivities and specificities for IgG of 81 and 77.6%, respectively, and of 66 and 87.5% for IgA. Using this antigen and combining IgA and IgG antibody detection, high test specificity was achieved (93.7%) with a sensitivity of 67.5%. Currently, it is widely accepted that it is not possible to achieve sensitivities above 80% in tuberculosis serodiagnosis when using one antigen alone. Thus, we conclude that SL-I, in combination with other antigenic molecules, could be a useful antigen for tuberculosis serodiagnosis. PMID:12354881

  15. Purified Hexameric Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded BARF1 Protein for Measuring Anti-BARF1 Antibody Responses in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients▿

    PubMed Central

    Hoebe, E. K.; Hutajulu, S. H.; van Beek, J.; Stevens, S. J.; Paramita, D. K.; Greijer, A. E.; Middeldorp, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    WHO type III nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is highly prevalent in Indonesia and 100% associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). NPC tumor cells express viral proteins, including BARF1, which is secreted and is considered to have oncogenic and immune-modulating properties. Recently, we found conserved mutations in the BARF1 gene in NPC isolates. This study describes the expression and purification of NPC-derived BARF1 and analyzes humoral immune responses against prototype BARF1 (B95-8) and purified native hexameric BARF1 in sera of Indonesian NPC patients (n = 155) compared to healthy EBV-positive (n = 56) and EBV-negative (n = 16) individuals. BARF1 (B95-8) expressed in Escherichia coli and baculovirus, as well as BARF1-derived peptides, did not react with IgG or IgA antibodies in NPC. Purified native hexameric BARF1 protein isolated from culture medium was used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and revealed relatively weak IgG and IgA responses in human sera, although it had strong antibody responses to other EBV proteins. Higher IgG reactivity was found in NPC patients (P = 0.015) than in regional Indonesian controls or EBV-negative individuals (P < 0.001). IgA responses to native BARF1 were marginal. NPC sera with the highest IgG responses to hexameric BARF1 in ELISA showed detectable reactivity with denatured BARF1 by immunoblotting. In conclusion, BARF1 has low immunogenicity for humoral responses and requires native conformation for antibody binding. The presence of antibodies against native BARF1 in the blood of NPC patients provides evidence that the protein is expressed and secreted as a hexameric protein in NPC patients. PMID:21123521

  16. A historical look at the first reported cases of Lassa fever: IgG antibodies 40 years after acute infection.

    PubMed

    Bond, Nell; Schieffelin, John S; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew J; Bausch, Daniel G

    2013-02-01

    Lassa fever is an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. One important question regarding Lassa fever is the duration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody after infection. We were able to locate three persons who worked in Nigeria dating back to the 1940s, two of whom were integrally involved in the early outbreaks and investigations of Lassa fever in the late 1960s, including the person from whom Lassa virus was first isolated. Two persons had high titers of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibody over 40 years after infection, indicating the potential for long-term duration of these antibodies. One person was likely infected in 1952, 17 years before the first recognized outbreak. We briefly recount the fascinating stories of these three pioneers and their important contribution to our understanding of Lassa fever.

  17. A Historical Look at the First Reported Cases of Lassa Fever: IgG Antibodies 40 Years After Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Nell; Schieffelin, John S.; Moses, Lina M.; Bennett, Andrew J.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2013-01-01

    Lassa fever is an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. One important question regarding Lassa fever is the duration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody after infection. We were able to locate three persons who worked in Nigeria dating back to the 1940s, two of whom were integrally involved in the early outbreaks and investigations of Lassa fever in the late 1960s, including the person from whom Lassa virus was first isolated. Two persons had high titers of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibody over 40 years after infection, indicating the potential for long-term duration of these antibodies. One person was likely infected in 1952, 17 years before the first recognized outbreak. We briefly recount the fascinating stories of these three pioneers and their important contribution to our understanding of Lassa fever. PMID:23390223

  18. Clearance of Human IgG1-Sensitised Red Blood Cells In Vivo in Humans Relates to the In Vitro Properties of Antibodies from Alternative Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Armour, Kathryn L.; Smith, Cheryl S.; Ip, Natasha C. Y.; Ellison, Cara J.; Kirton, Christopher M.; Wilkes, Anthony M.; Williamson, Lorna M.; Clark, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    We previously produced a recombinant version of the human anti-RhD antibody Fog-1 in the rat myeloma cell line, YB2/0. When human, autologous RhD-positive red blood cells (RBC) were sensitised with this IgG1 antibody and re-injected, they were cleared much more rapidly from the circulation than had been seen earlier with the original human-mouse heterohybridoma-produced Fog-1. Since the IgG have the same amino acid sequence, this disparity is likely to be due to alternative glycosylation that results from the rat and mouse cell lines. By comparing the in vitro properties of YB2/0-produced Fog-1 IgG1 and the same antibody produced in the mouse myeloma cell line NS0, we now have a unique opportunity to pinpoint the cause of the difference in ability to clear RBC in vivo. Using transfected cell lines that express single human FcγR, we showed that IgG1 made in YB2/0 and NS0 cell lines bound equally well to receptors of the FcγRI and FcγRII classes but that the YB2/0 antibody was superior in FcγRIII binding. When measuring complexed IgG binding, the difference was 45-fold for FcγRIIIa 158F, 20-fold for FcγRIIIa 158V and approximately 40-fold for FcγRIIIb. The dissimilarity was greater at 100-fold in monomeric IgG binding assays with FcγRIIIa. When used to sensitise RBC, the YB2/0 IgG1 generated 100-fold greater human NK cell antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and had a 103-fold advantage over the NS0 antibody in activating NK cells, as detected by CD54 levels. In assays of monocyte activation and macrophage adherence/phagocytosis, where FcγRI plays major roles, RBC sensitised with the two antibodies produced much more similar results. Thus, the alternative glycosylation profiles of the Fog-1 antibodies affect only FcγRIII binding and FcγRIII-mediated functions. Relating this to the in vivo studies confirms the importance of FcγRIII in RBC clearance. PMID:25302805

  19. Clearance of human IgG1-sensitised red blood cells in vivo in humans relates to the in vitro properties of antibodies from alternative cell lines.

    PubMed

    Armour, Kathryn L; Smith, Cheryl S; Ip, Natasha C Y; Ellison, Cara J; Kirton, Christopher M; Wilkes, Anthony M; Williamson, Lorna M; Clark, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    We previously produced a recombinant version of the human anti-RhD antibody Fog-1 in the rat myeloma cell line, YB2/0. When human, autologous RhD-positive red blood cells (RBC) were sensitised with this IgG1 antibody and re-injected, they were cleared much more rapidly from the circulation than had been seen earlier with the original human-mouse heterohybridoma-produced Fog-1. Since the IgG have the same amino acid sequence, this disparity is likely to be due to alternative glycosylation that results from the rat and mouse cell lines. By comparing the in vitro properties of YB2/0-produced Fog-1 IgG1 and the same antibody produced in the mouse myeloma cell line NS0, we now have a unique opportunity to pinpoint the cause of the difference in ability to clear RBC in vivo. Using transfected cell lines that express single human FcγR, we showed that IgG1 made in YB2/0 and NS0 cell lines bound equally well to receptors of the FcγRI and FcγRII classes but that the YB2/0 antibody was superior in FcγRIII binding. When measuring complexed IgG binding, the difference was 45-fold for FcγRIIIa 158F, 20-fold for FcγRIIIa 158V and approximately 40-fold for FcγRIIIb. The dissimilarity was greater at 100-fold in monomeric IgG binding assays with FcγRIIIa. When used to sensitise RBC, the YB2/0 IgG1 generated 100-fold greater human NK cell antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and had a 103-fold advantage over the NS0 antibody in activating NK cells, as detected by CD54 levels. In assays of monocyte activation and macrophage adherence/phagocytosis, where FcγRI plays major roles, RBC sensitised with the two antibodies produced much more similar results. Thus, the alternative glycosylation profiles of the Fog-1 antibodies affect only FcγRIII binding and FcγRIII-mediated functions. Relating this to the in vivo studies confirms the importance of FcγRIII in RBC clearance.

  20. Roles of Alum and Monophosphoryl Lipid A Adjuvants in Overcoming CD4+ T Cell Deficiency to Induce Isotype-Switched IgG Antibody Responses and Protection by T-Dependent Influenza Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Lee, Youri; Jung, Yu-Jin; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Yu-Na; Kang, Taeuk; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2016-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvant effects in CD4 deficient condition largely remain unknown. We investigated the roles of combined monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and Alum adjuvant (MPL+Alum) in inducing immunity after immunization of CD4-knockout (CD4KO) and wild-type (WT) mice with T-dependent influenza vaccine. MPL+Alum adjuvant mediated IgG isotype-switched antibodies, IgG secreting cell responses, and protection in CD4KO mice, which were comparable to those in WT mice. In contrast, Alum adjuvant effects were dependent on CD4+ T cells. MPL+Alum adjuvant was effective in recruiting monocytes and neutrophils as well as in protecting macrophages from alum-mediated cell loss at the injection site in CD4KO mice. MPL+Alum appeared to attenuate MPL-induced inflammatory responses in WT mice, likely improving the safety. Additional studies in CD4-depleted WT mice and MHCII KO mice suggest that MHCII positive antigen presenting cells contribute to providing alternative B cell help in CD4 deficient condition in the context of MPL+Alum adjuvanted vaccination. PMID:27881702

  1. Adjuvant dependence of APS pathology-related low-affinity antibodies during secondary immune response to tetanus toxoid in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zivković, Irena; Petrušić, Vladimir; Dimitrijević, Rajna; Stojanović, Marijana; Dimitrijević, Ljiljana

    2013-05-01

    One of the established animal models for autoimmune disease antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is TTd hyperimmunization of mice. Tetanus toxoid (TTd) and plasma protein β2GPI share structural homology so that immunization with TTd induces appearance of cross-reactive antibodies. In this paper, we have investigated the presence and dynamic of fluctuation of specific (anti-TTd) and auto (anti-β2GPI) antibodies induced in BALB/c mice during secondary immune response after TTd immunization with alhydrogel or glycerol as adjuvants. In addition, we followed the induced reproductive pathology as a sign of autoimmune outcome. We show undoubtedly adjuvant dependance of (1) level of induced anti-TTd IgG antibodies, (2) changes in levels of low-affinity anti-β2GPI IgG antibodies, and (3) change in fecundity and fertility during secondary immune response. These findings once more indicate the importance of chosen adjuvants used for successful immunization and eventual autoantibody outcome, this time associated with the processes involving low affinity, natural antibodies.

  2. The effect of parenteral immunisation on antibody production in the pig colon.

    PubMed

    Rees, A S; Lysons, R J; Stokes, C R; Bourne, F J

    1989-11-30

    Local and systemic antibody production was studied in pigs to compare responses to live and killed bacterial antigen and purified protein antigen, with and without prior mucosal stimulation. Recovery from challenge with live bacteria and intramuscular injection with killed bacteria gave rise to similar high levels of serum IgG antibody, but the ratio of specific IgA to IgG in the colon was significantly higher after infection than following vaccination with killed bacteria. Vaccination with a protein antigen gave rise to serum and local antibody production. Prior feeding of the antigen had a tolerising effect on the serum antibody response, but production of IgG and IgA antibody by the colon was not suppressed.

  3. Species-Specific and Cross-Reactive IgG1 Antibody Binding to Viral Capsid Protein 1 (VP1) Antigens of Human Rhinovirus Species A, B and C

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Jua; Smith, Wendy-Anne; Stone, Shane R.; Thomas, Wayne R.; Hales, Belinda J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are associated with upper and lower respiratory illnesses, including severe infections causing hospitalization in both children and adults. Although the clinical significance of HRV infections is now well established, no detailed investigation of the immune response against HRV has been performed. The purpose of this study was to assess the IgG1 antibody response to the three known HRV species, HRV-A, -B and -C in healthy subjects. Methods Recombinant polypeptides of viral capsid protein 1 (VP1) from two genotypes of HRV-A, -B and -C were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and purified by affinity and then size exclusion chromatography. The presence of secondary structures similar to the natural antigens was verified by circular dichroism analysis. Total and species-specific IgG1 measurements were quantitated by immunoassays and immunoabsorption using sera from 63 healthy adults. Results Most adult sera reacted with the HRV VP1 antigens, at high titres. As expected, strong cross-reactivity between HRV genotypes of the same species was found. A high degree of cross-reactivity between different HRV species was also evident, particularly between HRV-A and HRV-C. Immunoabsorption studies revealed HRV-C specific titres were markedly and significantly lower than the HRV-A and HRV-B specific titres (P<0.0001). A truncated construct of HRV-C VP1 showed greater specificity in detecting anti-HRV-C antibodies. Conclusions High titres of IgG1 antibody were bound by the VP1 capsid proteins of HRV-A, -B and -C, but for the majority of people, a large proportion of the antibody to HRV-C was cross-reactive, especially to HRV-A. The improved specificity found for the truncated HRV-C VP1 indicates species-specific and cross-reactive regions could be defined. PMID:23950960

  4. Marburg virus survivor immune responses are Th1 skewed with limited neutralizing antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Stonier, Spencer W; Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Sobarzo, Ariel; Habibulin, Polina; Dahan, Chen V Abramovitch; James, Rebekah M; Egesa, Moses; Cose, Stephen; Lutwama, Julius Julian; Lobel, Leslie; Dye, John M

    2017-09-04

    Until recently, immune responses in filovirus survivors remained poorly understood. Early studies revealed IgM and IgG responses to infection with various filoviruses, but recent outbreaks have greatly expanded our understanding of filovirus immune responses. Immune responses in survivors of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Sudan virus (SUDV) infections have provided the most insight, with T cell responses as well as detailed antibody responses having been characterized. Immune responses to Marburg virus (MARV), however, remain almost entirely uncharacterized. We report that immune responses in MARV survivors share characteristics with EBOV and SUDV infections but have some distinct differences. MARV survivors developed multivariate CD4 + T cell responses but limited CD8 + T cell responses, more in keeping with SUDV survivors than EBOV survivors. In stark contrast to SUDV survivors, rare neutralizing antibody responses in MARV survivors diminished rapidly after the outbreak. These results warrant serious consideration for any vaccine or therapeutic that seeks to be broadly protective, as different filoviruses may require different immune responses to achieve immunity. © 2017 Stonier et al.

  5. What do anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgA and IgG subclasses in human saliva indicate?

    PubMed

    Cañedo-Solares, I; Gómez-Chávez, F; Luna-Pastén, H; Ortiz-Alegría, L B; Flores-García, Y; Figueroa-Damián, R; Macedo-Romero, C A; Correa, D

    2018-05-01

    Diagnostic tests for toxoplasmosis are based on serological techniques due to their high sensitivity. Some IgG subclasses are related to clinical outcome in the congenital form. In this work, we determined the levels of IgG, IgA, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in paired saliva and serum samples from 91 women by indirect ELISA using a crude extract of the RH strain. The levels of IgA, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 antibodies and, to a lesser extent, IgG1 did not correlate between saliva and serum, that is, most cases that were positive for one Ig class in a sample were negative or very low in the other, and vice versa. We also observed that most samples of saliva that were positive for one IgG subclass were also positive for at least 2 of the other 3; this contrasted with findings in serum, wherein each person was positive almost exclusively for one subclass, as demonstrated before by us and other researchers. Although these findings are disappointing for the use in diagnosis, the richer response in saliva might indicate local exposure to T. gondii antigens without systemic infection; thus, saliva might be reflecting a local (protective?) response against this protozoan. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Neutralization Takes Precedence Over IgG or IgA Isotype-related Functions in Mucosal HIV-1 Antibody-mediated Protection.

    PubMed

    Astronomo, Rena D; Santra, Sampa; Ballweber-Fleming, Lamar; Westerberg, Katharine G; Mach, Linh; Hensley-McBain, Tiffany; Sutherland, Laura; Mildenberg, Benjamin; Morton, Georgeanna; Yates, Nicole L; Mize, Gregory J; Pollara, Justin; Hladik, Florian; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Denny, Thomas N; Warrier, Ranjit; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Nitayapan, Sorachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Ferrari, Guido; Shaw, George M; Xia, Shi-Mao; Liao, Hua-Xin; Montefiori, David C; Tomaras, Georgia D; Haynes, Barton F; McElrath, Juliana M

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1 infection occurs primarily through mucosal transmission. Application of biologically relevant mucosal models can advance understanding of the functional properties of antibodies that mediate HIV protection, thereby guiding antibody-based vaccine development. Here, we employed a human ex vivo vaginal HIV-1 infection model and a rhesus macaque in vivo intrarectal SHIV challenge model to probe the protective capacity of monoclonal broadly-neutralizing (bnAb) and non-neutralizing Abs (nnAbs) that were functionally modified by isotype switching. For human vaginal explants, we developed a replication-competent, secreted NanoLuc reporter virus system and showed that CD4 binding site bnAbs b12 IgG1 and CH31 IgG1 and IgA2 isoforms potently blocked HIV-1 JR-CSF and HIV-1 Bal26 infection. However, IgG1 and IgA nnAbs, either alone or together, did not inhibit infection despite the presence of FcR-expressing effector cells in the tissue. In macaques, the CH31 IgG1 and IgA2 isoforms infused before high-dose SHIV challenge were completely to partially protective, respectively, while nnAbs (CH54 IgG1 and CH38 mIgA2) were non-protective. Importantly, in both mucosal models IgG1 isotype bnAbs were more protective than the IgA2 isotypes, attributable in part to greater neutralization activity of the IgG1 variants. These findings underscore the importance of potent bnAb induction as a primary goal of HIV-1 vaccine development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. IgG and IgG4 to 91 allergenic molecules in early childhood by route of exposure and current and future IgE sensitization: Results from the Multicentre Allergy Study birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Alina; Panetta, Valentina; Cappella, Antonio; Hofmaier, Stephanie; Hatzler, Laura; Rohrbach, Alexander; Tsilochristou, Olympia; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Hoffmann, Ute; Forster, Johannes; Zepp, Fred; Schuster, Antje; D'Amelio, Raffaele; Wahn, Ulrich; Keil, Thomas; Lau, Susanne; Matricardi, Paolo Maria

    2016-11-01

    Studies of a limited number of allergens suggested that nonsensitized children produce IgG responses mainly to foodborne allergens, whereas IgE-sensitized children also produce strong IgG responses to the respective airborne molecules. We sought to systematically test the hypothesis that both the route of exposure and IgE sensitization affect IgG responses to a broad array of allergenic molecules in early childhood. We examined sera of 148 children participating in the Multicentre Allergy Study, a birth cohort born in 1990. IgG to 91 molecules of 42 sources were tested with the ImmunoCAP Solid-Phase Allergen Chip (ISAC; TFS, Uppsala, Sweden). IgE sensitization at age 2 and 7 years was defined by IgE levels of 0.35 kU A /L or greater to 1 or more of 8 or 9 extracts from common allergenic sources, respectively. The prevalence and geometric mean levels of IgG to allergenic molecules in nonsensitized children were lower at age 2 years than in IgE-sensitized children, and they were extremely heterogeneous: highest for animal food (87% ± 13%; 61 ISAC Standardized Units [ISU], [95% CI, 52.5-71.5 ISU]), intermediate for vegetable food (48% ± 27%; 13 ISU [95% CI, 11.2-16.1 ISU]), and lowest for airborne allergens (24% ± 20%; 3 ISU [95% CI, 2.4-3.4 ISU]; P for trend < .001 [for percentages], P for trend < .001 [for levels]). IgG 4 antibodies were infrequent (<5%) and contributed poorly (<3%) to overall IgG antibody levels. IgG responses at age 2 years were slightly more frequent and stronger among children with than in those without IgE sensitization at age 7 years. The children's repertoire of IgG antibodies at 2 years of age to a broad array of animal foodborne, vegetable foodborne, and airborne allergenic molecules is profoundly dependent on the route of allergen exposure and the child's IgE sensitization status and only marginally involves the IgG 4 isotype. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc

  8. Anti-α-galactosidase A antibody response to agalsidase beta treatment: data from the Fabry Registry.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, William R; Linthorst, Gabor E; Germain, Dominique P; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Waldek, Stephen; Richards, Susan M; Beitner-Johnson, Dana; Cizmarik, Marta; Cole, J Alexander; Kingma, Wytske; Warnock, David G

    2012-03-01

    Agalsidase beta, a form of recombinant human α-galactosidase A (αGAL), is approved for use as enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for Fabry disease. An immunogenic response against a therapeutic protein could potentially impact its efficacy or safety. The development of anti-αGAL IgG antibodies was evaluated in 571 men and 251 women from the Fabry Registry who were treated with agalsidase beta. Most men developed antibodies (416 of 571, 73%), whereas most women did not (31 of 251, 12%). Women were also significantly more likely to tolerize than men; whereas 18 of 31 women tolerized (58%, 95%CI: 52%-64%), only 47 of 416 men tolerized during the observation period (11%, 95% CI: 8%-15%). Patients who eventually tolerized had lower median peak anti-αGAL IgG antibody titers than patients who remained seropositive at their most recent assessment (400 versus 3200 in men, 200 versus 400 in women, respectively). Patients with nonsense mutations in the GLA gene were more likely to develop anti-αGAL IgG antibodies than patients with missense mutations. Approximately 26% of men (151 of 571) reported infusion-associated reactions (IARs), compared to 11% of women (27 of 251). Men who developed anti-αGAL IgG antibodies were more likely to experience IARs compared to those who remained seronegative. Nine percent of seronegative men and women (34 of 375) reported IARs. The majority of IARs occurred during the first 6 to 12 months of agalsidase beta treatment and decreased over time, in both seroconverted and seronegative patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of phase I IgG antibodies to Coxiella burnetii with EIA as a screening test for blood donations.

    PubMed

    van der Hoek, W; Wielders, C C H; Schimmer, B; Wegdam-Blans, M C A; Meekelenkamp, J; Zaaijer, H L; Schneeberger, P M

    2012-11-01

    The presence of a high phase I IgG antibody titre may indicate chronic infection and a risk for the transmission of Coxiella burnetii through blood transfusion. The outbreak of Q fever in the Netherlands allowed for the comparison of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with the reference immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in a large group of individuals one year after acute Q fever. EIA is 100 % sensitive in detecting high (≥1:1,024) phase I IgG antibody titres. The cost of screening with EIA and confirming all EIA-positive results with IFA is much lower than screening all donations with IFA. This should be taken into account in cost-effectiveness analyses of screening programmes.

  10. Evaluation of Immunity and Seropositivity of IgG Antibodies to Canine Parvoviruses in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Babalola, E T; Ijaopo, O K; Okonko, I O

    2016-01-01

    Canine Parvovirus (CPV) is a very contagious and virulent viral disease affecting domestic dogs all over the world causing high morbidity and mortality in dogs, especially puppies. This study aimed at determining the seropositivity of IgG antibodies against CPV in vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs and to evaluate the immune status of dogs presented in Abeokuta. Forty-eight dogs were enrolled in this study. These dogs were presented at random for treatment, routine checkup, and vaccination at the State Veterinary Hospital and Veterinary Teaching Hospital all in Abeokuta. All the dogs were fully maintained under domestic setting. Selection for study was done based on thorough examination of the dogs and their medical records. The clients were informed of the nature of the investigation. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-CPV-IgG. In principle, protective immunity correlates with high antibody titers and this was determined using a commercially available immunocomb® test kit for anti-CPV IgG antibody. Of 48 dogs sampled, 38 (79.2%) had high level of anti-CPV antibody titer and 10 (20.8%) had low level of anti-CPV antibody titer. Twenty six (54.2%) were males while 22 (45.8%) were females. Forty-five (93.75%) dogs were exotic breeds while 3 (6.25%) dogs were mongrels. Thirty (62.5%) of the dogs were less than one year old and the age range of all dogs sampled was between 7 weeks and 7 years. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between sex and the level of immunity but significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed between ages of dogs, breeds, post-vaccination period, and the level of immunity. In conclusion, this study has further confirmed the presence of IgG antibodies against canine parvovirus among dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Of all variables evaluated, ages of dogs, breeds and post-vaccination period were the main correlates of the level of immunity to CPV. This study also showed agreement with previous studies in the diagnostic value

  11. A Secondary Antibody-Detecting Molecular Weight Marker with Mouse and Rabbit IgG Fc Linear Epitopes for Western Blot Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ta-Chun; Tung, Yi-Ching; Chu, Pei-Yu; Chuang, Chih-Hung; Hsieh, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chien-Chiao; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Kao, Chien-Han; Roffler, Steve R.; Cheng, Tian-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Molecular weight markers that can tolerate denaturing conditions and be auto-detected by secondary antibodies offer great efficacy and convenience for Western Blotting. Here, we describe M&R LE protein markers which contain linear epitopes derived from the heavy chain constant regions of mouse and rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG Fc LE). These markers can be directly recognized and stained by a wide range of anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies. We selected three mouse (M1, M2 and M3) linear IgG1 and three rabbit (R1, R2 and R3) linear IgG heavy chain epitope candidates based on their respective crystal structures. Western blot analysis indicated that M2 and R2 linear epitopes are effectively recognized by anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies, respectively. We fused the M2 and R2 epitopes (M&R LE) and incorporated the polypeptide in a range of 15–120 kDa auto-detecting markers (M&R LE protein marker). The M&R LE protein marker can be auto-detected by anti-mouse and anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibodies in standard immunoblots. Linear regression analysis of the M&R LE protein marker plotted as gel mobility versus the log of the marker molecular weights revealed good linearity with a correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.9965, indicating that the M&R LE protein marker displays high accuracy for determining protein molecular weights. This accurate, regular and auto-detected M&R LE protein marker may provide a simple, efficient and economical tool for protein analysis. PMID:27494183

  12. Enzyme immunoassays for IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii based on enhanced chemiluminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, C F

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the clinical performance of enzyme immunoassays for IgG and IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii based on enhanced chemiluminescence. METHODS--Classification of routine clinical samples from the originating laboratories was compared with that obtained using the chemiluminescence based assays. Resolution of discordant results was achieved by testing in alternative enzyme immunoassays (IgM) or by an independent laboratory using the dye test (IgG). RESULTS--Compared with resolved data, the IgM assay was found to be highly specific (100%) with a cut off selected to give optimal performance with respect to both the early detection of specific IgM and the detection of persistent levels of specific IgM (sensitivity 98%). Compared with resolved data, the IgG assay was shown to have a sensitivity and a specificity of 99.4%. CONCLUSIONS--The Amerlite Toxo IgM assay possesses high levels of sensitivity and specificity. Assay interference due to rheumatoid factor like substances is not a problem. The Amerlite Toxo IgG assay possesses good sensitivity and specificity, but is less sensitive for the detection of seroconversion than methods detecting both IgG and IgM. PMID:7560174

  13. [Preparation of freeze - drying control materials of IgG antibody against Schistosoma japonicum for immunodetection kits].

    PubMed

    Jin, Huang; Chun-Lian, Tang; Zu-Wu, Tu; Li, Tang; Ke-Hui, Zhang; Qian, Li; Jun, Ye

    2018-04-18

    To prepare freeze-drying control materials of IgG antibody against Schistosoma japonicum for detection kits. The serum samples of schistosomiasis patients from endemic areas and normal people without history of schistosome infection or contact with infested water in Hubei Province were collected. All the sera were detected by the method approved by China Food and Drug Administration and selected for preparation of quality control samples. Totally twelve positive quality control materials, ten negative quality control materials, and one sensitive and one precision quality control materials were screened. According to the positive serum level, the positive degrees of quality control materials were divided into strong, medium and weak levels. The stability could be valid for one year. The freeze-drying quality control materials of IgG antibody against S. japonicum for detection kits are prepared. They are easy to use and have good stability, and therefore, they may meet the requirement of quality control for the detection of schistosomiasis diagnostics kits.

  14. Antibody Production in Response to Staphylococcal MS-1 Phage Cocktail in Patients Undergoing Phage Therapy.

    PubMed

    Żaczek, Maciej; Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Owczarek, Barbara; Kopciuch, Agnieszka; Fortuna, Wojciech; Rogóż, Paweł; Górski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the humoral immune response (through the release of IgG, IgA, and IgM antiphage antibodies) to a staphylococcal phage cocktail in patients undergoing experimental phage therapy at the Phage Therapy Unit, Medical Center of the Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy in Wrocław, Poland. We also evaluated whether occurring antiphage antibodies had neutralizing properties toward applied phages (K rate). Among 20 examined patients receiving the MS-1 phage cocktail orally and/or locally, the majority did not show a noticeably higher level of antiphage antibodies in their sera during phage administration. Even in those individual cases with an increased immune response, mostly by induction of IgG and IgM, the presence of antiphage antibodies did not translate into unsatisfactory clinical results of phage therapy. On the other hand, a negative outcome of the treatment occurred in some patients who showed relatively weak production of antiphage antibodies before and during treatment. This may imply that possible induction of antiphage antibodies is not an obstacle to the implementation of phage therapy and support our assumption that the outcome of the phage treatment does not primarily depend on the appearance of antiphage antibodies in sera of patients during therapy. These conclusions are in line with our previous findings. The confirmation of this thesis is of great interest as regards the efficacy of phage therapy in humans.

  15. Fluorescent IgG fusion proteins made in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Luria, Yael; Raichlin, Dina; Benhar, Itai

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies are among the most powerful tools in biological and biomedical research and are presently the fastest growing category of new bio-pharmaceutics. The most common format of antibody applied for therapeutic, diagnostic and analytical purposes is the IgG format. For medical applications, recombinant IgGs are made in cultured mammalian cells in a process that is too expensive to be considered for producing antibodies for diagnostic and analytical purposes. Therefore, for such purposes, mouse monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal sera from immunized animals are used. While looking for an easier and more rapid way to prepare full-length IgGs for therapeutic purposes, we recently developed and reported an expression and purification protocol for full-length IgGs, and IgG-based fusion proteins in E. coli, called “Inclonals.” By applying the Inclonals technology, we could generate full-length IgGs that are genetically fused to toxins. The aim of the study described herein was to evaluate the possibility of applying the “Inclonals” technology for preparing IgG-fluorophore fusion proteins. We found that IgG fused to the green fluorescent proteins enhanced GFP (EGFP) while maintaining functionality in binding, lost most of its fluorescence during the refolding process. In contrast, we found that green fluorescent Superfolder GFP (SFGFP)-fused IgG and red fluorescent mCherry-fused IgG were functional in antigen binding and maintained fluorescence intensity. In addition, we found that we can link several SFGFPs in tandem to each IgG, with fluorescence intensity increasing accordingly. Fluorescent IgGs made in E. coli may become attractive alternatives to monoclonal or polyclonal fluorescent antibodies derived from animals. PMID:22531449

  16. Generation of human anti-MUC3 IgG antibodies after in vitro immunization of naive peripheral blood B-lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Baritaki, S; Zafiropoulos, A; Georgopoulos, E; Souris, S; Krambovitis, E

    2001-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that IgG antibodies can be generated to self-antigen peptides as well as against viral antigens by an antigen-specific in vitro immunization system of resting human peripheral B-lymphocytes. Using a synthetic peptide from the consensus variable tandem-repeat region of the MUC3 mucin (TSSITTTGTTSHSTPSP) as the B cell epitope, we immunized blood donor B-lymphocytes in vitro and tested for MUC3-specific antibodies by ELISA. After the primary activation step all antibodies were IgM. At the end of the secondary immunization step we obtained 1.8% (21/1138) of the cultures with IgG-switched antibodies. In a competitive inhibition ELISA using the MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, MUC4 and PIP2 peptides, only one culture (F8.1) gave satisfactory specific inhibition. Using this antibody in fluorometric studies, it stained cells from two colon carcinoma cell lines predominantly in the cytoplasm, whereas those from a breast cancer cell line stained predominantly the cell surface. In a preliminary immunohistological evaluation with formalin-fixed sections, the antibody appeared to moderately stain colon sections, but not breast sections or lymph node. This method of in vitro immunization may be a useful tool in generating IgG antibodies specific to self-antigens and could find applications in tumour targeting and immunotherapy.

  17. Antibody-Mediated and Cellular Immune Responses Induced in Naive Volunteers by Vaccination with Long Synthetic Peptides Derived from the Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Soto, Liliana; Perlaza, Blanca Liliana; Céspedes, Nora; Vera, Omaira; Lenis, Ana Milena; Bonelo, Anilza; Corradin, Giampietro; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a leading malaria vaccine candidate. We describe the characterization of specific immune responses induced in 21 malaria-naive volunteers vaccinated with long synthetic peptides derived from the CS protein formulated in Montanide ISA 720. Both antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses were analyzed. Antibodies were predominantly of IgG1 and IgG3 isotypes, recognized parasite proteins on the immunofluorescent antibody test, and partially blocked sporozoite invasion of hepatoma cell lines in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from most volunteers (94%) showed IFN-γ production in vitro upon stimulation with both long signal peptide and short peptides containing CD8+ T-cell epitopes. The relatively limited sample size did not allow conclusions about HLA associations with the immune responses observed. In summary, the inherent safety and tolerability together with strong antibody responses, invasion blocking activity, and the IFN-γ production induced by these vaccine candidates warrants further testing in a phase II clinical trial. PMID:21292876

  18. Antibodies to calmodulin during experimental Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infections in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Ruben, L; Patton, C L

    1985-01-01

    Calmodulin is an intracellular Ca2+ receptor protein which regulates a wide variety of enzymatic processes in eukaryotic cells examined in detail. Native calmodulin is not antigenic in rabbits because of its small size, high degree of amino acid sequence conservation and hydrophobicity. African trypanosomes contain a novel calmodulin which is structurally distinct from bovine brain and Tetrahymena calmodulins. In the present study, we examine the antibody response towards these calmodulins during chronic Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infections. Injection of purified trypanosome calmodulin into rabbits stimulates the production of specific IgG antibodies which recognize trypanosome, but not bovine brain or Tetrahymena calmodulins. By contrast, during chronic T. brucei infections in rabbits, antibodies (IgG + IgM + IgA) that recognize trypanosome, Tetrahymena and mammalian calmodulins arise. When only IgG antibodies are evaluated from infection sera, the major response is against mammalian and Tetrahymena calmodulins. Significantly fewer IgG antibodies are measured in the infection sera which recognize trypanosome calmodulin, while the non-specific control protein, chicken ovalbumin, is not recognized. Peak IgG antibody responses against calmodulin occur between Days 30-34 post-infection. Competition assays indicate that Tetrahymena and mammalian calmodulins are recognized at identical epitopes which are distinct from epitopes on trypanosome calmodulin. We conclude that, in the context of chronic T. brucei infections in rabbits, antibodies arise which are able to recognize mammalian host calmodulin. Images Figure 1 PMID:2414212

  19. Signaling by Antibodies: Recent Progress

    PubMed Central

    Bournazos, Stylianos; Wang, Taia T.; Dahan, Rony; Maamary, Jad; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.

    2017-01-01

    IgG antibodies mediate a diversity of immune functions by coupling of antigen specificity through the Fab domain to signal transduction via Fc-Fc receptor interactions. Indeed, balanced IgG signaling through Type I and Type II Fc receptors is required for the control of pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory processes. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that govern IgG-Fc receptor interactions, highlighting the diversity of Fc receptor-mediated effector functions that regulate immunity and inflammation, as well as determine susceptibility to infection and autoimmunity, and responsiveness to antibody-based therapeutics, and vaccine responses. PMID:28446061

  20. Complement deposition induced by binding of anti-contactin-1 auto-antibodies is modified by immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Appeltshauser, Luise; Weishaupt, Andreas; Sommer, Claudia; Doppler, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory neuropathies associated with auto-antibodies against paranodal proteins like contactin-1 are reported to respond poorly to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). A reason might be that IVIG interacts with the complement pathway and these auto-antibodies often belong to the IgG4 subclass that does not activate complement. However, some patients do show a response to IVIG, especially at the beginning of the disease. This corresponds with the finding of coexisting IgG subclasses IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3. We therefore aimed to investigate complement deposition and activation by samples of three patients with anti-contactin-1 IgG auto-antibodies of different subclasses as a potential predictor for response to IVIG. Complement deposition and activation was measured by cell binding and ELISA based assays, and the effect of IVIG on complement deposition was assessed by addition of different concentrations of IVIG. Binding of anti-contactin-1 auto-antibodies of all three patients induced complement deposition and activation with the strongest effect shown by the serum of a patient with predominance of IgG3 auto-antibodies. IVIG led to a reduction of complement deposition in a dose-dependent manner, but did not reduce binding of auto-antibodies to contactin-1. We conclude that complement deposition may contribute to the pathophysiology of anti-contactin-1 associated neuropathy, particularly in patients with predominance of the IgG3 subclass. The proportion of different auto-antibody subclasses may be a predictor for the response to IVIG in patients with auto-antibodies against paranodal proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. "Checkerboard" assessments of periodontal microbiota and serum antibody responses: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Papapanou, P N; Neiderud, A M; Papadimitriou, A; Sandros, J; Dahlén, G

    2000-06-01

    We explored the association between subgingival microbial profiles and serum IgG responses to periodontal microbiota in relation to clinical periodontal status. One hundred thirty-one (131) periodontitis patients aged 29 to 74 years (mean 51.8) were age- and gender-matched with 74 periodontally intact controls (range 26 to 77, mean 49.3). Smoking habits and health history were recorded and assessments of plaque, bleeding on probing, probing depth, and attachment level were performed at 6 sites per tooth on all present teeth, excluding third molars. Subgingival plaque samples were obtained from each tooth in one upper and one lower quadrant (maximum 14 samples/subject; 2,440 samples total) and analyzed with respect to 19 species by means of whole genomic DNA probes. Serum IgG antibodies against the same 19 species were assessed by an immunoassay. Cases displayed an average of 22.7 teeth, 20.3 sites with probing depth > or =6 mm, and 18.9 sites with attachment loss > or =6 mm. Corresponding figures for controls were 27.1, 0.1, and 1.0, respectively. Heavy smoking was 3 times more frequent among cases than controls (32.1% versus 9.6%). Higher levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella melaninogenica, Bacteroides forsythus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Treponema denticola, Eubacterium nodatum, Peptostreptococcus micros, and Campylobacter rectus were found in cases and higher levels of Eikenella corrodens, Veillonella parvula, and Actinomyces naeslundii in controls. Cases displayed higher IgG levels against P. gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, while controls displayed higher levels against F. nucleatum, T. denticola, E. nodatum, and Capnocytophaga ochracea. Positive correlations between bacterial colonization and antibody responses were identified for 9 species in controls. In cases, however, statistically significant correlations were observed for only 3 species out of which

  2. Human Antibody Response to Aedes aegypti Saliva in an Urban Population in Bolivia: A New Biomarker of Exposure to Dengue Vector Bites

    PubMed Central

    Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Cournil, Amandine; Le Goff, Gilbert; Cornelie, Sylvie; Roca, Yelin; Giraldez, Mabel Guerra; Simon, Zaira Barja; Loayza, Roxanna; Misse, Dorothée; Flores, Jorge Vargas; Walter, Annie; Rogier, Christophe; Herve, Jean Pierre; Remoue, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Aedes mosquitoes are important vectors of re-emerging diseases in developing countries, and increasing exposure to Aedes in the developed world is currently a source of concern. Given the limitations of current entomologic methods, there is a need for a new effective way for evaluating Aedes exposure. Our objective was to evaluate specific antibody responses to Aedes aegypti saliva as a biomarker for vector exposure in a dengue-endemic urban area. IgG responses to saliva were strong in young children and steadily waned with age. Specific IgG levels were significantly higher in persons living in sites with higher Ae. aegypti density, as measured by using entomologic parameters. Logistic regression showed a significant correlation between IgG to saliva and exposure level, independently of either age or sex. These results suggest that antibody responses to saliva could be used to monitor human exposure to Aedes bites. PMID:22848099

  3. The Biology of IgG Subclasses and Their Clinical Relevance to Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Nicole M; Schaub, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the dominant immunoglobulin and can be divided into 4 distinct subclasses. The evolution of IgG subclass switches is regulated by interaction with T cells and follows a 1-way direction (IgG3 → IgG1 → IgG2 → IgG4). Based on their structure, the 4 IgG subclasses can initiate different effector function such as complement activation, recruitment of various cells by Fc receptors, and agonistic signaling. Using current assays for HLA antibody detection as a template and replacing the generic reporter antibody with IgG subclass-specific reporter antibodies, it is possible to investigate the IgG subclasses of HLA antibodies. There are 15 different IgG subclass compositions possible. Based on the capability to activate the complement system and the class switch direction, 3 arbitrary patterns can be defined (ie, only complement-binding subclasses [IgG3 and/or IgG1], expansion to noncomplement-binding subclasses [IgG3 and/or IgG1 plus IgG2 and/or IgG4], and switch to noncomplement-binding subclasses [IgG2 and/or IgG4]). The latter group accounts for less than 5%, whereas the former 2 groups have a similar prevalence close to 50%. In the past 5 years, several studies correlated the IgG subclass pattern with occurrence of antibody-mediated rejection and allograft outcomes. Because of differences of the used IgG subclass assay, the time point of analyses, and the definition of outcomes, a clear picture has not emerged yet. Future needs are standardization of the assay, a more detailed knowledge of the initiated effector functions, and more well-designed clinical studies also looking at changes of the IgG subclass pattern over time.

  4. A quantitative ELISA for antigen-specific IgG subclasses using equivalence dilutions of anti-kappa and anti-subclass specific secondary reagents. Application to the study of the murine immune response against the capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B.

    PubMed

    Colino, J; Diez, M; Outschoorn, I

    1996-04-19

    We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure murine antigen-specific IgG antibodies of defined subclass using precalibrated equivalence dilutions of anti-kappa (in the standard) and each anti-IgG subclass-specific polyclonal secondary antibody (in the test sample). The calibration of secondary reagents could be carried out easily with a set of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) specific for all IgG subclasses. These MoAbs do not require purification or standardization. In addition the MoAbs can be of different antigenic specificity. Once the equivalence dilutions have been determined, they can be applied in a quantitative ELISA using the same antigen in the standard and sample, and using only one IgG subclass standard for the determination of all the IgG subclasses. The method is easy to standardize for many antigenic systems. It is particularly useful when the only standard available is one standardized MoAb of the appropriate specificity, and it could be adapted to use with standard polyclonal antibodies having a known content of total antigen-specific IgG bearing kappa chains but unknown IgG subclass composition. The use of this method to quantitate IgG specific for the capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (CpsB) gave highly reproducible measures with an interbatch CV of 5-6% similar for all IgG subclasses and low detection limits ranging from 0.3 ng/well for IgG3 to 0.8 ng/well for IgG2a. The IgG subclass response observed after immunization with live meningococci was mainly IgG2a (74%) and IgG2b (18%). Hyperimmunization modified this IgG distribution to one of mainly IgG3 (62%) and IgG1 (28%) which was maintained in the response to a single immunization 4 weeks later, possibly indicating the generation of resting B cells during continuous stimulation.

  5. Kinetics and magnitude of antibody responses against the conserved 47-kilodalton antigen and the variable 56-kilodalton antigen in scrub typhus patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Huber, Erin; Mutumanje, Elissa; Chao, Chien-Chung; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2011-06-01

    Western blot analysis of Orientia tsutsugamushi whole-cell lysates with scrub typhus patient sera has identified at least five protein antigens of O. tsutsugamushi with molecular sizes of 22 kDa, 47 kDa, 56 kDa, 58 kDa, and 110 kDa. In this study, sera from serial bleedings of 108 patients were used to study the kinetics and the magnitude of specific antibody responses against the 47-kDa and 56-kDa antigens. Recombinant protein of the conserved 47-kDa antigen (r47b) or a mixture of truncated 56-kDa antigen (r56s) from three prototype strains was used as the antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results showed that 76% and 93% of these patients had elevated IgM and IgG against r47b, respectively, and 98% and 100% had elevated IgM and IgG against r56s, respectively. The kinetics of antibody responses against r47b and r56s can be grouped into three patterns. In the first type of response, IgM and IgG against r47b and r56s appeared about the same time. The IgM and IgG titers against r56s were much higher than those against r47b. In the second type of response, induction of IgM appeared to be similar to that in the first type. The major difference to the first type is that the IgG titers against r47b were induced at least 1 week later than those against the r56s. The third type showed strong IgG responses against both r47b and r56s, and low or no IgM responses indicated a secondary infection. This is the first systematic investigation of antibody response kinetics against the conserved 47-kDa antigen versus the variable 56-kDa antigen in scrub typhus patients.

  6. IgG antibodies to synthetic GPI are biomarkers of immune-status to both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in young children.

    PubMed

    França, Camila T; Li Wai Suen, Connie S N; Carmagnac, Amandine; Lin, Enmoore; Kiniboro, Benson; Siba, Peter; Schofield, Louis; Mueller, Ivo

    2017-09-25

    Further reduction in malaria prevalence and its eventual elimination would be greatly facilitated by the development of biomarkers of exposure and/or acquired immunity to malaria, as well as the deployment of effective vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. A better understanding of the acquisition of immunity in naturally-exposed populations is essential for the identification of antigens useful as biomarkers, as well as to inform rational vaccine development. ELISA was used to measure total IgG to a synthetic form of glycosylphosphatidylinositol from P. falciparum (PfGPI) in a cohort of 1-3 years old Papua New Guinea children with well-characterized individual differences in exposure to P. falciparum and P. vivax blood-stage infections. The relationship between IgG levels to PfGPI and measures of recent and past exposure to P. falciparum and P. vivax infections was investigated, as well as the association between antibody levels and prospective risk of clinical malaria over 16 months of follow-up. Total IgG levels to PfGPI were low in the young children tested. Antibody levels were higher in the presence of P. falciparum or P. vivax infections, but short-lived. High IgG levels were associated with higher risk of P. falciparum malaria (IRR 1.33-1.66, P = 0.008-0.027), suggesting that they are biomarkers of increased exposure to P. falciparum infections. Given the cross-reactive nature of antibodies to PfGPI, high IgG levels were also associated with reduced risk of P. vivax malaria (IRR 0.65-0.67, P = 0.039-0.044), indicating that these antibodies are also markers of acquired immunity to P. vivax. This study highlights that in young children, IgG to PfGPI might be a useful marker of immune-status to both P. falciparum and P. vivax infections, and potentially useful to help malaria control programs to identify populations at-risk. Further functional studies are necessary to confirm the potential of PfGPI as a target for vaccine

  7. Can antibodies with specificity for soluble antigens mimic the therapeutic effects of intravenous IgG in the treatment of autoimmune disease?

    PubMed Central

    Siragam, Vinayakumar; Brinc, Davor; Crow, Andrew R.; Song, Seng; Freedman, John; Lazarus, Alan H.

    2005-01-01

    Intravenous Ig (IVIg) mediates protection from the effects of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) as well as numerous other autoimmune states; however, the active antibodies within IVIg are unknown. There is some evidence that antibodies specific for a cell-associated antigen on erythrocytes are responsible, at least in part, for the therapeutic effect of IVIg in ITP. Yet whether an IVIg directed to a soluble antigen can likewise be beneficial in ITP or other autoimmune diseases is also unknown. A murine model of ITP was used to determine the effectiveness of IgG specific to soluble antigens in treating immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Mice experimentally treated with soluble OVA + anti-OVA versus mice treated with OVA conjugated to rbcs (OVA-rbcs) + anti-OVA were compared. In both situations, mice were protected from ITP. Both these experimental therapeutic regimes acted in a complement-independent fashion and both also blocked reticuloendothelial function. In contrast to OVA-rbcs + anti-OVA, soluble OVA + anti-OVA (as well as IVIg) did not have any effect on thrombocytopenia in mice lacking the inhibitory receptor FcγRIIB (FcγRIIB–/– mice). Similarly, antibodies reactive with the endogenous soluble antigens albumin and transferrin also ameliorated ITP in an FcγRIIB-dependent manner. Finally, broadening the significance of these experiments was the finding that anti-albumin was protective in a K/BxN serum–induced arthritis model. We conclude that IgG antibodies directed to soluble antigens ameliorated 2 disparate IVIg-treatable autoimmune diseases. PMID:15630455

  8. A New Classification System for IgG4 Autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Koneczny, Inga

    2018-01-01

    IgG4 autoimmune diseases are characterized by the presence of antigen-specific autoantibodies of the IgG4 subclass and contain well-characterized diseases such as muscle-specific kinase myasthenia gravis, pemphigus, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. In recent years, several new diseases were identified, and by now 14 antigens targeted by IgG4 autoantibodies have been described. The IgG4 subclass is considered immunologically inert and functionally monovalent due to structural differences compared to other IgG subclasses. IgG4 usually arises after chronic exposure to antigen and competes with other antibody species, thus “blocking” their pathogenic effector mechanisms. Accordingly, in the context of IgG4 autoimmunity, the pathogenicity of IgG4 is associated with blocking of enzymatic activity or protein–protein interactions of the target antigen. Pathogenicity of IgG4 autoantibodies has not yet been systematically analyzed in IgG4 autoimmune diseases. Here, we establish a modified classification system based on Witebsky’s postulates to determine IgG4 pathogenicity in IgG4 autoimmune diseases, review characteristics and pathogenic mechanisms of IgG4 in these disorders, and also investigate the contribution of other antibody entities to pathophysiology by additional mechanisms. As a result, three classes of IgG4 autoimmune diseases emerge: class I where IgG4 pathogenicity is validated by the use of subclass-specific autoantibodies in animal models and/or in vitro models of pathogenicity; class II where IgG4 pathogenicity is highly suspected but lack validation by the use of subclass specific antibodies in in vitro models of pathogenicity or animal models; and class III with insufficient data or a pathogenic mechanism associated with multivalent antigen binding. Five out of the 14 IgG4 antigens were validated as class I, five as class II, and four as class III. Antibodies of other IgG subclasses or immunoglobulin classes were present in several diseases

  9. Stringently Defined Otitis Prone Children Demonstrate Deficient Naturally Induced Mucosal Antibody Response to Moraxella catarrhalis Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Dabin; Murphy, Timothy F.; Lafontaine, Eric R.; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) is a prominent mucosal pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM). We studied Mcat nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization, AOM frequency and mucosal antibody responses to four vaccine candidate Mcat proteins: outer membrane protein (OMP) CD, oligopeptide permease (Opp) A, hemagglutinin (Hag), and Pilin A clade 2 (PilA2) from stringently defined otitis prone (sOP) children, who experience the greatest burden of disease, compared to non-otitis prone (NOP) children. sOP children had higher NP colonization of Mcat (30 vs. 22%, P = 0.0003) and Mcat-caused AOM rates (49 vs. 24%, P < 0.0001) than NOP children. Natural acquisition of mucosal antibodies to Mcat proteins OMP CD (IgG, P < 0.0001), OppA (IgG, P = 0.018), Hag (IgG and IgA, both P < 0.0001), and PilA2 (IgA, P < 0.0001) was lower in sOP than NOP children. Higher levels of mucosal IgG to Hag (P = 0.039) and PilA2 (P = 0.0076), and IgA to OMP CD (P = 0.010), OppA (P = 0.030), and PilA2 (P = 0.043) were associated with lower carriage of Mcat in NOP but not sOP children. Higher levels of mucosal IgG to OMP CD (P = 0.0070) and Hag (P = 0.0003), and IgA to Hag (P = 0.0067) at asymptomatic colonization than those at onset of AOM were associated with significantly lower rate of Mcat NP colonization progressing to AOM in NOP compared to sOP children (3 vs. 26%, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, sOP children had a diminished mucosal antibody response to Mcat proteins, which was associated with higher frequencies of asymptomatic NP colonization and NP colonization progressing to Mcat-caused AOM. Enhancing Mcat antigen-specific mucosal immune responses to levels higher than achieved by natural exposure will be necessary to prevent AOM in sOP children. PMID:28848555

  10. The effect of glycosylation of antigens on the antibody responses against Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Sotillo, Javier; Cortés, Alba; Muñoz-Antoli, Carla; Fried, Bernard; Esteban, J Guillermo; Toledo, Rafael

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, we analyse the effect of glycosylation in Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) antigens in antibody responses against the parasite in experimentally infected mice. It has been previously demonstrated that the mouse is a host of high compatibility with E. caproni and develops elevated responses of IgG, IgG1, IgG3 and IgM as a consequence of the infection, though the role of glycans in these responses remains unknown. To this purpose, the responses generated in mice against non-treated excretory/secretory antigens of E. caproni were compared with those observed after N-deglycosylation, O-deglycosylation and double deglycosylation of the antigens by indirect ELISA and western blot. Our results suggest that E. caproni-expressed glycans play a major role in the modulation of the immune responses. The results obtained indicate that IgG subclass responses generated in mice against E. caproni are essentially due to glycoproteins and may affect the Th1/Th2 biasing. The reactivity significantly decreased after any of the deglycosylation treatments and the N-glycans appears to be of greater importance than O-glycans. Interestingly, the IgM response increased after N-deglycosylation suggesting that carbohydrates may mask peptide antigens.

  11. Detection of rabbit IgG by using functional magnetic particles and an enzyme-conjugated antibody with a homemade magnetic microplate.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hweiyan; Lu, Yi-Hsuan; Liao, Huan-Xuan; Wu, Shih-Wei; Yu, Feng-Yih; Fuh, Chwan Bor

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used for diagnosing medical and plant pathologies. In addition, it is used for quality-control evaluations in various industries. The ELISA is the simplest method for obtaining excellent results; however, it is time consuming because the immunoreagents interact only on the contact surfaces. Antibody-labeled magnetic particles can be dispersed in a solution to yield a pseudohomogeneous reaction with antigens which improved the efficiency of immunoreaction, and can be easily separated from the unreactive substances by applying a magnetic force. We used a homemade magnetic microplate, functional magnetic particles (MPs) and enzyme-labeled secondary antibody to perform the sandwich ELISA successfully. Using antibody-labeled MPs enabled reducing the analysis time to one-third of that required in using a conventional ELISA. The secondary antibody conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was affinity-bound to the analyte (IgG in this study). The calibration curve was established according to the measured absorbance of the 3, 3', 5, 5'-tetramethybezidine-HRP reaction products versus the concentrations of standard IgG. The linear range of IgG detection was 114 ng/mL-3.5 ng/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) of IgG was 3.4 ng/mL. The recovery and coefficient of variation were 100% (±7%) and 116% (±4%) for the spiked concentrations of 56.8 ng/mL and 14.2 ng/mL, respectively. Pseudohomogeneous reactions can be performed using functional MPs and a magnetic microplate. Using antibody-labeled MPs, the analysis time can be reduced to one-third of that required in using a conventional ELISA. The substrate-enzyme reaction products can be easily transferred to another microplate, and their absorbance can be measured without interference by light scattering caused by magnetic microbeads. This method demonstrates great potential for detecting other biomarkers and in biochemical applications. Graphical AbstractA magnetic

  12. Enzyme-linked immunoassay for dengue virus IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and filter paper blood.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thanh Nga T; de Vries, Peter J; Hoang, Lan Phuong; Phan, Giao T; Le, Hung Q; Tran, Binh Q; Vo, Chi Mai T; Nguyen, Nam V; Kager, Piet A; Nagelkerke, Nico; Groen, Jan

    2006-01-25

    The reproducibilty of dengue IgM and IgG ELISA was studied in serum and filter paper blood spots from Vietnamese febrile patients. 781 pairs of acute (t0) and convalescent sera, obtained after three weeks (t3) and 161 corresponding pairs of filter paper blood spots were tested with ELISA for dengue IgG and IgM. 74 serum pairs were tested again in another laboratory with similar methods, after a mean of 252 days. Cases were classified as no dengue (10 %), past dengue (55%) acute primary (7%) or secondary (28%) dengue. Significant differences between the two laboratories' results were found leading to different diagnostic classification (kappa 0.46, p < 0.001). Filter paper results correlated poorly to serum values, being more variable and lower with a mean (95% CI) difference of 0.82 (0.36 to 1.28) for IgMt3, 0.94 (0.51 to 1.37) for IgGt0 and 0.26 (-0.20 to 0.71) for IgGt3. This also led to differences in diagnostic classification (kappa value 0.44, p < 0.001) The duration of storage of frozen serum and dried filter papers, sealed in nylon bags in an air-conditioned room, had no significant effect on the ELISA results. Dengue virus IgG antibodies in serum and filter papers was not affected by duration of storage, but was subject to inter-laboratory variability. Dengue virus IgM antibodies measured in serum reconstituted from blood spots on filter papers were lower than in serum, in particular in the acute phase of disease. Therefore this method limits its value for diagnostic confirmation of individual patients with dengue virus infections. However the detection of dengue virus IgG antibodies eluted from filter paper can be used for sero-prevalence cross sectional studies.

  13. Enzyme-linked immunoassay for dengue virus IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and filter paper blood

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thanh Nga T; de Vries, Peter J; Hoang, Lan Phuong; Phan, Giao T; Le, Hung Q; Tran, Binh Q; Vo, Chi Mai T; Nguyen, Nam V; Kager, Piet A; Nagelkerke, Nico; Groen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Background The reproducibilty of dengue IgM and IgG ELISA was studied in serum and filter paper blood spots from Vietnamese febrile patients. Methods 781 pairs of acute (t0) and convalescent sera, obtained after three weeks (t3) and 161 corresponding pairs of filter paper blood spots were tested with ELISA for dengue IgG and IgM. 74 serum pairs were tested again in another laboratory with similar methods, after a mean of 252 days. Results Cases were classified as no dengue (10 %), past dengue (55%) acute primary (7%) or secondary (28%) dengue. Significant differences between the two laboratories' results were found leading to different diagnostic classification (kappa 0.46, p < 0.001). Filter paper results correlated poorly to serum values, being more variable and lower with a mean (95% CI) difference of 0.82 (0.36 to 1.28) for IgMt3, 0.94 (0.51 to 1.37) for IgGt0 and 0.26 (-0.20 to 0.71) for IgGt3. This also led to differences in diagnostic classification (kappa value 0.44, p < 0.001) The duration of storage of frozen serum and dried filter papers, sealed in nylon bags in an air-conditioned room, had no significant effect on the ELISA results. Conclusion Dengue virus IgG antibodies in serum and filter papers was not affected by duration of storage, but was subject to inter-laboratory variability. Dengue virus IgM antibodies measured in serum reconstituted from blood spots on filter papers were lower than in serum, in particular in the acute phase of disease. Therefore this method limits its value for diagnostic confirmation of individual patients with dengue virus infections. However the detection of dengue virus IgG antibodies eluted from filter paper can be used for sero-prevalence cross sectional studies. PMID:16436203

  14. Measurement of Typhi Vi antibodies can be used to assess adaptive immunity in patients with immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Evans, C; Bateman, E; Steven, R; Ponsford, M; Cullinane, A; Shenton, C; Duthie, G; Conlon, C; Jolles, S; Huissoon, A P; Longhurst, H J; Rahman, T; Scott, C; Wallis, G; Harding, S; Parker, A R; Ferry, B L

    2018-01-29

    Vaccine-specific antibody responses are essential in the diagnosis of antibody deficiencies. Responses to Pneumovax II are used to assess the response to polysaccharide antigens, but interpretation may be complicated. Typhim Vi ® , a polysaccharide vaccine for Salmonella typhoid fever, may be an additional option for assessing humoral responses in patients suspected of having an immunodeficiency. Here we report a UK multi-centre study describing the analytical and clinical performance of a Typhi Vi immunoglobulin (Ig)G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) calibrated to an affinity-purified Typhi Vi IgG preparation. Intra- and interassay imprecision was low and the assay was linear, between 7·4 and 574 U/ml (slope = 0·99-1·00; R 2  > 0·99); 71% of blood donors had undetectable Typhi Vi IgG antibody concentrations. Of those with antibody concentrations  > 7·4 U/ml, the concentration range was 7·7-167 U/ml. In antibody-deficient patients receiving antibody replacement therapy the median Typhi Vi IgG antibody concentrations were  < 25 U/ml. In vaccinated normal healthy volunteers, the median concentration post-vaccination was 107 U/ml (range 31-542 U/ml). Eight of eight patients (100%) had post-vaccination concentration increases of at least threefold and six of eight (75%) of at least 10-fold. In an antibody-deficient population (n = 23), only 30% had post-vaccination concentration increases of at least threefold and 10% of at least 10-fold. The antibody responses to Pneumovax II and Typhim Vi ® correlated. We conclude that IgG responses to Typhim Vi ® vaccination can be measured using the VaccZyme Salmonella typhi Vi IgG ELISA, and that measurement of these antibodies maybe a useful additional test to accompany Pneumovax II responses for the assessment of antibody deficiencies. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Immunology.

  15. Correlation between the Amount of Anti-D Antibodies and IgG Subclasses with Severity of Haemolytic Disease of Foetus and Newborn.

    PubMed

    Velkova, Emilija

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of subclasses to IgG anti-D on the intensity of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN) at 45 fetuses/newborns with symptoms of mild and severe HDFN in Republic of Macedonia. In retrospective and prospective studies, in a period of 10 years, from 2004 to 2014, there have been immunohemathology tests performed on 22 009 samples on serums of pregnant women. At 37.78% of the total number of tested patients, IgG1 and IgG3 was the reason for severe HDFN. At 17.77% of the total number of tested patients, which had only IgG1detected, was the reason for serious intensity of HDFN. The correlation of the titer to anti-D antibodies in the mother's serum and the intensity of HDFN were researched in 48 newborns. The titers between 1:8 and 1:32 resulted in 3 cases of HDFN with symptoms of severe disease and in 4 cases there were no signs of HDFN. At 12 women that had a titre between 1:32 and 1:512, five of the newborns developed severe HDFN, and seven had symptoms of mild and weak intensity form. In 3 cases the titer was higher than 512, and out of them one newborn had weak symptoms of HDFN, one developed severe HDFN and one ended with foetal death. Only in one case the titer reached a value higher than 1000, and it ended with a fetal death. The titers of the pregnant women serum those are lower than 32 and those higher than 1000 can well predict HDFN. The titers of anti-D antibodies between 64 and 512 have no exact predictive value. IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses of anti-D have no predictive value by themselves, and cannot foresee the outcome of HDFN. The research study results suggest that IgG1 and IgG3 should be included in a multi - parameter protocol for evaluation of the HDFN intensity. They can give a real assessment of the expected HDFN intensity in combination with the titer hight and the significance of the antibodies.

  16. Immunodominant IgM and IgG Epitopes Recognized by Antibodies Induced in Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aw-Yong, Kam Leng; Sam, I-Ching; Koh, Mia Tuang

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is one of the main causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Unlike other enteroviruses that cause HFMD, EV-A71 is more frequently associated with severe neurological complications and fatality. To date, no effective licensed antivirals are available to combat EV-A71 infection. Little is known about the immunogenicity of viral non-structural proteins in humans. Previous studies have mainly focused on characterization of epitopes of EV-A71 structural proteins by using immunized animal antisera. In this study, we have characterized human antibody responses against the structural and non-structural proteins of EV-A71. Each viral protein was cloned and expressed in either bacterial or mammalian systems, and tested with antisera by western blot. Results revealed that all structural proteins (VP1-4), and non-structural proteins 2A, 3C and 3D were targets of EV-A71 IgM, whereas EV-A71 IgG recognized all the structural and non-structural proteins. Sixty three synthetic peptides predicted to be immunogenic in silico were synthesized and used for the characterization of EV-A71 linear B-cell epitopes. In total, we identified 22 IgM and four IgG dominant epitopes. Synthetic peptide PEP27, corresponding to residues 142–156 of VP1, was identified as the EV-A71 IgM-specific immunodominant epitope. PEP23, mapped to VP1 41–55, was recognized as the EV-A71 IgG cross-reactive immunodominant epitope. The structural protein VP1 is the major immunodominant site targeted by anti-EV-A71 IgM and IgG antibodies, but epitopes against non-structural proteins were also detected. These data provide new understanding of the immune response to EV-A71 infection, which benefits the development of diagnostic tools, potential therapeutics and subunit vaccine candidates. PMID:27806091

  17. Identification of anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies using IgG platelet antibody detection and crossmatch system assay with Galileo Echo.

    PubMed

    Di Cristofaro, Julie; Frassati, Coralie; Montagnie, Rolande; Basire, Agnes; Merieux, Yves; Picard, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Fetal/neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia is the most frequent and the most dangerous clinical condition involving anti-human platelet antigens (HPA)-1a allo-antibodies. Anti-HPA-1a allo-immunization requires rapid and accurate diagnosis to determine appropriate treatment. The Capture-P Ready-Screen assay (C-PRS) is a new qualitative immunoassay to detect IgG anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and anti-HPA allo-antibodies. The aim of this study is to assess the identification of anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies using the C-PRS assay, associated with HLA class I stripping reagents, on the automated benchtop analyzer Galileo Echo. Forty-nine sera were analyzed: without anti-HLA class I or anti-HPA allo-antibodies, with anti-HLA class I allo-antibodies, with anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies, among which with anti-HLA class I allo-antibodies. None of the samples without allo-antibodies were reactive. Only anti-HLA antibodies, detected by cytotoxicity-dependent complement and not by Luminex, remained positive before and after stripping reagents. Of the 13 samples, anti-HPA-1a allo-antibodies that were correctly identified before and after incubation with HLA assassin reagent were 70% and 85%, respectively. Anti-glycoprotein auto-antibodies and anti-HLA allo-antibodies do not interfere with the detection of anti-HPA-1a antibodies. This preliminary study indicates that further improvement of the test will be helpful in developing a clinically useful assay in the future.

  18. Isolation of Mal d 1 and Api g 1 - specific recombinant antibodies from mouse IgG Fab fragment libraries - Mal d 1-specific antibody exhibits cross-reactivity against Bet v 1.

    PubMed

    Haka, Jaana; Niemi, Merja H; Iljin, Kristiina; Reddy, Vanga Siva; Takkinen, Kristiina; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena

    2015-05-27

    Around 3-5% of the population suffer from IgE-mediated food allergies in Western countries and the number of food-allergenic people is increasing. Individuals with certain pollen allergies may also suffer from a sensitisation to proteins in the food products. As an example a person sensitised to the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, is often sensitised to its homologues, such as the major allergens of apple, Mal d 1, and celery, Api g 1, as well. Development of tools for the reliable, sensitive and quick detection of allergens present in various food products is essential for allergic persons to prevent the consumption of substances causing mild and even life-threatening immune responses. The use of monoclonal antibodies would ensure the specific detection of the harmful food content for a sensitised person. Mouse IgG antibody libraries were constructed from immunised mice and specific recombinant antibodies for Mal d 1 and Api g 1 were isolated from the libraries by phage display. More detailed characterisation of the resulting antibodies was carried out using ELISA, SPR experiments and immunoprecipitation assays. The allergen-specific Fab fragments exhibited high affinity towards the target recombinant allergens. Furthermore, the Fab fragments also recognised native allergens from natural sources. Interestingly, isolated Mal d 1-specific antibody bound also to Bet v 1, the main allergen eliciting the cross-reactivity syndrome between the birch pollen and apple. Despite the similarities in Api g 1 and Bet v 1 tertiary structures, the isolated Api g 1-specific antibodies showed no cross-reactivity to Bet v 1. Here, high-affinity allergen-specific recombinant antibodies were isolated with interesting binding properties. With further development, these antibodies can be utilised as tools for the specific and reliable detection of allergens from different consumable products. This study gives new preliminary insights to elucidate the mechanism behind the pollen

  19. Broad cross-reactive IgG responses elicited by adjuvanted vaccination with recombinant influenza hemagglutinin (rHA) in ferrets and mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiong; Hilchey, Shannon P.; DeDiego, Marta; Perry, Sheldon; Hyrien, Ollivier; Nogales, Aitor; Garigen, Jessica; Amanat, Fatima; Huertas, Nelson; Krammer, Florian; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Topham, David J.; Treanor, John J.; Sangster, Mark Y.

    2018-01-01

    Annual immunization against influenza virus is a large international public health effort. Accumulating evidence suggests that antibody mediated cross-reactive immunity against influenza hemagglutinin (HA) strongly correlates with long-lasting cross-protection against influenza virus strains that differ from the primary infection or vaccination strain. However, the optimal strategies for achieving highly cross-reactive antibodies to the influenza virus HA have not yet to be defined. In the current study, using Luminex-based mPlex-Flu assay, developed by our laboratory, to quantitatively measure influenza specific IgG antibody mediated cross-reactivity, we found that prime-boost-boost vaccination of ferrets with rHA proteins admixed with adjuvant elicited higher magnitude and broader cross-reactive antibody responses than that induced by actual influenza viral infection, and this cross-reactive response likely correlated with increased anti-stalk reactive antibodies. We observed a similar phenomenon in mice receiving three sequential vaccinations with rHA proteins from either A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) or A/Hong Kong/1/1968 (H3N2) viruses admixed with Addavax, an MF59-like adjuvant. Using this same mouse vaccination model, we determined that Addavax plays a more significant role in the initial priming event than in subsequent boosts. We also characterized the generation of cross-reactive antibody secreting cells (ASCs) and memory B cells (MBCs) when comparing vaccination to viral infection. We have also found that adjuvant plays a critical role in the generation of long-lived ASCs and MBCs cross-reactive to influenza viruses as a result of vaccination with rHA of influenza virus, and the observed increase in stalk-reactive antibodies likely contributes to this IgG mediated broad cross-reactivity. PMID:29641537

  20. Broad cross-reactive IgG responses elicited by adjuvanted vaccination with recombinant influenza hemagglutinin (rHA) in ferrets and mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiong; Hilchey, Shannon P; DeDiego, Marta; Perry, Sheldon; Hyrien, Ollivier; Nogales, Aitor; Garigen, Jessica; Amanat, Fatima; Huertas, Nelson; Krammer, Florian; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Topham, David J; Treanor, John J; Sangster, Mark Y; Zand, Martin S

    2018-01-01

    Annual immunization against influenza virus is a large international public health effort. Accumulating evidence suggests that antibody mediated cross-reactive immunity against influenza hemagglutinin (HA) strongly correlates with long-lasting cross-protection against influenza virus strains that differ from the primary infection or vaccination strain. However, the optimal strategies for achieving highly cross-reactive antibodies to the influenza virus HA have not yet to be defined. In the current study, using Luminex-based mPlex-Flu assay, developed by our laboratory, to quantitatively measure influenza specific IgG antibody mediated cross-reactivity, we found that prime-boost-boost vaccination of ferrets with rHA proteins admixed with adjuvant elicited higher magnitude and broader cross-reactive antibody responses than that induced by actual influenza viral infection, and this cross-reactive response likely correlated with increased anti-stalk reactive antibodies. We observed a similar phenomenon in mice receiving three sequential vaccinations with rHA proteins from either A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) or A/Hong Kong/1/1968 (H3N2) viruses admixed with Addavax, an MF59-like adjuvant. Using this same mouse vaccination model, we determined that Addavax plays a more significant role in the initial priming event than in subsequent boosts. We also characterized the generation of cross-reactive antibody secreting cells (ASCs) and memory B cells (MBCs) when comparing vaccination to viral infection. We have also found that adjuvant plays a critical role in the generation of long-lived ASCs and MBCs cross-reactive to influenza viruses as a result of vaccination with rHA of influenza virus, and the observed increase in stalk-reactive antibodies likely contributes to this IgG mediated broad cross-reactivity.

  1. Antibody response of Schistosoma mansoni-infected human subjects to the recombinant P28 glutathione-S-transferase and to synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Auriault, C; Gras-Masse, H; Pierce, R J; Butterworth, A E; Wolowczuk, I; Capron, M; Ouma, J H; Balloul, J M; Khalife, J; Neyrinck, J L

    1990-09-01

    The 28-kilodalton antigen of Schistosoma mansoni has been previously described as having importance as the basis for a potential vaccine. The P28 recombinant molecule and three peptides derived from its primary sequence, namely the 24-43, 115-131, and 140-153 peptides, have been tested to evaluate the humoral responses of Kenyan school children previously classified as susceptible or resistant to reinfection after chemotherapy. We report here that the P28 molecule and two of the peptides studied (peptides 115-131 and 140-153) can be used for detecting specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgE, and IgA antibodies. Moreover, the IgG4 response of the susceptible population was significantly greater than that of the resistant group, whereas no differences between the two populations were noticed in total IgG anti-P28 antibodies. This suggested that IgG4 could play a role in the lack of immunity of susceptible patients. A strong IgG3 response restricted to the 140-153 peptide was observed but did not discriminate between the resistant and susceptible populations. In contrast, a marked increase in the IgA response to the 140-153 peptide epitope(s) in sera of the resistant population was noticed. Taken together, these results suggest that the P28 antigen and two of the three peptides selected could give predictive information about the development of the disease or the efficiency of vaccination with P28 as the immunogen.

  2. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay system for measuring herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1-specific and HSV type 2-specific IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Prince, H E; Ernst, C E; Hogrefe, W R

    2000-01-01

    MRL Diagnostics has developed a dual enzyme immunoassay (EIA) system that employs the recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type-specific glycoproteins G1 (HSV1) and G2 (HSV2) to detect HSV type-specific IgG antibodies. This system was evaluated using 155 consecutive sera previously tested in a conventional dual EIA system (Zeus) that employs multiple HSV1 and HSV2 proteins to detect type-common as well as type-specific antibodies. Sera were also analyzed by Western blot to determine the true HSV type-specific IgG reactivity pattern. Of 110 sera giving concordant reactivity patterns in the MRL and Zeus EIA systems, 108 (98%) also displayed concordant Western blot patterns; two sera gave false positive HSV2 reactivity in both EIA systems. Of 45 sera giving discordant MRL and Zeus EIA reactivity patterns, 41 (91%) displayed a Western blot reactivity pattern that matched the MRL reactivity pattern. Both the HSV1 IgG component and the HSV2 IgG component of the MRL EIA system were 100% sensitive and > 95% specific. In contrast, the Zeus HSV1 IgG EIA was 98% sensitive and 79% specific, and the Zeus HSV2 IgG EIA was 85% sensitive and 79% specific. An analysis of the distribution of index values in the MRL EIA system showed that low-positive values (1.0-3.0) were rare, but, when detected, often represented false positive results; only 11 MRL low-positive results were observed, but all 6 MRL false positive results were found within this low-positive subgroup. These findings show that the MRL dual EIA system effectively detects HSV type-specific IgG antibodies. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. The isotype repertoire of antibodies against novel UH-RA peptides in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    De Winter, Liesbeth M; Geusens, Piet; Lenaerts, Jan; Vanhoof, Johan; Stinissen, Piet; Somers, Veerle

    2016-06-07

    Recently, autoantibodies against novel UH-RA peptides (UH-RA.1 and UH-RA.21) were identified as candidate biomarkers for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who are seronegative for the current diagnostic markers rheumatoid factor and anticitrullinated protein antibodies. Previously, screening for anti-UH-RA autoantibodies was based on measuring the immunoglobulin (Ig) G response. We aimed to investigate whether measurement of other isotypes could improve the performance of diagnostic testing. In addition, assigning the isotype profile might provide valuable information on effector functions of the antibodies. The isotype profile of antibodies against UH-RA.1 and UH-RA.21 was studied. The IgG, IgM, and IgA classes, together with the 4 different IgG subclasses, were determined in 285 patients with RA, 88 rheumatic control subjects, and 90 healthy control subjects. Anti-UH-RA.1 antibodies were primarily of the IgM isotype and twice as prevalent as IgG (IgG3-dominated) and IgA. RA sensitivity when testing for anti-UH-RA.1 IgM was shown to be higher than when testing for the IgG isotype: 18 % versus 9 % sensitivity when RA specificity was set to 90 %. Within antibodies against UH-RA.21, IgG and IgA were more common than IgM. Different anti-UH-RA.21 IgG subclasses were found, with the highest prevalence found for IgG2. Combined testing for IgG and IgA slightly increased RA sensitivity of UH-RA.21-specific antibody testing to 27 % compared with solely testing for IgG (23 %). Notably, a higher number of anti-UH-RA.21 antibody isotypes was related to increased levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Finally, for both antibody responses, the full antibody isotype use was demonstrated in early and seronegative disease. The isotype distribution of anti-UH-RA.1 and anti-UH-RA.21 antibodies was successfully outlined, and, for antibodies against UH-RA.1, we found that isotype-specific testing might have implications for diagnostic testing. The exact mechanisms by

  4. Evading pre-existing anti-hinge antibody binding by hinge engineering

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hok Seon; Kim, Ingrid; Zheng, Linda; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Meng, Y. Gloria; Spiess, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigen-binding fragments (Fab) and F(ab′)2 antibodies serve as alternative formats to full-length anti-bodies in therapeutic and immune assays. They provide the advantage of small size, short serum half-life, and lack of effector function. Several proteases associated with invasive diseases are known to cleave antibodies in the hinge-region, and this results in anti-hinge antibodies (AHA) toward the neoepitopes. The AHA can act as surrogate Fc and reintroduce the properties of the Fc that are otherwise lacking in antibody fragments. While this response is desired during the natural process of fighting disease, it is commonly unwanted for therapeutic antibody fragments. In our study, we identify a truncation in the lower hinge region of the antibody that maintains efficient proteolytic cleavage by IdeS protease. The resulting neoepitope at the F(ab′)2 C-terminus does not have detectable binding of pre-existing AHA, providing a practical route to produce F(ab′)2 in vitro by proteolytic digestion when the binding of pre-existing AHA is undesired. We extend our studies to the upper hinge region of the antibody and provide a detailed analysis of the contribution of C-terminal residues of the upper hinge of human IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 to pre-existing AHA reactivity in human serum. While no pre-existing antibodies are observed toward the Fab of IgG2 and IgG4 isotype, a significant response is observed toward most residues of the upper hinge of human IgG1. We identify a T225L variant and the natural C-terminal D221 as solutions with minimal serum reactivity. Our work now enables the production of Fab and F(ab′)2 for therapeutic and diagnostic immune assays that have minimal reactivity toward pre-existing AHA. PMID:27606571

  5. Preferential interactions of trehalose, L-arginine.HCl and sodium chloride with therapeutically relevant IgG1 monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sudrik, Chaitanya; Cloutier, Theresa; Pham, Phuong; Samra, Hardeep S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2017-10-01

    Preferential interactions of weakly interacting formulation excipients govern their effect on the equilibrium and kinetics of several reactions of protein molecules in solution. Using vapor pressure osmometry, we characterized the preferential interactions of commonly used excipients trehalose, L-arginine.HCl and NaCl with three therapeutically-relevant, IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that have similar size and shape, but differ in their surface hydrophobicity and net charge. We further characterized the effect of these excipients on the reversible self-association, aggregation and viscosity behavior of these antibody molecules. We report that trehalose, L-arginine.HCl and NaCl are all excluded from the surface of the three IgG1 monoclonal antibodies, and that the exclusion behavior is linearly related to the excipient molality in the case of trehalose and NaCl, whereas a non-linear behavior is observed for L-arginine.HCl. Interestingly, we find that the magnitude of trehalose exclusion depends upon the nature of the protein surface. Such behavior is not observed in case of NaCl and L-arginine.HCl as they are excluded to the same extent from the surface of all three antibody molecules tested in this study. Analysis of data presented in this study provides further insight into the mechanisms governing excipient-mediated stabilization of mAb formulations.

  6. Elevated antinuclear antibodies and altered anti-Epstein-Barr virus immune responses.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Laura; Cirone, Mara; Di Gregorio, Ana Oliva; Vitillo, Marina; Cattivelli, Marina; Magliocca, Vittoria; Maiorano, Silvana; Meledandri, Marcello; Scagnolari, Carolina; La Rocca, Sebastiano; Trivedi, Pankaj

    2015-01-02

    It has been shown that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is able to alter the immune response towards self-antigens and may enhance risk of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in genetically predisposed individuals. In this study, we evaluated the specific antibody immune response against EBV in patients with anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANA) in comparison with ANA-negative healthy controls. For this purpose, 92 patients with an high anti-ANA reactivity with or without concomitant extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) or double stranded DNA (dsDNA) positivity were selected and compared with 146 healthy donors. We found that anti-EBV-VCA and EA IgG concentrations were significantly higher in ANA-positive patients in comparison to the controls (VCA P<0.0001 and EA P<0,03) as well as in those ANA-positive patients that showed a concomitant ENA positivity (P=0.0002). Interestingly, elevated anti-EBNA-1 IgG was found in a group of patients who had anti SSA/Ro antibodies. Anti-VCA IgM Abs were more frequently found in those patients with a very high titer of ANA (P=0.06); moreover detection of anti-VCA IgM/IgG in absence of anti-EBNA-1 IgG was more frequent in the patient than in the control group. Both these conditions correlate with a recent EBV infection or reactivation. The data suggest that EBV, particularly during acute infection or in its reactivation phase, could be involved in the ANA and ENA autoantibody formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A new assay system detecting antibody production and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to trinitrophenyl hapten in an individual mouse.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, H; Fukata, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yago, H; Suehiro, S; Yanagihara, Y; Okudaira, H

    1996-01-01

    A new assay system detecting antibody production and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to trinitrophenyl hapten in an individual mouse (AS-DAD) was established. BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally with varying amounts of 2,4,6-trinitrophenylated sheep red blood cells (TNP-SRBC) on day 0. Venous blood was collected on days 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. Levels of anti-TNP IgM and IgG serum were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After series of bleeding the mice were challenged with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) solution in the footpad on day 14. Footpad swelling was measured 24 or 48 h after the challenge. Peak responses of the anti-TNP IgM and IgG production were detected 4 or 6 days after the immunization with 10(9) TNP-SRBC. Maximum DTH response was also observed with 10(9) TNP-SRBC 24 h after the challenge on day 14. The antibody and DTH responses were also induced in other normal inbred strains such as C3H/He and DBA/1 but not BALB/c nu/nu mice. To evaluate AS-DAD in immunopharmacological studies, various immunomodulating agents were examined in BALB/c mice by subcutaneous administration on days 0, 1, 2 and 3. Cyclosporin or cyclophosphamide at 100 mg/kg/day completely inhibited not only the anti-TNP IgM and IgG production but also the TNP-specific DTH response. Prednisolone at 0.5 mg/kg/day had no significant effect on the IgM and IgG production, whereas it inhibited the TNP-specific DTH response. Interestingly, histamine-added mouse gamma-globulin at 150 MG/kg/day clearly enhanced the anti-TNP IgM and IgG production, while it showed a suppressive effect on the TNP-specific DTH response. Levamisole at 5.0 mg/KG/day showed suppressive effects on the anti-TNP IgG production without affecting the IgM production and the DTH response. These results suggest that AS-DAD is useful for evaluating the immunopharmacological action of various agents.

  8. Comparison of the Specificities of IgG, IgG-Subclass, IgA and IgM Reactivities in African and European HIV-Infected Individuals with an HIV-1 Clade C Proteome-Based Array

    PubMed Central

    Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Fauland, Kerstin; Wollmann, Eva; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter; Sibanda, Elopy; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive set of recombinant proteins and peptides of the proteome of HIV-1 clade C was prepared and purified and used to measure IgG, IgG-subclass, IgA and IgM responses in HIV-infected patients from Sub-Saharan Africa, where clade C is predominant. As a comparison group, HIV-infected patients from Europe were tested. African and European patients showed an almost identical antibody reactivity profile in terms of epitope specificity and involvement of IgG, IgG subclass, IgA and IgM responses. A V3-peptide of gp120 was identified as major epitope recognized by IgG1>IgG2 = IgG4>IgG3, IgA>IgM antibodies and a C-terminal peptide represented another major peptide epitope for the four IgG subclasses. By contrast, gp41-derived-peptides were mainly recognized by IgG1 but not by the other IgG subclasses, IgA or IgM. Among the non-surface proteins, protease, reverse transcriptase+RNAseH, integrase, as well as the capsid and matrix proteins were the most frequently and strongly recognized antigens which showed broad IgG subclass and IgA reactivity. Specificities and magnitudes of antibody responses in African patients were stable during disease and antiretroviral treatment, and persisted despite severe T cell loss. Using a comprehensive panel of gp120, gp41 peptides and recombinant non-surface proteins of HIV-1 clade C we found an almost identical antibody recognition profile in African and European patients regarding epitopes and involved IgG-sublass, IgA- and IgM-responses. Immune recognition of gp120 peptides and non-surface proteins involved all four IgG subclasses and was indicative of a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. The HIV-1 clade C proteome-based test allowed diagnosis and monitoring of antibody responses in the course of HIV-infections and assessment of isotype and subclass responses. PMID:25658330

  9. Impaired antibody memory to varicella zoster virus in HIV-infected children: low antibody levels and avidity*.

    PubMed

    L'Huillier, A G; Ferry, T; Courvoisier, D S; Aebi, C; Cheseaux, J-J; Kind, C; Rudin, C; Nadal, D; Hirschel, B; Sottas, C; Siegrist, C-A; Posfay-Barbe, K M

    2012-01-01

    HIV-infected children have impaired antibody responses after exposure to certain antigens. Our aim was to determine whether HIV-infected children had lower varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibody levels compared with HIV-infected adults or healthy children and, if so, whether this was attributable to an impaired primary response, accelerated antibody loss, or failure to reactivate the memory VZV response. In a prospective, cross-sectional and retrospective longitudinal study, we compared antibody responses, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), elicited by VZV infection in 97 HIV-infected children and 78 HIV-infected adults treated with antiretroviral therapy, followed over 10 years, and 97 age-matched healthy children. We also tested antibody avidity in HIV-infected and healthy children. Median anti-VZV immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were lower in HIV-infected children than in adults (264 vs. 1535 IU/L; P<0.001) and levels became more frequently unprotective over time in the children [odds ratio (OR) 17.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.36-72.25; P<0.001]. High HIV viral load was predictive of VZV antibody waning in HIV-infected children. Anti-VZV antibodies did not decline more rapidly in HIV-infected children than in adults. Antibody levels increased with age in healthy (P=0.004) but not in HIV-infected children. Thus, antibody levels were lower in HIV-infected than in healthy children (median 1151 IU/L; P<0.001). Antibody avidity was lower in HIV-infected than healthy children (P<0.001). A direct correlation between anti-VZV IgG level and avidity was present in HIV-infected children (P=0.001), but not in healthy children. Failure to maintain anti-VZV IgG levels in HIV-infected children results from failure to reactivate memory responses. Further studies are required to investigate long-term protection and the potential benefits of immunization. © 2011 British HIV Association.

  10. A retrospective analysis of the potential impact of IgG antibodies to agalsidase beta on efficacy during enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Bénichou, Bernard; Goyal, Sunita; Sung, Crystal; Norfleet, Andrea M; O'Brien, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    Fabry disease results from a genetic deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A (alpha GAL) and the impaired catabolism of globotriasoylceramide (GL-3) and other glycosphingolipid substrates, which then accumulate pathogenically within most cells. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with agalsidase beta (Fabrazyme), one of two available forms of recombinant human alpha GAL, involves regular intravenous infusions of the therapeutic protein. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to recombinant alpha GAL develop in the majority of patients upon repeated infusion. To explore whether anti-alpha GAL IgG interferes with therapeutic efficacy, retrospective analyses were conducted using data obtained from a total of 134 adult male and female patients with Fabry disease who were treated with agalsidase beta at 1mg/kg every 2 weeks for up to 5 years during placebo-controlled trials and the corresponding open-label extension studies. The analyses did not reveal a correlation between anti-alpha GAL IgG titers and the onset of clinical events or the rate of change in estimated GFR during treatment, and no statistically significant association was found between anti-alpha GAL IgG titers and abnormal elevations in plasma GL-3 during treatment. However, a statistically significant association was found between anti-alpha GAL IgG titers and observation of some GL-3 deposition in the dermal capillary endothelial cells of skin during treatment, suggesting that GL-3 clearance may be partially impaired in some patients with high antibody titers. Determination of the long-term impact of circulating anti-alpha GAL IgG antibodies on clinical outcomes will require continued monitoring, and serology testing is recommended as part of the routine care of Fabry disease patients during ERT.

  11. Vaccine-Induced Env V1–V2 IgG3 Correlates with Lower HIV-1 Infection Risk and Declines Soon After Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Nicole L.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Fong, Youyi; deCamp, Allan; Vandergrift, Nathan A.; Williams, William T.; Alam, S. Munir; Ferrari, Guido; Yang, Zhi-yong; Seaton, Kelly E.; Berman, Phillip W.; Alpert, Michael D.; Evans, David T.; O’Connell, Robert J.; Francis, Donald; Sinangil, Faruk; Lee, Carter; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Tartaglia, James; Pinter, Abraham; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Gilbert, Peter B.; Nabel, Gary J.; Michael, Nelson L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Montefiori, David C.; Haynes, Barton F.; Tomaras, Georgia D.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1–specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass antibodies bind to distinct cellular Fc receptors. Antibodies of the same epitope specificity but of a different subclass therefore can have different antibody effector functions. The study of IgG subclass profiles between different vaccine regimens used in clinical trials with divergent efficacy outcomes can provide information on the quality of the vaccine-induced B cell response. We show that HIV-1–specific IgG3 distinguished two HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies (RV144 and VAX003 clinical trials) and correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection in a blinded follow-up case-control study with the RV144 vaccine. HIV-1–specific IgG3 responses were not long-lived, which was consistent with the waning efficacy of the RV144 vaccine. These data suggest that specific vaccine-induced HIV-1 IgG3 should be tested in future studies of immune correlates in HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials. PMID:24648342

  12. Probiotics Stimulate Production of Natural Antibodies in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Hamid R.; Gong, Jianhua; Gyles, Carlton L.; Hayes, M. Anthony; Zhou, Huaijun; Sanei, Babak; Chambers, James R.; Sharif, Shayan

    2006-01-01

    Commensal bacteria in the intestine play an important role in the development of immune response. These bacteria interact with cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Among cells of the GALT, B-1 cells are of note. These cells are involved in the production of natural antibodies. In the present study, we determined whether manipulation of the intestinal microbiota by administration of probiotics, which we had previously shown to enhance specific systemic antibody response, could affect the development of natural antibodies in the intestines and sera of chickens. Our findings demonstrate that when 1-day-old chicks were treated with probiotics, serum and intestinal antibodies reactive to tetanus toxoid (TT) and Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin in addition to intestinal immunoglobulin A (IgA) reactive to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were increased in unimmunized chickens. Moreover, IgG antibodies reactive to TT were increased in the intestines of probiotic-treated chickens compared to those of untreated controls. In serum, IgG and IgM reactive to TT and alpha-toxin were increased in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens compared to levels in untreated controls. However, no significant difference in serum levels of IgM or IgG response to BSA was observed. These results are suggestive of the induction of natural antibodies in probiotic-treated, unimmunized chickens. Elucidating the role of these antibodies in maintenance of the chicken immune system homeostasis and immune response to pathogens requires further investigation. PMID:16960107

  13. The antibody response to Dracunculus medinensis in an endemic human population of northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Bloch, P; Simonsen, P E; Vennervald, B J

    1993-03-01

    The serum antibody response (total, and isotypes IgG1, IgG4, IgM, IgA and IgE) to Guinea worm infection was examined in humans from a highly endemic area of northern Ghana by ELISA and SDS-PAGE/Western blot techniques using an adult D. medinensis antigen. Sera were obtained early and late in the peak transmission period, from persons with patent and postpatent infections, as well as from persons from the same endemic area who claimed never to have had Guinea worm infection. To observe for potential cross-reactions in the tests, sera were also obtained from areas with no transmission of Guinea worm from patients with hookworm, O. volvulus and W. bancrofti infections, and from non-infected controls. Sera from persons living in the Guinea worm endemic area reacted extensively with Guinea worm antigen in both tests, and large numbers of bands were produced in the Western blots (up to 35 identified for some sera). For most antibody isotypes, the ELISA absorbance values obtained with sera from the same individuals varied between the two transmission seasons, with the highest titres present towards the end of the peak transmission period. The mean antibody titres for persons in the patent and postpatent infection categories were not significantly different when sera were obtained at the same season of the year. Persons from the endemic area, who claimed never to experience patent infections, also had antibodies to Guinea worm, although at significantly lower mean levels than for the patent and postpatent categories. The highest specificity in the ELISA and the most homogenous Western blots were obtained when detecting for antibodies of the IgG4 isotype.

  14. Detection of a combination of serum IgG and IgA antibodies against selected mycobacterial targets provides promising diagnostic signatures for active TB

    PubMed Central

    Chegou, Novel N.; Kriel, Belinda; Jacobs, Ruschca; Kidd, Martin; Loxton, Andre G.; Kaempfer, Susanne; Singh, Mahavir; Walzl, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) based tests for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) disease often show a lack of specificity in TB endemic regions, which is mainly due to a high background prevalence of LTBI. Here, we investigated the combined performance of the responses of different Ig classes to selected mycobacterial antigens in primary healthcare clinic attendees with signs and symptoms suggestive of TB. The sensitivity and specificity of IgA, IgG and/or IgM to LAM and 7 mycobacterial protein antigens (ESAT-6, Tpx, PstS1, AlaDH, MPT64, 16kDa and 19kDa) and 2 antigen combinations (TUB, TB-LTBI) in the plasma of 63 individuals who underwent diagnostic work-up for TB after presenting with symptoms and signs compatible with possible active TB were evaluated. Active TB was excluded in 42 individuals of whom 21 has LTBI whereas active TB was confirmed in 21 patients of whom 19 had a follow-up blood draw at the end of 6-month anti-TB treatment. The leading single serodiagnostic markers to differentiate between the presence or absence of active TB were anti-16 kDa IgA, anti-MPT64 IgA with sensitivity and specificity of 90%/90% and 95%/90%, respectively. The combined use of 3 or 4 antibodies further improved this performance to accuracies above 95%. After successful completion of anti-TB treatment at month 6, the levels of 16 kDa IgA and 16 kDa IgM dropped significantly whereas LAM IgG and TB-LTBI IgG increased. These results show the potential of extending investigation of anti-tuberculous IgG responses to include IgM and IgA responses against selected protein and non-protein antigens in differentiating active TB from other respiratory diseases in TB endemic settings. PMID:28415587

  15. Detection of a combination of serum IgG and IgA antibodies against selected mycobacterial targets provides promising diagnostic signatures for active TB.

    PubMed

    Awoniyi, Dolapo O; Baumann, Ralf; Chegou, Novel N; Kriel, Belinda; Jacobs, Ruschca; Kidd, Martin; Loxton, Andre G; Kaempfer, Susanne; Singh, Mahavir; Walzl, Gerhard

    2017-06-06

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) based tests for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) disease often show a lack of specificity in TB endemic regions, which is mainly due to a high background prevalence of LTBI. Here, we investigated the combined performance of the responses of different Ig classes to selected mycobacterial antigens in primary healthcare clinic attendees with signs and symptoms suggestive of TB. The sensitivity and specificity of IgA, IgG and/or IgM to LAM and 7 mycobacterial protein antigens (ESAT-6, Tpx, PstS1, AlaDH, MPT64, 16kDa and 19kDa) and 2 antigen combinations (TUB, TB-LTBI) in the plasma of 63 individuals who underwent diagnostic work-up for TB after presenting with symptoms and signs compatible with possible active TB were evaluated. Active TB was excluded in 42 individuals of whom 21 has LTBI whereas active TB was confirmed in 21 patients of whom 19 had a follow-up blood draw at the end of 6-month anti-TB treatment. The leading single serodiagnostic markers to differentiate between the presence or absence of active TB were anti-16 kDa IgA, anti-MPT64 IgA with sensitivity and specificity of 90%/90% and 95%/90%, respectively. The combined use of 3 or 4 antibodies further improved this performance to accuracies above 95%. After successful completion of anti-TB treatment at month 6, the levels of 16 kDa IgA and 16 kDa IgM dropped significantly whereas LAM IgG and TB-LTBI IgG increased. These results show the potential of extending investigation of anti-tuberculous IgG responses to include IgM and IgA responses against selected protein and non-protein antigens in differentiating active TB from other respiratory diseases in TB endemic settings.

  16. Human IgG2- and IgG4-expressing memory B cells display enhanced molecular and phenotypic signs of maturity and accumulate with age.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Britt G; IJspeert, Hanna; Marques, Lemelinda; van der Burg, Mirjam; van Dongen, Jacques Jm; Loos, Bruno G; van Zelm, Menno C

    2017-10-01

    The mechanisms involved in sequential immunoglobulin G (IgG) class switching are still largely unknown. Sequential IG class switching is linked to higher levels of somatic hypermutation (SHM) in vivo, but it remains unclear if these are generated temporally during an immune response or upon activation in a secondary response. We here aimed to uncouple these processes and to distinguish memory B cells from primary and secondary immune responses. SHM levels and IgG subclasses were studied with 454 pyrosequencing on blood mononuclear cells from young children and adults as models for primary and secondary immunological memory. Additional sequencing and detailed immunophenotyping with IgG subclass-specific antibodies was performed on purified IgG + memory B-cell subsets. In both children and adults, SHM levels were higher in transcripts involving more downstream-located IGHG genes (esp. IGHG2 and IGHG4). In adults, SHM levels were significantly higher than in children, and downstream IGHG genes were more frequently utilized. This was associated with increased frequencies of CD27 + IgG + memory B cells, which contained higher levels of SHM, more IGHG2 usage, and higher expression levels of activation markers than CD27 - IgG + memory B cells. We conclude that secondary immunological memory accumulates with age and these memory B cells express CD27, high levels of activation markers, and carry high SHM levels and frequent usage of IGHG2. These new insights contribute to our understanding of sequential IgG subclass switching and show a potential relevance of using serum IgG2 levels or numbers of IgG2-expressing B cells as markers for efficient generation of memory responses.

  17. Felix Hoppe-Seyler Lecture 1997. Protective antibody responses against viruses.

    PubMed

    Zinkernagel, R M

    1997-08-01

    Neutralizing antibody responses against the acute cytopathic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) have been studied in mice to evaluate their general characteristics including specificity, self-/non-self discrimination and memory. IgM responses are generated very early, by day 3 to 4, in a T helper cell-independent fashion and without VSV having polyclonal activating capacities. The order of the glycoprotein tips on the virus envelope (multiple, 8-10 nm distance, paracrystalline) exhibiting the neutralizing determinants are key to this prompt response. These paracrystalline identical multimeric antigens are characteristic of infectious agents and are always reacted against by B cells. Self-antigens that are accessible to B cells in the intact host are either monomeric in serum or mobile multimers on cell surfaces; these configurations need contact dependent or contact independent T help, respectively. Because T help is tolerant against self-antigens, no anti-self B cell responses are usually induced against monomeric self-antigens. If collagen or DNA (rigid multimeric self-antigens) become accessible, however, they may become targets of auto-antibody responses. The antibody repertoire against VSV is partially contained in the germline and partially is generated by somatic mutation; they seem not to undergo affinity-maturation. In any case protection against lethal infection is dependent upon strictly T helper cell dependent IgG generated by day 6 to 7 and reaches a protective level of about 1-10 micrograms/ml. Interesting affinity/avidity and onrate above a minimal threshold are of no apparent advantage for protection in vivo. Maintenance of these antibody levels by antigen depots, and not the presence of memory B cells alone, is key to providing protective immunological memory. Collectively these data suggest that studying biologically important protective antibody responses may modify some of the parameters that have been defined by studying hapten specific antibody

  18. Effect of delayed anthrax vaccine dose on Bacillus anthracis protective antigen IgG response and lethal toxin neutralization activity.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Phillip R; Fisher, Diana; Quinn, Xiaofei; Schmader, Trevor; Barrera-Oro, Julio G

    2013-10-17

    We describe the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen IgG antibody response and the B. anthracis lethal toxin neutralization activity to a delayed dose of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA, BioThrax(®)) using validated assays. 373 individuals received 1, 2, or 3 priming doses, 18-24 months afterward, they received a delayed dose of AVA. Overall, 23.6% of subjects showed detectable anti-PA IgG before the boost, compared to 99.2% (P<0.0001) 28 days after the boost. Geometric mean anti-PA IgG concentration (GMC) was 1.66 μg/mL before and 887.82 μg/mL after the boost (P<0.0001). The proportion of individuals with four-fold increase in GMC following the boost ranged from 93.8% to 100%. Robust anti-PA IgG levels and B. anthracis lethal toxin neutralization activity are induced when an AVA dose is delayed as long as two years. These data support continuing with the vaccination schedule when a dose is delayed as long as two years rather than restarting the series. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Impact of antibody subclass and disulfide isoform differences on the biological activity of CD200R and βklotho agonist antibodies.

    PubMed

    Grujic, Ognjen; Stevens, Jennitte; Chou, Robert Y-T; Weiszmann, Jennifer V; Sekirov, Laura; Thomson, Christy; Badh, Anita; Grauer, Stephanie; Chan, Brian; Graham, Kevin; Manchulenko, Kathy; Dillon, Thomas M; Li, Yang; Foltz, Ian N

    2017-05-13

    Agonism of cell surface receptors by monoclonal antibodies is dependent not only on its ability to bind the target, but also to deliver a biological signal through receptors to the cell. Immunoglobulin G2 antibodies (IgG2s) are made up of a mixture of distinct isoforms (IgG2-A, -B and A/B), which differ by the disulfide connectivity at the hinge region. When evaluating panels of agonistic antibodies against CD200 receptor (CD200R) or βklotho receptor (βklotho), we noticed striking activity differences of IgG1 or IgG2 antibodies with the same variable domains. For the CD200R antibody, the IgG2 antibody demonstrated higher activity than the IgG1 or IgG4 antibody. More significantly, for βklotho, agonist antibodies with higher biological activity as either IgG2 or IgG1 were identified. In both cases, ion exchange chromatography was able to isolate the bioactivity to the IgG2-B isoform from the IgG2 parental mixture. The subclass-related increase in agonist activity was not correlated with antibody aggregation or binding affinity, but was driven by enhanced avidity for the CD200R antibody. These results add to the growing body of evidence that show that conformational differences in the antibody hinge region can have a dramatic impact on the antibody activity and must be considered when screening and engineering therapeutic antibody candidates. The results also demonstrate that the IgG1 (IgG2-A like) or the IgG2-B form may provide the most active form of agonist antibodies for different antibodies and targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of immune response to Lol p I by pretreatment with anti-idiotypic antibody is not restricted to the idiotypic expression.

    PubMed Central

    Boutin, Y; Hébert, J

    1994-01-01

    To study the role of anti-idiotypic antibodies in the regulation of the immune response to Lol p I (the major allergenic component of rye grass pollen), we have recently generated a panel of three MoAbs directed against distinct epitopes of Lolp I and an anti-idiotypic MoAb directed against the idiotype borne by one of the anti-Lol p I MoAbs (290A-167). The effects of pretreatment with this anti-idiotypic MoAb in BALB/c mice before immunization with the antigen have been examined. The anti-idiotypic MoAb or unrelated MoAb were given weekly for 8 weeks intraperitoneally. Mice then received the antigen (2 micrograms) adsorbed with alum (2 mg) at weeks 9, 11 and 13. Serum anti-Lol p I antibodies (IgG or IgE) and specific idiotypic responses were measured. Anti-Lol p I IgG antibodies could be detected before immunization with Lol p I only in mice pretreated with anti-idiotypic MoAb. Immunization with Lol p I induced an anti-Lol p I IgG response in both groups, but this response was higher in mice that received anti-idiotypic MoAb. Similar profiles were seen for specific IgE antibodies and idiotypic responses. Surprisingly, idiotypes borne by other anti-Lol p I MoAbs (539A-6 and 348A-6) had also been enhanced after pretreatment with the anti-290A-167 MoAb. These observations suggested that the pretreatment with this anti-idiotypic MoAb modulates not only the expression of the respective idiotype, but also affects other idiotype responses. PMID:7514517

  1. Antibody response to actinomyces antigen and dental caries experience: implications for caries susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Levine, Martin; Owen, Willis L; Avery, Kevin T

    2005-06-01

    Fluoridated dentifrices reduce dental caries in subjects who perform effective oral hygiene. Actinomyces naeslundii increases in teeth-adherent microbial biofilms (plaques) in these subjects, and a well-characterized serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response (Actinomyces antibody [A-Ab]) is also increased. Other studies suggest that a serum IgG antibody response to streptococcal d-alanyl poly(glycerophosphate) (S-Ab) may indicate caries experience associated strongly with gingival health and exposure to fluoridated water. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between A-Ab response, oral hygiene, S-Ab response, and caries experience. Measurements were made of A-Ab and S-Ab concentrations, caries experience (number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth [DMFT], number of teeth surfaces [DMFS], and number of decayed teeth needing treated [DT]), exposure to fluoridated water (Flu), mean clinical pocket depth (PD; in millimeters), and extent of plaque (PL) and gingival bleeding on probing (BOP). A-Ab concentration, the dependent variable in a multiple regression analysis, increased with S-Ab concentration and decreased with PL and DMFT adjusted for Flu (R(2) = 0.51, P < 0.002). Residual associations with age, DMFS, DT, and BOP were not significant. In addition, an elevated A-Ab response, defined from immunoprecipitation and immunoassay measurements, indicated a significant, 30% reduction in DMFT after adjustment for significant age and Flu covariance (analysis of variance with covariance F statistic = 10.6, P < 0.003; S-Ab response and interactions not significant). Thus, an elevated A-Ab response indicates less caries in subjects performing effective oral hygiene using fluoridated dentifrices. Conversely, a low A-Ab response is suggestive of decreased A. naeslundii binding to saliva-coated apatite and greater caries experience, as reported by others.

  2. Antibody Responses to Prostate-Associated Antigens in Patients with Prostatitis and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maricque, Brett B.; Eickhoff, Jens C.; McNeel, Douglas G.

    2010-01-01

    Background An important focus of tumor immunotherapy has been the identification of appropriate antigenic targets. Serum-based screening approaches have led to the discovery of hundreds of tumor-associated antigens recognized by IgG. Our efforts to identify immunologically recognized proteins in prostate cancer have yielded a multitude of antigens, however prioritizing these antigens as targets for evaluation in immunotherapies has been challenging. In this report, we set out to determine whether the evaluation of multiple antigenic targets would allow the identification of a subset of antigens that are common immunologic targets in patients with prostate cancer. Methods Using a phage immunoblot approach, we evaluated IgG responses in patients with prostate cancer (n=126), patients with chronic prostatitis (n=45), and men without prostate disease (n=53). Results We found that patients with prostate cancer or prostatitis have IgG specific for multiple common antigens. A subset of 23 proteins was identified to which IgG were detected in 38% of patients with prostate cancer and 33% patients with prostatitis versus 6% of controls (p<0.001 and p=0.003, respectively). Responses to multiple members were not higher in patients with advanced disease, suggesting antibody immune responses occur early in the natural history of cancer progression. Conclusions These findings suggest an association between inflammatory conditions of the prostate and prostate cancer, and suggest that IgG responses to a panel of commonly recognized prostate antigens could be potentially used in the identification of patients at risk for prostate cancer or as a tool to identify immune responses elicited to prostate tissue. PMID:20632317

  3. Antibody-Mediated Internalization of Infectious HIV-1 Virions Differs among Antibody Isotypes and Subclasses.

    PubMed

    Tay, Matthew Zirui; Liu, Pinghuang; Williams, LaTonya D; McRaven, Michael D; Sawant, Sheetal; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Xu, Thomas T; Dennison, S Moses; Liao, Hua-Xin; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alam, S Munir; Moody, M Anthony; Hope, Thomas J; Haynes, Barton F; Tomaras, Georgia D

    2016-08-01

    Emerging data support a role for antibody Fc-mediated antiviral activity in vaccine efficacy and in the control of HIV-1 replication by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Antibody-mediated virus internalization is an Fc-mediated function that may act at the portal of entry whereby effector cells may be triggered by pre-existing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Understanding the capacity of HIV-1 antibodies in mediating internalization of HIV-1 virions by primary monocytes is critical to understanding their full antiviral potency. Antibody isotypes/subclasses differ in functional profile, with consequences for their antiviral activity. For instance, in the RV144 vaccine trial that achieved partial efficacy, Env IgA correlated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. decreased vaccine efficacy), whereas V1-V2 IgG3 correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. increased vaccine efficacy). Thus, understanding the different functional attributes of HIV-1 specific IgG1, IgG3 and IgA antibodies will help define the mechanisms of immune protection. Here, we utilized an in vitro flow cytometric method utilizing primary monocytes as phagocytes and infectious HIV-1 virions as targets to determine the capacity of Env IgA (IgA1, IgA2), IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to mediate HIV-1 infectious virion internalization. Importantly, both broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. PG9, 2G12, CH31, VRC01 IgG) and non-broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. 7B2 mAb, mucosal HIV-1+ IgG) mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, we found that Env IgG3 of multiple specificities (i.e. CD4bs, V1-V2 and gp41) mediated increased infectious virion internalization over Env IgG1 of the same specificity, while Env IgA mediated decreased infectious virion internalization compared to IgG1. These data demonstrate that antibody-mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions depends on antibody specificity and isotype. Evaluation of the phagocytic potency of vaccine

  4. Antibody-Mediated Internalization of Infectious HIV-1 Virions Differs among Antibody Isotypes and Subclasses

    PubMed Central

    McRaven, Michael D; Sawant, Sheetal; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Xu, Thomas T.; Dennison, S. Moses; Liao, Hua-Xin; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alam, S. Munir; Haynes, Barton F.; Tomaras, Georgia D.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging data support a role for antibody Fc-mediated antiviral activity in vaccine efficacy and in the control of HIV-1 replication by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Antibody-mediated virus internalization is an Fc-mediated function that may act at the portal of entry whereby effector cells may be triggered by pre-existing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Understanding the capacity of HIV-1 antibodies in mediating internalization of HIV-1 virions by primary monocytes is critical to understanding their full antiviral potency. Antibody isotypes/subclasses differ in functional profile, with consequences for their antiviral activity. For instance, in the RV144 vaccine trial that achieved partial efficacy, Env IgA correlated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. decreased vaccine efficacy), whereas V1-V2 IgG3 correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. increased vaccine efficacy). Thus, understanding the different functional attributes of HIV-1 specific IgG1, IgG3 and IgA antibodies will help define the mechanisms of immune protection. Here, we utilized an in vitro flow cytometric method utilizing primary monocytes as phagocytes and infectious HIV-1 virions as targets to determine the capacity of Env IgA (IgA1, IgA2), IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to mediate HIV-1 infectious virion internalization. Importantly, both broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. PG9, 2G12, CH31, VRC01 IgG) and non-broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. 7B2 mAb, mucosal HIV-1+ IgG) mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, we found that Env IgG3 of multiple specificities (i.e. CD4bs, V1-V2 and gp41) mediated increased infectious virion internalization over Env IgG1 of the same specificity, while Env IgA mediated decreased infectious virion internalization compared to IgG1. These data demonstrate that antibody-mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions depends on antibody specificity and isotype. Evaluation of the phagocytic potency of vaccine

  5. 3D structural fluctuation of IgG1 antibody revealed by individual particle electron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Lei; Tong, Huimin

    2015-05-05

    Commonly used methods for determining protein structure, including X-ray crystallography and single-particle reconstruction, often provide a single and unique three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, in these methods, the protein dynamics and flexibility/fluctuation remain mostly unknown. Here, we utilized advances in electron tomography (ET) to study the antibody flexibility and fluctuation through structural determination of individual antibody particles rather than averaging multiple antibody particles together. Through individual-particle electron tomography (IPET) 3D reconstruction from negatively-stained ET images, we obtained 120 ab-initio 3D density maps at an intermediate resolution (~1–3 nm) from 120 individual IgG1 antibody particles. Using these maps as a constraint, wemore » derived 120 conformations of the antibody via structural flexible docking of the crystal structure to these maps by targeted molecular dynamics simulations. Statistical analysis of the various conformations disclosed the antibody 3D conformational flexibility through the distribution of its domain distances and orientations. This blueprint approach, if extended to other flexible proteins, may serve as a useful methodology towards understanding protein dynamics and functions.« less

  6. IgG4 autoantibodies against muscle-specific kinase undergo Fab-arm exchange in myasthenia gravis patients.

    PubMed

    Koneczny, Inga; Stevens, Jo A A; De Rosa, Anna; Huda, Saif; Huijbers, Maartje G; Saxena, Abhishek; Maestri, Michelangelo; Lazaridis, Konstantinos; Zisimopoulou, Paraskevi; Tzartos, Socrates; Verschuuren, Jan; van der Maarel, Silvère M; van Damme, Philip; De Baets, Marc H; Molenaar, Peter C; Vincent, Angela; Ricciardi, Roberta; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar; Losen, Mario

    2017-02-01

    Autoimmunity mediated by IgG4 subclass autoantibodies is an expanding field of research. Due to their structural characteristics a key feature of IgG4 antibodies is the ability to exchange Fab-arms with other, unrelated, IgG4 molecules, making the IgG4 molecule potentially monovalent for the specific antigen. However, whether those disease-associated antigen-specific IgG4 are mono- or divalent for their antigens is unknown. Myasthenia gravis (MG) with antibodies to muscle specific kinase (MuSK-MG) is a well-recognized disease in which the predominant pathogenic IgG4 antibody binds to extracellular epitopes on MuSK at the neuromuscular junction; this inhibits a pathway that clusters the acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) receptors and leads to failure of neuromuscular transmission. In vitro Fab-arm exchange-inducing conditions were applied to MuSK antibodies in sera, purified IgG4 and IgG1-3 sub-fractions. Solid-phase cross-linking assays were established to determine the extent of pre-existing and inducible Fab-arm exchange. Functional effects of the resulting populations of IgG4 antibodies were determined by measuring inhibition of agrin-induced AChR clustering in C2C12 cells. To confirm the results, κ/κ, λ/λ and hybrid κ/λ IgG4s were isolated and tested for MuSK antibodies. At least fifty percent of patients had IgG4, but not IgG1-3, MuSK antibodies that could undergo Fab-arm exchange in vitro under reducing conditions. Also MuSK antibodies were found in vivo that were divalent (monospecific for MuSK). Fab-arm exchange with normal human IgG4 did not prevent the inhibitory effect of serum derived MuSK antibodies on AChR clustering in C2C12 mouse myotubes. The results suggest that a considerable proportion of MuSK IgG4 could already be Fab-arm exchanged in vivo. This was confirmed by isolating endogenous IgG4 MuSK antibodies containing both κ and λ light chains, i.e. hybrid IgG4 molecules. These new findings demonstrate that Fab-arm exchanged antibodies

  7. Constitutive production of catalytic antibodies to a Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor and effect of infection.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric L; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Dunkle, Jesse W; Aggarwal, Shreya; Planque, Stephanie; Watanabe, Kenji; Csencsits-Smith, Keri; Bowden, M Gabriela; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Paul, Sudhir

    2012-03-23

    Antibodies that recognize microbial B lymphocyte superantigenic epitopes are produced constitutively with no requirement for adaptive immune maturation. We report cleavage of the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) by catalytic antibodies produced with no exposure to the bacterium and reduction of the catalytic antibody activity following infection. IgG catalytic antibodies that specifically hydrolyzed Efb via a nucleophilic catalytic mechanism were found in the blood of healthy humans and aseptic mice free of S. aureus infection. IgG hydrolyzed peptide bonds on the C-terminal side of basic amino acids, including a bond located within the C3b-binding domain of Efb. Efb digested with the IgG lost its ability to bind C3b and inhibit complement-dependent antibody-mediated red blood cell lysis. In addition to catalysis, the IgG expressed saturable Efb binding activity. IgG from S. aureus-infected mice displayed reduced Efb cleaving activity and increased Efb binding activity compared with uninfected controls, suggesting differing effects of the infection on the antibody subsets responsible for the two activities. IgG from children hospitalized for S. aureus infection also displayed reduced Efb cleavage compared with healthy children. These data suggest a potential defense function for constitutively produced catalytic antibodies to a putative superantigenic site of Efb, but an adaptive catalytic response appears to be proscribed.

  8. Heterogeneity of antibody response to human platelet transfusion.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, K K; Thompson, J S; Koepke, J A; Hoak, J C; Flink, R

    1976-01-01

    To study the antibody response to human platelet transfusions, nine thrombocytopenia patients with bone marrow failure were given 6 U (3X10(11)) of random platelet concentrates twice a week. Before transfusion, none of the patients had preexisting antibodies detectable with lymphocytotoxicity, platelet aggregation, or capillary leukoagglutination techniques. After receiving 18-78 U of platelets, they became refractory to further transfusions of random platelets and alloantibodies were detectable. Two patterns of antibody response could be identified. In three patients, the sera were not lymphocytotoxic with a panel of standard cells in which all the known HLA antigens in the first and second series were represented at least once. Yet, they caused platelet aggregation with 30, 24, and 60%, respectively, of a donor population studied. The aggregating activities were inhibited by antihuman IgG but not by antihuman IgA or antihuman IgM antiserum. The aggregating antibodies could be absorbed out with donor platelets but not lymphocytes or granulocytes. Antibodies from two of these patients aggregated platelets of their respective siblings matched for both HLA haplotypes. Transfusion of platelets from these two siblings did not increase the platelet count while platelets obtained from aggregation-negative donors did. The sera from the remaining six patients were lymphocytotoxic with 15-100% of the panel of standard cells. They also had aggregating antibodies, which could be absorbed out by both platelets and lymphocytes, suggesting that they were HLA antibodies. These data suggest that the development of platelet-specific antibodies may play an important role in the immunological rejection of isologous platelets, and should be considered in the selection of donors for patients who are refractory to platelets from random donors. PMID:956376

  9. Stringently Defined Otitis Prone Children Demonstrate Deficient Naturally Induced Mucosal Antibody Response to Moraxella catarrhalis Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dabin; Murphy, Timothy F; Lafontaine, Eric R; Pichichero, Michael E

    2017-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis ( Mcat ) is a prominent mucosal pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM). We studied Mcat nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization, AOM frequency and mucosal antibody responses to four vaccine candidate Mcat proteins: outer membrane protein (OMP) CD, oligopeptide permease (Opp) A, hemagglutinin (Hag), and Pilin A clade 2 (PilA2) from stringently defined otitis prone (sOP) children, who experience the greatest burden of disease, compared to non-otitis prone (NOP) children. sOP children had higher NP colonization of Mcat (30 vs. 22%, P  = 0.0003) and Mcat -caused AOM rates (49 vs. 24%, P  < 0.0001) than NOP children. Natural acquisition of mucosal antibodies to Mcat proteins OMP CD (IgG, P  < 0.0001), OppA (IgG, P  = 0.018), Hag (IgG and IgA, both P  < 0.0001), and PilA2 (IgA, P  < 0.0001) was lower in sOP than NOP children. Higher levels of mucosal IgG to Hag ( P  = 0.039) and PilA2 ( P  = 0.0076), and IgA to OMP CD ( P  = 0.010), OppA ( P  = 0.030), and PilA2 ( P  = 0.043) were associated with lower carriage of Mcat in NOP but not sOP children. Higher levels of mucosal IgG to OMP CD ( P  = 0.0070) and Hag ( P  = 0.0003), and IgA to Hag ( P  = 0.0067) at asymptomatic colonization than those at onset of AOM were associated with significantly lower rate of Mcat NP colonization progressing to AOM in NOP compared to sOP children (3 vs. 26%, P  < 0.0001). In conclusion, sOP children had a diminished mucosal antibody response to Mcat proteins, which was associated with higher frequencies of asymptomatic NP colonization and NP colonization progressing to Mcat -caused AOM. Enhancing Mcat antigen-specific mucosal immune responses to levels higher than achieved by natural exposure will be necessary to prevent AOM in sOP children.

  10. B Cell and Antibody Responses in Mice Induced by a Putative Cell Surface Peptidase of Pneumocystis murina Protect against Experimental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Sanbao; Cai, Yang; Ramsay, Alistair J.; Welsh, David A.; Norris, Karen; Shellito, Judd E.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Pneumocystis pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected subjects, cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and solid organ transplant recipients. No vaccine is currently available. By chemical labeling coupled with proteomic approach, we have identified a putative surface protein (SPD1, Broad Institute gene accession number PNEG_01848) derived from single suspended P. murina cysts. SPD1 was expressed in an insect cell line and tested for vaccine development. Methods Mice were immunized with SPD1 plus adjuvant MF-59 by subcutaneous injection. Three weeks after the last immunization, CD4+ cells were depleted with anti-CD4 antibody GK1.5. The mice were then challenged with 2 × 105 Pneumocystis organisms. Mice were sacrificed at 4 and 6 weeks after PC challenge. Spleen/lung cells and serum were harvested. B cells and memory B cells were assessed via flow cytometry. Specific Pneumocystis IgG antibody was measured by ELISA before and after challenge. Infection burden was measured as real-time PCR for P. murina rRNA. Results Normal mice infected with Pneumocystis mounted a serum IgG antibody response to SPD1. Serum from rhesus macaques exposed to Pneumocystis showed a similar serum IgG response to purified SPD1. SPD1 immunization increased B cell and memory B cell absolute cell counts in CD4-depleted Balb/c mice post Pneumocystis challenge in spleen and lung. Immunization with SPD1 significantly increased specific Pneumocystis IgG antibody production before and after challenge. Mice immunized with SPD1 showed significantly decreased P. murina copy number compared with mice that did not receive SPD1 at 6 weeks after challenge. Conclusion Immunization with SPD1 provides protective efficacy against P. murina infection. SPD1 protection against Pneumocystis challenge is associated with enhanced memory B cell production and higher anti–Pneumocystis IgG antibody production. SPD1 is a potential vaccine candidate to prevent or treat pulmonary

  11. Efficient generation of monoclonal antibodies from single rhesus macaque antibody secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Weixu; Li, Leike; Xiong, Wei; Fan, Xuejun; Deng, Hui; Bett, Andrew J; Chen, Zhifeng; Tang, Aimin; Cox, Kara S; Joyce, Joseph G; Freed, Daniel C; Thoryk, Elizabeth; Fu, Tong-Ming; Casimiro, Danilo R; Zhang, Ningyan; A Vora, Kalpit; An, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are used as a preclinical model for vaccine development, and the antibody profiles to experimental vaccines in NHPs can provide critical information for both vaccine design and translation to clinical efficacy. However, an efficient protocol for generating monoclonal antibodies from single antibody secreting cells of NHPs is currently lacking. In this study we established a robust protocol for cloning immunoglobulin (IG) variable domain genes from single rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) antibody secreting cells. A sorting strategy was developed using a panel of molecular markers (CD3, CD19, CD20, surface IgG, intracellular IgG, CD27, Ki67 and CD38) to identify the kinetics of B cell response after vaccination. Specific primers for the rhesus macaque IG genes were designed and validated using cDNA isolated from macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cloning efficiency was averaged at 90% for variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) domains, and 78.5% of the clones (n = 335) were matched VH and VL pairs. Sequence analysis revealed that diverse IGHV subgroups (for VH) and IGKV and IGLV subgroups (for VL) were represented in the cloned antibodies. The protocol was tested in a study using an experimental dengue vaccine candidate. About 26.6% of the monoclonal antibodies cloned from the vaccinated rhesus macaques react with the dengue vaccine antigens. These results validate the protocol for cloning monoclonal antibodies in response to vaccination from single macaque antibody secreting cells, which have general applicability for determining monoclonal antibody profiles in response to other immunogens or vaccine studies of interest in NHPs.

  12. Transcutaneous immunization with tetanus toxoid and mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin as adjuvants elicits strong protective antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Rob; Beignon, Anne-Sophie; Rappuoli, Rino; Muller, Sylviane; Sesardic, Dorothea; Partidos, Charalambos D

    2003-09-01

    In this study, the adjuvanticity of 2 nontoxic derivatives (LTK63 and LTR72) of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli (LT) was evaluated and was compared with that of a cytosine phosphodiester-guanine (CpG) motif, after transcutaneous immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT). TT plus LTR72 elicited the strongest antibody responses, compared with those elicited by the other vaccines (TT, TT plus LTK63, TT plus CpG, and TT plus LTK63 plus CpG); it neutralized the toxin and conferred full protection after passive transfer in mice. Preexisting immunity to LT mutants did not adversely affect their adjuvant potency. Both LTK63 and LTR72 promoted the induction of IgG1 antibodies. In contrast, mice receiving either CpG motif alone or CpG motif plus LTK63 produced strong IgG2a anti-TT antibody responses. Overall, these findings demonstrate that mutants of enterotoxins with reduced toxicity are effective adjuvants for transcutaneous immunization.

  13. Insertion of scFv into the hinge domain of full-length IgG1 monoclonal antibody results in tetravalent bispecific molecule with robust properties.

    PubMed

    Bezabeh, Binyam; Fleming, Ryan; Fazenbaker, Christine; Zhong, Haihong; Coffman, Karen; Yu, Xiang-Qing; Leow, Ching Ching; Gibson, Nerea; Wilson, Susan; Stover, C Kendall; Wu, Herren; Gao, Changshou; Dimasi, Nazzareno

    By simultaneous binding two disease mediators, bispecific antibodies offer the opportunity to broaden the utility of antibody-based therapies. Herein, we describe the design and characterization of Bs4Ab, an innovative and generic bispecific tetravalent antibody platform. The Bs4Ab format comprises a full-length IgG1 monoclonal antibody with a scFv inserted into the hinge domain. The Bs4Ab design demonstrates robust manufacturability as evidenced by MEDI3902, which is currently in clinical development. To further demonstrate the applicability of the Bs4Ab technology, we describe the molecular engineering, biochemical, biophysical, and in vivo characterization of a bispecific tetravalent Bs4Ab that, by simultaneously binding vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-2, inhibits their function. We also demonstrate that the Bs4Ab platform allows Fc-engineering similar to that achieved with IgG1 antibodies, such as mutations to extend half-life or modulate effector functions.

  14. HIV-Exposed Infants Vaccinated with an MF59/Recombinant gp120 Vaccine Have Higher-Magnitude Anti-V1V2 IgG Responses than Adults Immunized with the Same Vaccine.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Erin P; Fong, Youyi; Toote, Christopher; Cunningham, Coleen K; McFarland, Elizabeth J; Borkowsky, William; Barnett, Susan; Itell, Hannah L; Kumar, Amit; Gray, Glenda; McElrath, M Julianna; Tomaras, Georgia D; Permar, Sallie R; Fouda, Genevieve G

    2018-01-01

    In the RV144 vaccine trial, IgG responses against the HIV envelope variable loops 1 and 2 (V1V2) were associated with decreased HIV acquisition risk. We previously reported that infants immunized with an MF59-adjuvanted rgp120 vaccine developed higher-magnitude anti-V1V2 IgG responses than adult RV144 vaccinees. To determine whether the robust antibody response in infants is due to differences in vaccine regimens or to inherent differences between the adult and infant immune systems, we compared Env-specific IgG responses in adults and infants immunized with the same MF59- and alum-adjuvanted HIV envelope vaccines. At peak immunogenicity, the magnitudes of the gp120- and V1V2-specific IgG responses were comparable between adults and infants immunized with the alum/MNrgp120 vaccine (gp120 median fluorescence intensities [FIs] in infants = 7,118 and in adults = 11,510, P = 0.070; V1V2 median MFIs of 512 [infants] and 804 [adults], P = 0.50), whereas infants immunized with the MF59/SF-2 rgp120 vaccine had higher-magnitude antibody levels than adults (gp120 median FIs of 15,509 [infants] and 2,290 [adults], P < 0.001; V1V2 median FIs of 23,926 [infants] and 1,538 [adults]; P < 0.001). Six months after peak immunogenicity, infants maintained higher levels Env-specific IgG than adults. Anti-V1V2 IgG3 antibodies that were associated with decreased HIV-1 risk in RV144 vaccinees were present in 43% of MF59/rgp120-vaccinated infants but only in 12% of the vaccinated adults ( P = 0.0018). Finally, in contrast to the rare vaccine-elicited Env-specific IgA in infants, rgp120 vaccine-elicited Env-specific IgA was frequently detected in adults. Our results suggest that vaccine adjuvants differently modulate gp120-specific antibody responses in adults and infants and that infants can robustly respond to HIV Env immunization. IMPORTANCE More than 150,000 pediatric HIV infections occur yearly, despite the availability of antiretroviral prophylaxis. A pediatric HIV vaccine could

  15. Development of a multiplex microsphere immunoassay for the quantitation of salivary antibody responses to selected waterborne pathogens

    EPA Science Inventory

    Saliva has an important advantage over serum as a medium for antibody detection due to non-invasive sampling, which is critical for community-based epidemiological surveys. The development of a Luminex multiplex immunoassay for measurement of salivary IgG and IgA responses to pot...

  16. IgG1 antimycobacterial antibodies can reverse the inhibitory effect of pentoxifylline on tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) secreted by mycobacterial antigen-stimulated adherent cells.

    PubMed

    Thakurdas, S M; Hasan, Z; Hussain, R

    2004-05-01

    Chronic inflammation associated with cachexia, weight loss, fever and arthralgia is the hallmark of advanced mycobacterial diseases. These symptoms are attributed to the chronic stimulation of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Mycobacterial components directly stimulate adherent cells to secrete TNF-alpha. We have shown recently that IgG1 antimycobacterial antibodies play a role in augmenting TNF-alpha in purified protein derivative (PPD)-stimulated adherent cells from non-BCG-vaccinated donors. We now show that IgG1 antibodies can also augment TNF-alpha expression in stimulated adherent cells obtained from BCG-vaccinated donors and this augmentation is not linked to interleukin (IL)-10 secretion. In addition IgG1 antimycobacterial antibodies can reverse the effect of TNF-alpha blockers such as pentoxifylline and thalidomide. These studies therefore have clinical implications for anti-inflammatory drug treatments which are used increasingly to alleviate symptoms associated with chronic inflammation.

  17. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. XVII. IgG subclass transcription revisited with emphasis on new IgG3.

    PubMed

    Butler, John E; Wertz, Nancy

    2006-10-15

    Fetal piglets offer an in vivo model for determining whether Ag-independent IgG subclass transcription proceeds in a manner that differs from subclass transcription in pigs exposed to environmental Ags and TLR ligands. Our data from approximately 12,000 Cgamma clones from > 60 piglets provide the first report on the relative usage of all known porcine Cgamma genes in fetal and young pigs. Studies revealed that among the six Cgamma genes, allelic variants of IgG1 comprised 50-80% of the repertoire, and IgG2 alleles comprised < 10% in nearly all tissues. However, relative transcription of allelic variants of IgG1 randomly deviate from the 1:1 ratio expected in heterozygotes. Most surprising was the finding that IgG3 accounted for half of all Cgamma transcripts in the ileal Peyer's patches (IPPs) and mesenteric lymph nodes but on average only approximately 5% of the clones from the thymus, tonsil, spleen, peripheral blood, and bone marrow of newborns. Lymphoid tissues from late term fetuses revealed a similar expression pattern. Except for IgG3 in the IPPs and mesenteric lymph nodes, no stochastic pattern of Cgamma expression during development was seen in animals from mid-gestation through 5 mo. The age and tissue dependence of IgG3 transcription paralleled the developmental persistence of the IPP, and its near disappearance corresponds to the diversification of the preimmune VDJ repertoire in young piglets. We hypothesize that long-hinged porcine IgG3 may be important in preadaptive responses to T cell-independent Ags similar to those described for its murine namesake.

  18. Anti-Plasmodium falciparum invasion ligand antibodies in a low malaria transmission region, Loreto, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum is a complex process that involves two families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL) and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh) proteins. Antibodies that inhibit merozoite attachment and invasion are believed to be important in mediating naturally acquired immunity and immunity generated by parasite blood stage vaccine candidates. The hypotheses tested in this study were 1) that antibody responses against specific P. falciparum invasion ligands (EBL and PfRh) differ between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals living in the low-transmission region of the Peruvian Amazon and 2), such antibody responses might have an association, either direct or indirect, with clinical immunity observed in asymptomatically parasitaemic individuals. Methods ELISA was used to assess antibody responses (IgG, IgG1 and IgG3) against recombinant P. falciparum invasion ligands of the EBL (EBA-175, EBA-181, EBA-140) and PfRh families (PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh4 and PfRh5) in 45 individuals infected with P. falciparum from Peruvian Amazon. Individuals were classified as having symptomatic malaria (N=37) or asymptomatic infection (N=8). Results Antibody responses against both EBL and PfRh family proteins were significantly higher in asymptomatic compared to symptomatic individuals, demonstrating an association with clinical immunity. Significant differences in the total IgG responses were observed with EBA-175, EBA-181, PfRh2b, and MSP119 (as a control). IgG1 responses against EBA-181, PfRh2a and PfRh2b were significantly higher in the asymptomatic individuals. Total IgG antibody responses against PfRh1, PfRh2a, PfRh2b, PfRh5, EBA-175, EBA-181 and MSP119 proteins were negatively correlated with level of parasitaemia. IgG1 responses against EBA-181, PfRh2a and PfRh2b and IgG3 response for PfRh2a were also negatively correlated with parasitaemia. Conclusions These data suggest that falciparum malaria patients who develop clinical immunity

  19. Serum antibody responses by male and female C57Bl/6 mice infected with Giardia muris.

    PubMed

    Daniels, C W; Belosevic, M

    1994-09-01

    We compared the levels of serum antibodies in male and female C57Bl/6 mice during the primary and after challenge infection with Giardia muris. Male mice began passing cysts in their faeces earlier than females, and were shedding cysts for over 60 days, while females stopped shedding cysts by day 20 after infection. In both males and females there were significant increases in parasite-specific IgM 10 and 20 days after infection. No differences in parasite-specific serum IgA were observed until 40 days after infection. Parasite-specific IgG (whole) levels were elevated on days 20 and 40 in females, while males showed no significant increases. In addition, females had a much stronger IgG2b and IgG3 response than males. After challenge with either cysts or soluble parasite protein only the females had significant increases in specific anti-parasite IgG2b. Our data show differential ability of males and females to control the infection with G. muris is paralleled by a difference in the anti-parasite serum IgG response of the mice.

  20. Association of Escherichia coli J5-specific serum antibody responses with clinical mastitis outcome for J5 vaccinate and control dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David J; Mallard, Bonnie A; Burton, Jeanne L; Schukken, Ynte H; Grohn, Yrjo T

    2009-02-01

    Dairy cattle in two commercial Holstein herds were randomly selected to be vaccinated twice with J5, at approximately 60 days and 28 days before the expected calving date, or to be untreated controls. Based on whether milk production changed following clinical mastitis or whether cows were culled or died within 30 days after onset, 51 mastitis cases were classified as severe or mild. J5-specific antibody responses were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of all 32 severe and 19 mild cases. The amounts of J5-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG1, and IgG2 antibodies in sera from the 27 J5 vaccinates were compared with those of the 24 controls. At drying off (before J5 vaccination), all cows had similar amounts of J5-specific antibody. Immediately after calving (approximately 28 days after the second vaccination), J5 vaccinates had significantly higher production of J5-specific IgG1 and IgG2 than controls. When cows were tested following clinical mastitis, none of the three antibody classes differed significantly between the controls and the vaccinates. Vaccinates that contracted Escherichia coli mastitis had 75% less milk loss than controls. The cows that contracted clinical mastitis later in lactation, the unvaccinated controls, and those infected with E. coli had more milk loss following mastitis. The hazards of being culled for all reasons and of being culled for mastitis were significantly lower for J5 vaccinates. Vaccination with J5 was associated with protection against milk production loss and culling following clinical mastitis, and it was also significantly associated with changes in J5-specific IgM, IgG1, and IgG2 antibodies in sera of vaccinated cows.

  1. Combined roles of human IgG subclass, alternative complement pathway activation, and epitope density in the bactericidal activity of antibodies to meningococcal factor h binding protein.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Serena; Reason, Donald C; Granoff, Dan M

    2012-01-01

    Meningococcal vaccines containing factor H binding protein (fHbp) are in clinical development. fHbp binds human fH, which enables the meningococcus to resist complement-mediated bacteriolysis. Previously, we found that chimeric human IgG1 mouse anti-fHbp monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) had human complement-mediated bactericidal activity only if the MAb inhibited fH binding. Since IgG subclasses differ in their ability to activate complement, we investigated the role of human IgG subclasses on antibody functional activity. We constructed chimeric MAbs in which three different murine fHbp-specific binding domains were each paired with human IgG1, IgG2, or IgG3. Against a wild-type group B isolate, all three IgG3 MAbs, irrespective of their ability to inhibit fH binding, had bactericidal activity that was >5-fold higher than the respective IgG1 MAbs, while the IgG2 MAbs had the least activity. Against a mutant with increased fHbp expression, the anti-fHbp MAbs elicited greater C4b deposition (classical pathway) and greater bactericidal activity than against the wild-type strain, and the IgG1 MAbs had similar or greater activity than the respective IgG3 MAbs. The bactericidal activity against both wild-type and mutant strains also was dependent, in part, on activation of the alternative complement pathway. Thus, at lower epitope density in the wild-type strain, the IgG3 anti-fHbp MAbs had the greatest bactericidal activity. At a higher epitope density in the mutant, the IgG1 MAbs had similar or greater bactericidal activity than the IgG3 MAbs, and the activity was less dependent on the inhibition of fH binding than at a lower epitope density.

  2. Identification of a novel mechanism of action of bovine IgG antibodies specific for Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Mutsumi; Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Hata, Eiji; Iwano, Hidetomo; Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Ando, Tasuke; Sato, Mika; Hayashi, Tomohito; Kiku, Yoshio; Nagasawa, Yuya; Niimi, Kanae; Usami, Katsuki; Ito, Kumiko; Watanabe, Kouichi; Nochi, Tomonori; Aso, Hisashi

    2018-02-26

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that causes subclinical mastitis associated with huge economic losses to the dairy industry. A few vaccines for bovine mastitis are available, and they are expected to induce the production of S. aureus-specific antibodies that prevent bacterial adherence to host cells or promote opsonization by phagocytes. However, the efficacy of such vaccines are still under debate; therefore, further research focusing on improving the current vaccines by seeking additional mechanisms of action is required to reduce economic losses due to mastitis in the dairy industry. Here, we generated S. aureus-specific bovine IgG antibodies (anti-S. aureus) that directly inhibited bacterial growth in vitro. Inhibition depended on specificity for anti-S. aureus, not the interaction between Protein A and the fragment crystallizable region of the IgG antibodies or bacterial agglutination. An in vitro culture study using S. aureus strain JE2 and its deletion mutant JE2ΔSrtA, which lacks the gene encoding sortase A, revealed that the effect of anti-S. aureus was sortase-A-independent. Sortase A is involved in the synthesis of cell-wall-associated proteins. Thus, other surface molecules, such as membrane proteins, cell surface polysaccharides, or both, may trigger the inhibition of bacterial growth by anti-S. aureus. Together, our findings contribute insights into developing new strategies to further improve the available mastitis vaccine by designing a novel antigen on the surface of S. aureus to induce inhibitory signals that prevent bacterial growth.

  3. Antibody responses to P. falciparum blood stage antigens and incidence of clinical malaria in children living in endemic area in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Mariama K; Ouédraogo, Oumarou; Sanou, Guillaume S; Diarra, Amidou; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; Tiono, Alfred; Cavanagh, David R; Michael, Theisen; Konaté, Amadou T; Watson, Nora L; Sanza, Megan; Dube, Tina J T; Sirima, Sodiomon B; Nebié, Issa

    2017-09-08

    High parasite-specific antibody levels are generally associated with low susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. This has been supported by several studies in which clinical malaria cases of P. falciparum malaria were reported to be associated with low antibody avidities. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of age, malaria transmission intensity and incidence of clinical malaria in the induction of protective humoral immune response against P. falciparum malaria in children living in Burkina Faso. We combined levels of IgG and IgG subclasses responses to P. falciparum antigens: Merozoite Surface Protein 3 (MSP3), Merozoite Surface Protein 2a (MSP2a), Merozoite Surface Protein 2b (MSP2b), Glutamate Rich Protein R0 (GLURP R0) and Glutamate Rich Protein R2 (GLURP R2) in plasma samples from 325 children under five (05) years with age, malaria transmission season and malaria incidence. We notice higher prevalence of P. falciparum infection in low transmission season compared to high malaria transmission season. While, parasite density was lower in low transmission than high transmission season. IgG against all antigens investigated increased with age. High levels of IgG and IgG subclasses to all tested antigens except for GLURP R2 were associated with the intensity of malaria transmission. IgG to MSP3, MSP2b, GLURP R2 and GLURP R0 were associated with low incidence of malaria. All IgG subclasses were associated with low incidence of P. falciparum malaria, but these associations were stronger for cytophilic IgGs. On the basis of the data presented in this study, we conclude that the induction of humoral immune response to tested malaria antigens is related to age, transmission season level and incidence of clinical malaria.

  4. Relative stabilities of IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains: Influence of the light–heavy interchain disulfide bond architecture

    PubMed Central

    Heads, James T; Adams, Ralph; D'Hooghe, Lena E; Page, Matt J T; Humphreys, David P; Popplewell, Andrew G; Lawson, Alastair D; Henry, Alistair J

    2012-01-01

    The stability of therapeutic antibodies is a prime pharmaceutical concern. In this work we examined thermal stability differences between human IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains containing the same variable regions using the thermofluor assay. It was found that the IgG1 Fab domain is up to 11°C more stable than the IgG4 Fab domain containing the same variable region. We investigated the cause of this difference with the aim of developing a molecule with the enhanced stability of the IgG1 Fab and the biological properties of an IgG4 Fc. We found that replacing the seven residues, which differ between IgG1 CH1 and IgG4 CH1 domains, while retaining the native IgG1 light-heavy interchain disulfide (L–H) bond, did not affect thermal stability. Introducing the IgG1 type L–H interchain disulfide bond (DSB) into the IgG4 Fab resulted in an increase in thermal stability to levels observed in the IgG1 Fab with the same variable region. Conversely, replacement of the IgG1 L–H interchain DSB with the IgG4 type L–H interchain DSB reduced the thermal stability. We utilized the increased stability of the IgG1 Fab and designed a hybrid antibody with an IgG1 CH1 linked to an IgG4 Fc via an IgG1 hinge. This construct has the expected biophysical properties of both the IgG4 Fc and IgG1 Fab domains and may therefore be a pharmaceutically relevant format. PMID:22761163

  5. High resolution mapping of the binding site on human IgG1 for Fc gamma RI, Fc gamma RII, Fc gamma RIII, and FcRn and design of IgG1 variants with improved binding to the Fc gamma R.

    PubMed

    Shields, R L; Namenuk, A K; Hong, K; Meng, Y G; Rae, J; Briggs, J; Xie, D; Lai, J; Stadlen, A; Li, B; Fox, J A; Presta, L G

    2001-03-02

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc receptors play a critical role in linking IgG antibody-mediated immune responses with cellular effector functions. A high resolution map of the binding site on human IgG1 for human Fc gamma RI, Fc gamma RIIA, Fc gamma RIIB, Fc gamma RIIIA, and FcRn receptors has been determined. A common set of IgG1 residues is involved in binding to all Fc gamma R; Fc gamma RII and Fc gamma RIII also utilize residues outside this common set. In addition to residues which, when altered, abrogated binding to one or more of the receptors, several residues were found that improved binding only to specific receptors or simultaneously improved binding to one type of receptor and reduced binding to another type. Select IgG1 variants with improved binding to Fc gamma RIIIA exhibited up to 100% enhancement in antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity using human effector cells; these variants included changes at residues not found at the binding interface in the IgG/Fc gamma RIIIA co-crystal structure (Sondermann, P., Huber, R., Oosthuizen, V., and Jacob, U. (2000) Nature 406, 267-273). These engineered antibodies may have important implications for improving antibody therapeutic efficacy.

  6. Neisseria meningitidis Group A IgG1 and IgG2 Subclass Immune Response in African Children Aged 12–23 Months Following Meningococcal Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Holme, Daniel; Findlow, Helen; Sow, Samba O.; Idoko, Olubukola T.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Carlone, George; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Borrow, Ray

    2015-01-01

    Background. A group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, PsA-TT, was licensed in 2010 and was previously studied in a phase 2 clinical trial to evaluate its safety and immunogenicity in African children 12–23 months of age. Methods. Subjects received either PsA-TT; meningococcal group A, C, W, Y polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY); or Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (Hib-TT). Forty weeks following primary vaccination, the 3 groups were further randomized to receive either PsA-TT, one-fifth dose of PsACWY, or Hib-TT. Group A–specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass response was characterized using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. The predominant IgG subclass response, regardless of vaccine, was IgG1. One month following primary vaccination, the geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of IgG1 and IgG2 in the PsA-TT group were 21.73 µg/mL and 6.27 µg/mL, whereas in the PsACWY group the mean GMCs were 2.01 µg/mL and 0.97 µg/mL, respectively (P < .0001). Group A–specific IgG1 and IgG2 GMCs remained greater in the PsA-TT group than in the PsACWY group 40 weeks following primary vaccination (P < .0001). One week following revaccination, those given 2 doses of PsA-TT had the greatest IgG1 and IgG2 GMCs of 125.23 µg/mL and 36.12 µg/mL, respectively (P = .0008), and demonstrated a significant increase in IgG1:IgG2 mean ratio, indicative of the T-cell–dependent response associated with conjugate vaccines. Conclusions. Vaccination of African children aged 12–24 months with either PsA-TT or PsACWY elicited a predominantly IgG1 response. The IgG1:IgG2 mean ratio decreased following successive vaccination with PsACWY, indicating a shift toward IgG2, suggestive of the T-cell–independent immune response commonly associated with polysaccharide antigens. Clinical Trials Registration. SRCTN78147026. PMID:26553689

  7. Neuromyelitis optica IgG stimulates an immunological response in rat astrocyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Howe, Charles L; Kaptzan, Tatiana; Magaña, Setty M; Ayers-Ringler, Jennifer R; LaFrance-Corey, Reghann G; Lucchinetti, Claudia F

    2014-05-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a primary astrocyte disease associated with central nervous system inflammation, demyelination, and tissue injury. Brain lesions are frequently observed in regions enriched in expression of the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, an antigenic target of the NMO IgG serologic marker. Based on observations of disease reversibility and careful characterization of NMO lesion development, we propose that the NMO IgG may induce a dynamic immunological response in astrocytes. Using primary rat astrocyte-enriched cultures and treatment with NMO patient-derived serum or purified IgG, we observed a robust pattern of gene expression changes consistent with the induction of a reactive and inflammatory phenotype in astrocytes. The reactive astrocyte factor lipocalin-2 and a broad spectrum of chemokines, cytokines, and stress response factors were induced by either NMO patient serum or purified IgG. Treatment with IgG from healthy controls had no effect. The effect is disease-specific, as serum from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, Sjögren's, or systemic lupus erythematosus did not induce a response in the cultures. We hypothesize that binding of the NMO IgG to AQP4 induces a cellular response that results in transcriptional and translational events within the astrocyte that are consistent with a reactive and inflammatory phenotype. Strategies aimed at reducing the inflammatory response of astrocytes may short circuit an amplification loop associated with NMO lesion development. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Re-examination of immune response and estimation of anti-Vi IgG protective threshold against typhoid fever-based on the efficacy trial of Vi conjugate in young children.

    PubMed

    Szu, Shousun C; Klugman, Keith P; Hunt, Steven

    2014-04-25

    The capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Vi antigen, is an essential virulence factor and a protective antigen. Similar to other polysaccharide vaccines, the protective action of Vi, both to the polysaccharide alone or when presented as a conjugate, is mediated by serum IgG Vi antibodies. The evaluation of Vi capsular polysaccharide based vaccines to prevent typhoid fever would be significantly facilitated by the identification of a "protective level" of serum antibodies to Vi antigen. The protective level of anti-Vi IgG against typhoid fever was derived from the protective efficacy and immune response of a Vi-rEPA conjugate vaccine efficacy trial. The estimation was derived by two methods: correlation of the percent efficacy and the antibody distribution profile in the vaccine group at a given period of observation, and use of the relative ratio of anti-Vi IgG levels between the vaccine and placebo groups greater or equal to the Relative Risk of typhoid fever used in the efficacy determination. Both methods predicted a similar range of a minimum protective level of anti-Vi IgG between 1.4 and 2.0μg/ml (short term threshold). When applying a protective threshold of 10μg/ml at 6 months post immunization, an IgG level in excess of 1.4μg/ml was achieved by 90% of children at 46 months post immunization, consistent with an 89% level of protection over the duration of the study. We thus suggest that the proportion of children with Vi IgG>10μg/ml (long term threshold) 6 months after immunization may reflect the proportion protected over at least a 4 year period. The current assignment of an anti-Vi IgG protective level may be of value when evaluating vaccine performance of future Vi conjugate vaccines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Re-examination of immune response and estimation of anti-Vi IgG protective threshold against typhoid fever-based on the efficacy trial of Vi conjugate in young children

    PubMed Central

    Szu, Shousun C.; Klugman, Keith P.; Hunt, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background The capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, Vi antigen, is an essential virulence factor and a protective antigen. Similar to other polysaccharide vaccines, the protective action of Vi, both to the polysaccharide alone or when presented as a conjugate, is mediated by serum IgG Vi antibodies. The evaluation of Vi capsular polysaccharide based vaccines to prevent typhoid fever would be significantly facilitated by the identification of a “protective level” of serum antibodies to Vi antigen. Methods The protective level of anti-Vi IgG against typhoid fever was derived from the protective efficacy and immune response of a Vi-rEPA conjugate vaccine efficacy trial. The estimation was derived by two methods: correlation of the percent efficacy and the antibody distribution profile in the vaccine group at a given period of observation, and use of the relative ratio of anti-Vi IgG levels between the vaccine and placebo groups greater or equal to the Relative Risk of typhoid fever used in the efficacy determination. Results Both methods predicted a similar range of a minimum protective level of anti-Vi IgG between 1.4 and 2.0 μg/ml (short term threshold). When applying a protective threshold of 10 μg/ml at 6 months post immunization, an IgG level in excess of 1.4 μg/ml was achieved by 90% of children at 46 months post immunization, consistent with an 89% level of protection over the duration of the study. We thus suggest that the proportion of children with Vi IgG > 10 μg/ml (long term threshold) 6 months after immunization may reflect the proportion protected over at least a 4 year period. Conclusion The current assignment of an anti-Vi IgG protective level may be of value when evaluating vaccine performance of future Vi conjugate vaccines. PMID:24630869

  10. Smoking and periodontal disease: discrimination of antibody responses to pathogenic and commensal oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hayman, L; Steffen, M J; Stevens, J; Badger, E; Tempro, P; Fuller, B; McGuire, A; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Thomas, M V; Ebersole, J L

    2011-04-01

    Smoking is an independent risk factor for the initiation, extent and severity of periodontal disease. This study examined the ability of the host immune system to discriminate commensal oral bacteria from pathogens at mucosal surfaces, i.e. oral cavity. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody reactive with three pathogenic and five commensal oral bacteria in 301 current smokers (age range 21-66 years) were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical features of periodontal health were used as measures of periodontitis. Antibody to the pathogens and salivary cotinine levels were related positively to disease severity; however, the antibody levels were best described by the clinical disease unrelated to the amount of smoking. The data showed a greater immune response to pathogens than commensals that was related specifically to disease extent, and most noted in black males. Significant correlations in individual patient responses to the pathogens and commensals were lost with an increasing extent of periodontitis and serum antibody to the pathogens. Antibody to Porphyromonas gingivalis was particularly distinct with respect to the discriminatory nature of the immune responses in recognizing the pathogens. Antibody responses to selected pathogenic and commensal oral microorganisms differed among racial groups and genders. The antibody response to the pathogens was related to disease severity. The level of antibody to the pathogens, and in particular P. gingivalis, was correlated with disease severity in black and male subsets of patients. The amount of smoking did not appear to impact directly serum antibody levels to these oral bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.

  11. Treatment with belimumab in systemic lupus erythematosus does not impair antibody response to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Nagel, J; Saxne, T; Geborek, P; Bengtsson, A A; Jacobsen, S; Svaerke Joergensen, C; Nilsson, J-Å; Skattum, L; Jönsen, A; Kapetanovic, M C

    2017-09-01

    Background/purpose The objective of this study was to explore the impact of systemic lupus erythematosus and belimumab given in addition to standard of care therapy on 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) response. Methods Forty-seven systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 21 healthy controls were immunized with a single dose of 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine. Forty systemic lupus erythematosus patients were treated with traditional disease-modifying anti rheumatic drugs, 11 of those received belimumab in addition, and 32 patients were treated with concomitant prednisolone. Quantification of serotype specific IgG levels to 12 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides was performed in serum taken before and four to six weeks after vaccination using multiplex fluorescent microsphere immunoassay. IgG levels against serotypes 23F and 6B were also analyzed using standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Opsonophagocytic assay was performed on serotype 23F to evaluate the functionality of the antibodies. Pre- and post-vaccination log transformed antibody levels were compared to determine the impact of systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosis and different treatments on antibody response. Results Systemic lupus erythematosus patients as a group showed lower post-vaccination antibody levels and lower fold increase of antibody levels after vaccination compared to controls ( p = 0.02 and p = 0.009, respectively). Systemic lupus erythematosus patients treated with belimumab in addition to standard of care therapy or with only hydroxychloroquine did not differ compared to controls, whereas the other treatment groups had significantly lower fold increase of post-vaccination antibody levels. Higher age was associated with lower post-vaccination antibody levels among systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Conclusion Belimumab given in addition to traditional disease-modifying anti rheumatic drugs or prednisolone did not further impair antibody

  12. Mapping of IgE and IgG4 antibody-binding epitopes in Cyn d 1, the major allergen of Bermuda grass pollen.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Han-Chih; Wu, Keh-Gong; Chen, Chun-Jen; Su, Song-Nan; Shen, Horng-Der; Chen, Yann-Jang; Peng, Ho-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Bermuda grass pollen (BGP) is an important seasonal aeroallergen worldwide which induces allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis and asthma. Cyn d 1 is the major allergen of BGP. This study is aimed to map human IgE and IgG(4) antibody-binding sequential epitopes on Cyn d 1 by dot immunoblotting. Synthetic peptides (10-mers; 5 overlapping residues) spanning the full length of Cyn d 1 were used for dot immunoblotting to map human IgE and IgG(1-4) antibody-binding regions with sera from BGP-allergic patients. Synthetic peptides with more overlapping residues were used for further mapping. Essential amino acids in each epitope were examined by single amino acid substitution with alanine. Peptides with sequence polymorphism of epitopes of Cyn d 1 were also synthesized to extrapolate their differences in binding capability. Four major IgE-binding epitopes (peptides 15(-1), 21, 33(-2) and 35(+1), corresponding to amino acids 70-79, 101-110, 159-167 and 172-181) and 5 major IgG(4)-binding epitopes (peptides 15(-1), 30(-2), 33(-2), 35(+1) and 39, corresponding to amino acids 70-79, 144-153, 159-167, 172-181 and 192-200) were identified. They are all located on the surface of the simulated Cyn d 1 molecule, and three of them are major epitopes for both IgE and IgG(4). Their critical amino acids were all characterized. Major epitopes for human IgG(1) to IgG(4) are almost identical. This is the first study to map the sequential epitopes for human IgE and IgG(4) subclasses in Cyn d 1. It will be helpful for future development in immunotherapy and diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Safety and antibody response, including antibody persistence for 5 years, after primary vaccination or revaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Musher, Daniel M; Manof, Susan B; Liss, Charlie; McFetridge, Richard D; Marchese, Rocio D; Bushnell, Bonnie; Alvarez, Frances; Painter, Carla; Blum, Michael D; Silber, Jeffrey L

    2010-02-15

    This study assessed antibody levels for 5 years after primary vaccination or revaccination with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PN23). Subjects were enrolled into 4 study groups by age (50-64 or > or = 65 years) and prior vaccination status (no prior vaccination or 1 vaccination 3-5 years previously). Blood was obtained on day 0 (before primary vaccination or revaccination), day 30, day 60, and annually during years 2-5. Levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to 8 vaccine serotypes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 1008 enrolled subjects, 551 completed year 5. For each serotype and age group, baseline geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of IgG were higher in revaccination than primary vaccination subjects. Primary vaccination or revaccination with PN23 induced significant increases in levels of antibody to all serotypes tested. Although day 30 and 60 antibody levels tended to be modestly lower after revaccination, study groups had similar GMCs at later time points. For serotypes 4, 6B, 8, 9V, 12F, 14, and 23F, GMCs during years 2-5 after primary vaccination or revaccination remained higher than in vaccine-naive persons. Levels of antibody to serotype 3 returned to baseline by year 2. Both primary vaccination and revaccination with PN23 induce antibody responses that persist during 5 years of observation.

  14. Antibody response to Giardia muris trophozoites in mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Heyworth, M F

    1986-05-01

    The protozoan parasite Giardia muris colonizes the mouse small intestinal lumen. This parasite is cleared immunologically from the intestine of normal mice. In contrast, T-lymphocyte-deficient (nude) mice have an impaired immunological response to G. muris and become chronically infected. In the present study, trophozoites were harvested from the intestinal lumen of immunocompetent BALB/c mice and nude mice and examined for surface-bound mouse immunoglobulins by immunofluorescence microscopy. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG, but not IgM, were detected on trophozoites obtained from BALB/c mice, from day 10 of the infection onwards. Trophozoites from nude mice showed very little evidence of surface-bound mouse immunoglobulin at any time during the 5-week period immediately following infection of these animals with G. muris cysts. Intestinal G. muris infection was cleared by the BALB/c mice but not by the nude animals. The data suggest that parasite-specific IgA and IgG bind to G. muris trophozoites in the intestinal lumen of immunocompetent BALB/c mice. Intestinal antibodies that bind to trophozoite surfaces are likely to play an important part in the clearance of G. muris infection by immunocompetent mice. The inability of nude mice to clear this infection at a normal rate is likely to be due to impairment of Giardia-specific intestinal antibody production.

  15. Cross-Linking of a CD4-Mimetic Miniprotein with HIV-1 Env gp140 Alters Kinetics and Specificities of Antibody Responses against HIV-1 Env in Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Bogers, Willy M.; Yates, Nicole L.; Ferrari, Guido; Dey, Antu K.; Williams, William T.; Jaeger, Frederick H.; Wiehe, Kevin; Sawant, Sheetal; Alam, S. Munir; LaBranche, Celia C.; Montefiori, David C.; Martin, Loic; Srivastava, Indresh; Heeney, Jonathan; Barnett, Susan W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Evaluation of the epitope specificities, locations (systemic or mucosal), and effector functions of antibodies elicited by novel HIV-1 immunogens engineered to improve exposure of specific epitopes is critical for HIV-1 vaccine development. Utilizing an array of humoral assays, we evaluated the magnitudes, epitope specificities, avidities, and functions of systemic and mucosal immune responses elicited by a vaccine regimen containing Env cross-linked to a CD4-mimetic miniprotein (gp140-M64U1) in rhesus macaques. Cross-linking of gp140 Env to M64U1 resulted in earlier increases of both the magnitude and avidity of the IgG binding response than those with Env protein alone. Notably, IgG binding responses at an early time point correlated with antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) function at the peak immunity time point, which was higher for the cross-linked Env group than for the Env group. In addition, the cross-linked Env group developed higher IgG responses against a linear epitope in the gp120 C1 region of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. These data demonstrate that structural modification of the HIV-1 envelope immunogen by cross-linking of gp140 with the CD4-mimetic M64U1 elicited an earlier increase of binding antibody responses and altered the specificity of the IgG responses, correlating with the rise of subsequent antibody-mediated antiviral functions. IMPORTANCE The development of an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine remains a global priority to prevent new cases of HIV-1 infection. Of the six HIV-1 efficacy trials to date, only one has demonstrated partial efficacy, and immune correlate analysis of that trial revealed a role for binding antibodies and antibody Fc-mediated effector functions. New HIV-1 envelope immunogens are being engineered to selectively expose the most vulnerable and conserved sites on the HIV-1 envelope, with the goal of eliciting antiviral antibodies. Evaluation of the humoral responses elicited by these novel immunogen

  16. Comparison of in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with gold standard in vivo mouse neutralization test for the detection of low level antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Cemile; Coplu, Nilay; Gozalan, Aysegul; Akin, Lutfu; Esen, Berrin

    2017-06-01

    Detection of anti-tetanus antibody levels is necessary for both determination of the immune status of individuals and also for planning preventive measures. ELISA is the preferred test among in vitro tests however it can be affected by the cross reacting antibodies. A previously developed in-house ELISA test was found not reliable for the antibody levels ≤1.0IU/ml. A new method was developed to detect low antibody levels correctly. The aim of the present study was to compare the results of the newly developed in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test with the in vivo mouse neutralization test, for the antibody levels ≤1.0IU/ml. A total of 54 serum samples with the antibody levels of three different levels, =0.01IU/ml, 0.01-0.1IU/ml, 0.1-1IU/ml, which were detected by in vivo mouse neutralization test were studied by the newly developed in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test. Test was validated by using five different concentrations (0.01IU/ml, 0.06IU/ml, 0.2IU/ml, 0.5IU/ml, 1.0IU/ml). A statistically significant correlation (r 2 =0.9967 p=0,001) between in vivo mouse neutralization test and in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test, was observed. For the tested concentrations intra-assay, inter-assay, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and coefficients of variations were determined as ≤15%. In-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test can be an alternative method to in vivo mouse neutralization method for the detection of levels ≤1.0IU/ml. By using in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test, individuals with non protective levels, will be reliably detected. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Evaluation of human cystic echinococcosis before and after surgery and chemotherapy by demonstration of antibodies in serum.

    PubMed

    Tenguria, Rajesh Kumar; Naik, Mohd Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Human cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most important and widespread parasitic zoonoses. As one of the problems that can be encountered after treating CE patients is the risk of postsurgical relapses or treatment failure, a long-term clinical and serological follow-up is required to evaluate the success and failure of therapy. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify the best diagnostic and prognostic ELISA markers in patients with CE. The cohort comprised 50 patients with symptomatic CE treated with antihelminthic drugs and surgery, who were followed up clinically and radiologically for a mean of 6 years (range 4-8 years). The results clearly indicate that the hydatid specific antibodies of IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 are the most important antibodies for the serological diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis during the active stage of the disease. None of the serum samples from healthy controls gave a non-specific reaction with IgE, IgG1 or IgG4, and a considerably reduced cross-reaction was observed with these antibodies. During post-operative follow-up, the IgM, IgE, IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 antibody response provided the best correlate of disease activity. The detection of total IgG and IgG3 subclass antibody response for the assessment of post-treatment disease activity among CE patients was insensitive. All patients responded to treatment except 2 women (32 and 36 years old), in whom multiple cysts (12 and 7 cysts) were detected in the liver and lung two years after the first operation. Hence, it can be concluded that the CE-specific antibodies of IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 are the best immunological markers for diagnosis and prognosis of CE patients.

  18. Therapeutic Administration of Broadly Neutralizing FI6 Antibody Reveals Lack of Interaction Between Human IgG1 and Pig Fc Receptors.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sophie B; Holzer, Barbara; Hemmink, Johanneke D; Salguero, Francisco J; Schwartz, John C; Agatic, Gloria; Cameroni, Elisabetta; Guarino, Barbara; Porter, Emily; Rijal, Pramila; Townsend, Alain; Charleston, Bryan; Corti, Davide; Tchilian, Elma

    2018-01-01

    Influenza virus infection is a significant global health threat. Because of the lack of cross-protective universal vaccines, short time window during which antivirals are effective and drug resistance, new therapeutic anti-influenza strategies are required. Broadly, cross-protective antibodies that target conserved sites in the hemagglutinin (HA) stem region have been proposed as therapeutic agents. FI6 is the first proven such monoclonal antibody to bind to H1-H16 and is protective in mice and ferrets. Multiple studies have shown that Fc-dependent mechanisms are essential for FI6 in vivo efficacy. Here, we show that therapeutic administration of FI6 either intravenously or by aerosol to pigs did not reduce viral load in nasal swabs or broncho-alveolar lavage, but aerosol delivery of FI6 reduced gross pathology significantly. We demonstrate that pig Fc receptors do not bind human IgG1 and that FI6 did not mediate antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) with pig PBMC, confirming that ADCC is an important mechanism of protection by anti-stem antibodies in vivo . Enhanced respiratory disease, which has been associated with pigs with cross-reactive non-neutralizing anti-HA antibodies, did not occur after FI6 administration. Our results also show that in vitro neutralizing antibody responses are not a robust correlate of protection for the control of influenza infection and pathology in a natural host model.

  19. Antibody responses induced by Leish-Tec®, an A2-based vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis, in a heterogeneous canine population.

    PubMed

    Testasicca, Miriam C de Souza; dos Santos, Mariana Silva; Machado, Leopoldo Marques; Serufo, Angela Vieira; Doro, Daniel; Avelar, Daniel; Tibúrcio, Ana Maria Leonardi; Abrantes, Christiane de Freitas; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Fernandes, Ana Paula

    2014-08-29

    Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a widespread disease, and dogs are the main reservoirs for human parasite transmission. Hence, development of an effective vaccine that prevents disease and reduces the transmission of VL is required. As euthanasia of seropositive dogs is recommended in Brazil for VL epidemiological control, to include anti-VL canine vaccines as a mass control measure it is necessary to characterize the humoral responses induced by vaccination and if they interfere with the reactivity of vaccinated dogs in serological diagnostic tests. Leish-Tec(®) is an amastigote-specific A2 recombinant protein vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) that is commercially available in Brazil. Here, we tested the immunogenicity of Leish-Tec(®) in a heterogeneous dog population by measuring A2-specific antibody responses. Healthy dogs (n=140) of various breeds were allocated to two groups: one group received Leish-Tec(®) (n=70), and the other group received a placebo (n=70). Anti-A2 or anti-Leishmania promastigote antigen (LPA) antibody levels were measured by ELISA in serum samples collected before and after vaccination. An immunochromatographic test (DPP) based on the recombinant K28 antigen was also used for serodiagnosis of CVL. Vaccinated animals, except one, remained seronegative for anti-LPA total IgG and anti-K28 antibodies. Conversely, seropositivity for anti-A2 total IgG antibodies was found in 98% of animals after vaccination. This value decreased to 81.13% at 6 months before rising again (98%), after the vaccination boost. Anti-A2 IgG2 and IgG1 titers were also increased in vaccinated animals relative to control animals. These data indicate that Leish-Tec(®) is immunogenic for dogs of different genetic backgrounds and that humoral responses induced by vaccination can be detected by A2-ELISA, but do not interfere with the LPA-ELISA and DPP diagnostic tests for CVL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Active immunity induced by passive IgG post-exposure protection against ricin.

    PubMed

    Hu, Charles Chen; Yin, Junfei; Chau, Damon; Cherwonogrodzky, John W; Hu, Wei-Gang

    2014-01-21

    Therapeutic antibodies can confer an instant protection against biothreat agents when administered. In this study, intact IgG and F(ab')2 from goat anti-ricin hyperimmune sera were compared for the protection against lethal ricin mediated intoxication. Similar ricin-binding affinities and neutralizing activities in vitro were observed between IgG and F(ab')2 when compared at the same molar concentration. In a murine ricin intoxication model, both IgG and F(ab')2 could rescue 100% of the mice by one dose (3 nmol) administration of antibodies 1 hour after 5 × LD50 ricin challenge. Nine days later, when the rescued mice received a second ricin challenge (5 × LD50), only the IgG-treated mice survived; the F(ab')2-treated mice did not. The experimental design excluded the possibility of residual goat IgG responsible for the protection against the second ricin challenge. Results confirmed that the active immunity against ricin in mice was induced quickly following the passive delivery of a single dose of goat IgG post-exposure. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the induced active immunity against ricin in mice lasted at least 5 months. Therefore, passive IgG therapy not only provides immediate protection to the victim after ricin exposure, but also elicits an active immunity against ricin that subsequently results in long term protection.

  1. Active Immunity Induced by Passive IgG Post-Exposure Protection against Ricin

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Charles Chen; Yin, Junfei; Chau, Damon; Cherwonogrodzky, John W.; Hu, Wei-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies can confer an instant protection against biothreat agents when administered. In this study, intact IgG and F(ab’)2 from goat anti-ricin hyperimmune sera were compared for the protection against lethal ricin mediated intoxication. Similar ricin-binding affinities and neutralizing activities in vitro were observed between IgG and F(ab’)2 when compared at the same molar concentration. In a murine ricin intoxication model, both IgG and F(ab’)2 could rescue 100% of the mice by one dose (3 nmol) administration of antibodies 1 hour after 5 × LD50 ricin challenge. Nine days later, when the rescued mice received a second ricin challenge (5 × LD50), only the IgG-treated mice survived; the F(ab’)2-treated mice did not. The experimental design excluded the possibility of residual goat IgG responsible for the protection against the second ricin challenge. Results confirmed that the active immunity against ricin in mice was induced quickly following the passive delivery of a single dose of goat IgG post-exposure. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the induced active immunity against ricin in mice lasted at least 5 months. Therefore, passive IgG therapy not only provides immediate protection to the victim after ricin exposure, but also elicits an active immunity against ricin that subsequently results in long term protection. PMID:24451844

  2. Antibody response after a single dose of an AS03-adjuvanted split-virion influenza A (H1N1) vaccine in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sven; Adam, Matti; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Ilchmann, Corina; Eulenburg, Christine; Sattinger, Edgar; Runte, Hendrik; Schlüter, Michael; Deuse, Tobias; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Costard-Jäckle, Angelika

    2011-05-15

    Influenza A (H1N1) has emerged as a considerable threat for recipients of organ transplants. Vaccination against the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus has generally been advocated. There is limited experience with AS03-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccines in immunosuppressed patients. We conducted an observational, nonrandomized single-center study to assess antibody response and vaccine-related adverse effects in 47 heart transplant recipients (44 men; age, 56±13 years). The AS03-adjuvanted, inactivated split-virion A/California/7/2009 H1N1v pandemic vaccine was administered. Antibody titers were measured using hemagglutination inhibition; immunoglobulin G (IgG) response was assessed using a new pandemic influenza A IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit and compared with hemagglutination-inhibition titers. Adverse effects of vaccination were assessed by a questionnaire. Postvaccination antibody titers of greater than or equal to 1:40 were found in only 15 patients, corresponding to a seroprotection rate of 32% (95% confidence interval, 19%-47%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ELISA testing were 80.0%, 68.8%, 54.5%, and 88.0%, respectively. Age, time posttransplantation, and immunosuppressive regimen did not impact antibody response. Vaccination was well tolerated. Single-dose administration of an AS03-adjuvanted vaccine against the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus did not elicit seroprotective antibody concentrations in a substantial proportion of heart transplant recipients; the new pandemic influenza A IgG ELISA test kit proved to be of limited clinical use.

  3. The different effector function capabilities of the seven equine IgG subclasses have implications for vaccine strategies

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melanie J.; Wagner, Bettina; Woof, Jenny M.

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant versions of the seven equine IgG subclasses were expressed in CHO cells. All assembled into intact immunoglobulins stabilised by disulphide bridges, although, reminiscent of human IgG4, a small proportion of equine IgG4 and IgG7 were held together by non-covalent bonds alone. All seven IgGs were N-glycosylated. In addition IgG3 appeared to be O-glycosylated and could bind the lectin jacalin. Staphylococcal protein A displayed weak binding for the equine IgGs in the order: IgG1 > IgG3 > IgG4 > IgG7 > IgG2 = IgG5 > IgG6. Streptococcal protein G bound strongly to IgG1, IgG4 and IgG7, moderately to IgG3, weakly to IgG2 and IgG6, and not at all to IgG5. Analysis of antibody effector functions revealed that IgG1, IgG3, IgG4, IgG5 and IgG7, but not IgG2 and IgG6, were able to elicit a strong respiratory burst from equine peripheral blood leukocytes, predicting that the former five IgG subclasses are able to interact with Fc receptors on effector cells. IgG1, IgG3, IgG4 and IgG7, but not IgG2, IgG5 and IgG6, were able to bind complement C1q and activate complement via the classical pathway. The differential effector function capabilities of the subclasses suggest that, for maximum efficacy, equine vaccine strategies should seek to elicit antibody responses of the IgG1, IgG3, IgG4, and IgG7 subclasses. PMID:17669496

  4. Identification of mildly oxidized low-density lipoprotein (electronegative LDL) and its auto-antibodies IgG in children and adolescents hypercholesterolemic offsprings.

    PubMed

    Barros, Marcos Roberto Andrade Costa; Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara; Abdalla, Dulcinéia Saes Parra; Ferreira, Waldinai Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is an essential step in atherogenesis, generating minimally oxidized LDL, also called electronegative LDL [LDL(-)], which has chemotactic, cytotoxic and immunogenic properties. Serum LDL(-) and anti-LDL(-) auto-antibodies (IgG) were evaluated in 28 children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) antecedents, with or without early coronary artery disease in first-degree relatives (eCAD), hypercholesterolemic (hc) or normocholesterolemic (nc) versus a control group of normocholesterolemic children without pathologic antecedents (C). ELISA method was used for detection of LDL(-) and anti-LDL(-) IgG. LDL(-) serum levels did not differ among the four groups (FH-eCAD-hc 41.4 +/- 24.9 microg/dl; FH-hc 38.3 +/- 11.2 microg/dl; FH-nc 47.3 +/- 17.0 microg/dl and C 44.2 +/- 28.8 microg/dl, p = 0.659). However, IgG anti-LDL(-) auto-antibodies were significantly higher in the control group in comparison to the FH groups with or without eCAD, independent of hypercholesterolemia or normocholesterolemia (FH-eCAD-hc 0.825 +/- 0.289 microg/dl; FH-hc 0.667 +/- 0.307 microg/dl; FH-nc 0.763 +/- 0.204 microg/dl and C 1.105 +/- 0.233 microg/dl, p = 0.006). When the auto-antibodies of groups with FH, with or without eCAD and with or without hypercholesterolemia were compared, no differences were found (p = 0.509). These results showed that FH and/or eCAD children and adolescents have lower titers of auto-antibodies anti-LDL(-) than children from normal families, independent of serum LDL-cholesterol or serum LDL(-).

  5. Effect of rituximab on human in vivo antibody immune responses.

    PubMed

    Pescovitz, Mark D; Torgerson, Troy R; Ochs, Hans D; Ocheltree, Elizabeth; McGee, Paula; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Lachin, John M; Canniff, Jennifer; Greenbaum, Carla; Herold, Kevan C; Skyler, Jay S; Weinberg, Adriana

    2011-12-01

    B-lymphocyte depletion with rituximab has been shown to benefit patients with various autoimmune diseases. We have previously demonstrated that this benefit is also apparent in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. The effect of rituximab on in vivo antibody responses, particularly during the period of B-lymphocyte depletion, is incompletely determined. This study was designed to assess this knowledge void. In patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes treated with rituximab (n = 46) or placebo (n = 29), antibody responses to neoantigen phiX174 during B-lymphocyte depletion and with hepatitis A (as a second neoantigen) and tetanus/diphtheria (as recall antigens) after B-lymphocyte recovery were studied. Anti- tetanus, diphtheria, mumps, measles, and rubella titers were measured before and after treatment by means of ELISA. Antibody titers and percentage IgM versus percentage IgG to phiX174 were measured by means of phage neutralization. B-lymphocyte subsets were determined by means of flow cytometry. No change occurred in preexisting antibody titers. Tetanus/diphtheria and hepatitis A immunization responses were protective in the rituximab-treated subjects, although significantly blunted compared with those seen in the controls subjects, when immunized at the time of B-lymphocyte recovery. Anti-phiX174 responses were severely reduced during the period of B-lymphocyte depletion, but with B-lymphocyte recovery, anti-phiX174 responses were within the normal range. During the time of B-lymphocyte depletion, rituximab recipients had a decreased antibody response to neoantigens and significantly lower titers after recall immunization with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. With recovery, immune responses return toward normal. Immunization during the time of B-lymphocyte depletion, although ineffective, does not preclude a subsequent response to the antigen. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  6. Circulating antibodies to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers'/brewers' yeast) in gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Darroch, C J; Barnes, R M; Dawson, J

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To measure circulating antibodies to yeast organisms that could be used to characterise the yeast specific immune response in gastrointestinal disease. METHODS: A quantitative, isotype specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was developed to measure circulating antibodies to an aqueous extract of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (sacc). Comparisons of specific antibody concentrations were made between 224 healthy controls and 51 patients with Crohn's disease, 41 with ulcerative colitis, 24 with indeterminate colitis, 23 with chronic liver disease, 17 with coeliac disease, and seven with irritable bowel syndrome. Additional comparisons were made between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. Within the Crohn's disease group, the dependence of antibody levels on several clinical variables was assessed. RESULTS: IgG and IgA anti-sacc antibodies were significantly raised in Crohn's disease. IgG antibodies were also raised in patients with chronic liver disease. Among patients with Crohn's disease, IgG antibody concentrations were higher in those with serum alpha 1 acid glycoprotein (AAG) above the normal range and there was a strong trend towards increased IgG anti-sacc in the presence of small bowel disease, whereas IgA anti-sacc correlated positively with disease duration. No differences were detected according to whether patients were taking steroids. Neither the Crohn's disease nor the chronic liver disease group differed from normal subjects in respect of IgG antibodies to bovine milk casein. On linear regression analysis of complete data from 39 Crohn's disease patients, AAG was found to be a significant predictor of both IgG and IgA antibodies, and male sex and disease duration to be additional predictors of IgA antibodies. There was a significant difference in IgG antibodies between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. CONCLUSIONS: Raised antibodies to yeast, although not completely specific for Crohn's disease, may have a future role in diagnosis

  7. Detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus-specific IgG antibodies in ruminants residing in Central and Western Macedonia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Isolde; Chaintoutis, Serafeim C; Dovas, Chrysostomos I; Groschup, Martin H; Mertens, Marc

    2017-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus which causes lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Although, several reports regarding CCHFV antibody prevalence in humans exist in Greece, information about the current distribution is limited. The aim of the present study is to investigate the prevalence of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle and sheep in Macedonia-Greece. The samplings were performed during spring 2013, in 5 regional units of Central Macedonia (Chalkidiki, Imathia, Kilkis, Pella and Thessaloniki) and in the 4 regional units of Western Macedonia (Grevena, Florina, Kastoria and Kozani). Specifically, sera from 538 cattle and 81 sheep underwent testing against CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies. Antiviral immune responses were observed in 31 cattle (6%, 95% CI: 4-8%) and in one sheep (1%, 95% CI: 0-8%). The total seroprevalence in the cattle sampled in Central Macedonia was 7% (28 out of 396, 95% CI: 5-10%). Within Central Macedonia, the highest seroprevalence was detected in Chalkidiki (38%, 95% CI: 23-56%), which was significantly higher (p<0.01) compared to the overall seroprevalence detected in cattle. In Western Macedonia, the total seroprevalence in cattle was 2% (3 out of 142, 95% CI: 1-7%). The 3 seropositive cattle were residing in the regional unit of Grevena. The one IgG-positive sheep serum was obtained from an animal residing in Thessaloniki. In this regional unit, the prevalence in sheep (2%, 95% CI: 0-10%) was much lower compared to the prevalence in cattle (12%, 95% CI: 6-22%), but significance was not achieved (p=0.03). The here presented seroepidemiological study demonstrates high transmission risk to human in specific geographical areas, which should be communicated to national and local public health authorities, so as to intensify preventive measures for public health protection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Diagnostic Performance of Tuberculosis-Specific IgG Antibody Profiles in Patients with Presumptive Tuberculosis from Two Continents.

    PubMed

    Broger, Tobias; Basu Roy, Robindra; Filomena, Angela; Greef, Charles H; Rimmele, Stefanie; Havumaki, Joshua; Danks, David; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Gray, Christen M; Singh, Mahavir; Rosenkrands, Ida; Andersen, Peter; Husar, Gregory M; Joos, Thomas O; Gennaro, Maria L; Lochhead, Michael J; Denkinger, Claudia M; Perkins, Mark D

    2017-04-01

    Development of rapid diagnostic tests for tuberculosis is a global priority. A whole proteome screen identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens associated with serological responses in tuberculosis patients. We used World Health Organization (WHO) target product profile (TPP) criteria for a detection test and triage test to evaluate these antigens. Consecutive patients presenting to microscopy centers and district hospitals in Peru and to outpatient clinics at a tuberculosis reference center in Vietnam were recruited. We tested blood samples from 755 HIV-uninfected adults with presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis to measure IgG antibody responses to 57 M. tuberculosis antigens using a field-based multiplexed serological assay and a 132-antigen bead-based reference assay. We evaluated single antigen performance and models of all possible 3-antigen combinations and multiantigen combinations. Three-antigen and multiantigen models performed similarly and were superior to single antigens. With specificity set at 90% for a detection test, the best sensitivity of a 3-antigen model was 35% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31-40). With sensitivity set at 85% for a triage test, the specificity of the best 3-antigen model was 34% (95% CI, 29-40). The reference assay also did not meet study targets. Antigen performance differed significantly between the study sites for 7/22 of the best-performing antigens. Although M. tuberculosis antigens were recognized by the IgG response during tuberculosis, no single antigen or multiantigen set performance approached WHO TPP criteria for clinical utility among HIV-uninfected adults with presumed tuberculosis in high-volume, urban settings in tuberculosis-endemic countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Comparison of Antibody Responses to a Potential Combination of Specific Glycolipids and Proteins for Test Sensitivity Improvement in Tuberculosis Serodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Julián, Esther; Matas, Lurdes; Alcaide, José; Luquin, Marina

    2004-01-01

    The humoral response to different proteinaceous antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is heterogeneous among patients with active disease, and this has originated in the proposal to use a combination of several specific antigens to find an efficient serodiagnostic test for tuberculosis (TB). However, to date, comparisons of antibody responses to several antigens in the same population have been carried out without consideration of antigenic cell wall glycolipids. In the present study the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA antibodies to M. tuberculosis glycolipids (sulfolipid I, diacyltrehaloses, triacyltrehaloses, and cord factor) was compared with the response to four commercially available tests based on the 38-kDa protein mixed with the 16-kDa protein or lipoarabinomannan. Fifty-two serum samples from TB patients and 83 serum samples from control individuals (48 healthy individuals and 35 non-TB pneumonia patients) were studied. Three relevant results were obtained. (i) Smear-negative TB patients presented low humoral responses, but the sera which did react principally showed IgA antibodies to some glycolipidic antigens. (ii) TB patients exhibit heterogeneous humoral responses against glycolipidic antigens. (iii) Finally, test sensitivity is improved (from 23 to 62%) when IgG and IgA antibodies are detected together in tests based on different antigens (proteins and glycolipids). We conclude that it is possible to include glycolipidic antigens in a cocktail of specific antigens from M. tuberculosis to develop a serodiagnostic test. PMID:14715547

  10. Computational analysis of antibody dynamics identifies recent HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Kelly E; Vandergrift, Nathan A; Deal, Aaron W; Rountree, Wes; Bainbridge, John; Grebe, Eduard; Anderson, David A; Sawant, Sheetal; Shen, Xiaoying; Yates, Nicole L; Denny, Thomas N; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F; Robb, Merlin L; Parkin, Neil; Santos, Breno R; Garrett, Nigel; Price, Matthew A; Naniche, Denise; Duerr, Ann C; Keating, Sheila; Hampton, Dylan; Facente, Shelley; Marson, Kara; Welte, Alex; Pilcher, Christopher D; Cohen, Myron S; Tomaras, Georgia D

    2017-12-21

    Accurate HIV-1 incidence estimation is critical to the success of HIV-1 prevention strategies. Current assays are limited by high false recent rates (FRRs) in certain populations and a short mean duration of recent infection (MDRI). Dynamic early HIV-1 antibody response kinetics were harnessed to identify biomarkers for improved incidence assays. We conducted retrospective analyses on circulating antibodies from known recent and longstanding infections and evaluated binding and avidity measurements of Env and non-Env antigens and multiple antibody forms (i.e., IgG, IgA, IgG3, IgG4, dIgA, and IgM) in a diverse panel of 164 HIV-1-infected participants (clades A, B, C). Discriminant function analysis identified an optimal set of measurements that were subsequently evaluated in a 324-specimen blinded biomarker validation panel. These biomarkers included clade C gp140 IgG3, transmitted/founder clade C gp140 IgG4 avidity, clade B gp140 IgG4 avidity, and gp41 immunodominant region IgG avidity. MDRI was estimated at 215 day or alternatively, 267 days. FRRs in untreated and treated subjects were 5.0% and 3.6%, respectively. Thus, computational analysis of dynamic HIV-1 antibody isotype and antigen interactions during infection enabled design of a promising HIV-1 recency assay for improved cross-sectional incidence estimation.

  11. Computational analysis of antibody dynamics identifies recent HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, Kelly E.; Vandergrift, Nathan A.; Deal, Aaron W.; Rountree, Wes; Anderson, David A.; Sawant, Sheetal; Shen, Xiaoying; Yates, Nicole L.; Denny, Thomas N.; Haynes, Barton F.; Robb, Merlin L.; Parkin, Neil; Santos, Breno R.; Price, Matthew A.; Naniche, Denise; Duerr, Ann C.; Hampton, Dylan; Facente, Shelley; Marson, Kara; Welte, Alex; Pilcher, Christopher D.; Cohen, Myron S.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate HIV-1 incidence estimation is critical to the success of HIV-1 prevention strategies. Current assays are limited by high false recent rates (FRRs) in certain populations and a short mean duration of recent infection (MDRI). Dynamic early HIV-1 antibody response kinetics were harnessed to identify biomarkers for improved incidence assays. We conducted retrospective analyses on circulating antibodies from known recent and longstanding infections and evaluated binding and avidity measurements of Env and non-Env antigens and multiple antibody forms (i.e., IgG, IgA, IgG3, IgG4, dIgA, and IgM) in a diverse panel of 164 HIV-1–infected participants (clades A, B, C). Discriminant function analysis identified an optimal set of measurements that were subsequently evaluated in a 324-specimen blinded biomarker validation panel. These biomarkers included clade C gp140 IgG3, transmitted/founder clade C gp140 IgG4 avidity, clade B gp140 IgG4 avidity, and gp41 immunodominant region IgG avidity. MDRI was estimated at 215 day or alternatively, 267 days. FRRs in untreated and treated subjects were 5.0% and 3.6%, respectively. Thus, computational analysis of dynamic HIV-1 antibody isotype and antigen interactions during infection enabled design of a promising HIV-1 recency assay for improved cross-sectional incidence estimation. PMID:29263306

  12. P. falciparum infection and maternofetal antibody transfer in malaria-endemic settings of varying transmission

    PubMed Central

    Stanisic, Danielle; McGready, Rose; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Clapham, Caroline; Baiwog, Francesca; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Siba, Peter; Mueller, Ivo; King, Christopher L.; Nosten, François; Beeson, James G.; Rogerson, Stephen; Simpson, Julie A.; Fowkes, Freya J. I.

    2017-01-01

    IgG, are likely responsible for the majority of the reduction in maternofetal antibody transfer efficiency with placental infection. PMID:29028827

  13. P. falciparum infection and maternofetal antibody transfer in malaria-endemic settings of varying transmission.

    PubMed

    McLean, Alistair R D; Stanisic, Danielle; McGready, Rose; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Clapham, Caroline; Baiwog, Francesca; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Siba, Peter; Mueller, Ivo; King, Christopher L; Nosten, François; Beeson, James G; Rogerson, Stephen; Simpson, Julie A; Fowkes, Freya J I

    2017-01-01

    During pregnancy, immunoglobulin G (IgG) is transferred from the mother to the fetus, providing protection from disease in early infancy. Plasmodium falciparum infections may reduce maternofetal antibody transfer efficiency, but mechanisms remain unclear. Mother-cord paired serum samples collected at delivery from Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the Thailand-Myanmar Border Area (TMBA) were tested for IgG1 and IgG3 to four P. falciparum antigens and measles antigen, as well as total serum IgG. Multivariable linear regression was conducted to assess the association of peripheral P. falciparum infection during pregnancy or placental P. falciparum infection assessed at delivery with maternofetal antibody transfer efficiency. Path analysis assessed the extent to which associations between P. falciparum infection and antibody transfer were mediated by gestational age at delivery or levels of maternal total serum IgG. Maternofetal antibody transfer efficiency of IgG1 and IgG3 was lower in PNG compared to TMBA (mean difference in cord antibody levels (controlling for maternal antibody levels) ranged from -0.88 to 0.09, median of -0.20 log2 units). Placental P. falciparum infections were associated with substantially lower maternofetal antibody transfer efficiency in PNG primigravid women (mean difference in cord antibody levels (controlling for maternal antibody levels) ranged from -0.62 to -0.10, median of -0.36 log2 units), but not multigravid women. The lower antibody transfer efficiency amongst primigravid women with placental infection was only partially mediated by gestational age at delivery (proportion indirect effect ranged from 0% to 18%), whereas no mediation effects of maternal total serum IgG were observed. Primigravid women may be at risk of impaired maternofetal antibody transport with placental P. falciparum infection. Direct effects of P. falciparum on the placenta, rather than earlier gestational age and elevated serum IgG, are likely responsible for the

  14. Isolation of IgG Antibodies to Toxocara in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients with Acute Anterior Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Balderas, Francisco-Javier; García-Jaimes, Janete; Ríos, Rita; Zonana-Nacach, Abraham; Tapia-Romero, Raquel; Villanueva, Nayeli; Méndez-Samperio, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Since few reports had been published on the prevalence of toxocariasis in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with acute non-granulomatous anterior uveitis (ANGAU), the aim of this work was to determine the presence of antibodies against Toxocara canis in AS patients with ANGAU. Methods Thirty-six patients (14 female and 22 male) with AS were enrolled in the study. The history of ANGAU was accepted only if diagnosed by an ophthalmologist. The detection of IgG antibodies to T. canis was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides were also tested to verify non-specific reactions. Results The prevalence of ANGAU in the AS patients was 58% (21 / 36), and 38% (8 / 21) of the patients with ANGAU were positive for antibodies to Toxocara, while 7% (1 / 15) of AS patients without ANGAU were positive for T. canis (p = 0.038, two tails; mid-p exact). No antibodies were detected to A. lumbricoides antigens in the serum samples of patients with AS. Conclusions These data suggest that the seroprevalence of antibodies to T. canis is high in Mexican patients with AS-associated uveitis, suggesting a chronic asymptomatic toxocariosis, which could be associated with the pathogenesis of ANGAU; however, further larger-scale studies are needed to confirm this observation. PMID:24882953

  15. Monovalent IgG4 molecules

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Ian C.; Fowler, Susan B.; Machiesky, LeeAnn; Miller, Kenneth; Hayes, David B.; Adib, Morshed; Her, Cheng; Borrok, M. Jack; Tsui, Ping; Burrell, Matthew; Corkill, Dominic J.; Witt, Susanne; Lowe, David C.; Webster, Carl I.

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies have become the fastest growing class of biological therapeutics, in part due to their exquisite specificity and ability to modulate protein-protein interactions with a high biological potency. The relatively large size and bivalency of antibodies, however, limits their use as therapeutics in certain circumstances. Antibody fragments, such as single-chain variable fragments and antigen binding-fragments, have emerged as viable alternatives, but without further modifications these monovalent formats have reduced terminal serum half-lives because of their small size and lack of an Fc domain, which is required for FcRn-mediated recycling. Using rational engineering of the IgG4 Fc domain to disrupt key interactions at the CH3-CH3 interface, we identified a number of point mutations that abolish Fc dimerization and created half-antibodies, a novel monovalent antibody format that retains a monomeric Fc domain. Introduction of these mutations into an IgG1 framework also led to the creation of half-antibodies. These half-antibodies were shown to be soluble, thermodynamically stable and monomeric, characteristics that are favorable for use as therapeutic proteins. Despite significantly reduced FcRn binding in vitro, which suggests that avidity gains in a dimeric Fc are critical to optimal FcRn binding, this format demonstrated an increased terminal serum half-life compared with that expected for most alternative antibody fragments. PMID:23567207

  16. Merkel cell polyomavirus IgG antibody levels are associated with progression to AIDS among HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Nasimi, Maryam; Naderi, Niloofar; Salehi-Vaziri, Mostafa; Mohajel, Nasir; Sadeghi, Farzin; Keyvani, Hossein; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2017-04-01

    The association of Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCP y V) with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) in immunocompromised individuals has been revealed in a number of surveys. The study of MCP y V specific antibody titers and viral loads in such patients has a great attraction for research groups interested in viral reactivation. In this cross-sectional study to evaluate MCP y V antibody titer, DNA prevalence and viral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), we examined 205 HIV-1 infected patients and 100 un-infected controls. The HIV-1 infected patients divided into two groups (HIV/AIDS and non-AIDS) according to their CD4 status. Total IgG antibody titer against MCP y V was analyzed by virus like particle (VLP)-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Presence of MCP y V-DNA in subject's PBMCs was examined by quantitative real-time PCR assay. Levels of anti-MCP y V IgG in HIV/AIDS patients were significantly higher than those in non-AIDS HIV-infected and control subjects (p value = <0.001). The prevalence rate of MCP y V-DNA in PBMCs of HIV/AIDS, non-AIDS HIV-infected and un-infected controls were 17%, 16%, and 14% respectively. The MCP y V viral load among the groups ranged between 0.15 to 2.9 copies/10 3 cells (median, 1.9 copies/10 3 cells), with no significant difference between the studied populations (p value = 0.3).

  17. Impaired clearance of early apoptotic cells mediated by inhibitory IgG antibodies in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Manoussakis, Menelaos N; Fragoulis, George E; Vakrakou, Aigli G; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M

    2014-01-01

    Deficient efferocytosis (i.e. phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells) has been frequently reported in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Todate, patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) have not been assessed for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (ApoCell-phagocytosis) and of particulate targets (microbeads, MB-phagocytosis). ApoCell-phagocytosis and MB-phagocytosis were comparatively assessed by flow cytometry in peripheral blood specimens and monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) preparations from healthy blood donors (HBD) and consecutive SS, SLE and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Cross-admixture ApoCell-phagocytosis experiments were also performed using phagocytes from HBD or patients, and apoptotic cells pretreated with whole sera or purified serum IgG derived from patients or HBD. Compared to HBD, approximately half of SS and SLE patients studied (but not RA) manifested significantly reduced ApoCell-phagocytosis (p<0.001) and MB-phagocytosis (p<0.003) by blood-borne phagocytes that correlated inversely with disease activity (p≤0.004). In cross-admixture assays, healthy monocytes showed significantly reduced ApoCell-phagocytosis when fed with apoptotic cells that were pretreated with sera or purified serum IgG preparations from SS and SLE patients (p<0.0001, compared to those from HBD or RA). Such aberrant effect of the SS and SLE sera and IgG preparations correlated linearly with their content of IgG antibodies against apoptotic cells (p≤0.0001). Phagocytic dysfunction maybe also present in certain SS and SLE patients, as supported by deficient capacity of MDM for ApoCell-phagocytosis and MB-phagocytosis under patients' serum-free conditions. Similarly to SLE, efferocytosis is frequently impaired in SS and is primarily due to the presence of inhibitory IgG anti-ApoCell antibodies and secondarily to phagocytes' dysfunction.

  18. Parasite Specific Antibody Increase Induced by an Episode of Acute P. falciparum Uncomplicated Malaria.

    PubMed

    Kaddumukasa, Mark; Lwanira, Catherine; Lugaajju, Allan; Katabira, Elly; Persson, Kristina E M; Wahlgren, Mats; Kironde, Fred

    2015-01-01

    There is no approved vaccine for malaria, and precisely how human antibody responses to malaria parasite components and potential vaccine molecules are developed and maintained remains poorly defined. In this study, antibody anamnestic or memory response elicited by a single episode of P. falciparum infection was investigated. This study involved 362 malaria patients aged between 6 months to 60 years, of whom 19% were early-diagnosed people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). On the day malaria was diagnosed and 42 days later, blood specimens were collected. Parasite density, CD4+ cells, and antibodies specific to synthetic peptides representing antigenic regions of the P. falciparum proteins GLURP, MSP3 and HRPII were measured. On the day of malaria diagnosis, Immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies against GLURP, MSP3 and HRP II peptides were present in the blood of 75%, 41% and 60% of patients, respectively. 42 days later, the majority of patients had boosted their serum IgG antibody more than 1.2 fold. The increase in level of IgG antibody against the peptides was not affected by parasite density at diagnosis. The median CD4+ cell counts of PLWHAs and HIV negative individuals were not statistically different, and median post-infection increases in anti-peptide IgG were similar in both groups of patients. In the majority (70%) of individuals, an infection of P. falciparum elicits at least 20% increase in level of anti-parasite IgG. This boost in anti-P. falciparum IgG is not affected by parasite density on the day of malaria diagnosis, or by HIV status.

  19. Sudden appearance of anti-protein IgG1-forming cell precursors early during primary immunization.

    PubMed

    Nossal, G J; Riedel, C

    1989-06-01

    The anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) B-cell repertoire of unimmunized adult mice was examined by culture of splenocytes (generally 100-3000) at limiting dilution. Cells were polyclonally stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and an interleukin-4-containing lymphokine mixture in the presence of 3T3 fibroblast filler cells. After 7 days of culture, supernatants were examined for their content of anti-KLH IgM and IgG1 antibody by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Parallel cultures of smaller numbers (generally 1-15) of splenocytes were examined to determine the cloning efficiency of B cells in terms of total IgM and IgG1 production. Whereas one spleen cell in 370 produced clones secreting anti-KLH IgM, only 1% of these produced IgG1 that could bind to KLH, despite the fact that about half of the clones switched to IgG1 production with these stimuli. In mice immunized with KLH, this situation did not change until day 5, when there was a sudden, explosive emergence of B cells that could form clones secreting anti-KLH IgG1. The absolute number of such cells in the spleen was found to rise by a factor of 350 between days 3 and 7 of immunization. Moreover, the median amount of IgG1 antibody formed per clone and binding to KLH also rose markedly. In contrast, neither the numbers nor the median KLH-binding antibody content of anti-KLH IgM clones changed significantly after immunization. The results show that the repertoire of anti-protein B cells detected through IgM formation in ELISA consists chiefly of cells producing antibody of low avidity and of doubtful in vivo significance. Assuming that the small proportion of these cells making antibody that is of sufficient avidity to bind as the IgG1 isotype are the ancestors of the many such cells found on day 7 of the primary immune response, one would have to postulate a very high recruitment and/or division rate to account for the increase in numbers and avidity that occurs. It is possible

  20. Increased levels of anti-non-Gal IgG following pig-to-baboon bone marrow transplantation correlate with failure of engraftment

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Fan; Wamala, Isaac; Scalea, Joseph; Tena, Aseda; Cormack, Taylor; Pratts, Shannon; Struuck, Raimon Duran; Elias, Nahel; Hertl, Martin; Huang, Christene A.; Sachs, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of genetically modified pigs which lack the expression of alpha 1–3 galactosyl transferase, (GalT-KO pigs) has facilitated the xenogeneic transplantation of porcine organs and tissues into primates by avoiding hyperacute rejection due to pre-existing antibodies against the Gal epitope. However, antibodies against other antigens (anti-non-Gal antibodies), are found at varying levels in the pre-transplant sera of most primates. We have previously found that baboons with high levels of pre-transplant anti-non-Gal IgG, conditioned with a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen, failed to engraft following pig-to-baboon bone marrow transplantation [8]. Two baboons with low levels of pre-transplant anti-non-Gal IgG, conditioned with the same regimen, showed porcine bone marrow progenitors at 28 days following transplantation, suggesting engraftment. These baboons also showed evidence of donor-specific hypo-responsiveness. This observation led us to investigate the hypothesis that selecting for baboon recipients with low pre-transplant anti-non-Gal IgG levels might improve engraftment levels following GalT-KO pig-to-baboon bone marrow transplantation. Methods Five baboons, with low pre-transplant anti-non-Gal IgG levels, received transplantation of bone marrow cells (1–5 × 10^9/kg of recipient weight) from GalT-KO pigs. They received a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen consisting of low-dose total body irradiation (150cGy), thymic irradiation (700cGy), anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and tacrolimus. In addition, two baboons received Rituximab and Bortezomib (Velcade) treatment as well as extra-corporeal immunoadsorption using GalT-KO pig livers. Bone marrow engraftment was assessed by porcine-specific PCR on colony forming units (CFU) of day 28 bone marrow aspirates. Anti-non-Gal antibody levels were assessed by serum binding towards GalT-KO PBMC using flow cytometry (FACS). Peripheral macro-chimerism was measured by FACS using pig and

  1. H5N1 influenza vaccine induces a less robust neutralizing antibody response than seasonal trivalent and H7N9 influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sook-San; DeBeauchamp, Jennifer; Zanin, Mark; Sun, Yilun; Tang, Li; Webby, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Conventional inactivated avian influenza vaccines have performed poorly in past vaccine trials, leading to the hypothesis that they are less immunogenic than seasonal influenza vaccines. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the immunogenicity of the H5N1 and H7N9 vaccines (avian influenza vaccines) to a seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in naïve ferrets, administered with or without the adjuvants MF59 or AS03. Vaccine immunogenicity was assessed by measuring neutralizing antibody titers against hemagglutinin and neuraminidase and by hemagglutinin -specific IgG levels. Two doses of unadjuvanted vaccines induced low or no HA-specific IgG responses and hemagglutination-inhibiting titers. Adjuvanted vaccines induced comparable IgG-titers, but poorer neutralizing antibody titers for the H5 vaccine. All adjuvanted vaccines elicited detectable anti- neuraminidase -antibodies with the exception of the H5N1 vaccine, likely due to the low amounts of neuraminidase in the vaccine. Overall, the H5N1 vaccine had poorer capacity to induce neutralizing antibodies, but not HA-specific IgG, compared to H7N9 or trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine.

  2. Prenatal toxoplasmosis antibody and childhood autism.

    PubMed

    Spann, Marisa N; Sourander, Andre; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Brown, Alan S

    2017-05-01

    There is evidence that some maternal infections during the prenatal period are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as childhood autism. However, the association between autism and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), an intracellular parasite, remains unclear. The authors examined whether serologically confirmed maternal antibodies to T. gondii are associated with odds of childhood autism in offspring. The study is based on a nested case-control design of a large national birth cohort (N = 1.2 million) and the national psychiatric registries in Finland. There were 874 cases of childhood autism and controls matched 1:1 on date of birth, sex, birthplace and residence in Finland. Maternal sera were prospectively assayed from a national biobank for T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies; IgG avidity analyses were also performed. High maternal T. gondii IgM antibody was associated with a significantly decreased odds of childhood autism. Low maternal T. gondii IgG antibody was associated with increased offspring odds of autism. In women with high T. gondii IgM antibodies, the IgG avidity was high for both cases and controls, with the exception of three controls. The findings suggest that the relationship between maternal T. gondii antibodies and odds of childhood autism may be related to the immune response to this pathogen or the overall activation of the immune system. Autism Res 2017, 10: 769-777. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mitochondrial-dependent Autoimmunity in Membranous Nephropathy of IgG4-related Disease

    PubMed Central

    Buelli, Simona; Perico, Luca; Galbusera, Miriam; Abbate, Mauro; Morigi, Marina; Novelli, Rubina; Gagliardini, Elena; Tentori, Chiara; Rottoli, Daniela; Sabadini, Ettore; Saito, Takao; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Saeki, Takako; Zoja, Carlamaria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Benigni, Ariela

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of glomerular lesions of membranous nephropathy (MN), including seldom-reported IgG4-related disease, is still elusive. Unlike in idiopathic MN where IgG4 prevails, in this patient IgG3 was predominant in glomerular deposits in the absence of circulating anti-phospholipase A2 receptor antibodies, suggesting a distinct pathologic process. Here we documented that IgG4 retrieved from the serum of our propositus reacted against carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) at the podocyte surface. In patient's biopsy, glomerular CAII staining increased and co-localized with subepithelial IgG4 deposits along the capillary walls. Patient's IgG4 caused a drop in cell pH followed by mitochondrial dysfunction, excessive ROS production and cytoskeletal reorganization in cultured podocytes. These events promoted mitochondrial superoxide-dismutase-2 (SOD2) externalization on the plasma membrane, becoming recognizable by complement-binding IgG3 anti-SOD2. Among patients with IgG4-related disease only sera of those with IgG4 anti-CAII antibodies caused low intracellular pH and mitochondrial alterations underlying SOD2 externalization. Circulating IgG4 anti-CAII can cause podocyte injury through processes of intracellular acidification, mitochondrial oxidative stress and neoantigen induction in patients with IgG4 related disease. The onset of MN in a subset of patients could be due to IgG4 antibodies recognizing CAII with consequent exposure of mitochondrial neoantigen in the context of multifactorial pathogenesis of disease. PMID:26137589

  4. Distribution of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and A (IgA) subclasses following Q fever vaccination with soluble phase I Coxiella burnetii extract.

    PubMed

    Camacho, M T; Outschoorn, I; Kovácová, E; Téllez, A

    2000-03-06

    High levels of IgG1, IgG3 and IgA2 antibodies have been observed in patients with Q fever following Coxiella burnetii infection. This IgG subclass distribution is more typical of viral and autoimmune diseases than of bacterial infections. It seemed, therefore, of interest to carry out a prospective study of the distribution of immunoglobulin subclasses after vaccination with phase I C. burnetii tricloroacetic soluble extracts to detect possible differences with respect to natural infection. The antibody response found in vaccinees was mainly restricted to the IgG1, IgG2 and IgA1 subclasses. These findings confirm differences in isotype distribution when compared to those of patients with acute or chronic Coxiella infections and opens an area of interest with respect to the role of IgA subclasses.

  5. Effects of Age, Hemoglobin Type and Parasite Strain on IgG Recognition of Plasmodium falciparum–Infected Erythrocytes in Malian Children

    PubMed Central

    Zeituni, Amir E.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Diakite, Mahamadou; Doumbia, Saibou; Moretz, Samuel E.; Diouf, Ababacar; Tullo, Gregory; Lopera-Mesa, Tatiana M.; Bess, Cameron D.; Mita-Mendoza, Neida K.; Anderson, Jennifer M.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Long, Carole A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Naturally-acquired antibody responses to antigens on the surface of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) have been implicated in antimalarial immunity. To profile the development of this immunity, we have been studying a cohort of Malian children living in an area with intense seasonal malaria transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected plasma from a sub-cohort of 176 Malian children aged 3-11 years, before (May) and after (December) the 2009 transmission season. To measure the effect of hemoglobin (Hb) type on antibody responses, we enrolled age-matched HbAA, HbAS and HbAC children. To quantify antibody recognition of iRBCs, we designed a high-throughput flow cytometry assay to rapidly test numerous plasma samples against multiple parasite strains. We evaluated antibody reactivity of each plasma sample to 3 laboratory-adapted parasite lines (FCR3, D10, PC26) and 4 short-term-cultured parasite isolates (2 Malian and 2 Cambodian). 97% of children recognized ≥1 parasite strain and the proportion of IgG responders increased significantly during the transmission season for most parasite strains. Both strain-specific and strain-transcending IgG responses were detected, and varied by age, Hb type and parasite strain. In addition, the breadth of IgG responses to parasite strains increased with age in HbAA, but not in HbAS or HbAC, children. Conclusions/Significance Our assay detects both strain-specific and strain-transcending IgG responses to iRBCs. The magnitude and breadth of these responses varied not only by age, but also by Hb type and parasite strain used. These findings indicate that studies of acquired humoral immunity should account for Hb type and test large numbers of diverse parasite strains. PMID:24124591

  6. A method for high-throughput, sensitive analysis of IgG Fc and Fab glycosylation by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Alison E; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Dionne, Kendall; Baruah, Kavitha; Cheng, Hao D; De Jager, Philip L; Barouch, Dan H; Suscovich, Todd; Ackerman, Margaret; Crispin, Max; Alter, Galit

    2015-02-01

    The N-glycan of the IgG constant region (Fc) plays a central role in tuning and directing multiple antibody functions in vivo, including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and the regulation of inflammation, among others. However, traditional methods of N-glycan analysis, including HPLC and mass spectrometry, are technically challenging and ill suited to handle the large numbers of low concentration samples analyzed in clinical or animal studies of the N-glycosylation of polyclonal IgG. Here we describe a capillary electrophoresis-based technique to analyze plasma-derived polyclonal IgG-glycosylation quickly and accurately in a cost-effective, sensitive manner that is well suited for high-throughput analyses. Additionally, because a significant fraction of polyclonal IgG is glycosylated on both Fc and Fab domains, we developed an approach to separate and analyze domain-specific glycosylation in polyclonal human, rhesus and mouse IgGs. Overall, this protocol allows for the rapid, accurate, and sensitive analysis of Fc-specific IgG glycosylation, which is critical for population-level studies of how antibody glycosylation may vary in response to vaccination or infection, and across disease states ranging from autoimmunity to cancer in both clinical and animal studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Expansion of blood IgG4+ B, TH2, and regulatory T cells in patients with IgG4-related disease.

    PubMed

    Heeringa, Jorn J; Karim, A Faiz; van Laar, Jan A M; Verdijk, Robert M; Paridaens, Dion; van Hagen, P Martin; van Zelm, Menno C

    2018-05-01

    IgG 4 -related disease (IgG 4 -RD) is a systemic fibroinflammatory condition affecting various organs and has a diverse clinical presentation. Fibrosis and accumulation of IgG 4 + plasma cells in tissue are hallmarks of the disease, and IgG 4 -RD is associated with increased IgG 4 serum levels. However, disease pathogenesis is still unclear, and these cellular and molecular parameters are neither sensitive nor specific for the diagnosis of IgG 4 -RD. Here we sought to develop a flow cytometric gating strategy to reliably identify blood IgG 4 + B cells to study their cellular and molecular characteristics and investigate their contribution in disease pathogenesis. Sixteen patients with histologically confirmed IgG 4 -RD, 11 patients with sarcoidosis, and 30 healthy subjects were included for 11-color flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood for IgG 4 -expressing B cells and T H subsets. In addition, detailed analysis of activation markers and chemokine receptors was performed on IgG 4 -expressing B cells, and IgG 4 transcripts were analyzed for somatic hypermutations. Cellular and molecular analyses revealed increased numbers of blood IgG 4 + memory B cells in patients with IgG 4 -RD. These cells showed reduced expression of CD27 and CXCR5 and increased signs of antibody maturation. Furthermore, patients with IgG 4 -RD, but not patients with sarcoidosis, had increased numbers of circulating plasmablasts and CD21 low B cells, as well as T H 2 and regulatory T cells, indicating a common disease pathogenesis in patients with IgG 4 -RD. These results provide new insights into the dysregulated IgG 4 response in patients with IgG 4 -RD. A specific "peripheral lymphocyte signature" observed in patients with IgG 4 -RD, could support diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Common murine immunoglobulin detection reagents have diminished reactivity with IgG3 - A vulnerability to misinterpretation.

    PubMed

    Howie, Heather L; Wang, Xiaohong; Kapp, Linda; Lebedev, Jenna; Hudson, Krystalyn E; Zimring, James C

    2018-04-01

    Methods designed to monitor humoral immune responses, in a variety of settings, typically use a broadly reactive detection reagent (e.g. polyclonal anti-Ig (immunoglobulin)) in order to characterize antibody responses. In the context of murine models of immunity, which are widely used, this would typically be antisera to mouse Ig or mouse IgG. However, there are 4 different subtypes of mouse IgG; thus, the validity of the above approach, as a general screen for humoral immune responses, depends upon the assumption that the antisera recognize all IgG subtypes. This seems like a reasonable assumption, since polyclonal antisera recognize multiple epitopes; however, herein we report that two commercial sources of goat anti-mouse Ig are hyporeactive with IgG3. Given that relative IgG3 levels are different in distinct types of immune response, these findings demonstrate a potential for misinterpretation, and suggest a need to modify immunological methods in this context. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantification of anti-Leishmania antibodies in saliva of dogs.

    PubMed

    Cantos-Barreda, Ana; Escribano, Damián; Bernal, Luis J; Cerón, José J; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia

    2017-08-15

    Detection of serum anti-Leishmania antibodies by quantitative or qualitative techniques has been the most used method to diagnose Canine Leishmaniosis (CanL). Nevertheless, saliva may represent an alternative to blood because it is easy to collect, painless and non-invasive in comparison with serum. In this study, two time-resolved immunofluorometric assays (TR-IFMAs) for quantification of anti-Leishmania IgG2 and IgA antibodies in saliva were developed and validated and their ability to distinguish Leishmania-seronegative from seropositive dogs was evaluated. The analytical study was performed by evaluation of assay precision, sensitivity and accuracy. In addition, serum from 48 dogs (21 Leishmania-seropositive and 27 Leishmania-seronegative) were analyzed by TR-IFMAs. The assays were precise, with an intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation lower than 11%, and showed high level of accuracy, as determined by linearity under dilution (R 2 =0.99) and recovery tests (>88.60%). Anti-Leishmania IgG2 antibodies in saliva were significantly higher in the seropositive group compared with the seronegative (p<0.0001), whereas no significant differences for anti-Leishmania IgA antibodies between both groups were observed. Furthermore, TR-IFMA for quantification of anti-Leishmania IgG2 antibodies in saliva showed higher differences between seropositive and seronegative dogs than the commercial assay used in serum. In conclusion, TR-IFMAs developed may be used to quantify anti-Leishmania IgG2 and IgA antibodies in canine saliva with an adequate precision, analytical sensitivity and accuracy. Quantification of anti-Leishmania IgG2 antibodies in saliva could be potentially used to evaluate the humoral response in CanL. However, IgA in saliva seemed not to have diagnostic value for this disease. For future studies, it would be desirable to evaluate the ability of the IgG2 assay to detect dogs with subclinical disease or with low antibody titers in serum and also to study

  10. Serum IgG Antibody Levels to Periodontal Microbiota Are Associated with Incident Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Noble, James M.; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Celenti, Romanita S.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Wright, Clinton B.; Schupf, Nicole; Papapanou, Panos N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Periodontitis and Alzheimer disease (AD) are associated with systemic inflammation. This research studied serum IgG to periodontal microbiota as possible predictors of incident AD. Methods Using a case-cohort study design, 219 subjects (110 incident AD cases and 109 controls without incident cognitive impairment at last follow-up), matched on race-ethnicity, were drawn from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP), a cohort of longitudinally followed northern Manhattan residents aged >65 years. Mean follow-up was five years (SD 2.6). In baseline sera, serum IgG levels were determined for bacteria known to be positively or negatively associated with periodontitis (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4, Treponema denticola, Campylobacter rectus, Eubacterium nodatum, and Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies-2). In all analyses, we used antibody threshold levels shown to correlate with presence of moderate-severe periodontitis. Results Mean age was 72 years (SD 6.9) for controls, and 79 years (SD 4.6) for cases (p<0.001). Non-Hispanic Whites comprised 26%, non-Hispanic Blacks 27%, and Hispanics 48% of the sample. In a model adjusting for baseline age, sex, education, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, prior history of stroke, and apolipoprotein E genotype, high anti-A. naeslundii titer (>640 ng/ml, present in 10% of subjects) was associated with increased risk of AD (HR = 2.0, 95%CI: 1.1–3.8). This association was stronger after adjusting for other significant titers (HR = 3.1, 95%CI: 1.5–6.4). In this model, high anti-E. nodatum IgG (>1755 ng/ml; 19% of subjects) was associated with lower risk of AD (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.2–0.9). Conclusions Serum IgG levels to common periodontal microbiota are associated with risk for developing incident AD. PMID:25522313

  11. Serum IgG antibody levels to periodontal microbiota are associated with incident Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Noble, James M; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Celenti, Romanita S; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Wright, Clinton B; Schupf, Nicole; Papapanou, Panos N

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis and Alzheimer disease (AD) are associated with systemic inflammation. This research studied serum IgG to periodontal microbiota as possible predictors of incident AD. Using a case-cohort study design, 219 subjects (110 incident AD cases and 109 controls without incident cognitive impairment at last follow-up), matched on race-ethnicity, were drawn from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP), a cohort of longitudinally followed northern Manhattan residents aged >65 years. Mean follow-up was five years (SD 2.6). In baseline sera, serum IgG levels were determined for bacteria known to be positively or negatively associated with periodontitis (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4, Treponema denticola, Campylobacter rectus, Eubacterium nodatum, and Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies-2). In all analyses, we used antibody threshold levels shown to correlate with presence of moderate-severe periodontitis. Mean age was 72 years (SD 6.9) for controls, and 79 years (SD 4.6) for cases (p<0.001). Non-Hispanic Whites comprised 26%, non-Hispanic Blacks 27%, and Hispanics 48% of the sample. In a model adjusting for baseline age, sex, education, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, prior history of stroke, and apolipoprotein E genotype, high anti-A. naeslundii titer (>640 ng/ml, present in 10% of subjects) was associated with increased risk of AD (HR = 2.0, 95%CI: 1.1-3.8). This association was stronger after adjusting for other significant titers (HR = 3.1, 95%CI: 1.5-6.4). In this model, high anti-E. nodatum IgG (>1755 ng/ml; 19% of subjects) was associated with lower risk of AD (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.2-0.9). Serum IgG levels to common periodontal microbiota are associated with risk for developing incident AD.

  12. Characteristics of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of IgG antibodies specific to Сhlamydia trachomatis heat shock protein (HSP-60)

    PubMed

    Galkin, O Yu; Besarab, A B; Lutsenko, T N

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study sensitivity and specificity of the developed ELISA set for the identification of IgG antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis HSP-60 (using biotinylated tyramine-based signal amplification system). The study was conducted using a panel of characterized sera, as well as two reference ELISA sets of similar purpose. According to the results of ELISA informative value parameters, the ELISA we have developed showed the highest specificity and sensitivity parameters (no false negative or false positive results were registered). In 4 out of 15 intralaboratory panel serum samples initially identified as negative, anti-HSP-60 IgG-antibodies test result in reference ELISA sets upon dilution changed from negative to positive. The nature of titration curves of false negative sera and commercial monoclonal antibodies А57-В9 against C. trachomatis HSP-60 after incubation for 24 h was indicative of the presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies in these samples. Upon sera dilution, idiotypic-anti-idiotypic complexes dissociated, which caused the change of test result. High informative value of the developed ELISA set for identification of IgG antibodies against C. trachomatis HSP-60 has been proven. Anti-idiotypic antibodies possessing C. trachomatis anti-HSP-60 activity and being one of the causes of false negative results of the relevant ELISA-based tests have been identified in blood sera of individuals infected with chlamydial genitourinary infection agents.

  13. [Serum levels of antibodies for IgG, IgA, and IgM against the fungi antigen in psoriasis vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yun-sheng; Wen, Hai-quan; Xiao, Rong

    2003-12-01

    To detect the serum levels of antibodies against Malassezia further and Candida albicans in patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PV), and to investigate the relationship between Malassezia furfur or Candida albicans and pathogenesis of PV. The serum levels of antibodies for IgG, IgA, and IgM against the whole cell antigen Wag and soluble antigen (Sag) of Malassezia fufur and Candida albicans in 40 PV patients and 20 healthy controls were detected by indirect-ELISA, RESULTS: The serum levels of IgG against Wag of Malassezia furfur and Candida albicans were significantly higher in PV patients than those in the healthy controls (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively), The serum levels of IgM against Sag of Malassezia furfur and Candida albican, IgA against Sag of Candida albicans were significantly lower in PV patients than those in the healthy controls (P < 0.05). There are some humoral immunity abnormalties in PV patients. Malassezia furfur and Candida albicans may be related to the pathogenesis of PV.

  14. Blood-brain barrier drug delivery of IgG fusion proteins with a transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Pardridge, William M

    2015-02-01

    Biologic drugs are large molecules that do not cross the blood- brain barrier (BBB). Brain penetration is possible following the re-engineering of the biologic drug as an IgG fusion protein. The IgG domain is a MAb against an endogenous BBB receptor such as the transferrin receptor (TfR). The TfRMAb acts as a molecular Trojan horse to ferry the fused biologic drug into the brain via receptor-mediated transport on the endogenous BBB TfR. This review discusses TfR isoforms, models of BBB transport of transferrin and TfRMAbs, and the genetic engineering of TfRMAb fusion proteins, including BBB penetrating IgG-neurotrophins, IgG-decoy receptors, IgG-lysosomal enzyme therapeutics and IgG-avidin fusion proteins, as well as BBB transport of bispecific antibodies formed by fusion of a therapeutic antibody to a TfRMAb targeting antibody. Also discussed are quantitative aspects of the plasma pharmacokinetics and brain uptake of TfRMAb fusion proteins, as compared to the brain uptake of small molecules, and therapeutic applications of TfRMAb fusion proteins in mouse models of neural disease, including Parkinson's disease, stroke, Alzheimer's disease and lysosomal storage disorders. The review covers the engineering of TfRMAb-avidin fusion proteins for BBB targeted delivery of biotinylated peptide radiopharmaceuticals, low-affinity TfRMAb Trojan horses and the safety pharmacology of chronic administration of TfRMAb fusion proteins. The BBB delivery of biologic drugs is possible following re-engineering as a fusion protein with a molecular Trojan horse such as a TfRMAb. The efficacy of this technology will be determined by the outcome of future clinical trials.

  15. Comparison of three commercial IgG and IgM ELISA kits for the detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ackermann-Gäumann, Rahel; Tritten, Marie-Lise; Hassan, Mona; Lienhard, Reto

    2018-05-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic in many parts of Europe and Asia. The diagnosis of this disease is essentially based on the demonstration of specific antibodies. For reasons of simplicity, automatization and quick availability of test results, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are the method of choice for serological diagnosis of TBE. Here, we evaluated three commercially available anti-TBEV IgG and IgM ELISAs using 251 serum samples: the SERION ELISA classic FSME Virus/TBE Virus IgG and IgM kit (Virion\\Serion), the RIDASCREEN ® FSME/TBE IgG and IgM kit (R-Biopharm), and the anti-FSME/TBE virus ELISA "Vienna" IgG/anti-FSME/TBE virus ELISA IgM kit (Euroimmun). In total, discrepant test results for IgG and/or IgM were observed for 37/251 (14.7 %) of tested samples; differences were statistically significant. Reference values defined by serum neutralization test (SNT, n = 25) or results provided by EQA organizers (n = 2) were established for a subset of samples. In relation to these values, false-positive results were observed mainly for Euroimmun Vienna IgG and RIDASCREEN IgG, whereas false-negative results were primarily observed for Virion\\Serion IgG and RIDASCREEN IgM kits. In routine diagnostics, specificity problems are of major relevance and may be addressed by analyzing the respective samples using SNT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Specific IgG4 antibodies to cow's milk proteins in pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Schuyler, Alexander J; Wilson, Jeffrey M; Tripathi, Anubha; Commins, Scott P; Ogbogu, Princess U; Kruzsewski, Patrice G; Barnes, Barrett H; McGowan, Emily C; Workman, Lisa J; Lidholm, Jonas; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Oken, Emily; Gold, Diane R; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Erwin, Elizabeth A

    2018-04-18

    Allergen-specific IgG 4 (sIgG 4 ) antibodies are often associated with tolerance, but sIgG 4 antibodies to causally relevant foods have been reported recently in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Prevalence and levels of food sIgG 4 are not well established in the general pediatric population. We sought to investigate serum food sIgG 4 with component diagnostics in children with EoE and children from an unselected birth cohort and to explore the effects of sex, age, and milk consumption on sIgG 4 levels. Sera from 71 pediatric patients with EoE and 210 early adolescent children from an unselected birth cohort (Project Viva) were assayed for sIgG 4 and specific IgE (sIgE) to major cow's milk (CM) proteins (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and caseins) and to wheat, soy, egg, and peanut proteins. In the EoE cohort high-titer sIgG 4 (≥10 μg/mL) to CM proteins was more common than in control sera and achieved odds ratios for EoE ranging from 5.5 to 8.4. sIgE levels to CM proteins were mostly 4 IU/mL or less in patients with EoE, such that sIgG 4 /sIgE ratios were often 10,000 or greater. When adjusted for age and milk consumption, high-titer sIgG 4 to CM proteins was strongly associated with EoE, with an odds ratio of greater than 20 to all 3 CM proteins in boys. sIgG 4 to CM proteins are common and high titer in children with EoE. Although it is not clear that this response is pathogenic, sIgG 4 levels imply that these antibodies are an important feature of the local immune response that gives rise to EoE. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on glycoxidatively modified human IgG: Implications in immuno-pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Islam, Sidra; Moinuddin; Mir, Abdul Rouf; Arfat, Mir Yasir; Alam, Khursheed; Ali, Asif

    2017-11-01

    Structural rearrangements and condensations of proteins under hyperglycemic stress have been implicated in various pathological disorders. This study aims to probe the role of methylglyoxal (MG) modified human immunoglobulin G (MG-IgG) in immuno-pathology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). MG was found to perturb the structural integrity of IgG, affect its aromatic micro-environment and cause the generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and aggregate adducts. It liberated the hydrophobic pockets of the protein, reduced its β pleated sheet structure and affected its tertiary conformation. Transition from β sheet to α helix and random coil was also observed in IgG upon modification by MG. It acted with strong oxidative potential and caused oligomerisation and disordered or amorphous type aggregation in the modified protein. Modified IgG had a cytotoxic and genotoxic impact. The MG modified IgG presented novel antigenic determinants that lead to an aggressive immune response. The antibodies had high affinity towards the immunogen. Auto-antibodies derived from T2DM patients exhibited strong affinity towards the modified IgG in comparison to the unmodified protein. Specificity of serum antibodies from T2DM patients was further confirmed by competitive-inhibition ELISA. The potential role of MG-IgG in the immunopathogenesis of T2DM has been discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Unique antibody responses to malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA)-protein adducts predict coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Daniel R; Duryee, Michael J; Shurmur, Scott W; Um, John Y; Bussey, Walter D; Hunter, Carlos D; Garvin, Robert P; Sayles, Harlan R; Mikuls, Ted R; Klassen, Lynell W; Thiele, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adducts (MAA) have been implicated in atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of MAA in atherosclerotic disease. Serum samples from controls (n = 82) and patients with; non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), (n = 40), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (n = 42), or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery due to obstructive multi-vessel CAD (n = 72), were collected and tested for antibody isotypes to MAA-modifed human serum albumin (MAA-HSA). CAD patients had elevated relative levels of IgG and IgA anti-MAA, compared to control patients (p<0.001). AMI patients had a significantly increased relative levels of circulating IgG anti-MAA-HSA antibodies as compared to stable angina (p<0.03) or CABG patients (p<0.003). CABG patients had significantly increased relative levels of circulating IgA anti-MAA-HSA antibodies as compared to non-obstructive CAD (p<0.001) and AMI patients (p<0.001). Additionally, MAA-modified proteins were detected in the tissue of human AMI lesions. In conclusion, the IgM, IgG and IgA anti-MAA-HSA antibody isotypes are differentially and significantly associated with non-obstructive CAD, AMI, or obstructive multi-vessel CAD and may serve as biomarkers of atherosclerotic disease.

  19. Unique Antibody Responses to Malondialdehyde-Acetaldehyde (MAA)-Protein Adducts Predict Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Daniel R.; Duryee, Michael J.; Shurmur, Scott W.; Um, John Y.; Bussey, Walter D.; Hunter, Carlos D.; Garvin, Robert P.; Sayles, Harlan R.; Mikuls, Ted R.; Klassen, Lynell W.; Thiele, Geoffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adducts (MAA) have been implicated in atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of MAA in atherosclerotic disease. Serum samples from controls (n = 82) and patients with; non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), (n = 40), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (n = 42), or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery due to obstructive multi-vessel CAD (n = 72), were collected and tested for antibody isotypes to MAA-modifed human serum albumin (MAA-HSA). CAD patients had elevated relative levels of IgG and IgA anti-MAA, compared to control patients (p<0.001). AMI patients had a significantly increased relative levels of circulating IgG anti-MAA-HSA antibodies as compared to stable angina (p<0.03) or CABG patients (p<0.003). CABG patients had significantly increased relative levels of circulating IgA anti-MAA-HSA antibodies as compared to non-obstructive CAD (p<0.001) and AMI patients (p<0.001). Additionally, MAA-modified proteins were detected in the tissue of human AMI lesions. In conclusion, the IgM, IgG and IgA anti-MAA-HSA antibody isotypes are differentially and significantly associated with non-obstructive CAD, AMI, or obstructive multi-vessel CAD and may serve as biomarkers of atherosclerotic disease. PMID:25210746

  20. Kinetics of circulating antibody response to Trichomonas vaginalis: clinical and diagnostic implications.

    PubMed

    Ton Nu, Phuong Anh; Rappelli, Paola; Dessì, Daniele; Nguyen, Vu Quoc Huy; Fiori, Pier Luigi

    2015-12-01

    Persistence of antibodies against pathogens after antimicrobial treatment is a marker of therapy failure or evolution to a chronic infection. The kinetics of antibody production decrease following antigen elimination is highly variable, and predicting the duration of soluble immunity in infectious diseases is often impossible. This hampers the development and use of immunoassays for diagnostic and seroepidemiological purposes. In the case of Trichomonas vaginalis infection, the kinetics of antibody levels decrease following therapy has never been studied. We thus investigated the clearance of circulating anti-T. vaginalis IgGs after pharmacological treatment in patients affected by trichomoniasis. 18 female patients affected by acute trichomoniasis were enrolled in this study. After metronidazole therapy administration, subjects were followed up monthly up to 5 months, and serum levels of anti-T. vaginalis IgGs were measured by ELISA. We showed that a successful therapy is characterised by a relatively fast decline of specific antibodies, until turning into negative by ELISA in 1-3 months. In a few patients we observed that the persistence of anti-T. vaginalis antibodies was associated with an evolution to chronic infection, which may be due to treatment failure or to reinfection by untreated sexual partners. Our results describe the direct correlation between the decline of a specific humoral anti-T. vaginalis response and an effective antimicrobial therapy. These findings may facilitate the follow-up approach to circumvent limitations in developing new diagnostic tools and techniques routinely used in microbiology laboratories to assess the presence of T. vaginalis in clinical samples. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Cysteine Racemization on IgG Heavy and Light Chains

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingchun; Flynn, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Under basic pH conditions, the heavy chain 220-light chain 214 (H220-L214) disulfide bond, found in the flexible hinge region of an IgG1, can convert to a thioether. Similar conditions also result in racemization of the H220 cysteine. Here, we report that racemization occurs on both H220 and L214 on an IgG1 with a λ light chain (IgG1λ) but almost entirely on H220 of an IgGl with a κ light chain (IgG1κ) under similar conditions. Likewise, racemization was detected at significant levels on H220 and L214 on endogenous human IgG1λ but only at the H220 position on IgG1κ. Low but measurable levels of d-cysteines were found on IgG2 cysteines in the hinge region, both with monoclonal antibodies incubated under basic pH conditions and on antibodies isolated from human serum. A simplified reaction mechanism involving reversible β-elimination on the cysteine is presented that accounts for both base-catalyzed racemization and thioether formation at the hinge disulfide. PMID:24142697

  2. Cetuximab in combination with anti-human IgG antibodies efficiently down-regulates the EGF receptor by macropinocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Christian; Madshus, Inger Helene; Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Post box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo

    The monoclonal antibody C225 (Cetuximab) blocks binding of ligand to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In addition, it is known that incubation with C225 induces endocytosis of the EGFR. This endocytosis has previously been shown to be increased when C225 is combined with an additional monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody. However, the effects of antibody combinations on EGFR activation, endocytosis, trafficking and degradation have been unclear. By binding a secondary antibody to the C225-EGFR complex, we here demonstrate that a combination of antibodies can efficiently internalize and degrade the EGFR. Although the combination of antibodies activated the EGFR kinase and inducedmore » ubiquitination of the EGFR, the kinase activity was not required for internalization of the EGFR. In contrast to EGF-induced EGFR down-regulation, the antibody combination efficiently degraded the EGFR without initiating downstream proliferative signaling. The antibody-induced internalization of EGFR was found not to depend on clathrin and/or dynamin, but depended on actin polymerization, suggesting induction of macropinocytosis. Macropinocytosis may cause internalization of large membrane areas, and this could explain the highly efficient internalization of the EGFR induced by combination of antibodies. -- Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cetuximab induced endocytosis of EGFR increases upon combination with anti-human IgG. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antibody combination causes internalization of EGFR by macropinocytosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antibody-induced internalization of EGFR is independent of EGFR kinase activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antibody combination may have a zipper effect and cross-link EGFRs on neighboring cells.« less

  3. Demonstration of the IgG antibody repertoire against the bacteria Escherichia coli in Chinese intravenous immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shengliang; Lei, Min; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Fengjuan; Wang, Zongkui; Cao, Haijun; Du, Xi; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Yunhua; Ma, Li; Li, Changqing

    2017-01-30

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is produced by pooling plasma from thousands of healthy blood donors, and the diversity of the antibody is critical for the clinical efficacy of IVIg. This study investigated the antibody diversity of Chinese IVIg. Firstly, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with protein extracts of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 were used to study IgG antibody repertoire of 8 IVIg preparations from different Chinese manufacturers. This was followed by the identification of the antibody-reactive proteins of E. coli by mass spectrometry and the sequence similarity of the proteins was aligned by bioinformatics analysis. The results showed that all IVIg preparations expressed a large range of antibody reactivities against E. coli proteins. 94-238 antigens were recognized by the 8 IVIg preparations. 33 interesting target antigens were selected and identified as 29 different proteins, mainly including membrane proteins, molecular chaperones, metabolism enzymes, and proteins involved in cell cycle processes. Additionally, these antigens were highly conserved proteins which were found extensively in a variety of other pathogenic microorganisms. Our study indicated that Chinese IVIg preparations recognized a large range of high conserved proteins which play key roles in pathogenic microorganisms, and showed each IVIg had its own distinct antibody repertoire. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A rare case of Addison's disease, hepatitis, thyreoiditis, positive IgG anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies and partial IgA deficiency.

    PubMed

    Baleva, Marta P; Mihaylova, Snejina; Yankova, Petja; Atanasova, Iliana; Nikolova-Vlahova, Milena; Naumova, Elissaveta

    2016-01-01

    Selective IgA deficiency (IgAD) is the most prevalent type of primary immune deficiencies, but partial IgA deficiency is even more common. Addison's disease is a rare condition associated with primary adrenal insufficiency due to infection or autoimmune destruction of the adrenals. The association between IgA deficiency and Addison's disease is very rare. We observed a 22-year-old male patient with marked darkening of the skin, especially on the palms and areolae, jaundice on the skin and sclera, astheno-adynamia, hypotension (80/50 mm Hg), and pain in the right hypochondrium. The laboratory investigations revealed increased serum levels of total and indirect bilirubin, AST, ALT, GGT and LDH, negative HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HCV and anti-HAV IgM, very low serum IgA levels (0.16 g/l) with normal IgG and IgM, negative ANA, ANCA, AMA, LKM-1, anti-GAD-60, anti-IA-2, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, a mild increase in anti-TPO antibodies titer, a marked increase in IgG anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies, with no typical changes in cellular immunity, negative T-SPOT-TB test, HLA - A*01; B*08; DRB1*03; DQB1*02, karyotype - 46, XY. We present a rare case of partial IgA deficiency with Addison's disease, hepatitis, thyroiditis and positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies. IgAD and some autoimmune disorders share several predisposing HLA genes, thus explaining the increased prevalence of IgAD in certain patient groups.

  5. Neuronal uptake of anti-Hu antibody, but not anti-Ri antibody, leads to cell death in brain slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, John E; Clawson, Susan A; Hill, Kenneth E; Wood, Blair; Clardy, Stacey L; Tsunoda, Ikuo; Jaskowski, Troy D; Carlson, Noel G

    2014-09-17

    neurological deficits in patients with this antibody response. Our results raise questions as to whether anti-Ri antibody might initially induce reversible neuronal dysfunction, rather than causing cell death. The ability of IgG antibodies to access and react with intracellular neuronal proteins could have implications for other autoimmune diseases involving the central nervous system.

  6. Antibody responses to Sarcoptes scabiei apolipoprotein in a porcine model: relevance to immunodiagnosis of recent infection.

    PubMed

    Rampton, Melanie; Walton, Shelley F; Holt, Deborah C; Pasay, Cielo; Kelly, Andrew; Currie, Bart J; McCarthy, James S; Mounsey, Kate E

    2013-01-01

    No commercial immunodiagnostic tests for human scabies are currently available, and existing animal tests are not sufficiently sensitive. The recombinant Sarcoptes scabiei apolipoprotein antigen Sar s 14.3 is a promising immunodiagnostic, eliciting high levels of IgE and IgG in infected people. Limited data are available regarding the temporal development of antibodies to Sar s 14.3, an issue of relevance in terms of immunodiagnosis. We utilised a porcine model to prospectively compare specific antibody responses to a primary infestation by ELISA, to Sar s 14.3 and to S. scabiei whole mite antigen extract (WMA). Differences in the antibody profile between antigens were apparent, with Sar s 14.3 responses detected earlier, and declining significantly after peak infestation compared to WMA. Both antigens resulted in >90% diagnostic sensitivity from weeks 8-16 post infestation. These data provide important information on the temporal development of humoral immune responses in scabies and further supports the development of recombinant antigen based immunodiagnostic tests for recent scabies infestations.

  7. Contributions of Conventional and Heavy-Chain IgG to Immunity in Fetal, Neonatal, and Adult Alpacas▿

    PubMed Central

    Daley-Bauer, L. P.; Purdy, S. R.; Smith, M. C.; Gagliardo, L. F.; Davis, W. C.; Appleton, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to conventional immunoglobulins, camelids produce antibodies that do not incorporate light chains into their structures. These so-called heavy-chain (HC) antibodies have incited great interest in the biomedical community, as they have considerable potential for biotechnological and therapeutic application. Recently, we have begun to elucidate the immunological functions of HC antibodies, yet little is known about their significance in maternal immunity or about the B lymphocytes that produce them. This study describes the application of isotype-specific reagents toward physiological assessments of camelid IgGs and the B cells that produce them. We document the specificities of monoclonal antibodies that distinguish two conventional IgG1 isotypes and two HC IgG3 variants produced by alpacas. Next, we report that the relative concentrations of five isotypes are similar in serum, milk, and colostrum; however, following passive transfer, the concentrations of HC IgG2 and IgG3 declined more rapidly than the concentration of conventional IgG1 in the sera of neonates. Finally, we assessed the distribution of B cells of distinct isotypes within lymphoid tissues during fetal and adult life. We detected IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 in lymphocytes located in lymph node follicles, suggesting that HC B cells affinity mature and/or class switch. One IgG3 isotype was present in B cells located in ileal Peyer's patches, and one conventional IgG1 isotype was detected in splenic marginal zone B cells. Our findings contribute to the growing body of knowledge pertaining to HC antibodies and are compatible with functional specialization among conventional and HC IgGs in the alpaca. PMID:20926693

  8. Antibodies against recombinant heat shock proteins of 60 kDa from enterobacteria in the sera and synovial fluid of HLA-B27 positive ankylosing spondylitis patients.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-López, M L; Ortega-Ortega, Y; Manríquez-Raya, J C; Burgos-Vargas, R; Vega-López, A; García-Latorre, E

    2009-01-01

    To study the association of HLA-B27 with IgG antibodies to different enterobacterial HSP60s in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). IgG antibodies to 60 kDa enterobacterial HSPs were determined by ELISA in paired samples of sera and synovial fluid from 21 HLA-B27+ ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients; and in sera from 32 HLA-B27+ AS patients, 35 HLA-B27+ healthy relatives of AS patients, and 60 HLA-B27- healthy individuals with no family members with AS. HLA-B27+ patients and healthy individuals showed significantly higher IgG antibody levels to recombinant enterobacterial HSP60s than HLA-B27- healthy controls. The levels of anti-HSP60Sf and anti-HSP60Ec antibodies correlated with disease activity and anti-HSP60Ec antibodies with male gender. No association between enterobacterial HSP60 antibody levels and disease duration was observed. All groups had lower levels of IgG antibodies to rHSP60 from Streptococcus pyogenes (rHSP60 Spy). In paired samples of sera and synovial fluid from B27+ patients, IgG antibodies to enterobacterial HSP60s were detected, but in significantly higher levels in sera than in synovial fluid. The anti-rHSPSpy IgG response in these samples was lower and similar in the three groups. A correlation was found between HLA-B27 and the response to recombinat enterobacterial HSP60s. This response could be associated with disease activitir and gender in some proteins and the presence eof IgG antibodies to these proteins in synovial fluid could be associated with the inflammatory process and initiation of AS.

  9. HLA Class Ia and Ib Polyreactive Anti-HLA-E IgG2a Monoclonal Antibodies (TFL-006 and TFL-007) Suppress Anti-HLA IgG Production by CD19+ B Cells and Proliferation of CD4+ T Cells While Upregulating Tregs

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The anti-HLA-E IgG2a mAbs, TFL-006 and TFL-007, reacted with all HLA-I antigens, similar to the therapeutic preparations of IVIg. Indeed, IVIg lost its HLA reactivity, when its HLA-E reactivity was adsorbed out. US-FDA approved IVIg to reduce antibodies in autoimmune diseases. But the mechanism underlying IVIg-mediated antibody reduction could not be ascertained due to the presence of other polyclonal antibodies. In spite of it, the cost prohibitive high or low IVIg is administered to patients waiting for donor organ and for allograft recipients for lowering antiallograft antibodies. A mAb that could mimic IVIg in lowering Abs, with defined mechanism of action, would be highly beneficial for patients. Demonstrably, the anti-HLA-E mAbs mimicked several functions of IVIg relevant to suppressing the antiallograft Abs. The mAbs suppressed activated T cells and anti-HLA antibody production by activated B cells, which were dose-wise superior to IVIg. The anti-HLA-E mAb expanded CD4+, CD25+, and Foxp3+ Tregs, which are known to suppress T and B cells involved in antibody production. These defined functions of the anti-HLA-E IgG2a mAbs at a level superior to IVIg encourage developing their humanized version to lower antibodies in allograft recipients, to promote graft survival, and to control autoimmune diseases. PMID:28634589

  10. Hinge-deleted IgG4 blocker therapy for acetylcholine receptor myasthenia gravis in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Losen, Mario; Labrijn, Aran F; van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Vivianne H; Janmaat, Maarten L; Haanstra, Krista G; Beurskens, Frank J; Vink, Tom; Jonker, Margreet; 't Hart, Bert A; Mané-Damas, Marina; Molenaar, Peter C; Martinez-Martinez, Pilar; van der Esch, Eline; Schuurman, Janine; de Baets, Marc H; Parren, Paul W H I

    2017-04-20

    Autoantibodies against ion channels are the cause of numerous neurologic autoimmune disorders. Frequently, such pathogenic autoantibodies have a restricted epitope-specificity. In such cases, competing antibody formats devoid of pathogenic effector functions (blocker antibodies) have the potential to treat disease by displacing autoantibodies from their target. Here, we have used a model of the neuromuscular autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to test the therapeutic potential of a new blocker antibody: MG was induced by passive transfer of pathogenic acetylcholine receptor-specific monoclonal antibody IgG1-637. The effect of the blocker antibody (IgG4Δhinge-637, the hinge-deleted IgG4 version of IgG1-637) was assessed using decrement measurements and single-fiber electromyography. Three daily doses of 1.7 mg/kg IgG1-637 (cumulative dose 5 mg/kg) induced impairment of neuromuscular transmission, as demonstrated by significantly increased jitter, synaptic transmission failures (blockings) and a decrease in the amplitude of the compound muscle action potentials during repeated stimulations (decrement), without showing overt symptoms of muscle weakness. Treatment with three daily doses of 10 mg/kg IgG4Δhinge-637 significantly reduced the IgG1-637-induced increase in jitter, blockings and decrement. Together, these results represent proof-of principle data for therapy of acetylcholine receptor-myasthenia gravis with a monovalent antibody format that blocks binding of pathogenic autoantibodies.

  11. Performance of two Aspergillus IgG EIA assays compared with the precipitin test in chronic and allergic aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Baxter, C G; Denning, D W; Jones, A M; Todd, A; Moore, C B; Richardson, M D

    2013-04-01

    Detection of Aspergillus IgG antibodies is important in the diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Immunoprecipitation techniques to detect these antibodies appear to lack sensitivity and accurate quantitation compared with enzyme immunoassays (EIA). This study assessed the performance of two commercial EIAs compared with counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). This was a prospective cohort study of 175 adult patients with chronic or allergic pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus IgG antibodies were detected using CIE, Phadia ImmunoCap Aspergillus IgG and Bio-Rad Platelia Aspergillus IgG. Inter-assay reproducibility was determined for each method and 25 patients had two serum samples analysed within a 6-month interval. When compared with CIE, both ImmunoCap and Platelia Aspergillus IgG had good sensitivity (97 and 93%, respectively) for detection of Aspergillus IgG antibodies. The level of agreement between the two EIAs for positive results was good, but the concentration of antibodies was not correlated between the tests or with CIE titre. ImmunoCap IgG inter-assay coefficient of variation was 5%, whereas Platelia IgG was 33%. Median ImmunoCap IgG values for CPA and allergic aspergillosis were 95 and 32 mg/L, respectively, whereas Platelia IgG values were >80 and 6 AU/mL. The direction of CIE titre change over 6 months was mirrored by ImmunoCap IgG levels in 92% of patients, and by Platelia IgG in 72% of patients. Both ImmunoCap and Platelia Aspergillus IgG EIAs are sensitive measures of Aspergillus IgG antibodies compared with CIE. However, ImmunoCap appears to have better reproducibility and may be more suitable for monitoring patient disease. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  12. Effects of chronic stress and interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms on antibody response to tetanus vaccine in family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Cowden, Linda G; King, Janice D; Briles, David A; Schroeder, Harry W; Stevens, Alan B; Perry, Rodney T; Chen, Zuomin; Simmons, Micah S; Wiener, Howard W; Tiwari, Hemant K; Harrell, Lindy E; Go, Rodney C P

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effects of psychological stress on the antibody response to tetanus vaccine adjusting for cytokine gene polymorphisms and other nongenetic factors in caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). A family-based follow-up study was conducted in 119 spouses and offspring of community-dwelling patients with AD. Psychological stress was measured by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale at baseline and 1 month after the vaccination. Nutritional status, health behaviors, comorbidity, and stress-buffering factors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from six selected cytokines genotyped, and anti-tetanus toxoid immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The effects of stress and other potential confounders were assessed by mixed models that account for familial correlations. The baseline PSS score, the baseline CES-D score, the interleukin-10-1082 A>G SNP GG genotype, and the baseline anti-tetanus IgG were inversely associated with antibody fold increase. Both psychological stress and cytokine gene polymorphisms affected antibody fold increase. The study provided additional support for the detrimental effects of psychological stress on the antibody response to tetanus vaccine.

  13. Presence of keratin-specific antibody-forming cells in palatine tonsils of patients with pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (PPP) and its correlation with prognosis after tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Yoichiro; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Tanaka, Norimitsu; Ohori, Jun-Ichiro; Tanimoto, Yukari; Kurono, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Keratin-specific immune responses in tonsils may be associated with the pathogenesis of pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (PPP). Evaluation of keratin-specific immune responses in tonsils might be useful to predict the effectiveness of tonsillectomy for patients with PPP. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of keratin-specific immune responses in the pathogenesis of PPP in tonsils. It has been reported that anti-keratin antibodies in serum were higher in patients with PPP and decreased after tonsillectomy, indicating that anti-keratin antibodies might be generated in tonsils. In order to demonstrate the presence of keratin-specific immune responses in tonsils, the numbers of keratin-specific antibody-forming cells (AFCs) in tonsillar and peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The prognosis of PPP was compared after tonsillectomy. The numbers of keratin-specific IgM and IgG AFCs in tonsils and of IgG AFCs in peripheral blood were significantly increased in patients with PPP. The numbers of keratin-specific IgG AFCs in peripheral blood correlated positively with tonsil and serum IgG antibodies specific to keratin. Our data show that a good prognosis in patients with PPP depended on the numbers of keratin-specific IgG and IgM AFCs in peripheral blood and the levels of keratin-specific IgG antibodies in serum being significantly decreased 6 months after tonsillectomy.

  14. Dynamics of the Murine Humoral Immune Response to Neisseria meningitidis Group B Capsular Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Colino, Jesús; Outschoorn, Ingrid

    1998-01-01

    Immunization with Neisseria meningitidis group B capsular polysaccharide (CpsB) elicited responses in adult mice that showed the typical dynamic characteristics of the response to a thymus-independent antigen, in contrast to the thymus-dependent behavior of antibody responses to CpsC. The former had a short latent period and showed a rapid increase in serum antibodies that peaked at day 5, and immunoglobulin M (IgM) was the major isotype even though IgG (mainly IgG2a and IgG2b) was also detectable. This response was of short duration, and the specific antibodies were rapidly cleared from the circulation. The secondary responses were similar in magnitude, kinetics, IgM predominance, and IgG distribution. Nevertheless, a threefold IgG increase, a correlation between IgM and IgG levels, and dose-dependent secondary responses were observed. Hyperimmunization considerably reinforced these responses: 10-fold for IgM and 300-fold for IgG. This favored isotype switch was accompanied by a progressive change in the subclass distribution to IgG3 (62%) and IgG1 (28%), along with the possible generation of B-cell memory. The results indicate that CpsB is being strictly thymus independent and suggest that unresponsiveness to purified CpsB is due to tolerance. PMID:9453603

  15. Dynamics of the murine humoral immune response to Neisseria meningitis group B capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Colino, J; Outschoorn, I

    1998-02-01

    Immunization with Neisseria meningitidis group B capsular polysaccharide (CpsB) elicited responses in adult mice that showed the typical dynamic characteristics of the response to a thymus-independent antigen, in contrast to the thymus-dependent behavior of antibody responses to CpsC. The former had a short latent period and showed a rapid increase in serum antibodies that peaked at day 5, and immunoglobulin M (IgM) was the major isotype even though IgG (mainly IgG2a and IgG2b) was also detectable. This response was of short duration, and the specific antibodies were rapidly cleared from the circulation. The secondary responses were similar in magnitude, kinetics, IgM predominance, and IgG distribution. Nevertheless, a threefold IgG increase, a correlation between IgM and IgG levels, and dose-dependent secondary responses were observed. Hyperimmunization considerably reinforced these responses: 10-fold for IgM and 300-fold for IgG. This favored isotype switch was accompanied by a progressive change in the subclass distribution to IgG3 (62%) and IgG1 (28%), along with the possible generation of B-cell memory. The results indicate that CpsB is being strictly thymus independent and suggest that unresponsiveness to purified CpsB is due to tolerance.

  16. Competitive Selection from Single Domain Antibody Libraries Allows Isolation of High-Affinity Antihapten Antibodies That Are Not Favored in the llama Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Sofia Tabares-da; Rossotti, Martin; Carleiza, Carmen; Carrión, Federico; Pritsch, Otto; Ahn, Ki Chang; Last, Jerold A.; Hammock, Bruce D; González-Sapienza, Gualberto

    2011-01-01

    Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) found in camelids, lack a light chain and their antigen-binding site sits completely in the heavy-chain variable domain (VHH). Their simplicity, thermostability, and ease in expression have made VHHs highly attractive. While this has been successfully exploited for macromolecular antigens, their application to the detection of small molecules is still limited to a very few reports, mostly describing low affinity VHHs. Using triclocarban (TCC) as a model hapten, we found that conventional antibodies, IgG1 fraction, reacted with free TCC with a higher relative affinity (IC50 51.0 ng/mL) than did the sdAbs (IgG2 and IgG3, 497 and 370 ng/mL, respectively). A VHH library was prepared, and by elution of phage with limiting concentrations of TCC and competitive selection of binders, we were able to isolate high-affinity clones, KD 0.98–1.37 nM (SPR) which allowed development of a competitive assay for TCC with an IC50 = 3.5 ng/mL (11 nM). This represents a 100-fold improvement with regard to the performance of the sdAb serum fraction, and it is 100-fold better than the IC50 attained with other anti-hapten VHHs reported thus far. Despite the modest overall anti-hapten sdAbs response in llamas, a small subpopulation of high affinity VHHs are generated that can be isolated by carefully design of the selection process. PMID:21827167

  17. Highly sensitive detection of human IgG using a novel bio-barcode assay combined with DNA chip technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhenbao; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Haiqing; Lu, Feng; Liu, Tianjun; Song, Cunxian; Leng, Xigang

    2013-09-01

    A simple and ultrasensitive detection of human IgG based on signal amplification using a novel bio-barcode assay and DNA chip technology was developed. The sensing platform was a sandwich system made up of antibody-modified magnetic microparticles (Ab-MMPs)/human IgG/Cy3-labeled single-stranded DNA and antibody-modified gold nanoparticles (Cy3-ssDNA-Ab-AuNPs). The MMPs (2.5 μm in diameter) modified with mouse anti-human IgG monoclonal-antibodies could capture human IgG and further be separated and enriched via a magnetic field. The AuNPs (13 nm in diameter) conjugated with goat anti-human IgG polyclonal-antibodies and Cy3-ssDNA could further combine with the human IgG/Ab-MMP complex. The Cy3-ssDNA on AuNPs was then released by TCEP to hybridize with the DNA chip, thus generating a detectable signal by the fluorescence intensity of Cy3. In order to improve detection sensitivity, a three-level cascaded signal amplification was developed: (1) The MMP enrichment as the first-level; (2) Large quantities of Cy3-ssDNA on AuNPs as the second-level; (3) The Cy3-ssDNA conjugate with DNA chip as the third-level. The highly sensitive technique showed an increased response of the fluorescence intensity to the increased concentration of human IgG through a detection range from 1 pg mL-1 to 10 ng mL-1. This sensing technique could not only improve the detection sensitivity for the low concentration of human IgG but also present a robust and efficient signal amplification model. The detection method has good stability, specificity, and reproducibility and could be applied in the detection of human IgG in the real samples.

  18. Multiplexing detection of IgG against Plasmodium falciparum pregnancy-specific antigens

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Ana Maria; Quinto, Llorenç; Jiménez, Alfons; González, Raquel; Bardají, Azucena; Maculuve, Sonia; Dobaño, Carlota; Rupérez, Maria; Vala, Anifa; Aponte, John J.; Sevene, Esperanza; Macete, Eusebio; Menéndez, Clara

    2017-01-01

    Background Pregnant women exposed to Plasmodium falciparum generate antibodies against VAR2CSA, the parasite protein that mediates adhesion of infected erythrocytes to the placenta. There is a need of high-throughput tools to determine the fine specificity of these antibodies that can be used to identify immune correlates of protection and exposure. Here we aimed at developing a multiplex-immunoassay to detect antibodies against VAR2CSA antigens. Methods and findings We constructed two multiplex-bead arrays, one composed of 3 VAR2CSA recombinant-domains (DBL3X, DBL5Ɛ and DBL6Ɛ) and another composed of 46 new peptides covering VAR2CSA conserved and semi-conserved regions. IgG reactivity was similar in multiplexed and singleplexed determinations (Pearson correlation, protein array: R2 = 0.99 and peptide array: R2 = 0.87). IgG recognition of 25 out of 46 peptides and all recombinant-domains was higher in pregnant Mozambican women (n = 106) than in Mozambican men (n = 102) and Spanish individuals (n = 101; p<0.05). Agreement of IgG levels detected in cryopreserved plasma and in elutions from dried blood spots was good after exclusion of inappropriate filter papers. Under heterogeneous levels of exposure to malaria, similar seropositivity cutoffs were obtained using finite mixture models applied to antibodies measured on pregnant Mozambican women and average of antibodies measured on pregnant Spanish women never exposed to malaria. The application of the multiplex-bead array developed here, allowed the assessment of higher IgG levels and seroprevalences against VAR2CSA-derived antigens in women pregnant during 2003–2005 than during 2010–2012, in accordance with the levels of malaria transmission reported for these years in Mozambique. Conclusions The multiplex bead-based immunoassay to detect antibodies against selected 25 VAR2CSA new-peptides and recombinant-domains was successfully implemented. Analysis of field samples showed that responses were specific among

  19. Antigen-specific antibody response in juvenile-onset SLE patients following routine immunization with tetanus toxoid.

    PubMed

    Kashef, Sara; Ghazizadeh, Farid; Derakhshan, Ali; Farjadian, Shirin; Alyasin, Soheila

    2008-09-01

    Infection is now the most common cause of morbidity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). There is lack of information regarding the specific antibody formation in response to vaccines in young SLE patients. To determine the efficacy of anti-tetanus antibody response in young patients with SLE. Forty SLE patients with mean age of 14.1 years (range: 7-21) and 60 age and sex matched normal controls were enrolled in this study over a period of one year. Diagnosis was made according to the ACR criteria and disease activity was determined based on SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). All patients and controls had received the complete schedule of tetanus vaccinations consisting of three primary doses and two boosters by the age of six. Serum immunoglobulins and anti-tetanus antibody titers were determined by Nephelometry and ELISA. Anti-tetanus antibody levels greater than 0.1 IU/ml have been suggested as protective. In all of the patients and controls anti-tetanus antibody titer was > 0.1 IU/ml. IgG, IgA, and IgM levels were in the normal range for their age. Mean disease activity score was 4.9 (range: 0-16). There was no association between SLEDAI score and anti-tetanus antibody response. School age onset and immunosuppressive therapy does not seem to interfere with development of consistent immunity to tetanus vaccine in young SLE patients.

  20. Rotavirus specific maternal antibodies and immune response to RV3-BB neonatal rotavirus vaccine in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mee-Yew; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Bines, Julie; Cowley, Daniel; Pavlic, Daniel; Lee, Katherine J.; Orsini, Francesca; Watts, Emma; Barnes, Graeme; Danchin, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time of the study rotavirus vaccines had not been introduced in New Zealand and the burden of rotavirus disease was evident. Methods: Rotavirus specific IgG and serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) levels in cord blood and IgA levels in colostrum and breast milk samples collected ∼4 weeks, ∼20 weeks and ∼28 weeks after birth were measured. Infants were randomized to receive the first dose of vaccine at 0–5 d (neonatal schedule) or 8 weeks (infant schedule). Breast feeding was with-held for 30 minutes before and after vaccine administration. The relationship between rotavirus specific IgG and SNA levels in cord blood and IgA in colostrum and breast milk at the time of first active dose of RV3-BB vaccine and level of IgA response and stool excretion after 3 doses of vaccine was assessed using linear and logistic regression. Results: Forty infants received 3 doses of RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine and were included in the analysis of the neonatal and infant groups. Rotavirus specific IgA in colostrum (neonatal schedule group) and breast milk at 4 weeks (infant schedule group) was identified in 14/21 (67%) and 14/17 (82%) of infants respectively. There was little evidence of an association between IgA in colostrum or breast milk IgA at 4 weeks, or between cord IgG or SNA level, and IgA response or stool excretion after 3 doses of RV3-BB, or after one dose (neonatal schedule) (all p>0.05). Conclusions: The level of IgA in colostrum or breast milk and level of placental IgG

  1. Rotavirus specific maternal antibodies and immune response to RV3-BB neonatal rotavirus vaccine in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mee-Yew; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie; Cowley, Daniel; Pavlic, Daniel; Lee, Katherine J; Orsini, Francesca; Watts, Emma; Barnes, Graeme; Danchin, Margaret

    2017-05-04

    Maternal antibodies, acquired passively via placenta and/or breast milk, may contribute to the reduced efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccines observed in children in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rotavirus specific maternal antibodies on the serum IgA response or stool excretion of vaccine virus after any dose of an oral rotavirus vaccine, RV3-BB, in parallel to a Phase IIa clinical trial conducted at Dunedin Hospital, New Zealand. At the time of the study rotavirus vaccines had not been introduced in New Zealand and the burden of rotavirus disease was evident. Rotavirus specific IgG and serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) levels in cord blood and IgA levels in colostrum and breast milk samples collected ∼4 weeks, ∼20 weeks and ∼28 weeks after birth were measured. Infants were randomized to receive the first dose of vaccine at 0-5 d (neonatal schedule) or 8 weeks (infant schedule). Breast feeding was with-held for 30 minutes before and after vaccine administration. The relationship between rotavirus specific IgG and SNA levels in cord blood and IgA in colostrum and breast milk at the time of first active dose of RV3-BB vaccine and level of IgA response and stool excretion after 3 doses of vaccine was assessed using linear and logistic regression. Forty infants received 3 doses of RV3-BB rotavirus vaccine and were included in the analysis of the neonatal and infant groups. Rotavirus specific IgA in colostrum (neonatal schedule group) and breast milk at 4 weeks (infant schedule group) was identified in 14/21 (67%) and 14/17 (82%) of infants respectively. There was little evidence of an association between IgA in colostrum or breast milk IgA at 4 weeks, or between cord IgG or SNA level, and IgA response or stool excretion after 3 doses of RV3-BB, or after one dose (neonatal schedule) (all p>0.05). The level of IgA in colostrum or breast milk and level of placental IgG and SNA did not impact on the serum IgA response or