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Sample records for igi nyats rk

  1. Significance of the IGY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S.

    The IGY was the greatest scientific enterprise during that period and perhaps still is in the history of geoscience and solar-terrestrial physics. It was a non-governmental organization project. Great efforts were made to standardize the observations in each discipline and were well documented in many volumes of Annals of IGY. Further, great efforts were made to secure the assembled data and, thus, the World Data Centers were established. The IGY was successful because of these efforts; the data became easily available to researchers. Sydney Chapman was the president of the IGY and exerted strong leadership in these efforts. I happened to be his student at that time and witnessed his efforts. I believe that the IGY spirit in this regard is still being carried out in geosciences and solar-terrestrial physics. I will attempt to review the knowledge in solar-terrestrial physics at the dawn of the IGY, the progresses made on the basis of IGY data, and compare IGY results briefly with our present day knowledge.

  2. My IGY in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Dr Charles Bentley is the A.P. Crary Professor Emeritus of Geophysics, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Bentley joined the Arctic Institute of North America in 1956 to participate in International Geophysical Year (IGY)-related activities in the Antarctic. He wintered over consecutively in 1957 and 1958 at Byrd Station, a station in the interior of West Antarctica that housed 24 men each winter - 12 Navy support people and 12 civilian scientists/technicians. During the austral summers, he also participated in over-snow traverses, first as co-leader, then leader (the other coleader went home after the first year). These traverses consisted of six men and three vehicles, and lasted several months. These traverses covered more than 1609 kilometers (1000 miles) of largely unmapped and unphotographed terrain. During these traverses, connections to Byrd Station were by radio (daily, when the transmission conditions were good enough) and roughly every 2 weeks by resupply flight.

  3. A Dual Chicken IgY Against Rotavirus and Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Xu-Fu; Tan, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Lei, Wen; Fang, Hao; Zhong, Weiming; Jiang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are the two most important causes of viral gastroenteritis. While vaccine remains an effective prophylactic strategy, development of other approaches, such as passive immunization to control and treat clinical infection and illness of the two pathogens, is necessary. Previously we demonstrated that high titers of NoV-specific IgY were readily developed by immunization of chickens with the NoV P particles. In this study, we developed a dual IgY against both RV and NoV through immunization of chickens with a divalent vaccine comprising neutralizing antigens of both RV and NoV. This divalent vaccine, named P-VP8* particle, is made of the NoV P particle as a carrier with the RV spike protein VP8* as a surface insertion. Approximately 45 mg of IgY were readily obtained from each yolk with high titers of anti-P particle and anti-VP8* antibodies detected by ELISA, Western blot, HBGA blocking (NoV and RV) and neutralization (RV) assays. Reductions of RV replication were observed with viruses treated with the IgY before and after inoculation into cells, suggesting an application of the IgY as both prophylactic and a therapeutic treatment. Collectively, our data suggested that the P-VP8* based IgY could serve as a practical approach against both NoV and RV. PMID:23267830

  4. On the Standard Model prediction for RK and RK*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattori, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this article a recent work is reviewed, where we evaluated the impact of radiative corrections in RK and RK * . We find that, employing the cuts presently applied by the LHCb Collaboration, such corrections do not exceed a few percent. Moreover, their effect is well described (and corrected) by existing Monte Carlo codes. Our analysis reinforces the interest of these observables as clean probe of physics beyond the Standard Model.

  5. Chronobiological studies of chicken IgY: monitoring of infradian, circadian and ultradian rhythms of IgY in blood and yolk of chickens.

    PubMed

    He, Jin-Xin; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Schade, Rüdiger; Zhang, Xiao-Ying

    2014-08-15

    IgY is the functional equivalent of mammalian IgG found in birds, reptiles and amphibians. Many of its biological aspects have been explored with different approaches. In order to evaluate the rhythmicity of serum and yolk IgY, four chickens were examined and reared under the same conditions. To monitor biological oscillations of IgY in yolk and serum, the eggs and blood samples were collected over a 60 day period and the rhythm of yolk and serum IgY was determined by direct-ELISA. Results indicated that, there is a significant circaseptan rhythm in yolk IgY and circaquattran rhythm in serum IgY. The serum IgY concentration reached a peak in the morning, decreased to a minimum during the daytime and increased again at night revealing a significant circadian rhythm was superimposed by an ultradian rhythm. These data are suited to address the controversies concerning the IgY concentration in egg yolk and blood of laying hens. In addition, this study raised new questions, if the different rhythms in yolk and serum are concerned.

  6. The IGY of 1957-58: Its Place in Science, Politics, and History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needell, A.

    2006-12-01

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY) took place during a momentous period of change in the relationship between science, society and its governing institutions. Its origins, structure, goals, and execution reflect the powerful social, cultural and ideological forces that were shaping national and international politics of the period. The IGY also contributed in important ways to the evolution science-government relations throughout the world. This presentation will focus on the social and political contexts within which the IGY was planned and carried in the United States, exploring the significance for the IGY of contemporary academic exchanges over the social aspects of science during the tumultuous 1950s and 60s.

  7. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay using IgY antibodies for detection of valnemulin in swine tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is derived from egg yolk and has been identified as a cheap and high-yield immunoreagent. The application of IgY in immunoassay for the detection of chemical contaminants in food samples has rarely been reported. In this work, we describe a rapid and sensitive fluorescence p...

  8. Can ionospheric refraction and oblique reflection explain the Canadian 50 MHz IGY radio aurora observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDiarmid, D. R.; Watermann, J.; McNamara, A. G.

    1990-10-01

    This paper examines the hypothesis of Uspensky and Williams (1988) that the Canadian International Geophysical Year (IGY) radio aurora measurements of low (1-2 dB/deg) magnetic aspect sensitivity of 48 MHz scatter seen during the IGY in the Canadian sector can be explained by inadequate correction. The ionospheric conditions necessary to enable refraction/reflection to explain the Canadian IGY observations were investigated and were compared with those expected in the E-region ionosphere. It is shown that the refraction/oblique reflection is insufficient to explain the low value of aspect sensitivity deduced from the Canadian IGY auroral radar observations assuming ionospheric parameters typical of extended ionospheric layers; neither can these observations be explained by plasma density structures typical of some visual auroral forms. An alternative explanation is discussed.

  9. Affinity purification of egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) using a human mycoplasma protein.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuemei; Diraviyam, Thirumalai; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-02-15

    Egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) is a superior functional equivalent to mammalian IgG. However, the preparation of refined and highly purified IgY is still attributed as difficult task. Protein M (a transmembrane protein from human mycoplasma) has been newly demonstrated as an ideal affinity regent for mammalian antibody purification. This study aimed to evaluate the interaction between protein M and IgY. The results showed protein M could be a superior affinity reagent for IgY, scFv as well as IgYΔFc, based on pull down and western blot investigations; in addition, it was found that ∼125 times increase of effective IgY in the elutent was obtained using protein M affinity chromatography column compared with traditional IgY extraction methods. This indicates, the purification strategy of protein M is entirely different to traditional IBPs and the salient purification feature of protein M would be a breakthrough for purifying not only non-mammalian antibodies, but also monoclonal antibodies and engineered antibodies based on variable region.

  10. Development of anti-Helicobacter pylori immunoglobulins Y (IgYs) in quail

    PubMed Central

    Najdi, S.; Nikbakht Brujeni, G.; Sheikhi, N.; Chakhkar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that cause the stomach infection in more than 50% of human population worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of anti-H. pylori immunoglobulins Y (IgYs) production in quails and evaluate the effect of the different methods of immunization on titers of IgY in egg yolks. Whole cell bacterial antigen was used for immunization of quails. Forty Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) were divided into four groups. The first group intramuscularly immunized with one dose of antigen (3 × 108 inactivated bacteria) whereas the second group injected with half dose. Third group administered orally. Yolk IgY was isolated using precipitation method of water dilution combined with chloroform. Dot-blot and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were used for determining the specificity and quantifying the titer of IgY in egg yolks. Results showed that quails as well as chickens are able to produce anti-H. pylori IgY. Quails antibodies have high titer and specificity that can be used in therapeutic and research purposes. This study indicated that higher amounts of antigen can not develop higher titer of IgY and injection is not necessary for efficient immunization of the quail against H. pylori. PMID:27822235

  11. Therapeutic potential of combined anti-IL-1β IgY and anti-TNF-α IgY in guinea pigs with allergic rhinitis induced by ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Guo-Zhu, Hu; Xi-Ling, Zhu; Zhu, Wen; Li-Hua, Wu; Dan, He; Xiao-Mu, Wu; Wen-Yun, Zhou; Wei-Xu, Hu

    2015-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that anti-IL-1β immunoglobulin yolk(IgY) inhibits pathological responses in allergic asthma guinea pigs induced by ovalbumin(OVA). This study aims to determine whether the combined blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α can more effectively inhibit allergic inflammation in allergic rhinitis(AR) guinea pigs induced by OVA. Healthy guinea pigs treated with saline were used as the healthy control. The AR guinea pigs induced by OVA were randomly divided into (1) the AR model group containing negative control animals treated with intranasal saline; (2) the 0.1% non-specific IgY treatment group treated with non-specific IgY; (3) the 0.1% anti-TNF-α IgY treatment group treated with 0.1% anti-TNF-α IgY; (4) the 0.1% anti-IL-1β IgY treatment group treated with 0.1% anti-IL-1β IgY; (5) the 0.1% combined anti-IL-1β IgY and anti-TNF-α IgY treatment group treated with 0.1% combined anti-IL-1β IgY and anti-TNF-α IgY; and (6) the fluticasone propionate treatment group treated with fluticasone propionate. Cytokines were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that IL-1β, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, IL-18, IL-22, IL-33, TNF-α, TGF-β1 and OVA-specific IgE levels in the peripheral blood (PB) and nasal lavage fluid (NLF) significantly decreased at 2h, 4h or 8h in the 0.1% combined anti-IL-1β IgY and anti-TNF-α IgY treatment group compared to the AR model group and the 0.1% non-specific IgY treatment group (P<0.05). The data suggest that blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α by intranasal instillation of combined anti-IL-1β IgY and anti-TNF-α IgY could be a potential alternative strategy for preventing and treating allergic rhinitis.

  12. Egg Yolk IgY Antibodies: a Therapeutic Intervention Against Group A Rotavirus in Calves

    PubMed Central

    Vega, C.; Bok, M.; Saif, L.; Fernandez, F.; Parreño, V.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine group A rotavirus (RVA) is considered the major cause of diarrhea in intensively reared neonatal calves. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) are efficient in protecting neonatal calves from RVA diarrhea; however, it is unclear the value of this intervention in calves once diarrhea has appeared. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the application of RVA-specific IgY as a passive treatment in those cases. The experimental groups were: G1= RVA-specific IgY treatment; G2= no Ab treatment; and G3= colostrum deprived + no Ab treatment. IgY treatment significantly reduced virus shedding, diarrhea duration and severity compared to G2 and G3 calves. However, it caused a partial suppression of systemic Ab responses to RVA that could be associated with less severe diarrhea. The oral treatment with IgY for 7 days was associated with significantly higher antibody secreting cell responses in the calves compared with the other groups of animals. PMID:26679788

  13. IGI (the Italian Grid initiative) and its impact on the Astrophysics community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasian, F.; Vuerli, C.; Taffoni, G.

    IGI - the Association for the Italian Grid Infrastructure - has been established as a consortium of 14 different national institutions to provide long term sustainability to the Italian Grid. Its formal predecessor, the Grid.it project, has come to a close in 2006; to extend the benefits of this project, IGI has taken over and acts as the national coordinator for the different sectors of the Italian e-Infrastructure present in EGEE. IGI plans to support activities in a vast range of scientificdisciplines - e.g. Physics, Astrophysics, Biology, Health, Chemistry, Geophysics, Economy, Finance - and any possible extensions to other sectors such as Civil Protection, e-Learning, dissemination in Universities and secondary schools. Among these, the Astrophysics community is active as a user, by porting applications of various kinds, but also as a resource provider in terms of computing power and storage, and as middleware developer.

  14. IgY antibodies protect against human Rotavirus induced diarrhea in the neonatal gnotobiotic piglet disease model.

    PubMed

    Vega, Celina G; Bok, Marina; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Fernández, Fernando M; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Parreño, Viviana G; Saif, Linda J

    2012-01-01

    Group A Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe, dehydrating diarrhea in children worldwide. The aim of the present work was to evaluate protection against rotavirus (RV) diarrhea conferred by the prophylactic administration of specific IgY antibodies (Ab) to gnotobiotic piglets experimentally inoculated with virulent Wa G1P[8] human rotavirus (HRV). Chicken egg yolk IgY Ab generated from Wa HRV hyperimmunized hens specifically recognized (ELISA) and neutralized Wa HRV in vitro. Supplementation of the RV Ab free cow milk diet with Wa HRV-specific egg yolk IgY Ab at a final ELISA Ab titer of 4096 (virus neutralization -VN- titer = 256) for 9 days conferred full protection against Wa HRV associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. This protection was dose-dependent. The oral administration of semi-purified passive IgY Abs from chickens did not affect the isotype profile of the pig Ab secreting cell (ASC) responses to Wa HRV infection, but it was associated with significantly fewer numbers of HRV-specific IgA ASC in the duodenum. We further analyzed the pigś immune responses to the passive IgY treatment. The oral administration of IgY Abs induced IgG Ab responses to chicken IgY in serum and local IgA and IgG Ab responses to IgY in the intestinal contents of neonatal piglets in a dose dependent manner. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that IgY Abs administered orally as a milk supplement passively protect neonatal pigs against an enteric viral pathogen (HRV). Piglets are an animal model with a gastrointestinal physiology and an immune system that closely mimic human infants. This strategy can be scaled-up to inexpensively produce large amounts of polyclonal IgY Abs from egg yolks to be applied as a preventive and therapeutic passive Ab treatment to control RV diarrhea.

  15. Pre-IGY Ionosphere Over Washington D.C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, D. D.; Sojka, J. J.; Eccles, J. V.; Hunsucker, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    A data recovery study has been sponsored by the NSF to determine how successfully the ionosphere during a pre-IGY era can be inferred from archived ionogram films. This pilot study targets the Washington, DC ionosonde WA938 located at Ft. Belvoir in Fairfax, VA (38.7° N, -77.1° E). The focus of the study is 1951, 61 years ago, or about 5 1/2 solar cycles ago. The ionosonde was a model C-3 designed by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Ionograms were taken at approximately six per hour, but not uniformly spaced in time. These were recorded on an extended frame 35 mm film. Between 2-4 weeks of ionograms were recorded on a single film reel. These films were archived at the NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), also known as a World Data Center . Over the past five years, NGDC has been able to digitize several months from selected years of these films. These digitized ionogram images are the starting point for the ionospheric data analysis for this study. SEC has developed an image processing technique called the Expert System for Ionogram Reduction (ESIR), which has been patented [Sojka et al. 2009]. This software was developed specifically to recognize and invert an ionogram from a photographic image, producing an equivalent ionospheric electron density profile. The recognition of both virtual height and frequency axes in these ionogram photos is discussed. We demonstrate how we can validate and calibrate these scales independent of the ionosonde's virtual height and frequency markings. Examples during several months of 1951 of the automated ESIR ionogram reduction will be provided. These examples will be presented in the context of how the mid-latitude ionosphere over Washington DC in 1951 compares with the present-day ionosphere. Limitations in the data extraction are discussed from a point of view of how they might affect confidence in the inferred long-term trends in the ionosphere. Reference: Sojka J. J., D. C. Thompson, D. D. Rice (2009

  16. Effect of topical anti-Streptococcus mutans IgY gel on quantity of S. mutans on rats' tooth surface.

    PubMed

    Bachtiar, Endang W; Afdhal, Anggraeni; Meidyawati, Ratna; Soejoedono, Retno D; Poerwaningsih, Erni

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of anti-Streptococcus mutans IgY gel on quantity of S. mutans on rats' tooth surface. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed intra-orally with S. mutans Xc and were fed a caries-inducing diet 2000. The 24 rats were divided into four groups: group A had their teeth coated with IgY gel; group B received sterilized water as a control; group C had their teeth coated with IgY gel starting on the 29(th) day; and group D had their teeth coated with a gel without IgY. Plaque samples were swabbed from the anterior teeth for S. mutans colony quantification, and saliva was collected to measure immunoreactivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that the quantity of S. mutans in rats treated with IgY gel showed significant difference compared with the controls. After coating with IgY anti-S. mutans gel, the mean immunoreactivity in rat saliva was higher than that of the no treatment group. In conclusion, topical application with anti-S. mutans IgY gel reduced the quantity of S. mutans on the tooth surface.

  17. Proteomic characterization of IgY preparations purified with a water dilution method.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Elin; Hanrieder, Jörg; Bergquist, Jonas; Larsson, Anders

    2008-12-24

    Antigen-specific chicken IgY antibodies have been used for oral immunotherapy as an alternative or complement to antibiotics in several studies. The water dilution (WD) method has several advantages for purifying IgY. It is rapid, efficient, suitable for large-scale production, and nothing but water is added. The water-soluble fraction contains other proteins and lipids besides IgY. The protein content was characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) and nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled offline to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MALDI TOF/TOF MS). Protein analysis was complicated due to the large dynamic concentration range, but 26 proteins could be identified. The relative protein concentrations in different batches were very similar according to protein patterns on 1D gels and protein concentration determinations. Thus, the purification method has a high reproducibility. The concentrations of cholesterols and triglycerides were low and should not have an effect on the plasma levels of treated patients. Purification of IgY for oral use with WD is therefore a recommended method.

  18. Differences in IgY gut absorption in gastric rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and agastric common carp (Cyprinus carpio) assessed in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Winkelbach, Anja; Günzel, Dorothee; Schulz, Carsten; Wuertz, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Oral IgY antibodies offer promising potential for passive immunization strategies. To evaluate barriers for successful IgY plasma recovery after oral application in vivo, gastric rainbow trout and agastric common carp were comparatively assessed. A positive control that received a low dose of unspecific IgY antibodies by intraperitoneal injection (0.0076 mg IgY g BW(-1) d(-1); BW=body mass) was compared with an oral administration of 75 and 150 fold in rainbow trout (corresponding to 0.57 and 1.14 mg g BW(-1)) and in carp (0.57 mg g BW(-1)). Dietary antibodies were delivered with the antacid sodium bicarbonate and three different putative uptake enhancers (Tween 20, vitamin E TPGS, sodium deoxycholate). IgY concentrations in the plasma were determined 1d (rainbow trout) or 5d after last feeding (both species). Irrespective of the enhancer used, ELISA revealed IgY absorption after feeding in carp, whereas IgY concentration in rainbow trout remained below the detection threshold. Intraperitoneal injections revealed IgY in plasma of both species. In vitro Ussing chamber experiments with posterior intestine tissue of carp and trout were carried out to determine whether species-specific differences in IgY translocation were due to acidic stomach passage or species-specific differences in transepithelial IgY passage. Significantly higher IgY translocation was measured in carp at high application dosage compared to all other groups, indicating that species-specific differences in IgY uptake after oral administration are not only related to peptic IgY degradation in the stomach, but also likely a result of differences in IgY transcytosis in the posterior intestine.

  19. Passive immunization with hyperimmune egg-yolk IgY as prophylaxis and therapy for poultry diseases--A review.

    PubMed

    Gadde, U; Rathinam, T; Lillehoj, Hyun S

    2015-12-01

    Passive immunization with pathogen-specific egg yolk antibodies (IgY) is emerging as a potential alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and prevention of various human and animal diseases. Laying hens are an excellent source of high-quality polyclonal antibodies, which can be collected noninvasively from egg yolks. The use of IgY offers several advantages in that it is environmentally friendly, nontoxic, and reduces the numbers of animals required for antibody production. This paper reviews the use of IgY antibodies in the treatment and prevention of enteric pathogen infections in poultry. Brief descriptions of the production, structure, and properties of IgY are also presented. Some limitations of the technology and future perspectives are discussed.

  20. Egg yolk IgY against RHDV capsid protein VP60 promotes rabbit defense against RHDV infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Zai Xin; Hu, Wei Dong; Li, Bing Chao; Li, Tian You; Zhou, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Zhi

    2014-01-15

    VP60 capsid protein is the major structural and immunogenicity protein of RHDV (Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, RHDV), and has been implicated as a main protein antigen in RHDV diagnosis and vaccine design. In this report, egg yolk antibody (IgY) against N-terminal of VP60 was evaluated and developed as a new strategy for RHDV therapy. Briefly, N-terminal of VP60 (∼250aa) fragment was cloned and inserted into pET28a expression vector, and then the resultant plasmid, pET28a/VP60-N, was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) for recombinant VP60-N protein (rVP60-N) expression. Next, the rVP60-N was purified by Ni(+)-affinity purification chromatography and identified by Western blotting with RHDV antiserum. After immunizing the chickens with rVP60-N, the anti-rVP60-N IgY was isolated, and the activity and specificity of the IgY antibody were analyzed by ELISA and Western blotting. In our results, the rVP60-N could be expressed in E. coli as soluble fraction, and the isolated anti-rVP60-N IgY demonstrated a high specificity and titer (1:22,000) against rVP60-N antigen. For further evaluation of the IgY efficacy in vivo, rabbits were grouped randomly and challenged with RHDV, and the results showed that anti-rVP60-N IgY could significantly protect rabbits from virus infection and promote the host survival after a sustained treatment with anti-rVP60-N IgY for 5 days. Taken together, our study demonstrates evidence that production of IgY against VP60 could be as a novel strategy for the RHDV therapy.

  1. Production of specific IgY antibody to the recombinant FanC protein produced in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Zibaee, Saeed; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are one of the primary causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in humans, pigs, and sheep. IgY technology has been identified as a promising alternative to generating a mass amount of specific antibody for use in immunotherapy and immunodiagnostics. The purpose of this study was to produce specific antibody by egg yolk antibody (IgY) to recombinant FanC protein from ETEC. Materials and Methods: FanC (K99) gene was amplified from ETEC by specific primers and polymerase chain reaction. The gene was cloned and subcloned into pTZ57R/T and pET32a (+) vectors, respectively. Recombinant vector was transferred into E. coli BL21 CodonPlus (DE3). Protein expression was investigated by 1 mM IPTG induction. Hens were immunized by the purified recombinant FanC protein. The activity and specificity of the IgY antibody were detected by dot-blotting, Western blotting, and indirect ELISA. Results: We obtained FanC specific IgYs by immunizing the hens with the recombinant FanC protein. The anti-FanC IgY showed binding specifically to the FanC protein of ETEC. Conclusion: The results emphasize that specific IgY against the recombinant FanC protein could be recommended as a candidate for passive immunization against ETEC infection in animals and humans. PMID:27746871

  2. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita Race 3 on Flue-cured Tobacco Homozygous for Rk1 and/or Rk2 Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pollok, Jill R.; Johnson, Charles S.; Eisenback, J. D.; Reed, T. David

    2016-01-01

    Most commercial tobacco cultivars possess the Rk1 resistance gene to races 1 and 3 of Meloidogyne incognita and race 1 of Meloidogyne arenaria, which has caused a shift in population prevalence in Virginia tobacco fields toward other species and races. A number of cultivars now also possess the Rk2 gene for root-knot resistance. Experiments were conducted in 2013 to 2014 to examine whether possessing both Rk1 and Rk2 increases resistance to a variant of M. incognita race 3 compared to either gene alone. Greenhouse trials were arranged in a completely randomized design with Coker 371-Gold (C371G; susceptible), NC 95 and SC 72 (Rk1Rk1), T-15-1-1 (Rk2Rk2), and STNCB-2-28 and NOD 8 (Rk1Rk1 and Rk2Rk2). Each plant was inoculated with 5,000 root-knot nematode eggs; data were collected 60 d postinoculation. Percent galling and numbers of egg masses and eggs were counted, the latter being used to calculate the reproductive index on each host. Despite variability, entries with both Rk1 and Rk2 conferred greater resistance to a variant of M. incognita race 3 than plants with Rk1 or Rk2 alone. Entries with Rk1 alone were successful in reducing root galling and nematode reproduction compared to the susceptible control. Entry T-15-1-1 did not reduce galling compared to the susceptible control but often suppressed reproduction. PMID:27418700

  3. Prevalence of IgY antibodies against Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in a critically endangered parrot (kakapo, Strigops habroptilus) and associated responses to vaccination.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Megan; Fidler, Andrew; Mellor, Diana; de Kloet, Siwo; Eason, Daryl; Elliott, Graeme; Moorhouse, Ron

    2013-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to estimate levels of IgY antibody against the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in serum samples collected from the critically endangered kakapo (Strigops habroptilus, Psittaciformes, Aves) before and after vaccination against this bacterium. Relative IgY antibody titres in pre-vaccination serum samples (n = 71 individual kakapo) were normally distributed with the exception of four outliers which displayed low IgY levels. Notably all four low IgY samples were collected from fledglings 3 - 6 months old. Pre-vaccination serum samples from nine nestlings <3 months old, seven of which were hatched in incubators and had no contact with either adult kakapo or their natural environment (e.g. soil), were found to have relatively high IgY levels, suggesting transfer of maternal IgY molecules to fledglings via the yolk. IgY levels in pre-vaccination serum samples from seven kakapo aged 25 - 30 months were also relatively high, suggesting that most kakapo naturally acquire anti- E.rhusiopathiae IgYs within their first 2 years. There was no evidence that vaccination increased the kakapo population's mean anti-E.rhusiopathiae IgY levels. However, there was a significant negative relationship between an individual bird's pre-vaccination IgY level and any subsequent increase following vaccination, suggesting that vaccination may only raise the IgY levels of birds with relatively low pre-vaccination IgY levels. A statistical model of the relationship between 'death from erysipelas' and sex, age and transfer from one to island sanctuary to another found that only transfer was significantly associated with death from erysipelas.

  4. Immunoglobulin detection in wild birds: Effectiveness of three secondary anti-avian IgY antibodies in direct ELISAs in 41 avian species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fassbinder-Orth, Carol A.; Wilcoxen, Travis E.; Tran, Tiffany; Boughton, Raoul K.; Fair, Jeanne M.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Grindstaff, Jennifer L.; Owen, Jen C.

    2016-01-01

    4.This study indicates that the anti-passerine IgY secondary antibody can effectively be used in immunological assays to detect passerine IgY for species in most passerine families and is preferred over anti-chicken and anti-bird secondary antibodies for the majority of passerine species. This anti-passerine antibody will allow for more accurate detection and quantification of IgY in more wild bird species than was possible with previously available secondary antibodies.

  5. Biological and Immunogenicity Property of IgY Anti S. mutans ComD

    PubMed Central

    Bachtiar, E.W.; Bachtiar, B.M.; Soejoedono, R.D.; Wibawan, I.W.; Afdhal, A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to elucidate the effect of IgY anti ComD on the biological properties of Streptococcus mutans. (S. mutans) ComD is an interspecies quorum-sensing signaling receptor that plays an important role in biofilm formation by S. mutans. Materials and Methodology: Egg yolk IgY was produced by the immunization of chickens with a DNA vaccine containing the ComD DNA coding region. We evaluated the effect of the antibody on biofilm formation by S. mutans isolated from subjects with or without dental caries. We also assessed the immunoreactivity of the antibody against all isolates, and analyzed the protein profile of S. mutans by SDS-PAGE. Results: The ComD antibody was successfully induced in the hens’ eggs. It inhibited biofilm formation by all S. mutans isolates. In addition, the expression of some protein bands was affected after exposure to the antibody. Conclusion: IgY anti-S. mutans ComD reduces biofilm formation by this bacterium and alters the protein profile of S. mutans. PMID:27386013

  6. Protective effects of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against experimental Vibrio splendidus infection in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Jing, Kailin; Wang, Xitao; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Meixia; Li, Zhen; Xu, Le; Wang, Lili; Xu, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio splendidus is one of the most harmful pathogens associated with skin ulceration syndrome in the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) due to its high virulence and frequency of appearance. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) against V. splendidus infection in the sea cucumber. Whole V. splendidus cells were used as an immunogen to immunize 20 White Leghorn hens (25 weeks old). IgY was produced from egg yolks obtained from these immunized hens using water dilution, two-step salt precipitation and ultrafiltration. The purity of the IgY produced was approximately 83%. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay indicated a high specificity for IgY with a maximum antibody titer of 320,000. The growth of V. splendidus in liquid medium was significantly inhibited by IgY in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mg/mL. The protective effects of IgY were evaluated in sea cucumber by intraperitoneally injecting anti-V. splendidus IgY antibodies (10 mg/mL) or immersing the sea cucumber in aqueous IgY (1 g/L) after an intraperitoneal injection of V. splendidus. Intraperitoneal injection resulted in an 80% survival while immersion resulted in a 75% survival during the 11-day experimental period. The survival rates were significantly higher than the positive control and the non-specific IgY group (P < 0.05). As well, the bacterial burden in the respiratory tree, intestine and coelomic liquid was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in sea cucumber treated with specific IgY than those treated with non-specific IgY. The phagocytosis of coelomocytes for V. splendidus in the presence of specific IgY was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that obtained with non-specific IgY or without IgY, suggesting that specific IgY enhanced phagocytic activity. The current work suggests that specific IgY has potential for protecting sea cucumbers against V. splendidus infection.

  7. Immunoglobulin detection in wild birds: effectiveness of three secondary anti-avian IgY antibodies in direct ELISAs in 41 avian species.

    PubMed

    Fassbinder-Orth, Carol A; Wilcoxen, Travis E; Tran, Tiffany; Boughton, Raoul K; Fair, Jeanne M; Hofmeister, Erik K; Grindstaff, Jennifer L; Owen, Jen C

    2016-10-01

    Immunological reagents for wild, non-model species are limited or often non-existent for many species.In this study, we compare the reactivity of a new anti-passerine IgY secondary antibody with existing secondary antibodies developed for use with birds. Samples from 41 species from the following six avian orders were analysed: Anseriformes (1 family, 1 species), Columbiformes (1 family, 2 species), Galliformes (1 family, 1 species), Passeriformes (16 families, 34 species), Piciformes (1 family, 2 species) and Suliformes (1 family, 1 species). Direct ELISAs were performed to detect total IgY using goat anti-passerine IgY, goat anti-chicken IgY or goat anti-bird IgY secondary antibodies.The anti-passerine antibody exhibited significantly higher IgY reactivity compared to the anti-chicken and/or anti-bird antibodies in 80% of the passerine families tested. Birds in the order Piciformes (woodpeckers) and order Suliformes (cormorants) were poorly detected by all three secondary antibodies. A comparison of serum and plasma IgY levels was made within the same individuals for two passerine species (house finch and white-crowned sparrow), and serum exhibited significantly more IgY than the plasma for all three secondary antibodies. This result indicates that serum may be preferred to plasma when measuring total antibody levels in blood.This study indicates that the anti-passerine IgY secondary antibody can effectively be used in immunological assays to detect passerine IgY for species in most passerine families and is preferred over anti-chicken and anti-bird secondary antibodies for the majority of passerine species. This anti-passerine antibody will allow for more accurate detection and quantification of IgY in more wild bird species than was possible with previously available secondary antibodies.

  8. Method for generation of peptide-specific IgY antibodies directed to Staphylococcus aureus extracellular fibrinogen binding protein epitope.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Maciej; Grzywa, Renata; Łupicka-Słowik, Agnieszka; Skoreński, Marcin; Bobrek, Kamila; Nowak, Daria; Boivin, Stephane; Brown, Eric L; Oleksyszyn, Józef; Sieńczyk, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    The IgY antibodies offer an attractive alternative to mammalian IgGs in research, diagnosis and medicine. The isolation of immunoglobulin Y from the egg yolks is efficient and economical, causing minimal suffering to animals. Here we present the methodology for the production of IgY antibodies specific to Staphylococcus aureus fibrinogen binding protein (Efb) and its peptidyl epitope (spanning residues 127-140). The Efb is an extracellular, adhesion protein which binds both human fibrinogen and complement C3 protein thus contributing to the high infectious potential of this pathogen. The selected epitope of Efb protein is responsible for the interaction with C3. The immunochemical characterization of both anti-Efb and epitope-specific IgY antibodies revealed their similar avidity, titer, and reactivity profile, although some differences in the hen's immune response to administered antigens is discussed.

  9. Adhesion and growth inhibitory effect of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) on Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chalghoumi, Raja; Théwis, André; Beckers, Yves; Marcq, Christopher; Portetelle, Daniel; Schneider, Yves-Jacques

    2009-06-01

    The protective effects of powder preparation of egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY), specific to Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium outer membrane proteins (OMP), against these two Salmonella sp. serovars were investigated in vitro in two different assays: adhesion-prevention and growth-inhibition. The adhesion-prevention assay was conducted using polarized monolayers of the human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell line. First, the conditions of Salmonella adherence to Caco-2 cells were optimized, and interferences of bacteria with the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of fully differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers and the lactate dehydrogenase release upon exposure of the cells to Salmonella were evaluated. Both Salmonella sp. serovars were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells and decreased TER. Results from the adhesion-prevention assay demonstrated that specific IgY reduced the decrease in TER of the infected Caco-2 cell monolayers and blocked the Salmonella sp. adhesion in a concentration-dependent manner (p < 0.05). Nonspecific IgY also exhibited an inhibitory effect on these two parameters, but to a lesser extent than that of the specific IgY (p < 0.05). The protective effect of nonspecific IgY could be attributed to the low-density lipoprotein component of the water-soluble fraction of egg yolks that may not have been eliminated during ultrafiltration. The growth-inhibition assay revealed that specific IgY had an inhibitory effect on the bacterial growth, markedly during the late exponential phase, whereas nonspecific IgY failed to do so. Taken together, these results suggest that the in vitro growth inhibitory effect of specific IgY on Salmonella spp. resulted from the specific binding activity of these IgY to Salmonella sp. OMP. Passive immunization with Salmonella sp. OMP-specific IgY could thus be useful to prevent Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens and the subsequent carcass contamination during processing.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of IgM and IgY Antibodies from Plasma of Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    PubMed

    Bizelli, Camila C; Silva, A Sandriana R; da Costa, Jessica D; Vanstreels, Ralph E T; Atzingen, Marina V; Santoro, Marcelo L; Fernandes, Irene; Catão-Dias, José L; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L

    2015-03-01

    Infectious diseases such as aspergillosis, avian malaria, and viral infections are significant threats to the conservation of penguins, leading to morbidity and mortality of these birds both in captivity and in the wild. The immune response to such infectious diseases is dependent on different mechanisms mediated by cells and soluble components such as antibodies. Antibodies or immunoglobulins are glycoproteins that have many structural and functional features that mediate distinct effector immune functions. Three distinct classes of antibodies have been identified in birds: immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin Y (IgY). In this study we aim to establish an efficient laboratory method to obtain IgM and IgY antibodies from plasma samples of healthy adult Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). The protocol was developed combining plasma delipidation, sequential precipitation with caprylic acid and ammonium sulfate, and size-exclusion chromatography. The efficiency of the protocol and the identity of the purified IgM and IgY antibodies were confirmed through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, one-dimensional and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and lectin binding assay. Structural and physicochemical properties of IgM and IgY from Magellanic penguins were consistent with those of other avian species. This purification protocol will allow for more detailed studies on the humoral immunity of penguins and for the development of high specificity serologic assays to test Magellanic penguins for infectious pathogens.

  11. Conceptualizing Relations between Instructional Guidance Infrastructure (IGI) and Teachers' Beliefs about Mathematics Instruction: Regulative, Normative, and Cultural-Cognitive Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Megan; Spillane, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have become increasingly interested in what is often referred to as the instructional guidance infrastructure (IGI). Research has identified the characteristics of infrastructures that make them more or less influential in guiding teachers' instruction, such as alignment, authority, and prescriptiveness. Although these are important, a…

  12. Inhibitory effects of rHP-NAP IgY against Helicobacter pylori attachment to AGS cell line.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Katayoun; Mohabati Mobarez, Ashraf; Khabiri, Ali Reza; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Khoramabadi, Nima

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major human pathogen related to gastric adenocarcinoma and gastroduodenal diseases. Treatment of H. pylori infections is complicated by the rise of antibiotic resistance, necessitating investigation of alternative therapies. One such alternative is passive immunization by oral administration of antibacterial immunoglobulin. In the present study, chicken immunoglobulin (IgY) was used for passive immunotherapy against a major virulence factor of H. pylori, namely recombinant HP-Nap protein. Recombinant HP-Nap was prepared and used to immunize hens. IgY was purified from the eggs by polyethylene glycol precipitation method with a total IgY-HP-NAP yield of 30 mg per egg. The inhibitory effect of specific IgY on H. pylori attachment was investigated in AGS cell line infected by the bacteria. The results demonstrate the potent effect of IgY- HP-NAP in inhibition of H. pylori attachment to the AGS cells.

  13. Effect of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) against Diarrhea in Domesticated Animals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Diraviyam, Thirumalai; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yuan; Schade, Ruediger; Michael, Antonysamy; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2014-01-01

    Background IgY antibodies are serum immunoglobulin in birds, reptiles and amphibians, and are transferred from serum to egg yolk to confer passive immunity to their embryos and offspring. Currently, the oral passive immunization using chicken IgY has been focused as an alternative to antibiotics for the treatment and control of diarrhea in animals and humans. This systematic review was focused to determine the effect of IgY in controlling and preventing diarrhea in domesticated animals including Piglets, Mice, Poultry and Calves. Methods and Results Previous research reports focused on treatment effect of Chicken IgY against diarrhea were retrieved from different electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPRINGER-LINK, WILEY, AGRICOLA, MEDWELL Journals, Scientific Publish, Chinese articles from Core periodicals in 2012). A total of 61 studies in 4 different animal classes met the inclusion criteria. Data on study characteristics and outcome measures were extracted. The pooled relative risk (RR) of 49 studies of different animals [Piglets – 22; Mice – 14; Poultry – 7 and Calves – 6] in meta-analyses revealed that, IgY significantly reduced the risk of diarrhea in treatment group when compare to the placebo. However, the 95% confidence intervals of the majority of studies in animal class piglets and calves embrace RR of one. The same results were obtained in sub group analyses (treatment regiment – prophylactic or therapeutic; pathogen type – bacterial or viral). Perhaps, this inconsistency in the effect of IgY at the individual study level and overall effect measures could be influenced by the methodological heterogeneity. Conclusion The present systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial effect of IgY. This supports the opinion that IgY is useful for prophylaxis and treatment. However, more intensive studies using the gold standard animal experiments with the focus to use IgY alone or in combination with other alternative

  14. IGY to IPY, the U.S. Antarctic oversnow and airborne geophysical-glaciological research program from 1957 to 1964 from the view of a young graduate student

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.

    2007-01-01

    When 12 countries established scientific stations in Antarctica for the 1957-58 (IGY), the Cold War was at its height, seven countries had made claims in Antarctica, and the Antarctic Treaty was in the future. The only major field project of the U.S. IGY Antarctic program was series of oversnow traverses, starting in 1957, making seismic reflection ice soundings (and other geophysical measurements) and glaciological studies. The U.S.S.R. and France made similar traverses coordinated through the IGY. Although geology and topographic mapping were not part of the IGY program because of the claims issue and the possibility of mineral resources, the oversnow traverse parties did geologic work, during which unknown mountains were discovered. The oversnow traverses continued through 1966 and resulted in an excellent first approximation of the snow surface elevation, ice thickness and bed topography of Antarctica, as well as the mean annual temperature of that era and snow accumulation.

  15. Chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) modulate the intestinal mucosal immune response in a mouse model of Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Yao, Ying; Wang, Xitao; Zhen, Yuhong; Thacker, Philip A; Wang, Lili; Shi, Ming; Zhao, Junjun; Zong, Ying; Wang, Ni; Xu, Yongping

    2016-07-01

    This study determined the effects of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) on immune responses in the intestinal mucosal of mice infected with Salmonella typhimurium. Sixty, 28-day-old mice were divided into 4 groups and treated with streptomycin or sterile water for 2days followed by 1day without treatment. The control group was unchallenged whereas the mice in the other three groups were treated twice with 10(9)CFUmL(-1)S. typhimurium. For the next 3days, control mice continued to receive no treatment whereas the mice in the remaining three groups were orally administered with 20mgmL(-1) of specific IgY, 20mgmL(-1) of nonspecific IgY or PBS. S. typhimurium activated gut-associated lymphoid tissue, increasing the release of IFN-γ and TNF-α in the mucosa and increased the number of activated T-lymphocytes and cytotoxic T-γδ. Specific IgY attenuated the increase in IFN-γ and TNF-α and the decrease in IL-10. S. typhimurium induced mobilization of CD8(+) and CD8(+) TCRγδ T cells in the epithelium and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the lamina propria reflecting an inflammatory process that was attenuated by IgY. These results suggest that specific IgY modulates intestinal mucosal immune responses during a S. typhimurium infection.

  16. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY antibodies promote bacterial opsonization and augment the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Kim; Christophersen, Lars; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus; Høiby, Niels

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Moderation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) as part of a critical defense against invading pathogens may offer a promising therapeutic approach to supplement the antibiotic eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in non-chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We have observed that egg yolk antibodies (IgY) harvested from White leghorn chickens that target P. aeruginosa opsonize the pathogen and enhance the PMN-mediated respiratory burst and subsequent bacterial killing in vitro. The effects on PMN phagocytic activity were observed in different Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, including clinical isolates from non-chronically infected CF patients. Thus, oral prophylaxis with anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY may boost the innate immunity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the CF setting by facilitating a rapid and prompt bacterial clearance by PMNs. PMID:26901841

  17. Establishment of hapten-specific monoclonal avian IgY by conversion of antibody fragments obtained from combinatorial libraries.

    PubMed

    Deckers, Susanne; Braren, Ingke; Greunke, Kerstin; Meyer, Nadine; Rühl, Dana; Bredehorst, Reinhard; Spillner, Edzard

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, recombinant antibody and phage display technology enable the efficient generation of immunotools and a subsequent manipulation for optimized affinity, specificity or overall performance. Such advantages are of particular interest for haptenic target structures, such as TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene). The toxicity of TNT and its breakdown products makes a reliable and fast detection of low levels in aqueous samples highly important. In the present study, we aimed for the generation of scFvs (single-chain antibody fragments) specific for the TNT-surrogate TNP (2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) and their subsequent production as monoclonal avian IgY immunoglobulins providing improved assay performance. Therefore we subjected a human synthetic scFv library to selection following different strategies. TNP-specific human antibody fragments could be identified, characterized for their primary structure and evaluated for production as soluble scFv in Escherichia coli. Additionally, a murine TNP-specific antibody fragment was obtained from the hybridoma 11B3; however, the prokaryotic expression level was found to be limited. To generate and evaluate immunoglobulin formats with superior characteristics, all recombinant antibody fragments then were converted into two different chimaeric bivalent IgY antibody formats. After expression in mammalian cells, the IgY antibodies were assessed for their reactivity towards TNT. The IgY antibodies generated on the basis of the combinatorial library proved to be useful for detection of TNT, thereby emphasizing the high potential of this approach for the development of detection devices for immunoassay-based techniques.

  18. Protective effect of hyperimmune egg yolk IgY antibodies against Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima infections.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Lillehoj, H S; Park, D W; Jang, S I; Morales, A; García, D; Lucio, E; Larios, R; Victoria, G; Marrufo, D; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2009-07-07

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by several distinct species of Eimeria protozoa and is the major parasitic disease of poultry of economic importance. As an alternative strategy to control avian coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, we have investigated the efficacy of inducing passive immunity against coccidiosis by orally feeding hyperimmune IgY antibodies. In this study, a commercially available egg yolk powder, Supracox (SC), a purified IgY fraction of egg yolk prepared from hens hyperimmunized with three major species of Eimeria oocysts, were continuously fed to young chicks from hatch. Upon orally infecting these broiler chicks with Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima oocysts at 1 week of age, they showed significantly higher body weight gains (P<0.05) compared to the untreated controls. Furthermore, SC-fed chicks showed significantly less intestinal lesions and reduced fecal oocyst output compared to the untreated controls following oral infections with E. tenella and E. maxima. These results provide clear evidence that passive immunization of chicks with hyperimmune egg yolk IgY antibodies provide significant protection against E. tenella or E. maxima infections.

  19. Antarctica and Its Ice Sheet: Knowledge Gained During the IGY/IGC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, C. R.

    2006-12-01

    At the end of World War II, the interior of Antarctica, with the exception of the mountains south of the Ross Ice Shelf, was still terra incognita. It was described simply as a nearly continuous high plateau. Even less was known about the ice thickness; the eminent glacial geologist, Richard Foster Flint, believed it "unlikely that the ice thickness exceeds 2000 feet except very locally; probably its average thickness is considerably less." Then in the late 1940's and early 1950's, seismic sounding in Greenland by the Expéditions Polaires Françaises and in Queen Maud Land by the Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1949-52, revealed that, inland of the coastal mountains, the beds in both regions lie close to sea level. This led to a reappraisal of the Antarctic ice sheet, such that the prescient glaciologist, Robert P. Sharp, could predict, on the eve of the IGY, that "between 3000 and 4000 meters of ice will be found" in East Antarctica and that "work during IGY will establish an average thickness for Antarctic inland ice in excess of 1600 m." Seismic and gravity soundings on oversnow traverses conducted by eight countries during the IGY and the succeeding IGC showed Sharp to be basically correct, but there were major surprises, such as the vast Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, completely hidden by the ice in central East Antarctica, and the equally vast Byrd Subglacial Basin beneath much of the West Antarctic ice sheet, so deep that roughly half the ice in the region lies below sea level. There were major discoveries on and above the surface too, such as the huge size of the Filchner/Ronne Ice Shelf, and the very existence of the Ellsworth and Pensacola Mountains, the former including the highest peak on the continent. Further, the fundamental difference between the crustal structures of East and West Antarctica became clear. A summary paper published in 1960, looking primarily at West Antarctica where the main U.S. activity lay, could conclude that

  20. Heterologous Overexpression of Poplar SnRK2 Genes Enhanced Salt Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xueqing; Yu, Xiang; Hori, Chiaki; Demura, Taku; Ohtani, Misato; Zhuge, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Subfamily 2 of SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK2) plays important roles in plant abiotic stress responses as a global positive regulator of abscisic acid signaling. In the genome of the model tree Populus trichocarpa, 12 SnRK2 genes have been identified, and some are upregulated by abiotic stresses. In this study, we heterologously overexpressed the PtSnRK2 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and found that overexpression of PtSnRK2.5 and PtSnRK2.7 genes enhanced stress tolerance. In the PtSnRK2.5 and PtSnRK2.7 overexpressors, chlorophyll content, and root elongation were maintained under salt stress conditions, leading to higher survival rates under salt stress compared with those in the wild type. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that PtSnRK2.7 overexpression affected stress-related metabolic genes, including lipid metabolism and flavonoid metabolism, even under normal growth conditions. However, the stress response genes reported to be upregulated in Arabidopsis SRK2C/SnRK2.6 and wheat SnRK2.8 overexpressors were not changed by PtSnRK2.7 overexpression. Furthermore, PtSnRK2.7 overexpression widely and largely influenced the transcriptome in response to salt stress; genes related to transport activity, including anion transport-related genes, were characteristically upregulated, and a variety of metabolic genes were specifically downregulated. We also found that the salt stress response genes were greatly upregulated in the PtSnRK2.7 overexpressor. Taken together, poplar subclass 2 PtSnRK2 genes can modulate salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, through the activation of cellular signaling pathways in a different manner from that by herbal subclass 2 SnRK2 genes. PMID:27242819

  1. A half century perspective on the International Geophysical Year (IGY) - A Template for the International Polar Year 2007 (IPY 2007)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    In 1956 I sailed for Antarctica to spend 18 months as a graduate student participating in geophysical-glaciological investigations, as part of the 18-month IGY. This led to a career in geophysics, which has taken me to all of the continents and oceans. As we approach the IPY 2007, the changes in technology and our understanding of the earth over the past half century are breathtaking to contemplate. Although 70 countries participated in IGY, the disciplines were restricted to geophysics. Originally the Third Polar Year, the name was changed to IGY in 1952, at the suggestion of Sydney Chapman. The geographical area comprised the entire earth. The highest priority was given to "problems requiring concurrent synoptic observations at many points involving cooperative observations by many stations." One category was reserved for research on topics such as ocean levels, weather patterns, and the distribution of glacier ice "to establish basic information for subsequent comparison at later epochs." IPY 2007 seems such an epoch. A major international efforts was concentrated in Antarctica, although only 12 counties participated. Glaciology, seismology, auroral studies, ionospheric soundings, magnetic field measurements, and other solar-terrestrial, and meteorological observations comprised the scientific station activities. The only major field activities away from the stations were the oversnow geophysical-glaciological traverses, which made seismic measurements of ice thickness and other ice properties; gravity and magnetic anomaly profiles; and determination of snow accumulation and mean annual temperature. The most intensive of the oversnow traverse programs were those of the U.S. and USSR. Geology and topographic mapping were excluded from the Antarctica because of potential complications due to territorial claims and the possibility of mineral resource discoveries. Despite this, significant geologic findings, such as the discovery of the Dufek intrusion, were made by

  2. An Unintended Consequence of the IGY: Eisenhower, Sputnik, and the Founding of NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launius, Roger

    2007-04-01

    In October 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first Earth-circling artificial satellite and the crisis that resulted led to numerous actions in the United States aimed at ``remediating'' a Cold War crisis. This included the establishment of a separate civilian space agency charged with the conduct of an official program of scientific and technological space exploration, consolidation of Department of Defense space activities, the passage of the National Defense Education Act, the creation of a Presidential Science Advisor, and a host of lesser actions. The politics of these changes is fascinating, and has been interpreted as an appropriate political response to a unique crisis situation. Interest groups, all for differing reasons, prodded national leaders to undertake large-scale efforts, something the president thought unnecessarily expensive and once set in place impossible to dismantle. But was the Sputnik crisis truly a crisis in any real sense? Was it made into one by interest groups who used it for their own ends? This paper will trace briefly some of the major themes associated with the IGY and Sputnik and describe the political construction of the crisis as it emerged in 1957-1958. It will also discuss something about the transformation of federal science and technology that took place in the aftermath of the ``crisis'' and how it set in train a series of processes and policies that did not unravel until the end of the Cold War.

  3. IGY@50: A Revolution in Opportunities for Public Engagement and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Rabello-Soares, C.

    2006-05-01

    The International Geophysical Year of 1957-1958 revolutionized Earth and Space science. But the "official" IGY films, sponsored by the National Academies, debuted almost two years after field research was completed. For 2007-2009, communications revolutions such as the Internet and satellite voice and video enable contemporaneous public engagement via media, at science centers, and at home, and opportunities at all levels of formal education impossible in 1957. Real-time communication to both Poles, video podcasts from explorers of ice sheets and near-Earth space, and inquiry-based educational modules for schools and community centers, provide practical but inspirational ways to engage, inform and inspire millions across Earth in new ways, supporting the outreach goals of all four International Science Years. Examples of live video connections to NSF's Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, and to an Alaskan sounding rocket range, together with evaluation data on a rock-concert inspired "tour" of science centers, schools and community venues by NASA researchers and engineers, provide possible models for the upcoming ISY's. A calendar of polar field campaigns, NASA launches and events (such as arrival of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter at the Moon in Fall 2008, and the landing of Mars Phoenix in Spring 2008), and earth and space science related anniversaries - such as the launch of Explorer 1 on January 31, 1958 - offer a framework for integrating outreach, engagement and education strategies common to all four Science Years.

  4. An unintended consequence of the IGY: Eisenhower, Sputnik, the Founding of NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launius, Roger D.

    2010-07-01

    On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first Earth-circling artificial satellite and the United States responded by taking numerous actions aimed at "remediating" a Cold War crisis. This included the establishment of a separate civilian space agency charged with the conduct of an official program of scientific and technological space exploration, consolidation of Department of Defense space activities, the passage of the National Defense Education Act, the creation of a Presidential Science Advisor, and a host of lesser actions. The politics of these changes is fascinating, and has been interpreted as an appropriate political response to a unique crisis situation. Interest groups, all for differing reasons, prodded national leaders to undertake large-scale efforts, something the president thought unnecessarily expensive and once set in place impossible to dismantle. But was the Sputnik crisis truly a crisis in any real sense? Was it made into one by interest groups who used it for their own ends? This paper will trace briefly some of the major themes associated with the IGY and Sputnik and describe the political construction of the crisis as it emerged in 1957-1958. It will also discuss something about the transformation of federal science and technology that took place in response to this "crisis" and how it set in train a series of processes and policies that did not unravel until the end of the Cold War.

  5. Kinetic and avidity of IgY anti-Toxocara antibodies in experimentally infected chickens.

    PubMed

    da Silva Raposo, Ricardo; Santarém, Vamilton Alvares; Merigueti, Yslla Fernanda Fitz Balo; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; de Lima Cerazo, Letícia Maria; Pereira, Ludimilla; Zampieri, Bianca Pelegi; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; Laposy, Cecília Braga

    2016-12-01

    Toxocariasis is a geohelminth zoonosis with worldwide distribution, mainly transmitted through the ingestion of embryonated eggs of nematodes of the Toxocara genus. The disease can also be transmitted to humans as a result of eating raw or undercooked meat of paratenic hosts, such as chickens. Here, we standardized an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for evaluating experimentally the kinetic and avidity index (AI) of IgY in broiler chickens infected with different doses of Toxocara canis eggs (G1:100; G2: 1000; and G3: 5000; n = 12 per group). The test showed 91.7% sensitivity (CI 95%: 77.5-98.3) and 100% specificity (CI 95%: 92.6-100), and highest efficiency (97.0%) at 60 days post infection. Infection was characterized by the presence of high avidity antibodies in the chronic phase. Our results support that the ELISA can be a highly useful tool for the detection of anti-Toxocara antibodies in chickens.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of SnRK gene family in Brachypodium distachyon and functional characterization of BdSnRK2.9.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianzhe; Hu, Wei; Sun, Jiutong; Liang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Xiaoyue; Wei, Shuya; Wang, Xiatian; Zhou, Yi; Xiao, Qiang; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2015-08-01

    The sucrose non-fermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinases (SnRKs) play key roles in plant signaling pathways including responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although SnRKs have been systematically studied in Arabidopsis and rice, there is no information concerning SnRKs in the new Poaceae model plant Brachypodium distachyon. In the present study, a total of 44 BdSnRKs were identified and classified into three subfamilies, including three members of BdSnRK1, 10 of BdSnRK2 and 31 of BdSnRK3 (CIPK) subfamilies. Phylogenetic reconstruction, chromosome distribution and synteny analyses suggested that BdSnRK family had been established before the dicot-monocot lineage parted, and had experienced rapid expansion during the process of plant evolution since then. Expression analysis of the BdSnRK2 subfamily showed that the majority of them could respond to abiotic stress and related signal molecules treatments. Protein-protein interaction and co-expression analyses of BdSnRK2s network showed that SnRK2s might be involved in biological pathway different from that of dicot model plant Arabidopsis. Expression of BdSnRK2.9 in tobacco resulted in increased tolerance to drought and salt stresses through activation of NtABF2. Taken together, comprehensive analyses of BdSnRKs would provide a basis for understanding of evolution and function of BdSnRK family.

  7. Egg yolk IgY: protection against rotavirus induced diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Vega, C; Bok, M; Chacana, P; Saif, L; Fernandez, F; Parreño, V

    2011-08-15

    Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. Local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. IgY technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent BRV diarrhea in dairy calves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in BRV specific IgY to experimentally BRV infected calves. All calves in groups Gp 1, 2 and 3 received control colostrum (CC; BRV virus neutralization Ab titer - VN=65,536; ELISA BRV IgG(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure. After gut closure, calves received milk supplemented with 6% BRV-immune egg yolk [(Gp 1) VN=2048; ELISA IgY Ab titer=4096] or non-immune control egg yolk [(Gp 2) VN<4; ELISA IgY Ab titer<4] twice a day, for 14 days. Calves receiving CC only or colostrum deprived calves (CD) fed antibody (Ab) free milk served as controls (Gp 3 and 4, respectively). Calves were inoculated with 10(5.85)focus forming units (FFU) of virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Control calves (Gp 3 and 4) and calves fed control IgY (Gp 2) were infected and developed severe diarrhea. Around 80% calves in Gp 1 (IgY 4096) were infected, but they showed 80% (4/5) protection against BRV diarrhea. Bovine RV-specific IgY Ab were detected in the feces of calves in Gp 1, indicating that avian antibodies (Abs) remained intact after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. At post infection day 21, the duodenum was the major site of BRV specific antibody secreting cells (ASC) in all experimental groups. Mucosal ASC responses of all isotypes were significantly higher in the IgY treated groups, independently of the specificity of the treatment, indicating that egg yolk components modulated the immune response against BRV infection at the mucosal level. These results indicate that supplementing newborn calves' diets for the first 14 days of life with egg yolk

  8. Egg Yolk IgY: Protection against Rotavirus induced Diarrhea and Modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves

    PubMed Central

    Vega, C.; Bok, M.; Chacana, P.; Saif, L.; Fernandez, F.; Parreño, V.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. Local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. IgY technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent BRV diarrhea in dairy calves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in BRV specific IgY to experimentally BRV infected calves. All calves in groups Gp 1, 2 and 3 received control colostrum (CC; BRV virus neutralization Ab titer – VN- =65,536; ELISA BRV IgG1 =16,384) prior to gut closure. After gut closure, calves received milk supplemented with 6% BRV-immune egg yolk [(Gp1) VN=2048; ELISA IgY Ab titer =4096] or non-immune control egg yolk [(Gp2) VN <4; ELISA IgY Ab titer <4) twice a day, for 14 days. Calves receiving CC only or colostrum deprived calves (CD) fed antibody (Ab) free milk served as controls (Gp 3 and 4, respectively). Calves were inoculated with 105.85 focus forming units (FFU) of virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Control calves (Gp 3 and 4) and calves fed control IgY (Gp 2) were infected and developed severe diarrhea. Around 80% calves in Gp 1 (IgY 4096) were infected, but they showed 80% (4/5) protection against BRV diarrhea. Bovine RV-specific IgY Ab were detected in the feces of calves in Gp 1, indicating that avian antibodies (Abs) remained intact after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. At post infection day 21, the duodenum was the major site of BRV specific antibody secreting cells (ASC) in all experimental groups. Mucosal ASC responses of all isotypes were significantly higher in the IgY treated groups, independently of the specificity of the treatment, indicating that egg yolk components modulated the immune response against BRV infection at the mucosal level. These results indicate that supplementing newborn calves’ diets for the first 14 days of life with egg

  9. Detection of kanamycin and gentamicin residues in animal-derived food using IgY antibody based ic-ELISA and FPIA.

    PubMed

    Li, Cui; Zhang, Yaoyao; Eremin, Sergei A; Yakup, Omar; Yao, Gang; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2017-07-15

    Our aim in this study is to show that IgY antibody based immunoassays could be used to detect antibiotic residues in animal-derived food. Briefly, full antigens of gentamicin (Gent) and kanamycin (Kana) were used to immunize the laying chickens to prepare IgY antibodies. Then, these antibodies were evaluated by FPIA and ic-ELISA to detect Gent/Kana in animal-derived samples. The IC50 of FPIA and ic-ELISA based anti-Gent IgY were 7.70±0.6μg/mL and 0.32±0.06μg/mL, respectively. The IC50 of FPIA and ic-ELISA based anti-Kana IgY were 7.97±0.9μg/mL and 0.15±0.01μg/mL. The limits of detection (LOD, IC10) for FPIA based anti-Gent/Kana IgY were 0.17 and 0.007μg/mL, respectively. The LOD for ic-ELISA were both 0.001μg/mL. These results indicated that the ic-ELISA might more suitable for antibiotic residues detection than FPIA.

  10. IgM, IgD and IgY and their expression pattern in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Wang, Gai L; Nie, P

    2009-06-01

    Three Ig isotypes, IgM, IgD, and IgA, were previously known in reptiles. Here, in this report we describe IgM, IgD and a novel immunoglobulin heavy-chain isotype upsilon (IgY) in Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis). The IgM and IgY constant domains are characteristically similar to their counterparts described in other vertebrates. The expression of IgM and IgD were detected at mRNA level early during embryonic development, and their expression increased during further development. However, the IgY expression was not detected in larval turtles until 90 days after hatching-out. The increase in the transcription of these three Ig molecules was analyzed by using real-time PCR in spleen, kidney and blood following the injection of inactivated Aeromonas hydrophila. The primary increase in the expression of these three Igs was observed 1 week after the first injection, although not statistically significant, and the second injection 2 weeks after the first injection provoked a significant increase in the expression of these Igs, revealing a pattern of primary and secondary antibody response in the turtle. The present study represents the first report on reptile IgY and the pattern of IgM, IgD and IgY transcription in reptiles.

  11. Explaining the RK and RD(*) anomalies with vector leptoquarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Suchismita; Mohanta, Rukmani; Giri, Anjan K.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, the B factories BABAR and Belle as well as the LHCb experiment have reported several anomalies in the semileptonic B meson decays, such as the RK and RD(*) etc. We investigate these deviations by considering the vector leptoquarks relevant for both b →s l+l- and b →c l ν¯ l transitions. The leptoquark parameter space is constrained by using the experimentally measured branching ratios of Bs→l+l- , B ¯ →Xsl+l-(ν ν ¯ ) , and Bu+→l+νl processes. Using the constrained leptoquark couplings, we compute the branching ratios, forward-backward asymmetries, τ , and D* polarization parameters in the B ¯ →D(*)l ν¯ l processes. We find that the vector leptoquarks can explain both the RD(*) and RK anomalies, simultaneously. Furthermore, we study the rare leptonic Bu,c *→l ν ¯ decay processes in this model.

  12. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY Antibodies Induce Specific Bacterial Aggregation and Internalization in Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, K.; Christophersen, L.; Bjarnsholt, T.; Jensen, P. Ø.; Moser, C.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are essential cellular constituents in the innate host response, and their recruitment to the lungs and subsequent ubiquitous phagocytosis controls primary respiratory infection. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive pulmonary decline governed by a persistent, exaggerated inflammatory response dominated by PMNs. The principal contributor is chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection, which attracts and activates PMNs and thereby is responsible for the continuing inflammation. Strategies to prevent initial airway colonization with P. aeruginosa by augmenting the phagocytic competence of PMNs may postpone the deteriorating chronic biofilm infection. Anti-P. aeruginosa IgY antibodies significantly increase the PMN-mediated respiratory burst and subsequent bacterial killing of P. aeruginosa in vitro. The mode of action is attributed to IgY-facilitated formation of immobilized bacteria in aggregates, as visualized by fluorescence microscopy and the induction of increased bacterial hydrophobicity. Thus, the present study demonstrates that avian egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) targeting P. aeruginosa modify bacterial fitness, which enhances bacterial killing by PMN-mediated phagocytosis and thereby may facilitate a rapid bacterial clearance in airways of people with cystic fibrosis. PMID:25895968

  13. Anti-Interleukin-1 Beta/Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha IgY Antibodies Reduce Pathological Allergic Responses in Guinea Pigs with Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Wei-Xu, Hu; Wen-Yun, Zhou; Xi-Ling, Zhu; Zhu, Wen; Li-Hua, Wu; Xiao-Mu, Wu; Hui-Ping, Wei; Wen-Ding, Wang; Dan, He; Qin, Xiang; Guo-Zhu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether the combined blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α can alleviate the pathological allergic inflammatory reaction in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in allergic rhinitis (AR) guinea pigs. Healthy guinea pigs treated with saline were used as the healthy controls. The AR guinea pigs were randomly divided into (1) the AR model group treated with intranasal saline; (2) the 0.1% nonspecific IgY treatment group; (3) the 0.1% anti-TNF-α IgY treatment group; (4) the 0.1% anti-IL-1β IgY treatment group; (5) the 0.1% combined anti-IL-1β and TNF-α IgY treatment group; and (6) the fluticasone propionate treatment group. The inflammatory cells were evaluated using Wright's staining. Histopathology was examined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results showed that the number of eosinophils was significantly decreased in the peripheral blood, nasal lavage fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P < 0.05), and eosinophil, neutrophil, and lymphocyte infiltration and edema were significantly reduced or absent in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues (P < 0.05) in the combined 0.1% anti-IL-1β- and TNF-α IgY-treated guinea pigs. The data suggest that topical blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α could reduce pathological allergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in AR guinea pigs.

  14. Production of specific IgY Helicobacter pylori recombinant OipA protein and assessment of its inhibitory effects towards attachment of H. pylori to AGS cell line

    PubMed Central

    Borhani, Katayoun; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Khoramabadi, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The common triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori is challenged by the increasing cases of antibiotic resistant infections, raising the need to explore alternative therapies. Oral administration of egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY) has been previously reported as a means of passive immunization therapy for H. pylori infections. In this work, we investigated the inhibitory effect of IgY on the attachment of H. pylori to AGS cell line. Materials and Methods Recombinant OipA was prepared. Hens were immunized with recombinant protein three times. IgY was purified from egg yolks of immunized hens using polyethylene glycol precipitation method. The inhibitory effect of the specific immunoglobulin was evaluated in AGS cell line infected with H. pylori. Results The presence of recombinant OipA (30 kD) was confirmed via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunization of hens was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The purified IgY from egg yolks were assessed using SDS-PAGE and confirmed by western blot. Conclusion The results showed that IgY-OipA had inhibitory effect on attachment of H. pylori to AGS cell line and may be utilized as a therapeutic or prophylaxis material. PMID:26273576

  15. Chicken Egg Yolk Antibodies (IgY) for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Human and Animal Neonates: A Concise Review

    PubMed Central

    Thu, Hlaing Myat; Myat, Theingi Win; Win, Mo Mo; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Rahman, Shofiqur; Umeda, Kouji; Nguyen, Sa Van; Icatlo, Faustino C.; Higo-Moriguchi, Kyoko; Taniguchi, Koki; Tsuji, Takao; Oguma, Keiji; Kim, Sang Jong; Bae, Hyun Suk

    2017-01-01

    The rotavirus-induced diarrhea of human and animal neonates is a major public health concern worldwide. Until recently, no effective therapy is available to specifically inactivate the rotavirion particles within the gut. Passive immunotherapy by oral administration of chicken egg yolk antibody (IgY) has emerged of late as a fresh alternative strategy to control infectious diseases of the alimentary tract and has been applied in the treatment of diarrhea due to rotavirus infection. The purpose of this concise review is to evaluate evidence on the properties and performance of anti-rotavirus immunoglobulin Y (IgY) for prevention and treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in human and animal neonates. A survey of relevant anti-rotavirus IgY basic studies and clinical trials among neonatal animals (since 1994-2015) and humans (since 1982-2015) have been reviewed and briefly summarized. Our analysis of a number of rotavirus investigations involving animal and human clinical trials revealed that anti-rotavirus IgY significantly reduced the severity of clinical manifestation of diarrhea among IgY-treated subjects relative to a corresponding control or placebo group. The accumulated information as a whole depicts oral IgY to be a safe and efficacious option for treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in neonates. There is however a clear need for more randomized, placebo controlled and double-blind trials with bigger sample size to further solidify and confirm claims of efficacy and safety in controlling diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection especially among human infants with health issues such as low birth weights or compromised immunity in whom it is most needed. PMID:28316465

  16. From the IGY to the IHY: A Changing View of the Van Allen Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, M. K.

    2006-12-01

    with the choice of solar maximum for the IGY. Still, much remains to be done in terms of predictive capability. The need for such capability gave rise to establishing the National Space Weather Program a decade ago, while the fundamental science questions of solar-terrestrial connectivity remain drivers for NASA's Living With a Star program and other focused projects such as the NSF-sponsored Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling. As measurements of emerging solar active regions have greatly improved, soon to be given a STERIO view, computer modeling capability has developed beyond the wildest expectations of Professor Van Allen and colleagues who launched the first Geiger counter into space on a satellite with no data storage device (once called a tape recorder). Results from recent simulations attempting both to describe particle acceleration processes quantitatively and predict impact on the near Earth space environment will be presented.

  17. WalRK two component system of Bacillus anthracis responds to temperature and antibiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Alisha; Gopalani, Monisha; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2015-04-17

    WalRK Two Component System (TCS) of Bacillus anthracis forms a functional TCS. This report elaborates upon the WalRK genomic architecture, promoter structure, promoter activity and expression under various stress conditions in B. anthracis. 5' RACE located the WalRK functional promoter within 317 bp region upstream of WalR. Reporter gene assays demonstrated maximal promoter activity during early growth phases indicating utility in exponential stages of growth. qRT-PCR showed upregulation of WalRK transcripts during temperature and antibiotic stress. However, WalR overexpression did not affect the tested antibiotic MIC values in B. anthracis. Collectively, these results confirm that WalRK responds to cell envelope stress in B. anthracis.

  18. Development of IgY based sandwich ELISA for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin G (SEG), an egc toxin.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Sowmya; Ramlal, Shylaja; Kingston, Joseph; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2016-11-21

    Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is a major foodborne illness caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). It is a well known fact that foodborne outbreak investigations are solely characterized by commercially available immunoassay kits. However, these assays encompass only few enterotoxins such as SEA-SEE which are renowned as "classical" enterotoxins and unable to detect any other novel enterotoxins even though their involvement is predicted. In this context, the present study involved development of a sandwich ELISA immunoassay for the specific detection of "non-classical" enterotoxin G (SEG). The toxin belongs to enterotoxin gene cluster (egc) which comprises a bunch of five toxin genes that are known to co-express. Thus, the developed assay might indirectly speculate the presence of other toxins in the cluster. The efficiency of ELISA was compared with PCR analysis where all strains possessing seg were found positive for toxin production. Additionally, analogous to other studies which reported the co-occurrence of seg and sei, the PCR analysis accomplished in the study evinced the same. The sandwich format allowed sensitive detection with a detection limit of 1ng/mL. High specificity was achieved in presence of non-target protein as well as bacteria. Likewise, staphylococcal protein A (SpA) interference that is inevitably associated with immunoassays was eliminated by implementation of anti-SEG IgY in our study. Consequently, chicken IgY were used to capture target antigen in developed sandwich ELISA. Further, spiking studies and analysis on natural samples emphasized the robustness as well as applicability of developed method. Altogether, the established assay could be a reliable detection tool for the routine investigation of SEG as well as to predict other egc toxins in samples from food and clinical sources.

  19. IgY14 and SuperMix immunoaffinity separations coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for human plasma proteomic biomarker discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Tujin; Zhou, Jianying; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Hossain, Mahmud; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun

    2012-02-01

    Interest in the application of advanced proteomics technologies to human blood plasma- or serum-based clinical samples for the purpose of discovering disease biomarkers continues to grow; however, the enormous dynamic range of protein concentrations in these types of samples (often >10 orders of magnitude) represents a significant analytical challenge, particularly for detecting low-abundance candidate biomarkers. In response, immunoaffinity separation methods for depleting multiple high- and moderate-abundance proteins have become key tools for enriching low-abundance proteins and enhancing detection of these proteins in plasma proteomics. Herein, we describe IgY14 and tandem IgY14-Supermix separation methods for removing 14 high-abundance and up to 60 moderate-abundance proteins, respectively, from human blood plasma and highlight their utility when combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for interrogating the human plasma proteome.

  20. Development and evaluation of IgY ImmunoCapture PCR ELISA for detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A devoid of protein A interference.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Prakash; Ramlal, Shylaja; Sripathy, Murali Harishchandra; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, a sensitive and specific IgY mediated ImmunoCapture-PCR-ELISA (IC-PCR-ELISA) was developed for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) from culture supernatants and suspected contaminated samples. Due to the virtue of avian immunoglobulins (IgY) to have the least affinity towards staphylococcal protein A (SpA) responsible for false positives, we employed anti-SEA IgY for capture of SEA toxin and revealed with SEA specific rabbit antibodies conjugated to a 524bp DNA marker. Biotin-11-dUTP was incorporated during PCR amplification and post PCR analysis was performed by PCR-ELISA. Unlike IgG immunocapture, IgY mediated immunocapture of SEA was free from false positives due to protein A. The developed assay was specific to SEA except for minor cross reactivity with staphylococcal enterotoxin E (SEE). Several raw milk samples were evaluated for the presence of SEA with and without enrichment. Three samples were found to be positive for SEA after enrichment for 8h. Though IC-PCR-ELISA for SEA showed 100% correlation with PCR analysis for sea gene, the assay was unique in terms of sensitivity of detecting ~10pg/ml of SEA toxin from spiked milk samples. Result of IC-PCR-ELISA was further confirmed by conventional methods of isolation and characterization. The presented method can be very useful for rapid analysis of milk samples for SEA contamination and can be further extended for detection of multiple SE's in different wells of same PCR plate using common DNA substrate.

  1. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M.H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  2. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M. H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites. PMID:22116026

  3. Molecular mimicry regulates ABA signaling by SnRK2 kinases and PP2C phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X Edward; West, Graham M; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M H Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2012-01-06

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  4. Development of an IgY Antibody-Based Immunoassay for the Screening of the CYP2E1 Inhibitor/Enhancer from Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhihui; Jiang, Xuemei; Li, Cui; Xue, Huiting; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 is an important enzyme involved in the metabolism of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. It is essential to evaluate the expression of CYP2E1 in the studies of drug–drug interactions and the screening of drugs, natural products, and foodstuffs. The present work is a feasibility study on the development of immunoassays using a specific and sensitive chicken-sourced anti-CYP2E1 IgY antibody. Cloning, expression, and purification of a recombinant CYP2E1 (mice origin) protein were carried out. Anti-CYP2E1 IgY antibodies were generated by immunizing white Leghorn chickens with purified recombinant CYP2E1 protein and were purified by immune affinity chromatography. The IgY titer attained a peak level (≥1:128,000) after the fifth booster injection. For evaluation of the expression of CYP2E1 in different herbal treatment samples, the mice were treated by oral gavage for 3 days with alcohol (50% 15 mL/kg), acetaminophen (APAP, 300 mg/kg), Cornus officinalis extract (100 mg/kg), Alhagi-honey extract (100 mg/kg), Apocynum venetum extract (100 mg/kg), hyperoside (50 mg/kg), isoquercetin (50 mg/kg), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (50 mg/kg), 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (50 mg/kg), and 3,4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (50 mg/kg). The expression of CYP2E1 was determined by Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, and immunomagnetic beads (IMBs) using anti-CYP2E1 IgY in liver tissue. The results showed that C. officinalis extract, Alhagi-honey extract, A. venetum extract, hyperoside, isoquercetin, and their xenobiotics 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3,4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid significantly decreased CYP2E1 levels. Alcohol and APAP treatments significantly increased CYP2E1 levels as analyzed with Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA. The IMB method is suitable for large-scale screening, and it is a rapid screening (20 min) that uses a portable magnet and has no professional requirements for the

  5. The plant RWP-RK transcription factors: key regulators of nitrogen responses and of gametophyte development.

    PubMed

    Chardin, Camille; Girin, Thomas; Roudier, François; Meyer, Christian; Krapp, Anne

    2014-10-01

    The plant specific RWP-RK family of transcription factors, initially identified in legumes and Chlamydomonas, are found in all vascular plants, green algae, and slime molds. These proteins possess a characteristic RWP-RK motif, which mediates DNA binding. Based on phylogenetic and domain analyses, we classified the RWP-RK proteins of six different species in two subfamilies: the NIN-like proteins (NLPs), which carry an additional PB1 domain at their C-terminus, and the RWP-RK domain proteins (RKDs), which are divided into three subgroups. Although, the functional analysis of this family is still in its infancy, several RWP-RK proteins have a key role in regulating responses to nitrogen availability. The nodulation-specific NIN proteins are involved in nodule organogenesis and rhizobial infection under nitrogen starvation conditions. Arabidopsis NLP7 in particular is a major player in the primary nitrate response. Several RKDs act as transcription factors involved in egg cell specification and differentiation or gametogenesis in algae, the latter modulated by nitrogen availability. Further studies are required to extend the general picture of the functional role of these exciting transcription factors.

  6. Detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using chicken egg yolk IgY antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Parma, Y. R.; Chacana, P. A.; Lucchesi, P. M. A.; Rogé, A.; Granobles Velandia, C. V.; Krüger, A.; Parma, A. E.; Fernández-Miyakawa, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a subset of Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC) is associated with a spectrum of diseases that includes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and a life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Regardless of serotype, Shiga toxins (Stx1 and/or Stx2) are uniformly expressed by all EHEC, and so exploitable targets for laboratory diagnosis of these pathogens. In this study, a sandwich ELISA for determination of Shiga toxin (Stx) was developed using anti-Stx2B subunit antibodies and its performance was compared with that of the Vero cell assay and a commercial immunoassay kit. Chicken IgY was used as capture antibody and a HRP-conjugated rabbit IgG as the detection antibody. The anti-Stx2B IgY was harvested from eggs laid by hens immunized with a recombinant protein fragment. Several parameters were tested in order to optimize the sandwich ELISA assay, including concentration of antibodies, type and concentration of blocking agent, and incubation temperatures. Supernatants from 42 STEC strains of different serotypes and stx variants, including stx2EDL933, stx2vha, stx2vhb, stx2g, stx1EDL933, and stx1d were tested. All Stx variants were detected by the sandwich ELISA, with a detection limit of 115 ng/ml Stx2. Twenty three strains negative for stx genes, including different bacteria species, showed no activity in Vero cell assay and produced negative results in ELISA, except for two strains. Our results show that anti-Stx2B IgY sandwich ELISA could be used in routine diagnosis as a rapid, specific and economic method for detection of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli. PMID:22919675

  7. Comprehensive Analysis of the CDPK-SnRK Superfamily Genes in Chinese Cabbage and Its Evolutionary Implications in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peng; Wang, Wenli; Duan, Weike; Li, Ying; Hou, Xilin

    2017-01-01

    The CDPK-SnRK (calcium-dependent protein kinase/Snf1-related protein kinase) gene superfamily plays important roles in signaling pathways for disease resistance and various stress responses, as indicated by emerging evidence. In this study, we constructed comparative analyses of gene structure, retention, expansion, whole-genome duplication (WGD) and expression patterns of CDPK-SnRK genes in Brassica rapa and their evolution in plants. A total of 49 BrCPKs, 14 BrCRKs, 3 BrPPCKs, 5 BrPEPRKs, and 56 BrSnRKs were identified in B. rapa. All BrCDPK-SnRK proteins had highly conserved kinase domains. By statistical analysis of the number of CDPK-SnRK genes in each species, we found that the expansion of the CDPK-SnRK gene family started from angiosperms. Segmental duplication played a predominant role in CDPK-SnRK gene expansion. The analysis showed that PEPRK was more preferentially retained than other subfamilies and that CPK was retained similarly to SnRK. Among the CPKs and SnRKs, CPKIII and SnRK1 genes were more preferentially retained than other groups. CRK was closest to CPK, which may share a common evolutionary origin. In addition, we identified 196 CPK genes and 252 SnRK genes in 6 species, and their different expansion and evolution types were discovered. Furthermore, the expression of BrCDPK-SnRK genes is dynamic in different tissues as well as in response to abiotic stresses, demonstrating their important roles in development in B. rapa. In summary, this study provides genome-wide insight into the evolutionary history and mechanisms of CDPK-SnRK genes following whole-genome triplication in B. rapa. PMID:28239387

  8. Shaping plant development through the SnRK1-TOR metabolic regulators.

    PubMed

    Baena-González, Elena; Hanson, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    SnRK1 (Snf1-related protein kinase 1) and TOR (target of rapamycin) are evolutionarily conserved protein kinases that lie at the heart of energy sensing, playing central and antagonistic roles in the regulation of metabolism and gene expression. Increasing evidence links these metabolic regulators to numerous aspects of plant development, from germination to flowering and senescence. This prompts the hypothesis that SnRK1 and TOR modify developmental programs according to the metabolic status to adjust plant growth to a specific environment. The aim of this review is to provide support to this hypothesis and to incentivize further studies on this topic by summarizing the work that establishes a genetic connection between SnRK1-TOR and plant development.

  9. Cloning and characterization of a SnRK1-encoding gene from Malus hupehensis Rehd. and heterologous expression in tomato.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangjie; Peng, Futian; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Xingzheng; Wang, Zhaoyan

    2010-02-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase-1 (SnRK1) plays an important role in metabolic regulation in plant. To understand the molecular mechanism of amino acids and carbohydrate metabolism in Malus hupehensis Rehd. var. pinyiensis Jiang (Pingyi Tiancha, PYTC), a full-length cDNA clone encoding homologue of SnRK1 was isolated from PYTC by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The clone, designated as MhSnRK1, contains 2063 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 1548 nucleotides. The deduced 515 amino acids showed high identities with other plant SnRK1 genes. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed this gene was expressed in roots, stems and leaves. Exposing seedlings to nitrate caused and initial decrease in expression of the MhSnRK1 gene in roots, leaves and stems in short term. Ectopic expression of MhSnRK1 in tomato mainly resulted in higher starch content in leaf and red-ripening fruit than wild-type plants. This result supports the hypothesis that overexpression of SnRK1 causes the accumulation of starch in plant cells. All the results suggest that MhSnRK1 may play important roles in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms.

  10. Electrochemical immunosensor based on ensemble of nanoelectrodes for immunoglobulin IgY detection: application to identify hen's egg yolk in tempera paintings.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Fabio; Oliveri, Paolo; Ugo, Paolo

    2014-02-15

    A nanostructured electrochemical biosensor for detecting proteins of interest in work of art, in particular in tempera paintings, is presented. To determine egg yolk we focus here on the determination of immunoglobulin IgY. The transducers are nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs), prepared via membrane templated electroless deposition of gold. Because of their geometrical and diffusion characteristics, NEEs are characterized by significantly low detection limits, moreover they display the capability of capturing proteins by interaction with the polycarbonate membrane of the NEE. At first, the proteic component of the paint is extracted by ultrasonication in an aqueous buffer, then IgY is captured by incubation on the NEE. The immunoglobulin is detected by treatment with anti-IgY labeled with horse radish peroxidase (Anti-IgY-HRP). The binding of the Anti-IgY-HRP is detected by recording the electrocatalytic signal caused by addition of H2O2 and methylene blue. The sensor detection capabilities are tested by analyzing both paint models, prepared in the lab, and real samples, from paintings of the XVIII-XX century. Multivariate exploratory analysis is applied to classify the voltammetric patterns, confirming the capability to differentiate egg-yolk tempera from other kind of tempera binders as well as from acrylic or oil paints.

  11. Structural basis for basal activity and autoactivation of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling SnRK2 kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Ley-Moy; Soon, Fen-Fen; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development, and responses to abiotic stresses. Central for ABA signaling is the ABA-mediated autoactivation of three monomeric Snf1-related kinases (SnRK2.2, -2.3, and -2.6). In the absence of ABA, SnRK2s are kept in an inactive state by forming physical complexes with type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). Upon relief of this inhibition, SnRK2 kinases can autoactivate through unknown mechanisms. Here, we report the crystal structures of full-length Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 at 1.9- and 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, respectively. The structures, in combination with biochemical studies, reveal a two-step mechanism of intramolecular kinase activation that resembles the intermolecular activation of cyclin-dependent kinases. First, release of inhibition by PP2C allows the SnRK2s to become partially active because of an intramolecular stabilization of the catalytic domain by a conserved helix in the kinase regulatory domain. This stabilization enables SnRK2s to gain full activity by activation loop autophosphorylation. Autophosphorylation is more efficient in SnRK2.6, which has higher stability than SnRK2.3 and has well-structured activation loop phosphate acceptor sites that are positioned next to the catalytic site. Together, these data provide a structural framework that links ABA-mediated release of PP2C inhibition to activation of SnRK2 kinases.

  12. Structural basis for basal activity and autoactivation of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling SnRK2 kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ley-Moy; Soon, Fen-Fen; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2011-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development, and responses to abiotic stresses. Central for ABA signaling is the ABA-mediated autoactivation of three monomeric Snf1-related kinases (SnRK2.2, -2.3, and -2.6). In the absence of ABA, SnRK2s are kept in an inactive state by forming physical complexes with type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). Upon relief of this inhibition, SnRK2 kinases can autoactivate through unknown mechanisms. Here, we report the crystal structures of full-length Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 at 1.9- and 2.3-Å resolution, respectively. The structures, in combination with biochemical studies, reveal a two-step mechanism of intramolecular kinase activation that resembles the intermolecular activation of cyclin-dependent kinases. First, release of inhibition by PP2C allows the SnRK2s to become partially active because of an intramolecular stabilization of the catalytic domain by a conserved helix in the kinase regulatory domain. This stabilization enables SnRK2s to gain full activity by activation loop autophosphorylation. Autophosphorylation is more efficient in SnRK2.6, which has higher stability than SnRK2.3 and has well-structured activation loop phosphate acceptor sites that are positioned next to the catalytic site. Together, these data provide a structural framework that links ABA-mediated release of PP2C inhibition to activation of SnRK2 kinases. PMID:22160701

  13. Lotus japonicus symRK-14 uncouples the cortical and epidermal symbiotic program.

    PubMed

    Kosuta, Sonja; Held, Mark; Hossain, Md Shakhawat; Morieri, Giulia; Macgillivary, Amanda; Johansen, Christopher; Antolín-Llovera, Meritxell; Parniske, Martin; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Downie, Allan J; Karas, Bogumil; Szczyglowski, Krzysztof

    2011-09-01

    SYMRK is a leucine-rich-repeat (LRR)-receptor kinase that mediates intracellular symbioses of legumes with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. It participates in signalling events that lead to epidermal calcium spiking, an early cellular response that is typically considered as central for intracellular accommodation and nodule organogenesis. Here, we describe the Lotus japonicus symRK-14 mutation that alters a conserved GDPC amino-acid sequence in the SYMRK extracellular domain. Normal infection of the epidermis by fungal or bacterial symbionts was aborted in symRK-14. Likewise, epidermal responses of symRK-14 to bacterial signalling, including calcium spiking, NIN gene expression and infection thread formation, were significantly reduced. In contrast, no major negative effects on the formation of nodule primordia and cortical infection were detected. Cumulatively, our data show that the symRK-14 mutation uncouples the epidermal and cortical symbiotic program, while indicating that the SYMRK extracellular domain participates in transduction of non-equivalent signalling events. The GDPC sequence was found to be highly conserved in LRR-receptor kinases in legumes and non-legumes, including the evolutionarily distant bryophytes. Conservation of the GDPC sequence in nearly one-fourth of LRR-receptor-like kinases in the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana suggests, however, that this sequence might also play an important non-symbiotic function in this plant.

  14. The VicRK system of Streptococcus mutans responds to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Deng, D M; Liu, M J; ten Cate, J M; Crielaard, W

    2007-07-01

    In Streptococcus mutans, virulence and cariogenicity may be modulated via the two-component regulatory system VicRK. Environmental signals, sensed by VicK, inducing this modulation are still unclear, however, and were investigated in the present study. We found that VicRK displays homology with protein-domains that, in other bacteria, are involved in redox-sensing. After constructing a VicRK-promoter GFP-reporter strain, we showed increased fluorescence intensity under oxidative stress. Potential interference of alternative signals and experimental conditions on GFP expression was excluded by the use of negative and positive control strains. Finally, we constructed a clean vicK knockout mutant, which proved to be more sensitive to H(2)O(2) than the wild-type. In conclusion, this study showed that the VicRK system responds to and protects against oxidative stress. As a result, a link between oxidative/redox stress and the cariogenic nature of S. mutans can be hypothesized.

  15. RK2 plasmid dynamics in Caulobacter crescentus cells--two modes of DNA replication initiation.

    PubMed

    Wegrzyn, Katarzyna; Witosinska, Monika; Schweiger, Pawel; Bury, Katarzyna; Jenal, Urs; Konieczny, Igor

    2013-06-01

    Undisturbed plasmid dynamics is required for the stable maintenance of plasmid DNA in bacterial cells. In this work, we analysed subcellular localization, DNA synthesis and nucleoprotein complex formation of plasmid RK2 during the cell cycle of Caulobacter crescentus. Our microscopic observations showed asymmetrical distribution of plasmid RK2 foci between the two compartments of Caulobacter predivisional cells, resulting in asymmetrical allocation of plasmids to progeny cells. Moreover, using a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method, we estimated that multiple plasmid particles form a single fluorescent focus and that the number of plasmids per focus is approximately equal in both swarmer and predivisional Caulobacter cells. Analysis of the dynamics of TrfA-oriV complex formation during the Caulobacter cell cycle revealed that TrfA binds oriV primarily during the G1 phase, however, plasmid DNA synthesis occurs during the S and G2 phases of the Caulobacter cell cycle. Both in vitro and in vivo analysis of RK2 replication initiation in C. crescentus cells demonstrated that it is independent of the Caulobacter DnaA protein in the presence of the longer version of TrfA protein, TrfA-44. However, in vivo stability tests of plasmid RK2 derivatives suggested that a DnaA-dependent mode of plasmid replication initiation is also possible.

  16. The complex becomes more complex: protein-protein interactions of SnRK1 with DUF581 family proteins provide a framework for cell- and stimulus type-specific SnRK1 signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Nietzsche, Madlen; Schießl, Ingrid; Börnke, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In plants, SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1) responds to the availability of carbohydrates as well as to environmental stresses by down-regulating ATP consuming biosynthetic processes, while stimulating energy-generating catabolic reactions through gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. The functional SnRK1 complex is a heterotrimer where the catalytic α subunit associates with a regulatory β subunit and an activating γ subunit. Several different metabolites as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have been shown to modulate SnRK1 activity in a cell- and stimulus-type specific manner. It has been proposed that tissue- or stimulus-specific expression of adapter proteins mediating SnRK1 regulation can at least partly explain the differences observed in SnRK1 signaling. By using yeast two-hybrid and in planta bi-molecular fluorescence complementation assays we were able to demonstrate that proteins containing the domain of unknown function (DUF) 581 could interact with both isoforms of the SnRK1α subunit (AKIN10/11) of Arabidopsis. A structure/function analysis suggests that the DUF581 is a generic SnRK1 interaction module and co-expression with DUF581 proteins in plant cells leads to reallocation of the kinase to specific regions within the nucleus. Yeast two-hybrid analyses suggest that SnRK1 and DUF581 proteins share common interaction partners inside the nucleus. The analysis of available microarray data implies that expression of the 19 members of the DUF581 encoding gene family in Arabidopsis is differentially regulated by hormones and environmental cues, indicating specialized functions of individual family members. We hypothesize that DUF581 proteins could act as mediators conferring tissue- and stimulus-type specific differences in SnRK1 regulation. PMID:24600465

  17. The complex becomes more complex: protein-protein interactions of SnRK1 with DUF581 family proteins provide a framework for cell- and stimulus type-specific SnRK1 signaling in plants.

    PubMed

    Nietzsche, Madlen; Schießl, Ingrid; Börnke, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    In plants, SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1) responds to the availability of carbohydrates as well as to environmental stresses by down-regulating ATP consuming biosynthetic processes, while stimulating energy-generating catabolic reactions through gene expression and post-transcriptional regulation. The functional SnRK1 complex is a heterotrimer where the catalytic α subunit associates with a regulatory β subunit and an activating γ subunit. Several different metabolites as well as the hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have been shown to modulate SnRK1 activity in a cell- and stimulus-type specific manner. It has been proposed that tissue- or stimulus-specific expression of adapter proteins mediating SnRK1 regulation can at least partly explain the differences observed in SnRK1 signaling. By using yeast two-hybrid and in planta bi-molecular fluorescence complementation assays we were able to demonstrate that proteins containing the domain of unknown function (DUF) 581 could interact with both isoforms of the SnRK1α subunit (AKIN10/11) of Arabidopsis. A structure/function analysis suggests that the DUF581 is a generic SnRK1 interaction module and co-expression with DUF581 proteins in plant cells leads to reallocation of the kinase to specific regions within the nucleus. Yeast two-hybrid analyses suggest that SnRK1 and DUF581 proteins share common interaction partners inside the nucleus. The analysis of available microarray data implies that expression of the 19 members of the DUF581 encoding gene family in Arabidopsis is differentially regulated by hormones and environmental cues, indicating specialized functions of individual family members. We hypothesize that DUF581 proteins could act as mediators conferring tissue- and stimulus-type specific differences in SnRK1 regulation.

  18. Detergent-Like Activity and α-Helical Structure of Warnericin RK, an Anti-Legionella Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Verdon, Julien; Falge, Mirjam; Maier, Elke; Bruhn, Heike; Steinert, Michael; Faber, Cornelius; Benz, Roland; Héchard, Yann

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Warnericin RK is the first antimicrobial peptide known to be active against Legionella pneumophila, a pathogen bacterium that is responsible for severe pneumonia. Strikingly, this peptide displays a very narrow range of antimicrobial activity, almost limited to the Legionella genus, and a hemolytic activity. A similar activity has been described for δ-lysin, a well-known hemolytic peptide of Staphylococci that has not been described as antimicrobial. In this study we aimed to understand the mode of action of warnericin RK and to explain its particular target specificity. We found that warnericin RK permeabilizes artificial membranes in a voltage-independent manner. Osmotic protection experiments on erythrocytes showed that warnericin RK does not form well-defined pores, suggesting a detergent-like mode of action, as previously described for δ-lysin at high concentrations. Warnericin RK also permeabilized Legionella cells, and these cells displayed a high sensitivity to detergents. Depending on the detergent used, Legionella was from 10- to 1000-fold more sensitive than the other bacteria tested. Finally, the structure of warnericin RK was investigated by means of circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. The peptide adopted an amphiphilic α-helical structure, consistent with the proposed mode of action. We conclude that the specificity of warnericin RK toward Legionella results from both the detergent-like mode of action of the peptide and the high sensitivity of these bacteria to detergents. PMID:19804724

  19. High resolution fluorescence microscopy evidence on the transport of immunoglobulins. Differences between mammalian IgG, F(ab')2 and avian IgY.

    PubMed

    Sevcik, Carlos; Salazar, Víctor; Díaz, Patricia; D'Suze, Gina; Vázquez, Hilda

    2013-03-01

    We describe the subcellular localization of horse F(ab')(2) and IgG, and ostrich IgY labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) administered IV to mice. We used wide field high sensitivity fluorescence microscopy deblurred by 3-dimensional blind deconvolution of kidney, liver, lungs and brain sections. Sections were obtained from mice sacrificed 15 min, 1 or 5 h after receiving FITC-immunoproteins, counter-stained with DAPI (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and Evans blue. FITC-IgG and its fractions are rapidly taken up and extravasated by vascular endothelium. FITC-IgG and FITC-F(ab')(2) appear to be quickly secreted by glomeruli endothelium and to be reabsorbed along all nephron segments. FITC-IgG and FITC-F(ab')(2) appeared 15 min after IV injection within bronchial, alveolar and bile duct epithelium. Hepatocytes were loaded with fluorescence after 15 min of administration. Fluorescence was absent from brain slices, except for the endothelium of some vessels in brain ventricles which appeared intensely fluorescent. Fluorescence appeared in intracellular vesicles which conferred the tissues a glowing foamy aspect for up to 5 h after inoculation. Arterial elastic layers were intensely green after horse FITC-Ig inoculation. Ostrich FITC-IgY behaved completely differently to horse Ig's; only 1 h after injection it was possible to observe small brightly green scarce vesicles in vascular endothelium of arteries, interstitial kidney capillaries between nephron tubules and were also scarce in glomeruli endothelium; FITC-IgY appeared only in hepatic sinusoids in the liver. No IgY was seen in bronchial and alveolar endothelium, in bile ducts or in hepatocytes.

  20. A trial with IgY chicken antibodies to eradicate faecal carriage of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Anna-Karin; Larsson, Anders; Tängdén, Thomas; Melhus, Åsa; Lannergård, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Background Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is an emerging therapeutic challenge, especially in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Following an outbreak of CTX-M-15 Klebsiella pneumoniae in Uppsala, Sweden, an orphan drug trial on IgY chicken antibodies was undertaken in an attempt to eradicate faecal carriage of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Methods Hens were immunised with epitopes from freeze-dried, whole-cell bacteria (ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli) and recombinant proteins of two K. pneumoniae fimbriae subunits (fimH and mrkD). The egg yolks were processed according to good manufacturing practice and the product was stored at−20°C until used. Using an internal database from the outbreak and the regular laboratory database, faecal carriers were identified and recruited from May 2005 to December 2013. The participants were randomised in a placebo-controlled 1:1 manner. Results From 749 eligible patients, 327 (44%) had deceased, and only 91 (12%) were recruited and signed the informed consent. In the initial screening performed using the polymerase chain reaction, 24 participants were ESBL positive and subsequently randomised and treated with either the study drug or a placebo. The study was powered for 124 participants. Because of a very high dropout rate, the study was prematurely terminated. From the outbreak cohort (n=247), only eight patients were screened, and only one was positive with the outbreak strain in faeces. Conclusions The present study design, using IgY chicken antibodies for the eradication of ESBL-producing K. pneumonia and E. coli, was ineffective in reaching its goal due to high mortality and other factors resulting in a low inclusion rate. Spontaneous eradication of ESBL-producing bacteria was frequently observed in recruited participants, which is consistent with previous reports. PMID:26560861

  1. Quantitative phosphoproteomics identifies SnRK2 protein kinase substrates and reveals the effectors of abscisic acid action

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengcheng; Xue, Liang; Batelli, Giorgia; Lee, Shinyoung; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Van Oosten, Michael J.; Zhang, Huiming; Tao, W. Andy; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s) are central components of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways. The snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple-mutant plants are nearly completely insensitive to ABA, suggesting that most of the molecular actions of ABA are triggered by the SnRK2s-mediated phosphorylation of substrate proteins. Only a few substrate proteins of the SnRK2s are known. To identify additional substrate proteins of the SnRK2s and provide insight into the molecular actions of ABA, we used quantitative phosphoproteomics to compare the global changes in phosphopeptides in WT and snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutant seedlings in response to ABA treatment. Among the 5,386 unique phosphorylated peptides identified in this study, we found that ABA can increase the phosphorylation of 166 peptides and decrease the phosphorylation of 117 peptides in WT seedlings. In the snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutant, 84 of the 166 peptides, representing 58 proteins, could not be phosphorylated, or phosphorylation was not increased under ABA treatment. In vitro kinase assays suggest that most of the 58 proteins can serve as substrates of the SnRK2s. The SnRK2 substrates include proteins involved in flowering time regulation, RNA and DNA binding, miRNA and epigenetic regulation, signal transduction, chloroplast function, and many other cellular processes. Consistent with the SnRK2 phosphorylation of flowering time regulators, the snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutant flowered significantly earlier than WT. These results shed new light on the role of the SnRK2 protein kinases and on the downstream effectors of ABA action, and improve our understanding of plant responses to adverse environments. PMID:23776212

  2. Strut fracture in the new Bjørk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Brubakk, O; Simonsen, S; Källman, L; Fredriksen, A

    1981-04-01

    The case of a patient with the new type Bjørk-Shiley aortic and mitral valve prosthesis is described. Three months after implant she suffered acute heart failure and died. Post-mortem examination revealed a fractured outlet strut in the mitral valve prosthesis with dislocation of the disc. The fracture was regarded as due to excessive brittleness caused by demonstrated deposition of chromium-tungsten-carbide.

  3. Regulatory functions of SnRK1 in stress-responsive gene expression and in plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Hee; Hong, Jung-Woo; Kim, Eun-Chul; Yoo, Sang-Dong

    2012-04-01

    Sucrose-nonfermentation1-related protein kinase1 (SnRK1) is an evolutionarily conserved energy sensor protein that regulates gene expression in response to energy depletion in plants. Efforts to elucidate the functions and mechanisms of this protein kinase are hampered, however, by inherent growth defects of snrk1-null mutant plants. To overcome these limitations and study SnRK1 functions in vivo, we applied a method combining transient expression in leaf mesophyll protoplasts and stable expression in transgenic plants. We found that both rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SnRK1 activities critically influence stress-inducible gene expression and the induction of stress tolerance. Genetic, molecular, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses further revealed that the nuclear SnRK1 modulated target gene transcription in a submergence-dependent manner. From early seedling development through late senescence, SnRK1 activities appeared to modulate developmental processes in the plants. Our findings offer insight into the regulatory functions of plant SnRK1 in stress-responsive gene regulation and in plant growth and development throughout the life cycle.

  4. The Arabidopsis lectin receptor kinase LecRK-I.9 enhances resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Solanaceous plants.

    PubMed

    Bouwmeester, Klaas; Han, Miao; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Song, Wei; Weide, Rob; Guo, Li-Yun; van der Vossen, Edwin A G; Govers, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Late blight caused by the plant pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora infestans is known as one of the most destructive potato diseases. Plant breeders tend to employ NB-LRR-based resistance for introducing genetically controlled late blight resistance in their breeding lines. However, P. infestans is able to rapidly escape this type of resistance, and hence, NB-LRR-based resistance in potato cultivars is often not durable. Previously, we identified a novel type of Phytophthora resistance in Arabidopsis. This resistance is mediated by the cell surface receptor LecRK-I.9, which belongs to the family of L-type lectin receptor kinases. In this study, we report that expression of the Arabidopsis LecRK-I.9 gene in potato and Nicotiana benthamiana results in significantly enhanced late blight resistance. Transcriptional profiling showed strong reduction in salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defence gene expression in LecRK-I.9 transgenic potato lines (TPLs). In contrast, transcripts of two protease inhibitor genes accumulated to extreme high levels, suggesting that LecRK-I.9-mediated late blight resistance is relying on a defence response that includes activation of protease inhibitors. These results demonstrate that the functionality of LecRK-I.9 in Phytophthora resistance is maintained after interfamily transfer to potato and N. benthamiana and suggest that this novel type of LecRK-based resistance can be exploited in breeding strategies to improve durable late blight resistance in Solanaceous crops.

  5. Accelerated solution of non-linear flow problems using Chebyshev iteration polynomial based RK recursions

    SciTech Connect

    Lorber, A.A.; Carey, G.F.; Bova, S.W.; Harle, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The connection between the solution of linear systems of equations by iterative methods and explicit time stepping techniques is used to accelerate to steady state the solution of ODE systems arising from discretized PDEs which may involve either physical or artificial transient terms. Specifically, a class of Runge-Kutta (RK) time integration schemes with extended stability domains has been used to develop recursion formulas which lead to accelerated iterative performance. The coefficients for the RK schemes are chosen based on the theory of Chebyshev iteration polynomials in conjunction with a local linear stability analysis. We refer to these schemes as Chebyshev Parameterized Runge Kutta (CPRK) methods. CPRK methods of one to four stages are derived as functions of the parameters which describe an ellipse {Epsilon} which the stability domain of the methods is known to contain. Of particular interest are two-stage, first-order CPRK and four-stage, first-order methods. It is found that the former method can be identified with any two-stage RK method through the correct choice of parameters. The latter method is found to have a wide range of stability domains, with a maximum extension of 32 along the real axis. Recursion performance results are presented below for a model linear convection-diffusion problem as well as non-linear fluid flow problems discretized by both finite-difference and finite-element methods.

  6. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A.; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems. PMID:24904600

  7. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems.

  8. Chicken IgY Fc Linked to Bordetella avium ompA and Taishan Pinus massoniana Pollen Polysaccharide Adjuvant Enhances Macrophage Function and Specific Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenwen; Zhang, Hao; Huang, He; Zhou, Jianbo; Hu, Liping; Lian, Ailing; Zhu, Lijun; Ma, Ningning; Yang, Pingping; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    Fc-fusion technologies, in which immunoglobulin Fc is genetically fused to an antigenic protein, have been developed to confer antibody-like properties to proteins and peptides. Mammalian IgG Fc fusion exhibits improved antigen-induced immune responses by providing aggregates with high avidity for the IgG Fc receptor and salvaging the antigenic portion from endosomal degradation. However, whether the linked chicken IgY Fc fragment shares similar characteristics to mammalian IgG Fc remains unclear. In this study, we linked the chicken IgY Fc gene to the outer membrane protein A (ompA) of Bordetella avium through overlapping PCR. The fusion gene was cloned into the pPIC9 plasmid to construct the recombinant Pichia pastoris transformant expressing the ompA–Fc fusion protein. The effects of the linked Fc on macrophage vitality, activity, efficiency of antigen processing, and immune responses induced by the fused ompA were investigated. Furthermore, the effect of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), an immunomodulator, on chicken macrophage activation was evaluated. TPPPS was also used as an adjuvant to investigate its immunomodulatory effect on immunoresponses induced by the fused ompA–Fc in chickens. The pinocytosis, phagocytosis, secretion of nitric oxide and TNF-α, and MHC-II molecular expression of the macrophages treated with the fused ompA–Fc were significantly higher than those of the macrophages treated with ompA alone. The addition of TPPPS to the fused ompA–Fc further enhanced macrophage functions. The fused ompA–Fc elicited higher antigen-specific immune responses and protective efficacy compared with ompA alone. Moreover, the fused ompA–Fc conferred higher serum antibody titers, serum IL-2 and IL-4 concentrations, CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts, lymphocyte transformation rate, and protection rate compared with ompA alone. Notably, the prepared TPPPS adjuvant ompA–Fc vaccines induced high immune responses and protection

  9. Björk-Jarabak cephalometric analysis on CBCT synthesized cephalograms with different dentofacial sagittal skeletal patterns

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Cardenas, Yalil Augusto; Arriola-Guillen, Luis Ernesto; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the Björk and Jabarak cephalometric analysis generated from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) synthesized lateral cephalograms in adults with different sagittal skeletal patterns. METHODS: The sample consisted of 46 CBCT synthesized cephalograms obtained from patients between 16 and 40 years old. A Björk and Jarabak cephalometric analysis among different sagittal skeletal classes was performed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multiple range test of Tukey, Kruskal-Wallis test, and independent t-test were used as appropriate. RESULTS: In comparison to the standard values: Skeletal Class III had increased gonial and superior gonial angles (P < 0.001). This trend was also evident when sex was considered. For Class I males, the sella angle was decreased (P = 0.041), articular angle increased (P = 0.027) and gonial angle decreased (P = 0.002); whereas for Class III males, the gonial angle was increased (P = 0.012). For Class I females, the articular angle was increased (P = 0.029) and the gonial angle decreased (P = 0.004). Björk's sum and Björk and Jabarak polygon sum showed no significant differences. The facial biotype presented in the three sagittal classes was mainly hypodivergent and neutral. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, skeletal Class III malocclusion was strongly differentiated from the other sagittal classes, specifically in the mandible, as calculated through Björk and Jarabak analysis. PMID:25628079

  10. The AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 fuel gauge and energy regulator: structure, function and regulation.

    PubMed

    Ghillebert, Ruben; Swinnen, Erwin; Wen, Jing; Vandesteene, Lies; Ramon, Matthew; Norga, Koen; Rolland, Filip; Winderickx, Joris

    2011-11-01

    All life forms on earth require a continuous input and monitoring of carbon and energy supplies. The AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)/sucrose non-fermenting1 (SNF1)/Snf1-related kinase1 (SnRK1) protein kinases are evolutionarily conserved metabolic sensors found in all eukaryotic organisms from simple unicellular fungi (yeast SNF1) to animals (AMPK) and plants (SnRK1). Activated by starvation and energy-depleting stress conditions, they enable energy homeostasis and survival by up-regulating energy-conserving and energy-producing catabolic processes, and by limiting energy-consuming anabolic metabolism. In addition, they control normal growth and development as well as metabolic homeostasis at the organismal level. As such, the AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 kinases act in concert with other central signaling components to control carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis and the storage of carbon energy reserves. Moreover, they have a tremendous impact on developmental processes that are triggered by environmental changes such as nutrient depletion or stress. Although intensive research by many groups has partly unveiled the factors that regulate AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 kinase activity as well as the pathways and substrates they control, several fundamental issues still await to be clarified. In this review, we will highlight these issues and focus on the structure, function and regulation of the AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 kinases.

  11. NJ cluster analysis of the SnRK2, PYR/PYL/RCAR, and ABF genes in Tibetan hulless barley.

    PubMed

    Yuan, H J; Wang, Y L; Wei, Z X; Xu, Q J; Zeng, X Q; Tang, Y W; Nyima, T S

    2016-11-03

    The abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway is known as one of the most important signaling pathways in plants and is mediated by multiple regulators. The genes SnRK2, PYR/PYL/RCAR, and ABF are relevant to both ABA-dependent and -independent signaling pathways. To elucidate the profile of these genes from Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum Hook. f.), we collected available sequences from RNA-Seq data, together with NCBI data from five other model plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, Populus trichocarpa, and Sorghum bicolor). Gene trees of SnRK2, PYR/PYL/RCAR, and ABF were constructed using a neighbor joining (NJ) method. For all genes, we identified a dominant group in which all six species were represented. Three, four, and five groups were found in the NJ trees of SnRK2, PYR/PYL/RCAR, and ABF, respectively. For each gene, Tibetan hulless barley was divided into three groups. Our analyses indicated that Tibetan hulless barley was associated with B. distachyon. The NJ cluster analysis also suggested that Tibetan hulless barley was affiliated with S. bicolor (SnRK2), A. thaliana (PYR/PYL/RCAR), and O. sativa (ABF). These results illustrate a diverse expression of genes SnRK2, PYR/PYL/RCAR, and ABF, and suggest a relationship among the six species studied. Collectively, our characterization of the three components of the ABA signaling pathway may contribute to improve stress tolerance in Tibetan hulless barley.

  12. Failure of a Björk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis to open: clinical recognition.

    PubMed

    Saunders, C R; Rossi, N P; Rittenhouse, E A

    1977-01-01

    Failure of a Björk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis to open was recognized early in the postoperative period and required immediate replacement. The clinical finding was sudden, intermittent, severe hypotension associated with absent poppet sounds and simultaneous elevation in left atrial pressure. This unique and unusual hemodynamic picture was duplicated in four animal experiments. Routine monitoring of left atrial pressure is a useful postoperative adjunct that can provide early documentation of obstruction to left atrial outflow. Early recognition of the problem and immediate operative correction are mandatory.

  13. Genome-wide identification and homeolog-specific expression analysis of the SnRK2 genes in Brassica napus guard cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Ma, Tianyi; Zhu, Ning; Liu, Lihong; Harmon, Alice C; Wang, Qiaomei; Chen, Sixue

    2016-05-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) proteins constitute a small plant-specific serine/threonine kinase family involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although SnRK2s have been well-studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, little is known about SnRK2s in Brassica napus. Here we identified 30 putative sequences encoding 10 SnRK2 proteins in the B. napus genome and the expression profiles of a subset of 14 SnRK2 genes in guard cells of B. napus. In agreement with its polyploid origin, B. napus maintains both homeologs from its diploid parents. The results of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and reanalysis of RNA-Seq data showed that certain BnSnRK2 genes were commonly expressed in leaf tissues in different varieties of B. napus. In particular, qRT-PCR results showed that 12 of the 14 BnSnRK2s responded to drought stress in leaves and in ABA-treated guard cells. Among them, BnSnRK2.4 and BnSnRK2.6 were of interest because of their robust responsiveness to ABA treatment and drought stress. Notably, BnSnRK2 genes exhibited up-regulation of different homeologs, particularly in response to abiotic stress. The homeolog expression bias in BnSnRK2 genes suggests that parental origin of genes might be responsible for efficient regulation of stress responses in polyploids. This work has laid a foundation for future functional characterization of the different BnSnKR2 homeologs in B. napus and its parents, especially their functions in guard cell signaling and stress responses.

  14. Molecular evolution, characterization, and expression analysis of SnRK2 gene family in Pak-choi (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhinan; Tang, Jun; Duan, Weike; Wang, Zhen; Song, Xiaoming; Hou, Xilin

    2015-01-01

    The sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family members are plant-specific serine/threonine kinases that are involved in the plant response to abiotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent plant development. Further understanding of the evolutionary history and expression characteristics of these genes will help to elucidate the mechanisms of the stress tolerance in Pak-choi, an important green leafy vegetable in China. Thus, we investigated the evolutionary patterns, footprints and conservation of SnRK2 genes in selected plants and later cloned and analyzed SnRK2 genes in Pak-choi. We found that this gene family was preferentially retained in Brassicas after the Brassica-Arabidopsis thaliana split. Next, we cloned and sequenced 13 SnRK2 from both cDNA and DNA libraries of stress-induced Pak-choi, which were under conditions of ABA, salinity, cold, heat, and osmotic treatments. Most of the BcSnRK2s have eight exons and could be divided into three groups. The subcellular localization predictions suggested that the putative BcSnRK2 proteins were enriched in the nucleus. The results of an analysis of the expression patterns of the BcSnRK2 genes showed that BcSnRK2 group III genes were robustly induced by ABA treatments. Most of the BcSnRK2 genes were activated by low temperature, and the BcSnRK2.6 genes responded to both ABA and low temperature. In fact, most of the BcSnRK2 genes showed positive or negative regulation under ABA and low temperature treatments, suggesting that they may be global regulators that function at the intersection of multiple signaling pathways to play important roles in Pak-choi stress responses. PMID:26557127

  15. Broad-host-range plasmid pRK340 delivers Tn5 into the Legionella pneumophila chromosome.

    PubMed Central

    Keen, M G; Street, E D; Hoffman, P S

    1985-01-01

    Transposon Tn5 was introduced into Legionella pneumophila on plasmid pRK340, which is temperature sensitive for plasmid maintenance. The presence of plasmid DNA was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis and by conjugal transfer of the plasmid to Escherichia coli. Tn5 insertions were obtained by culturing L. pneumophila at the nonpermissive temperature (43 degrees C) on buffered charcoal-yeast extract agar containing kanamycin. Of the 260 kanamycin-resistant colonies picked, 220 failed to conjugate pRK340 to E. coli. Plasmid DNA was not visualized from eight randomly picked Tn5-containing strains, and Southern hybridizations indicated that Tn5, but not pRK340, inserted into multiple sites in the Legionella chromosome. In addition, the streptomycin resistance determinant on Tn5 was expressed in L. pneumophila. Images PMID:2987191

  16. Haemolysis with Björk-Shiley and Starr-Edwards prosthetic heart valves: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Slater, S. D.; Sallam, I. A.; Bain, W. H.; Turner, M. A.; Lawrie, T. D. V.

    1974-01-01

    Slater, S. D., Sallam, I. A., Bain, W. H., Turner, M. A., and Lawrie, T. D. V. (1974).Thorax, 29, 624-632. Haemolysis with Björk-Shiley and Starr-Edwards prosthetic heart valves: a comparative study. A comparison was made of the haemolytic complications in 85 patients with two different types of Starr-Edwards cloth-covered ball and cage prosthesis with those in 44 patients with the Björk-Shiley tilting disc valve. Intravascular haemolysis, as detected by the presence of haemosiderinuria, occurred significantly less often with the Björk-Shiley than with the Starr-Edwards valve, the overall incidence with aortic, mitral or multiple replacements being 31%, 15%, and 20% for Björk-Shiley and 94%, 92%, and 88% for Starr-Edwards valves respectively. There was no significant difference in the frequency of haemolysis between each of the two types of Starr-Edwards prosthesis studied at either the aortic (2300 versus 2310 model) or mitral (6300 versus 6310) site. Haemolytic anaemia developed in only one patient with a Björk-Shiley valve but was common though usually mild with Starr-Edwards prostheses, particularly aortic valve replacements with the 2300 model and in aortic plus mitral (± tricuspid) replacements. The greater severity of haemolysis produced by Starr-Edwards valves, again especially of the latter types, was further demonstrated by higher serum lactate dehydrogenase and 24-hour urinary iron levels. It is concluded that the Björk-Shiley tilting disc valve represents a significant advance in the amelioration of the haemolytic complications of prosthetic valves. PMID:4450173

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of rKLO8 versus rK26 ELISAs for screening of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Martínez Abad, Lily P; Almeida, Caroline S; Mattos, Ana Márcia M; Mendonça, Ana Carolina P; Alves, Márcio J M; Pinheiro, Aimara C; Porrozzi, Renato; Abass, Elfadil; Steinhoff, Ulrich; Teixeira, Henrique C

    2017-02-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) represents an important public health issue. Despite numerous diagnostic tests available, CVL diagnosis still needs to be improved to achieve a more accurate detection rate. Recently, rKLO8, a new antigenic protein of Sudanese Leishmania donovani, was studied for the first time in diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) and showed good performance. The present study aimed to evaluate serum reactivity to rKL08 and the reference antigen rK26, and to compare both diagnostic proteins with the combined DPP(®) CVL rapid test and ELISA (EIE-Bio-Manguinhos) confirmatory test, which are both recommended for the diagnosis of CVL in Brazil. Serum samples of dogs were grouped into: (I) DPP(®)/EIE negative (n=100) and (II) DPP(®)/EIE positive sera (n=100). Enhanced levels of IgG, mainly IgG2, to both rKLO8 and rK26 were found in group II. Sensitivity was 68% and 77% and specificity was 92% and 91%, for rKLO8 and rK26 antigens, respectively. Moreover, the combination of rKLO8 and rK26 antigens (rKLO8+rK26) exhibited higher sensitivity (85%) and specificity (93%). Thus, our results show that apart from the improved diagnostic power of rKLO8 in HVL, this new antigen is also suitable for the diagnosis of CVL. Further, the combination of rKLO8 and rK26 antigens increases the diagnostic accuracy of CVL.

  18. Ectopic expression of vaccinia virus E3 and K3 cannot rescue ectromelia virus replication in rabbit RK13 cells.

    PubMed

    Hand, Erin S; Haller, Sherry L; Peng, Chen; Rothenburg, Stefan; Hersperger, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    As a group, poxviruses have been shown to infect a wide variety of animal species. However, there is individual variability in the range of species able to be productively infected. In this study, we observed that ectromelia virus (ECTV) does not replicate efficiently in cultured rabbit RK13 cells. Conversely, vaccinia virus (VACV) replicates well in these cells. Upon infection of RK13 cells, the replication cycle of ECTV is abortive in nature, resulting in a greatly reduced ability to spread among cells in culture. We observed ample levels of early gene expression but reduced detection of virus factories and severely blunted production of enveloped virus at the cell surface. This work focused on two important host range genes, named E3L and K3L, in VACV. Both VACV and ECTV express a functional protein product from the E3L gene, but only VACV contains an intact K3L gene. To better understand the discrepancy in replication capacity of these viruses, we examined the ability of ECTV to replicate in wild-type RK13 cells compared to cells that constitutively express E3 and K3 from VACV. The role these proteins play in the ability of VACV to replicate in RK13 cells was also analyzed to determine their individual contribution to viral replication and PKR activation. Since E3L and K3L are two relevant host range genes, we hypothesized that expression of one or both of them may have a positive impact on the ability of ECTV to replicate in RK13 cells. Using various methods to assess virus growth, we did not detect any significant differences with respect to the replication of ECTV between wild-type RK13 compared to versions of this cell line that stably expressed VACV E3 alone or in combination with K3. Therefore, there remain unanswered questions related to the factors that limit the host range of ECTV.

  19. Placing Intelligence into an Evolutionary Framework or How "g" Fits into the "r-K" Matrix of Life-History Traits Including Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, J. Philippe

    2004-01-01

    First, I describe why intelligence (Spearman's "g") can only be fully understood through "r-K" theory, which places it into an evolutionary framework along with brain size, longevity, maturation speed, and several other life-history traits. The "r-K" formulation explains why IQ predicts longevity and also why the gap in mortality rates between…

  20. Reconsideration of r/K Selection Theory Using Stochastic Control Theory and Nonlinear Structured Population Models.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Ryo; Kuniya, Toshikazu; Enatsu, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that density effects and individual differences in life history are considered to be important for evolution, these factors lead to several difficulties in understanding the evolution of life history, especially when population sizes reach the carrying capacity. r/K selection theory explains what types of life strategies evolve in the presence of density effects and individual differences. However, the relationship between the life schedules of individuals and population size is still unclear, even if the theory can classify life strategies appropriately. To address this issue, we propose a few equations on adaptive life strategies in r/K selection where density effects are absent or present. The equations detail not only the adaptive life history but also the population dynamics. Furthermore, the equations can incorporate temporal individual differences, which are referred to as internal stochasticity. Our framework reveals that maximizing density effects is an evolutionarily stable strategy related to the carrying capacity. A significant consequence of our analysis is that adaptive strategies in both selections maximize an identical function, providing both population growth rate and carrying capacity. We apply our method to an optimal foraging problem in a semelparous species model and demonstrate that the adaptive strategy yields a lower intrinsic growth rate as well as a lower basic reproductive number than those obtained with other strategies. This study proposes that the diversity of life strategies arises due to the effects of density and internal stochasticity.

  1. Reconsideration of r/K Selection Theory Using Stochastic Control Theory and Nonlinear Structured Population Models

    PubMed Central

    Oizumi, Ryo; Kuniya, Toshikazu; Enatsu, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that density effects and individual differences in life history are considered to be important for evolution, these factors lead to several difficulties in understanding the evolution of life history, especially when population sizes reach the carrying capacity. r/K selection theory explains what types of life strategies evolve in the presence of density effects and individual differences. However, the relationship between the life schedules of individuals and population size is still unclear, even if the theory can classify life strategies appropriately. To address this issue, we propose a few equations on adaptive life strategies in r/K selection where density effects are absent or present. The equations detail not only the adaptive life history but also the population dynamics. Furthermore, the equations can incorporate temporal individual differences, which are referred to as internal stochasticity. Our framework reveals that maximizing density effects is an evolutionarily stable strategy related to the carrying capacity. A significant consequence of our analysis is that adaptive strategies in both selections maximize an identical function, providing both population growth rate and carrying capacity. We apply our method to an optimal foraging problem in a semelparous species model and demonstrate that the adaptive strategy yields a lower intrinsic growth rate as well as a lower basic reproductive number than those obtained with other strategies. This study proposes that the diversity of life strategies arises due to the effects of density and internal stochasticity. PMID:27336169

  2. Functional characterization of WalRK: A two-component signal transduction system from Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Alisha; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Kulshreshtha, Parul; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Two-component signal transduction systems (TCS), consisting of a sensor histidine protein kinase and its cognate response regulator, are an important mode of environmental sensing in bacteria. Additionally, they have been found to regulate virulence determinants in several pathogens. Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax and a bioterrorism agent, harbours 41 pairs of TCS. However, their role in its pathogenicity has remained largely unexplored. Here, we show that WalRK of B. anthracis forms a functional TCS which exhibits some species-specific functions. Biochemical studies showed that domain variants of WalK, the histidine kinase, exhibit classical properties of autophosphorylation and phosphotransfer to its cognate response regulator WalR. Interestingly, these domain variants also show phosphatase activity towards phosphorylated WalR, thereby making WalK a bifunctional histidine kinase/phosphatase. An in silico regulon determination approach, using a consensus binding sequence from Bacillus subtilis, provided a list of 30 genes that could form a putative WalR regulon in B. anthracis. Further, electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to show direct binding of purified WalR to the upstream regions of three putative regulon candidates, an S-layer protein EA1, a cell division ABC transporter FtsE and a sporulation histidine kinase KinB3. Our work lends insight into the species-specific functions and mode of action of B. anthracis WalRK.

  3. SnRK1-triggered switch of bZIP63 dimerization mediates the low-energy response in plants

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Andrea; Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Anrather, Dorothea; Simeunovic, Andrea; Weiste, Christoph; Valerio, Concetta; Dietrich, Katrin; Kirchler, Tobias; Nägele, Thomas; Vicente Carbajosa, Jesús; Hanson, Johannes; Baena-González, Elena; Chaban, Christina; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Teige, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic adjustment to changing environmental conditions, particularly balancing of growth and defense responses, is crucial for all organisms to survive. The evolutionary conserved AMPK/Snf1/SnRK1 kinases are well-known metabolic master regulators in the low-energy response in animals, yeast and plants. They act at two different levels: by modulating the activity of key metabolic enzymes, and by massive transcriptional reprogramming. While the first part is well established, the latter function is only partially understood in animals and not at all in plants. Here we identified the Arabidopsis transcription factor bZIP63 as key regulator of the starvation response and direct target of the SnRK1 kinase. Phosphorylation of bZIP63 by SnRK1 changed its dimerization preference, thereby affecting target gene expression and ultimately primary metabolism. A bzip63 knock-out mutant exhibited starvation-related phenotypes, which could be functionally complemented by wild type bZIP63, but not by a version harboring point mutations in the identified SnRK1 target sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05828.001 PMID:26263501

  4. SymRK defines a common genetic basis for plant root endosymbioses with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi, rhizobia, and Frankiabacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gherbi, Hassen; Markmann, Katharina; Svistoonoff, Sergio; Estevan, Joan; Autran, Daphné; Giczey, Gabor; Auguy, Florence; Péret, Benjamin; Laplaze, Laurent; Franche, Claudine; Parniske, Martin; Bogusz, Didier

    2008-01-01

    Root endosymbioses vitally contribute to plant nutrition and fitness worldwide. Nitrogen-fixing root nodulation, confined to four plant orders, encompasses two distinct types of associations, the interaction of legumes (Fabales) with rhizobia bacteria and actinorhizal symbioses, where the bacterial symbionts are actinomycetes of the genus Frankia. Although several genetic components of the host–symbiont interaction have been identified in legumes, the genetic basis of actinorhiza formation is unknown. Here, we show that the receptor-like kinase gene SymRK, which is required for nodulation in legumes, is also necessary for actinorhiza formation in the tree Casuarina glauca. This indicates that both types of nodulation symbiosis share genetic components. Like several other legume genes involved in the interaction with rhizobia, SymRK is also required for the interaction with arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi. We show that SymRK is involved in AM formation in C. glauca as well and can restore both nodulation and AM symbioses in a Lotus japonicus symrk mutant. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SymRK functions as a vital component of the genetic basis for both plant–fungal and plant–bacterial endosymbioses and is conserved between legumes and actinorhiza-forming Fagales. PMID:18316735

  5. Amelioration of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with NPC1L1-targeted IgY or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jin-Sik; Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Junghoon; Oh, Byung-Chul; Jang, Sang-Ho; Lee, Yun Bin; Han, Young-Min; Ock, Chan-Young; Cha, Ji-Young; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2017-01-01

    Patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have an increased risk for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma in addition to comorbidities such as cardiovascular and serious metabolic diseases; however, the current therapeutic options are limited. Based on our previous report that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can significantly ameliorate high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD, we explored the therapeutic efficacy of n-3 PUFAs and N-IgY, which is a chicken egg yolk-derived IgY specific for the Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) cholesterol transporter, on NAFLD in mice. We generated N-IgY and confirmed its efficient cholesterol transport-blocking activity in HepG2 and Caco-2 cells, which was comparable to the effect of ezetimibe (EZM). C57BL/6 wild type and fat-1 transgenic mice, capable of producing n-3 PUFAs, were fed a high fat diet (HFD) alone or supplemented with N-IgY. Endogenously synthesized n-3 PUFAs combined with N-IgY led to significant decreases in hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation (p<0.01). The combination of N-IgY and n-3 PUFAs resulted in significant upregulation of genes involved in cholesterol uptake (LDLR), reverse cholesterol transport (ABCG5/ABCG8), and bile acid metabolism (CYP7A1). Moreover, fat-1 transgenic mice treated with N-IgY showed significant downregulation of genes involved in cholesterol-induced hepatic stellate cell activation (Tgfb1, Tlr4, Col1a1, Col1a2, and Timp2). Collectively, these data suggest that n-3 PUFAs and N-IgY, alone or in combination, represent a promising treatment strategy to prevent HFD-induced fatty liver through the activation cholesterol catabolism to bile acids and by decreasing cholesterol-induced fibrosis.

  6. Transcriptional regulation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lsrACDBFG and lsrRK operons and their role in biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Lamont, Richard J; Demuth, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is required for biofilm formation and virulence of the oral pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and we previously showed that lsrB codes for a receptor for AI-2. The lsrB gene is expressed as part of the lsrACDBFG operon, which is divergently transcribed from an adjacent lsrRK operon. In Escherichia coli, lsrRK encodes a repressor and AI-2 kinase that function to regulate lsrACDBFG. To determine if lsrRK controls lsrACDBFG expression and influences biofilm growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans, we first defined the promoters for each operon. Transcriptional reporter plasmids containing the 255-bp lsrACDBFG-lsrRK intergenic region (IGR) fused to lacZ showed that essential elements of lsrR promoter reside 89 to 255 bp upstream from the lsrR start codon. Two inverted repeat sequences that represent potential binding sites for LsrR and two sequences resembling the consensus cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) binding site were identified in this region. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), purified LsrR and CRP proteins were shown to bind probes containing these sequences. Surprisingly, the 255-bp IGR did not contain the lsrA promoter. Instead, a fragment encompassing nucleotides +1 to +159 of lsrA together with the 255-bp IGR was required to promote lsrA transcription. This suggests that a region within the lsrA coding sequence influences transcription, or alternatively that the start codon of A. actinomycetemcomitans lsrA has been incorrectly annotated. Transformation of ΔlsrR, ΔlsrK, ΔlsrRK, and Δcrp deletion mutants with lacZ reporters containing the lsrA or lsrR promoter showed that LsrR negatively regulates and CRP positively regulates both lsrACDBFG and lsrRK. However, in contrast to what occurs in E. coli, deletion of lsrK had no effect on the transcriptional activity of the lsrA or lsrR promoters, suggesting that another kinase may be capable of phosphorylating AI-2 in A. actinomycetemcomitans. Finally, biofilm

  7. Rhamnogalacturonan from Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen: Gastroprotective and Ulcer Healing Properties in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Mendes, Daniel Augusto Gasparin Bueno; Cabrini, Daniela de Almeida; Nascimento, Adamara Machado; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; de Paula Werner, Maria Fernanda; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko

    2014-01-01

    A rhamnogalacturonan (RGal) isolated from Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen administered by oral route showed gastroprotective activity against acute lesions induced by ethanol. In this study, we investigated the gastric ulcer healing effect of RGal and its mechanisms of action. Intraperitoneal treatment of animals with RGal protected the gastric mucosa against acute lesions induced by ethanol, with participation of gastric mucus. Furthermore, in the chronic ulcer model, oral administration of RGal accelerates the gastric ulcer healing, accompanied by increasing of cellular proliferation and gastric mucus content, reducing inflammatory parameters and oxidative stress. In addition, the repeated 7 days-treatment of animals with RGal did not show alterations of clinical and behavioral symptoms, body and organs weights or plasmatic biochemical parameters. Collectively, these results showed that RGal has an interesting antiulcerogenic activity and could constitute an attractive molecule of interest for the development of new antiulcer agents. PMID:24416280

  8. Rhamnogalacturonan from Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen: gastroprotective and ulcer healing properties in rats.

    PubMed

    Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Mendes, Daniel Augusto Gasparin Bueno; Cabrini, Daniela de Almeida; Nascimento, Adamara Machado; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko

    2014-01-01

    A rhamnogalacturonan (RGal) isolated from Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen administered by oral route showed gastroprotective activity against acute lesions induced by ethanol. In this study, we investigated the gastric ulcer healing effect of RGal and its mechanisms of action. Intraperitoneal treatment of animals with RGal protected the gastric mucosa against acute lesions induced by ethanol, with participation of gastric mucus. Furthermore, in the chronic ulcer model, oral administration of RGal accelerates the gastric ulcer healing, accompanied by increasing of cellular proliferation and gastric mucus content, reducing inflammatory parameters and oxidative stress. In addition, the repeated 7 days-treatment of animals with RGal did not show alterations of clinical and behavioral symptoms, body and organs weights or plasmatic biochemical parameters. Collectively, these results showed that RGal has an interesting antiulcerogenic activity and could constitute an attractive molecule of interest for the development of new antiulcer agents.

  9. Longitudinal impedance measurement of an RK-TBA induction accelerating gap

    SciTech Connect

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Kim, J.-S.; Houck, T.L.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    1997-05-01

    Induction accelerating gap designs are being studied for Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA) applications. The accelerating gap has to satisfy the following major requirements: hold-off of the applied accelerating voltage pulse, low transverse impedance to limit beam breakup, low longitudinal impedance at the beam-modulation frequency to minimize power loss. Various gap geometries, materials and novel insulating techniques were explored to optimize the gap design. We report on the experimental effort to evaluate the rf properties of the accelerating gaps in a simple pillbox cavity structure. The experimental cavity setup was designed using the AMOS, MAFIA and URMEL numerical codes. Longitudinal impedance measurements above beam-tube cut-off frequency using a single-wire measuring system are presented.

  10. Protein phosphatase type 2C PP2CA together with ABI1 inhibits SnRK2.4 activity and regulates plant responses to salinity

    PubMed Central

    Krzywińska, Ewa; Kulik, Anna; Bucholc, Maria; Fernandez, Maria A.; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Dobrowolska, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) are important regulators of plant responses to abiotic stress. It is established that clade A PP2Cs inhibit ABA-activated SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s). Our recently published results show that ABI1, a member of clade A of PP2C is also a negative regulator of SnRK2.4, a kinase not activated in response to ABA. Here, we show that another member of this clade - PP2CA, interacts with and inhibits SnRK2.4. The salt-induced SnRK2.4/SnRK2.10 activity is higher in abi1–2 pp2ca-1 mutant than in wild type or single abi1 or pp2ca mutants, indicating that both phosphatases are inhibitors of SnRK2.4 and are at least partially redundant. Moreover, PP2CA together with ABI1 and SnRK2.4 regulates root growth in response to salinity. PMID:27901636

  11. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals the role of the AMPK plant ortholog SnRK1 as a metabolic master regulator under energy deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Nukarinen, Ella; Nägele, Thomas; Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Mair, Andrea; Landgraf, Ramona; Börnke, Frederik; Hanson, Johannes; Teige, Markus; Baena-Gonzalez, Elena; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Since years, research on SnRK1, the major cellular energy sensor in plants, has tried to define its role in energy signalling. However, these attempts were notoriously hampered by the lethality of a complete knockout of SnRK1. Therefore, we generated an inducible amiRNA::SnRK1α2 in a snrk1α1 knock out background (snrk1α1/α2) to abolish SnRK1 activity to understand major systemic functions of SnRK1 signalling under energy deprivation triggered by extended night treatment. We analysed the in vivo phosphoproteome, proteome and metabolome and found that activation of SnRK1 is essential for repression of high energy demanding cell processes such as protein synthesis. The most abundant effect was the constitutively high phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) in the snrk1α1/α2 mutant. RPS6 is a major target of TOR signalling and its phosphorylation correlates with translation. Further evidence for an antagonistic SnRK1 and TOR crosstalk comparable to the animal system was demonstrated by the in vivo interaction of SnRK1α1 and RAPTOR1B in the cytosol and by phosphorylation of RAPTOR1B by SnRK1α1 in kinase assays. Moreover, changed levels of phosphorylation states of several chloroplastic proteins in the snrk1α1/α2 mutant indicated an unexpected link to regulation of photosynthesis, the main energy source in plants. PMID:27545962

  12. CaLecRK-S.5, a pepper L-type lectin receptor kinase gene, confers broad-spectrum resistance by activating priming

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Joo Yong; Jeong, Kwang Ju; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, several L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) have been identified as putative immune receptors. However, to date, there have been few analyses of LecRKs in crop plants. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaLecRK-S.5 verified the role of CaLecRK-S.5 in broad-spectrum resistance. Compared with control plants, CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants showed reduced hypersensitive response, reactive oxygen species burst, secondary metabolite production, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and defense-related gene expression in response to Tobacco mosaic virus pathotype P0 (TMV-P0) infection. Suppression of CaLecRK-S.5 expression significantly enhanced the susceptibility to Pepper mild mottle virus pathotype P1,2,3, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Phytophthora capsici, as well as TMV-P0. Additionally, β-aminobutyric acid treatment and a systemic acquired resistance assay revealed that CaLecRK-S.5 is involved in priming of plant immunity. Pre-treatment with β-aminobutyric acid before viral infection restored the reduced disease resistance phenotypes shown in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Systemic acquired resistance was also abolished in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Finally, RNA sequencing analysis indicated that CaLecRK-S.5 positively regulates plant immunity at the transcriptional level. Altogether, these results suggest that CaLecRK-S.5-mediated broad-spectrum resistance is associated with the regulation of priming. PMID:27647723

  13. CaLecRK-S.5, a pepper L-type lectin receptor kinase gene, confers broad-spectrum resistance by activating priming.

    PubMed

    Woo, Joo Yong; Jeong, Kwang Ju; Kim, Young Jin; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2016-10-01

    In Arabidopsis, several L-type lectin receptor kinases (LecRKs) have been identified as putative immune receptors. However, to date, there have been few analyses of LecRKs in crop plants. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaLecRK-S.5 verified the role of CaLecRK-S.5 in broad-spectrum resistance. Compared with control plants, CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants showed reduced hypersensitive response, reactive oxygen species burst, secondary metabolite production, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and defense-related gene expression in response to Tobacco mosaic virus pathotype P0 (TMV-P0) infection. Suppression of CaLecRK-S.5 expression significantly enhanced the susceptibility to Pepper mild mottle virus pathotype P1,2,3, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Phytophthora capsici, as well as TMV-P0 Additionally, β-aminobutyric acid treatment and a systemic acquired resistance assay revealed that CaLecRK-S.5 is involved in priming of plant immunity. Pre-treatment with β-aminobutyric acid before viral infection restored the reduced disease resistance phenotypes shown in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Systemic acquired resistance was also abolished in CaLecRK-S.5-silenced plants. Finally, RNA sequencing analysis indicated that CaLecRK-S.5 positively regulates plant immunity at the transcriptional level. Altogether, these results suggest that CaLecRK-S.5-mediated broad-spectrum resistance is associated with the regulation of priming.

  14. Elite Haplotypes of a Protein Kinase Gene TaSnRK2.3 Associated with Important Agronomic Traits in Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Lili; Mao, Xinguo; Wang, Jingyi; Liu, Zicheng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Weiyu; Chang, Xiaoping; Reynolds, Matthew; Wang, Zhenhua; Jing, Ruilian

    2017-01-01

    Plant-specific protein kinase SnRK2s play crucial roles in response to various environmental stimuli. TaSnRK2.3, a SnRK2 member, was involved in the response to multiple abiotic stresses in wheat. To facilitate the use of TaSnRK2.3 in wheat breeding, the three genomic sequences of TaSnRK2.3, originating from the A, B, and D genomes of hexaploid wheat, were obtained. Sequence polymorphism assays showing 4 and 10 variations were detected at TaSnRK2.3-1A and at TaSnRK2.3-1B, respectively, yet no variation was identified at TaSnRK2.3-1D. Three haplotypes for A genome, and two main haplotypes for B genome of TaSnRK2.3 were identified in 32 genotypes. Functional markers (2.3AM1, 2.3AM2, 2.3BM1, 2.3BM2) were successfully developed to distinguish different haplotypes. Association analysis was performed with the general linear model in TASSEL 2.1. The results showed that both TaSnRK2.3-1A and TaSnRK2.3-1B were significantly associated with plant height (PH), length of peduncle and penultimate node, as well as 1,000-grain weight (TGW) under different environments. Additionally, TaSnRK2.3-1B was significantly associated with stem water-soluble carbohydrates at flowering and mid-grain filling stages. Hap-1A-1 had higher TGW and lower PH; Hap-1B-1 had higher TGW and stem water-soluble carbohydrates, as well as lower PH, thus the two haplotypes were considered as elite haplotypes. Geographic distribution and allelic frequencies indicated that the two preferred haplotypes Hap-1A-1 and Hap-1B-1 were positively selected in the process of Chinese wheat breeding. These results could be valuable for genetic improvement and germplasm enhancement using molecular marker assisted selection in wheat breeding.

  15. Differential transcriptional regulation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lsrACDBFG and lsrRK operons by integration host factor protein.

    PubMed

    Torres-Escobar, Ascención; Juárez-Rodríguez, María Dolores; Demuth, Donald R

    2014-04-01

    We previously showed that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lsrACDBFG and lsrRK operons are regulated by LsrR and cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) and that proper regulation of the lsr locus is required for optimal biofilm growth by A. actinomycetemcomitans. Here, we identified sequences that reside immediately upstream from both the lsrA and lsrR start codons that closely resemble the consensus recognition sequence of Escherichia coli integration host factor (IHF) protein. A. actinomycetemcomitans IHFα and IHFβ were expressed and purified as hexahistidine fusion proteins, and using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), the IHFα-IHFβ protein complex was shown to bind to probes containing the putative IHF recognition sequences. In addition, single-copy chromosomal insertions of lsrR promoter-lacZ and lsrA promoter-lacZ transcriptional fusions in wild-type A. actinomycetemcomitans and ΔihfA and ΔihfB mutant strains showed that IHF differentially regulates the lsr locus and functions as a negative regulator of lsrRK and a positive regulator of lsrACDBFG. Deletion of ihfA or ihfB also reduced biofilm formation and altered biofilm architecture relative to the wild-type strain, and these phenotypes were partially complemented by a plasmid-borne copy of ihfA or ihfB. Finally, using 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), two transcriptional start sites (TSSs) and two putative promoters were identified for lsrRK and three TSSs and putative promoters were identified for lsrACDBFG. The function of the two lsrRK promoters and the positive regulatory role of IHF in regulating lsrACDBFG expression were confirmed with a series of lacZ transcriptional fusion constructs. Together, our results highlight the complex transcriptional regulation of the lsrACDBFG and lsrRK operons and suggest that multiple promoters and the architecture of the lsrACDBFG-lsrRK intergenic region may control the expression of these operons.

  16. Stimulation of IgY responses in gene gun immunized laying hens by combined administration of vector DNA coding for the target antigen Botulinum toxin A1 and for avian cytokine adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Niederstadt, Lars; Hohn, Oliver; Dorner, Brigitte G; Schade, Rüdiger; Bannert, Norbert

    2012-08-31

    DNA immunization is a convenient and effective way of inducing a specific antibody response. In mammals, co-administration of vectors encoding immunostimulatory cytokines can enhance the humoral response resulting in elevated antibody titers. We therefore set out to investigate the effect using avian interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and avian interleukin 6 (IL-6) as genetic adjuvants when immunizing laying hens. A BoNT A1 holotoxoid DNA immunogen carrying two inactivating mutations was evaluated for its ability to induce a specific and sustained IgY antibody response. Both the holotoxoid and the cytokine sequences were codon-optimized. In vitro, the proteins were efficiently expressed in transfected HEK 293T cells and the cytokines were secreted into the culture supernatants. Whereas eggs from hens immunized via gene gun using a prime boost strategy showed no differences in their total IgY content, the specific αBoNT A1 response was slightly elevated up to 1.4× by the IL-1β adjuvant vector and increased by 3.8× by the IL-6 vector. Finally, although hens receiving the IL-1β adjuvant had laying capacities above the average, hens receiving the IL-6 adjuvant experienced laying problems.

  17. The U.S. Antarctic Oversnow and Airborne Geophysical-Glaciological Research Program of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) 1957-58 Period from the View of a Research Scientist Participant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    When 12 countries established scientific stations in Antarctica for the 1957-58 International Geophysical Year (IGY), the Cold War was at its height, seven countries had made claims in Antarctica, and the Antarctic Treaty was a few years in the future. The U.S. program was operated by the Navy and territorial claims were secretly made at several locations during the IGY; these were never officially announced and the U.S. remains a non-claimant state. I was a graduate student geophysicist (assistant seismologist) on the unexplored Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf as part of the only large scale field project of the U.S. program. Starting in 1956, the U.S. began a series of oversnow traverses making seismic reflection ice soundings (and other geophysical measurements) and glaciological studies to determine the thickness and budget of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The USSR and France made similar traverses coordinated through the IGY. Although geology and topographic mapping were not part of the IGY program because of the claims issue, and the possibility of mineral resources discoveries, the oversnow traverse parties did geologic work where unknown mountains were discovered. The oversnow traverses continued through 1966, and resulted in an excellent first approximation of the snow surface elevation, ice thickness and bed topography of Antarctica, as well as mean annual temperature of that era and snow accumulation. The vacuum tube dictated the logistics of the oversnow traverse program. Seismic equipment including heavy batteries weighed about 500 kg. Therefore a Sno-Cat tracked vehicle was needed to carry this load. Usually three such vehicles were needed for safety. Because about 3-4 l/km of Sno-Cat fuel was consumed, as much as 120 kg/day of fuel was required. A resupply flight could only carry only about 600 kg/flight (varying greatly as to range and type of aircraft), the major air logistic program of the U.S. IGY program were the three oversnow traverses (other than the

  18. Improving adjuvant systems for polyclonal egg yolk antibody (IgY) production in laying hens in terms of productivity and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Marcq, Christopher; Marlier, Didier; Beckers, Yves

    2015-05-15

    The antibody production in the egg yolks of immunized laying hens is seen as a way of improving animal welfare compared with conventional production by mammals. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) technology, however, has still to address welfare issues linked to the widespread use of an adjuvant in vaccines. Currently, Freund's adjuvants, complete (FCA) or incomplete (FIA), remain the standard. This study sought to evaluate various approaches used to enhance egg yolk antibody production in terms of both productivity and avian welfare. The outer membrane protein (OMP) of Salmonella Typhimurium was used as the prototype antigen. At 20 weeks of age, 56 ISA Brown hens, with specific-Salmonella-free status, were divided into seven groups (n=8) and received an initial intramuscular immunization. Hens in the two negative control groups received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or FIA alone. Hens in the other groups received 80μg of Salmonella OMP emulsified with one of the following adjuvants: 200μl of FIA alone (T1); 200μl of FIA supplemented with 8μg of C-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) (T2); and 280μl of Montanide ISA 70 VG (T4). Birds in the T3 group received the antigen in emulsion with FIA and were given the tested immunostimulatory component (l-carnitine) via their feed (100mg/kg). A positive control group (PC) received FCA for the first and final immunizations and FIA for the other boosters. Immunization was repeated after 20, 46, 82 and 221 days. Eggs were collected regularly until 242 days after the first immunization and the anti-Salmonella Typhimurium activities in the yolk were determined by ELISA. After 242 days, the birds were euthanized and the injection sites were evaluated for gross and microscopic lesions. Among the tested immunostimulatory approaches, supplementation of FIA with CpG-ODN led to a significant and long-lasting enhancement of the specific antibody response. This treatment was even higher than the positive benchmark using FCA in

  19. Isolation and characterization of the TaSnRK2.10 gene and its association with agronomic traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Wang, Jia-Jia; Zhao, Yan; Kong, Fan-Mei; Guo, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinases (SnRKs) comprise a major family of signaling genes in plants and are associated with metabolic regulation, nutrient utilization and stress responses. This gene family has been proposed to be involved in sucrose signaling. In the present study, we cloned three copies of the TaSnRK2.10 gene from bread wheat on chromosomes 4A, 4B and 4D. The coding sequence (CDS) is 1086 bp in length and encodes a protein of 361 amino acids that exhibits functional domains shared with SnRK2s. Based on the haplotypes of TaSnRK2.10-4A (Hap-4A-H and Hap-4A-L), a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker designated TaSnRK2.10-4A-CAPS was developed and mapped between the markers D-1092101 and D-100014232 using a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The TaSnRK2.10-4B alleles (Hap-4B-G and Hap-4B-A) were transformed into allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) markers TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS1 and TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS2, which were located between the markers D-1281577 and S-1862758. No diversity was found for TaSnRK2.10-4D. An association analysis using a natural population consisting of 128 winter wheat varieties in multiple environments showed that the thousand grain weight (TGW) and spike length (SL) of Hap-4A-H were significantly higher than those of Hap-4A-L, but pant height (PH) was significantly lower. PMID:28355304

  20. Isolation and characterization of the TaSnRK2.10 gene and its association with agronomic traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhao-Gui; Lv, Guang-de; Li, Bing; Wang, Jia-Jia; Zhao, Yan; Kong, Fan-Mei; Guo, Ying; Li, Si-Shen

    2017-01-01

    Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinases (SnRKs) comprise a major family of signaling genes in plants and are associated with metabolic regulation, nutrient utilization and stress responses. This gene family has been proposed to be involved in sucrose signaling. In the present study, we cloned three copies of the TaSnRK2.10 gene from bread wheat on chromosomes 4A, 4B and 4D. The coding sequence (CDS) is 1086 bp in length and encodes a protein of 361 amino acids that exhibits functional domains shared with SnRK2s. Based on the haplotypes of TaSnRK2.10-4A (Hap-4A-H and Hap-4A-L), a cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker designated TaSnRK2.10-4A-CAPS was developed and mapped between the markers D-1092101 and D-100014232 using a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The TaSnRK2.10-4B alleles (Hap-4B-G and Hap-4B-A) were transformed into allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) markers TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS1 and TaSnRK2.10-4B-AS2, which were located between the markers D-1281577 and S-1862758. No diversity was found for TaSnRK2.10-4D. An association analysis using a natural population consisting of 128 winter wheat varieties in multiple environments showed that the thousand grain weight (TGW) and spike length (SL) of Hap-4A-H were significantly higher than those of Hap-4A-L, but pant height (PH) was significantly lower.

  1. Rapid induction of malignant tumor in Sprague-Dawley rats by injection of RK3E-ras cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-A; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Do-Kyung; Kim, Su-Gwan; Park, Joo-Cheol; Kang, Dong-Wan; Kim, Si-Wouk; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2006-04-08

    Several tumor animal models have been provided as a tool for developing cancer therapy. Here, we developed rapid, easy-to use, and cost-effective new rat animal model for invasion and metastasis of cancer using genetically k-ras-induced rat kidney cells (RK3E-ras). We observed tumor as early as 3 days after injection of RK3E-ras cells in subcutaneous of Sprague-Dawley rats. Tumor size and volume were increased exponentially for 2 weeks. The tail vein injected rats obtained the lethal infiltration in the lung within 2 weeks. This tumor animal model has great potential for studying cancer processes and short-term screening of variable cancer therapy strategy.

  2. Effects of flavorings, storage conditions, and storage time on survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Sürk cheese.

    PubMed

    Masatcioğlu, Tuğrul M; Avşar, Yahya K

    2005-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the cumulative effects of flavorings (chili pepper, thyme, mint, cumin, nutmeg, allspice, clove, cinnamon, black pepper, salt, and hot red pepper paste), storage conditions, and storage time on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Sürk cheese and to monitor the associated chemical changes. Sürk cheese, a traditional Turkish cheese, was produced by heating diluted nonfat yogurt and adding flavorings to the resultant acid-heat curd. The cheese was later inoculated with S. aureus, shaped conically, and stored aerobically for mold growth and anaerobically in olive oil for 30 days at room temperature. The moisture content of aerobically stored cheese decreased over time and led to increases in total solids, salt, salt-in-moisture, and ash content during ripening (P < 0.05). The presence or absence of the flavorings had no significant effect, whereas storage conditions and storage duration decreased the survival of S. aureus (P < 0.05).

  3. Cucumis sativus L-type lectin receptor kinase (CsLecRK) gene family response to Phytophthora melonis, Phytophthora capsici and water immersion in disease resistant and susceptible cucumber cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingquan; Wang, Rui; Xu, Xiaomei; He, Xiaoming; Sun, Baojuan; Zhong, Yujuan; Liang, Zhaojuan; Luo, Shaobo; Lin, Yu'e

    2014-10-10

    L-type lectin receptor kinase (LecRK) proteins are an important family involved in diverse biological processes such as pollen development, senescence, wounding, salinity and especially in innate immunity in model plants such as Arabidopsis and tobacco. Till date, LecRK proteins or genes of cucumber have not been reported. In this study, a total of 25 LecRK genes were identified in the cucumber genome, unequally distributed across its seven chromosomes. According to similarity comparison of their encoded proteins, the Cucumis sativus LecRK (CsLecRK) genes were classified into six major clades (from Clade I to CladeVI). Expression of CsLecRK genes were tested using QRT-PCR method and the results showed that 25 CsLecRK genes exhibited different responses to abiotic (water immersion) and biotic (Phytophthora melonis and Phytophthora capsici inoculation) stresses, as well as that between disease resistant cultivar (JSH) and disease susceptible cultivar (B80). Among the 25 CsLecRK genes, we found CsLecRK6.1 was especially induced by P. melonis and P. capsici in JSH plants. All these results suggested that CsLecRK genes may play important roles in biotic and abiotic stresses.

  4. Functional analysis of duplicated Symbiosis Receptor Kinase (SymRK) genes during nodulation and mycorrhizal infection in soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Indrasumunar, Arief; Wilde, Julia; Hayashi, Satomi; Li, Dongxue; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2015-03-15

    Association between legumes and rhizobia results in the formation of root nodules, where symbiotic nitrogen fixation occurs. The early stages of this association involve a complex of signalling events between the host and microsymbiont. Several genes dealing with early signal transduction have been cloned, and one of them encodes the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinase (SymRK; also termed NORK). The Symbiosis Receptor Kinase gene is required by legumes to establish a root endosymbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria as well as mycorrhizal fungi. Using degenerate primer and BAC sequencing, we cloned duplicated SymRK homeologues in soybean called GmSymRKα and GmSymRKβ. These duplicated genes have high similarity of nucleotide (96%) and amino acid sequence (95%). Sequence analysis predicted a malectin-like domain within the extracellular domain of both genes. Several putative cis-acting elements were found in promoter regions of GmSymRKα and GmSymRKβ, suggesting a participation in lateral root development, cell division and peribacteroid membrane formation. The mutant of SymRK genes is not available in soybean; therefore, to know the functions of these genes, RNA interference (RNAi) of these duplicated genes was performed. For this purpose, RNAi construct of each gene was generated and introduced into the soybean genome by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root transformation. RNAi of GmSymRKβ gene resulted in an increased reduction of nodulation and mycorrhizal infection than RNAi of GmSymRKα, suggesting it has the major activity of the duplicated gene pair. The results from the important crop legume soybean confirm the joint phenotypic action of GmSymRK genes in both mycorrhizal and rhizobial infection seen in model legumes.

  5. MLK-3 activates the SAPK/JNK and p38/RK pathways via SEK1 and MKK3/6.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbles, L A; Ing, Y L; Kiefer, F; Chan, J; Iscove, N; Woodgett, J R; Lassam, N J

    1996-01-01

    Mixed lineage kinase-3 (MLK-3) is a 97 kDa serine/threonine kinase with multiple interaction domains, including a Cdc42 binding motif, but unknown function. Cdc42 and the related small GTP binding protein Rac1 can activate the SAPK/JNK and p38/RK stress-responsive kinase cascades, suggesting that MLK-3 may have a role in upstream regulation of these pathways. In support of this role, we demonstrate that MLK-3 can specifically activate the SAPK/JNK and p38/RK pathways, but has no effect on the activation of ERKs. Immunoprecipitated MLK-3 catalyzed the phosphorylation of SEK1 in vitro, and co-transfected MLK-3 induced phosphorylation of SEK1 and MKK3 at sites required for activation, suggesting direct regulation of these protein kinases. Furthermore, interactions between MLK-3 and SEK and MLK-3 and MKK6 were observed in co-precipitation experiments. Finally, kinase-dead mutants of MLK-3 blocked activation of the SAPK pathway by a newly identified mammalian analog of Ste20, germinal center kinase, but not by MEKK, suggesting that MLK-3 functions to activate the SAPK/JNK and p38/RK cascades in response to stimuli transduced by Ste20-like kinases. Images PMID:9003778

  6. Measuring the levels of noise at the İstanbul Atatürk Airport and comparisons with model simulations.

    PubMed

    Sari, Deniz; Ozkurt, Nesimi; Akdag, Ali; Kutukoglu, Murat; Gurarslan, Aliye

    2014-06-01

    Airport noise and its impact on the surrounding areas are major issues in the aviation industry. The İstanbul Atatürk Airport is a major global airport with passenger numbers increasing rapidly per annum. The noise levels for day, evening and night times were modeled around the İstanbul Atatürk Airport according to the European Noise Directive using the actual data records for the year 2011. The "ECAC Doc. 29-Interim" method was used for the computation of the aircraft traffic noise. In the setting the noise model for the local airport topography was taken into consideration together with the noise source data, the airport loadings, features of aircraft and actual air traffic data. Model results were compared with long-term noise measurement values for calibration. According to calibration results, classifications of the aircraft type and flight tracks were revised. For noise model validation, the daily noise measurements at four additional locations were used during the verification period. The input data was re-edited only for these periods and the model was validated. A successful model performance was obtained in several zones around the airport. The validated noise model of the İstanbul Atatürk Airport can be now utilized both for determining the noise levels in the future and for producing new strategies which are about the land use planning, operational considerations for the air traffic management and the noise abatement procedures.

  7. An Initial Investigation of the Effects of Turbulence Models on the Convergence of the RK/Implicit Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, R. C.; Rossow, C.-C.

    2008-01-01

    A three-stage Runge-Kutta (RK) scheme with multigrid and an implicit preconditioner has been shown to be an effective solver for the fluid dynamic equations. This scheme has been applied to both the compressible and essentially incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations using the algebraic turbulence model of Baldwin and Lomax (BL). In this paper we focus on the convergence of the RK/implicit scheme when the effects of turbulence are represented by either the Spalart-Allmaras model or the Wilcox k-! model, which are frequently used models in practical fluid dynamic applications. Convergence behavior of the scheme with these turbulence models and the BL model are directly compared. For this initial investigation we solve the flow equations and the partial differential equations of the turbulence models indirectly coupled. With this approach we examine the convergence behavior of each system. Both point and line symmetric Gauss-Seidel are considered for approximating the inverse of the implicit operator of the flow solver. To solve the turbulence equations we use a diagonally dominant alternating direction implicit (DDADI) scheme. Computational results are presented for three airfoil flow cases and comparisons are made with experimental data. We demonstrate that the two-dimensional RANS equations and transport-type equations for turbulence modeling can be efficiently solved with an indirectly coupled algorithm that uses the RK/implicit scheme for the flow equations.

  8. Assessment of mitral Björk-Shiley prosthetic dysfunction using digitised M mode echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Dawkins, K D; Cotter, L; Gibson, D G

    1984-01-01

    Digitised M mode echocardiograms were analysed in 22 patients with possible Björk-Shiley mitral prosthetic dysfunction. Patients with paraprosthetic mitral regurgitation had a significantly greater shortening fraction, an increased peak rate of dimension change during systole, and an increased peak velocity of circumferential fibre shortening than those with poor left ventricular function. Patients with a clotted prosthesis had lower values for shortening fraction and peak rate of dimension change during systole than patients with paraprosthetic regurgitation. In this latter group, the peak rate of dimension change during diastole and peak lengthening rate were greater than in either those patients with poor left ventricular function or those with a clotted prosthesis. In addition, the peak lengthening rate was greater in those with a clotted prosthesis than in those with poor left ventricular function. Thus M mode echocardiography is a useful method of assessing mitral prosthetic dysfunction and allows patients with paraprosthetic regurgitation to be distinguished from those with either poor left ventricular function or a clotted prosthesis. PMID:6691866

  9. N-Myristoylation Regulates the SnRK1 Pathway in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Michèle; Traverso, José A.; Boisson, Bertrand; Domenichini, Séverine; Bouchez, David; Giglione, Carmela; Meinnel, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    Cotranslational and posttranslational modifications are increasingly recognized as important in the regulation of numerous essential cellular functions. N-myristoylation is a lipid modification ensuring the proper function and intracellular trafficking of proteins involved in many signaling pathways. Arabidopsis thaliana, like human, has two tightly regulated N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) genes, NMT1 and NMT2. Characterization of knockout mutants showed that NMT1 was strictly required for plant viability, whereas NMT2 accelerated flowering. NMT1 impairment induced extremely severe defects in the shoot apical meristem during embryonic development, causing growth arrest after germination. A transgenic plant line with an inducible NMT1 gene demonstrated that NMT1 expression had further effects at later stages. NMT2 did not compensate for NMT1 in the nmt1-1 mutant, but NMT2 overexpression resulted in shoot and root meristem abnormalities. Various data from complementation experiments in the nmt1-1 background, using either yeast or human NMTs, demonstrated a functional link between the developmental arrest of nmt1-1 mutants and the myristoylation state of an extremely small set of protein targets. We show here that protein N-myristoylation is systematically associated with shoot meristem development and that SnRK1 (for SNF1-related kinase) is one of its essential primary targets. PMID:17827350

  10. The legacy of the IGY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Herbert

    We are now at the point of celebrating three milestones of international cooperation in sun—earth research: the 100th anniversary of the First International Polar Year (1882-1883) the 50th anniversary of the Second Polar Year (1932-1933) and the 25th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958). Credit for the concept of the First Polar Year goes to an Austrian Lieutenant, Karl Weyprecht. He expressed the philosophy of scientific cooperation in the following bold language delivered in a statement to the Hall of the Austrian Academy of Sciences on January 18, 1875:Purely geographical research and Arctic topography, which until now have stood in the foreground of all polar expeditions, must, with respect to the great scientific questions, recede into the background. The answers, though, will occur only when those nations pretending to aspire to the heights of contemporary, cultural endeavor decide, without regard to national rivalry, upon common measures. In order to secure decisive scientific results, we require a series of simultaneous expeditions whose aims must be, through dispersal over several points of the Arctic region and using identical instruments in line with identical instructions, to conduct a simultaneous, year-long series of observations. Only thereby shall we acquire the material for solutions to those great problems of nature that reside in the Arctic ice, and only then shall we earn the reward for those considerable resources that have hitherto been squandered in labor, endeavor, deprivation, and money in the polar region.

  11. The Arabidopsis thaliana lectin receptor kinase LecRK-I.9 is required for full resistance to Pseudomonas syringae and affects jasmonate signalling.

    PubMed

    Balagué, Claudine; Gouget, Anne; Bouchez, Olivier; Souriac, Camille; Haget, Nathalie; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Govers, Francine; Roby, Dominique; Canut, Hervé

    2016-07-11

    On microbial attack, plants can detect invaders and activate plant innate immunity. For the detection of pathogen molecules or cell wall damage, plants employ receptors that trigger the activation of defence responses. Cell surface proteins that belong to large families of lectin receptor kinases are candidates to function as immune receptors. Here, the function of LecRK-I.9 (At5g60300), a legume-type lectin receptor kinase involved in cell wall-plasma membrane contacts and in extracellular ATP (eATP) perception, was studied through biochemical, gene expression and reverse genetics approaches. In Arabidopsis thaliana, LecRK-I.9 expression is rapidly, highly and locally induced on inoculation with avirulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). Two allelic lecrk-I.9 knock-out mutants showed decreased resistance to Pst. Conversely, over-expression of LecRK-I.9 led to increased resistance to Pst. The analysis of defence gene expression suggests an alteration of both the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling pathways. In particular, LecRK-I.9 expression during plant-pathogen interaction was dependent on COI1 (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1) and JAR1 (JASMONATE RESISTANT 1) components, and JA-responsive transcription factors (TFs) showed altered levels of expression in plants over-expressing LecRK-I.9. A similar misregulation of these TFs was obtained by JA treatment. This study identified LecRK-I.9 as necessary for full resistance to Pst and demonstrated its involvement in the control of defence against pathogens through a regulation of JA signalling components. The role of LecRK-I.9 is discussed with regard to the potential molecular mechanisms linking JA signalling to cell wall damage and/or eATP perception.

  12. From IGY to IPY, the U.S. Antarctic Oversnow and Airborne Geophysical-Glaciological Research Program from 1957 to 1964 from the View of a Young Graduate Student

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, J. C.

    2006-12-01

    When 12 countries established scientific stations in Antarctica for the 1957-58 International Geophysical Year (IGY), the Cold War was at its height, seven countries had made claims in Antarctica, and the Antarctic Treaty was a few years in the future. I was a graduate student assistant seismologist, on the unexplored Filchner- Ronne Ice Shelf as part of the only major field project of the U.S. Antarctic program. Starting in 1957, the U.S. began a series of oversnow traverses making seismic reflection ice soundings (and other geophysical measurements) and glaciological studies to determine the thickness and budget of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The U.S.S.R. and France made similar traverses coordinated through the IGY. Although geology and topographic mapping were not part of the IGY program because of the claims issue and the possibility of mineral resources, the oversnow traverse parties did geologic work, where unknown mountains were discovered. The oversnow traverses continued through 1966 and resulted in an excellent first approximation of the snow surface elevation, ice thickness and bed topography of Antarctica, as well as the mean annual temperature of that era and snow accumulation. The vacuum tube dictated the logistics of the oversnow traverse program. Seismic equipment including heavy batteries weighed about 500 kg. Therefore a Sno-Cat tracked vehicle was needed to carry this load. Usually three such vehicles were needed for safety. Because about 3 l/km of fuel were consumed by each Sno-Cat, about 100 kg/day of fuel per vehicle was required. A resupply flight could carry only ~600 kg/flight (varying greatly as to range and type of aircraft).The Filchner Ice Shelf Traverse, 1957-58, in which I participated, encountered many crevasses. Vehicles broke through thin snow bridges and one man fell deep into a crevasse. Fortunately there were no deaths and only one serious injury resulting from crevasse accidents on the U.S. oversnow traverse program. Starting in

  13. A New and Improved Host-Independent Plasmid System for RK2-Based Conjugal Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Trine Aakvik; Lale, Rahmi; Degnes, Kristin Fløgstad; Lando, Malin; Valla, Svein

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation is a process that is mediated either by a direct cell-to-cell junction or by formation of a bridge between the cells. It is often used to transfer DNA constructs designed in Escherichia coli to recipient bacteria, yeast, plants and mammalian cells. Plasmids bearing the RK2/RP4 origin of transfer (oriT) are mostly mobilized using the E. coli S17-1/SM10 donor strains, in which transfer helper functions are provided from a chromosomally integrated RP4::Mu. We have observed that large plasmids were occasionally modified after conjugal transfer when using E. coli S17-1 as a donor. All modified plasmids had increased in size, which most probably was a result of co-transfer of DNA from the chromosomally located oriT. It has earlier also been demonstrated that the bacteriophage Mu is silently transferred to recipient cells by these donor strains, and both occurrences are very likely to lead to mutations within the recipient DNA. Here we report the construction of a new biological system addressing both the above mentioned problems in which the transfer helper functions are provided by a plasmid lacking a functional oriT. This system is compatible with all other replicons commonly used in conjugation experiments and further enables the use of diverse bacterial strains as donors. Plasmids containing large inserts were successfully conjugated and the plasmid modifications observed when E. coli S17-1 was used as donor were eliminated by the use of the new host-independent vector system. PMID:24595202

  14. Interaction of the WD40 domain of a myoinositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase with SnRK1 links inositol, sugar, and stress signaling.

    PubMed

    Ananieva, Elitsa A; Gillaspy, Glenda E; Ely, Amanda; Burnette, Ryan N; Erickson, F Les

    2008-12-01

    In plants, myoinositol signaling pathways have been associated with several stress, developmental, and physiological processes, but the regulation of these pathways is largely unknown. In our efforts to better understand myoinositol signaling pathways in plants, we have found that the WD40 repeat region of a myoinositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (5PTase13; At1g05630) interacts with the sucrose nonfermenting-1-related kinase (SnRK1.1) in the yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro. Plant SnRK1 proteins (also known as AKIN10/11) have been described as central integrators of sugar, metabolic, stress, and developmental signals. Using mutants defective in 5PTase13, we show that 5PTase13 can act as a regulator of SnRK1 activity and that regulation differs with different nutrient availability. Specifically, we show that under low-nutrient or -sugar conditions, 5PTase13 acts as a positive regulator of SnRK1 activity. In contrast, under severe starvation conditions, 5PTase13 acts as a negative regulator of SnRK1 activity. To delineate the regulatory interaction that occurs between 5PTase13 and SnRK1.1, we used a cell-free degradation assay and found that 5PTase13 is required to reduce the amount of SnRK1.1 targeted for proteasomal destruction under low-nutrient conditions. This regulation most likely involves a 5PTase13-SnRK1.1 interaction within the nucleus, as a 5PTase13:green fluorescent protein was localized to the nucleus. We also show that a loss of function in 5PTase13 leads to nutrient level-dependent reduction of root growth, along with abscisic acid (ABA) and sugar insensitivity. 5ptase13 mutants accumulate less inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in response to sugar stress and have alterations in ABA-regulated gene expression, both of which are consistent with the known role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in ABA-mediated signaling. We propose that by forming a protein complex with SnRK1.1 protein, 5PTase13 plays a regulatory role linking inositol, sugar, and stress

  15. Tomato SlSnRK1 protein interacts with and phosphorylates βC1, a pathogenesis protein encoded by a geminivirus β-satellite.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qingtang; Liu, Zhou; Song, Fengming; Xie, Qi; Hanley-Bowdoin, Linda; Zhou, Xueping

    2011-11-01

    The βC1 protein of tomato yellow leaf curl China β-satellite functions as a pathogenicity determinant. To better understand the molecular basis of βC1 in pathogenicity, a yeast two-hybrid screen of a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cDNA library was carried out using βC1 as bait. βC1 interacted with a tomato SUCROSE-NONFERMENTING1-related kinase designated as SlSnRK1. Their interaction was confirmed using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in Nicotiana benthamiana cells. Plants overexpressing SnRK1 were delayed for symptom appearance and contained lower levels of viral and satellite DNA, while plants silenced for SnRK1 expression developed symptoms earlier and accumulated higher levels of viral DNA. In vitro kinase assays showed that βC1 is phosphorylated by SlSnRK1 mainly on serine at position 33 and threonine at position 78. Plants infected with βC1 mutants containing phosphorylation-mimic aspartate residues in place of serine-33 and/or threonine-78 displayed delayed and attenuated symptoms and accumulated lower levels of viral DNA, while plants infected with phosphorylation-negative alanine mutants contained higher levels of viral DNA. These results suggested that the SlSnRK1 protein attenuates geminivirus infection by interacting with and phosphorylating the βC1 protein.

  16. Mathematical modeling reveals that metabolic feedback regulation of SnRK1 and hexokinase is sufficient to control sugar homeostasis from energy depletion to full recovery

    PubMed Central

    Nägele, Thomas; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose and trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) are central compounds in the regulation and orchestration of whole plant metabolism, growth, development, and flowering. To evaluate their highly complex and regulatory interaction with the two conserved sugar and energy sensors Snf1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1), an AMPK-related protein kinase, and hexokinase (Hxk), we developed a kinetic model which demonstrates the subtle metabolic control of sugar homeostasis in a wide range of concentrations without the need for changes in gene expression or protein concentrations. Our model approach is based on a comprehensive set of published metabolite concentrations under various conditions and coupled enzyme kinetics accounting for the role of SnRK1 and Hxk in the sugar and energy homeostasis. This allowed us to investigate interactions between sugar phosphates, such as T6P, which are metabolic inhibitors of SnRK1 and Hxk, and sucrose synthesis during the transition from carbon deficiency to availability. Model simulations and sensitivity analyses indicated that slight changes in SnRK1 activity induced by allosteric effectors may be sufficient to explain a dramatic readjustment of metabolic homeostasis. This may comprise up to 10-fold changes in metabolite concentrations. Further, the Hxk/T6P/SnRK1 interaction implemented in the model supports the interpretation of phenotypic and transcriptomic changes observed in Hxk overexpressing plants. Finally, our approach presents a theoretical framework to kinetically link metabolic networks to underlying regulatory instances. PMID:25120550

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of early salt stress-responsive proteins in roots of SnRK2 transgenic rice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The rice roots are highly salt-sensitive organ and primary root growth is rapidly suppressed by salt stress. Sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase2 (SnRK2) family is one of the key regulator of hyper-osmotic stress signalling in various plant cells. To understand early salt response of rice roots and identify SnRK2 signaling components, proteome changes of transgenic rice roots over-expressing OSRK1, a rice SnRK2 kinase were investigated. Results Proteomes were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein spots were identified by LC-MS/MS from wild type and OSRK1 transgenic rice roots exposed to 150 mM NaCl for either 3 h or 7 h. Fifty two early salt -responsive protein spots were identified from wild type rice roots. The major up-regulated proteins were enzymes related to energy regulation, amino acid metabolism, methylglyoxal detoxification, redox regulation and protein turnover. It is noted that enzymes known to be involved in GA-induced root growth such as fructose bisphosphate aldolase and methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase were clearly down-regulated. In contrast to wild type rice roots, only a few proteins were changed by salt stress in OSRK1 transgenic rice roots. A comparative quantitative analysis of the proteome level indicated that forty three early salt-responsive proteins were magnified in transgenic rice roots at unstressed condition. These proteins contain single or multiple potential SnRK2 recognition motives. In vitro kinase assay revealed that one of the identified proteome, calreticulin is a good substrate of OSRK1. Conclusions Our present data implicate that rice roots rapidly changed broad spectrum of energy metabolism upon challenging salt stress, and suppression of GA signaling by salt stress may be responsible for the rapid arrest of root growth and development. The broad spectrum of functional categories of proteins affected by over-expression of OSRK1 indicates that OSRK1 is an upstream regulator of

  18. Cloning and expression analyses of sucrose non-fermenting-1-related kinase 1 (SnRK1b) gene during development of sorghum and maize endosperm and its implicated role in sugar-to-starch metabolic transition.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mukesh; Li, Qin-Bao; Chourey, Prem S

    2008-09-01

    A full-length cDNA clone, SbSnRK1b (1530 bp, GenBank accession no. EF544393), encoding a putative serine/threonine protein kinase homologue of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SNF1, was isolated from developing endosperm of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. Multiple sequence alignment data showed a phylogenetic affiliation of the sorghum clone with the SnRK1b group of protein kinases that are highly expressed in cereal seed endosperm. The DNA gel blot analyses indicated that SbSnRK1b gene is present as a single- or low copy number gene in sorghum. The RNA and protein gel blot analyses confirmed the expression of SbSnRK1b in developing sorghum caryopses, overlapping with the starch biosynthesis phase, 12-24 days after fertilization. In situ hybridization and immunolocalization data resolved the spatial specificity of SbSnRK1b expression in the basal endosperm transfer cell layer, the unique port of assimilate unloading in the growing sorghum seed. Expression of SbSnRK1b was also evident in the developing sorghum microspores, coincident with the onset of starch deposition phase. As in sorghum, similar spatiotemporal specificity of SnRK1b expression was observed during maize (Zea mays L.) seed development. However, discordant in situ hybridization and immunolocalization data indicated that the expression of SbSnRK1b homologue in maize is under posttranscriptional control during endosperm development.

  19. Björk-Shiley strut fracture and disc escape: literature review and a method of disc retrieval.

    PubMed

    Hendel, P N

    1989-03-01

    Embolization of a prosthetic valve poppet is a rare but life-threatening event. It was reported sporadically before the introduction of the Björk-Shiley 70-degree convexoconcave prosthesis in 1980. Since that time, there have been a large number of reported mechanical failures with disc escape. The rate for the 29-mm to 33-mm mitral valves is estimated as 5.2%. In 29 of 35 patients (including the 2 presented here) in whom the site of disc lodgment could be determined, the disc was in the descending or abdominal aorta. Fifteen of these patients died. Six survivors had the disc removed at the same operation and 6 at a later operation. In 2 patients, the disc was not removed. In 2 patients in whom the disc was not removed initially, it was thought to contribute to postoperative complications. Two more cases of structural failure of the Björk-Shiley convexoconcave prosthesis are presented. A transpericardial approach to the descending aorta on bypass is described. It allows easy removal of the disc and eliminates the need for a second operation.

  20. Modeling of noise pollution and estimated human exposure around İstanbul Atatürk Airport in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozkurt, Nesimi; Sari, Deniz; Akdag, Ali; Kutukoglu, Murat; Gurarslan, Aliye

    2014-06-01

    The level of aircraft noise exposure around İstanbul Atatürk Airport was calculated according to the European Noise Directive. These calculations were based on the actual flight data for each flight in the year 2011. The study area was selected to cover of 25km radius centered on the Aerodrome Reference Point of the airport. The geographical data around İstanbul Atatürk Airport was used to prepare elevation, residential building, auxiliary building, hospital and school layers in SoundPlan software. It was found that 1.2% of the land area of İstanbul City exceeds the threshold of 55dB(A) during daytime. However, when the exceedance of threshold of 65dB(A)is investigated, the affected area is found quite small (0.2% of land area of city). About 0.3% of the land area of İstanbul City has noise levels exceeding 55dB(A) during night-time. Our results show that about 4% of the resident population was exposed to 55dB(A) or higher noises during daytime in İstanbul. When applying the second threshhold criteria, nearly 1% of the population is exposed to noise levels greater than 65dB(A). At night-time, 1.3% of the population is exposed to 55dB(A) or higher noise levels.

  1. An rK28-Based Immunoenzymatic Assay for the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Lauricella, Marta Alicia; Maidana, Cristina Graciela; Frias, Victoria Fragueiro; Romagosa, Carlo M; Negri, Vanesa; Benedetti, Ruben; Sinagra, Angel J; Luna, Concepcion; Tartaglino, Lilian; Laucella, Susana; Reed, Steven G; Riarte, Adelina R

    2016-07-06

    Direct observation of Leishmania parasites in tissue aspirates has shown low sensitivity for the detection of canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Therefore in the last quarter century immunoenzymatic tests have been developed to improve diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to develop a fast recombinant K28 antigen, naked-eye qualitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (VL Ql-ELISA) and a quantitative version (VL Qt-ELISA), and to display it in a kit format, whose cutoff value (0.156) was selected as the most adequate one to differentiate reactive from nonreactive samples. Considering 167 cases and 300 controls, sensitivity was 91% for both assays and specificity was 100% and 98.7% in Ql-ELISA and Qt-ELISA, respectively. Positive predictive values were 100% and 97.4% for Ql-ELISA and Qt-ELISA, respectively, and negative predictive values were 95.2% for both ELISAs. Reagent stability, reliability studies, including periodic repetitions and retest of samples, cutoff selection, and comparison of rK28 ELISAs with rK39 immunochromatographic test, were the international criteria that supported the quality in both kits. The performance of both ELISA kits in this work confirmed their validity and emphasized their usefulness for low-to-medium complexity laboratories.

  2. The plant energy sensor: evolutionary conservation and divergence of SnRK1 structure, regulation, and function.

    PubMed

    Broeckx, Tom; Hulsmans, Sander; Rolland, Filip

    2016-12-01

    The SnRK1 (SNF1-related kinase 1) kinases are the plant cellular fuel gauges, activated in response to energy-depleting stress conditions to maintain energy homeostasis while also gatekeeping important developmental transitions for optimal growth and survival. Similar to their opisthokont counterparts (animal AMP-activated kinase, AMPK, and yeast Sucrose Non-Fermenting 1, SNF), they function as heterotrimeric complexes with a catalytic (kinase) α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits. Although the overall configuration of the kinase complexes is well conserved, plant-specific structural modifications (including a unique hybrid βγ subunit) and associated differences in regulation reflect evolutionary divergence in response to fundamentally different lifestyles. While AMP is the key metabolic signal activating AMPK in animals, the plant kinases appear to be allosterically inhibited by sugar-phosphates. Their function is further fine-tuned by differential subunit expression, localization, and diverse post-translational modifications. The SnRK1 kinases act by direct phosphorylation of key metabolic enzymes and regulatory proteins, extensive transcriptional regulation (e.g. through bZIP transcription factors), and down-regulation of TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signaling. Significant progress has been made in recent years. New tools and more directed approaches will help answer important fundamental questions regarding their structure, regulation, and function, as well as explore their potential as targets for selection and modification for improved plant performance in a changing environment.

  3. Vancomycin susceptibility in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by YycHI activation of the WalRK essential two-component regulatory system

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, David R.; Jiang, Jhih-Hang; Kostoulias, Xenia; Foxwell, Daniel J.; Peleg, Anton Y.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is complicated by the emergence of strains with intermediate-level resistance to vancomycin (termed VISA). We have characterised a molecular pathway involved in the in vivo evolution of VISA mediated by the regulatory proteins YycH and YycI. In contrast to their function in other bacterial species, we report a positive role for these auxiliary proteins in regulation of the two-component regulator WalRK. Transcriptional profiling of yycH and yycI deletion mutants revealed downregulation of the ‘WalRK regulon’ including cell wall hydrolase genes atlA and sle1, with functional autolysis assays supporting these data by showing an impaired autolytic phenotype for each deletion strain. Using bacterial-two hybrid assays, we showed that YycH and YycI interact, and that YycHI also interacts with the sensor kinase WalK, forming a ternary protein complex. Mutation to YycH or YycI associated with clinical VISA strains had a deleterious impact on the YycHI/WalK complex, suggesting that the interaction is important for the regulation of WalRK. Taken together, we have described a novel antibiotic resistance strategy for the human pathogen S. aureus, whereby YycHI mutations are selected for in vivo leading to reduced WalRK activation, impaired cell wall turnover and ultimately reduced vancomycin efficacy. PMID:27600558

  4. Vaccinia virus K1L protein mediates host-range function in RK-13 cells via ankyrin repeat and may interact with a cellular GTPase-activating protein.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Ritu R; Terajima, Masanori

    2005-12-01

    The K1L protein of vaccinia virus is required for its growth in certain cell lines (RK-13 and human). The cowpox host-range protein CP77 has been shown to complement K1L function in RK-13 cells, despite a lack of homology between the two proteins except for ankyrin repeats. We investigated the role of ankyrin repeats of K1L protein in RK-13 cells. The growth of a recombinant vaccinia virus, with K1L gene mutated in the most conserved ankyrin repeat, was severely impaired. Infection with the mutant virus caused shutdown of cellular and viral protein synthesis early in infection. We also investigated the interaction of K1L protein with cellular proteins and found that K1L interacts with the rabbit homologue of human ACAP2, a GTPase-activating protein with ankyrin repeats. Our result suggests the importance of ankyrin repeat for host-range function of K1L in RK-13 cells and identifies ACAP2 as a cellular protein, which may be interacting with K1L.

  5. HSPRO acts via SnRK1-mediated signaling in the regulation of Nicotiana attenuata seedling growth promoted by Piriformospora indica

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Stefan; Baldwin, Ian T.; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Nicotiana attenuata HSPRO (NaHSPRO) is a negative regulator of seedling growth promoted by the fungus Piriformospora indica. Homologs of NaHSPRO in Arabidopsis thaliana (i.e., AtHSPRO1 and AtHSPRO2) are known to physically interact with the AKINβγ subunit of the SnRK1 complex.2 To investigate whether NaHSPRO is associated with SnRK1 function during the stimulation of seedling growth by P. indica, we studied N. attenuata plants silenced in the expression of NaGAL83 (as-gal83 plants)—a gene that encodes for the regulatory β-subunit of SnRK1—and plants silenced in the expression of both NaHSPRO and NaGAL83 (ir-hspro/as-gal83 plants). The results showed that P. indica differentially stimulated the growth of both as-gal83 and ir-hspro/as-gal83 seedlings compared with control seedlings, with a magnitude similar to that observed in ir-hspro seedlings. Thus, we showed that, similar to NaHSPRO, NaGAL83 is a negative regulator of seedling growth stimulated by P. indica. We propose that the effect of NaHSPRO on seedling growth is associated with SnRK1 signaling. PMID:23333980

  6. Yellow fever vaccine: comparison of the neurovirulence of new 17D-204 Stamaril™ seed lots and RK 168-73 strain.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Jean-Claude; Silvano, Jérémy; Barban, Véronique; Riou, Patrice; Allain, Caroline

    2013-07-01

    The neurovirulence of two new candidate 17D-204 Stamaril™ working seed lots and that of two reference preparations were compared. The Stamaril™ working seed lots have been used for more than twenty years for the manufacturing of vaccines of acceptable safety and efficacy. The preparation designated RK 168-73 and provided by the Robert Koch Institute was used as a reference. It was confirmed that RK 168-73 strain was not a good virus control in our study because it has a very low neurovirulence regarding both the clinical and histopathological scores in comparison with Stamaril™ strain and is not representative of a vaccine known to be satisfactory in use. The results were reinforced by the phenotypic characterization by plaque assay demonstrating that RK 168-73 was very different from the Stamaril™ vaccine, and by sequencing results showing 4 mutations between Stamaril™ and RK 168-73 viruses leading to amino acid differences in the NS4B and envelop proteins.

  7. Phosphoproteomic identification of targets of the Arabidopsis sucrose nonfermenting-like kinase SnRK2.8 reveals a connection to metabolic processes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ryoung; Alvarez, Sophie; Burch, Adrien Y.; Jez, Joseph M.; Schachtman, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    SnRK2.8 is a member of the sucrose nonfermenting-related kinase family that is down-regulated when plants are deprived of nutrients and growth is reduced. When this kinase is over expressed in Arabidopsis, the plants grow larger. To understand how this kinase modulates growth, we identified some of the proteins that are phosphorylated by this kinase. A new phosphoproteomic method was used in which total protein from plants overexpressing the kinase was compared with total protein from plants in which the kinase was inactivated. Protein profiles were compared on two-dimensional gels following staining by a dye that recognizes phosphorylated amino acids. Candidate target proteins were confirmed with in vitro phosphorylation assays, using the kinase and target proteins that were purified from Escherichia coli. Seven target proteins were confirmed as being phosphorylated by SnRK2.8. Certain targets, such as 14-3-3 proteins, regulate as yet unidentified proteins, whereas other targets, such as glyoxalase I and ribose 5-phosphate isomerase, detoxify byproducts from glycolysis and catalyze one of the final steps in carbon fixation, respectively. Also, adenosine kinase and 60S ribosomal protein were confirmed as targets of SnRK2.8. Using mass spectrometry, we identified phosphorylated residues in the SnRK2.8, the 14-3-3κ, and the 14-3-3χ. These data show that the expression of SnRK2.8 is correlated with plant growth, which may in part be due to the phosphorylation of enzymes involved in metabolic processes. PMID:17404219

  8. The lectin receptor kinase LecRK-I.9 is a novel Phytophthora resistance component and a potential host target for a RXLR effector.

    PubMed

    Bouwmeester, Klaas; de Sain, Mara; Weide, Rob; Gouget, Anne; Klamer, Sofieke; Canut, Herve; Govers, Francine

    2011-03-01

    In plants, an active defense against biotrophic pathogens is dependent on a functional continuum between the cell wall (CW) and the plasma membrane (PM). It is thus anticipated that proteins maintaining this continuum also function in defense. The legume-like lectin receptor kinase LecRK-I.9 is a putative mediator of CW-PM adhesions in Arabidopsis and is known to bind in vitro to the Phytophthora infestans RXLR-dEER effector IPI-O via a RGD cell attachment motif present in IPI-O. Here we show that LecRK-I.9 is associated with the plasma membrane, and that two T-DNA insertions lines deficient in LecRK-I.9 (lecrk-I.9) have a 'gain-of-susceptibility' phenotype specifically towards the oomycete Phytophthora brassicae. Accordingly, overexpression of LecRK-I.9 leads to enhanced resistance to P. brassicae. A similar 'gain-of-susceptibility' phenotype was observed in transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing ipiO (35S-ipiO1). This phenocopy behavior was also observed with respect to other defense-related functions; lecrk-I.9 and 35S-ipiO1 were both disturbed in pathogen- and MAMP-triggered callose deposition. By site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrated that the RGD cell attachment motif in IPI-O is not only essential for disrupting the CW-PM adhesions, but also for disease suppression. These results suggest that destabilizing the CW-PM continuum is one of the tactics used by Phytophthora to promote infection. As countermeasure the host may want to strengthen CW-PM adhesions and the novel Phytophthora resistance component LecRK-I.9 seems to function in this process.

  9. The Lectin Receptor Kinase LecRK-I.9 Is a Novel Phytophthora Resistance Component and a Potential Host Target for a RXLR Effector

    PubMed Central

    Bouwmeester, Klaas; de Sain, Mara; Weide, Rob; Gouget, Anne; Klamer, Sofieke; Canut, Herve; Govers, Francine

    2011-01-01

    In plants, an active defense against biotrophic pathogens is dependent on a functional continuum between the cell wall (CW) and the plasma membrane (PM). It is thus anticipated that proteins maintaining this continuum also function in defense. The legume-like lectin receptor kinase LecRK-I.9 is a putative mediator of CW-PM adhesions in Arabidopsis and is known to bind in vitro to the Phytophthora infestans RXLR-dEER effector IPI-O via a RGD cell attachment motif present in IPI-O. Here we show that LecRK-I.9 is associated with the plasma membrane, and that two T-DNA insertions lines deficient in LecRK-I.9 (lecrk-I.9) have a ‘gain-of-susceptibility’ phenotype specifically towards the oomycete Phytophthora brassicae. Accordingly, overexpression of LecRK-I.9 leads to enhanced resistance to P. brassicae. A similar ‘gain-of-susceptibility’ phenotype was observed in transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing ipiO (35S-ipiO1). This phenocopy behavior was also observed with respect to other defense-related functions; lecrk-I.9 and 35S-ipiO1 were both disturbed in pathogen- and MAMP-triggered callose deposition. By site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrated that the RGD cell attachment motif in IPI-O is not only essential for disrupting the CW-PM adhesions, but also for disease suppression. These results suggest that destabilizing the CW-PM continuum is one of the tactics used by Phytophthora to promote infection. As countermeasure the host may want to strengthen CW-PM adhesions and the novel Phytophthora resistance component LecRK-I.9 seems to function in this process. PMID:21483488

  10. Absolute Radiometric Calibration of the GÖKTÜRK-2 Satellite Sensor Using Tuz GÖLÜ (landnet Site) from Ndvi Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakarya, Ufuk; Hakkı Demirhan, İsmail; Seda Deveci, Hüsne; Teke, Mustafa; Demirkesen, Can; Küpçü, Ramazan; Feray Öztoprak, A.; Efendioğlu, Mehmet; Fehmi Şimşek, F.; Berke, Erdinç; Zübeyde Gürbüz, Sevgi

    2016-06-01

    TÜBİTAK UZAY has conducted a research study on the use of space-based satellite resources for several aspects of agriculture. Especially, there are two precision agriculture related projects: HASSAS (Widespread application of sustainable precision agriculture practices in Southeastern Anatolia Project Region (GAP) Project) and AKTAR (Smart Agriculture Feasibility Project). The HASSAS project aims to study development of precision agriculture practice in GAP region. Multi-spectral satellite imagery and aerial hyperspectral data along with ground measurements was collected to analyze data in an information system. AKTAR aims to develop models for irrigation, fertilization and spectral signatures of crops in Inner Anatolia. By the end of the project precision agriculture practices to control irrigation, fertilization, pesticide and estimation of crop yield will be developed. Analyzing the phenology of crops using NDVI is critical for the projects. For this reason, absolute radiometric calibration of the Red and NIR bands in space-based satellite sensors is an important issue. The Göktürk-2 satellite is an earth observation satellite which was designed and built in Turkey and was launched in 2012. The Göktürk-2 satellite sensor has a resolution 2.5 meters in panchromatic and 5 meters in R/G/B/NIR bands. The absolute radiometric calibration of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor was performed via the ground-based measurements - spectra-radiometer, sun photometer, and meteorological station- in Tuz Gölü cal/val site in 2015. In this paper, the first ground-based absolute radiometric calibration results of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor using Tuz Gölü is demonstrated. The absolute radiometric calibration results of this paper are compared with the published cross-calibration results of the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor utilizing Landsat 8 imagery. According to the experimental comparison results, the Göktürk-2 satellite sensor coefficients for red and NIR bands

  11. Optimization of L(+)-Lactic Acid Fermentation Without Neutralisation of Rhizopus Oryzae Mutant RK02 by Low-Energy Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen; Wang, Tao; Yang, Yingge; Liu, Dan; Fan, Yonghong; Wang, Dongmei; Yang, Qian; Yao, Jianming; Zheng, Zhiming; Yu, Zengliang

    2008-04-01

    In order to get an industrial strain which can yield a high concentration of lactic acid for ISPR (in situ product removal), the original strain Rhizopus oryzae RE3303 was mutated by low-energy ion beam implantation. A mutant RK02 was screened, and the factors such as the substrate concentration, nitrogen source concentration, inoculum size, seed age, aeration and temperature that affect the production of lactic acid were studied in detail. Under optimal conditions, the maximum concentration of L(+)-lactic acid reached 34.85 g/L after 30 h shake-flask cultivation without adding any neutralisation (5% Glucose added), which was a 146% increase in lactic acid production after ion implantation compared with the original strain. It was also shown that RK02 can be used in ISPR to reduce the number of times of separation.

  12. From IGY to IPY: Volcanism Associated With the West Antarctic Rift System Interpreted From Geophysical Observations, and Possible Effects on the Stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    Observations from a few oversnow and airborne magnetic profiles acquired over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) during the International Geophysical Year (1957-58) indicated numerous high amplitude, shallow source, magnetic anomalies over a very extensive area of the presently known West Antarctic rift system. Aeromagnetic surveys over the WAIS in the early 1960s and later combined with radar ice sounding in 1978- 79 defined an area >500,000 km2; these anomalies range from 100->1000 nT as observed ~1 km over the 2-3 km thick moving ice. Behrendt et al, (1962, 1964, 1994, and 2005) and Jankowski et al. (1983) interpreted these anomalies as indicating "volcanic centers." Detailed aeromagnetic and radar ice sounding surveys since 1993 have shown that >80% of these anomaly sources have been modified by the moving ice into which they were injected requiring a younger age than the WAIS (~25 Ma). Behrendt et al., (1994; 2007) conservatively estimated >1 x 106 km3 volume of volcanic sources to account for the area of the "volcanic center" anomalies and suggested the presence of a large igneous province (LIP) if this volume was intruded within a time interval of 1-10 Ma. Active volcanism at a few widely spaced exposures of alkaline volcanic rocks associated with the West Antarctic rift, which extend in age to ~34 Ma in the WAIS area, and interpreted active subglacial volcanism revealed by aerogeophysical data (Blankenship et al., 1993; and Corr and Vaughan, 2008) have raised the question of possible volcanic effects on the regime of the WAIS. Vogel and Tulaczyk (2006) argued that subglacial volcanism may play a "crucial roll" in WAIS stability, but LeMasurier (2008) has discounted this as unlikely. In my presentation I will review the geophysical evidence acquired from the IGY to the IPY, and conclude that whether unlikely or not, future effects on the stability of the WAIS should not be ignored.

  13. Pan Sharpening Quality Investigation of Turkish In-Operation Remote Sensing Satellites: Applications with Rasat and GÖKTÜRK-2 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozendi, Mustafa; Topan, Hüseyin; Cam, Ali; Bayık, Çağlar

    2016-10-01

    Recently two optical remote sensing satellites, RASAT and GÖKTÜRK-2, launched successfully by the Republic of Turkey. RASAT has 7.5 m panchromatic, and 15 m visible bands whereas GÖKTÜRK-2 has 2.5 m panchromatic and 5 m VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared) bands. These bands with various resolutions can be fused by pan-sharpening methods which is an important application area of optical remote sensing imagery. So that, the high geometric resolution of panchromatic band and the high spectral resolution of VNIR bands can be merged. In the literature there are many pan-sharpening methods. However, there is not a standard framework for quality investigation of pan-sharpened imagery. The aim of this study is to investigate pan-sharpening performance of RASAT and GÖKTÜRK-2 images. For this purpose, pan-sharpened images are generated using most popular pan-sharpening methods IHS, Brovey and PCA at first. This procedure is followed by quantitative evaluation of pan-sharpened images using Correlation Coefficient (CC), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Relative Average Spectral Error (RASE), Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) and Erreur Relative Globale Adimensionnelle de Synthése (ERGAS) metrics. For generation of pan-sharpened images and computation of metrics SharpQ tool is used which is developed with MATLAB computing language. According to metrics, PCA derived pan-sharpened image is the most similar one to multispectral image for RASAT, and Brovey derived pan-sharpened image is the most similar one to multispectral image for GÖKTÜRK-2. Finally, pan-sharpened images are evaluated qualitatively in terms of object availability and completeness for various land covers (such as urban, forest and flat areas) by a group of operators who are experienced in remote sensing imagery.

  14. [Sudden and fatal malfunction of a Björk-Shiley prosthesis in mitral position due to rupture of the ventricular bracket and disk embolization].

    PubMed

    Casarotto, D; Motta, A; Fabbri, A; Pugliese, P; Muneretto, C; Zanini, M; Sheiban, I

    1985-04-01

    Mechanical complications of prosthetic valves are increasing. The following report describes a case of fracture of a Björk-Shiley mitral prosthetic strut with dislogment of the valve occluder into the thoracic aorta. At the reoperation a new prosthesis was implanted but the patient died of acute heart failure. The diagnosis of valve disfunction must be made non invasively, because the time required for cardiac catherization usually constitutes a lethal delay. The only hope for survival is prompt surgical treatment.

  15. The SnRK2-APC/C(TE) regulatory module mediates the antagonistic action of gibberellic acid and abscisic acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qibing; Wu, Fuqing; Sheng, Peike; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Wang, Jiulin; Cheng, Zhijun; Wang, Jie; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

    2015-08-14

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) antagonistically regulate many developmental processes and responses to biotic or abiotic stresses in higher plants. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this antagonism is still poorly understood. Here, we show that loss-of-function mutation in rice Tiller Enhancer (TE), an activator of the APC/C(TE) complex, causes hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity to ABA and GA, respectively. We find that TE physically interacts with ABA receptor OsPYL/RCARs and promotes their degradation by the proteasome. Genetic analysis also shows OsPYL/RCARs act downstream of TE in mediating ABA responses. Conversely, ABA inhibits APC/C(TE) activity by phosphorylating TE through activating the SNF1-related protein kinases (SnRK2s), which may interrupt the interaction between TE and OsPYL/RCARs and subsequently stabilize OsPYL/RCARs. In contrast, GA can reduce the level of SnRK2s and may promote APC/C(TE)-mediated degradation of OsPYL/RCARs. Thus, we propose that the SnRK2-APC/C(TE) regulatory module represents a regulatory hub underlying the antagonistic action of GA and ABA in plants.

  16. Purification and partial elucidation of the structure of an antioxidant carbohydrate biopolymer from the probiotic bacterium Bacillus coagulans RK-02.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Vidya P; Perali, Ramu S; Sen, R

    2011-08-26

    An exopolysaccharide (EPS) was isolated from Bacillus coagulans RK-02 and purified by size exclusion chromatography. The purified, homogeneous EPS had an average molecular weight of ∼3 × 10⁴ Da by comparison with FITC-labeled dextran standards. In vivo evaluations showed that, like other reported polysaccharides, this EPS displayed significant antioxidant activity. FTIR spectroscopy analysis showed the presence of hydroxy, carboxy, and α-glycosidic linkages and a mannose residue. GC analysis indicated that the EPS was a heteropolymer composed of glucose, mannose, galactose, glucosamine, and fucose as monomeric constituent units. Partial elucidation of the structure of the carbohydrate biopolymer based on GC-MS and NMR analysis showed the presence of two unique sets of tetrasaccharide repeating units that have 1→3 and 1→6 glycosidic linkages. This is also the first report of a Gram-positive bacterial polysaccharide with both fucose as a sugar monomer and 1→3 and 1→6 glycosidic linkages in the molecular backbone.

  17. Transcriptional regulation of SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 gene families encoding ABA signal core components during tomato fruit development and drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liang; Wang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Pei; Ren, Jie; Ji, Kai; Li, Qian; Li, Ping; Dai, Sheng-Jie; Leng, Ping

    2011-01-01

    In order to characterize the potential transcriptional regulation of core components of abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction in tomato fruit development and drought stress, eight SlPYL (ABA receptor), seven SlPP2C (type 2C protein phosphatase), and eight SlSnRK2 (subfamily 2 of SNF1-related kinases) full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from the tomato nucleotide database of NCBI GenBank. All SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 genes obtained are homologous to Arabidopsis AtPYL, AtPP2C, and AtSnRK2 genes, respectively. Based on phylogenetic analysis, SlPYLs and SlSnRK2s were clustered into three subfamilies/subclasses, and all SlPP2Cs belonged to PP2C group A. Within the SlPYL gene family, SlPYL1, SlPYL2, SlPYL3, and SlPYL6 were the major genes involved in the regulation of fruit development. Among them, SlPYL1 and SlPYL2 were expressed at high levels throughout the process of fruit development and ripening; SlPYL3 was strongly expressed at the immature green (IM) and mature green (MG) stages, while SlPYL6 was expressed strongly at the IM and red ripe (RR) stages. Within the SlPP2C gene family, the expression of SlPP2C, SlPP2C3, and SlPP2C4 increased after the MG stage; SlPP2C1 and SlPP2C5 peaked at the B3 stage, while SlPP2C2 and SlPP2C6 changed little during fruit development. Within the SlSnRK2 gene family, the expression of SlSnRK2.2, SlSnRK2.3, SlSnRK2.4, and SlSnRK2C was higher than that of other members during fruit development. Additionally, most SlPYL genes were down-regulated, while most SlPP2C and SlSnRK2 genes were up-regulated by dehydration in tomato leaf. PMID:21873532

  18. Transcriptional regulation of SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 gene families encoding ABA signal core components during tomato fruit development and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Wang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Pei; Ren, Jie; Ji, Kai; Li, Qian; Li, Ping; Dai, Sheng-Jie; Leng, Ping

    2011-11-01

    In order to characterize the potential transcriptional regulation of core components of abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction in tomato fruit development and drought stress, eight SlPYL (ABA receptor), seven SlPP2C (type 2C protein phosphatase), and eight SlSnRK2 (subfamily 2 of SNF1-related kinases) full-length cDNA sequences were isolated from the tomato nucleotide database of NCBI GenBank. All SlPYL, SlPP2C, and SlSnRK2 genes obtained are homologous to Arabidopsis AtPYL, AtPP2C, and AtSnRK2 genes, respectively. Based on phylogenetic analysis, SlPYLs and SlSnRK2s were clustered into three subfamilies/subclasses, and all SlPP2Cs belonged to PP2C group A. Within the SlPYL gene family, SlPYL1, SlPYL2, SlPYL3, and SlPYL6 were the major genes involved in the regulation of fruit development. Among them, SlPYL1 and SlPYL2 were expressed at high levels throughout the process of fruit development and ripening; SlPYL3 was strongly expressed at the immature green (IM) and mature green (MG) stages, while SlPYL6 was expressed strongly at the IM and red ripe (RR) stages. Within the SlPP2C gene family, the expression of SlPP2C, SlPP2C3, and SlPP2C4 increased after the MG stage; SlPP2C1 and SlPP2C5 peaked at the B3 stage, while SlPP2C2 and SlPP2C6 changed little during fruit development. Within the SlSnRK2 gene family, the expression of SlSnRK2.2, SlSnRK2.3, SlSnRK2.4, and SlSnRK2C was higher than that of other members during fruit development. Additionally, most SlPYL genes were down-regulated, while most SlPP2C and SlSnRK2 genes were up-regulated by dehydration in tomato leaf.

  19. Impact of the ATATÜRK DAM Lake on Agro-Meteorological Aspects of the Southeastern Anatolia Region Using Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcan, O.; Bookhagen, B.; Musaoglu, N.

    2012-07-01

    The Atatürk Dam is the fourth largest clay-cored rock fill dam in the world. It was constructed on the Euphrates River located in semi-arid Southeastern Turkey in the 1980s as the central component of a large-scale regional development project for the Southeastern Anatolia region (referred to as GAP). The construction began in 1983 and was completed in 1990. The dam and the hydroelectric power plant, which went into service after filling up the reservoir was accomplished in 1992. The Atatürk Dam, which has a height of 169 m, a total storage capacity of 48.7 million m3, and a surface area of about 817 km2 plays an important role in the development of Turkey's energy and agriculture sectors. In this study, the spatial and temporal impacts of the Atatürk Dam on agro-meteorological aspects of the Southeastern Anatolia region have been investigated. Change detection and environmental impacts due to water-reserve changes in Atatürk Dam Lake have been determined and evaluated using multi-temporal Landsat satellite imageries and meteorological datasets within a period of 1984 to 2011. These time series have been evaluated for three time periods. Dam construction period constitutes the first part of the study. Land cover/use changes especially on agricultural fields under the Atatürk Dam Lake and its vicinity have been identified between the periods of 1984 to 1992. The second period comprises the 10-year period after the completion of filling up the reservoir in 1992. At this period, Landsat and meteorological time-series analyses are examined to assess the impact of the Atatürk Dam Lake on selected irrigated agricultural areas. For the last 9-year period from 2002 to 2011, the relationships between seasonal water-reserve changes and irrigated plains under changing climatic factors primarily driving vegetation activity (monthly, seasonal, and annual fluctuations of rainfall rate, air temperature, humidity) on the watershed have been investigated using a 30-year

  20. Earthquake imprints on a lacustrine deltaic system: the Kürk Delta along the East Anatolian Fault (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; El-Ouahabi, Meriam; Garcia-Moreno, David; Avsar, Ulas; Altinok, Sevgi; Schmidt, Sabine; Cagatay, Namik

    2016-04-01

    Delta contains a sedimentary record primarily indicative of water level changes, but particularly sensitive to earthquake shaking, which results generally in soft-sediment-deformation structures. The Kürk Delta adjacent to a major strike-slip fault displays this type of deformation (Hempton and Dewey, 1983) as well as other types of earthquake fingerprints that are specifically investigated. This lacustrine delta stands at the south-western extremity of the Hazar Lake and is bound by the East Anatolian Fault (EAF), which generated earthquakes of magnitude 7 in eastern Turkey. Water level changes and earthquake shaking affecting the Kurk Delta have been reevaluated combining geophysical data (seismic-reflection profiles and side-scan sonar), remote sensing images, historical data, onland outcrops and offshore coring. The history of water level changes provides a temporal framework regarding the sedimentological record. In addition to the commonly soft-sediment-deformation previously documented, the onland outcrops reveal a record of deformation (faults and clastic dykes) linked to large earthquake-induced liquefactions. The recurrent liquefaction structures can be used to obtain a paleoseismological record. Five event horizons were identified that could be linked to historical earthquakes occurring in the last 1000 years along the EAF. Sedimentary cores sampling the most recent subaqueous sedimentation revealed the occurrence of another type of earthquake fingerprint. Based on radionuclide dating (137Cs and 210Pb), two major sedimentary events were attributed to the 1874-1875 earthquake sequence along the EAF. Their sedimentological characteristics were inferred based X-ray imagery, XRD, LOI, grain-size distribution, geophysical measurements. The events are interpreted to be hyperpycnal deposits linked to post-seismic sediment reworking of earthquake-triggered landslides. A time constraint regarding this sediment remobilization process could be achieved thanks to

  1. The Eukaryotic-Like Ser/Thr Kinase PrkC Regulates the Essential WalRK Two-Component System in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Libby, Elizabeth A; Goss, Lindsie A; Dworkin, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Most bacteria contain both eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr kinases (eSTKs) and eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr phosphatases (eSTPs). Their role in bacterial physiology is not currently well understood in large part because the conditions where the eSTKs are active are generally not known. However, all sequenced Gram-positive bacteria have a highly conserved eSTK with extracellular PASTA repeats that bind cell wall derived muropeptides. Here, we report that in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the PASTA-containing eSTK PrkC and its cognate eSTP PrpC converge with the essential WalRK two-component system to regulate WalR regulon genes involved in cell wall metabolism. By continuously monitoring gene expression throughout growth, we consistently find a large PrkC-dependent effect on expression of several different WalR regulon genes in early stationary phase, including both those that are activated by WalR (yocH) as well as those that are repressed (iseA, pdaC). We demonstrate that PrkC phosphorylates WalR in vitro and in vivo on a single Thr residue located in the receiver domain. Although the phosphorylated region of the receiver domain is highly conserved among several B. subtilis response regulators, PrkC displays specificity for WalR in vitro. Consistently, strains expressing a nonphosphorylatable WalR point mutant strongly reduce both PrkC dependent activation and repression of yocH, iseA, and pdaC. This suggests a model where the eSTK PrkC regulates the essential WalRK two-component signaling system by direct phosphorylation of WalR Thr101, resulting in the regulation of WalR regulon genes involved in cell wall metabolism in stationary phase. As both the eSTK PrkC and the essential WalRK two-component system are highly conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, these results may be applicable to further understanding the role of eSTKs in Gram-positive physiology and cell wall metabolism.

  2. Cloning and expression analyses of Sucrose non-fermenting-1-Related Kinase 1 (SnRK1b) gene during development of sorghum and maize endosperm, and its implicated role in sugar-to-starch metabolic transition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A full-length cDNA clone, SbSnRK1b (1530 bp, GenBank accession no. EF544393), encoding a putative serine/threonine protein kinase homologue of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SNF1, was isolated from developing endosperm of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (Moench) L.]. Multiple sequence alignment data show...

  3. Numerical analysis of the supercontinuum spectrum generation in a couple of photonic crystal fibers with different structure by using the RK4IP method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauterio-Cruz, J. P.; Hernández-García, J. C.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Pottiez, O.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Filoteo-Razo, J. D.; Samano-Aguilar, L. F.; Jauregui-Vazquez, D.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we performed a numerical analysis of the supercontinuum spectrum generation in a couple of photonic crystal fibers with different structure. The proposed configuration initially has an input pulse with hyperbolic secant profile to generate noise-like pulses as output signal, by the Runge-Kutta method (RK4IP). By using the same configuration, now these noise-like pulses are used as pump for supercontinuum generation obtaining a broad and good flatness spectrum. The numerical analysis presented here demonstrates the potential of noise-like pulses from a passively mode-locked fiber laser for broadband spectrum generation combining two different photonic crystal fibers. Besides this paper helps to understand the phenomena of supercontinuum generation which is mainly related to Raman self-frequency shift.

  4. Specific Anti-Leukemic Activity of the Peptide Warnericin RK and Analogues and Visualization of Their Effect on Cancer Cells by Chemical Raman Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Loiseau, Clémence; Augenstreich, Jacques; Marchand, Adrienne; Harté, Etienne; Garcia, Martine; Verdon, Julien; Mesnil, Marc; Lecomte, Sophie; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides can be used as therapeutic agents against cancer cells. Warnericin RK and derivatives (WarnG20D and WarnF14V) were tested on various, solid tumor or leukemia, cancer cells. These peptides appeared to be cytotoxic on all the cell types tested, cancerous as well healthy, but very interestingly displayed no deleterious effect on healthy mononuclear cells. The mode of action of the peptide was proposed to be membranolytic, using chemical Raman imaging. Addition of peptide induced a large disorganization of the membrane leading to the loss of the content of inner compartments of Jurkat cell, whereas no effect was observed on the healthy mononuclear cells. The less hemolytic peptides WarnG20D and WarnF14V could be good candidates for the leukemia treatment. PMID:27598770

  5. Promoters of the Broad Host Range Plasmid Rk2: Analysis of Transcription (Initiation) in Five Species of Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Greener, A.; Lehman, S. M.; Helinski, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    A broad host range cloning vector was constructed, suitable for monitoring promoter activity in diverse Gram-negative bacteria. This vector, derived from plasmid RSF1010, utilized the firefly luciferase gene as the reporter, since the assay for its bioluminescent product is sensitive, and measurements can be made without background from the host. Twelve DNA fragments with promoter activity were obtained from broad host range plasmid RK2 and inserted into the RSF1010 derived vector. The relative luciferase activities were determined for these fragments in five species of Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, four promoters were analyzed by primer extension to locate transcriptional start sites in each host. The results show that several of the promoters vary substantially in relative strengths or utilize different transcriptional start sites in different bacteria. Other promoters exhibited similar activities and identical start sites in the five hosts examined. PMID:1732166

  6. A porous silica rock ("tripoli") in the footwall of the Jurassic Úrkút manganese deposit, Hungary: composition, and origin through carbonate dissolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polgari, Marta; Szabo, Zoltan; Szabo-Drubina, Magda; Hein, James R.; Yeh, Hsueh-Wen

    2005-01-01

    The mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic compositions were determined for a white tripoli from the footwall of the Jurassic Úrkút Mn-oxide ore deposit in the Bakony Mountains, Hungary. The tripoli consists of quartz and chalcedony, with SiO2 contents up to 100 wt.%; consequently, trace-element contents are very low. Oxygen isotopes and quartz crystallinity indicate a low-temperature diagenetic origin for this deposit. The tripoli was formed by dissolution of the carbonate portion of the siliceous (sponge spicules) Isztimér Limestone. Dissolution of the carbonate was promoted by inorganic and organic acids generated during diagensis and left a framework composed of diagenetic silica that preserved the original volume of the limestone layer. The relative enrichment of silica and high porosity is the result of that carbonate dissolution. The silty texture of this highly friable rock is due to the structurally weak silica framework.

  7. Kinetic modeling of sporulation and product formation in stationary phase by Bacillus coagulans RK-02 vis-à-vis other Bacilli.

    PubMed

    Das, Subhasish; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2011-10-01

    A logistic kinetic model was derived and validated to characterize the dynamics of a sporogenous bacterium in stationary phase with respect to sporulation and product formation. The kinetic constants as determined using this model are particularly important for describing intrinsic properties of a sporogenous bacterial culture in stationary phase. Non-linear curve fitting of the experimental data into the mathematical model showed very good correlation with the predicted values for sporulation and lipase production by Bacillus coagulans RK-02 culture in minimal media. Model fitting of literature data of sporulation and product (protease and amylase) formation in the stationary phase by some other Bacilli and comparison of the results of model fitting with those of Bacillus coagulans helped validate the significance and robustness of the developed kinetic model.

  8. Gene regulation on broad host range plasmid RK2: identification of three novel operons whose transcription is repressed by both KorA and KorC.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C M; Ibbotson, J P; Wang, N Y; Smith, C A; Tipping, R; Loader, N M

    1988-01-01

    The product of the korA gene of broad host range plasmid RK2 is a key transcriptional repressor which regulates not only the expression of the essential replication gene trfA but also its own expression and that of the kilA operon. It has previously been proposed that korA also encodes a positive activator of transcription of the korC gene, which may act as a transcriptional antiterminator. Here we show that the action of korA in relation to korC can be explained entirely through the korA protein's property as a transcriptional repressor. The limited ability of the previously cloned korC gene to suppress kilC on its own is shown to be due to the fact that korC in RK2 is transcribed from the bla promoter of Tn1 which was deleted in the original korC clones. We demonstrate that korA is a second repressor along with korC of three operons, one of which encodes kilC, the other two not having been described previously and serving an as yet unknown function. We have designated these operons kcrA, B and C for KorC-regulated. Putative kilC is designated kcrC. The homology between the expression signals of these operons suggests that they have arisen by duplication. This is confirmed in the case of kcrA and B by the existence of considerable homology between the products of the first ORFs in each of these operons. Images PMID:2838814

  9. What do we know about the medical biography of Kemal Atatürk (1881-1938)? A summary of the state of knowledge and outlook on relevant issues for further research.

    PubMed

    Vatanoglu-Lutz, E Elif; Hot, Inci; Coban, Mustafa

    2013-08-01

    Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and first President of the Turkish republic, is the subject of many more or less 'heroic' biographies and few critical ones. His anamnesis, however, is only available in fragments. Many books omit details of Atatürk's health and life, for example his bloodline, his illness and eventually his death, his funeral prayer and ceremony and his burial. His liver problem, diagnosed as cirrhosis and said to be the cause of his death, is well described but his general health and other sicknesses are scarcely recorded. This paper provides an overview of his anamnesis as far as it is known, the literature describing it and the level of knowledge generally published, and it also indicates where original research in the archives is needed to complete the picture.

  10. Cloning of the maltose phosphorylase gene from Bacillus sp. strain RK-1 and efficient production of the cloned gene and the trehalose phosphorylase gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus SK-1 in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasushi; Yasutake, Nozomu; Oshima, Yoshie; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Tomita, Tetsuji; Miyoshi, Shinsuke; Yatake, Tsuneya

    2002-12-01

    The maltose phosphorylase (MPase) gene of Bacillus sp. strain RK-1 was cloned by PCR with oligonucleotide primers designed on the basis of a partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme. The MPase gene consisted of 2,655 bp encoding a theoretical protein with a Mr of 88,460, and had no secretion signal sequence, although most of the MPase activity was detected in the culture supernatant of RK-1. This cloned MPase gene and the trehalose phosphorylase (TPase) gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus SK-1 were efficiently expressed intracellularly under the control of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase promoter in Bacillus subtilis. The production yields were estimated to be more than 2 g of enzyme per liter of medium, about 250 times the production of the original strains, in a simple shake flask. About 60% of maltose was converted into trehalose by the simultaneous action of both enzymes produced in B. subtilis.

  11. Structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} (R=K, Rb, Cs): A first-principle calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Shengli; Huang, Shiping; Wang, Peng; Tian, Huiping

    2013-02-15

    R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} (R=K, Rb, Cs) series have been investigated with respect to the crystal structure, electronic and thermodynamic properties using first-principle methods based on density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation. The optimized structures and atomic coordinates are in good agreement with the experimental data. The strong covalent interactions are obtained between Zn and H atoms in the 18-electron [ZnH{sub 4}]{sup 2-} complex, while an ionic interaction is found between [ZnH{sub 4}]{sup 2-} and R atom. The formation enthalpies show that the formations of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides are all exothermic at 298 K. The vibration free energies of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} show that the thermodynamic stabilities of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides decrease with the increasing diameter of R atom. Two possible decomposition reactions of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} series have been suggested in our work. One (reaction one) is that R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides decomposes to elements directly, and the other (reaction two) is that R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides decomposes to RH hydride. The results show that the first decomposition reaction is more favorable one. The spontaneous decomposition reaction of K{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides occur upon 465 K via reaction one, and 564 K via reaction two, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Total charge density of K{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic and thermodynamic properties of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} (R=K, Rb, Cs) were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formations of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} hydrides are all exothermic at 298 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermodynamic stabilities decrease with the increasing diameter of R atom. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two possible decomposition pathways of R{sub 3}ZnH{sub 5} were investigated.

  12. Solostamenides paucitesticulatus n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Mazocraeidea: Microcotylidae) from the freshwater mullet Liza abu (Heckel) (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae) from Atatürk Reservoir on the Euphrates River in southern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Öktener, Ahmet

    2015-06-01

    Solostamenides paucitesticulatus n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Microcotylidae) from the gills of the abu mullet Liza abu (Heckel) in Atatürk Reservoir in southern Turkey is described. Among other features, the new species is easily distinguished from its three congeners, Solostamenides mugilis (Vogt, 1879), Solostamenides pseudomugilis (Hargis, 1956) and Solostamenides polyorchis Zhang & Yang, 2001, by having fewer hooks on the male copulatory organ (11 to 14), testes (5 to 9), and haptoral clamps (31 to 47).

  13. SnRK2.6/OST1 from Arabidopsis thaliana: cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of K50N and D160A mutants

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Cristina; Martinez-Ripoll, Martin; Albert, Armando

    2011-01-01

    The SnRK2.6 (SNF1-related kinase 2.6) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana encodes the serine/threonine protein kinase SnRK2.6/OST1 (OPEN STOMATA 1). It plays a central role in the drought-tolerance mechanism. OST1 is in fact the main positive effector in the hydric stress response. The SnRK2.6 gene was cloned into the pGEX4T1 plasmid, mutated and expressed in Escherichia coli, allowing purification to homogeneity in two chromatographic steps. Various OST1 mutants yielded crystals using vapour-diffusion techniques, but only one mutant showed a good diffraction pattern. Its crystals diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 77.7, b = 99.4, c = 108.4 Å. A promising molecular-replacement solution was found using the structure of the kinase domain of the yeast AMP-activated protein kinase SNF1 (PDB entry 3hyh) as the search model. PMID:21393844

  14. GsAPK, an ABA-activated and calcium-independent SnRK2-type kinase from G. soja, mediates the regulation of plant tolerance to salinity and ABA stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liang; Ji, Wei; Gao, Peng; Li, Yong; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi; Chen, Qin; Zhu, Yanming

    2012-01-01

    Plant Snf1 (sucrose non-fermenting-1) related protein kinase (SnRK), a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases, has been implicated as a crucial upstream regulator of ABA and osmotic signaling as in many other signaling cascades. In this paper, we have isolated a novel plant specific ABA activated calcium independent protein kinase (GsAPK) from a highly salt tolerant plant, Glycine soja (50109), which is a member of the SnRK2 family. Subcellular localization studies using GFP fusion protein indicated that GsAPK is localized in the plasma membrane. We found that autophosphorylation and Myelin Basis Protein phosphorylation activity of GsAPK is only activated by ABA and the kinase activity also was observed when calcium was replaced by EGTA, suggesting its independence of calcium in enzyme activity. We also found that cold, salinity, drought, and ABA stress alter GsAPK gene transcripts and heterogonous overexpression of GsAPK in Arabidopsis alters plant tolerance to high salinity and ABA stress. In summary, we demonstrated that GsAPK is a Glycine soja ABA activated calcium independent SnRK-type kinase presumably involved in ABA mediated stress signal transduction.

  15. Brachypodium distachyon BdPP2CA6 Interacts with BdPYLs and BdSnRK2 and Positively Regulates Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Wei, Qiuhui; Shi, Jiaochun; Jin, Xia; He, Yuan; Zhang, Yang; Luo, Qingchen; Wang, Yuesheng; Chang, Junli; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2017-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is essential in plant responding to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although ABA signaling model is well established in Arabidopsis, ABA receptor PYL family and clade A PP2C subfamily are not yet characterized in monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon. In this study, we identified 12 PYLs and 8 clade A PP2Cs from B. distachyon genome and successfully cloned 12 PYLs and 7 clade A PP2Cs. Bioinformatic and expression analyses showed that most of the identified genes respond to several signal molecules and abiotic stresses. Protein–protein interaction analysis revealed that many BdPYLs and BdPP2CAs participate in the classic ABA-PYL-PP2C-SnRK2 signaling pathway. A clade A PP2C, designated BdPP2CA6, interacted with BdPYL11 in the absence of ABA and localized in nucleus. Most clade A PP2C members from Arabidopsis showed negatively regulation in ABA signaling pathway, whereas BdPP2CA6-overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis showed ABA hypersensitive phenotype, resulting in enhanced stomatal closure and salinity tolerance. Our results indicate that BdPP2CA6 positively regulates ABA and stress signal pathway in transgenic Arabidopsis plant seedlings. PMID:28293246

  16. Structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of R3ZnH5 (R=K, Rb, Cs): A first-principle calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Shengli; Huang, Shiping; Wang, Peng; Tian, Huiping

    2013-02-01

    R3ZnH5 (R=K, Rb, Cs) series have been investigated with respect to the crystal structure, electronic and thermodynamic properties using first-principle methods based on density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation. The optimized structures and atomic coordinates are in good agreement with the experimental data. The strong covalent interactions are obtained between Zn and H atoms in the 18-electron [ZnH4]2- complex, while an ionic interaction is found between [ZnH4]2- and R atom. The formation enthalpies show that the formations of R3ZnH5 hydrides are all exothermic at 298 K. The vibration free energies of R3ZnH5 show that the thermodynamic stabilities of R3ZnH5 hydrides decrease with the increasing diameter of R atom. Two possible decomposition reactions of R3ZnH5 series have been suggested in our work. One (reaction one) is that R3ZnH5 hydrides decomposes to elements directly, and the other (reaction two) is that R3ZnH5 hydrides decomposes to RH hydride. The results show that the first decomposition reaction is more favorable one. The spontaneous decomposition reaction of K3ZnH5 hydrides occur upon 465 K via reaction one, and 564 K via reaction two, respectively.

  17. Brachypodium distachyon BdPP2CA6 Interacts with BdPYLs and BdSnRK2 and Positively Regulates Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wei, Qiuhui; Shi, Jiaochun; Jin, Xia; He, Yuan; Zhang, Yang; Luo, Qingchen; Wang, Yuesheng; Chang, Junli; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2017-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is essential in plant responding to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although ABA signaling model is well established in Arabidopsis, ABA receptor PYL family and clade A PP2C subfamily are not yet characterized in monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon. In this study, we identified 12 PYLs and 8 clade A PP2Cs from B. distachyon genome and successfully cloned 12 PYLs and 7 clade A PP2Cs. Bioinformatic and expression analyses showed that most of the identified genes respond to several signal molecules and abiotic stresses. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that many BdPYLs and BdPP2CAs participate in the classic ABA-PYL-PP2C-SnRK2 signaling pathway. A clade A PP2C, designated BdPP2CA6, interacted with BdPYL11 in the absence of ABA and localized in nucleus. Most clade A PP2C members from Arabidopsis showed negatively regulation in ABA signaling pathway, whereas BdPP2CA6-overexpression transgenic Arabidopsis showed ABA hypersensitive phenotype, resulting in enhanced stomatal closure and salinity tolerance. Our results indicate that BdPP2CA6 positively regulates ABA and stress signal pathway in transgenic Arabidopsis plant seedlings.

  18. A comparative study of the St. Jude Medical and Björk-Shiley convexo-concave prostheses in isolated valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Aramendi, J I; Castellanos, E; Serrano, A; Madiedo, J B; Ortiz De Salazar, A; Agosti, J

    1991-01-01

    This is a study of 199 consecutive patients who survived isolated mitral or aortic valve replacement with a Björk-Shiley (B-S) or St. Jude Medical (SJM) prostheses. Mean follow-up was 36 months. Preoperative status was similar for both groups (B-S or SMJ). Five year survival rates for mitral valve replacement (MVR) were 91% for B-S and SJM, and for aortic valve replacement (AVR) 96% vs 91% for SJM (p less than 0.06). Linearized incidence of thromboembolism in MVR was 5.62% patient year for BS and 5.23% patient year for SJM (p = NS). Classical risk factors for thromboembolism were evaluated on a univariate analysis: no single risk factor was identified. Only the association of two or more was possibly significant. The presence of inadequate anticoagulation (prothrombin index greater than 50%) was the main risk factor for thromboembolism, as the incidence rate was 19% per patient year when poorly anticoagulated versus 4.6% per patient year incidence in the whole series (p less than 0.01).

  19. Youths' perception and knowledge towards environmental problems in a developing country: in the case of Atatürk University, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kulözü, Neslihan

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the perception and knowledge of environmental problems among students of Atatürk University, Turkey, as a developing country, by comparing their perceptions with known facts about environmental problems at local, national, and global levels. In addition, the correlation between the student groups and their knowledge levels and the differences between the student groups according to their knowledge levels when taking age and gender into account are explored. To this end, the research designed as a case study and pursued an exploratory approach revealed that major perceived environmental problems show differences at local, national, and global levels; that consensus on both major perceived problems and knowledge decreases from a local to global level; that a weak correlation exists between the age (r (205) = -.010; .002; -.071) and gender groups (r (205) = -.099; -.125; .065) in terms of their knowledge at local, national, and global level, respectively; and that the contribution of knowledge at a national level can help to explain differences among the age groups (-.304; .102; -.148) at national level and the gender groups (.131; -.205) at national and global levels.

  20. Velocity of closure of Björk-Shiley Convexo-Concave mitral valves: effect of mitral annulus orientation and rate of left ventricular pressure rise.

    PubMed

    Blick, E F; Wieting, D W; Inderbitzen, R; Schreck, S; Stein, P D

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine analytically the hemodynamic factors that affect the closing velocity of the disc of Björk-Shiley convexo-concave (BSCC) prosthetic mitral valves. The motion of the BSCC disk was modelled by Newton's second law written in the form of a second order differential equation which expressed the instantaneous angle of the disc with respect to the valve ring as a function of the instantaneous pressure drop across the mitral valve, delta P(t), and the angle of the pressure gradient vector acting upon the disc during closure. The disc closes in response to the negative pressure drop created by the crossover of left atrial and left ventricular (LV) pressures. The rate of closure depends on the rate of development of the pressure drop across the valve, d delta P/dt, which is largely dependent upon the rate of change of left ventricular pressure during isovolumic contraction, LV dP/dt. The closure rate is also strongly dependent on the initial angle of the pressure drop vector with respect to the disc. The disc was predicted to reach its highest velocity at the moment of impact, based on the Runge-Kutta solution. Modelling suggests that a high LV dP/dt during valve closure or distorted LV geometry, causing the angle between the fully open disc and the pressure drop vector to shift, will cause the valve to have a high velocity at the moment of impact and may produce high impact loads.

  1. Potential action of extract of Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen to control Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks.

    PubMed

    Anholeto, Luís Adriano; Oliveira, Patrícia Rosa de; Rodrigues, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira; Spindola, Caroline Dos Santos; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Pizano, Marcos Aparecido; Castro, Karina Neoob de Carvaldo; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2017-01-01

    The use of synthetic acaricides is currently the main method to control ticks. However, the indiscriminate use of these chemicals can lead to the selection of resistant individuals and in the accumulation of chemical residues in the environment, contaminating the soil and water streams, consequently affecting the flora, fauna, and the human beings as well. In this sense, the objective of this study was to investigate the acaricidal effect of crude ethanolic extract of Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen aerials parts at different concentrations on fed males and semi-engorged females of A. cajennense s.s. An in vitro bioassay (Adult Immersion Test) was carried out to determine the lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of ethanolic extract, calculated by Probit analysis. The results showed that the fed males were sensitive to all the concentrations of A. oleracea ethanolic extract, and mortality rate progressively increased (15-65%) in higher ethanolic extract concentrations. However, semi-engorged females were not sensitive to all the concentrations used here. In the highest concentration (100mg/mL), a mortality rate of 100% was observed after 72h of exposure, indicating that the acaricidal effect would probably be dose-dependent. The LC50 values obtained for the fed A. cajennense s.s males and semi-engorged females were 29.4534mg/mL (limits: 24.4467-41.3847mg/mL) and LC50=17.6335mg/mL (limits: 5.2506-23.5335mg/mL), respectively.

  2. Kinetic characterization of the WalRKSpn (VicRK) two-component system of Streptococcus pneumoniae: dependence of WalKSpn (VicK) phosphatase activity on its PAS domain.

    PubMed

    Gutu, Alina D; Wayne, Kyle J; Sham, Lok-To; Winkler, Malcolm E

    2010-05-01

    The WalRK two-component system plays important roles in maintaining cell wall homeostasis and responding to antibiotic stress in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. In the major human pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, phosphorylated WalR(Spn) (VicR) response regulator positively controls the transcription of genes encoding the essential PcsB division protein and surface virulence factors. WalR(Spn) is phosphorylated by the WalK(Spn) (VicK) histidine kinase. Little is known about the signals sensed by WalK histidine kinases. To gain information about WalK(Spn) signal transduction, we performed a kinetic characterization of the WalRK(Spn) autophosphorylation, phosphoryltransferase, and phosphatase reactions. We were unable to purify soluble full-length WalK(Spn). Consequently, these analyses were performed using two truncated versions of WalK(Spn) lacking its single transmembrane domain. The longer version (Delta35 amino acids) contained most of the HAMP domain and the PAS, DHp, and CA domains, whereas the shorter version (Delta195 amino acids) contained only the DHp and CA domains. The autophosphorylation kinetic parameters of Delta35 and Delta195 WalK(Spn) were similar [K(m)(ATP) approximately 37 microM; k(cat) approximately 0.10 min(-1)] and typical of those of other histidine kinases. The catalytic efficiency of the two versions of WalK(Spn) approximately P were also similar in the phosphoryltransfer reaction to full-length WalR(Spn). In contrast, absence of the HAMP-PAS domains significantly diminished the phosphatase activity of WalK(Spn) for WalR(Spn) approximately P. Deletion and point mutations confirmed that optimal WalK(Spn) phosphatase activity depended on the PAS domain as well as residues in the DHp domain. In addition, these WalK(Spn) DHp domain and DeltaPAS mutations led to attenuation of virulence in a murine pneumonia model.

  3. IGY: A New Model for LGBTQ Youth Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Orren

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the experiences of homosexual teenagers who are members of the Israeli lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer youth organization called Israel Gay Youth. Through an interview-based study with members and counselors, this study reveals how although various therapeutic practices take place during the weekly meetings, all…

  4. Geodetic activities of the Department of Defense under IGY programs

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, O.W.; Daugherty, K.I.

    1983-10-16

    Attention is given to the U.S. Department of Defence (DOD) activities that contributed to the International Geophysical Year's active, passive, and cooperative satellite programs. The DOD continues to support the deployment, enhancement, and application of novel technology in such areas as satellite altimetry, gravity radiometry, inertial surveying, interferometry, airborne gravimetry, inertial surveying, and CCD and laser methods for geodetic astronomy. Also noted are such major department initiatives as the Global Positioning System, which will become operational toward the end of this decade.

  5. Resistance to Neuraminidase Inhibitors Conferred by an R292K Mutation in a Human Influenza Virus H7N9 Isolate Can Be Masked by a Mixed R/K Viral Population

    PubMed Central

    Yen, H.-L.; McKimm-Breschkin, J. L.; Choy, K.-T.; Wong, D. D. Y.; Cheung, P. P. H.; Zhou, J.; Ng, I. H.; Zhu, H.; Webby, R. J.; Guan, Y.; Webster, R. G.; Peiris, J. S. M.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We characterized the A/Shanghai/1/2013 virus isolated from the first confirmed human case of A/H7N9 disease in China. The A/Shanghai/1/2013 isolate contained a mixed population of R (65%; 15/23 clones) and K (35%; 8/23 clones) at neuraminidase (NA) residue 292, as determined by clonal sequencing. A/Shanghai/1/2013 with mixed R/K at residue 292 exhibited a phenotype that is sensitive to zanamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate by the enzyme-based NA inhibition assay. The plaque-purified A/Shanghai/1/2013 with dominant K292 (94%; 15/16 clones) showed sensitivity to zanamivir that had decreased by >30-fold and to oseltamivir carboxylate that had decreased by >100-fold compared to its plaque-purified wild-type counterpart possessing dominant R292 (93%, 14/15 clones). In Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, the plaque-purified A/Shanghai/1/2013-NAK292 virus exhibited no reduction in viral titer under conditions of increasing concentrations of oseltamivir carboxylate (range, 0 to 1,000 µM) whereas the replication of the plaque-purified A/Shanghai/1/2013-NAR292 and the A/Shanghai/2/2013 viruses was completely inhibited at 250 µM and 31.25 µM of oseltamivir carboxylate, respectively. Although the plaque-purified A/Shanghai/1/2013-NAK292 virus exhibited lower NA enzyme activity and a higher Km for 2′-(4-methylumbelliferryl)-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid than the wild-type A/Shanghai/1/2013-NAR292 virus, the A/Shanghai/1/2013-NAK292 virus formed large plaques and replicated efficiently in vitro. Our results confirmed that the NA R292K mutation confers resistance to oseltamivir, peramivir, and zanamivir in the novel human H7N9 viruses. Importantly, detection of the resistance phenotype may be masked in the clinical samples containing a mixed population of R/K at NA residue 292 in the enzyme-based NA inhibition assay. PMID:23860768

  6. Usefulness of the rK39-Immunochromatographic Test, Direct Agglutination Test, and Leishmanin Skin Test for Detecting Asymptomatic Leishmania Infection in Children in a New Visceral Leishmaniasis Focus in Amhara State, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gadisa, Endalamaw; Custodio, Estefanía; Cañavate, Carmen; Sordo, Luis; Abebe, Zelalem; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Yamuah, Lawrence; Engers, Howard; Moreno, Javier; Cruz, Israel

    2012-01-01

    In areas where visceral leishmaniasis is anthroponotic, asymptomatically infected patients may play a role in transmission. Additionally, the number of asymptomatic patients in a disease-endemic area will also provide information on transmission dynamics. Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts (Amhara State, Ethiopia) are now considered newly established areas to which visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In selected villages in these districts, we conducted a study to assess the usefulness of different approaches to estimate the asymptomatic infection rate. Of 605 participants, the rK39 immunochromatographic test was able to detect asymptomatic infection in 1.5% (9 of 605), direct agglutination test in 5.3% (32 of 605), and leishmanin skin test in 5.6% (33 of 589); the combined use of serologic methods and leishmanin skin test enabled detecting asymptomatic infection in 10.1% (61 of 605). We conclude that the best option to detect asymptomatic infection in this new visceral leishmaniasis–endemic focus is the combined use of the direct agglutination test and the leishmanin skin test. PMID:22556076

  7. The plasmid RK2 replication initiator protein (TrfA) binds to the sliding clamp beta subunit of DNA polymerase III: implication for the toxicity of a peptide derived from the amino-terminal portion of 33-kilodalton TrfA.

    PubMed

    Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Josh, Peter; Picault, Marc J; Wijffels, Gene; Dalrymple, Brian

    2006-08-01

    The broad-host-range plasmid RK2 is capable of replication and stable maintenance within a wide range of gram-negative bacterial hosts. It encodes the essential replication initiation protein TrfA, which binds to the host initiation protein, DnaA, at the plasmid origin of replication (oriV). There are two versions of the TrfA protein, 44 and 33 kDa, resulting from alternate in-frame translational starts. We have shown that the smaller protein, TrfA-33, and its 64-residue amino-terminal peptide (designated T1) physically interact with the Escherichia coli beta sliding clamp (beta(2)). This interaction appears to be mediated through a QLSLF peptide motif located near the amino-terminal end of TrfA-33 and T1, which is identical to the previously described eubacterial clamp-binding consensus motif. T1 forms a stable complex with beta(2) and was found to inhibit plasmid RK2 replication in vitro. This specific interaction between T1 and beta(2) and the ability of T1 to block DNA replication have implications for the previously reported cell lethality caused by overproduction of T1. The toxicity of T1 was suppressed when wild-type T1 was replaced with mutant T1, carrying an LF deletion in the beta-binding motif. Previously, T1 toxicity has been shown to be suppressed by Hda, an intermediate regulatory protein which helps prevent over-initiation in E. coli through its interaction with the initiator protein, DnaA, and beta(2). Our results support a model in which T1 toxicity is caused by T1 binding to beta(2), especially when T1 is overexpressed, preventing beta(2) from interacting with host replication proteins such as Hda during the early events of chromosome replication.

  8. The Plasmid RK2 Replication Initiator Protein (TrfA) Binds to the Sliding Clamp β Subunit of DNA Polymerase III: Implication for the Toxicity of a Peptide Derived from the Amino-Terminal Portion of 33-Kilodalton TrfA

    PubMed Central

    Kongsuwan, Kritaya; Josh, Peter; Picault, Marc J.; Wijffels, Gene; Dalrymple, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The broad-host-range plasmid RK2 is capable of replication and stable maintenance within a wide range of gram-negative bacterial hosts. It encodes the essential replication initiation protein TrfA, which binds to the host initiation protein, DnaA, at the plasmid origin of replication (oriV). There are two versions of the TrfA protein, 44 and 33 kDa, resulting from alternate in-frame translational starts. We have shown that the smaller protein, TrfA-33, and its 64-residue amino-terminal peptide (designated T1) physically interact with the Escherichia coli β sliding clamp (β2). This interaction appears to be mediated through a QLSLF peptide motif located near the amino-terminal end of TrfA-33 and T1, which is identical to the previously described eubacterial clamp-binding consensus motif. T1 forms a stable complex with β2 and was found to inhibit plasmid RK2 replication in vitro. This specific interaction between T1 and β2 and the ability of T1 to block DNA replication have implications for the previously reported cell lethality caused by overproduction of T1 (P. D. Kim, T. M. Rosche, and W. Firshein, Plasmid 43:214-222, 2000). The toxicity of T1 was suppressed when wild-type T1 was replaced with mutant T1, carrying an LF deletion in the β-binding motif. Previously, T1 toxicity has been shown to be suppressed by Hda, an intermediate regulatory protein which helps prevent overinitiation in E. coli through its interaction with the initiator protein, DnaA, and β2. Our results support a model in which T1 toxicity is caused by T1 binding to β2, especially when T1 is overexpressed, preventing β2 from interacting with host replication proteins such as Hda during the early events of chromosome replication. PMID:16855240

  9. On the standard model predictions for R_K and R_{K^*}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordone, Marzia; Isidori, Gino; Pattori, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the impact of radiative corrections in the ratios Γ [B→ M μ ^+μ ^-]/Γ [B→ M e^+e^-] when the meson M is a K or a K^*. Employing the cuts on m^2_{ℓ ℓ } and the reconstructed B-meson mass presently applied by the LHCb Collaboration, such corrections do not exceed a few %. Moreover, their effect is well described (and corrected for) by existing Monte Carlo codes. Our analysis reinforces the interest of these observables as clean probe of physics beyond the Standard Model.

  10. Protection against Coccidiosis: Role of Passive Immunity (Immediate Immunity) Mediated by Hyperimmune IgY Antibodies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry with substantial economic consequences. Although good management practices and live vaccination with prophylactic medication have helped to reduce the spread of coccidiosis, alternative control strategies need to be developed due to the evid...

  11. Integrated geographic information systems (IGIS) analysis and definition of the tectonic framework of northern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Pina, Carlos Manuel

    Crustal rupture structures reactivated in the course of the tectonic history of northern Mexico are the surface expressions of planes of weakness, in the form of simple or composite rectilinear features or slightly curved, defined as lineaments. Unless otherwise defined as strike-slip faults, lineaments are part of parallel and sub-parallel oblique convergent or oblique divergent tectonic zones cross cutting the Sierra Madre Occidental and northern Mexico, in a NW trend. These shear zones are the response to the oblique subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Kinematic analysis of five selected sites in northern Mexico, three basins and two compressional shear zones, proved possible a combination of shear mechanism diagram and models from analogue materials, with satellite imagery and geographic information systems, as an aid to define strike-slip fault motion. This was done using a reverse engineering process by comparing geometries. One of the sites assessed, involving the Parras Basin, Coahuila Block (CB), San Marcos fault, a postulated PBF-1 fault, allowed for palinpastic reconstruction of the CB that corroborated the results of the vector motion defined, in addition to an extension of ˜25% in a northwest southeast direction. A GIS-based compilation and georeferenced regional structural studies by several researchers were used as ground control areas (GCA); their interpolation and interpretation, resulted in a tectonic framework map of northern Mexico. In addition, shaded relief models overlaid by the lineaments / fault layer allowed structural analyses of basins related to these major structures. Two important results were obtained from this study: the Tepehuanes-San Luis-fault (TSL) and the Guadalupe fault, named herein, displaces the Villa de Reyes graben, and the Aguascalientes graben, respectively, to the SE, confirming their left lateral vector motion; afterwards TSL was displaced south by the right lateral strike slip Taxco-San Miguel de Allende fault. The second result refers to the hypothesis that the Mesa Central was brought to its present location by a subduction zone located to the north. This subduction zone coincides with several researchers who postulated the idea. The compressional zones refer to segments of the Sinforosa and a postulated Aquinquari fault located in the stratotectonic Guerrero Terrane regarded as a highly mineralized zone. Negative anomalies near -200 milligals are strongly suggestive of a cratonic block identified in western Chihuahua, it being named the Western Chihuahua Cratonic Block (WCCB). In the southwestern portion of the North American craton the age provinces are well documented, but the block versus mobile belt idea has not been put forth or emphasized. The present study combines data of several types, sedimentological, structural, igneous geochemistry, and geochronologic data to evaluate this behavior in SW NA, and the proposed block is tested against these data. The presence of the WCCB is supported by a wide variety of data. Basins, troughs, aulacogens, bimodal volcanism, and other rift and rift shoulder features, characterize the spatially constrained mobile belts. Mobile belts surrounding the WCCB contain geologic records of the events going back to 1.4 Ga, with different aspects being dominant over geologic time. Mobile belts will participate in compression,(subduction), extension (rifting), and transform (lateral) faulting. The WCCB may have been derived from closely, adjacent, North American craton by mobile belt action. This study has shown that integration of data is essential, because allows detection of differences in hypotheses for the same event in the same area. This integration capability is what makes integrated geographic information systems a powerful tool, not only for their synergy, but because they can be combined with specific techniques that provide data before going to conduct fieldwork. Whether the issue of defining the tectonic framework of northern Mexico can be resolved or not, depends on the viability of integrating volumes of data from research, hypotheses, or maps, and put together under the same geographic frame.

  12. The calorimeter system of the new muon <i>g>-2 experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzi, L. P.; Anastasi, A.; Bjorkquist, R.; Cauz, D.; Cantatore, G.; Dabagov, S.; Sciascio, G. Di; Di Stefano, R.; Fatemi, R.; Ferrari, C.; Fienberg, A. T.; Fioretti, A.; Frankenthal, A.; Gabbanini, C.; Gibbons, L. K.; Giovanetti, K.; Goadhouse, S. D.; Gohn, W. P.; Gorringe, T. P.; Hampai, D.; Hertzog, D. W.; Iacovacci, M.; Kammel, P.; Karuza, M.; Kaspar, J.; Kiburg, B.; Li, L.; Marignetti, F.; Mastroianni, S.; Moricciani, D.; Pauletta, G.; Peterson, D. A.; Pocanic, D.; Santi, L.; Smith, M. W.; Sweigart, D. A.; Tishchenko, V.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Venanzoni, G.; Wall, K. B.; Winter, P.; Yai, K.

    2015-12-02

    The electromagnetic calorimeter for the new muon (g–2) experiment at Fermilab will consist of arrays of PbF2 Cerenkov crystals read out by large-area silicon photo-multiplier (SiPM) sensors. Here, we report here the requirements for this system, the achieved solution and the results obtained from a test beam using 2.0–4.5 GeV electrons with a 28-element prototype array.

  13. Generation and characterization of chicken egg yolk antibodies (IgY) against TNFR1.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, M; Amirijavid, S; Entezari, M; Shafaroodi, H; Saghafi, Z Jokar

    2015-01-01

    TNF is from a big family of cytokines with different activities in different parts of the body. Among the various activities of TNFR1, induction of apoptosis by a receptor appears to be an attractive and promising one. This can be achieved through the death domain of the receptor in cells that are stimulated by ligand, to induce apoptosis. Activation of the receptor occurs through its occupation by ligands or its antagonists such as antibodies. Several kinds of antibodies, including antibodies of mammals and birds are used in the research and therapy field. Avian antibodies are highly regarded which is due to the many positive characteristics they have. Firstly, total protein of TNFR1 was cloned. Blood sampling was performed, white blood cell separation, extraction of RNA and at cDNA synthesis. After making sure from synthesis of cDNA, it was used as template for PCR reaction. The cloned fragment in the prokaryotic expression vector, pET28a, transferred to prokaryotic host, BL21(DE3) and the protein (TNFR1) expressed. After protein purification by affinity column were injected to immunize the chickens. Interestingly, antibodies purified from egg yolk of immunized chickens, in ELISA assay showed sufficient specificity. Such antibodies could able to ensure quick and immediate protection against several biotargets (Fig. 4, Ref. 37).

  14. A dominant gene for garnet brown seed coats at the Rk locus in Dorado common bean and mapping Rk to linkage group 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of the seed coats of Dorado (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is garnet brown (dark red kidney bean color) and differs from most other dry bean varieties in the Honduran red bean market class. A genetic investigation of the color of Dorado (same as DOR364) and G19833 (Liborino market class) see...

  15. A dominant gene for garnet brown seed coats at the Rk locus in Dorado common bean and mapping Rk to linkage group 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of the seed coats of Dorado (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is garnet brown (dark red kidney bean color) and differs from most other dry bean varieties in the Honduran red bean market class. A genetic investigation of the color of Dorado (same as DOR364) and G19833 (Liborino market class) seed co...

  16. A low-cost RK time advancing strategy for energy-preserving turbulent simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Francesco; Coppola, Gennaro; de Luca, Luigi; Balarac, Guillaume

    2014-11-01

    Energy-conserving numerical methods are widely employed in direct and large eddy simulation of turbulent flows. Semi-discrete conservation of energy is usually obtained by adopting the so-called skew-symmetric splitting of the non-linear term, defined as a suitable average of the divergence and advective forms. Although generally allowing global conservation of kinetic energy by convection, it has the drawback of being roughly twice as expensive as standard divergence or advective forms alone. A novel time-advancement strategy that retains the conservation properties of skew-symmetric-based schemes at a reduced computational cost has been developed in the framework of explicit Runge-Kutta schemes. It is found that optimal energy-conservation can be achieved by properly constructed Runge-Kutta methods in which only divergence and advective forms for the convective term are adopted. The new schemes can be considerably faster than skew-symmetric-based techniques. A general framework for the construction of optimized Runge-Kutta coefficients is developed, which has proven to be able to produce new methods with a specified order of accuracy on both solution and energy. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by numerical simulation of homogeneous isotropic turbulence.

  17. Robotic kidney transplantation: The Bakırköy experience

    PubMed Central

    Tuğcu, Volkan; Şener, Nevzat Can; Şahin, Selçuk; Yavuzsan, Abdullah Hızır; Akbay, Fatih Gökhan; Apaydın, Süheyla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Robotic kidney transplantation, first described by Hoznek and colleagues, and has been improved by investigators like Oberholzer and Menon. We realized the first robotic kidney transplant (RKT) in our clinic in December 2015. In this study, we aimed to present the first 15 cases we performed within 3 months. Materıal and methods Starting from January 2016, we performed 15 RKTs in our hospital. Before surgery, the whole robotic procedure was thoroughly explained to the patients and their informed consents were taken. Results We performed RKT in 7 male and 8 female patients. Mean patient age was 37.4±10.8 years. Mean body mass index of the patients was 22.6±3.35 kg/m2. Mean preoperative creatinine and hemoglobin levels were 6.14±2.12 mg/dL and 10.04±1.64 g/dL, respectively. Mean operative time was 300.3±104.2 minutes. Mean warm ischemia and re-warming times were 1.9±0.54 minutes and 73.3±30.7 minutes, respectively. We did not need any necessity to switch to open surgery, and any intraoperative complication did not develop in any patient. Lymphocele which is one of the most frequently encountered complications was not observed in our series. Conclusion We think that using a minimally invasive approach greater number of patients will be able to benefit from this treatment modality, and this important health issue may decrease significantly. PMID:27909625

  18. Reduced mycorrhizal colonization (rmc) tomato mutant lacks expression of SymRK signaling pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Aswathy; Bhargava, Sujata

    2012-01-01

    Comparison of the expression of 13 genes involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis was performed in a wild type tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv 76R) and its reduced mycorrhizal colonization mutant rmc in response to colonization with Glomus fasiculatum. Four defense-related genes were induced to a similar extent in the mutant and wild type AM colonized plants, indicating a systemic response to AM colonization. Genes related to nutrient exchange between the symbiont partners showed higher expression in the AM roots of wild type plants than the mutant plants, which correlated with their arbuscular frequency. A symbiosis receptor kinase that is involved in both nodulation and AM symbiosis was not expressed in the rmc mutant. The fact that some colonization was observed in rmc was suggestive of the existence of an alternate colonization signaling pathway for AM symbiosis in this mutant. PMID:23221680

  19. Enhanced cortical thickness measurements for rodent brains via Lagrangian-based RK4 streamline computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joohwi; Kim, Sun Hyung; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The cortical thickness of the mammalian brain is an important morphological characteristic that can be used to investigate and observe the brain's developmental changes that might be caused by biologically toxic substances such as ethanol or cocaine. Although various cortical thickness analysis methods have been proposed that are applicable for human brain and have developed into well-validated open-source software packages, cortical thickness analysis methods for rodent brains have not yet become as robust and accurate as those designed for human brains. Based on a previously proposed cortical thickness measurement pipeline for rodent brain analysis,1 we present an enhanced cortical thickness pipeline in terms of accuracy and anatomical consistency. First, we propose a Lagrangian-based computational approach in the thickness measurement step in order to minimize local truncation error using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Second, by constructing a line object for each streamline of the thickness measurement, we can visualize the way the thickness is measured and achieve sub-voxel accuracy by performing geometric post-processing. Last, with emphasis on the importance of an anatomically consistent partial differential equation (PDE) boundary map, we propose an automatic PDE boundary map generation algorithm that is specific to rodent brain anatomy, which does not require manual labeling. The results show that the proposed cortical thickness pipeline can produce statistically significant regions that are not observed in the previous cortical thickness analysis pipeline.

  20. A transfectant RK13 cell line permissive to classical caprine scrapie prion propagation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical scrapie is a form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) affecting domestic goats and sheep and disease is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal conformational isoform (PrP-Sc) of normal cellular prion protein (PrP-C) in the central nervous system and, in most cases, ly...

  1. The growth-defense pivot: crisis management in plants mediated by LRR-RK surface receptors.

    PubMed

    Belkhadir, Youssef; Yang, Li; Hetzel, Jonathan; Dangl, Jeffery L; Chory, Joanne

    2014-10-01

    Plants must adapt to their environment and require mechanisms for sensing their surroundings and responding appropriately. An expanded family of more than 200 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) transduces fluctuating and often contradictory signals from the environment into changes in nuclear gene expression. Two LRR-RKs, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), a steroid receptor, and FLAGELLIN SENSITIVE 2 (FLS2), an innate immune receptor that recognizes bacterial flagellin, act cooperatively to partition necessary growth-defense trade-offs. BRI1 and FLS2 share common signaling components and slightly different activation mechanisms. BRI1 and FLS2 are paradigms for understanding the signaling mechanisms of LRR-containing receptors in plants.

  2. Enhanced Cortical Thickness Measurements for Rodent Brains via Lagrangian-based RK4 Streamline Computation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joohwi; Kim, Sun Hyung; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The cortical thickness of the mammalian brain is an important morphological characteristic that can be used to investigate and observe the brain’s developmental changes that might be caused by biologically toxic substances such as ethanol or cocaine. Although various cortical thickness analysis methods have been proposed that are applicable for human brain and have developed into well-validated open-source software packages, cortical thickness analysis methods for rodent brains have not yet become as robust and accurate as those designed for human brains. Based on a previously proposed cortical thickness measurement pipeline for rodent brain analysis,1 we present an enhanced cortical thickness pipeline in terms of accuracy and anatomical consistency. First, we propose a Lagrangian-based computational approach in the thickness measurement step in order to minimize local truncation error using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Second, by constructing a line object for each streamline of the thickness measurement, we can visualize the way the thickness is measured and achieve sub-voxel accuracy by performing geometric post-processing. Last, with emphasis on the importance of an anatomically consistent partial differential equation (PDE) boundary map, we propose an automatic PDE boundary map generation algorithm that is specific to rodent brain anatomy, which does not require manual labeling. The results show that the proposed cortical thickness pipeline can produce statistically significant regions that are not observed in the the previous cortical thickness analysis pipeline. PMID:27065047

  3. Betulin inhibits cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans by targeting vicRK and gtf genes.

    PubMed

    Viszwapriya, Dharmaprakash; Subramenium, Ganapathy Ashwinkumar; Radhika, Solai; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, a multivirulent pathogen is considered the primary etiological agent in dental caries. Development of antibiotic resistance in the pathogen has created a need for novel antagonistic agents which can control the virulence of the organism and reduce resistance development. The present study demonstrates the in vitro anti-virulence potential of betulin (lup-20(29)-ene-3β,28-diol), an abundantly available plant triterpenoid against S. mutans UA159. Betulin exhibited significant dose dependent antibiofilm activity without affecting bacterial viability. At 240 µg/ml (biofilm inhibitory concentration), betulin inhibited biofilm formation and adherence to smooth glass surfaces by 93 and 71 % respectively. It reduced water insoluble glucan synthesis by 89 %, in conjunction with down regulation of gtfBC genes. Microscopic analysis confirmed the disruption in biofilm architecture and decreased exopolysaccharide production. Acidogenicity and aciduricity, key virulence factors responsible for carious lesions, were also notably affected. The induced auto-aggregation of cells upon treatment could be due to the down regulation of vicK. Results of gene expression analysis demonstrated significant down-regulation of virulence genes upon betulin treatment. Furthermore, the nontoxic effect of betulin on peripheral blood mononuclear cells even after 72 h treatment makes it a strong candidate for assessing its suitability to be used as a therapeutic agent.

  4. Correlation of Rk39-Specific Antibodies and Thyroid Function in Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ezzy, Ali Ibrahim Ali; Abood, Walaa Najm

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine whether anti-rK39 antibodies were diagnostic markers for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and to evaluate the correlation between age and gender in disease occurrence in Iraqi patients. In addition, it aimed to evaluate the correlation between thyroid hormones, i.e., thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) and anti-rK39 antibodies. Materials and Methods: Immunochromatographic technique used for anti-rK39 antibodies detection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for determining the serum TSH, T3, and T4 levels. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients with visceral leishmaniasis were included. The mean age was 27.65±11.60 years. Sixty-one patients (44.2%) were males, and their mean age was 29.65±11.10 years. The mean age of females was 26.12±11.89 years. Anti-rK39 antibodies were detected in 11.59% of patients. Anti-rK39 antibodies were equally detected (5.8%) in both genders without a significant difference (p=0.212) or correlation between gender and anti-rK39 antibodies (p=0.623). There was neither a significant difference (p>0.05) nor correlation between gender; age groups according to gender and anti-rK39 antibodies (p>0.05). Both males and females who were positive for anti-rK39 antibodies had normal TSH, T3, and T4 levels. Only one patient who was positive for anti-rK39 antibodies had an elevated T4 level (>12 μg/dL). Neither a significant difference nor correlation was reported among genders; anti-rK39 antibody positivity (p>0.05); and TSH, T3, and T4 levels. Conclusion: Anti-rK39 antibodies, a daignostic marker for visceral leishmaniasis have no correlation with patients age and gender. Serum TSH and T3 levels were not affected by visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis causes the increase in serum T4 levels. Thyroid involvement appears to be uncommon in patients who present with visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:28149142

  5. Reading Mustafa Kemal Atatürk on the Armenian genocide of 1915.

    PubMed

    Ulgen, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    The debate on where Mustafa Kemal Atatrk, the founder of modern Turkey and universally known as the "Father of the Turks," stood in regard to the colossal violence committed against Armenians during the First World War has become a fiercely contested part of the Turkish-Armenian reconciliation process, especially within the past few years. Ulgen aims to clear away the clouds of dust surrounding Kemal by delving into his texts and examining his role in the reification of Turkish denial of the destruction of Ottoman Armenians. Based on a textual analysis of his entire corpus, including Nutuk-the Great Speech of 1927 and the master-narrative of modern Turkish history and national identity-her article examines and documents how his charismatic leadership helped to consolidate both the myth of "murderous Armenians" and that of the Turks as an "oppressed nation" (mazlum millet), monumentalizing both in official Turkish historiography. Ulgen argues that Kemal's portrayal of Armenians and the Armenian Question was generally consistent across the years and in various political documents, as well as being consistent with contemporary Turkish representations of the events of 1915. What really tips the balance towards Turkish innocence in Kemal's representation of the conflict is not his framing of the issue per se but the stark difference in the rhetoric he deploys in depicting Armenian and Turkish atrocities and, hence, Armenians and Turks. The undeniable authority of this discursive regime is central to the resilience of Turkish denial today.

  6. Detection in chick embryo of fetoproteins not recognized by the dam's immune system and of soluble alloantigens. Presumptive teratogenic and abortogenic capacity of their specific IgY

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Burgos, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Background The aim of this work was to detect antigens, non-self to the dam, potentially present in chick embryo prior to organogenesis with a view to establishing the consequences of their neutralization on chick development. To this end, hens were immunized with the extract from embryos incubated for 53 h. Their eggs were either used to isolate immunoglobulins for dot and blot tests or incubated for variable lengths of time. Results Immunoblot tests, using adsorbed primary and secondary antibodies against paternal serum, revealed the presence of at least four antigens of 32, 34, 70 and 200 kDa that can be classified as soluble alloantigens. The same antibodies against chick embryo extracts (between 53 h and 9) showed at least five aged antigens of 34, 52, 90, 200 and 250 kDa, not detected in cock serum, that can thus be considered as soluble, foreign to the immunized hens and transitory antigens. The abnormalities observed included arrested development and fetal death, as well as minor functional damage in the few chicks that were born alive. The ratio of abnormal to normal embryos was 2.85 in the experimental group and 0.43 in the control group. With regard to congenital anomalies it must be said that of the 81 eggs incubated only four chicks were born alive, and of these, only one had a healthy birth and subsequent growth. The other three showed a transitory ataxia and one of them presented adult lumbar scoliosis and asymmetric pelvis. Conclusions The problem of recurrent spontaneous abortions is revisited in the light of these results. Some recent data suggest that soluble alloantigens may be candidates for a new etiological entity in recurrent spontaneous abortions. They can also be the cause of some congenital anomalies. The soluble, foreign, transitory antigens may have a similar effect although there is no supportive data in the literature. PMID:12831405

  7. Microscale depletion of high abundance proteins in human biofluids using IgY14 immunoaffinity resin: Analysis of human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid

    DOE PAGES

    Hyung, Seok Won; Piehowski, Paul D.; Moore, Ronald J.; ...

    2014-09-06

    Removal of highly abundant proteins in plasma is often carried out using immunoaffinity depletion to extend the dynamic range of measurements to lower abundance species. While commercial depletion columns are available for this purpose, they generally are not applicable to limited sample quantities (<20 µL) due to low yields stemming from losses caused by nonspecific binding to the column matrix. Additionally, the cost of the depletion media can be prohibitive for larger scale studies. Modern LC-MS instrumentation provides the sensitivity necessary to scale-down depletion methods with minimal sacrifice to proteome coverage, which makes smaller volume depletion columns desirable for maximizingmore » sample recovery when samples are limited, as well as for reducing the expense of large scale studies. We characterized the performance of a 346 µL column volume micro-scale depletion system, using four different flow rates to determine the most effective depletion conditions for ~6 μL injections of human plasma proteins and then evaluated depletion reproducibility at the optimum flow rate condition. Depletion of plasma using a commercial 10 mL depletion column served as the control. Results showed depletion efficiency of the micro-scale column increased as flow rate decreased, and that our micro-depletion was reproducible. We found, in an initial application, a 600 µL sample of human cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) pooled from multiple sclerosis patients was depleted and then analyzed using reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to demonstrate the utility of the system for this important biofluid where sample quantities are more commonly limited.« less

  8. Microscale depletion of high abundance proteins in human biofluids using IgY14 immunoaffinity resin: Analysis of human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hyung, Seok Won; Piehowski, Paul D.; Moore, Ronald J.; Orton, Daniel J.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Clauss, Therese R.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Brewer, Heather M.; Liu, Tao; Zhao, Rui; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-09-06

    Removal of highly abundant proteins in plasma is often carried out using immunoaffinity depletion to extend the dynamic range of measurements to lower abundance species. While commercial depletion columns are available for this purpose, they generally are not applicable to limited sample quantities (<20 µL) due to low yields stemming from losses caused by nonspecific binding to the column matrix. Additionally, the cost of the depletion media can be prohibitive for larger scale studies. Modern LC-MS instrumentation provides the sensitivity necessary to scale-down depletion methods with minimal sacrifice to proteome coverage, which makes smaller volume depletion columns desirable for maximizing sample recovery when samples are limited, as well as for reducing the expense of large scale studies. We characterized the performance of a 346 µL column volume micro-scale depletion system, using four different flow rates to determine the most effective depletion conditions for ~6 μL injections of human plasma proteins and then evaluated depletion reproducibility at the optimum flow rate condition. Depletion of plasma using a commercial 10 mL depletion column served as the control. Results showed depletion efficiency of the micro-scale column increased as flow rate decreased, and that our micro-depletion was reproducible. We found, in an initial application, a 600 µL sample of human cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) pooled from multiple sclerosis patients was depleted and then analyzed using reversed phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to demonstrate the utility of the system for this important biofluid where sample quantities are more commonly limited.

  9. Multiple IgH Isotypes Including IgD, Subclasses of IgM, and IgY Are Expressed in the Common Ancestors of Modern Birds.

    PubMed

    Han, Binyue; Yuan, Hui; Wang, Tao; Li, Bo; Ma, Li; Yu, Shuyang; Huang, Tian; Li, Yan; Fang, Dongming; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Yongsi; Qiu, Si; Guo, Ying; Fei, Jing; Ren, Liming; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; Hammarström, Lennart; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Hou, Yong; Pan, Qingjie; Xu, Xun; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2016-06-15

    Although evolutionarily just as ancient as IgM, it has been thought for many years that IgD is not present in birds. Based on the recently sequenced genomes of 48 bird species as well as high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of immune-related tissues, we demonstrate in this work that the ostrich (Struthio camelus) possesses a functional δ gene that encodes a membrane-bound IgD H chain with seven CH domains. Furthermore, δ sequences were clearly identified in many other bird species, demonstrating that the δ gene is widely distributed among birds and is only absent in certain bird species. We also show that the ostrich possesses two μ genes (μ1, μ2) and two υ genes (υ1, υ2), in addition to the δ and α genes. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that subclass diversification of both the μ and υ genes occurred during the early stages of bird evolution, after their divergence from nonavian reptiles. Although the positions of the two υ genes are unknown, physical mapping showed that the remaining genes are organized in the order μ1-δ-α-μ2, with the α gene being inverted relative to the others. Together with previous studies, our data suggest that birds and nonavian reptile species most likely shared a common ancestral IgH gene locus containing a δ gene and an inverted α gene. The δ gene was then evolutionarily lost in selected birds, whereas the α gene lost in selected nonavian reptiles. The data obtained in this study provide significant insights into the understanding of IgH gene evolution in tetrapods.

  10. Determination of spermatological properties of male Liza abu (Heckel, 1843) in Atatürk Dam Lake, Sanliurfa.

    PubMed

    Sahinöz, Erdinç; Aral, Faruk; Doğu, Zafer

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the spermatological characteristics in male L. abu during the spawning season. Semen was collected weekly by abdominal massage from 26 males in March. In collected semen, volume, motility, duration of motility, concentration and pH were determined. In the L. abu sperm, volume (microl), motility (%), duration of motility (s), concentration (x10(9)/ml), and pH values were found 45.76 +/- 3.55, 54.25 +/- 2.93, 330.15 +/- 37.92, 4.27 +/- 0.40 and 7.87 +/- 0.05, respectively. A correlation was found between semen volume and semen pH. Semen volume and the duration of sperm motility were higher in the 2nd and 3rd sampling dates than in the 1st and 4th sampling dates (P < 0.05; P < 0.01, respectively). Neither sperm motility nor sperm concentration was affected by sampling dates. Major changes in semen pH were observed in the 4th sampling date (P < 0.001). The Pearson correlation test presented significant relationships with the duration of motility, semen volume, and motility. Semen pH values were significantly correlated with the sperm concentration and semen volume. Sperm concentration was inversely correlated with semen volume. Sperm motility and duration significantly correlated with total weight. Total length significantly correlated with the duration of motility and total weight. In conclusion, these characteristics represent a valuable baseline dataset for establishing a semen quality standard and provide background information that may be useful for assisted breeding programs in this species.

  11. Application of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins in the control of terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongping; Li, Xiaoyu; Jin, Liji; Zhen, Yuhong; Lu, Yanan; Li, Shuying; You, Jiansong; Wang, Linhui

    2011-01-01

    Oral administration of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) has attracted considerable attention as a means of controlling infectious diseases of bacterial and viral origin. Oral administration of IgY possesses many advantages compared with mammalian IgG including cost-effectiveness, convenience and high yield. This review presents an overview of the potential to use IgY immunotherapy for the prevention and treatment of terrestrial and aquatic animal diseases and speculates on the future of IgY technology. Included are a review of the potential application of IgY for the treatment of livestock diseases such as mastitis and diarrhea, poultry diseases such as Salmonella, Campylobacteriosis, infectious bursal disease and Newcastle disease, as well as aquatic diseases like shrimp white spot syndrome virus, Yersina ruckeri and Edwardsiella tarda. Some potential obstacles to the adoption of IgY technology are also discussed.

  12. Immunomodulatory activity accompanying chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin Y.

    PubMed

    Polanowski, A; Zabłocka, A; Sosnowska, A; Janusz, M; Trziszka, T

    2012-12-01

    Immunity transfer from a mother to the newborn does not depend exclusively on immunoglobulins. Peptides, which are characterized by immunoregulatory properties that accompany IgG(2), known as proline-rich polypeptide complex (PRP), have been discovered for the first time in ovine colostrum. In this report we present new data showing that some immunoregulatory peptides associated with the main immunoglobulin class, IgY, are also present in the avian immune system. Cytokine-inducing activity of particular fractions obtained from ovine colostrum, IgG+ (IgG(2) containing PRP), IgG- (IgG(2) free of PRP), and purified PRP, was compared with that of crude egg yolk IgY (IgY+), additionally purified egg yolk IgY (IgY-), and polypeptides accompanying IgY named Yolkin (Y), using an ex vivo model of whole human blood cells. It was shown that both IgG+ fraction and PRP, but not IgG-, stimulated the whole blood cells to release tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β cytokines. Similar experiments performed with hen's egg IgY preparations showed that IgY+ and Y samples showed higher cytokine-inducing activity than samples additionally purified with the use of size exclusion chromatography (IgY-). The IgY+ at a dose of 100 μg was even more active than the positive lipopolysaccharide control. It was also found that Y is able to stimulate macrophage cell line J774.2 to release nitric oxide. The results obtained suggest that IgY, the main chicken immunoglobulin fraction, is accompanied by additional polypeptides and plays a role of a transporter of biologically active substances, which was observed in the case of colostral IgG.

  13. Non-LTE Effects on the H3+ Rovibrational Population in the Jovian Ionsophere rK Planets: Jupiter, Ionosphere: Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Ha

    2012-04-01

    We investigate non-LTE effects on the hrp\\ level populations to help the analysis of the observed 2 and 3.5 micron hrp\\ emissions from the Jovian ionosphere. We begin by constructing a simple three-level model, in order to compute the intensity ratio of the R(3,4) line in the hot band to the Q(1,0) line in the fundamental band, which have been observed in the Jovian auroral regions. We find that non-LTE effects produce only small changes in the intensity ratios for ambient hto\\ densities less than or equal to 5×1011 cm-3. We then construct two comprehensive models by including all the collisional and radiative transitions between pairs of more than a thousand known hrp\\ rovibrational levels with energies less than 10000 cm-1. By employing these models, we find that the intensity ratios of the lines in the hot and fundamental bands are affected greatly by non-LTE effects, but the details depend sensitively on the number of collisional and radiative transitions included in the models. Non-LTE effects on the rovibrational population become evident at about the same ambient hto\\ densities in the comprehensive models as in the three-level model. However, the models show that rotational temperatures derived from the intensities of rotational lines in the ν_2 and 2ν_2 bands may differ significantly from the ambient temperatures in the non-LTE regime. We find that significant non-LTE effects appear near and above the hrp\\ peak, and that the kinetic temperatures in the Jovian thermospheric temperatures derived from the observed line ratios in the 2 and 3.5 micron hrp\\ emissions are highly model dependent.

  14. TaFROG Encodes a Pooideae Orphan Protein That Interacts with SnRK1 and Enhances Resistance to the Mycotoxigenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Perochon, Alexandre; Jianguang, Jia; Kahla, Amal; Arunachalam, Chanemougasoundharam; Scofield, Steven R; Bowden, Sarah; Wallington, Emma; Doohan, Fiona M

    2015-12-01

    All genomes encode taxonomically restricted orphan genes, and the vast majority are of unknown function. There is growing evidence that such genes play an important role in the environmental adaptation of taxa. We report the functional characterization of an orphan gene (Triticum aestivum Fusarium Resistance Orphan Gene [TaFROG]) as a component of resistance to the globally important wheat (T. aestivum) disease, Fusarium head blight. TaFROG is taxonomically restricted to the grass subfamily Pooideae. Gene expression studies showed that it is a component of the early wheat response to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), which is a virulence factor produced by the causal fungal agent of Fusarium head blight, Fusarium graminearum. The temporal induction of TaFROG by F. graminearum in wheat spikelets correlated with the activation of the defense Triticum aestivum Pathogenesis-Related-1 (TaPR1) gene. But unlike TaPR1, TaFROG induction by F. graminearum was toxin dependent, as determined via comparative analysis of the effects of wild-type fungus and a DON minus mutant derivative. Using virus-induced gene silencing and overexpressing transgenic wheat lines, we present evidence that TaFROG contributes to host resistance to both DON and F. graminearum. TaFROG is an intrinsically disordered protein, and it localized to the nucleus. A wheat alpha subunit of the Sucrose Non-Fermenting1-Related Kinase1 was identified as a TaFROG-interacting protein based on a yeast two-hybrid study. In planta bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed the interaction. Thus, we conclude that TaFROG encodes a new Sucrose Non-Fermenting1-Related Kinase1-interacting protein and enhances biotic stress resistance.

  15. Serological evidence of Leishmania donovani infection in apparently healthy dogs using direct agglutination test (DAT) and rk39 dipstick tests in Kafta Humera, north-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kalayou, S; Tadelle, H; Bsrat, A; Abebe, N; Haileselassie, M; Schallig, H D F H

    2011-06-01

    Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) are protozoan parasites of significant medical and veterinary importance. Over the last decade, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has emerged as a major opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS in North Western Ethiopia. This paper reports on serological evidence of possible Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) infection in dogs using two serological tests: direct agglutination test (DAT) and Kalazar detect rapid test (KDRT). Two hundred and seventeen asymptomatic local breed dogs were examined for L. donovani antibodies. Performance of the DAT and KDRT was assessed in 162 matching samples of blood collected on filter paper and serum, respectively. Using DAT and KDRT testing in parallel, the overall seroprevalence of L. donovani infection was 27.7% and 14.8%, respectively. The degree of agreement was found to be fair (68.8%, k = 0.234). Univariable logistic regression analysis of some risk factors for L. donovani infection in dogs using DAT indicates that place of residence, sex, age, dog keeping purpose and dog housing condition were not significantly associated with seropositivity. The high proportion of positive dogs suggests the exposure of these animals to L. donovani infection and needs further investigation. Isolation and typing of the parasite aiming at confirming the role of these animals in maintenance and transmission of kala-azar is advocated.

  16. TaFROG encodes a Pooideae orphan protein that interacts with SnRK1 and enhances resistance to the mycotoxigenic fungus fusarium graminearum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All genomes encode taxonomically restricted ‘orphan’ genes, most of which are of unknown function. We report the functional characterization of the orphan gene TaFROG as a component of the wheat resistance to the globally important Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease. TaFROG is taxonomically restrict...

  17. Prospects for a soft x-ray FEL powered by a relativistic-klystron high-gradient accelerator (RK-HGA)

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, H.D.; Barletta, W.A.; Yu, S.S.; Schlueter, R.; Deis, G.A.

    1989-09-28

    We present here the concept of x-ray FELs using high gain, single-pass amplifiers with electron beams accelerated in high gradient structures powered by relativistic klystrons. Other authors have also considered x-ray FELs; the unique aspect of this paper is the use of high gradient acceleration. One of the authors has previously presented preliminary studies on this concept. The intent in this paper is to display the results of a top level design study on a high gain FEL, to present its sensitivity to a variety of fabrication and tuning errors, to discuss several mechanisms for increasing gain yet more, and to present explicitly the output characteristics of such an FEL. The philosophy of the design study is to find a plausible operating point which employs existing or nearly existing state-of-the-art technologies while minimizing the accelerator and wiggler lengths. The notion is to distribute the technical risk as evenly as possible over the several technologies so that each must advance only slightly in order to make this design feasible. This study entailed no systematic investigation of possible costs so that, for example, the sole criterion for balancing the trade-off between beam energy and wiggler length is that the two components have comparable lengths. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Bacterial Genome Partitioning: N-Terminal Domain of IncC Protein Encoded by Broad-Host-Range Plasmid RK2 Modulates Oligomerisation and DNA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Batt, Sarah M.; Bingle, Lewis E.H.; Dafforn, Tim R.; Thomas, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    ParA Walker ATPases form part of the machinery that promotes better-than-random segregation of bacterial genomes. ParA proteins normally occur in one of two forms, differing by their N-terminal domain (NTD) of approximately 100 aa, which is generally associated with site-specific DNA binding. Unusually, and for as yet unknown reasons, parA (incC) of IncP-1 plasmids is translated from alternative start codons producing two forms, IncC1 (364 aa) and IncC2 (259 aa), whose ratio varies between hosts. IncC2 could be detected as an oligomeric form containing dimers, tetramers and octamers, but the N-terminal extension present in IncC1 favours nucleotide-stimulated dimerisation as well as high-affinity and ATP-dependent non-specific DNA binding. The IncC1 NTD does not dimerise or bind DNA alone, but it does bind IncC2 in the presence of nucleotides. Mixing IncC1 and IncC2 improved polymerisation and DNA binding. Thus, the NTD may modulate the polymerisation interface, facilitating polymerisation/depolymerisation and DNA binding, to promote the cycle that drives partitioning. PMID:19109978

  19. Highly sensitive detection of cancer antigen human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 using novel chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Yang, Yiheng; Wang, Lifen; Lv, Li; Zhu, Jie; Han, Wenqi; Wang, Enxia; Guo, Xin; Zhen, Yuhong

    2015-05-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an important biomarker that plays a crucial role in therapeutic decision-making for breast cancer patients. Ensuring the accuracy and reproducibility of HER2 assays by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) requires high sensitive and specific antibodies. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a kind of avian antibody usually isolated from chicken egg yolks. Generation and use of IgY is of increasing interest in a wide variety of applications within the life sciences. In this study, IgY antibodies against two different truncated proteins of the extracellular domain (ECD) of human HER2 were produced, their sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Specific IgYs were produced by hens immunized with the ECD proteins of human HER2 in long-standing immunization response and were isolated from yolks with a purity of 90% by water dilution, salt precipitations and ultrafiltration. The anti-HER2 IgYs were analytically validated for specificity by ELISA, western blot, immunocytochemistry and IHC. The IgYs bound desired targets in cells and fixed tissues and showed high affinity to HER2. The results demonstrated the viability of detection of HER2 with IgYs and showed promise for the using of IgYs in strict clinical validation.

  20. Cyber Situation Awareness through Instance-Based Learning: Modeling the Security Analyst in a Cyber-Attack Scenario

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Chocolate Avenue Hershey PA 17033 Tel: 717-533-8845 Fax: 717-533-8661 E-mail: cust@igi-global.com Web site: http://www.igi-global.com Copyright © 2011...Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Anderson, J. R., & Lebiere, C. (2003). The New- ell test for a theory of mind. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26(5

  1. 76 FR 70227 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System and Quality Incentive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Advisors IGI IHS Global Insight IPPS Inpatient Prospective Payment System KDIGO Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes KDOQI Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative Kt/V A measure of dialysis adequacy where... basket update based on IHS Global Insight (IGI), Inc.'s forecast using the most recently available...

  2. Oral passive IgY-based immunotherapeutics: a novel solution for prevention and treatment of alimentary tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shofiqur; Van Nguyen, Sa; Icatlo, Faustino C; Umeda, Kouji; Kodama, Yoshikatsu

    2013-05-01

    This commentary summarizes the laboratory investigations and clinical trials published recently involving per-oral application of IgY supplemented food for specific orogastrointestinal disease prevention and control purposes. The prolonged use and misuse of conventional antibacterial drugs has spawned antibiotic resistant microbes prompting scientists to search for other germ-killing options. In particular, the use of IgY as a novel mode of immunotherapy using oral chicken immunoglobulin (IgY) to confer passive immunity has gained much interest as an inexpensive non-antibiotic alternative for the prophylaxis and treatment of a wide variety of infectious diseases. The stability of IgY in the orogastrointestinal tract and its safety profile has been well-documented. IgY has been used in the treatment or prevention of dental caries, periodontitis and gingivitis, gastritis and gastric ulcer, oral thrush and infant rotavirus diarrhea. The recent clinical trials on IgY with encouraging results has catapulted into the market novel nutraceutical or health supplements for therapeutic or prophylactic intervention based on the consumption of mono-specific or mixed IgY formulations. With recent trends in consumer preference for natural materials to alleviate health concerns, the increasing healthcare costs and the recent advances in drug delivery systems, IgY is likely to shift from its mainly functional food status toward pharmaceuticalization in the foreseeable future.

  3. Steady-State-Preserving Simulation of Genetic Regulatory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xilin

    2017-01-01

    A novel family of exponential Runge-Kutta (expRK) methods are designed incorporating the stable steady-state structure of genetic regulatory systems. A natural and convenient approach to constructing new expRK methods on the base of traditional RK methods is provided. In the numerical integration of the one-gene, two-gene, and p53-mdm2 regulatory systems, the new expRK methods are shown to be more accurate than their prototype RK methods. Moreover, for nonstiff genetic regulatory systems, the expRK methods are more efficient than some traditional exponential RK integrators in the scientific literature. PMID:28203268

  4. Prophylaxis and therapy of pandemic H1N1 virus infection using egg yolk antibody.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan-e; Wen, Junlin; Zhao, Suqing; Zhang, Kun; Zhou, Yingliang

    2014-09-01

    Influenza A virus infects the human respiratory system and causes acute and fatal pulmonary diseases. The emergence of drug-resistant viral strains highlights the need for alternative therapeutic approaches. In this work, IgY antibody was raised in immunized laying hens, and its antiviral activity was evaluated in the context of passive immunization. With inactivated whole H1N1 virus, high-titer IgY antibody 9.18 mg/mL egg yolk was induced by the eighth week after immunization. Western blotting and the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test demonstrated that the IgY antibody could specifically bind the neuraminidase and hemagglutinin of the H1N1 virus. In the plaque reduction assay, the IgY antibody reduced the H1N1 viral infection in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells. In a mouse model, the anti-H1N1 IgY antibody exhibited in vivo protection by reducing the infectious titer of the virus in the lung while maintaining the weight and normal structure of the lung tissue. Additionally, the anti-H1N1 IgY antibody exhibited protective activity comparable to the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. These results demonstrated that IgY can be easily produced and can offers an effective alternative approach for influenza control.

  5. The influence of year, laying date, egg fertility and incubation, individual hen, hen age and mass and clutch size on maternal immunoglobulin Y concentration in captive Steller's and spectacled eider egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Counihan, Katrina L; Maniscalco, John M; Bozza, Maryann; Hendon, Jill M; Hollmén, Tuula E

    2015-09-01

    Steller's eiders and spectacled eiders are sea duck species whose populations have declined significantly and infectious diseases could influence offspring survival. Therefore, the maternal transfer of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) into yolk was investigated in captive Steller's and spectacled eiders during the 2007-2013 breeding seasons. This project had two objectives: establish baseline IgY levels in Steller's and spectacled eider yolk under controlled captive conditions and evaluate the effect of year, laying date, egg fertility, egg incubation duration, individual hen, hen age and mass, and laying order to determine which variables influenced IgY levels. Average IgY concentrations were 0.03-0.48 mg ml(-1) in Steller's eider yolk and 0.10-0.51 mg ml(-1) in spectacled eider yolk. The year and individual hen influenced IgY concentration in Steller's and spectacled eider yolk. The laying date was negatively correlated with egg IgY levels for most Steller's eider hens, but laying order was positively correlated with egg IgY concentration for spectacled eiders.

  6. Protection Efficacy of Multivalent Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Eimeria tenella Infection in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Xu, JJ; Ren, CZ; Wang, SS; Liu, DD; Cao, LQ; Tao, JP

    2013-01-01

    Background To control avian coccidiosis with drug-independent strategy effectively and safely, multivalent hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was prepared and its ability to protect against Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated. Methods Hens were orally immunized with live oocysts of 5 species of Eimeria for six times, antibody titers in serum and yolk were monitored by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specific IgY was isolated, purified and lyophilized. IgY powder was orally administrated as dietary supplement in newly hatched chicks at various dosages. Birds were orally challenged with 10000 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella at 10 days of age, weighed and killed at 8 days post challenge, and the protective effect was assessed. Results The averge yeid of IgY was 9.2 mg/ml yolk, the antibody titer of IgY reached to 1:163840 per mg with the purity up to 98%. Chickens fed IgY resulted in reduced mortality, increased body weight gain (BWG), reduced oocyst shedding, reduced caecal lesion score and increased anti-coccidial index. In terms of BWG and caecal lesion, IgY significantly enhanced the resistance of bird at ≥ 0.05% of IgY in the diet when compared with the challenged control group (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed at dosage ≥ 0.5% and 1.0% when BWG and caecal lesion were compared with the sodium salinomycin control group, respectively (P>0.05). Conclusion Supplementing newly hatched chicks with Eimeria-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent avian coccidiosis. PMID:24454440

  7. Evaluation of Shiga toxin 2e-specific chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin: production and neutralization activity.

    PubMed

    Arimitsu, Hideyuki; Sasaki, Keiko; Kohda, Tomoko; Shimizu, Toshiyasu; Tsuji, Takao

    2014-11-01

    Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) against Shiga toxin 2e (Stx2e), a major cause of swine edema disease, was prepared to evaluate its possible clinical applications. The titer of Stx2e-specific IgY in egg yolk derived from three chickens that had been immunized with an Stx2e toxoid increased 2 weeks after primary immunization and remained high until 90 days after this immunization. Anti-Stx2e IgY was found to neutralize the toxicity of Stx2e by reacting with its A and B subunits, indicating that IgY is a cost-effective agent to develop for prophylactic foods or diagnosis kits for edema disease.

  8. Using immunoglobulin Y as an alternative antibody for the detection of hepatitis A virus in frozen liver sections.

    PubMed

    Bentes, Gentil Arthur; Lanzarini, Natália Maria; Lima, Lyana Rodrigues Pinto; Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; da Silva, Alexandre Dos Santos; Mouta Junior, Sergio da Silva E; Guimarães, Juliana Rodrigues; de Moraes, Marcia Terezinha Baroni; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2015-06-01

    An increasing amount of research has been conducted on immunoglobulin Y (IgY) because the use of IgY offers several advantages with respect to diagnostic testing, including its easy accessibility, low cost and translatability to large-scale production, in addition to the fact that it can be ethically produced. In a previous work, immunoglobulin was produced and purified from egg yolks (IgY) reactive to hepatitis A virus (HAV) antigens. In the present work, this anti-HAV-specific IgY was used in an indirect immunofluorescence assay to detect viral antigens in liver biopsies that were obtained from experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys. Fields that were positive for HAV antigen were detected in liver sections using confocal microscopy. In conclusion, egg yolks from immunised hens may be a reliable source for antibody production, which can be employed for immunological studies.

  9. NASA's Origins and the Dawn of the Space Age. No. 10; Monographs in Aerospace History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, David S. F.

    1998-01-01

    The twenty page narrative describes historical circumstances around Sputnik, the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and the formation of NASA from NACA in 1957-1958. Appendices include reproductions of relevant historical documents.

  10. The Influence of Antismoking Television Advertisements on Cessation by Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Mental Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Nonnemaker, James M.; Allen, Jane A.; Davis, Kevin C.; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C.; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State’s antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with

  11. The influence of antismoking television advertisements on cessation by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and mental health status.

    PubMed

    Nonnemaker, James M; Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Kamyab, Kian; Duke, Jennifer C; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Disparities in tobacco use and smoking cessation by race/ethnicity, education, income, and mental health status remain despite recent successes in reducing tobacco use. It is unclear to what extent media campaigns promote cessation within these population groups. This study aims to (1) assess whether exposure to antitobacco advertising is associated with making a quit attempt within a number of population subgroups, and (2) determine whether advertisement type differentialy affects cessation behavior across subgroups. We used data from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey (NY-ATS), a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey of adults aged 18 or older in New York State conducted quarterly from 2003 through 2011 (N = 53,706). The sample for this study consists of 9,408 current smokers from the total NY-ATS sample. Regression methods were used to examine the effect of New York State's antismoking advertising, overall and by advertisement type (graphic and/or emotional), on making a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Exposure to antismoking advertising was measured in two ways: gross rating points (a measure of potential exposure) and self-reported confirmed recall of advertisements. This study yields three important findings. First, antismoking advertising promotes quit attempts among racial/ethnic minority smokers and smokers of lower education and income. Second, advertising effectiveness is attributable in part to advertisements with strong graphic imagery or negative emotion. Third, smokers with poor mental health do not appear to benefit from exposure to antismoking advertising of any type. This study contributes to the evidence about how cessation media campaigns can be used most effectively to increase quit attempts within vulnerable subgroups. In particular, it suggests that a general campaign can promote cessation among a range of sociodemographic groups. More research is needed to understand what message strategies might work for those with poor

  12. Production and evaluation of chicken egg-yolk-derived antibodies against Campylobacter jejuni colonization-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Al-Adwani, Salma R; Crespo, Rocio; Shah, Devendra H

    2013-07-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most important causes of foodborne gastroenteritis. Chickens are considered a reservoir host of C. jejuni, and epidemiological studies have shown that contaminated chicken meat is a primary source of human infection. The objective of this study was to produce chicken egg-yolk-derived antibody (IgY) against the five C. jejuni colonization-associated proteins or CAPs (CadF, FlaA, MOMP, FlpA, and CmeC). Recombinant C. jejuni CAPs were expressed in Escherichia coli and were purified by affinity chromatography. Specific-pathogen-free laying hens were hyperimmunized with each recombinant CAP to induce production of α-CAP-specific IgY. Egg yolks were collected from immunized and nonimmunized hens and were lyophilized to obtain egg-yolk powder (EYP) with or without α-C. jejuni CAP-specific IgY. IgY was purified from EYP, and the antibody response in serum and egg yolk was tested by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The α-C. jejuni CAP-specific IgY levels were significantly (p<0.05) higher in both serum and EYP obtained from immunized hens as compared with the nonimmunized hens. Each α-C. jejuni CAP-specific IgY reacted with the C. jejuni cells and recombinant CAPs as detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blot assays, respectively. We also show that α-CadF, α-MOMP, and α-CmeC IgY significantly reduced adherence of C. jejuni to the chicken hepatocellular carcinoma (LMH) cells, suggesting that these α-C. jejuni CAP-specific IgY may be useful as a passive immunotherapeutic to reduce C. jejuni colonization in chickens.

  13. Passive protective effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins against experimental Vibrio anguillarum infection in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis).

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Hong; Lu, Xin-Jiang; Li, Deng-Feng; Chen, Jiong

    2014-03-01

    Oral administration of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) has attracted much attention as a means for controlling infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. This study evaluated the protective effect of IgY against Vibrio anguillarum infection in ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis. IgY was isolated from egg yolks laid by hens initially immunized with formalin-inactivated V. anguillarum. Lower mortality of ayu was observed in groups treated with anti-V. anguillarum IgY (aVIgY), compared with those treated with saline or with nonspecific IgY (nspIgY). All fish in saline-treated groups died within seven days after bacterial inoculation. The bacterial load in blood, liver, and spleen was significantly lower in fish treated with aVIgY than in fish treated with nspIgY. aVIgY treatment significantly reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (PaTNF-α), interleukin-1β (PaIL-1β), transforming growth factor-β (PaTGF-β), and leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin-2 (PaLECT2) transcript levels in the head kidney, spleen, and liver of ayu challenged by V. anguillarum, compared with nspIgY treatment. The phagocytic activity of macrophages for V. anguillarum in the presence of specific IgY was significantly higher than that seen for nonspecific IgY. These results suggest that passive immunization by oral intubation with pathogen-specific IgY may provide a valuable treatment for V. anguillarum infection in ayu.

  14. The International Geophysical Year: Its influence on the beginning of the French space program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulin, Hervé

    2010-03-01

    In 1957-1958, the International Geophysical Year (IGY) was the most important scientific cooperation programme in the World, after the Second World War. Thousands of scientists from 67 countries were involved in this large operation, among them a lot of French scientists. IGY was previously called the IPY (International Polar Year) and France, as many other countries, has been involved in the Arctic and Antarctic regions researches. Everybody knows that the IGY is at the origin of Sputnik and the first launch of Russian and American satellites. But, we know less about the IGY rockets programme itself in which France had intended to participate. This paper will discuss this programme with a special highlight on some aspects of the French participation and their relationship with the IGY programme. This approach arises several questions, such as: Which French scientists have been involved? What was the attitude of the French Government about this program, etc. We focus our analysis on the interrogation: did the IGY have any real influence on the origin of the French space research activities?

  15. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas) have novel asymmetrical antibodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Breeden, Renee; Schneemann, Anette; Sung, Joyce; Hew, Brian; Balazs, George H.; Berestecky, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Igs in vertebrates comprise equally sized H and L chains, with exceptions such as H chain–only Abs in camels or natural Ag receptors in sharks. In Reptilia, Igs are known as IgYs. Using immunoassays with isotype-specific mAbs, in this study we show that green turtles (Chelonia mydas) have a 5.7S 120-kDa IgY comprising two equally sized H/L chains with truncated Fc and a 7S 200-kDa IgY comprised of two differently sized H chains bound to L chains and apparently often noncovalently associated with an antigenically related 90-kDa moiety. Both the 200- and 90-kDa 7S molecules are made in response to specific Ag, although the 90-kDa molecule appears more prominent after chronic Ag stimulation. Despite no molecular evidence of a hinge, electron microscopy reveals marked flexibility of Fab arms of 7S and 5.7S IgY. Both IgY can be captured with protein G or melon gel, but less so with protein A. Thus, turtle IgY share some characteristics with mammalian IgG. However, the asymmetrical structure of some turtle Ig and the discovery of an Ig class indicative of chronic antigenic stimulation represent striking advances in our understanding of immunology.

  16. Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) Have Novel Asymmetrical Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry M; Dagenais, Julie; Breeden, Renee; Schneemann, Anette; Sung, Joyce; Hew, Brian; Balazs, George H; Berestecky, John M

    2015-12-01

    Igs in vertebrates comprise equally sized H and L chains, with exceptions such as H chain-only Abs in camels or natural Ag receptors in sharks. In Reptilia, Igs are known as IgYs. Using immunoassays with isotype-specific mAbs, in this study we show that green turtles (Chelonia mydas) have a 5.7S 120-kDa IgY comprising two equally sized H/L chains with truncated Fc and a 7S 200-kDa IgY comprised of two differently sized H chains bound to L chains and apparently often noncovalently associated with an antigenically related 90-kDa moiety. Both the 200- and 90-kDa 7S molecules are made in response to specific Ag, although the 90-kDa molecule appears more prominent after chronic Ag stimulation. Despite no molecular evidence of a hinge, electron microscopy reveals marked flexibility of Fab arms of 7S and 5.7S IgY. Both IgY can be captured with protein G or melon gel, but less so with protein A. Thus, turtle IgY share some characteristics with mammalian IgG. However, the asymmetrical structure of some turtle Ig and the discovery of an Ig class indicative of chronic antigenic stimulation represent striking advances in our understanding of immunology.

  17. Production, Characterization and Applications for Toxoplasma gondii-Specific Polyclonal Chicken Egg Yolk Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Júnior, Álvaro; Santiago, Fernanda M.; Silva, Murilo V.; Ferreira, Flávia B.; Macêdo Júnior, Arlindo G.; Mota, Caroline M.; Faria, Matheus S.; Filho, Hercílio H. Silva; Silva, Deise A. O.; Cunha-Júnior, Jair P.; Mineo, José R.; Mineo, Tiago W. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii may cause abortions, ocular and neurological disorders in warm-blood hosts. Immunized mammals are a wide source of hyperimmune sera used in different approaches, including diagnosis and the study of host-parasite interactions. Unfortunately, mammalian antibodies present limitations for its production, such as the necessity for animal bleeding, low yield, interference with rheumatoid factor, complement activation and affinity to Fc mammalian receptors. IgY antibodies avoid those limitations; therefore they could be an alternative to be applied in T. gondii model. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we immunized hens with soluble tachyzoite antigens of T. gondii (STAg) and purified egg yolk antibodies (IgY) by an inexpensive and simple method, with high yield and purity degree. IgY anti-STAg antibodies presented high avidity and were able to recognize a broad range of parasite antigens, although some marked differences were observed in reactivity profile between antibodies produced in immunized hens and mice. Interestingly, IgY antibodies against Neospora caninum and Eimeria spp. did not react to STAg. We also show that IgY antibodies were suitable to detect T. gondii forms in paraffin-embedded sections and culture cell monolayers. Conclusions/Significance Due to its cost-effectiveness, high production yield and varied range of possible applications, polyclonal IgY antibodies are useful tools for studies involving T. gondii. PMID:22808150

  18. The Rapid Test Based on Leishmania infantum Chimeric rK28 Protein Improves the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis by Reducing the Detection of False-Positive Dogs.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Pacheco, Luciano Vasconcellos; Borja, Lairton Souza; Tuy, Pétala Gardênia da Silva Estrela; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) has spread to many urban centers worldwide. Dogs are considered the main reservoir of VL, because canine cases often precede the occurrence of human cases. Detection and euthanasia of serologically positive dogs is one of the primary VL control measures utilized in some countries, including Brazil. Using accurate diagnostic tests can minimize one undesirable consequence of this measure, culling false-positive dogs, and reduce the maintenance of false-negative dogs in endemic areas. In December 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health replaced the ELISA (EIE CVL) screening method and Indirect Immunofluorescence Test (IFI CVL) confirmatory method with a new protocol using the rapid DPP CVL screening test and EIE CVL confirmatory test. A study of diagnostic accuracy of these two protocols was done by comparing their performance using serum samples collected from a random sample of 780 dogs in an endemic area of VL. All samples were evaluated by culture and real time PCR; 766 out of the 780 dogs were tested using the previous protocol (IFI CVL + EIE CVL) and all 780 were tested using the current protocol (DPP CVL + EIE CVL). Performances of both diagnostic protocols were evaluated using a latent class variable as the gold standard. The current protocol had a higher specificity (0.98 vs. 0.95) and PPV (0.83 vs. 0.70) than the previous protocol, although sensitivity of these two protocols was similar (0.73). When tested using sera from asymptomatic animals, the current protocol had a much higher PPV (0.63 vs. 0.40) than the previous protocol (although the sensitivity of either protocol was the same, 0.71). Considering a range of theoretical CVL prevalences, the projected PPVs were higher for the current protocol than for the previous protocol for each theoretical prevalence value. The findings presented herein show that the current protocol performed better than previous protocol primarily by reducing false-positive results.

  19. The Rapid Test Based on Leishmania infantum Chimeric rK28 Protein Improves the Diagnosis of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis by Reducing the Detection of False-Positive Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Lairton Souza; Tuy, Pétala Gardênia da Silva Estrela; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Amorim, Leila Denise Alves Ferreira; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) has spread to many urban centers worldwide. Dogs are considered the main reservoir of VL, because canine cases often precede the occurrence of human cases. Detection and euthanasia of serologically positive dogs is one of the primary VL control measures utilized in some countries, including Brazil. Using accurate diagnostic tests can minimize one undesirable consequence of this measure, culling false-positive dogs, and reduce the maintenance of false-negative dogs in endemic areas. In December 2011, the Brazilian Ministry of Health replaced the ELISA (EIE CVL) screening method and Indirect Immunofluorescence Test (IFI CVL) confirmatory method with a new protocol using the rapid DPP CVL screening test and EIE CVL confirmatory test. A study of diagnostic accuracy of these two protocols was done by comparing their performance using serum samples collected from a random sample of 780 dogs in an endemic area of VL. All samples were evaluated by culture and real time PCR; 766 out of the 780 dogs were tested using the previous protocol (IFI CVL + EIE CVL) and all 780 were tested using the current protocol (DPP CVL + EIE CVL). Performances of both diagnostic protocols were evaluated using a latent class variable as the gold standard. The current protocol had a higher specificity (0.98 vs. 0.95) and PPV (0.83 vs. 0.70) than the previous protocol, although sensitivity of these two protocols was similar (0.73). When tested using sera from asymptomatic animals, the current protocol had a much higher PPV (0.63 vs. 0.40) than the previous protocol (although the sensitivity of either protocol was the same, 0.71). Considering a range of theoretical CVL prevalences, the projected PPVs were higher for the current protocol than for the previous protocol for each theoretical prevalence value. The findings presented herein show that the current protocol performed better than previous protocol primarily by reducing false-positive results. PMID:26731098

  20. The Arabidopsis KINβγ Subunit of the SnRK1 Complex Regulates Pollen Hydration on the Stigma by Mediating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Pollen.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin-Qi; Liu, Chang Zhen; Li, Dan Dan; Zhao, Ting Ting; Li, Fei; Jia, Xiao Na; Zhao, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Pollen-stigma interactions are essential for pollen germination. The highly regulated process of pollen germination includes pollen adhesion, hydration, and germination on the stigma. However, the internal signaling of pollen that regulates pollen-stigma interactions is poorly understood. KINβγ is a plant-specific subunit of the SNF1-related protein kinase 1 complex which plays important roles in the regulation of plant development. Here, we showed that KINβγ was a cytoplasm- and nucleus-localized protein in the vegetative cells of pollen grains in Arabidopsis. The pollen of the Arabidopsis kinβγ mutant could not germinate on stigma, although it germinated normally in vitro. Further analysis revealed the hydration of kinβγ mutant pollen on the stigma was compromised. However, adding water to the stigma promoted the germination of the mutant pollen in vivo, suggesting that the compromised hydration of the mutant pollen led to its defective germination. In kinβγ mutant pollen, the structure of the mitochondria and peroxisomes was destroyed, and their numbers were significantly reduced compared with those in the wild type. Furthermore, we found that the kinβγ mutant exhibited reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pollen. The addition of H2O2 in vitro partially compensated for the reduced water absorption of the mutant pollen, and reducing ROS levels in pollen by overexpressing Arabidopsis CATALASE 3 resulted in compromised hydration of pollen on the stigma. These results indicate that Arabidopsis KINβγ is critical for the regulation of ROS levels by mediating the biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes in pollen, which is required for pollen-stigma interactions during pollination.

  1. rk Lise Öğrencilerinde Okul Terkinin Yordanması: Aracı ve Etkileşim Değişkenleri ile Bir Model Testi

    PubMed Central

    Özer, Arif; Gençtanirim, Dilek; Ergene, Tuncay

    2011-01-01

    Bu araştırmada ilk olarak, dürtüsel davranma ile okulu terk etme riski arasındaki ilişkiye disiplin cezası almanın, antisosyal davranışların ve sigara-alkol kullanımının aracılık edip etmediği incelenmiştir. İkinci olarak, öğretmen desteği ve antisosyal davranış etkileşiminin okulu terk etme riski üzerindeki etkisi test edilmiştir. Araştırma grubunu 2009-2010 yılında Ankara İlinde genel liselere devam eden 478 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Sonuçlar okulu terk etme riskini aile ve arkadaş desteğinin azalttığını, dürtüsel davranmanın ise artırdığını göstermiştir. Ayrıca disiplin cezası, alkol-sigara kullanma ve antisosyal davranışlar okulu terk etme riskini artıran aracı değişkenlerdir. Antisosyal davranışlarla okulu terk etme arasındaki ilişki öğretmen desteğine bağlı olarak değişmektedir. Öğrencilerin cinsiyet ve başarıları ile okulu terk etme riskleri arasında anlamlı bir ilişki bulunmamaktadır. PMID:22003257

  2. The Arabidopsis KINβγ Subunit of the SnRK1 Complex Regulates Pollen Hydration on the Stigma by Mediating the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species in Pollen

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ting Ting; Li, Fei; Jia, Xiao Na; Zhao, Xin-Ying; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Pollen–stigma interactions are essential for pollen germination. The highly regulated process of pollen germination includes pollen adhesion, hydration, and germination on the stigma. However, the internal signaling of pollen that regulates pollen–stigma interactions is poorly understood. KINβγ is a plant-specific subunit of the SNF1-related protein kinase 1 complex which plays important roles in the regulation of plant development. Here, we showed that KINβγ was a cytoplasm- and nucleus-localized protein in the vegetative cells of pollen grains in Arabidopsis. The pollen of the Arabidopsis kinβγ mutant could not germinate on stigma, although it germinated normally in vitro. Further analysis revealed the hydration of kinβγ mutant pollen on the stigma was compromised. However, adding water to the stigma promoted the germination of the mutant pollen in vivo, suggesting that the compromised hydration of the mutant pollen led to its defective germination. In kinβγ mutant pollen, the structure of the mitochondria and peroxisomes was destroyed, and their numbers were significantly reduced compared with those in the wild type. Furthermore, we found that the kinβγ mutant exhibited reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pollen. The addition of H2O2 in vitro partially compensated for the reduced water absorption of the mutant pollen, and reducing ROS levels in pollen by overexpressing Arabidopsis CATALASE 3 resulted in compromised hydration of pollen on the stigma. These results indicate that Arabidopsis KINβγ is critical for the regulation of ROS levels by mediating the biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes in pollen, which is required for pollen–stigma interactions during pollination. PMID:27472382

  3. A simple method for isolating chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin using effective delipidation solution and ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chenyao; Geng, Fang; He, Zhenjiao; Cai, Zhaoxia; Ma, Meihu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) is a superior alternative to mammalian immunoglobulin. However, the practical application of IgY in research, diagnostics, and functional food is limited due to complex or time-consuming purification procedures. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, safe, large-scale separation method for IgY from egg yolk. Egg yolk was diluted with 6-fold delipidation solutions made of different types (pectin, λ-carrageenan, carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose, and dextran sulfate) and concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2%) of polysaccharides, respectively. The yolk solution was adjusted to pH 5.0, and then kept overnight at 4°C before being centrifuged at 4°C. The resulting supernatant was added to 35% (w/v) (NH4)2SO4 and then centrifuged. The precipitant, which contained IgY, was dissolved in distilled water and then dialyzed. SDS-PAGE and Western blotting were utilized to conduct qualitative analysis of IgY; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for quantitative analysis. The immunoreactivity of IgY was measured by ELISA. The results showed that yield, purity, and immunoreactivity varied with types and concentrations of polysaccharides. The optimal isolation of IgY for pectin, λ-carrageenan, dextran sulfate, and carboxymethylcellulose was at the concentration of 0.1%; for methylcellulose, optimal isolation was at 0.15%. The best results were obtained in the presence of 0.1% pectin. In this condition, yield and purity can reach 8.36 mg/mL egg yolk and 83.3%, respectively, and the negative effect of IgY on immunoreactivity can be minimized. The procedure of isolation was simplified to 2 steps with a higher yield of IgY, avoiding energy- and time-consuming methods. Therefore, the isolation condition under study has a great potential for food industry production of IgY on a large scale.

  4. The Association between Alcohol Consumption and β-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Min-Gyu; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Jang, Han Byul; Lee, Hye-Ja; Park, Sang Ick

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed to examine the association between alcohol consumption and insulin secretion and sensitivity using the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Alcohol consumption levels were categorized into four groups: (i) abstainers, (ii) low (<5 g/day), (iii) intermediate (<30 g/day), and (iv) high (≥30 g/day) alcohol consumption. β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were estimated using the insulinogenic index (IGI60), and Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI), respectively. IGI60 and ISI were dichotomized into high and low groups using median cut-off values and four groups were defined (G-I: high IGI60/high ISI; G-II: high IGI60/low ISI; G-III: low IGI60/high ISI; and G-IV: low IGI60/low ISI). Men consumed 26.5 g alcohol per day on average, whereas women only consumed 5.7 g/day, so women were excluded from subsequent analyses due to their low drinking levels. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and triglycerides (TG) in men, but was negatively associated with IGI60 (p < 0.05). TG levels were only increased in individuals with decreased insulin sensitivity (G-II) or decreased β-cell function (G-III) with high alcohol consumption. In addition, alcohol consumption increased HDL cholesterol in the four groups (p < 0.001). In subjects with decreased insulin sensitivity (G-II), intermediate and high alcohol consumption increased the risk of high cholesterol and TG. In individuals with decreased β-cell function (G-III), alcohol consumption increased the risk of high TG and high AST levels. High alcohol consumption was significantly associated with reduced insulin secretion. In addition, alcohol consumption was related to some metabolic risk factors depending on insulin secretion or sensitivity. PMID:27854254

  5. Expression analysis of abscisic acid (ABA) and metabolic signalling factors in developing endosperm and embryo of barley☆

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua; Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J.; Halford, Nigel G.

    2013-01-01

    The expression of genes encoding components of ABA and metabolic signalling pathways in developing barley endosperm and embryo was investigated. The genes included HvRCAR35_47387 and HvRCAR35_2538 (encoding ABA receptors), HvABI1d (protein phosphatase 2C), HvSnRK2.4, HvSnRK2.6 and HvPKABA1 (SnRK2-type protein kinases) and HvABI5 (ABA response element binding protein; AREBP), as well as two genes encoding SnRK1-type protein kinases. Both SnRK1 and SnRK2 phosphorylate AREBPs, but SnRK2 is activated by ABA whereas SnRK1 may be broken down. Multiple cereal AREBPs with two conserved SnRK1/2 target sites and another class of BZIP transcription factors with SnRK1/2 binding sites, including HvBLZ1, were identified. Barley grain (cv. Triumph) was sampled at 15, 20, 25 and 30 days post-anthesis (dpa). HvRCAR35_47387, HvABI1d, HvSnRK2.4 and HvABI5 were expressed highly in the endosperm but at much lower levels in the embryo. Conversely, HvPKABA1 and HvRCAR35_2538 were expressed at higher levels in the embryo than the endosperm, while HvSnRK2.6 was expressed at similar levels in both. HvRCAR35_47387, HvABI1d, HvSnRK2.4 and HvABI5 all peaked in expression in the endosperm at 20 dpa. A model is proposed in which ABA brings about a transition from a SnRK1-dominated state in the endosperm during grain filling to a SnRK2-dominated state during maturation. PMID:24748715

  6. Expression analysis of abscisic acid (ABA) and metabolic signalling factors in developing endosperm and embryo of barley.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiwei; Huang, Jianhua; Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J; Halford, Nigel G

    2013-09-01

    The expression of genes encoding components of ABA and metabolic signalling pathways in developing barley endosperm and embryo was investigated. The genes included HvRCAR35_47387 and HvRCAR35_2538 (encoding ABA receptors), HvABI1d (protein phosphatase 2C), HvSnRK2.4, HvSnRK2.6 and HvPKABA1 (SnRK2-type protein kinases) and HvABI5 (ABA response element binding protein; AREBP), as well as two genes encoding SnRK1-type protein kinases. Both SnRK1 and SnRK2 phosphorylate AREBPs, but SnRK2 is activated by ABA whereas SnRK1 may be broken down. Multiple cereal AREBPs with two conserved SnRK1/2 target sites and another class of BZIP transcription factors with SnRK1/2 binding sites, including HvBLZ1, were identified. Barley grain (cv. Triumph) was sampled at 15, 20, 25 and 30 days post-anthesis (dpa). HvRCAR35_47387, HvABI1d, HvSnRK2.4 and HvABI5 were expressed highly in the endosperm but at much lower levels in the embryo. Conversely, HvPKABA1 and HvRCAR35_2538 were expressed at higher levels in the embryo than the endosperm, while HvSnRK2.6 was expressed at similar levels in both. HvRCAR35_47387, HvABI1d, HvSnRK2.4 and HvABI5 all peaked in expression in the endosperm at 20 dpa. A model is proposed in which ABA brings about a transition from a SnRK1-dominated state in the endosperm during grain filling to a SnRK2-dominated state during maturation.

  7. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ritu; Hirpurkar, S. D.; Sannat, C.; Gupta, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown) and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry, viz., Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test. Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05) among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p<0.01) was reported in yolk weight. The weight of egg yolk significantly affects the total protein and IgY concentration although these levels per unit of volume did not differ. Total protein was significantly higher (p<0.01) in KalingaBrown and Gramapriya as compared to Vanraja and BlackRock. Non-significant (p>0.05) difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63-5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens. Conclusion: No

  8. A novel IgY-Aptamer hybrid system for cost-effective detection of SEB and its evaluation on food and clinical samples

    PubMed Central

    Mudili, Venkataramana; Makam, Shivakiran S.; Sundararaj, Naveen; Siddaiah, Chandranayaka; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Rao, Putcha V. Lakshmana

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we introduce a novel hybrid sandwich-ALISA employing chicken IgY and ssDNA aptamers for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). Cloning, expression and purification of the full length recombinant SEB was carried out. Anti-SEB IgY antibodies generated by immunizing white leg-horn chickens with purified recombinant SEB protein and were purified from the immunized egg yolk. Simultaneously, ssDNA aptamers specific to the toxin were prepared by SELEX method on microtiter well plates. The sensitivity levels of both probe molecules i.e., IgY and ssDNA aptamers were evaluated. We observed that the aptamer at 250 ngmL−1 concentration could detect the target antigen at 50 ngmL−1 and the IgY antibodies at 250 ngmL−1, could able to detect 100 ngmL−1 antigen. We further combined both the probes to prepare a hybrid sandwich aptamer linked immune sorbent assay (ALISA) wherein the IgY as capturing molecule and biotinylated aptamer as revealing probe. Limit of detection (LOD) for the developed method was determined as 50 ngmL−1. Further, developed method was evaluated with artificially SEB spiked milk and natural samples and obtained results were validated with PCR. In conclusion, developed ALISA method may provide cost-effective and robust detection of SEB from food and environmental samples. PMID:26477645

  9. Antarctica: The Next Decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley, Peter D.

    Laurence M. Gould, in charge of United States efforts during the International Geophysical Year (IGY, 1957-1958) and a longterm spokesman for Antarctic science, once remarked that it was the cooperative efforts during the IGY in Antarctica, “coldest of all the continents, that witnessed the first thawing of the cold war.”The Antarctic Treaty, which governs all activities on the continent, was an outgrowth of the IGY. The Treaty—the model international agreement for peaceful cooperation—was signed in 1959 and became effective in 1961. As it nears its historic 30-year anniversary, it has been the subject of a blitz of recent publications, partly because of a general misapprehension that the Treaty might “expire” then and partly the result of controversial negotiations on the recently (June 1988) adopted Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (CRAMRA).

  10. Sequential separation of immunoglobulin Y and phosvitin from chicken egg yolk without using organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Yong; Abeyrathne, E D N S; Choi, Inwook; Suh, Joo Won; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2014-10-01

    A study was conducted to develop a simple sequential separation protocol to separate phosvitin and IgY from egg yolk without using organic solvents. Egg yolk was diluted with 2 volumes of distilled water (DW), homogenized, and centrifuged. The precipitant was collected and homogenized with 4 volumes of 10% NaCl (wt/vol) in 0.05 N NaOH solution to extract phosvitin. The pH of the homogenate was adjusted to 4.0 and the precipitate was removed by centrifugation. The supernatant was collected and then heat-treated at 70°C for 30 min and centrifuged to remove impurities. The supernatant containing phosvitin was collected, had salts removed, and was concentrated and then freeze-dried. The supernatant from the centrifugation of diluted egg yolk was diluted again with 3 volumes of DW, and the precipitate was removed by centrifugation. The resulting supernatant was concentrated using ultrafiltration and then IgY was precipitated using 20% saturated (NH₄)₂SO₄+ 15% NaCl (wt/vol). The precipitant was collected after centrifugation at 3,400 × g for 30 min at 4°C and dissolved with DW, had salts removed, and then was freeze-dried. The purity of separated phosvitin and IgY was checked using SDS-PAGE and the proteins were verified using Western blotting. The purity of phosvitin and IgY was 97.2 and 98.7%, and the yield was 98.7 and 80.9%, respectively. The ELISA results indicated that the activities of separated IgY and phosvitin were 96.3 and 98.3%, respectively. This study proved that both phosvitin and IgY can be separated in sequence from egg yolk without using an organic solvent. Also, the method is very simple and has a high potential for scale-up processing.

  11. Immunodominant epitopes mapped by synthetic peptides on the capsid protein of avian hepatitis E virus are non-protective.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hailong; Zhou, E M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X J

    2008-03-01

    Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) was recently discovered in chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in the United States. The open reading frame 2 (ORF2) protein of avian HEV has been shown to cross-react with human and swine HEV ORF2 proteins, and immunodominant antigenic epitopes on avian HEV ORF2 protein were identified in the predicted antigenic domains by synthetic peptides. However, whether these epitopes are protective against avian HEV infection has not been investigated. In this study, groups of chickens were immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-conjugated peptides and recombinant avian HEV ORF2 antigen followed by challenge with avian HEV virus to assess the protective capacity of these peptides containing the epitopes. While avian HEV ORF2 protein showed complete protection against infection, viremia and fecal virus shedding were found in all peptide-immunized chickens. Using purified IgY from normal, anti-peptide, and anti-avian HEV ORF2 chicken sera, an in-vitro neutralization and in-vivo monitoring assay was performed to further evaluate the neutralizing ability of anti-peptide IgY. Results showed that none of the anti-peptide IgY can neutralize avian HEV in vitro, as viremia, fecal virus shedding, and seroconversion appeared similarly in chickens inoculated with avian HEV mixed with anti-peptide IgY and chickens inoculated with avian HEV mixed with normal IgY. As expected, chickens inoculated with the avian HEV and anti-avian HEV ORF2 IgY mixture did not show detectable avian HEV infection. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated that immunodominant epitopes on avian HEV ORF2 protein identified by synthetic peptides are non-protective, suggesting protective neutralizing epitope on avian HEV ORF2 may not be linear as is human HEV.

  12. Defense genes missing from the flight division.

    PubMed

    Magor, Katharine E; Miranzo Navarro, Domingo; Barber, Megan R W; Petkau, Kristina; Fleming-Canepa, Ximena; Blyth, Graham A D; Blaine, Alysson H

    2013-11-01

    Birds have a smaller repertoire of immune genes than mammals. In our efforts to study antiviral responses to influenza in avian hosts, we have noted key genes that appear to be missing. As a result, we speculate that birds have impaired detection of viruses and intracellular pathogens. Birds are missing TLR8, a detector for single-stranded RNA. Chickens also lack RIG-I, the intracellular detector for single-stranded viral RNA. Riplet, an activator for RIG-I, is also missing in chickens. IRF3, the nuclear activator of interferon-beta in the RIG-I pathway is missing in birds. Downstream of interferon (IFN) signaling, some of the antiviral effectors are missing, including ISG15, and ISG54 and ISG56 (IFITs). Birds have only three antibody isotypes and IgD is missing. Ducks, but not chickens, make an unusual truncated IgY antibody that is missing the Fc fragment. Chickens have an expanded family of LILR leukocyte receptor genes, called CHIR genes, with hundreds of members, including several that encode IgY Fc receptors. Intriguingly, LILR homologues appear to be missing in ducks, including these IgY Fc receptors. The truncated IgY in ducks, and the duplicated IgY receptor genes in chickens may both have resulted from selective pressure by a pathogen on IgY FcR interactions. Birds have a minimal MHC, and the TAP transport and presentation of peptides on MHC class I is constrained, limiting function. Perhaps removing some constraint, ducks appear to lack tapasin, a chaperone involved in loading peptides on MHC class I. Finally, the absence of lymphotoxin-alpha and beta may account for the observed lack of lymph nodes in birds. As illustrated by these examples, the picture that emerges is some impairment of immune response to viruses in birds, either a cause or consequence of the host-pathogen arms race and long evolutionary relationship of birds and RNA viruses.

  13. Why value history?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doel, Ronald E.

    In 1961, after the successful conclusion of the International Geophysical Year, Sydney Chapman wrote his close colleague, Marcel Nicolet. As President of the Comité Spécial de l'Anneé Géophysique Internationale (CSAGI), which oversaw the operation of the IGY, Chapman had accumulated many cartons of private letters, telegrams, and documents on sensitive international negotiations and governmental instructions. Should we save these? Chapman asked Nicolet, a senior member of the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium and fellow CSAGI member. What about the confidential papers dealing with Communist Chinese participation in the IGY and the publications controversy?

  14. Computer Center CDC Libraries/NSRDC (Subprograms).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    IGD ) DESCRIPTION OF PARAMETERS JG - DIRECTION OF CONVERSION 1 - GREGORIAN TO RELATIVE JULIAN 2 - RELATIVE JULIAN TO GREGORIAN JD - RELATIVE JULIAN...DATE (OUT IF JG=I, IN IF JG:2) IGY - GREGORIAN YEAR (EG, 1975) (IN IF JG=l, OUT IF JG=2) 1GM - GREGORIAN MONTH (1-12) (IN IF JG=l, OUT IF JG=2) IGD ...YEAR COMPUTATIONS. USAGE CALL JULIAN (JG, JD, IGY, IGM, IGD ) DESCRIPTION OF PARAMETERS G - DIRECTION OF CONVERSION 1 - GREGORIAN TO JULIAN 2 - JULIAN

  15. Prophylactic and Therapeutic Efficacy of Avian Antibodies Against Influenza Virus H5N1 and H1N1 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huan H.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Park, Hae-Jung; Byun, Young-Ho; Tran, Linh D.; Nguyen, Van D.; Kilgore, Paul E.; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Seong, Baik Lin; Song, Jae Min; Kim, Young Bong; Do, Hoa T.; Nguyen, Tung; Nguyen, Cam V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pandemic influenza poses a serious threat to global health and the world economy. While vaccines are currently under development, passive immunization could offer an alternative strategy to prevent and treat influenza virus infection. Attempts to develop monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been made. However, passive immunization based on mAbs may require a cocktail of mAbs with broader specificity in order to provide full protection since mAbs are generally specific for single epitopes. Chicken immunoglobulins (IgY) found in egg yolk have been used mainly for treatment of infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Because the recent epidemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain H5N1 has resulted in serious economic losses to the poultry industry, many countries including Vietnam have introduced mass vaccination of poultry with H5N1 virus vaccines. We reasoned that IgY from consumable eggs available in supermarkets in Vietnam could provide protection against infections with HPAIV H5N1. Methods and Findings We found that H5N1-specific IgY that are prepared from eggs available in supermarkets in Vietnam by a rapid and simple water dilution method cross-protect against infections with HPAIV H5N1 and related H5N2 strains in mice. When administered intranasally before or after lethal infection, the IgY prevent the infection or significantly reduce viral replication resulting in complete recovery from the disease, respectively. We further generated H1N1 virus-specific IgY by immunization of hens with inactivated H1N1 A/PR/8/34 as a model virus for the current pandemic H1N1/09 and found that such H1N1-specific IgY protect mice from lethal influenza virus infection. Conclusions The findings suggest that readily available H5N1-specific IgY offer an enormous source of valuable biological material to combat a potential H5N1 pandemic. In addition, our study provides a proof-of-concept for the approach using virus-specific IgY as affordable

  16. Composite group of explicit Runge-Kutta methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Fatin Nadiah Abd; Rabiei, Faranak; Ismail, Fudziah

    2016-06-01

    In this paper,the composite groups of Runge-Kutta (RK) method are proposed. The composite group of RK method of third and second order, RK3(2) and fourth and third order RK4(3) base on classical Runge-Kutta method are derived. The proposed methods are two-step in nature and have less number of function evaluations compared to the existing Runge-Kutta method. The order conditions up to order four are obtained using rooted trees and composite rule introduced by J. C Butcher. The stability regions of RK3(2) and RK4(3) methods are presented and initial value problems of first order ordinary differential equations are carried out. Numerical results are compared with existing Runge-Kutta method.

  17. Kurdistan: Impact on United States Foreign Policy for the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-06

    by Greece; Mustafa Kemal Atatürk began the resistance to the Istanbul government which eventually led to the supremacy of the Turkish Republic; and...with the disbanding of the Sultanate, Atatürk conducted new peace negotiations with the Allies at the Lausanne 10 Conference.29 On June 24, 1923...unified country. The Turkish government of Atatürk established the harshest conditions and greatest suppression of the Kurds. Inspired by Atatürk’s own

  18. Youth Culture: The Psychopathology of Materialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimel, John L.

    1974-01-01

    Discussed the psychopathology of adolescents, of materialism, and of egalitarianism. As well, correlations between family characteristics and other matters affecting young patients were considered. (RK)

  19. Effects of Actor's Causal Role, Outcome Severity, and Knowledge of Prior Accidents upon Attribution of Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, David A.; Linder, Darwyn E.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates two factors as determinants of defensive attributions of responsibility for accidents and provides some clarification of the role of outcome severity in responsibility assignments. (Author/RK)

  20. Surgical correction of moderate myopia: which method should you choose? I. Radial keratotomy will always have a place.

    PubMed

    Rowsey, J J; Morley, W A

    1998-01-01

    This set of "Viewpoints" articles examines the relative merits of radial keratotomy (RK), photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), and laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Drs. Rowsey and Morley review advances in RK techniques, long-term results, and complications, and explain why RK will remain a viable method for correction of moderate myopia, notably its minimal cost. Drs. Steinert and Bafna review both PRK and LASIK, discussing techniques and results and comparing their advantages and disadvantages with each other and with RK. Dr. Dutton, as "Viewpoints" section editor, summarizes clinical, technologic, and economic aspects of all three techniques, concluding that all will find a place among refractive surgeons for some time to come.

  1. Reading Problems of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlin, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Article examined the interaction of reading difficulties and academic achievement, the attitudes of students toward reading problems, and the requirements needed by students handling new reading materials. (RK)

  2. Point Target Detection in IR Image Sequences using Spatio-Temporal Hypotheses Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    model can be written as ptar (k) = f(k;p) + n(k); (2) where n(k) is the background noise term introduced in Eq. 1. In previous work in our laboratory...under H0, cloud clutter under H1 and target plus noise under H2. H0 : r(k) = pcs(k) = C + n(k) H1 : r(k) = pcl(k) = r(k 1) + w(k) H2 : r(k) = ptar (k

  3. Critical Review of the Navy Space Cadre

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    officer IGY international geophysical year IP Information Professional Community ISR intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance IW Information...Warfare Command, 2013), 8. 10 Ibid. 3 Meteorology/Oceanography (METOC), Information Warfare (IW), Information Professional ( IP ), Intelligence, and...Space Surveillance System (Space Fence) from 1958 to 1961. The Space Fence included three transmitter and six receiver stations along the 33.5-degree

  4. Novel biocompatible and self-buffering ionic liquids for biopharmaceutical applications.

    PubMed

    Taha, Mohamed; Almeida, Mafalda R; Silva, Francisca A E; Domingues, Pedro; Ventura, Sónia P M; Coutinho, João A P; Freire, Mara G

    2015-03-16

    Antibodies obtained from egg yolk of immunized hens, immunoglobulin Y (IgY), are an alternative to the most focused mammal antibodies, because they can be obtained in higher titers by less invasive approaches. However, the production cost of high-quality IgY for large-scale applications remains higher than that of other drug therapies due to the lack of efficient purification methods. The search for new purification platforms is thus vital. The solution could be liquid-liquid extraction by using aqueous biphasic systems (ABS). Herein, we report the extraction and attempted purification of IgY from chicken egg yolk by using a new ABS composed of polymers and Good's buffer ionic liquids (GB-ILs). New self-buffering and biocompatible ILs based on the cholinium cation and anions derived from Good's buffers were synthesized and the self-buffering characteristics and toxicity were characterized. Moreover, when these GB-ILs are combined with PPG 400 (poly(propylene) glycol with a molecular weight of 400 g mol(-1)) to form ABS, extraction efficiencies, of the water-soluble fraction of proteins, ranging between 79 and 94% were achieved in a single step. Based on computational investigations, we also demonstrate that the preferential partitioning of IgY for the GB-IL-rich phase is dominated by hydrogen-bonding and van der Waals interactions.

  5. 95 years anniversary of Professor BL Kashcheyev (1920 - 2004) - the well-known Ukrainian researcher of meteors by the radar method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiyets, Svitlana

    2015-08-01

    Meteor astronomy is constantly evolving. We can distinguish several stages in the development of meteor astronomy. One of these steps is the period associated with carrying out the global program called "International Geophysical Year 1957" (IGY1957). Thanks to this program in Ukraine in Kharkiv has been studied meteors using radar techniques. One of the organizers of the IGY 1957 meteor program execution in Ukraine (and in the former Soviet Union) was prof. BL Kashcheyev (1920-2004). At the IAU GA in 1958 prof. BL Kashcheyev made the report on the meteor radar studies in Kharkiv. These research were considered by the IAU Commission 22 as the best in the world. The name of Professor BL Kashcheyev related to the creation of the Kharkiv meteor radar system and the long series of meteor observations, creating the database of 250 thousand orbits of faint meteors (12^ M), carrying out the variety of meteor projects (including the GLOBMET). In 2004 the Kharkiv meteor radar complex was given the status of national heritage of Ukraine. In 2007, the organizers of the program "International Heliophisic Year 2007" (IHY2007) remarked the BL Kashcheyev contribution to the IGY 1957 (the certificate and the pin "The IGY1957 Gold ").

  6. Mapping B-cell responses to Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis in chickens for the discrimination of infected from vaccinated animals

    PubMed Central

    Naqid, Ibrahim A.; Owen, Jonathan P.; Maddison, Ben C.; Spiliotopoulos, Anastasios; Emes, Richard D.; Warry, Andrew; Flynn, Robin J.; Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J.; Davies, Robert H.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Gough, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveillance and vaccination are important strategies for controlling infectious diseases of food production animals. However, the compatibility of these strategies is limited by a lack of assays capable of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA tests) for established killed or attenuated vaccines. Here, we used next generation phage-display (NGPD) and a 2-proportion Z score analysis to identify peptides that were preferentially bound by IgY from chickens infected with Salmonella Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis compared to IgY from vaccinates, for both an attenuated and an inactivated commercial vaccine. Peptides that were highly enriched against IgY from at least 4 out of 10 infected chickens were selected: 18 and 12 peptides for the killed and attenuated vaccines, respectively. The ten most discriminatory peptides for each vaccine were identified in an ELISA using a training set of IgY samples. These peptides were then used in multi-peptide assays that, when analysing a wider set of samples from infected and vaccinated animals, diagnosed infection with 100% sensitivity and specificity. The data describes a method for the development of DIVA assays for conventional attenuated and killed vaccines. PMID:27510219

  7. Passive Immune-Protection of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infections with Anti-Vibrio Egg Yolk (IgY)-Encapsulated Feed

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Lin, Li; Yao, Dongrui; Sun, Jingjing; Du, Xuedi; Li, Xiumei; Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio spp. are major causes of mortality in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) which is lacking adaptive immunity. Passive immunization with a specific egg yolk antibody (IgY) is a potential method for the protection of shrimp against vibriosis. In this study, immune effects of the specific egg yolk powders (IgY) against both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus on white shrimp were evaluated. The egg yolk powders against V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus for passive immunization of white shrimp were prepared, while a tube agglutination assay and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used for detection of IgY titer. Anti-Vibrio egg yolk was encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin, which could keep the activity of the antibody in the gastrointestinal tract of shrimp. The results showed that the anti-Vibrio egg powders had an inhibiting effect on V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. Lower mortality of infected zoeae, mysis, and postlarva was observed in groups fed with anti-Vibrio egg powders, compared with those fed with normal egg powders. The bacterial load in postlarva fed with specific egg powders in seeding ponds was significantly lower than those fed with normal egg powders in seeding ponds. These results show that passive immunization by oral administration with specific egg yolk powders (IgY) may provide a valuable protection of vibrio infections in white shrimp. PMID:27196895

  8. Comprehensive N-Glycan Profiling of Avian Immunoglobulin Y

    PubMed Central

    Millán Martín, Silvia; Wormald, Mark R.; Zapatero-Rodríguez, Julia; Conroy, Paul J.; O’Kennedy, Richard J.; Rudd, Pauline M.; Saldova, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Recent exploitation of the avian immune system has highlighted its suitability for the generation of high-quality, high-affinity antibodies to a wide range of antigens for a number of therapeutic and biotechnological applications. The glycosylation profile of potential immunoglobulin therapeutics is species specific and is heavily influenced by the cell-line/culture conditions used for production. Hence, knowledge of the carbohydrate moieties present on immunoglobulins is essential as certain glycan structures can adversely impact their physicochemical and biological properties. This study describes the detailed N-glycan profile of IgY polyclonal antibodies from the serum of leghorn chickens using a fully quantitative high-throughput N-glycan analysis approach, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation of released glycans. Structural assignments revealed serum IgY to contain complex bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary glycans with or without core fucose and bisects, hybrid and high mannose glycans. High sialic acid content was also observed, with the presence of rare sialic acid structures, likely polysialic acids. It is concluded that IgY is heavily decorated with complex glycans; however, no known non-human or immunogenic glycans were identified. Thus, IgY is a potentially promising candidate for immunoglobulin-based therapies for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:27459092

  9. Generation of Anti-Boa Immunoglobulin Antibodies for Serodiagnostic Applications, and Their Use to Detect Anti-Reptarenavirus Antibodies in Boa Constrictor.

    PubMed

    Korzyukov, Yegor; Hetzel, Udo; Kipar, Anja; Vapalahti, Olli; Hepojoki, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Igs), the key effectors of the adaptive immune system, mediate the specific recognition of foreign structures, i.e. antigens. In mammals, IgM production commonly precedes the production of IgG in the response to an infection. The reptilian counterpart of IgG is IgY, but the exact kinetics of the reptilian immune response are less well known. Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD), an often fatal disease of captive boas and pythons has been linked to reptarenavirus infection, and BIBD is believed to be immunosuppressive. However, so far, the study of the serological response towards reptarenaviruses in BIBD has been hampered by the lack of reagents. Thus we set up a purification protocol for boa constrictor IgY and IgM, which should also be applicable for other snake species. We used centrifugal filter units, poly ethylene glycol precipitation and gel permeation chromatography to purify and separate the IgM and IgY fractions from boa constrictor serum, which we further used to immunise rabbits. We affinity purified IgM and IgY specific reagents from the produced antiserum, and labelled the reagents with horseradish peroxidase. Finally, using the sera of snakes with known exposure to reptarenaviruses we demonstrated that the newly generated reagents can be utilised for serodiagnostic purposes, such as immunoblotting and immunofluorescent staining. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show reptarenavirus-specific antibodies in boa constrictors.

  10. Measuring the Style of Innovative Thinking among Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passig, David; Cohen, Lizi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many tools have been developed to measure the ability of workers to innovate. However, all of them are based on self-reporting questionnaires, which raises questions about their validity Purpose: The aim was to develop and validate a tool, called Ideas Generation Implementation (IGI), to objectively measure the style and potential of…

  11. 77 FR 31838 - Notice of Orders Granting Authority to Import and Export Natural Gas and Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ...-41-NG Sequent Energy Management, L.P. 12-29-NG Socco, Inc 12-30-NG ENI USA Gas Marketing LLC 12-26... Marketing, Inc. 12-39-NG IGI Resources, Inc 12-42-NG Minnesota Energy Resources Corporation... 12-40-NG... Regulatory Activities, Office of Oil and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy....

  12. Employing immunomarkers to track dispersal and trophic relationships of piercing-sucking predator, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins such as rabbit IgG and chicken IgY are markers that are easy to apply and analyze on insects for monitoring dispersal and/or pest consumption, but current application techniques are less effective in research for the large guild of piercing-sucking predators used in biocontrol. To address t...

  13. Statistical Analysis of the Skaion Network Security Dataset

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    prediction as well as methods of comparing and rating those models. Gogoi , Bhattacharyya, Borah and Kalita outline eight supervised and three...Intrusion Detection and Protection. New Haven, CT: IGI Global, 2008. [13] P. Gogoi , D. Bhattacharyya, B. Borah, and J. K. Kalita, “A survey of

  14. Fasting-induced changes of immunological and stress indicators in breeding female eiders.

    PubMed

    Bourgeon, Sophie; Martínez, Javier; Criscuolo, François; Le Maho, Yvon; Raclot, Thierry

    2006-07-01

    One adaptive significance of immunosuppression during reproduction can be explained by the immunopathology-avoidance hypothesis. This hypothesis states that since heat shock proteins (HSP) are highly conserved proteins found in both pathogen and host, and are expressed at a higher level during reproduction, the risk of autoimmunity is then increased, HSP being the target of the host's immune response. Reduced immunocompetence has been attributed to hormonal regulation, in particular by glucocorticoids. The current study aimed at testing the immunopathology-avoidance hypothesis and the implication of corticosterone in incubating fasting common eiders (Somateria mollissima). To this end, we have measured immunological and stress indicators including immunoglobulin (IgY), HSP70, HSP60, and corticosterone levels in breeding females. A multivariate general linear model analysis showed that female body condition, IgY, HSP70, and HSP60 levels were the main variables explaining the model. Females showed a significant decrease by 15% of their IgY index during incubation. Conversely, HSP70 and HSP60 levels significantly increased by 12 and 10%, respectively throughout incubation. Moreover, there was a positive significant relationship between both HSP whereas HSP60 levels were negatively correlated to IgY index. Plasma corticosterone levels showed a tendency to decrease during incubation. We conclude that these findings are consistent with the immunopathology-avoidance hypothesis in breeding eiders. Nevertheless, the long-term reproductive costs and the underlying mechanisms of such an immunosuppression remain to be determined and will require further experiments.

  15. Growth enhancement of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by passive immunisation against somatostatin-14

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were passively immunised against somatostatin-14 (SS-14) using an antibody originating from egg laying chicken (Gallus domesticus). Fish were immunised weekly (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 d) with chicken egg yolk derived immunoglobulin (IgY) against SS-14 (1:25 ...

  16. Investigation into Hydraulic Gear Pump Efficiencies during the First Few Hours of the Pumps’ Lives and a Comparative Study of Accelerated Life Test Methods on Hydraulic Fluid Power Gear Pumps. Parts 1 and 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-12

    Institute Doug Gerber, Associate Technical Fellow, Fluid Power Institute Dave Jaccobuci, Associate Technical Fellow, Fluid Power Institute Harry Marquass...FLUID POtER INSTITUTE IIILWAUKE[ SCHOL OF [;iGI:1EERIIN j "LT Omega Iron- Constantan PROJECT ,jn. 50560 -- - . . ..hermocouple Calibration DAT.: 10

  17. An immunoenzymatic assay for the diagnosis of hepatitis A utilising immunoglobulin Y.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alexandre dos Santos da; Vasconcelos, Gentil Arthur Lins Bentes Mendonça de; Kappel, Livia Abud; Pinto, Marcelo Alves; Paula, Vanessa Salete de

    2012-11-01

    The detection of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody levels by diagnostic kits in the convalescent period of disease generally use immunoglobulin G (IgG), which is expensive. An alternative to IgG is immunoglobulin Y (IgY), an immunoglobulin antibody encountered in birds and reptiles. The aim of this study was to develop a competitive immunoenzymatic assay to measure total anti-HAV antibody levels using anti-HAV IgY as the capture and conjugated immunoglobulins. For this purpose, anti-HAV IgY was conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the optimal dilution of HRP-conjugated antibodies was evaluated to establish the competitive immuneenzymatic assay. The results obtained from our "in-house" assay were plotted on a receiver operator curve, which showed a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 98.8%, demonstrating that a competitive anti-HAV IgY immunoenzymatic assay developed "in house" could be used as an alternative to commercial assays that utilise IgG.

  18. Applied biotechnology for production of immunoglobulin Y specific to hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Vanessa Salete; da Silva, Alexandre dos Santos; de Vasconcelos, Gentil Arthur Lins Bentes Mendonça; Iff, Ezio Tavares; Silva, Maria Eduarda Monteiro; Kappel, Livia Abud; Cruz, Paula Borba; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2011-01-01

    A new protocol for producing polyclonal antibody against hepatitis A virus (HAV) is described. Twenty hens were immunized three times with a commercial HAV vaccine and HAV from a cell culture with three types of adjuvants: CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), incomplete Freund's adjuvant and an alum adjuvant. In each of the last two booster inoculations, blood from the birds was collected and tested for HAV antibodies. Egg yolk was separated from egg white and immunoglobulin Y (IgY) antibody was then purified by polyethylene glycol 6000. The mean yield of total protein in yolk was 22.62 mg/mL. Specific activity of the antibody was tested using commercial ELISA, Western blotting, and in vitro neutralization assay demonstrating that anti-HAV IgY bound specifically. After the first immunization, birds immunized with HAV from cell culture plus incomplete Freund's adjuvant with/without CpG-ODN showed highest levels of anti-HAV IgY in serum (p<0.05). Viral combination with CpG-ODN resulted in early response of anti-HAV serum in hens, reflecting the amount of IgY transferred to the egg yolk (p<0.05). The results suggest that egg yolk may be a large scale source of specific antibodies against hepatitis A virus. Further applications of this method have yet to be tested.

  19. Production and characterization of egg yolk antibodies against bovine alimentary tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sitnik, O; Jawor, P; Kopeć, W; Skiba, T; Stefaniak, T

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of hens with bovine vaccines (C, R, T) on the course of IgY antibodies production against selected bovine E. coli strains, rota- and coronaviruses in egg yolk in farm conditions. The hens (40 individuals per group) were vaccinated twice, subcutaneously in four week interval and eggs were harvested once a week. Control group consisted of eggs sampled from non-vaccinated hens located in neighbouring cages. The antibody activity was measured by ELISA. All used vaccines induced the rise of IgY antibody in egg yolks. Based on the duration and the highest level of IgY antibody against bovine alimentary tract pathogens C vaccine was further used in next two trials for vaccination of 1000 hens each time. Double immunization seems to be enough in mounting response against examined pathogens for several weeks. Immunization with C vaccine allowed to harvest eggs with satisfactory levels of E. coli, rotavirus and coronavirus IgY antibodies which may be used to evaluate their protective effect by oral administration in calves.

  20. Generation of Anti-Boa Immunoglobulin Antibodies for Serodiagnostic Applications, and Their Use to Detect Anti-Reptarenavirus Antibodies in Boa Constrictor

    PubMed Central

    Korzyukov, Yegor; Hetzel, Udo; Kipar, Anja; Vapalahti, Olli; Hepojoki, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulins (Igs), the key effectors of the adaptive immune system, mediate the specific recognition of foreign structures, i.e. antigens. In mammals, IgM production commonly precedes the production of IgG in the response to an infection. The reptilian counterpart of IgG is IgY, but the exact kinetics of the reptilian immune response are less well known. Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD), an often fatal disease of captive boas and pythons has been linked to reptarenavirus infection, and BIBD is believed to be immunosuppressive. However, so far, the study of the serological response towards reptarenaviruses in BIBD has been hampered by the lack of reagents. Thus we set up a purification protocol for boa constrictor IgY and IgM, which should also be applicable for other snake species. We used centrifugal filter units, poly ethylene glycol precipitation and gel permeation chromatography to purify and separate the IgM and IgY fractions from boa constrictor serum, which we further used to immunise rabbits. We affinity purified IgM and IgY specific reagents from the produced antiserum, and labelled the reagents with horseradish peroxidase. Finally, using the sera of snakes with known exposure to reptarenaviruses we demonstrated that the newly generated reagents can be utilised for serodiagnostic purposes, such as immunoblotting and immunofluorescent staining. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show reptarenavirus-specific antibodies in boa constrictors. PMID:27355360

  1. Monitoring of laying capacity, immunoglobulin Y concentration, and antibody titer development in chickens immunized with ricin and botulinum toxins over a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Pauly, D; Dorner, M; Zhang, X; Hlinak, A; Dorner, B; Schade, R

    2009-02-01

    One of the key benefits in using chickens for immunization is the high yield of antibodies obtainable. It is known that egg production decreases over time, while animal maintenance costs remain stable. It would, however, be desirable to keep hens as long as possible to obtain maximal amounts of antibodies. To identify a suitable length of time that animals can be kept and to optimize the cost:yield ratio, we monitored the number of eggs laid, the total amount of chicken IgY, and the specific antibody titer from individually prepared eggs over a 2-yr period. The plant toxin ricin and the Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins type A and B were used to immunize 4 chickens. The number of eggs laid in 2 yr was approximately 600 per hen (about 80% of the maximum egg number), yielding about 20 to 40 g of total IgY per hen. A stable antibody titer of 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000, as measured by ELISA, was obtained following up to 11 injections of 10 to 20 microg of immobilized native toxin. Laying capacities were found to decrease, on average, from 7 eggs/wk at the point of first immunization to 2 eggs/wk after more than 2 yr. In parallel, the yield of total and specific IgY increased over time, so that the antibody recovery remained high, even after prolonged immunization times. Using purified IgY preparations, classical immunological assays such as ELISA and Western blotting were performed. Furthermore, the IgY showed neutralizing capacity when used to block the functional activity of the toxins both in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of the total IgY content over time demonstrated a complex biological oscillation (and the antigen-specific titer), with a shorter time period of around 7 d (circaseptan rhythm). In summary, we successfully immunized chickens with ricin and botulinum neurotoxins and monitored laying capacity, IgY concentration, and specific antibody titer over an extended period of 2 yr.

  2. The Identification of Loci for Immune Traits in Chickens Using a Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Peng; Liu, Ranran; Zheng, Maiqing; Sun, Yan; Wu, Dan; Hu, Yaodong; Wen, Jie; Zhao, Guiping

    2015-01-01

    The genetic improvement of disease resistance in poultry continues to be a challenge. To identify candidate genes and loci responsible for these traits, genome-wide association studies using the chicken 60k high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array for six immune traits, total serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level, numbers of, and the ratio of heterophils and lymphocytes, and antibody responses against Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) and Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC), were performed. RT-qPCR was used to quantify the relative expression of the identified candidate genes. Nine significantly associated SNPs (P < 2.81E-06) and 30 SNPs reaching the suggestively significant level (P < 5.62E-05) were identified. Five of the 10 SNPs that were suggestively associated with the antibody response to SRBC were located within or close to previously reported QTL regions. Fifteen SNPs reached a suggestive significance level for AIV antibody titer and seven were found on the sex chromosome Z. Seven suggestive markers involving five different SNPs were identified for the numbers of heterophils and lymphocytes, and the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio. Nine significant SNPs, all on chromosome 16, were significantly associated with serum total IgY concentration, and the five most significant were located within a narrow region spanning 6.4kb to 253.4kb (P = 1.20E-14 to 5.33E-08). After testing expression of five candidate genes (IL4I1, CD1b, GNB2L1, TRIM27 and ZNF692) located in this region, changes in IL4I1, CD1b transcripts were consistent with the concentrations of IgY, while abundances of TRIM27 and ZNF692 showed reciprocal changes to those of IgY concentrations. This study has revealed 39 SNPs associated with six immune traits (total serum IgY level, numbers of, and the ratio of heterophils and lymphocytes, and antibody responses against AIV and SRBC) in Beijing-You chickens. The narrow region spanning 247kb on chromosome 16 is an important QTL for serum total IgY concentration

  3. An innovative biocatalyst for production of ethanol from xylose in a continuous bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Silva, C R; Zangirolami, T C; Rodrigues, J P; Matugi, K; Giordano, R C; Giordano, R L C

    2012-01-05

    The use of the hemicellulose fraction of biomass may be important for the feasibility of the production of second generation bioethanol. Wild strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are widely used in industry for production of 1st generation ethanol, and the robustness of this yeast is an important advantage in large scale applications. Isomerization of xylose to xylulose is an essential step in this process. This reaction is catalyzed by glucose isomerase (GI). A new biocatalyst is presented here for the simultaneous isomerization and fermentation (SIF) of xylose. GI from Streptomyces rubiginosus was immobilized in chitosan, through crosslinking with glutaraldehyde, and the support containing the immobilized GI (IGI-Ch) was co-immobilized with S. cerevisiae, in calcium alginate gel. The immobilization experiments led to high immobilized protein loads (30-68 mg × g(support)(-1)), high yields (circa of 100%) and high recovered enzyme activity (>90%). The IGI-Ch derivative with maximum activity presented 1700 IU × g(catalyst)(-1), almost twice the activity of a commercial immobilized GI, GENSWEET(®) IGI-HF. At typical operational conditions for xylose SIF operation (pH 5, 30-35 °C, presence of nutrients and ethanol concentrations in the medium up to 70 L(-1)), both derivatives, IGI-Ch and GENSWEET(®) IGI-HF retained app. 90% of the initial activity after 120 h, while soluble GI was almost completely inactive at pH 5, 30 °C. The isomerization xylose/xylulose, catalyzed by IGI-Ch, reached the equilibrium in batch experiments after 4h, with 12,000 IU × L(-1) (7 g(der) × L(-1)), at pH 5 and 30 °C, in the presence of fermentation nutrients. After co-immobilization of IGI-Ch with yeast in alginate gel, this biocatalyst succeeded in producing 12 g × L(-1) of ethanol, 9.5 g × L(-1) of xylitol, 2.5 g × L(-1) of glycerol and 1.9 g × L(-1) of acetate after consumption of 50 g × L(-1) of xylose, in 48 h, using 32.5 × 10(3) IU × L(-1) and 20 g(yeast) × L(-1), at 35

  4. The interactions of calreticulin with immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin Y.

    PubMed

    Møllegaard, Karen Mai; Duus, Karen; Træholt, Sofie Dietz; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Liu, Yan; Palma, Angelina S; Feizi, Ten; Hansen, Paul R; Højrup, Peter; Houen, Gunnar

    2011-07-01

    Calreticulin is a chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) assisting proteins in achieving the correctly folded structure. Details of the binding specificity of calreticulin are still a matter of debate. Calreticulin has been described as an oligosaccharide-binding chaperone but data are also accumulating in support of calreticulin as a polypeptide binding chaperone. In contrast to mammalian immunoglobulin G (IgG), which has complex type N-glycans, chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY) possesses a monoglucosylated high mannose N-linked glycan, which is a ligand for calreticulin. Here, we have used solid and solution-phase assays to analyze the in vitro binding of calreticulin, purified from human placenta, to human IgG and chicken IgY in order to compare the interactions. In addition, peptides from the respective immunoglobulins were included to further probe the binding specificity of calreticulin. The experiments demonstrate the ability of calreticulin to bind to denatured forms of both IgG and IgY regardless of the glycosylation state of the proteins. Furthermore, calreticulin exhibits binding to peptides (glycosylated and non-glycosylated) derived from trypsin digestion of both immunoglobulins. Additionally, calreticulin peptide binding was examined with synthetic peptides covering the IgG Cγ2 domain demonstrating interaction with approximately half the peptides. Our results show that the dominant binding activity of calreticulin in vitro is toward the polypeptide moieties of IgG and IgY even in the presence of the monoglucosylated high mannose N-linked oligosaccharide on IgY.

  5. Effectiveness of intensive group and individual interventions for smoking cessation in primary health care settings: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Primary: To compare the effectiveness of intensive group and individual interventions for smoking cessation in a primary health care setting; secondary: to identify the variables associated with smoking cessation. Methods Three-pronged clinical trial with randomisation at the individual level. We performed the following: an intensive individual intervention (III), an intensive group intervention (IGI) and a minimal intervention (MI). Included in the study were smokers who were prepared to quit smoking. Excluded from the study were individuals aged less than 18 years or with severe mental conditions or terminal illnesses. The outcome measure was continued abstinence at 12 months confirmed through CO-oximetry (CO). The analysis was based on intention to treat. Results In total, 287 smokers were recruited: 81 in the III, 111 in the IGI, and 95 in the MI. Continued abstinence at 12 months confirmed through CO was 7.4% in the III, 5.4% in the IGI, and 1% in the MI. No significant differences were noted between III and MI on the one hand, and between IGI and MI on the other [RR 7.04 (0.9-7.2) and RR 5.1 (0.6-41.9), respectively]. No differences were noted between IGI and III [RR 0.7 (0.2-2.2)]. In multivariate analysis, only overall visit length showed a statistically significant association with smoking cessation. Conclusions The effectiveness of intensive smoking interventions in this study was lower than expected. No statistically significant differences were found between the results of individual and group interventions. Trial registration number ISRCTN32323770 PMID:20178617

  6. Weather, water quality and infectious gastrointestinal illness in two Inuit communities in Nunatsiavut, Canada: potential implications for climate change.

    PubMed

    Harper, Sherilee L; Edge, Victoria L; Schuster-Wallace, Corinne J; Berke, Olaf; McEwen, Scott A

    2011-03-01

    Climate change is expected to cause changes in precipitation quantity, intensity, frequency and duration, which will subsequently alter environmental conditions and might increase the risk of waterborne disease. The objective of this study was to describe the seasonality of and explore associations between weather, water quality and occurrence of infectious gastrointestinal illnesses (IGI) in two communities in Nunatsiavut, Canada. Weather data were obtained from meteorological stations in Nain (2005-2008) and Rigolet (2008). Free-chlorine residual levels in drinking water were extracted from municipal records (2005-2008). Raw surface water was tested weekly for total coliform and E. coli counts. Daily counts of IGI-related clinic visits were obtained from health clinic registries (2005-2008). Analysis of weather and health variables included seasonal-trend decomposition procedures based on Loess. Multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to examine potential associations between weather events (considering 0-4 week lag periods) and IGI-related clinic visits. In Nain, water volume input (rainfall + snowmelt) peaked in spring and summer and was positively associated with levels of raw water bacteriological variables. The number of IGI-related clinic visits peaked in the summer and fall months. Significant positive associations were observed between high levels of water volume input 2 and 4 weeks prior, and IGI-related clinic visits (P < 0.05). This study is the first to systematically gather, analyse and compare baseline data on weather, water quality and health in Nunatsiavut, and illustrates the need for high quality temporal baseline information to allow for detection of future impacts of climate change on regional Inuit human and environmental health.

  7. Preparation of immunoglobulin Y from egg yolk using ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ko, K Y; Ahn, D U

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an economical, simple, and large-scale separation method for IgY from egg yolk. Egg yolk diluted with 9 volumes of cold water was centrifuged after adjusting the pH to 5.0. The supernatant was added with 0.01% charcoal or 0.01% carrageenan and centrifuged at 2,800 x g for 30 min. The supernatant was filtered through a Whatman no. 1 filter paper and then the filtrate was concentrated to 20% original volume using ultrafiltration. The concentrated solution was further purified using either cation exchange chromatography or ammonium sulfate precipitation. For the cation exchange chromatography method, the concentrated sample was loaded onto a column equilibrated with 20 mM citrate-phosphate buffer at pH 4.8 and eluted with 200 mM citrate-phosphate buffer at pH 6.4. For the ammonium sulfate precipitation method, the concentrated sample was twice precipitated with 40% ammonium sulfate solution at pH 9.0. The yield and purity of IgY were determined by ELISA and electrophoresis. The yield of IgY from the cation exchange chromatography method was 30 to 40%, whereas that of the ammonium sulfate precipitation was 70 to 80%. The purity of IgY from the ammonium sulfate method was higher than that of the cation exchange chromatography. The cation exchange chromatography could handle only a small amount of samples, whereas the ammonium sulfate precipitation could handle a large volume of samples. This suggests that ammonium sulfate precipitation was a more efficient and useful purification method than cation exchange chromatography for the large-scale preparation of IgY from egg yolk.

  8. International geoscience: Past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Charles L.

    The International Geophysical Year (IGY) differed from the preceding international polar years in that it had a significant component of solid earth research. The success of this venture led to succeeding programs, still under way, that have maintained and improved upon the communication mechanisms established during IGY. These programs differed from IGY in that they have a longer time span, usually a decade, and in that they have focused more on the exchange of ideas and data rather than shorter-term, specially funded research programs aimed at particular goals.To borrow an analogy from oceanography, one might liken IGY to the Challenger expedition of a century ago; a one-shot venture that collected vast amounts of data during a single cruise; data that occupied the energies of a number of scientists over a period of years. The succeeding programs followed more the pattern of modern oceanography in which cruises take place continuously, steadily building the data base a n d generating new ideas. There is no question but that IGY was a major shot in the arm for solid earth research and it is fair to ask whether it is not time for another such venture. Our support mechanisms have tended to become more narrowly focused on disciplines and subdisciplines through time, reflecting the increasing complexity o f science. Perhaps it is time to choose some broad goals: to identify some experiments that require inputs from a number of disciplines and international collaboration in research and that promise us new and better insights into the nature and properties, the history and development of the earth.

  9. Weathering and chemical degradation of methyl eugenol and raspberry ketone solid dispensers for detection, monitoring and male annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in AWPM bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactroc...

  10. Induction of salivary kallikreins by the diet containing a sweet-suppressive peptide, gurmarin, in the rat.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ayako; Nakamura, Yuki; Sugita, Daigo; Shirosaki, Shinya; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Katsukawa, Hideo; Nonaka, Kazuaki; Imoto, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2006-07-28

    Gymnema sylvestre (gymnema) contains gurmarin that selectively inhibits responses to sweet substances in rodents. The present study investigated possible interaction between gurmarin and the submandibular saliva in rats fed diet containing gymnema. Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated that relative amounts of two proteins in the saliva clearly increased in rats fed the gymnema diet. However, rats previously given section of the bilateral glossopharyngeal nerve showed no such salivary protein induction. Analyses of amino acid sequence indicate that two proteins are rat kallikrein 2 (rK2) and rat kallikrein 9 (rK9). rK2 and rK9, a family of serine proteases, have a striking resemblance of cleavage site in the protein substrates. Interestingly, gurmarin possesses comparable residues with those rK2 and rK9 prefer. The kallikreins significantly inhibited immunoreaction between gurmarin and antigurmarin antiserum. These results suggest that rK2 and rK9 increased by chemosensory information for the gymnema diet via the glossopharyngeal nerve might cleave gurmarin or at least cause specific binding with it.

  11. New Treatment for Drug-Abusing Women Offenders in Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Compares a new approach to treatment using traditional social work. Reports on the therapeutic regimen and Results/Kinesiology (RK), which addresses body-mind control, brain hemispheric integration, energy balancing, and stress elimination. Examination of 40 women addicted to alcohol and/or drugs indicated that RK helped with anxiety,…

  12. Field trials of solid triple lure (trimedlure, methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone, and DDVP) dispensers for detection and male annihilation of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera cucurbit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers and Mallet CMR (ceralure, ME, RK, benzyl acetate) wafers impregnated with DDVP insecticide were evaluated in traps as potential detection and male annihilation devices. Comparisons were made with 1) liquid lure a...

  13. ABI1 and PP2CA Phosphatases Are Negative Regulators of Snf1-Related Protein Kinase1 Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Américo; Adamo, Mattia; Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Martinho, Cláudia; Elias, Alexandre; Rabissi, Agnese; Lumbreras, Victoria; González-Guzmán, Miguel; Antoni, Regina; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Baena-González, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Plant survival under environmental stress requires the integration of multiple signaling pathways into a coordinated response, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this integration are poorly understood. Stress-derived energy deprivation activates the Snf1-related protein kinases1 (SnRK1s), triggering a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming that restores homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions. Here, we show that two clade A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), established repressors of the abscisic acid (ABA) hormonal pathway, interact with the SnRK1 catalytic subunit causing its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Accordingly, SnRK1 repression is abrogated in double and quadruple pp2c knockout mutants, provoking, similarly to SnRK1 overexpression, sugar hypersensitivity during early seedling development. Reporter gene assays and SnRK1 target gene expression analyses further demonstrate that PP2C inhibition by ABA results in SnRK1 activation, promoting SnRK1 signaling during stress and once the energy deficit subsides. Consistent with this, SnRK1 and ABA induce largely overlapping transcriptional responses. Hence, the PP2C hub allows the coordinated activation of ABA and energy signaling, strengthening the stress response through the cooperation of two key and complementary pathways. PMID:24179127

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of two novel genes from hexaploid wheat that encode double PR-1 domains coupled with a receptor-like protein kinase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) contains at least 23 TaPr-1 genes encoding the group 1 pathogenesis-related (PR-1) proteins as identified in our previous work. Here we report the cloning and characterization of TaPr-1-rk1 and TaPr-1-rk2, two novel genes closely related to the wheat PR-1 famil...

  15. Improving trapping systems for early detection and eradication of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers and Mallet CMR (ceralure, ME, RK, benzyl acetate) wafers impregnated with DDVP insecticide were evaluated in traps as potential detection and male annihilation devices. Comparisons were made with 1) liquid lure an...

  16. Outcomes of Phacoemulsification Using Different Size of Clear Corneal Incision in Eyes with Previous Radial Keratotomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin Da; Xiong, Ying; Li, Jing; Li, Xiao Xia; Zhao, Jing; You, Qi Sheng; Huang, Yao; Tsai, Frank; Baum, Larry; Jhanji, Vishal; Wan, Xiu Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate visual outcomes and complications after phacoemulsification in eyes with cataract and previous radial keratotomy (RK) cuts using different sizes of clear corneal incisions. Methods The study was a retrospective study. Thirty eyes with cataract and previous RK underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Among them 7 eyes had 8 RK cuts, 13 eyes had 12 RK cuts, and 10 eyes had 16 RK cuts. Phacoemulsification and IOL implantation were performed through a 2.0–3.2 mm clear corneal incision by a single surgeon. In the 8 RK cuts group, 3.2 mm clear corneal incisions were used in 4 eyes, and 3.0 mm clear corneal incisions were used in 3 eyes. In the 12 RK cuts group, 3.2 mm clear corneal incisions were used in 6 eyes, and 2.2 mm clear corneal incisions were used in 7 eyes. In the 16 RK cuts group, 3.2 mm clear corneal incisions were used in 5 eyes, and 2.0 mm clear corneal incisions were used in 5 eyes. Patients were followed up 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years postoperatively and were examined for the dehiscence of RK cuts during or after the surgery, post-operative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), corneal astigmatism, corneal endothelial cell density and complications. Results Successful phacoemulsification with IOL implantation was performed in all eyes. No wound dehiscence was noted in any eyes with 8 or 12 RK cuts. Wound dehiscence was noted in 2 eyes with 16 RK cuts. The dehiscence of RK cuts was closed successfully by injecting an air bubble with or without viscoelastic agent into the anterior chamber at the end of surgery. During the follow-up, the cuts were well apposed in all eyes, and no new dehiscence of RK cuts was noted. At the last follow-up, mean BCVA (0.2 ± 0.18 logMAR) was better than preoperative BCVA(0.45±0.19 logMAR) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the long-term preoperative and postoperative mean corneal astigmatism (P = 0

  17. Extension of the Neoclassical Theory of Capillarity to Advanced Cubic Equations of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wemhoff, Aaron P.

    2010-02-01

    The neoclassical Redlich-Kwong (RK) theory of capillarity is extended to the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) and Peng-Robinson (PR) equations of state. Use of the SRK and PR fluid models results in poorer predictions of interfacial tension compared to the RK model because the RK overpredicts vapor densities to a greater extent than SRK or PR, reducing the corresponding RK interfacial tension predictions to be in better agreement with accepted values. The limits of the theory applied to cubic equations are reached by proposing modified SRK and PR fluid models based on a known interfacial tension datum and knowledge of the fluid molecular structure. These modified fluid models provide improved accuracy in interfacial tension predictions of 6% (SRK) and 10% (PR) for the fluid set in this study when compared to applying the RK model (17%). These modified fluid models also provide improved predictions of bulk liquid density, but sacrifice accuracy in pressure and vapor density predictions.

  18. An LRR receptor kinase regulates growth, development and pathogenesis in Phytophthora capsici.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Asma; Li, Qi; Shen, Danyu; Chen, Linlin; He, Feng; Wang, Rongbo; Zhang, Meixiang; Mafurah, Joseph Juma; Khan, Sajid Aleem; Dou, Daolong

    2017-05-01

    Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) domain containing kinase proteins (LRR-RK) perform various functions in eukaryotic organisms. However, their functions in Oomycetes are still largely unknown. Here, we identified an LRR-RK (PcLRR-RK1) gene and characterized its functions in Phytophthora capsici, a model oomycete specie and a major plant destroyer of solanaceous and cucurbitaceous vegetable crops. We showed that PcLRR-RK1-silenced P. capsici transformants exhibited reduced growth and produced highly branched fluffy hyphae. The shape and size of sporangia were also altered along with the reduced production of number of sporangia and zoospores. Moreover, silencing of the gene affected the cyst germination and penetration of germ tube into the host tissues, and led to the reduced virulence of P. capsici. Thus, we suggest that PcLRR-RK1 was essentially required for zoospores development, and successful infection of the P. capsici.

  19. SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2.6, an Ortholog of OPEN STOMATA1, Is a Negative Regulator of Strawberry Fruit Development and Ripening1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Ruihong; Li, Jinxi; Jiang, Jinzhu; Zhang, Ning; Jia, Meiru; Wei, Lingzhi; Li, Ziqiang; Li, Bingbing; Jia, Wensuo

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the regulatory mechanisms that direct fruit ripening have been studied extensively, little is known about the signaling mechanisms underlying this process, especially for nonclimacteric fruits. In this study, we demonstrated that a SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2, designated as FaSnRK2.6, is a negative regulator of fruit development and ripening in the nonclimacteric fruit strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and can also mediate temperature-modulated strawberry fruit ripening. FaSnRK2.6 was identified as an ortholog of OPEN STOMATA1. Levels of FaSnRK2.6 transcript rapidly decreased during strawberry fruit development and ripening. FaSnRK2.6 was found to be capable of physically interacting with strawberry ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1, a negative regulator in strawberry fruit ripening. RNA interference-induced silencing of FaSnRK2.6 significantly promoted fruit ripening. By contrast, overexpression of FaSnRK2.6 arrested fruit ripening. Strawberry fruit ripening is highly sensitive to temperature, with high temperatures promoting ripening and low temperatures delaying it. As the temperature increased, the level of FaSnRK2.6 expression declined. Furthermore, manipulating the level of FaSnRK2.6 expression altered the expression of a variety of temperature-responsive genes. Taken together, this study demonstrates that FaSnRK2.6 is a negative regulator of strawberry fruit development and ripening and, furthermore, that FaSnRK2.6 mediates temperature-modulated strawberry fruit ripening. PMID:25609556

  20. SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2.6, an ortholog of OPEN STOMATA1, is a negative regulator of strawberry fruit development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu; Dang, Ruihong; Li, Jinxi; Jiang, Jinzhu; Zhang, Ning; Jia, Meiru; Wei, Lingzhi; Li, Ziqiang; Li, Bingbing; Jia, Wensuo

    2015-03-01

    Whereas the regulatory mechanisms that direct fruit ripening have been studied extensively, little is known about the signaling mechanisms underlying this process, especially for nonclimacteric fruits. In this study, we demonstrated that a SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2, designated as FaSnRK2.6, is a negative regulator of fruit development and ripening in the nonclimacteric fruit strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and can also mediate temperature-modulated strawberry fruit ripening. FaSnRK2.6 was identified as an ortholog of OPEN STOMATA1. Levels of FaSnRK2.6 transcript rapidly decreased during strawberry fruit development and ripening. FaSnRK2.6 was found to be capable of physically interacting with strawberry ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1, a negative regulator in strawberry fruit ripening. RNA interference-induced silencing of FaSnRK2.6 significantly promoted fruit ripening. By contrast, overexpression of FaSnRK2.6 arrested fruit ripening. Strawberry fruit ripening is highly sensitive to temperature, with high temperatures promoting ripening and low temperatures delaying it. As the temperature increased, the level of FaSnRK2.6 expression declined. Furthermore, manipulating the level of FaSnRK2.6 expression altered the expression of a variety of temperature-responsive genes. Taken together, this study demonstrates that FaSnRK2.6 is a negative regulator of strawberry fruit development and ripening and, furthermore, that FaSnRK2.6 mediates temperature-modulated strawberry fruit ripening.

  1. Leveraging the International Polar Year Legacy: Providing Historical Perspective for IPY Education, Outreach and Communication Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukernik, M.; McCaffrey, M. S.

    2006-12-01

    As the International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) is fast approaching, it is important to look back and learn from the previous experience. Over 125 years ago, when an Austrian explorer and naval officer Lt. Karl Weyprecht called for an international yearlong intensive effort to study the Polar Regions, he probably never imagined that his model for international collaboration would become so widely popular. Frustrated by the lack of coordinated, international collaboration in research activities, Weyprecht proposed an intensive burst of research activity over the course of at least a year. The first IPY began in 1882 with 12 nations establishing 13 stations in the Arctic and 2 in the Southern Hemisphere. The initial yearlong plan did not go beyond data collection. However, the idea lived in the minds of scientists worldwide and the second IPY followed the first one 50 years later. By 1932, technology evolved significantly, and on top of ground-based meteorological and geophysical measurements, data collection also included radiosonde and acoustic atmospheric measurements. Occurring during a global economic depression, and between world wars, the second IPY faced many challenges. However, 40 permanent stations were established, some of which are still active. Scientific exploration also reached remote frontiers from Antarctica to the Earth's ionosphere. Less than a decade after the WWII, the idea of the next IPY started to circulate in scientific circles. The world was focused on space exploration and the word "polar" seemed too narrow for the gigantic projects planned for the 1957. That is why the initial idea of the third IPY evolved into the International Geophysical Year (IGY), although polar regions were still a major focus. The success of the IGY is almost overwhelming the first Earth orbiting satellites, a traverse of Antarctica, a discovery of the Radiation Belt, a series of science education films about IGY activities and research themes are just a few

  2. Expression, Purification, and Characterization of a Sucrose Nonfermenting 1-Related Protein Kinases 2 of Arabidopsis thaliana in E. coli-Based Cell-Free System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Shuangxi; Wang, Jun; Zi, Jing; Wang, Jianhui; Chen, Shaolin; Wan, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The plant-specific sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family is considered an important regulator of plant responses to abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salinity, and nutrition deficiency. However, little information is available on how SnRK2s regulate sulfur deprivation responses in Arabidopsis. Large-scale production of SnRK2 kinases in vitro can help to elucidate the biochemical properties and physiological functions of this protein family. However, heterogenous expression of SnRK2s usually leads to inactive proteins. In this study, we expressed a recombinant Arabidopsis SnRK2.1 in a modified E. coli cell-free system, which combined two kinds of extracts allowing for a convenient and affordable protein preparation. The recombinant SnRK2.1 was produced in large-scale and the autophosphorylation activity of purified SnRK2.1 was characterized, allowing for further biochemical and substrate binding analysis in sulfur signaling. The application of this improved E. coli cell-free system provides us a promising and convenient platform to enhance expression of the target proteins economically.

  3. Expression, Purification, and Characterization of a Sucrose Nonfermenting 1-Related Protein Kinases 2 of Arabidopsis thaliana in E. coli-Based Cell-Free System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuangxi; Wang, Jun; Zi, Jing; Wang, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    The plant-specific sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family is considered an important regulator of plant responses to abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salinity, and nutrition deficiency. However, little information is available on how SnRK2s regulate sulfur deprivation responses in Arabidopsis. Large-scale production of SnRK2 kinases in vitro can help to elucidate the biochemical properties and physiological functions of this protein family. However, heterogenous expression of SnRK2s usually leads to inactive proteins. In this study, we expressed a recombinant Arabidopsis SnRK2.1 in a modified E. coli cell-free system, which combined two kinds of extracts allowing for a convenient and affordable protein preparation. The recombinant SnRK2.1 was produced in large-scale and the autophosphorylation activity of purified SnRK2.1 was characterized, allowing for further biochemical and substrate binding analysis in sulfur signaling. The application of this improved E. coli cell-free system provides us a promising and convenient platform to enhance expression of the target proteins economically. PMID:27999818

  4. Isolation of a new herpes virus from human CD4 sup + T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Frenkel, N.; Schirmer, E.C.; Wyatt, L.S.; Katsafanas, G.; Roffman, E.; Danovich, R.M. ); June, C.H. )

    1990-01-01

    A new human herpes virus has been isolated from CD4{sup +} T cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy individual (RK), following incubation of the cells under conditions promoting T-cell activation. The virus could not be recovered from nonactivated cells. Cultures of lymphocytes infected with the RK virus exhibited a cytopathic effect, and electron microscopic analyses revealed a characteristic herpes virus structure. RK virus DNA did not hybridize with large probes derived from herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and human cytomegalovirus. The genetic relatedness of the RK virus to the recently identified T-lymphotropic human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) was investigated by restriction enzyme analyses using 21 different enzymes and by blot hydridization analyses using 11 probes derived from two strains of HHV-6 (Z29 and U1102). Whereas the two HHV-6 strains exhibited only limited restriction enzyme polymorphism, cleavage of the RK virus DNA yielded distinct patterns. Of the 11 HHV-6 DNA probes tested, only 6 cross-hybridized with DNA fragments derived from the RK virus. Taken together, the maximal homology amounted to 31 kilobases of the 75 kilobases tested. The authors conclude that the RK virus is distinct from previously characterized human herpesviruses. The authors propose to designate it as the prototype of a new herpes virus, the seventh human herpes virus identified to date.

  5. A neuro approach to solve fuzzy Riccati differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Shahrir, Mohammad Shazri; Kumaresan, N. Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ratnavelu, Kurunathan

    2015-10-22

    There are many applications of optimal control theory especially in the area of control systems in engineering. In this paper, fuzzy quadratic Riccati differential equation is estimated using neural networks (NN). Previous works have shown reliable results using Runge-Kutta 4th order (RK4). The solution can be achieved by solving the 1st Order Non-linear Differential Equation (ODE) that is found commonly in Riccati differential equation. Research has shown improved results relatively to the RK4 method. It can be said that NN approach shows promising results with the advantage of continuous estimation and improved accuracy that can be produced over RK4.

  6. A neuro approach to solve fuzzy Riccati differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahrir, Mohammad Shazri; Kumaresan, N.; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ratnavelu, Kurunathan

    2015-10-01

    There are many applications of optimal control theory especially in the area of control systems in engineering. In this paper, fuzzy quadratic Riccati differential equation is estimated using neural networks (NN). Previous works have shown reliable results using Runge-Kutta 4th order (RK4). The solution can be achieved by solving the 1st Order Non-linear Differential Equation (ODE) that is found commonly in Riccati differential equation. Research has shown improved results relatively to the RK4 method. It can be said that NN approach shows promising results with the advantage of continuous estimation and improved accuracy that can be produced over RK4.

  7. Lung injury via oxidative stress in mice induced by inhalation exposure to rocket kerosene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Wang, Jianying; Wu, Jihua; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Rocket kerosene (RK) is a new rocket propellant. Toxicity occurs if a high level of RK is inhaled. To study the toxicity of RK in lung and the mechanisms of RK-induced lung jury, a total of 72 male ICR mice (1.5 months, adult) were randomly assigned to the RK exposure group (RKEG) and normal control group (NCG). Mice were whole-body exposed to room air or aerosol of 18000 mg/m3 RK for 4 hours. Histopathological analysis was performed to evaluate the pulmonary lesions. Oxidative stress was assessed by assay of MDA, SOD, GSH-PX and TAOC. Inflammatory response was estimated by detecting inflammatory cell counts, TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum. The results showed that after 2 to 6 hours of RK exposure, pulmonary vascular dilatation, congestion and edematous widening of the alveolar septum were noted. After 12 to 24 hours post-exposure, diffuse hemorrhage in alveolar space were found, along with the progressive pulmonary vascular dilatation and edematous widening of alveolar septum. During 3 to 7 days of RK-exposure, inflammatory cells were scattered in the lung tissue. The pathological alterations of the lung were alleviated after 14 days post-exposure, and showed significant improvement after 21 days post-exposure. After 30 days of RK exposure, the pathological changes in the lung tissue were nearly recovered except the local thickening of the alveolar wall. Compared with NCG, RK inhalation produced a significant increase of MDA levels and a significant decrease of SOD, GSH-Px and TAOC activity in the lung after 2 hours post-exposure (P<0.05). There were significant increases of TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum of mice in RKEG after 2, 6 and 12 hours and 1, 4 and 7 days post-exposure compared with NCG (P<0.05). TNF-α protein levels had a sharp increase after 4 days of exposure. IL-6 protein level was increased at early phase of experiment and then gradually decreased along with the prolonged course of exposure. Considering that the RK-induced lung

  8. Lung injury via oxidative stress in mice induced by inhalation exposure to rocket kerosene

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Wang, Jianying; Wu, Jihua; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Rocket kerosene (RK) is a new rocket propellant. Toxicity occurs if a high level of RK is inhaled. To study the toxicity of RK in lung and the mechanisms of RK-induced lung jury, a total of 72 male ICR mice (1.5 months, adult) were randomly assigned to the RK exposure group (RKEG) and normal control group (NCG). Mice were whole-body exposed to room air or aerosol of 18000 mg/m3 RK for 4 hours. Histopathological analysis was performed to evaluate the pulmonary lesions. Oxidative stress was assessed by assay of MDA, SOD, GSH-PX and TAOC. Inflammatory response was estimated by detecting inflammatory cell counts, TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum. The results showed that after 2 to 6 hours of RK exposure, pulmonary vascular dilatation, congestion and edematous widening of the alveolar septum were noted. After 12 to 24 hours post-exposure, diffuse hemorrhage in alveolar space were found, along with the progressive pulmonary vascular dilatation and edematous widening of alveolar septum. During 3 to 7 days of RK-exposure, inflammatory cells were scattered in the lung tissue. The pathological alterations of the lung were alleviated after 14 days post-exposure, and showed significant improvement after 21 days post-exposure. After 30 days of RK exposure, the pathological changes in the lung tissue were nearly recovered except the local thickening of the alveolar wall. Compared with NCG, RK inhalation produced a significant increase of MDA levels and a significant decrease of SOD, GSH-Px and TAOC activity in the lung after 2 hours post-exposure (P < 0.05). There were significant increases of TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum of mice in RKEG after 2, 6 and 12 hours and 1, 4 and 7 days post-exposure compared with NCG (P < 0.05). TNF-α protein levels had a sharp increase after 4 days of exposure. IL-6 protein level was increased at early phase of experiment and then gradually decreased along with the prolonged course of exposure. Considering that the RK-induced lung

  9. MRI-guided robotics at the U of Houston: evolving methodologies for interventions and surgeries.

    PubMed

    Tsekos, Nikolaos V

    2009-01-01

    Currently, we witness the rapid evolution of minimally invasive surgeries (MIS) and image guided interventions (IGI) for offering improved patient management and cost effectiveness. It is well recognized that sustaining and expand this paradigm shift would require new computational methodology that integrates sensing with multimodal imaging, actively controlled robotic manipulators, the patient and the operator. Such approach would include (1) assessing in real-time tissue deformation secondary to the procedure and physiologic motion, (2) monitoring the tool(s) in 3D, and (3) on-the-fly update information about the pathophysiology of the targeted tissue. With those capabilities, real time image guidance may facilitate a paradigm shift and methodological leap from "keyhole" visualization (i.e. endoscopy or laparoscopy) to one that uses a volumetric and informational rich perception of the Area of Operation (AoO). This capability may eventually enable a wider range and level of complexity IGI and MIS.

  10. International Scientific Unions and Global Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    This presentation will deal with the role that international scientific unions play in coordinating international research efforts. Rather than give a general, theoretical, talk on the role that ICSU - the International Council of Science - plays in International Science, I will briefly outline their role and then focus on a case study relevant to the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG). I will compare the scientific activities, and the outreach and education activities, of two major international research programs - the International Year of Planet Earth and the International Polar Year. These were two of the IGY+50 activities. Past informal polls of conference attendees to determine how many had heard of each IGY+50 event result in. eGY (electronic Geophysical Year) 1% IHY (International Heliophysical Year) 4% IYPE (International Year of Planet Earth) 31% IPY (International Polar Year) 64% Why is IPY the one of which most scientists are aware?

  11. Generation and characterization of chicken-sourced single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) against porcine interferon-gamma (pIFN-γ).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Xiu; He, Fan; Sun, Yuan; Luo, Yuzi; Qiu, Hua-Ji; Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Sutton, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Development of chicken-sourced antibodies offers an alternative strategy for the development of highly specific antibodies against mammalian proteins with conserved epitopes due to the phylogenetic distance between avian and mammalian species. In this study, the single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) against porcine interferon-gamma was screened and characterized from a hyperimmunized chicken phage display library. The expressed soluble scFvs exhibited highly specific recognition of porcine interferon-gamma in ELISA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence staining assays. Results of the current study indicate that it is possible to develop scFv IgY antibodies to a mammalian interferon by using Biopanning technology. Furthermore, it also confirms that monoclonal avian IgY antibody technique could be applied as a promising tool to produce immunoglobulin molecules with high specificity and affinity towards conserved mammalian epitopes or antigens.

  12. Ionospheric Results with Sounding Rockets and the Explorer VIII Satellite (1960 )

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourdeau, R. E.

    1961-01-01

    A review is made of ionospheric data reported since the IGY from rocket and satellite-borne ionospheric experiments. These include rocket results on electron density (RF impedance probe), D-region conductivity (Gerdien condenser), and electron temperature (Langmuir probe). Also included are data in the 1000 kilometer region on ion concentration (ion current monitor) and electron temperature from the Explorer VIII Satellite (1960 xi). The review includes suggestions for second generation experiments and combinations thereof particularly suited for small sounding rockets.

  13. Defects in Amorphous Metals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    this map with a similar plot of the experimental data. An experimental deformation data map for Pd-based amorphous al- loys is shown in fig. 10. In the...Masumoto. I Mat. Sci. 12 (1977) 1927, [IgI T M Ha.es. J. W Allen. J. Tauc . B. C. Giessen and J. J. Hauser. Phys. Re. Lett. 41 i197s) 1282 [191 J

  14. Outer membrane vesicles of Gallibacterium anatis induce protective immunity in egg-laying hens.

    PubMed

    Pors, Susanne E; Pedersen, Ida J; Skjerning, Ragnhild Bager; Thøfner, Ida C N; Persson, Gry; Bojesen, Anders M

    2016-11-15

    Gallibacterium anatis causes infections in the reproductive tract of egg-laying hens and induce increased mortality and decreased egg production. New prophylactic measures are needed in order to improve animal welfare and production efficiency. Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) have previously shown promising results in protection against infections and we hypothesized that OMVs could serve as an immunogen to protect egg-laying hens against G. anatis. To investigate the immunogenic potential of G. anatis OMVs, two in vivo studies in egg-laying hens were made. The trials assessedthe degree of protection provided by immunization with G. anatis OMV against challenge and the IgY responses in serum after immunization and challenge, respectively. A total of 64 egg-laying hens were included in the trials. OMVs for immunization were produced and purified from a high-producing G. anatis ΔtolR mutant. Challenge was done with G. anatis 12656-12 and evaluated by scoring lesions and bacterial re-isolation rates from peritoneum. Finally, levels of OMV-specific IgY in sera were assayed by ELISA. Immunization with OMVs decreased the lesions scores significantly, while the bacterial re-isolation remained unchanged. Furthermore, a high OMV-specific IgY response was induced by immunization and subsequent challenge of the hens. The results strongly indicate that immunization with G. anatis OMVs provides significant protection against G. anatis challenge and induces specific antibody responses with high titers of OMV-specific IgY in serum. The results therefore show great promise for OMV based vaccines aiming at providing protecting against G. anatis in egg-laying hens.

  15. Investigation of Possible Antivitamin B-6 Properties in Irradiation Sterilized Chicken.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    recommended by the SSCP (14) as described in Sigma Tech. Bul- letin No. 57- UV (7-79) (15) for the analysis of serum. Reagent rela- tionships were modified...8217’ ’ ’’’ " ... ; ........ .... "- ..... ..... . . ,..... - Ii I g;mml Ir,,I;) W,i ls :Is igi icaintl\\’ lower u1! dai, 7 ( ,E i t,:) 2 : day 28 (bat I -xcs). L ,’Lron rradiated

  16. Assessment of cathepsin D and L-like proteinases of poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), as potential vaccine antigens.

    PubMed

    Bartley, Kathryn; Huntley, John F; Wright, Harry W; Nath, Mintu; Nisbet, Alasdair J

    2012-05-01

    Vaccination is a feasible strategy for controlling the haematophagous poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. A cDNA library enriched for genes upregulated after feeding was created to identify potential vaccine antigens. From this library, a gene (Dg-CatD-1) encoding a 383 amino acid protein (Dg-CatD-1) with homology to cathepsin D lysosomal aspartyl proteinases was identified as a potential vaccine candidate. A second gene (Dg-CatL-1) encoding a 341 amino acid protein (Dg-CatL-1) with homology to cathepsin L cysteine proteinases was also selected for further study. IgY obtained from naturally infested hens failed to detect Dg-CatD-1 suggesting that it is a concealed antigen. Conversely, Dg-CatL-1 was detected by IgY derived from natural-infestation, indicating that infested hens are exposed to Dg-CatL-1. Mortality rates 120 h after mites had been fed anti-Dg-CatD-1 were significantly higher than those fed control IgY (PF<0·01). In a survival analysis, fitting a proportional hazards model to the time of death of mites, anti-Dg-CatD-1 and anti-Dg-CatL-1 IgY had 4·42 and 2·13 times higher risks of dying compared with controls (PF<0·05). Dg-CatD-1 and L-1 both have potential as vaccine antigens as part of a multi-component vaccine and have the potential to be improved as vaccine antigens using alternative expression systems.

  17. Measuring the style of innovative thinking among engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passig, David; Cohen, Lizi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many tools have been developed to measure the ability of workers to innovate. However, all of them are based on self-reporting questionnaires, which raises questions about their validity Purpose: The aim was to develop and validate a tool, called Ideas Generation Implementation (IGI), to objectively measure the style and potential of engineering students in generating innovative technological ideas. The cognitive framework of IGI is based on the Architectural Innovation Model (AIM). Tool description: The IGI tool was designed to measure the level of innovation in generating technological ideas and their potential to be implemented. These variables rely on the definition of innovation as 'creativity, implemented in a high degree of success'. The levels of innovative thinking are based on the AIM and consist of four levels: incremental innovation, modular innovation, architectural innovation and radical innovation. Sample: Sixty experts in technological innovation developed the tool. We checked its face validity and calculated its reliability in a pilot study (kappa = 0.73). Then, 145 undergraduate students were sampled at random from the seven Israeli universities offering engineering programs and asked to complete the questionnaire. Design and methods: We examined the construct validity of the tool by conducting a variance analysis and measuring the correlations between the innovator's style of each student, as suggested by the AIM, and the three subscale factors of creative styles (efficient, conformist and original), as suggested by the Kirton Adaptors and Innovators (KAI) questionnaire. Results: Students with a radical innovator's style inclined more than those with an incremental innovator's style towards the three creative cognitive styles. Students with an architectural innovator's style inclined moderately, but not significantly, towards the three creative styles. Conclusions: The IGI tool objectively measures innovative thinking among students

  18. Identification of the primary mechanism of action of an insulin secretagogue from meal test data in healthy volunteers based on an integrated glucose-insulin model.

    PubMed

    Choy, Steve; Hénin, Emilie; van der Walt, Jan-Stefan; Kjellsson, Maria C; Karlsson, Mats O

    2013-02-01

    The integrated glucose-insulin (IGI) model is a previously developed semi-mechanistic model that incorporates control mechanisms for the regulation of glucose production, insulin secretion, and glucose uptake. It has been shown to adequately describe insulin and glucose profiles in both type 2 diabetics and healthy volunteers following various glucose tolerance tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the IGI model to correctly identify the primary mechanism of action of glibenclamide (Gb), based on meal tolerance test (MTT) data in healthy volunteers. IGI models with different mechanism of drug action were applied to data from eight healthy volunteers participating in a randomized crossover study with five single-dose tests (placebo and four drug arms). The study participants were given 3.5 mg of Gb, intravenously or orally, or 3.5 mg of the two main metabolites M1 and M2 intravenously, 0.5 h prior to a standardized breakfast with energy content of 1800 kJ. Simultaneous analysis of all data by nonlinear mixed effect modeling was performed using NONMEM(®). Drug effects that increased insulin secretion resulted in the best model fit, thus identifying the primary mechanism of action of Gb and metabolites as insulin secretagogues. The model also quantified the combined effect of Gb, M1 and M2 to have a fourfold maximal increase on endogenous insulin secretion, with an EC(50) of 169.1 ng mL(-1) for Gb, 151.4 ng mL(-1) for M1 and 267.1 ng mL(-1) for M2. The semi-mechanistic IGI model was successfully applied to MTT data and identified the primary mechanism of action for Gb, quantifying its effects on glucose and insulin time profiles.

  19. Trace metals, melanin-based pigmentation and their interaction influence immune parameters in feral pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Chatelain, M; Gasparini, J; Frantz, A

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the effects of trace metals emitted by anthropogenic activities on wildlife is of great concern in urban ecology; yet, information on how they affect individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems remains scarce. In particular, trace metals may impact survival by altering the immune system response to parasites. Plumage melanin is assumed to influence the effects of trace metals on immunity owing to its ability to bind metal ions in feathers and its synthesis being coded by a pleiotropic gene. We thus hypothesized that trace metal exposure would interact with plumage colouration in shaping immune response. We experimentally investigated the interactive effect between exposure to an environmentally relevant range of zinc and/or lead and melanin-based plumage colouration on components of the immune system in feral pigeons (Columba livia). We found that zinc increased anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) IgY primary response maintenance, buffered the negative effect of lead on anti-KLH IgY secondary response maintenance and tended to increase T-cell mediated phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) skin response. Lead decreased the peak of the anti-KLH IgY secondary response. In addition, pheomelanic pigeons exhibited a higher secondary anti-KLH IgY response than did eumelanic ones. Finally, T-cell mediated PHA skin response decreased with increasing plumage eumelanin level of birds exposed to lead. Neither treatments nor plumage colouration correlated with endoparasite intensity. Overall, our study points out the effects of trace metals on some parameters of birds' immunity, independently from other confounding urbanization factors, and underlines the need to investigate their impacts on other life history traits and their consequences in the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions.

  20. Antibodies from Chicken Eggs as Probes for Antigens from Pasteuria penetrans Endospores

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. Y.; Charnecki, J.; Preston, J. F.; Dickson, D. W.; Rice, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The bacteria Pasteuria spp. have been identified as among the most promising of several microbial organisms currently under investigation as biological control agents of plant-parasitic nematodes. As part of our goal to develop methods to discriminate isolates of Pasteuria penetrans with different host preferences, we investigated the potential of developing antibody probes to identify endospores of different isolates of P. penetrans. Polyclonal IgY antibodies were raised in chickens against endospores of P. penetrans isolates P20 and P100. Hens were injected with P20 or P100 endospore suspensions and boosted at 14 days. Anti-spore titers were determined with ELISA on yolk extracts of individual eggs as a function of time. The highest titers were found in eggs produced at 22 to 35 days after initial injections. Yolk extracts showing the highest titers were combined and processed to provide partially purified IgY preparations. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses identified protein antigens with Mr values of 23-24, 46, and 57-59 KDa common to both P20 and P100 endospores. One protein antigen with an Mr value of 62 KDa was unique to the PI00 endospores. The IgY antibodies reduced the attachment of Pasteuria endospores to their nematode hosts, indicating antibody interaction with antigens on the endospore surface that are involved in the recognition and attachment processes. PMID:19274158

  1. Oral and parenteral immunization of chickens (Gallus gallus) against West Nile virus with recombinant envelope protein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fassbinder-Orth, C. A.; Hofmeister, E.K.; Weeks-Levy, C.; Karasov, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes morbidity and mortality in humans, horses, and in more than 315 bird species in North America. Currently approved WNV vaccines are designed for parenteral administration and, as yet, no effective oral WNV vaccines have been developed. WNV envelope (E) protein is a highly antigenic protein that elicits the majority of virus-neutralizing antibodies during a WNV immune response. Leghorn chickens were given three vaccinations (each 2 wk apart) of E protein orally (20 ??g or 100 ??g/dose), of E protein intramuscularly (IM, 20 ??g/dose), or of adjuvant only (control group) followed by a WNV challenge. Viremias were measured post-WNV infection, and three new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were developed for quantifying IgM, IgY, and IgA-mediated immune response of birds following WNV infection. WNV viremia levels were significantly lower in the IM group than in both oral groups and the control group. Total WNV E protein-specific IgY production was significantly greater, and WNV nonstructural 1-specific IgY was significantly less, in the IM group compared to all other treatment groups. The results of this study indicate that IM vaccination of chickens with E protein is protective against WNV infection and results in a significantly different antibody production profile as compared to both orally vaccinated and nonvaccinated birds. ?? 2009 American Association of Avian Pathologists.

  2. 3D endobronchial ultrasound reconstruction and analysis for multimodal image-guided bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xiaonan; Bascom, Rebecca; Gilbert, Christopher R.; Toth, Jennifer W.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    State-of-the-art image-guided intervention (IGI) systems for lung-cancer management draw upon high-resolution three-dimensional multi-detector computed-tomography (MDCT) images and bronchoscopic video. An MDCT scan provides a high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) image of the chest that is used for preoperative procedure planning, while bronchoscopy gives live intraoperative video of the endobronchial airway tree structure. However, because neither source provides live extraluminal information on suspect nodules or lymph nodes, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is often introduced during a procedure. Unfortunately, existing IGI systems provide no direct synergistic linkage between the MDCT/video data and EBUS data. Hence, EBUS proves difficult to use and can lead to inaccurate interpretations. To address this drawback, we present a prototype of a multimodal IGI system that brings together the various image sources. The system enables 3D reconstruction and visualization of structures depicted in the 2D EBUS video stream. It also provides a set of graphical tools that link the EBUS data directly to the 3D MDCT and bronchoscopic video. Results using phantom and human data indicate that the new system could potentially enable smooth natural incorporation of EBUS into the system-level work flow of bronchoscopy.

  3. Study on development of Vipera lebetina snake anti-venom in chicken egg yolk for passive immunization.

    PubMed

    Zolfagharian, Hossein; Dounighi, Naser Mohammadpour

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg yolk antibodies against Vipera lebetina venom were evaluated for their antivenom potential. White leghorn hens were immunized with detoxified V. lebetina venom (γ-irradiated venom). The detoxified venom (200 μg) was mixed with an equal volume of complete Freund's adjuvant and was injected intramuscularly into the hens. The antibodies showed high activity (1.6 LD50/mL) in egg yolks after 12 d of venom injection. The eggs were collected after 12 days, and the egg yolks were removed and washed with purified water to remove any contamination with egg whites. The purification was performed using a method described by Maya Devi et al., followed by gel filtration (Sephadex G-50). The purity and molecular weight of antivenom antibodies (IgY) were determined using electrophoresis, and the molecular weight was found to be approximately 185 kDa. The potency of IgY was 6 LD50/mL (mice), i.e., 1 mL of IgY could neutralize 43.8 μg of standard V. lebetina venom). Our results showed that chicken egg yolk antibodies were effective in neutralizing the lethality and several pharmacological effects of V. lebetina venom and could be used for developing effective antivenom.

  4. CORAL SNAKE ANTIVENOM PRODUCED IN CHICKENS (Gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Irma; Sánchez, Elda E.; Girón, María E.; Estrella, Amalid; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodriguez-Acosta, F. Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze–thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY). The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50) (ED50= 477 mg/kg). Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds. PMID:24553610

  5. Study on development of Vipera lebetina snake anti-venom in chicken egg yolk for passive immunization

    PubMed Central

    Zolfagharian, Hossein; Dounighi, Naser Mohammadpour

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg yolk antibodies against Vipera lebetina venom were evaluated for their antivenom potential. White leghorn hens were immunized with detoxified V. lebetina venom (γ-irradiated venom). The detoxified venom (200 μg) was mixed with an equal volume of complete Freund's adjuvant and was injected intramuscularly into the hens. The antibodies showed high activity (1.6 LD50/mL) in egg yolks after 12 d of venom injection. The eggs were collected after 12 days, and the egg yolks were removed and washed with purified water to remove any contamination with egg whites. The purification was performed using a method described by Maya Devi et al., followed by gel filtration (Sephadex G-50). The purity and molecular weight of antivenom antibodies (IgY) were determined using electrophoresis, and the molecular weight was found to be approximately 185 kDa. The potency of IgY was 6 LD50/mL (mice), i.e., 1 mL of IgY could neutralize 43.8 μg of standard V. lebetina venom). Our results showed that chicken egg yolk antibodies were effective in neutralizing the lethality and several pharmacological effects of V. lebetina venom and could be used for developing effective antivenom. PMID:25700656

  6. Coral snake antivenom produced in chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Irma; Sánchez, Elda E; Girón, María E; Estrella, Amalid; Guerrero, Belsy; Rodriguez-Acosta, F Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The production of anti-snake venom from large mammal's blood has been found to be low-yielding and arduous, consequently, antivenom immunoglobulins for treatment are achieved regularly as polyvalent serum. We have standardized an undemanding technique for making purified immunoglobulin IgY antivenom consisting of polyclonal antibodies against coral snake venom in the egg yolk of immunized hens. We have adapted a reported process of antibody purification from egg yolks, and achieved 90% antibody purity. The customized technique consisted of the removal of lipids from distilled water-diluted egg yolks by a freeze-thaw sequence. The specific immunoglobulins were present in the egg yolk for up to 180 days postimmunization. Therefore, by means of small venom quantities, a significant amount of immunoglobulins were found in an adequately purified state (The obtained material contained about 90% pure IgY). The antigen binding of the immunoglobulins was detected by a double immunodiffusion test. Titers of antibodies in the yolk were estimated with a serum protection assay (Median effective dose = ED50) (ED50= 477 mg/kg). Given that breeding hens is economically feasible, egg gathering is noninvasive and the purification of IgY antibodies is quick and easy, chicken immunization is an excellent alternative for the production of polyclonal antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first coral snake antivenom prepared in birds.

  7. Semimechanistic model describing gastric emptying and glucose absorption in healthy subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Alskär, Oskar; Bagger, Jonatan I; Røge, Rikke M; Knop, Filip K; Karlsson, Mats O; Vilsbøll, Tina; Kjellsson, Maria C

    2016-03-01

    The integrated glucose-insulin (IGI) model is a previously published semimechanistic model that describes plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after glucose challenges. The aim of this work was to use knowledge of physiology to improve the IGI model's description of glucose absorption and gastric emptying after tests with varying glucose doses. The developed model's performance was compared to empirical models. To develop our model, data from oral and intravenous glucose challenges in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy control subjects were used together with present knowledge of small intestinal transit time, glucose inhibition of gastric emptying, and saturable absorption of glucose over the epithelium to improve the description of gastric emptying and glucose absorption in the IGI model. Duodenal glucose was found to inhibit gastric emptying. The performance of the saturable glucose absorption was superior to linear absorption regardless of the gastric emptying model applied. The semiphysiological model developed performed better than previously published empirical models and allows better understanding of the mechanisms underlying glucose absorption. In conclusion, our new model provides a better description and improves the understanding of dynamic glucose tests involving oral glucose.

  8. Development of hen antihepatitis B antigen IgY-based conjugate for ELISA assay

    PubMed Central

    Nafea, Najat Muayed; Sabbah, Majeed Arsheed; AL-Suhail, Raghad; Mahdavi, Amir Hossein; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chicken antibodies have many advantages to the mammalian antibodies and have several important differences against mammalian IgG with regard to their specificity and large-scale production. In this study, the production, purification, and HRP conjugation of polyclonal IgY against hepatitis virus surface antigen (HBsAg) were carried out. Materials and Methods: Single Comb White Leghorn hens were immunized intramuscularly with hepatitis B vaccine in combination with Freund's adjuvants. Blood and eggs were collected before and during ten weeks after the first immunization. Results: A highly purified of 180 KDa with specific activity of 200 mIU/ml was obtained by our purification protocol. One milligram of the purified IgY was labeled with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Sandwich ELISA was used to determine the optimum titer of anti-HbsAg IgY-conjugate which was found to be 1:20. Conclusions: This study showed that laying hens can be used as an alternative source for production of polyclonal antibodies against HBsAg and anti-HBs IgY could be labeled with HRP enzyme and could subsequently be used successfully as secondary antibody in ELISA for detection of HBsAg in the patients sera. PMID:26015926

  9. Multimodal system for the planning and guidance of bronchoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, William E.; Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Zang, Xiaonan; Byrnes, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Many technical innovations in multimodal radiologic imaging and bronchoscopy have emerged recently in the effort against lung cancer. Modern X-ray computed-tomography (CT) scanners provide three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution chest images, positron emission tomography (PET) scanners give complementary molecular imaging data, and new integrated PET/CT scanners combine the strengths of both modalities. State-of-the-art bronchoscopes permit minimally invasive tissue sampling, with vivid endobronchial video enabling navigation deep into the airway-tree periphery, while complementary endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) reveals local views of anatomical structures outside the airways. In addition, image-guided intervention (IGI) systems have proven their utility for CT-based planning and guidance of bronchoscopy. Unfortunately, no IGI system exists that integrates all sources effectively through the complete lung-cancer staging work flow. This paper presents a prototype of a computer-based multimodal IGI system that strives to fill this need. The system combines a wide range of automatic and semi-automatic image-processing tools for multimodal data fusion and procedure planning. It also provides a flexible graphical user interface for follow-on guidance of bronchoscopy/EBUS. Human-study results demonstrate the system's potential.

  10. Fluoroscopic image-guided intervention system for transbronchial localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Lav; Keast, Thomas M.; Wibowo, Henky; Yu, Kun-Chang; Draper, Jeffrey W.; Gibbs, Jason D.

    2012-02-01

    Reliable transbronchial access of peripheral lung lesions is desirable for the diagnosis and potential treatment of lung cancer. This procedure can be difficult, however, because accessory devices (e.g., needle or forceps) cannot be reliably localized while deployed. We present a fluoroscopic image-guided intervention (IGI) system for tracking such bronchoscopic accessories. Fluoroscopy, an imaging technology currently utilized by many bronchoscopists, has a fundamental shortcoming - many lung lesions are invisible in its images. Our IGI system aligns a digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) defined from a pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scan with live fluoroscopic images. Radiopaque accessory devices are readily apparent in fluoroscopic video, while lesions lacking a fluoroscopic signature but identifiable in the CT scan are superimposed in the scene. The IGI system processing steps consist of: (1) calibrating the fluoroscopic imaging system; (2) registering the CT anatomy with its depiction in the fluoroscopic scene; (3) optical tracking to continually update the DRR and target positions as the fluoroscope is moved about the patient. The end result is a continuous correlation of the DRR and projected targets with the anatomy depicted in the live fluoroscopic video feed. Because both targets and bronchoscopic devices are readily apparent in arbitrary fluoroscopic orientations, multiplane guidance is straightforward. The system tracks in real-time with no computational lag. We have measured a mean projected tracking accuracy of 1.0 mm in a phantom and present results from an in vivo animal study.

  11. Discovery of iron group impurity ion spin states in single crystal Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} with strong coupling to whispering gallery photons

    SciTech Connect

    Goryachev, Maxim; Farr, Warrick G.; Carmo Carvalho, Natalia do; Creedon, Daniel L.; Le Floch, Jean-Michel; Probst, Sebastian; Bushev, Pavel; Tobar, Michael E.

    2015-06-08

    Interaction of Whispering Gallery Modes (WGMs) with dilute spin ensembles in solids is an interesting paradigm of Hybrid Quantum Systems potentially beneficial for Quantum Signal Processing applications. Unexpected ion transitions are measured in single crystal Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} using WGM spectroscopy with large Zero Field Splittings at 14.7 GHz, 18.4 GHz, and 25.4 GHz, which also feature considerable anisotropy of the g-tensors as well as two inequivalent lattice sites, indicating spins from Iron Group Ion (IGI) impurities. The comparison of undoped and Rare-Earth doped crystals reveal that the IGIs are introduced during co-doping of Eu{sup 3+} or Er{sup 3+} with concentration at much lower levels of order 100 ppb. The strong coupling regime between an ensemble of IGI spins and WGM photons have been demonstrated at 18.4 GHz and near zero field. This approach together with useful optical properties of these ions opens avenues for “spins-in-solids” Quantum Electrodynamics.

  12. Diagnostics of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid antigen using chicken immunoglobulin Y.

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, A; Das, D; Kammila, S; Suresh, M R; Sunwoo, H H

    2012-03-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative detection system for severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), targeting the nucleocapsid protein (NP), to determine the presence and degree of infection in suspected individuals. Because the NP is the viral protein shed during infection and its template mRNA is the most abundant subgenomic RNA, it is a suitable candidate for developing antibodies for diagnostic applications. In this study, we have prepared full-length SARS-CoV NP expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Full-length NP was used for the preparation of mouse monoclonal antibody and chicken polyclonal IgY antibodies for the development of heterosandwich ELISA for early diagnostics of SARS-suspected individuals. The sensitivity of the developed heterosandwich ELISA can detect the viral antigen at 18.5 pg/mL of recombinant NP. This study describes ultrasensitive ELISA using 19B6 monoclonal antibody as the capture antibody and IgY as the detecting antibody against the most abundant SARS-CoV NP antigens. One of the most important findings was the use of inexpensive polyclonal IgY antibody to increase the sensitivity of the detection system for SARS-CoV at the picogram level. Furthermore, the immunoassay of SARS-CoV NP antigen developed could be an effective and sensitive method of diagnosing SARS-suspected individuals during a future SARS-CoV outbreak.

  13. Evaluation of Newcastle disease virus immunoassays for waterfowl using a monoclonal antibody specific for the duck immunoglobulin light chain.

    PubMed

    Kothlow, Sonja; Haüslaigner, Rafaela; Kaspers, Bernd; Grund, Christian

    2008-06-01

    In the present study a monoclonal antibody (mAb 14A3) was tested for its reactivity against serum immunoglobulin Y (IgY) of several waterfowl species, and subsequently for its applicability as anti-species antibody in common immunoassays. Western blot analyses demonstrated its broad cross-reactivity with the serum IgY light chain of different duck species: Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata), Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), white-winged wood duck (Asarcornis scutulatus), common pintail (Dafila acuta). Reactivity was also evident with IgY of two swan species--mute swan (Cygnus olor) and black-necked swan (Sthenelides melanocoryphus)--and two goose species--domestic goose (Anser anser var. domestica) and red-breasted goose (Rufibrenta ruficollis). Applying the mAb for Newcastle disease virus (avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 [APMV-1]) test systems, its functionality within indirect immunoassays was evaluated. Using APMV-1-positive sera of domestic geese and Muscovy ducks, mAb 14A3 facilitated specific staining of APMV-1-infected cells in an immunofluorescence test. In addition, it proved to be functional in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a western blot assay. Thus, the analysed mAb represents an attractive and versatile reagent that offers the opportunity to develop serological tests for waterfowl, allowing a high sample throughput using the ELISA technique or the fine analysis of humoral immune responses using the western blot.

  14. Application of Arrhenius law to DP and zero-span tensile strength measurements taken on iron gall ink impregnated papers: relevance of artificial ageing protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouchon, Véronique; Belhadj, Oulfa; Duranton, Maroussia; Gimat, Alice; Massiani, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Iron gall inks (IGI) were largely used for writing until the nineteenth century. Under certain circumstances, they provoke a substantial degradation of their cellulosic support. It was shown in a previous works that combination of oxygen and iron largely impacts cellulose chain breaking occurring in acidic conditions (pH 3-4). The present study aims to study the kinetic of this degradation. It assesses the validity of Arrhenius law between 20 and 90 °C taking advantage of the fast depolymerization of IGI impregnated papers at room temperature and using two complementary tools: DP measurements and zero-span tensile strength. The first one is sensitive enough to measure degradation at its very beginning, while the second is more appropriate for advanced stage of degradation. Similar activation energies (97 ± 2 kJ mol-1) were found via DP and zero-span measurements, and reaction rates of IGI impregnated papers were 1-2 orders of magnitude above available data related to lignin-free acidic papers. These observations suggest a dominant hydrolytic mechanism that involves directly or indirectly oxygen and iron.

  15. Infant of diabetic mother

    MedlinePlus

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 39. Moore TR, Hauguel-De Mouzon S, Catalano P. Diabetes in ... Creasy RK, Resnik R, Iams JD, Lockwood CJ, Moore TR, Greene MF, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal- ...

  16. The American Heritage and Its Guardians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Article evaluated the written record, historical and literary, that constituted the major depository of the national heritage. Editing projects that have attempted to arrange the written record of America into a scholarly format were criticized. (Author/RK)

  17. A computer program for determining truncation error coefficients for Runge-Kutta methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    The basic structure of a program to generate the truncation error coefficients for Runge-Kutta (RK) methods is reformulated to reduce storage requirements significantly and to accommodate variable dimensioning. This FORTRAN program, SUBROUTINE RKEQ, determines truncation error coefficients for RK algorithms for orders 1 through 10 and extends the order of coefficients through 12 with the 11th- and 12th-order terms determined following the patterns used to establish the lower order coefficients. Both subroutines (the original and RKEQ) are also written to treat RK m-fold methods which utilize m known derivatives of f to increase the order of the algorithm. Setting m = 0 gives the classical RK algorithm.

  18. An Examination of the Illusion Phenomenon in Soviet Set Theory: An Experimental Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowper, D.; Stewin, L.

    1974-01-01

    In this study on set illusion, control subjects (those having no experimental experiences) and experimental subjects (those being exposed to "setting" trials) were compared on various measures usually indicative of strength of set. (Editor/RK)

  19. Hey, Did You "Really" Hear That Kid?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Charles M.; Whitfield, Truman

    1976-01-01

    Provides suggestions for developing effective communication between students and their teachers. 350 elementary students responded on how well they thought their teachers listened to their story-telling. (RK)

  20. A Comment On Birnbaum's Three-Parameter Logistic Model In The Latent Trait Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    1973-01-01

    The three-parameter logistic model by Birnbaum for the multiple-choice item in the latent trait theory is considered with respect to the item response information function and the unique maximum condition. (Editor/RK)

  1. On Teaching What Students Already Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, David L.

    1973-01-01

    Author argues that the most important thing you can teach students is what they know already. With Socrates, he believes that maieutic, "midwifery," has an essential place in good teaching. (Editor/RK)

  2. The Ethics of Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKague, Ormond

    1975-01-01

    Author delivered an address that compared the two directions that scientific research may take; that is, to the millenium of Skinner and Schaff or to the end of man as seen by Huxley and Ellul. (Author/RK)

  3. Genetics Home Reference: ulcerative colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... JC, Parkes M, Annese V, Hakonarson H, Radford-Smith G, Duerr RH, Vermeire S, Weersma RK, Rioux JD. ... MA, Eri R, Simms LA, Florin TH, Radford-Smith G. Intestinal barrier dysfunction in inflammatory bowel diseases. ...

  4. Skinner and the Open Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Peter C.

    1972-01-01

    Author examines the implications of a major scientific work of behavioral ressearch and concludes that positive reinforcement techniques will make possible the creation of an open classroom, that, in itself, will minimize the negative effects of control. (Author/RK)

  5. The Buber-Rogers Dialogue: Theory Confirmed in Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seckinger, Donald S.

    1976-01-01

    Considers a dialogue between Carl Rogers and Martin Buber and its use both in distinguishing the concept teaching from the concept therapy as a general case and specifically in differentiating existential psychotherapy from Buber's theory of instruction. (Author/RK)

  6. Personal Change and Intervention Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theory of personal change and analyzes growth-producing interventions using examples from the film, "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy". Compares the styles of Carl Rogers, Frttz Perls, and Albert Ellis to illustrate the theory. (Editor/RK)

  7. The Dimensions of Creative Prose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melvin H.

    1975-01-01

    The thesis in this paper centered around the meaning of "effective" speaking and "effective" writing. The dimensions of effective prose are analyzed as one method of determining what is involved. (Author/RK)

  8. NISE (Nursing Inservice Education Group)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clubine, Marilyn; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the Toronto Inservice Education Group became to meet regularly in order to provide an opportunity to assist and guide those responsible for formulating and carrying out inservice education. Article outlines their objectives. (Author/RK)

  9. Can the School Reform American Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, James J.

    1976-01-01

    Many educators, and others, wonder if the schools can or should bring about change in our social order. Or should the schools follow the lead of politicians, economists, advertisers...? Discusses the issues from an optimist's viewpoint. (Editor/RK)

  10. A Macrocosmic Scheme of Cultural Analysis: Implications for Arts Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Max

    1975-01-01

    This essay applied the categories, primitive-feudal, industrial, transitional, and post-industrial, to the analysis of the contemporary cultural sphere, in relation to a specific social-technological phenomenon (leisure), with implications for arts policy. (Author/RK)

  11. Drug Education for Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackett, Peter; McKeon, Thomas L.

    1976-01-01

    The formulation of a drug policy and the implementation of that policy in a firm but fair manner are the responsibility of the school administrator. Authors give serious consideration to this responsibility. (Editor/RK)

  12. Copying and Coloring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Herb

    1977-01-01

    Investigates what appeals to students in using coloring books and whether they use them in imaginative ways. The intent was to use the information to develop creative book activities that interest and challenge students. (Author/RK)

  13. Warning: Your Classroom May Be Dangerous to Your Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Califano, Joseph A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The United States Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare discusses the national need to ensure that all children are immunized against childhood diseases--polio, measles, rubella, mumps, diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus. (RK)

  14. Alternative Programs and Desegregation in Flint, Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugler, Marianne Russell

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the results of the Flint, Michigan Board of Education's decision to include extensive development of alternative programs as part of the Quality Education/Desegregation Plan developed for the Flint schools. (Author/RK)

  15. Aftereffects of Lithium-Conditioned Stimuli on Consummatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domjan, Michael; Gillan, Douglas J.

    1977-01-01

    To complement investigations of the direct effects of lithium toxicosis on consummatory behavior, these experiments were designed to determine the aftereffects on drinking of exposure to a conditioned stimulus previously paired with lithium. (Author/RK)

  16. Art in Elementary Education Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittain, Lambert

    1976-01-01

    Article discussed the practicalities in art education from the current economic squeeze on art programs to the overworked elementary art teacher attempting to implement art programs of dubious merit. (RK)

  17. Behavior Modification: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presland, John

    1978-01-01

    Attempts to give some idea of how reinforcement and other learning principles work in practice with students in ordinary schools by using as reference three workshops for teachers run by educational psychologists in Birmingham in 1975. (Author/RK)

  18. Education - An Obstacle to Development? Reflections on the Political Function of Education in Asia and Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanf, Theodor; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Article attempted to summarize criticisms, supplemented them on the basis of empirical research, and lay the foundation for this general thesis: Formal education in Africa and Asia tends to impede economic growth and promote political instability. (Author/RK)

  19. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF INFECTIOUS AND NON-INFECTIOUS SUB-POPULATIONS OF ENCEPHALITIZOON INTESTINALIS SPORES PURIFIED FROM IN VITRO CELL CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Encephalitizoon intestinalis spores were propagated in rabbit kidney (RK-13) cells and were purified using density gradient (Percoll [registered trademark]) centrifugation. Purified spores were enumeraged and aliquotted using flow cytometry with cell sorting for use...

  20. Plastic People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzella, Vivien

    1976-01-01

    Utilizing sheets of polyethylene and discarded items from the art room or their homes, sixth-grade students created their favorite personalities. Being able to see through them revealed their true character and individualism. (Editor/RK)

  1. Some Remarks on the Relationship Between Initial Output Order and Subsequent Performance in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, John M.; Herriot, Peter

    1977-01-01

    Comments on some methodological problems involved in determining the relationship between initial output order and subsequent recall, particularly in the light of the results reported by Morris (AA 527 380). (Author/RK)

  2. Enuresis: A Controversial Problem in Child Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberstein, Richard M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of an adaptation of the Mowrer device for the treatment of enuretic children, that is, children who involuntarily and unconsciously pass urine in bed while asleep after an arbitrary age limit of 4 years. (Author/RK)

  3. Chromosome Variations And Human Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soudek, D.

    1974-01-01

    Article focused on the science of cytogenetics, which studied the transmission of the units of heredity called chromosomes, and considered the advantage of proper diagnosis of genetic diseases, treated on the chromosomal level. (Author/RK)

  4. Orienteering: The Race With a Compass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Ellsworth

    1978-01-01

    Orienteering, a Scandinavian sport that has recently become popular in the United States, combines outdoor adventure, practical skills, physical fitness and fun. Here it is used to help young students develop survival skills using a compass. (Author/RK)

  5. The Exceptional Environment: Strategies for Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivack, Mayer

    1974-01-01

    Author addressed himself to the problem of designing effective environments for exceptional children. He developed essential "polar paradigms" for the observation of children's behavior in relation to their physical setting. (Editor/RK)

  6. Public Schools, "Americanism," and the Immigrant at the Turn of the Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Thomas C.

    1974-01-01

    Author considered some of the attitudes held by those in the mainstream of American society, by public school personnel in particular, toward urban immigrants and their children between 1890 and 1920. (Author/RK)

  7. The receptor kinase family: primary structure of rhodopsin kinase reveals similarities to the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, W; Inglese, J; Palczewski, K; Onorato, J J; Caron, M G; Lefkowitz, R J

    1991-01-01

    Light-dependent deactivation of rhodopsin as well as homologous desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors involves receptor phosphorylation that is mediated by the highly specific protein kinases rhodopsin kinase (RK) and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK), respectively. We report here the cloning of a complementary DNA for RK. The deduced amino acid sequence shows a high degree of homology to beta ARK. In a phylogenetic tree constructed by comparing the catalytic domains of several protein kinases, RK and beta ARK are located on a branch close to, but separate from the cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C subfamilies. From the common structural features we conclude that both RK and beta ARK are members of a newly delineated gene family of guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinases that may function in diverse pathways to regulate the function of such receptors. Images PMID:1656454

  8. The Gift of Shaker Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terri, Salli

    1975-01-01

    Article focused on the development and the music of the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, commonly called Shakers, since their arrival in the United States on August 6, 1774. (RK)

  9. Preeclampsia - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funai EF. Pregnancy-related hypertension. In: Creasy RK, Resnik R, Iams JD, Lockwood CJ, Moore TR, Greene MF, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice . 7th ed. ...

  10. Hydramnios

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pathogenesis of spontaneous preterm birth. In: Creasy RK, Resnik R, Iams JD, Lockwood CJ, Moore TR, Greene MF, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice . 7th ed. ...

  11. The Career Development Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    This article describes a career planning workshop for managers and its purpose is to support and accelerate the process of individual development without organizational coercion or manipulation. (Author/RK)

  12. Program Revitalization: A Productive Function for Behavioral Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualley, Charles A.

    1973-01-01

    There is a concern that the field of art education will be imposed upon by programed instruction as a means of improving education thereby destroying individuality and the creative process. Article reassures such fears. (RK)

  13. On the Ideological Conditions of Canadian Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Robert F.

    1975-01-01

    Article focused on the effect of international professional migration as that migration raises critical questions of appropriate human resource utilization for economically progressive and politically automnomous development in Canada. (Author/RK)

  14. Clipboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Virginia G.

    1977-01-01

    Thorough advance planning will eliminate much of the clutter and the mud hazards associated with the introduction of ceramics. Provides some helpful suggestions for teaching ceramics in an efficient and tidy fashion. (Author/RK)

  15. Abraham Maslow: On the Potential of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podeschi, Ronald L.; Podeschi, Phyllis J.

    1973-01-01

    Authors presented some principal perspectives by the psychologist, Abraham Maslow, who died in 1970, and who was writing about the potential of women long before it became popular to do so. (Author/RK)

  16. Comparison of Bender-Gestalt and WISC Correlations for Puerto Rican, White and Negro Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmorale, Ann M.; Brown, Fred

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated whether a positive relationship between Bender-Gestalt performance and intelligence test scores would be found for Puerto Rican children and, as well, the generalizability of previous results obtained with Negro children. (Author/RK)

  17. Importance of tyrosine phosphorylation in receptor kinase complexes.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Zipfel, Cyril

    2015-05-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is an important post-translational modification that is known to regulate receptor kinase (RK)-mediated signaling in animals. Plant RKs are annotated as serine/threonine kinases, but recent work has revealed that tyrosine phosphorylation is also crucial for the activation of RK-mediated signaling in plants. These initial observations have paved the way for subsequent detailed studies on the mechanism of activation of plant RKs and the biological relevance of tyrosine phosphorylation for plant growth and immunity. In this Opinion article we review recent reports on the contribution of RK tyrosine phosphorylation in plant growth and immunity; we propose that tyrosine phosphorylation plays a major regulatory role in the initiation and transduction of RK-mediated signaling in plants.

  18. Completed Suicides and their Previous Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Beck, Aaron T.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the reliability of the findings of Ovenstone and Krietman (some completed suicides have attempted suicide previously, whereas other completed suicides have no such history) with a sample of completed suicides in the United States. (Author/RK)

  19. Spatial vs. Nonspatial Reasoning Ability in Chronic Schizophrenics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlage, Lawrence C.; Garber, Judy

    1976-01-01

    Compares spatial with nonspatial reasoning ability within the same patients to determine whether spatial reasoning deficits in schizophrenics are specific to spatial types of tasks or are indicative of generalized reasoning difficulties. (Author/RK)

  20. A Study of the Representation of Anxiety in Chronic Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingart, Irving; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Examines the dialogue communication behavior of a group of chronic, male schizophrenics and demonstrates a relation between these same indices of communication behavior and types of anxiety expression. (Editor/RK)

  1. Defining Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.; Thomas, Susan Christie

    1974-01-01

    Authors believed that sharper definitions of open education can keep the current movement authentic to its early consensus ideals while avoiding dogma, orthodoxy, discipleships: charisma, and latter-day carpetbagging. (Author/RK)

  2. The Cultural Antecedents of Sociolinguistic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Abraham

    1975-01-01

    This paper sought the answer to the question: What is the origin of the sociolinguistic differences described by Basil Bernstein and others in relation to social class, patterns of family organization and socialization, and modes of speech? (Author/RK)

  3. Building an Integrated Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Myrtle T.; Greenberg, Marvin

    1974-01-01

    Article described a plan to develop integrated study through music activities. Students learned to become more independent learners while concentrating on more complex and creative activities. (Author/RK)

  4. Futurology of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, William W.

    1975-01-01

    Article discussed the nature and future of educational futurology and took a brief glance into the history of the idea of futurism (or futuristics) in general, and in education in particular. (Author/RK)

  5. Hypnotic Susceptibility and Frequency Reports to Illusory Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Benjamin; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Explores the possibility that measurable individual differences in hypnotic susceptibility or the ability to attend selectively to informational cues may account for a portion of the variability found in several types of geometrical visual illusions. (Author/RK)

  6. Policy, Practice, and Parties: A Teacher's Role in IP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsuyama, Joanne; Yoshinaga, Carol

    1973-01-01

    Teacher education was modified through an Innovative Program fostered by the University of Hawaii, whose staff, participating teachers, and student interns gathered at a summer workshop to implement the program. (RK)

  7. Tactile Perception and Reading: Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradtmueller, Weldon; Harodon, Holly

    1976-01-01

    Examines the concept that all perceptual development seems to involve the tactile or sense of feel and attempts to comprehend this relationship. Its implications for teaching reading and for developing instructional techniques are also considered. (Author/RK)

  8. Catalytic mechanism and kinase interactions of ABA-signaling PP2C phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H Eric; Melcher, Karsten

    2012-05-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development and responses to abiotic stresses. ABA signaling is mediated by type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), including HAB1 and ABI2, which inhibit stress-activated SnRK2 kinases and whose activity is regulated by ABA and ABA receptors. Based on biochemical data and our previously determined crystal structures of ABI2 and the SnRK2.6-HAB1 complex, we present the catalytic mechanism of PP2C and provide new insight into PP2C-SnRK2 interactions and possible roles of other SnRK2 kinases in ABA signaling.

  9. Mental Health in Long Term Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)

  10. Can you boost your metabolism?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can boost your metabolism. Eating foods like green tea, caffeine, or hot chili peppers will not help ... Randell RK, Jeukendrup AE. The effect of green tea extract on fat oxidation at rest and during ...

  11. Interrupted Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWell, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Article described a project in the electronic music idiom for use in the intermediate grades that was different, that involved no complicated or expensive apparatus, and that showed an interesting relationship between measurement and rhythm. (Author/RK)

  12. Most California College Women Already Know that the Surface of Still Water Is Always Horizontal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsinger, Harry

    1974-01-01

    Author investigated measurement procedures used by Thomas, Jamison, and Hummel (1973) and wondered if these measurements might have produced an artifactual difference between men and women. (Author/RK)

  13. Getting Ready--Looking into Education's Crystal Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Phil; And Others

    1977-01-01

    What's ahead in your world, and how are you going to handle it? What effects are educational developments going to have on you and your children? Five experts in elementary education take short looks into the future. (Editor/RK)

  14. The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina; And Others

    1976-01-01

    These articles are presented as an aide in teaching basic subjects. This issue examines reading diagnosis, food preservation, prime numbers, electromagnets, acting out in language arts, self-directed spelling activities, and resources for environmental education. (Editor/RK)

  15. Grammar and the Blue Sky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talkington, Melinda

    1975-01-01

    Author made observations on methods he found useful in helping the high school student to bridge the gap between his uncertain grammatical knowledge and his understanding of its applications to his own speech and writing. (Author/RK)

  16. Social Stratification and Education in Industrial Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereday, George Z. F.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews the intersection of social stratification and schools, i.e., how stratification "shows up" in education. Assesses the responsibility and role of the school in creating a balance between the two forces. (Author/RK)

  17. Recent Adventures of State School Finance: A Saga of Rocket Ships and Glider Planes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berke, Joel S.

    1974-01-01

    Author appraised the school finance reform movement and discussed the origins and aspirations of the movement, the critical decisions of Serrano and Rodriquez, the reform developments in state legislatures, and the alternatives proposed as fiscal solutions. (Editor/RK)

  18. Thorne's Theory: Hypothesis Testing and the Diagnosis of Personality States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vane, Julia R.

    1975-01-01

    Author evaluated Dr. Thorne's psychological views, his approach toward diagnostic testing and the need for better methods of personality evaluation, and compared his attitudes and Thorne's regarding the development of clinical psychology. (Author/RK)

  19. Impedance-based analysis and study of phase sensitivity in slow-wave two-beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtele, J.S.; Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.

    1992-06-01

    This paper presents a new formalism which makes the analysis and understanding of both the relativistic klystron (RK) and the standing-wave free-electron laser (SWFEL) two-beam accelerator (TBA) available to a wide audience of accelerator physicists. A ``coupling impedance`` for both the RK and SWFEWL is introduced, which can include realistic cavity features, such as beam and vacuum ports, in a simple manner. The RK and SWFEL macroparticle equations, which govern the energy and phase evolution of successive bunches in the beam, are of identical form, differing only by multiplicative factors. Expressions are derived for the phase and amplitude sensitivities of the TBA schemes to errors (shot-to-shot jitter) in current and energy. The analysis allows, for the first time, relative comparisons of the RK and the SWFEL TBAs.

  20. The Effects of Choice and Source of Constraint on Children's Attributions of Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Philip; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The current study was initated as an attempt to further inquiry, in which the child comes to perceive and make attributions to social others, by examining the developmental changes in the bases for such perception. (Author/RK)

  1. The Mystery of Photographic Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girvin, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Do your beginning photographic students ever wonder why photographic paper reacts the way it does? One way that this question can be answered is by making a photogram. Article explained the steps necessary for making a photogram. (Author/RK)

  2. Fiber Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalle, Leona

    1976-01-01

    Describes a course in fiber techniques, which covers design methods involving fibers and fabric, that students in the Art Department at Sleeping Giant Junior High School had the opportunity to learn. (Author/RK)

  3. Can Education Reform Canada's Criminals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the development of the existing correctional programs in Canada's prisons, some theories of criminality, and two competing views on the best way to reform criminals today. Also gives a short review of penitentiary education programs. (RK)

  4. Pots with Personalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabolt, Carolyn G.

    1976-01-01

    Attempting to create something different is stimulating and challenging. With this in mind, the author introduced a clay-building project in which students created a functional coil container different from any they had ever seen. (Author/RK)

  5. The Coil Method in Contemporary Ceramics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigrosh, Leon I.

    1976-01-01

    For centuries coil building has been the primary method of making pottery the world over. Many classrooms still reflect this preference for symmetrical coil building. Describes coil building and what forms can be made from it. (Author/RK)

  6. Differential Suppression by Punishment of Nonconsummatory Licking and Lever Pressing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Gary C.; Herring, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the differential effects of shock punishment on nonconsummatory licking (dry licking) and lever pressing. Results support a motivationally based theory of punishment involving the role of incentive stimuli associated with the particular responses studied. (Editor/RK)

  7. Learning Through Tutoring: Low-Achieving Children as Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Vernon L.; Feldman, Robert S.

    1973-01-01

    Study was concerned only with the impact of tutoring on the tutor's learning and attempted to determine whether tutors cognitively restructure the material in anticipation of teaching it to someone else. (Author/RK)

  8. Clipboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Virginia G.

    1977-01-01

    Fibers and fabrics provide the raw materials for a great variety of art activities that are adaptable to practically all grade levels. Here are some stitchery projects for the art teacher with a limited budget for supplies. (Author/RK)

  9. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... PM, Lachapelle P, McCall MA, Koenekoop RK, Bergen AA, Kamermans M, Gregg RG. GPR179 is required for ... FM, McCall MA, Riemslag FC, Gregg RG, Bergen AA, Kamermans M. Mutations in TRPM1 are a common ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: glutaric acidemia type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... A, Holme E, Gregersen N, Turnbull DM, Morris AA. ETFDH mutations as a major cause of riboflavin- ... Citation on PubMed Olsen RK, Pourfarzam M, Morris AA, Dias RC, Knudsen I, Andresen BS, Gregersen N, ...

  11. Preparing Children for a Handicapped Classmate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Elizabeth J.

    1974-01-01

    In order to help students develop positive attitudes toward handicapped children the author discussed a program designed to provide students with deeper understandings of the nature of physical limitations. (Author/RK)

  12. Adolescent Erotica and Female Self-Concept Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurowitz, Laurie; Gaier, Eugene

    1976-01-01

    Focuses on one specific kind of information and guidance employed by many adolescent females as a source of information on sexuality, female erotica, and for information on the female role--the female self concept. (Author/RK)

  13. A Short-term Therapeutic Camping Program for Emotionally Disturbed Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Tom R.; Radka, Jerome E.

    1975-01-01

    This article described a short-term therapeutic camping program for emotionally disturbed adolescent boys employing behavior modification techniques, reliable observation of target behaviors, and implementation by staff members of the local community mental health clinic. (Author/RK)

  14. Teaching Middle School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Marilyn L.

    1975-01-01

    Author described some of the techniques she used for teaching French at Roosevelt Junior High School, West Palm Beach. She also explained how these techniques helped students to maintain an early desire to learn a foreign language. (Author/RK)

  15. Many Tocquevilles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, Robert

    1976-01-01

    The relation of a book to its public is always a matter of interest. Considers Alexis de Tocqueville's classic, "Democracy in America", and the American intellectual scene, as it has been known since about 1940. (Author/RK)

  16. The Desparing Optimist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubos, Rene

    1976-01-01

    There are good reasons for criticizing modern medicine and for worrying about its failures. Traces the history of medical practice and suggests the direction it must take to stay effective. (Author/RK)

  17. The European job market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ruth

    1974-01-01

    Employment exchange between countries in Europe is in need of much updating. Article considered a report by the British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education which dealt with social conditions that bedevil harmonization. (Author/RK)

  18. The Psychologist's Dilemma: Killing Alligators vs. Draining The Swamp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Withers, Thomas

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the problems of the school psychologist, his relationship with the school as a whole as well as with individual children, and the effect teachers can have on child psychological development. (RK)

  19. You've Come a Long Way Baby--So Tell It Like It Is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Horizons, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Explores the failure of textbook publications to report on the role of women without sex-stereotyping them. Comparisons of males and females in positions of dominance or as central figures in textbooks were made. (RK)

  20. Who are We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Janet

    1974-01-01

    Described the efforts of an elementary school teacher to help her students to think and verbalize about their current experiences while including in the lesson some art history of the Paleolithic period. (Author/RK)

  1. Good-bye Garage, Hello CCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augur, Eleanor

    1977-01-01

    The idea of having a religious education center in a four car garage may sound ridiculous to some but to the parishioners of Saint George's Church in Guilford, Connecticut, it was heaven-sent. (Author/RK)

  2. Is One Third of Your Students' Development Left to Chance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Larry W.; Katterjohn, Arthur D.

    1976-01-01

    Authors suggested ways for high school band members to gain the exposure, the experience, and the education to help them develop an aesthetic posture--critical, thoughtful interaction with music. (Author/RK)

  3. Four Schools in Sri Lanka: Equality of Opportunity for Rural Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapferer, Judith

    1975-01-01

    Author described four schools he observed in Sri Lanka in 1971-72 in an attempt to determine the extent to which rural children are disadvantaged in terms of social mobility through educational achievement. (Author/RK)

  4. The Drug Education Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Examines the problems of alcoholism, smoking and drug addiction and their influence on students. Suggests that intermediate and secondary schools can assist in alcohol and tobacco (the two legal drugs) programs through improved educational methods. (Author/RK)

  5. Concurrent Processing Demands and the Experience of Time-In-Passing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Robert E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This research finds that the experience of time-in-passing is an inverse function of the processing demanded by a concurrent task. An attentional model is suggested and evaluated against the literature. (Editor/RK)

  6. Early Education Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallum, Rosemary; Newhart, Edith Hom

    1977-01-01

    It is important for young children to see the connection between the math they learn in school and everyday situations. Uses games, songs, cooking experiences, movement activities and arts and crafts projects to illustrate the connection. (Author/RK)

  7. Lovable Lessons from the Creature Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffer, William

    1975-01-01

    Article suggested that if teachers are adequate to the task, all manner of lessons can be drawn from pets. These run the gamut from math to language skills to social sciences to sex education. (Author/RK)

  8. Prediction of Self-Actualization in Male Participants in a Group Conducted by Female Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follingstad, Diane R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Attempts to predict which male Ss (high or low authoritarian personality) would reflect higher self-actualization scores when exposed to a 16-hour marathon group conducted by female leaders. (Author/RK)

  9. On the Cutting Edge of the Law: The Expansion of Teachers' Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, David; Fischer, Louis

    1974-01-01

    Authors documented the expansion of the civil rights of teachers in six areas of conflict; academic freedom, free speech, organizational membership, personal life, personal appearance, and equal protection. (Editor/RK)

  10. Biofeedback and Electrodermal Self-Regulation in Psychopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Earl P.; Schwartz, Gary E.

    1976-01-01

    Data replicate and extend research on differences in physiological patterning between psychopaths and control subjects and provide new information on patterning with instructions and learned specificity with biofeedback. (Author/RK)

  11. Our Mighty Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gragg, Betty A.

    1976-01-01

    History and geography are more than units in textbooks for students in Warren County, Mississippi. Here students have the opportunity to express visually and verbally the influences of the Mighty Mississippi on everyday life. (Author/RK)

  12. Are Women's Colleges Necessary Today?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Philip

    1977-01-01

    Presents opposing viewpoints on the issue of whether women's colleges are the best way for educating women. Considers the effects of coeducation and how women develop in both situations as students and as individuals. (RK)

  13. Attenuation of the Latent Inhibition Effect by Prior Exposure to Another Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Jerry W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Repeated, isolated presentations of a stimulus typically reduce the subsequent ability of that cue to become an effective conditioned stimulus. This phenomenon is known as the latent inhibition effect. Four experiments investigate this effect. (Editor/RK)

  14. Moraine Valley College: A School With a Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Byron E.

    1974-01-01

    In the architecture and arrangement of the physical plant, in the organization of its programs, and in the activities of its faculty and staff Moraine Valley Community College embodies a distinctive philosophy of education. (Author/RK)

  15. Ethical Problems in Fetal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, David G.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristics and frequency of Cooley's anemia and sickle cell anemia were briefly reviewed. As well the genetic rationale for antenatal diagnosis of these conditions were discussed along with the present status of diagnostic technology. (Author/RK)

  16. Job Dissatisfaction and Coronary Heart Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friis, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Based on the psychosocial factor that life dissatisfactions may be associated with physical illnesses, this research examines the relationship between job dissatisfaction and its causal link to premature death from heart disease. (Author/RK)

  17. Effects of Physical Training on Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folkins, Carlyle H.

    1976-01-01

    Presents further evidence for the relationship between improvements in physical fitness and psychological fitness in a group of infirm adult males. The men in the group under study were at high risk of CHD (coronary heart disease). (Author/RK)

  18. The Case Against Separate Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David G.

    1977-01-01

    Reexamines certain points commonly made about desegregation providing a historical perspective of desegregation, a review of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, concluding with reform since 1964. (Author/RK)

  19. Cooperation or Separation?--Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Patricia

    1977-01-01

    Describes one of the first examples in the Inner London Education Authority of how cooperation between sixth forms might be made to work, in this case the successful sixth-form center in Tower Hamlets. (Author/RK)

  20. Citings on the Educational Horizon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathies, Lorraine

    1974-01-01

    Article discussed educational trends in the world, including a short synopsis of the world population situation and a brief account of a meeting of the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession. (Author/RK)

  1. Down the Up Staircase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ree, Harry

    1977-01-01

    Few teachers return to the classroom once they have escaped into administration, research, or the academic life. Here a former professor of education recounts his experience in taking this unfashionable route. (Editor/RK)

  2. The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

  3. Stimulus Structure, Discrimination, and Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runquist, Willard N.

    1975-01-01

    The general purpose of this experiment was to determine whether differences in stimulus discrimination, as determined by the MIR (missing-item recognition) test, are correlated with interference in recall, as demanded by the discriminative coding hypothesis. (Author/RK)

  4. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  5. Stimulus complexity, EEG abundance gradients, and detection efficiency in a visual recognition task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Anthony; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The work described demonstrated that not only do stimulus parameters have systematic effects upon brain activity as measured by the EEG, but that such effects have functional value and reflect aspects of efficiency. (Editor/RK)

  6. Community Adult Education in Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiemstra, Roger

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe how linkage between home, school, and community could be achieved, to show how all education should be conceived of as an exercise in adulthood. (Author/RK)

  7. A Recycled Giraffe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diorio, Lucille

    1976-01-01

    Chicken wire, cardboard tubes, newspaper, scrap lumber and discontinued fabric samples were among the discarded materials used in the art classes at the Webster Hill Elementary School, West Hartford, Connecticut, to create an eight-foot giraffe. (Author/RK)

  8. Reading in Capetown Schools: A Comparative View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Mary H.

    1974-01-01

    Author visited schools in three main sectors of the Capetown population and described and compared these schools in relation to some of J. Downing's variables, such as language and linguistics, culture and education. (Author/RK)

  9. Olive School, Arlington Heights, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Kathy

    1974-01-01

    Article stressed the need for a music teacher in an open school to have an openness to people and ideas. It also described the educational objectives at the Olive School in Arlington Heights, Illinois. (Author/RK)

  10. The Seventeenth Century English Constitutional Struggle and its Philosophical Impact on the American Colonies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Richard Glen

    1975-01-01

    In consideration of the influence upon the American colonists by English history this article examined briefly the tyrannical suppression of liberties in England which the makers of the United States Constitution were determined to prevent. (Author/RK)

  11. The Simplicity Argument and Absolute Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijuskovic, Ben

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the author has maintained that there is a similarity of thought to be found in the writings of Cudworth, Emerson, and Husserl in his investigation of an absolute system of morality. (Author/RK)

  12. Dream Deprivation and Facilitation with Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The present study attempted to deprive human subjects of dreaming through the administration of a posthypnotic suggestion and to increase or facilitate dreaming through a second suggestion that was used with another group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  13. Less of a Gardener, More of a Bee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin-Beale, Christopher

    1975-01-01

    On the eve of his eightieth birthday, the author talked to Christian Schiller, an inspector for fifty years, who has perhaps had more influence than any other individual on the development of British primary education. (Editor/RK)

  14. You and Me in the Biosphere: You and Me in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravitz, Marsha; Smith, Carolanne

    1973-01-01

    Article describes a class project by students interested in preserving endangered wildlife and environmental mini-courses designed to help elementary students find meaning in Earth Week celebrations. (Author/RK)

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... SYNDROME Sources for This Page Beggs AD, Latchford AR, Vasen HF, Moslein G, Alonso A, Aretz S, Bertario ... 66(1):58-62. Citation on PubMed Latchford AR, Phillips RK. Gastrointestinal polyps and cancer in Peutz- ...

  16. A Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondale, Walter F.

    1973-01-01

    Article is a statement by Senator Walter F. Mondale, a Democrat from Minnesota, on the evaluation of social programs and a serious appraisal of social policy for the nation's children and their families. (Author/RK)

  17. Government and the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondale, Walter F.

    1975-01-01

    In order to deal successfully with the changes and pressures placed upon families, article considered the extent government policies are helping or hurting families, and what kind of support services are available. (Author/RK)

  18. The Battle Against Senility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in medicine and psychology bring new hope for curing senility or controlling its ravages. Here are ten methods of reducing or bringing about a complete remission of senility. (Author/RK)

  19. Institutionalizing Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Jack

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the problem of institutionalizing dance, its effect and consequences, with Shirley Ririe, Co-Director with Joan Woodbury of the Ririe-Woodbury Dance Company based in Salt Lake City. (Author/RK)

  20. Reading: Tired of Round Robin?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indrisano, Roselmina

    1975-01-01

    "Oral reading is a process abundant in potential for teacher and learner" says the author, in response to a reader's question. Here she sets down some strategies to help you with a more effective reading program. (Editor/RK)

  1. Survival Through Creative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Alfred

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of the American educational system, outlines the various and developing world crisis, and suggests that teachers need to prepare creative, innovative, independent thinkers who can embrace the problems of the world and survive. (Author/RK)

  2. Down to Duck Pond Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croall, Jonathan

    1978-01-01

    The author talks to the founder of the Center for Village Studies. His name is George Delf, and his concern is with the long-term future of villages for which he has some energetic proposals. (Editor/RK)

  3. Nietzsche's View of Sublimation in the Educational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Ann Margaret

    1975-01-01

    Article outlined Nietzsche's beliefs on the primary aim of education, the conscious production of the free man through the process of sublimation, the active redirecting of one's life energy in the service of creativity. (Editor/RK)

  4. Hawaiian Music for Hawaii's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Dorothy K.

    1972-01-01

    Hawaiian music has developed from the simple chant and accompanying hula to choral singing and the use of the guitar and ukulele. Article also presents a compositional and choreographic analysis of Hawaiian music. (RK)

  5. Tablet Weaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kren, Margo

    1976-01-01

    Article described a weaving technique called tablet weaving, an ancient textile process that provides opportunity for making a variety of items, such as guitar straps, belts, and decorative bands. (Author/RK)

  6. Affectivity of Task, Rehearsal Time, and Physiological Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Walter M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The present experiment extended the research on the relation between language and physiology. Among the topics considered was the relation between physiological responses produced by subjects and the number of words they use in an oral presentation. (Author/RK)

  7. You and Me in an Outdoor Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wally E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Article describes student involvement in developing an arboretum, transforming a dumping ground into a children's park, setting up micro-environments, and building a fragile ecosystem on their school grounds. (Author/RK)

  8. Picture-Word Differences in Discrimination Learning: 11. Effects of Conceptual Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Lyle E.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the prediction that the usual superiority of pictures over words for repetitions of the same items would disappear for items that were different instances of repeated categories. (Author/RK)

  9. The subliminal perception of movement and the 'suppression' in binocular rivalry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Peter

    1975-01-01

    In this experiment an attempt was made to determine whether the perceptual system is capable of discriminating a moving pattern that is presented within the currently non-dominant field in binocular rivalry. (Author/RK)

  10. The Other Gibbon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevor-Roper, Hugh

    1976-01-01

    Considers the other Gibbon, independent of his greatest work, "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire"; concentrates on the period before the conception of the book and after the delivery of it. (Author/RK)

  11. An Emerging Curriculum Focus Or Somewhere In There Must Be A Pony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Dora, Delmo

    1975-01-01

    Author urged that the focus in educational administration and curriculum development should be on how to share the power for decision among those affected (parents, students, teachers, administrators, board members) rather than whether to share it. (Author/RK)

  12. Cultivating Creative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughnn, Margery M.

    1973-01-01

    Creativity is largely an outgrowth of attitude rather than an activity, a set of predispositions rather than a production line. Author traces the concept of creative development and the role music plays in illustrating the creative process. (Author/RK)

  13. Abortions: A National Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses general attitudes towards unwanted pregnancies and abortions, the methods that students have resorted to in order to abort themselves, and the mental state of college women, who become pregnant with children they don't want. (RK)

  14. Fall from Grace: The Decline of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnepper, Jeff A.; Schnepper, Barbara

    1976-01-01

    Asks whether the United States is about to join the Roman Empire as a historical lesson of inevitable rise and fall. The government, economic and industrial leaders, and social scientists are examined. (Editor/RK)

  15. After-Work Studies Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Michael C.

    1977-01-01

    Describes some company-sponsored educational programs designed for company employees who want to better their financial and job status. Shows how companies can blend outside and inside resources to fashion their educational programs. (Author/RK)

  16. The Relative Acceptability of the Multimedia Teaching Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, William H.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This research was designed to measure how students enrolled in introductory marketing courses perceived mass section multimedia lecture classes in comparison with other commonly utilized teaching formats. (Author/RK)

  17. Decentralization and Regionalization in the Ministry of Education: The Case of Venezuela

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark

    1976-01-01

    This research is an effort to analyze the process of organizational change as it takes place within one segment of the public administration mechanism in Venezuela--The Ministry of Education. (Editor/RK)

  18. A Glorious Century of Art Education: San Francisco's Art Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Stephen Mark

    1976-01-01

    Author described the life and times of the San Francisco Art Institute and reviewed the forces that made San Francisco a city of more than ordinary awareness of the arts in its civic and civil existence. (Editor/RK)

  19. Alternatives for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberti, Jean M.

    1975-01-01

    This article summarized the perspective of this issue by recognizing the validity of the issues being raised by the women's rights movement and also recognizing that the "liberation of women" means the liberation of men. (Author/RK)

  20. Effects of High Intensity White Noise on Short-Term Memory for Position in a List and Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daee, Safar; Wilding, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Seven experiments are described investigating the effecy of high intensity white noise during the visual presentation of words on a number of short-term memory tasks. Examines results relative to position learning and sequence learning. (Editor/RK)

  1. The Educational Potential of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Harry F.

    1974-01-01

    In viewing technology as any explicit set of procedures that provides a reliable solution to some problem rather than as hardware solutions, the author attempted to assess the educational potential of technology. (Author/RK)

  2. Silberman and the British on Aesthetic Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A.

    1973-01-01

    Author describes two instructive ways of illustrating the principal business of aesthetic education and summarizes the way in which the notion of a form of understanding is dealt with by Dearden. (Author/RK)

  3. Congenital syphilis

    MedlinePlus

    Congenital lues; Fetal syphilis ... which is passed from mother to child during fetal development or at birth. Nearly half of all ... Saunders; 2014:chap 143. Duff P. Maternal and fetal infections. In: Creasy RK, Resnik R, Iams JD, ...

  4. Correspondence and Mediational Properties of the Fishbein Model: An Application to Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlegel, Ronald P.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The generalizability of the Fishbein model for behavior prediction was extended to a new field of behavior, alcohol drinking by adolescents. This research investigated the predictive importance of the model's two components, attitudes and normative beliefs. (Editor/RK)

  5. Community College Approach To Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Richard A.

    1973-01-01

    Described a program designed to provide educational opportunities for elderly persons and considered how community colleges were able to reach young adult, pre-retirement and retirement populations. (Author/RK)

  6. Self sufficient world

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Lynn

    1974-01-01

    Described the efforts of Sietze Leeflang, a Dutch scientific journalist, and his group of young scientists to take a practical stand on environmental pollution by working their small farm in innovative fashion. (RK)

  7. Communicative Competence and Grammatical Accuracy in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, William T.

    1974-01-01

    This article questioned the linguistic assumptions that underlie most language teaching and suggested that a clearer recognition of the communicative function of language might result in a more realistic and effective learning experience. (Author/RK)

  8. Stoicism: The Education Of Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Robert R.

    1973-01-01

    Article considers the Greek philosophers and those who later practiced Stoicism. The intent in this essay is to give an account of that philosophy, focusing especially on its implications for education. (Author/RK)

  9. Violence and Vandalism in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grealy, Joseph I.

    1977-01-01

    School violence and vandalism threatens to seriously hamper the ability of educational systems to carry out their primary function. Presents some shocking cases of school violence and vandalism and suggests some remedies for both. (Author/RK)

  10. Punishment: A Reaffirmation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddis, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    In the best of conceivable worlds, the use of punishment would not be necessary. In the real world of school, however, punishment is sometimes needed. The author provides guidelines for maximizing the positive effects of punishment. (Author/RK)

  11. School Discipline: The Ongoing Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside, Marilyn

    1975-01-01

    The positive and negative aspects of classroom punishment were compared and the characteristics of teachers who did not experience discipline problems with their students were discussed. Additionally, programs for overcoming discipline difficulties were presented. (RK)

  12. A Two-Year Study of Hard-Core Unemployed Clerical Workers: Effects of Scholastic Achievement, Clerical Skill, and Self-Esteem on Job Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    This study was designed to longitudinally assess the predictive validity and the nature of the relationships of scholastic achievement, clerical skill, and social self-esteem with the job success of hard-core unemployed clerical workers. (Author/RK)

  13. On the Top Floor of the Old Pope Bicycle Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansky, Nelson M.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the biography of Clarence C. Birchard, a music and textbook publisher, who published The Laurel Song Book, which was instrumental in introducing children to contemporary American music. Outlines the variety of contributions Birchard made toward music development. (RK)

  14. Identification of Open Stomata1-Interacting Proteins Reveals Interactions with Sucrose Non-fermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 and with Type 2A Protein Phosphatases That Function in Abscisic Acid Responses1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Waadt, Rainer; Manalansan, Bianca; Rauniyar, Navin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Booker, Matthew A.; Brandt, Benjamin; Waadt, Christian; Nusinow, Dmitri A.; Kay, Steve A.; Kunz, Hans-Henning; Schumacher, Karin; DeLong, Alison; Yates, John R.; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) controls growth and development and regulates plant water status through an established signaling pathway. In the presence of ABA, pyrabactin resistance/regulatory component of ABA receptor proteins inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). This, in turn, enables the activation of Sucrose Nonfermenting1-Related Protein Kinases2 (SnRK2). Open Stomata1 (OST1)/SnRK2.6/SRK2E is a major SnRK2-type protein kinase responsible for mediating ABA responses. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing an epitope-tagged OST1 in the recessive ost1-3 mutant background was used for the copurification and identification of OST1-interacting proteins after osmotic stress and ABA treatments. These analyses, which were confirmed using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation, unexpectedly revealed homo- and heteromerization of OST1 with SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, OST1, and SnRK2.8. Furthermore, several OST1-complexed proteins were identified as type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A) subunits and as proteins involved in lipid and galactolipid metabolism. More detailed analyses suggested an interaction network between ABA-activated SnRK2-type protein kinases and several PP2A-type protein phosphatase regulatory subunits. pp2a double mutants exhibited a reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and stomatal closure and an enhanced ABA sensitivity in root growth regulation. These analyses add PP2A-type protein phosphatases as another class of protein phosphatases to the interaction network of SnRK2-type protein kinases. PMID:26175513

  15. Anesthesia in a Combat Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-25

    1969 19. Stoelting RK, Reis RR, Longnecker DE: Hemodynamic responses to nitrous oxide-halothane and halothane in patients with valvular heart disease . Anesthesiology...274- 285, 1971 28. Stoelting RK, Gibbs PS: Hemodynamic effects of morphine and morphine- nitrous oxide in valvular heart disease and coronary artery...responses to nitrous oxide-halothane and halothane in patients with valvular heart disease , Anesthesiology 37:430-435, 1975 34. Price HL: Myocardial

  16. Investigations Regarding Anesthesia during Hypovolemic Conditions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-25

    Stoelting RK, Reis RR, Longnecker DE: Hemody.amic responses to nitrous oxide-halothane and halothane in patients with valvular heart disease . Anesthesiology...285, 1971. 28. Stoelting RK, Gibbs PS: Hemodynamic effects of morphine and morphine-nitrous oxide in valvular heart disease and coronary artery...responses to nitrous oxide-halothane in patients with valvular heart disease . Anesthesiology 37:430-435, 1975. 34. 4rice HL: Myocardial depression by

  17. Frequency of Loaded Road March Training and Performance on a Loaded Road March

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    the Self Motivation Inventory developed by Dishman et al. (11). This was given indoors in comfortable conditions with the soldiers wearing only their...Washington, D.C., 1984. 11. Dishman RK, Ickes W, Morgan W. Self-motivation and adherence to habitual physical activity. J Appl Soc Psychol 10:115-132, 1980...12. Dishman RK, Ickes W. Self-motivation and adherence to therapeutic exercise. J Beh Med 4:421-438, 1981. 13. Dubik, JM, Fullerton TD. Soldier

  18. Subtle Regulation of Potato Acid Invertase Activity by a Protein Complex of Invertase, Invertase Inhibitor, and SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan; Liu, Tengfei; Liu, Jun; Liu, Xun; Ou, Yongbin; Zhang, Huiling; Li, Meng; Sonnewald, Uwe; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2015-08-01

    Slowing down cold-induced sweetening (CIS) of potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers is of economic importance for the potato industry to ensure high-quality products. The conversion of sucrose to reducing sugars by the acid invertase StvacINV1 is thought to be critical for CIS. Identification of the specific StvacINV1 inhibitor StInvInh2B and the α- and β-subunits of the interacting protein SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE from the wild potato species Solanum berthaultii (SbSnRK1) has led to speculation that invertase activity may be regulated via a posttranslational mechanism that remains to be elucidated. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, this study confirmed the protein complex by pairwise interactions. In vitro kinase assays and protein phosphorylation analysis revealed that phosphorylation of SbSnRK1α is causal for StvacINV1 activity and that its active form blocks the inhibition of StInvInh2B by SbSnRK1β, whereas its inactive form restores the function of SbSnRK1β that prevents StInvInh2B from repressing StvacINV1. Overexpression of SbSnRK1α in CIS-sensitive potato confirmed that SbSnRK1α has significant effects on acid invertase-associated sucrose degradation. A higher level of SbSnRK1α expression was accompanied by elevated SbSnRK1α phosphorylation, reduced acid invertase activity, a higher sucrose-hexose ratio, and improved chip color. Our results lend new insights into a subtle regulatory mode of invertase activity and provide a novel approach for potato CIS improvement.

  19. Structural and functional studies of the HAMP domain of EnvZ, an osmosensing transmembrane histidine kinase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kishii, Ryuta; Falzon, Liliana; Yoshida, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Inouye, Masayori

    2007-09-07

    The HAMP domain plays an essential role in signal transduction not only in histidine kinase but also in a number of other signal-transducing receptor proteins. Here we expressed the EnvZ HAMP domain (Arg(180)-Thr(235)) with the R218K mutation (termed L(RK)) or with L(RK) connected with domain A (Arg(180)-Arg(289)) (termed LA(RK)) of EnvZ, an osmosensing transmembrane histidine kinase in Escherichia coli, by fusing it with protein S. The L(RK) and LA(RK) proteins were purified after removing protein S. The CD analysis of the isolated L protein revealed that it consists of a random structure or is unstructured. This suggests that the EnvZ HAMP domain by itself is unable to form a stable structure and that this structural fragility may be important for its role in signal transduction. Interestingly the substitution of Ala(193) in the EnvZ HAMP domain with valine or leucine in Tez1A1, a chimeric protein of Tar and EnvZ, caused a constitutive OmpC phenotype. The CD analysis of LA(RK)(A193L) revealed that this mutated HAMP domain possesses considerable secondary structures and that the thermostability of this entire LA(RK)(A193L) became substantially lower than that of LA(RK) or just domain A, indicating that the structure of the HAMP domain with the A193L mutation affects the stability of downstream domain A. This results in cooperative thermodenaturation of domain A with the mutated HAMP domain. These results are discussed in light of the recently solved NMR structure of the HAMP domain from a thermophilic bacterium (Hulko, M., Berndt, F., Gruber, M., Linder, J. U., Truffault, V., Schultz, A., Martin, J., Schultz, J. E., Lupas, A. N., and Coles, M. (2006) Cell 126, 929-940).

  20. Design study of beam dynamics issues for 1 TeV next linear collider based upon the relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Goffeney, N.; Henestroza, E.; Sessler, A.; Yu, S.; Houck, T.; Westenskow, G.

    1994-11-01

    A design study has recently been conducted for exploring the feasibility of a relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerator (RK-TBA) system as a rf power source for a 1 TeV linear collider. The author present, in this paper, the beam dynamics part of this study. They have achieved in their design study acceptable transverse and longitudinal beam stability properties for the resulting high efficiency and low cost RK-TBA.