Science.gov

Sample records for igt hydrogasification process

  1. EVALUATION OF BIOMASS REACTIVITY IN HYDROGASIFICATION FOR THE HYNOL PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the reactivity of poplar wood in hydrogasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process, using a thermobalance reactor. Parameters affecting gasification behavior (e.g., gas velocity, particle size, system pres...

  2. EVALUATION OF BIOMASS REACTIVITY IN HYDROGASIFICATION FOR THE HYNOL PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the reactivity of poplar wood in hydrogasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process, using a thermobalance reactor. Parameters affecting gasification behavior (e.g., gas velocity, particle size, system pres...

  3. Cryogenic methane separation/catalytic hydrogasification process analysis. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Klosek, J.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of this coordinated research program is optimization of the Rockwell/Cities Service Short Residence Time Hydrogasification (SRTH) and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) processes in the acid gas removal and cryogenic areas. Progress reports of eight subtasks are presented along with process flowsheets, heat and material balances and economic evaluation, summarized in tables. Each subtask studied the effect of variation of a key design parameter on the treatment cost of the SNG produced.

  4. Cryogenic methane separation/catalytic hydrogasification process analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cassano, A.A.; Hilton, M.F.; Li, T.C.; Tsao, T.R.

    1980-02-14

    The objective of this program was to recommend the most attractive combinations of acid gas removal methane separation systems for the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) and the Rockwell Hydrogasification process currently undergoing development supported by DOE. The program was comprised of the following tasks. Screening to define the most promising integration scheme for each gasification process; development of a process flowsheet, heat and material balance, P and ID, equipment specification, utility summary, and plot plan for the process combination selected; and preparation of detailed economic and final report. The results of the study are documented in this report. The evaluations were performed using data supplied by the prime coal gasification contractors and the vendors of proprietary acid gas removal processes. This information, combined with Air Products' in-house capabilities in acid gas and cryogenic separation processses, was used to develop process designs and cost estimates for each integrated system. The design based and economic criteria employed in the study are described.

  5. Cryogenic methane separation/catalytic hydrogasification process analysis. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Klosek, J.

    1981-02-13

    The objective of this coordinated research program is to obtain the most attractive combinations of acid gas removal, methane separation for the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) and the Rockwell/Cities Service Hydrogasification processes. The program is divided into nine subtasks with each subtask studying the effect of variation of a key design parameter on the treatment cost of the SNG produced. Progress reports of 8 subtasks are presented. The following are some of the highlights. Subtask 1 - Heat and material balance and equipment sizing was completed for the cryogenic methane separation. The overall material balance is presented in a table. Subtask 2 - Preliminary designs for MEA and DEA gas removal systems were established. Subtasks 3 to 5 - Economic evaluation is in proress. Subtask 6 - The SNG product compressor train was simulated for the case where sufficient SNG fuel is withdrawn from the product compressors to fire the dryer reactivation heater. Subtask 7 - Acid gas removal and cryogenic separation equipment was resized to accommodate Exxon's request for a two-train plant design. Subtask 8 - The Benfield and Selexol systems will be evaluated for acid gas removal.

  6. Production of synthetic fuels using syngas from a steam hydrogasification and reforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Arun Satheesh Kumar

    This thesis is aimed at the research, optimization and development of a thermo-chemical process aimed at the production of synthesis gas (mixture of H2 and CO) with a flexible H2 to CO ratio using coupled steam hydrogasification and steam reforming processes. The steam hydrogasification step generates a product gas containing significant amounts of methane by gasifying a carbonaceous feed material with steam and internally generated H2. This product gas is converted to synthesis gas with an excess H2 to CO using the steam reformer. Research involving experimental and simulation work has been conducted on steam hydrogasification, steam reforming and the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The Aspen Plus simulation tool has been used to develop a process model that can perform heat and mass balance calculations of the whole process using built-in reactor modules and an empirical FT model available in the literature. This model has been used to estimate optimum feed ratios and process conditions for specific feedstocks and products. Steam hydrogasification of coal and wood mixtures of varying coal to wood ratios has been performed in a stirred batch reactor. The carbon conversion of the feedstocks to gaseous products is around 60% at 700°C and 80% at 800°C. The coal to wood ratio of the feedstock does not exert a significant influence on the carbon conversion. The rates of formation of CO, CO 2 and CH4 during gasification have been calculated based on the experimental results using a simple kinetic model. Experimental research on steam reforming has been performed. It has been shown that temperature and the feed CO2/CH4 ratio play a dominant role in determining the product gas H2/CO ratio. Reforming of typical steam hydrogasification product-gas stream has been investigated over a commercial steam reforming catalyst. The results demonstrate that the combined use of steam hydrogasification process with a reformer can generate a synthesis gas with a predetermined H2/CO ratio

  7. Development of the IGT RENUGAS(reg sign) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Francis S.; Carty, Ronald H.; Onischak, Michael; Bain, Richard L.

    The development of the IGT RENUGAS(reg sign) process from a concept in 1977 to the design of a 91 metric ton per day demonstration gasifier planned for Hawaii is described. The RENUGAS(reg sign) process was specifically developed for pressurized fluidized bed gasification of biomass to produce either an industrial fuel gas or a chemical synthesis gas depending on air- or oxygen-blown operation. The RENUGAS(reg sign) gasifier is a single-stage fluidized bed reactor with a deep bed of inert fluidization solids that provide stable fluidization behavior and needed heat capacity for efficient transfer of energy released by the combustion to the endothermic devolatilization and gasification reactions. The use of a deep single-stage bed of inert solids yields high carbon conversion and low production of oils and tars. The 10.9 metric ton per day RENUGAS(reg sign) process development unit built at IGT under a USDOE program, has been tested under various operating conditions, processing over 81 metric tons of biomass feedstocks in over 220 hours of steady-state tests. Initial parameter variation tests were conducted to determine the optimum gasification conditions of temperature, pressure, steam input, and feedstock moisture and different feedstocks. Currently, the PDU is being used to test hot gas cleanup for power turbines in support of the Hawaii demonstration gasifier.

  8. Development of the IGT RENUGAS{reg_sign} process

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, F.S.; Carty, R.H.

    1994-09-01

    The RENUGAS process was specifically developed for pressurized fluidized bed gasification of biomass to produce either an industrial fuel gas or a chemical synthesis gas depending on air- or oxygen-blown operation. The RENUGAS gasifier is a single stage fluidized bed reactor with a deep bed of inert solids that provide stable fluidization behavior and needed heat capacity for efficient transfer of energy released by the combustion to the endothermic devolatilization and gasification reactions. The use of a deep single-stage bed of inert solids yields high carbon conversion and low oils and tars production. The 11 metric tonne per day RENUGAS process development unit (PDU) built at IGT under a US DOE program, has been tested under various operating conditions with a variety of feedstocks from RdF to woody and herbaceous biomass. Currently, the PDU is being used to test hot gas cleanup for power turbines in support of the Hawaii demonstration gasifier. Biomass conversions of over 95% were achieved for most biomass tested. The successful demonstration of the PDU tests resulted in RENUGAS being selected for further scaleup to a 91 metric ton per day demonstration gasifier being constructed in Hawaii by the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR); a research program being conducted by Westinghouse Electric to validate a hot gas cleanup system for operation of the RENUGAS gasifier with a gas turbine; and the feasibility study of a 70-80 Megawatt combined cycle power plant using an air blown RENUGAS gasifier with alfalfa stems as the feedstock. In this paper, the IGT RENUGAS process is described and its status in three current programs is discussed.

  9. Current status of the IGT RENUGAS{reg_sign} process

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, F.S.; Carty, R.H.

    1994-09-01

    The RENUGAS process was specifically developed for pressurized fluidized bed gasification of biomass to produce either an industrial fuel gas or a chemical synthesis gas depending on air- or oxygen-blown operation. The RENUGAS gasifier is a single state fluidized bed reactor with a deep bed of inert solids that provide stable fluidization behavior and needed heat capacity for efficient transfer of energy released by the combustion to the endothermic devolatilization and gasification reactions. The use of a deep single-stage bed of inert solids yields high carbon conversion and low production of oils and tars. The 11 metric tons per day RENUGAS process development unit built at IGT under a USDOE program, has been tested under various operating conditions with a variety of feedstocks from RdF to woody and herbaceous biomass. Currently, the PDU is being used to test hot gas cleanup for power turbines in support of the Hawaii demonstration gasifier. Biomass conversions of over 95% were achieved for most biomass tested. The successful demonstration of the PDU tests resulted in RENUGAS being selected for further scaleup a 91 metric ton per day demonstration gasifier being constructed in Hawaii by the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR); a research program being conducted by Westinghouse Electric to validate a hot gas cleanup system for operation of the RENUGAS gasifier with a gas turbine; and the feasibility study of a 70-80 Megawatt combined cycle power plant using an air blown RENUGAS gasifier with alfalfa stems as the feedstock. In this paper, the development of the IGT RENUGAS process from a concept in 1977 to its status in three current programs is discussed.

  10. Cryogenic methane separation/catalytic hydrogasification process analysis. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Klosek, J.

    1981-08-01

    In both the Rockwell and the Exxon gasification processors, the desired product methane needs to be separated from the reaction products and some of the other synthesis gas products recycled. This separation is not easy and cryogenic methane separation results from the Rockwell process gas at 932 psia and containing 3725 ppM of benzene are reported. The benzene was recovered by partial condensation and carbon adsorption. Other details are given. In the Exxon process three preliminary plant designs for acid gas removal and cryogenic methane separation from the raw gas at 250 psig were evaluated. (LTN)

  11. Cryogenic methane separation/catalytic hydrogasification process analysis. Final technical report, 23 July 1980-23 September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Klosek, J.; Gramse, C.J.; Tsao, T.R.

    1981-10-20

    In a continuing effort to further optimize the CS/R (Rockwell) Coal Hydrogasification process and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) process, DOE extended the contract study, Cryogenic Methane Separation/Catalytic Hydrogasification Process Analysis (ET-78-C-01-3044). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. was authorized to perform additional trade-off studies which were of interest to DOE, Rockwell, and Exxon as potential capital and operating cost savings for the two, third generation coal gasification processes. The scope of this contract extension was comprised of two (2) subtasks for the CS/R (Rockwell) process and nine (9) subtasks for the Exxon CCG process. A Task I type screening study was performed for all subtasks. The results of the evaluations are summarized below.

  12. Hydrogasification reactor and method of operating same

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Raymond; Karner, Donald; Sun, Xiaolei; Boyle, John; Noguchi, Fuyuki

    2013-09-10

    The present invention provides a system and method for evaluating effects of process parameters on hydrogasification processes. The system includes a hydrogasification reactor, a pressurized feed system, a hopper system, a hydrogen gas source, and a carrier gas source. Pressurized carbonaceous material, such as coal, is fed to the reactor using the carrier gas and reacted with hydrogen to produce natural gas.

  13. Coal hydrogasification process development. Volume II. Peat studies. Second annual technical progress report, government fiscal year 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Sprouse, K.M.; Rosemary, J.K.

    1980-10-20

    This report describes work performed on a program directed towards investigating the effects of peat hydrogasification in an entrained flow reactor. The program was conducted in three phases: peat dense-phase feed system flow studies, hydrogasification entrained flow reactor testing, and preliminary peat process economic evaluations. The peat dense-phase feeding studies included low-pressure (below 150 psig) testing at nominal solid peat flow rates of 1 ton/hr and analytical modeling efforts. The hydrogasification reactor testing was performed at peat flow rates of over 1000 lb/hr and reactor temperatures to 1900/sup 0/F in hydrogen atmospheres from 500 to 1000 psig. A simple analytical kinetic model was developed to predict total carbon conversion as a function of reactor operating variables and its agreement with experimental data was found to be excellent. Finally, preliminary process economics were established for three variations of the Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Flash Hydropyrolysis Process with the cost of high-Btu gas ranging from $3.43 to $4.06 per million Btu.

  14. Scaleup of IGT MILDGAS Process to a process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Longanbach, J.; Johnson, R.; Underwood, K.; Mead, J.; Carty, R.H.

    1992-12-31

    The MILDGAS process is capable of processing both eastern caking and western non-caking coals to yield a slate of liquid and solid products. The liquids can be processed to produce: feedstocks for chemicals; pitch for use as a binder for electrodes in the aluminum industry; and fuels. Depending on the feed coal characteristics and the operating conditions, the char can be used as an improved fuel for power generation or can be used to make form coke for steel-making blast furnaces or for foundry cupola operations. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. In this paper, the authors present the process design of the PDU facility, a description of the expected product distribution and the project test plan to be implemented in the program.

  15. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, p

  16. Experimental Study of Hydrogasification of Lignite and Subbituminous Coal Chars

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    The experimental facility for pressure hydrogasification research was adapted to the pressure of 10 MPa and temperature of 1300 K, which ensured repeatability of results and hydrogen heating to the process temperature. A hydrogasification reaction of chars produced from two rank coals was investigated at temperatures up to 1173 K, pressures up to 8 MPa, and the gas flow rates of 0.5–5 dmn3/min. Reactivity of the “Szczerców” lignite char was found to be slightly higher than that of the subbituminous “Janina” coal char produced under the same conditions. A high value of the char reactivity was observed to a certain carbon conversion degree, above which a sharp drop took place. It was shown that, to achieve proper carbon conversion, the hydrogasification reaction must proceed at a temperature above 1200 K. PMID:26065028

  17. Enhanced coal hydrogasification via oxidative pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.J.

    1992-04-16

    The gasification of coal char by hydrogen is much slower than in steam or carbon dioxide; moreover, hydrogasification rate in pure hydrogen decreases sharply with conversion for most carbons. To overcome this kinetic behavior, the oxidation of the char prior to and during hydrogasification has been investigated as a means of enhancing hydro gasification rate. Kinetic rate studies under well-characterized conditions have been complemented by careful surface analyses to characterize oxygen on the char surface prior to and during hydrogasification.

  18. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals-Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond Hobbs

    2007-05-31

    The Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP)--conversion of coal to methane--is being developed through NETL with a DOE Grant and has successfully completed its first phase of development. The results so far are encouraging and have led to commitment by DOE/NETL to begin a second phase--bench scale reactor vessel testing, expanded engineering analysis and economic perspective review. During the next decade new means of generating electricity, and other forms of energy, will be introduced. The members of the AHP Team envision a need for expanded sources of natural gas or substitutes for natural gas, to fuel power generating plants. The initial work the team has completed on a process to use hydrogen to convert coal to methane (pipeline ready gas) shows promising potential. The Team has intentionally slanted its efforts toward the needs of US electric utilities, particularly on fuels that can be used near urban centers where the greatest need for new electric generation is found. The process, as it has evolved, would produce methane from coal by adding hydrogen. The process appears to be efficient using western coals for conversion to a highly sought after fuel with significantly reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. Utilities have a natural interest in the preservation of their industry, which will require a dramatic reduction in stack emissions and an increase in sustainable technologies. Utilities tend to rank long-term stable supplies of fuel higher than most industries and are willing to trade some ratio of cost for stability. The need for sustainability, stability and environmentally compatible production are key drivers in the formation and progression of the AHP development. In Phase II, the team will add a focus on water conservation to determine how the basic gasification process can be best integrated with all the plant components to minimize water consumption during SNG production. The process allows for several CO{sub 2} reduction options including consumption of

  19. Enhanced coal hydrogasification via oxidative pretreatment. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.J.

    1992-04-16

    The gasification of coal char by hydrogen is much slower than in steam or carbon dioxide; moreover, hydrogasification rate in pure hydrogen decreases sharply with conversion for most carbons. To overcome this kinetic behavior, the oxidation of the char prior to and during hydrogasification has been investigated as a means of enhancing hydro gasification rate. Kinetic rate studies under well-characterized conditions have been complemented by careful surface analyses to characterize oxygen on the char surface prior to and during hydrogasification.

  20. (Enhanced coal hydrogasification via oxidative pretreatment)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Work continued on coal hydrogasification. To date, twenty-one gasification runs have been conducted. These runs have focused on (1) obtaining a representative set of partially converted samples with which to determine pore structure and surface area development, (2) determining suitable conditions for the kinetic studies and (3) illustrating rate enhancement following oxidation. Also, ultimate-proximate analyses of the three samples were conducted at a commercial analytical laboratory. The high oxygen content of demineralized char is as yet unexplained. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Manufactured gas plant sites: Characterization of wastes and IGT`s innovative remediation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, V.J.

    1993-12-31

    Manufactured gas plants (MGP)--often referred to as town gas plants--have existed in many parts of the world, including the United States, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Consequently, many of these plants disposed of process wastes and less valuable by-products onsite, contaminated with coal-tar wastes, light oils, naphthalene, etc. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are components of coal-tar wastes and other wastes that remain at many of these town gas sites. PAH- containing soils, as a result, represent the largest waste type at most MGP sites. Also, certain PAHs are recognized today as being potential animal and/or human carcinogens and, as such, represent an environmental hazard. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has developed and/or evaluated several techniques/processes to improve the biodegradation of PAHs present at MGP sites. As a result of extensive studies, IGT has successfully developed and demonstrated an integrated Chemical/Biological Treatment (CBT) process that is capable of enhancing the rate as well as the extent of PAH degradation. This process combines two complementary as well as powerful remedial techniques: (1) chemical pretreatment using Fenton`s reagent and (2) a biological system using native aerobic microorganisms. This paper presents the general characteristics of MGP sites and wastes and the innovative IGT processes at various stages of development and demonstration. This paper also discusses the IGT/GRI treatability protocol that can be used to determine the potential of bioremediation for any MGP site soil within a 2 to 3-month period.

  2. Pilot plant testing of IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Richardson, T.L.

    1993-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting a multi-year experimental program to develop and test, through pilot-scale operation, IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor (AGGCOM). The AGGCOM process is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration and gasification technology with the cyclonic combustion technology, both of which have been developed at IGT over many years. AGGCOM is a unique and extremely flexible combustor that can operate over a wide range of conditions in the fluidized-bed first stage from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-energy-content wastes. The ACCCOM combustor can easily and efficiently destroy solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes, while isolating solid inorganic contaminants within an essentially non-leachable glassy matrix, suitable for disposal in ordinary landfills. Fines elutriated from the first stage are captured by a high-efficiency cyclone and returned to the fluidized bed for ultimate incorporation into the agglomerates. Intense mixing in the second-stage cyclonic combustor ensures high destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) for organic compounds that may be present in the feed material. This paper presents an overview of the experimental development of the AGGCOM process and progress made to date in designing, constructing, and operating the 6-ton/day AGGCOM pilot plant. Results of the bench-scale tests conducted to determine the operating conditions necessary to agglomerate a soil were presented at the 1991 Incineration Conference. On-site construction of the AGGCOM pilot plant was initiated in August 1992 and completed at the end of March 1993, with shakedown testing following immediately thereafter. The initial tests in the AGGCOM pilot plant will focus on the integrated operation of both stages of the combustor and will be conducted with ``clean`` topsoil.

  3. Standing balance and trunk position sense in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)-related peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Allon; Russell, James William; Alexander, Neil Burton

    2008-07-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and pre-diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) affect a large segment of the population. Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a common complication of T2DM, leading to sensory and motor deficits. While T2DM-related PN often results in balance- and mobility-related dysfunction which manifests as gait instability and falls, little is known about balance capabilities in patients who have evidence of PN related to IGT (IGT-PN). We evaluated patients with IGT-PN on commonly-used clinical balance and mobility tests as well as a new test of trunk position sense and balance impairment, trunk repositioning errors (TREs). Eight participants aged 50-72 years with IGT-PN, and eight age- and gender-matched controls underwent balance, mobility and trunk repositioning accuracy tests at a university neurology clinic and mobility research laboratory. Compared to controls, IGT-PN participants had as much as twice the magnitude of TREs and stood approximately half as long on the single leg balance test. People with IGT-PN exhibit deficits in standing balance and trunk position sense. Furthermore, there was a significant association between performance on commonly-used clinical balance and mobility tests, and electrophysiological and clinical measures of neuropathy in IGT-PN participants. Because IGT-related neuropathy represents the earliest stage of diabetic neuropathy, deficits in IGT-PN participants highlight the importance of early screening in the dysglycemic process for neuropathy and associated balance deficits.

  4. Advancement of peat hydrogasification. Final report, July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Garey, M.P.; Rosemary, J.K.

    1983-07-01

    This final technical report summarizes the results of a preliminary conceptual commercial-scale peat hydrogasification plant study performed for the US Department of Energy by the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International and its subcontractor, the C.E. Lummus Company. The plant design is based on the Rockwell single-stage, entrained flow, short-residence-time hydrogasifier in which peat and hot hydrogen are reacted to produce SNG and a high-value co-product liquid, predominantly chemical-grade benzene. The overall design objective was to integrate the Rockwell hydrogasifier with a combination of unit operations and plant subsystems to yield an effective and economic plant for producing 250 billion Btu per stream day of pipeline quality SNG from peat. The report is divided into two parts. Part I contains a summary of the work performed by Rockwell in support of the Lummus plant design effort. Rockwell provided to Lummus correlations of reactor performance data, cost and design information pertaining to the reactor train, specifications of equipment requirements for the peat drying and pulverization system, and preliminary material balances for an alternate plant design based upon the use of a partial oxidation gasifier system for hydrogen generation. Lummus performed the major part of this study. Their final report to Rockwell is presented in its entirety as Part II of this document. Included are the design and economic bases for the commercial-scale plant concept, detailed descriptions of the selected process configurations, and preliminary order of magnitude estimates for the capital requirements, the net annual operating costs, and an average cost of gas for the proposed plant design. The Lummus section and a review article on peat have been entered separately. (LTN)

  5. Co-hydrogasification of lignocellulosic biomass and swelling coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Zheng, N.; Wang, J.

    2016-08-01

    The hydrogasification of pine wood (PW) and rice husk (RH) was carried out in a two-stage fixed-bed reactor to investigate the effects of hydrogen pressure and hydrocracking temperature on the yields of gas and tar compositions. The elevation in hydrogen pressure promoted the conversion of two biomasses, leading to the improvement in gaseous hydrocarbons but resulted in a decrease in the yield of BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene). The increased severity of hydrocracking boosted the yield of methane, ethane and BTX mainly at the expense of heavy compounds in tar for PW under 1 MPa. The co-hydrogasification of biomass and DWG swelling coal chiefly showed a synergistic effect on the yields of BTX and PCX (phenol, cresol and xylenol) at 500 °C hydrocracking temperature under 5 MPa.

  6. Advancement of flash hydrogasification: Task VIII. Performance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, A.Y.; Schuman, M.D.; Kahn, D.R.

    1986-06-01

    This topical report documents the technical effort required to investigate and verify the reaction chemistry associated with the Rockwell Advanced Flash Hydropyrolysis (AFHP) concept for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The testing phase of the program included 5 preburner performance evaluation tests (14 test conditions) and 11 coal-fed reactor tests (19 test conditions). The reactor test parameters investigated spanned exist temperatures from 1775 to 2050/sup 0/F, residence times from 2 to 8 s, inlet gas-to-coal ratios from 0.15 to 0.27 lb-mole/lb, and inlet-steam-to-H/sub 2/ mole ratios from 0.15 to 0.86. One test was conducted to investigate the effect of CH/sub 4/ addition to the hydrogen feed stream (22 mole % CH/sub 4/), with subsequent partial oxidation of the CH/sub 4/ to CO/sub x/ in the preburner system, on the AFHP reactor chemistry and product gas composition. Overall carbon conversion and total carbon conversion to gases (namely, CH/sub 4/, C/sub 2/H/sub 6/, CO, and CO/sub 2/) ranged from 53 to 68% and 35 to 68%, respectively. The gas produced was primarily CH/sub 4/ (31 to 53% carbon conversion to CH/sub 4/). Carbon conversion to total liquids was strongly dependent on reactor exit temperature and to a lesser extent on residence time, with values ranging from about 20% to 1775/sup 0/F and 2-S residence time to zero at 1975/sup 0/F and residence times greater than 5 s. Carbon conversion to C/sub 6/H/sub 6/ asd high as 11.2% was obtained. Carbon conversion to CO/sub x/ ranged from 3.5 to 29.4%. Methane addition was found not to significantly affect the AFHP reactor chemistry. As a result of this program, Rockwell has expanded its data base and significantly improved its correlation model describing the processes occurring during flash hydropyrolysis. The correlation provides an excellent tool for subsequent process evaluations to determine the economic potential of the Rockwell coal hydrogasification process. 23 refs., 51 figs

  7. IGT-Open: An open-source, computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task.

    PubMed

    Dancy, Christopher L; Ritter, Frank E

    2017-06-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is commonly used to understand the processes involved in decision-making. Though the task was originally run without a computer, using a computerized version of the task has become typical. These computerized versions of the IGT are useful, because they can make the task more standardized across studies and allow for the task to be used in environments where a physical version of the task may be difficult or impossible to use (e.g., while collecting brain imaging data). Though these computerized versions of the IGT have been useful for experimentation, having multiple software implementations of the task could present reliability issues. We present an open-source software version of the Iowa Gambling Task (called IGT-Open) that allows for millisecond visual presentation accuracy and is freely available to be used and modified. This software has been used to collect data from human subjects and also has been used to run model-based simulations with computational process models developed to run in the ACT-R architecture.

  8. Advancement of flash hydrogasification. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, A.Y.

    1984-06-25

    This first quarterly report documents technical progress during the period 31 December 1983 through 30 March 1984. The technical effort is 17 months in duration and is divided into two major technical tasks: Task VII, Hardware Fabrication and PDU Modifications, and Task VIII, Performance Testing. The design of test hardware and process development unit modifications had been previously completed as part of Task VI of the current contract. Task VII involves the fabrication of test hardware and modification of an existing 1-ton/h hydroliquefaction PDU at Rockwell's facilities for use as a hydrogasifier test facility. During this report period, fabrication of the test hardware and modifications to the PDU were initiated. Test hardware fabrication is now approximately 80% complete and should be completed by the end of May 1984. PDU modifications are progressing well and should be completed by the end of June 1984. The completed test hardware fabrication and PDU modifications will allow the conduct of short duration (1 to 2 h) hydrogasification tests along with preburner assembly performance evaluation tests in order to fulfill the test program objectives. Separate supplies of hydrogen, oxygen, methane, carbon monoxide, and water (for steam generation) are provided for this purpose. The modified facility is designed to accommodate both 10- and 20-ft-long hydrogasifier reactors so that residence times will be in the range of 2 to 6 s when coal is fed at a nominal 1/2 ton/h into reactors at 1000 psia pressure. Provisions are being made for real-time analysis of the product gases using an on-line gas chromatograph system. Test planning was the only Task VIII effort active during this report period. An initial (preliminary) test matrix has been defined. Preparation of a data analysis plan is underway, and data reduction programs are being programmed. 17 references, 25 figures, 6 tables.

  9. Value-added co-products from K-M/IGT facility

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

    1993-12-31

    Objective is to develop the IGT MILDGAS (a continuous coal carbonization process for producing liquid and solid (char) coproducts at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300 F) technology for near-term commercialization. Specifically, a 24- ton/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) is to be constructed. Status of the schedule for constructing the PDU at Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, is given.

  10. 75 FR 70691 - International Game Technology (IGT), Machine Accounting and ABS (Bonusing and BEII), Engineering...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Game Technology (IGT), Machine Accounting and ABS... Game Technology (IGT), Machine Accounting and ABS (Bonusing and BEII), Engineering, including on-site... Technology (IGT), Machine Accounting and ABS (Bonusing and BEII), and Engineering. The relevant data...

  11. Hydrogasification of carbon adsorbed on sulfur-poisoned dispersed metal catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, J.G.; Wood, B.J.

    1993-12-01

    The temperature programmed reaction of 1- to 10-atom hydrogen (TPRH) with carbon deposited on alumina supported Ni, Ru, and Co and on fused Fe catalysts has been developed to examine the effect of sulfur poisoning on coking rates and the nature of the deposited carbon. A new procedure, passivation by carbon deposition on clean reduced metals and low temperature (20--50 C) exposure to recirculate dilute H{sub 2}S with moderate 0.1 atm partial pressure of CO{sub 2} was used to slow the rate of sulfur chemisorption. This method facilitated slow uniform sulfur chemisorption to fractional saturation coverages. Fractional sulfur poisoning generally blocked sites of active surface carbon (or hydrocarbon fragments) while suppressing rates of hydrogasification as shown by the increasing temperatures in the TPRH hydrogasification rate versus temperature spectra. Fractional sulfur poisoning (e.g., half saturation) appears to inhibit H{sub 2} gasification with surface carbon surprisingly without strongly affecting catalytic activity. Sulfur poisoning to saturation levels (defined here as {approximately}1 ppm H{sub 2}S in 1-atm H{sub 2} at 500 C) always results in complete loss of activity and is also marked by the growth of a very unreactive form of carbon.

  12. A Novel Test for IGT Utilizing Metabolite Markers of Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Eckhart, Andrea; Perichon, Regis; Wulff, Jacob; Mitchell, Matthew; Adam, Klaus-Peter; Wolfert, Robert; Button, Eric; Lawton, Kay; Elverson, Robert; Carr, Bernadette; Sinnott, Margaret; Ferrannini, Ele

    2014-01-01

    Background: The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is the only method to diagnose patients having impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), but its use has diminished considerably in recent years. Metabolomic profiling studies have identified a number of metabolites whose fasting levels are associated with dysglycemia and type 2 diabetes. These metabolites may serve as the basis of an alternative test for IGT. Method: Using the stable isotope dilution technique, quantitative assays were developed for 23 candidate biomarker metabolites. These metabolites were measured in fasting plasma samples taken just prior to an OGTT from 1623 nondiabetic subjects: 955 from the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Study (RISC Study; 11.7% IGT) and 668 subjects from the Diabetes Mellitus and Vascular Health Initiative (DMVhi) cohort from the DEXLIFE project (11.8% IGT). The associations between metabolites, anthropometric, and metabolic parameters and 2hPG values were assessed by Pearson correlation coefficients and Random Forest classification analysis to rank variables for their ability to distinguish IGT from normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Multivariate logistic regression models for estimating risk of IGT were developed and evaluated using AUCs calculated from the corresponding ROC curves. Results: A model based on the fasting plasma levels of glucose, α-hydroxybutyric acid, β-hydroxybutyric acid, 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid, linoleoylglycerophosphocholine, oleic acid, serine and vitamin B5 was optimized in the RISC cohort (AUC = 0.82) and validated in the DMVhi cohort (AUC = 0.83). Conclusions: A novel, all-metabolite-based test is shown to be a discriminate marker of IGT. It requires only a single fasted blood draw and may serve as a more convenient surrogate for the OGTT or as a means of identifying subjects likely to be IGT. PMID:25261439

  13. Recent findings on the structure and function of teleost IgT

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-An; Salinas, Irene; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2011-01-01

    As key effector molecules of jawed vertebrate’s adaptive immune system, immunoglobulins are produced by B lymphocytes, either as a secretory form (antibody) or as a membrane form (B cell receptor). Until recently, teleost fish B cells were thought to express only two classes of immunoglobulins, IgM and IgD. In addition, IgM in these species was thought to be the only immunoglobulin isotype responding to pathogens both in systemic or mucosal compartments. However, the unexpected discovery of IgT, a new teleost immunoglobulin unearthed in 2005, has provided for new opportunities to analyze further roles of teleost immunoglobulins in these two physiologically distinct compartments. The smoke about the potential function of IgT has cleared recently with the finding that this immunoglobulin appears to be specialized in gut mucosal immunity. Significantly, the new capability of measuring not only IgM but also IgT responses will greatly facilitate the evaluation and understanding of fish immune responses as well as the protective effects of fish vaccines. The purpose of this review is to summarize the molecular characterization of new IgT orthologs and subtypes in teleosts, as well as to describe the new findings concerning the protein structure of IgT, the B cells producing it, and its role in mucosal immunity. PMID:21466854

  14. Urban Waste Conversion Systems. IGT Project 61030 final report, October 1, 1978-March 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Cowen, D.S.; Daniels, E.J.; Novil, M.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the market potential of the various systems available, or under development, for converting urban wastes into synthetic gas or liquids. The primary data base for this assessment is a survey which IGT has sent out to experts in this field. The experts were asked to evaluate various conversion systems by assigning point totals to an evaluation matrix. They were also asked to summarize their work in urban waste conversion, to list critical paths which represent obstacles to be surmounted by R and D, and to assess the effect of those obstacles on the market potential of that process. Critical areas for R and D work focus on materials handling and separation techniques, and protection of equipment from abrasive, caustic, or corrosive chemicals in the wastes. Also, prohibitive capital and operating costs in some existing systems must be cited, since investor confidence is eroded by evidence of such experiences. Downtime has been excessive with many systems, stemming from feed problems brought on by the heterogeneous nature of the feedstock. Systems using homogeneous feeds have shown considerably less problems. Perhaps a critical area from a social impact point of view is, can garbage separation be instituted for the home, factory, etc. If so, the chances for waste converison systems to overcome technical problems on the front end are greatly improved, and so is the potential for market penetration.

  15. Anorexia, bulimia, and obesity: shared decision making deficits on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT).

    PubMed

    Brogan, Amy; Hevey, David; Pignatti, Riccardo

    2010-07-01

    The pathological eating behaviors in Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN), and obesity are characterized by a preference for high immediate reward, despite higher future losses in terms of both physical and psychological outcomes. The present study compared the decision making profile of females with a diagnosis of AN (n = 22), BN (n = 17), obesity (n = 18), and a healthy weight comparison group (n = 20) using a standardized neuropsychological test, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The three clinical groups (AN, BN, obesity) were significantly impaired on the IGT compared with the comparison group on both overall task performance and task learning; however, the three clinical groups were not significantly different from each other. Sixty-one percent to 77% of the clinical groups reached the threshold for impairment on the IGT, compared with 15% of the comparison group. The potential basis for this shared decision making profile is discussed.

  16. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of three subclasses of IgT in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nu; Zhang, Xu-Jie; Chen, Dan-Dan; Oriol Sunyer, J; Zhang, Yong-An

    2017-05-01

    As the teleost specific immunoglobulin, IgT plays important roles in systemic and mucosal immunity. In the current study, in rainbow trout, we have cloned the heavy chain (Igτ) genes of a secretory form of IgT2 as well as the membrane and secretory forms of a third IgT subclass, termed IgT3. Conserved cysteine and tryptophan residues that are crucial for the folding of the immunoglobulin domain as well as hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues within CART motif were identified in all IgT subclasses. Through analysis of the rainbow trout genome assembly, Igτ3 gene was found localized upstream of Igτ1 gene, while Igτ2 gene situated on another scaffold. At the transcriptional level, Igτ1 was mainly expressed in both systemic and mucosal lymphoid tissues, while Igτ2 was largely expressed in systemic lymphoid organs. After LPS and poly (I:C) treatment, Igτ1 and Igτ2 genes exhibited different expression profiles. Interestingly the transcriptional level of Igτ3 was negligible, although its protein product could be identified in trout serum. Importantly, a previously reported monoclonal antibody directed against trout IgT1 was able to recognize IgT2 and IgT3. These data demonstrate that there exist three subclasses of IgT in rainbow trout, and that their heavy chain genes display different expression patterns during stimulation. Overall, our data reflect the diversity and complexity of immunoglobulin in trout, thus provide a better understanding of the IgT system in the immune response of teleost fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Staying and shifting patterns across IGT trials distinguish children with externalizing disorders from controls

    PubMed Central

    Sallum, Isabela; Mata, Fernanda; Miranda, Débora M.; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2013-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is the most widely instrument used in the assessment of affective decision-making in several populations with frontal impairment. The standard performance measure on the IGT is obtained by calculating the difference between the advantageous and the disadvantageous choices. This standard score does not allows the assessment of the use of different strategies to deal with contingencies of gain and losses across the task. This study aims to compare the standard score method used in IGT with a method that analyses the patterns of staying and shifting among different decks across the 100 choices, considering contingencies of choices with and without losses. We compared the IGT performance of 24 children with externalizing disorders (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) and 24 healthy age-matched children. The analyses of the standard score across all blocks failed to show differences among children with externalizing disorders and control children. However, healthy children showed a pattern of shifting more from disadvantageous decks to advantageous decks and choosing more consecutive cards from the advantageous decks across all blocks, independently of the contingency of losses. On the other hand, children with externalizing disorders presented a pattern of shifting more from advantageous decks to disadvantageous ones in comparison to healthy children and repeatedly chose cards from the B deck across all blocks. This findings show that even though differences among groups might not be found when using the standard analyses, a different type of analysis might be able to show distinct strategies on the execution of the test. PMID:24348449

  18. Biodesulfurization of water-soluble coal-derived material by Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II; Jackowski, K.

    1991-12-31

    Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8 was previously isolated because of its ability to use coal as its sole source of sulfur for growth. Subsequent growth studies have revealed that IGTS8 is capable of using a variety of organosulfur compounds as sources of sulfur but not carbon. In this paper, the ability of IGTS8 to selectively remove organic sulfur from water-soluble coal-derived material is investigated. The microbial removal of organic sulfur from coal requires microorganisms capable of cleaving carbonsulfur bonds and the accessibility of these bonds to microorganisms. The use of water-soluble coal-derived material effectively overcomes the problem of accessibility and allows the ability of microorganisms to cleave carbonsulfur bonds present in coal-derived material to be assessed directly. Three coals, two coal solubilization procedures, and two methods of biodesulfurization were examined. The results of these experiments reveal that the microbial removal of significant amounts of organic sulfur from watersoluble coal-derived material with treatment times as brief as 24 hours is possible. Moreover, the carbon content and calorific value of biotreated products are largely unaffected. Biotreatment does, however, result in increases in the hydrogen and nitrogen content and a decreased oxygen content of the coal-derived material. The aqueous supernatant obtained from biodesulfurization experiments does not contain sulfate, sulfite, or other forms of soluble sulfur at increased concentrations in comparison with control samples. Sulfur removed from water-soluble coal-derived material appears to be incorporated into biomass.

  19. Is there a connection between postprandial hyperglycemia and IGT related sensory nerve dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Németh, N; Putz, Z; Istenes, I; Körei, A E; Vági, O E; Kempler, M; Gandhi, R; Jermendy, G; Tesfaye, S; Tabák, Á G; Kempler, P

    2017-07-01

    To assess the risk factors for sensory nerve dysfunction in subjects with isolated impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Seventy-two people with isolated IGT (WHO 1999 criteria) and 39 gender and age-matched healthy volunteers underwent detailed clinical and neurological assessment including quantitative sensory testing using the Neurometer device (current perception threshold measurement on four limbs at three different frequencies). Sensory nerve dysfunction was defined as at least two abnormalities on any frequencies on the upper or lower limbs. Sensory nerve dysfunction was more prevalent among subjects with IGT compared to controls (58.3 vs. 10.3%, OR: 11.23, 95%CI: 3.57-35.35). This association was not influenced by BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and autonomic neuropathy (multiple adjusted OR: 13.87, 95%CI: 3.18-60.58), but further adjustment for glycaemic measures abolished the association (OR: 1.58, 95%CI: 0.07-35.68). Assessing the components of glycaemic measures separately, the association between sensory nerve dysfunction and IGT was not affected by HbA1c (OR: 13.94, 95%CI: 1.84-105.5). It was, however, substantially attenuated by fasting plasma glucose (OR: 6.75, 95%CI: 1.33-34.27) while the significance was lost after adjustment for 120 min postload glucose level (OR: 3.76, 95%CI: 0.26-54.10). In the pooled population assessed, independent determinants of sensory nerve dysfunction were older age, 120 min glucose, higher height and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy at near significance. Sensory nerve dysfunction amongst subjects with IGT was not explained by cardiovascular covariates, only by glycaemic measures. In addition to 120 min glucose, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy at borderline significance, age, and height were the independent determinants of sensory nerve dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human

  20. A FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR THE COPROCESSING OF FOSSIL FUELS WITH BIOMASS BY THE HYDROCARB PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes and gives results of an assessment of a new process concept for the production of carbon and methanol from fossil fuels. The Hydrocarb Process consists of the hydrogasification of carbonaceous material to produce methane, which is subsequently thermally decom...

  1. A FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR THE COPROCESSING OF FOSSIL FUELS WITH BIOMASS BY THE HYDROCARB PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes and gives results of an assessment of a new process concept for the production of carbon and methanol from fossil fuels. The Hydrocarb Process consists of the hydrogasification of carbonaceous material to produce methane, which is subsequently thermally decom...

  2. Immunoglobulin Tau Heavy Chain (IgT) in Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus: Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yang; Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Sheng, Xiuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin tau (IgT) is a new teleost immunoglobulin isotype, and its potential function in adaptive immunity is not very clear. In the present study, the membrane-bound and secreted IgT (mIgT and sIgT) heavy chain genes were cloned for the first time and characterized in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), and found the nucleic acid sequence were exactly same in the Cτ1–Cτ4 constant domains of mIgT and sIgT, but different in variable regions and the C-terminus. The amino acid sequence of mIgT shared higher similarity with Bovichtus diacanthus (51.2%) and Dicentrarchus labrax (45.0%). Amino acid of flounder IgT, IgM, and IgD heavy chain was compared and the highest similarity was found between IgT Cτ1 and IgM Cμ1 (38%). In healthy flounder, the transcript levels of IgT mRNA were the highest in gill, spleen, and liver, and higher in peripheral blood leucocytes, skin, and hindgut. After infection and vaccination with Edwardsiella tarda via intraperitoneal injection and immersion, the qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the IgT mRNA level was significantly upregulated in all tested tissues, with similar dynamic tendency that increased firstly and then decreased, and higher in gill, skin, hindgut, liver, and stomach in immersion than in the injection group, but no significant difference existed in spleen and head kidney between immersion and injection groups. These results revealed that IgT responses could be simultaneously induced in both mucosal and systemic tissues after infection/vaccination via injection and immersion route, but IgT might play a more important role in mucosal immunity than in systemic immunity. PMID:27649168

  3. Process description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The production of hydrogen from coal by hydrogasification and subsequent steam hydrocarbon reforming was studied. Process heat and power requirements are supplied by an HTGR. The process is examined as a function of a maximum reforming (process) temperature of 922 K (1200 F) to 1367 K (2000 F). The major parameters for the five cases selected are summarized in a table. A fixed thermal capacity of 3000 MW for the HTGR heat source was used as a basis. The resulting hydrogen production rates and the corresponding hydrogen purity are also given in a table.

  4. Characterization of carbon-sulfur bond cleavage by axenic and mixed cultures of Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, K.J.; Bielaga, B.A.; Jackowski, K.; Oduson, O.; Kilbane, J. II

    1992-12-31

    Growth assays reveal that Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8 can utilize a wide range of organosulfur compounds as the sole source of sulfur. Compounds that are utilized include thiophenes, sulfides, disulfides, mercaptans, sulfoxides, and sulfones. None of the organosulfur compounds tested can serve as a carbon source. A convenient spectrophotometric assay (Gibbs assay) based on the chromogenic reaction of 2,6-dichloroquinone-4-chloroimide with aromatic hydroxyl groups was developed and used in conjunction with GC/MS analysis to examine the kinetics of carbon-sulfur bond cleavage by axenic and mixed cell cultures of Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8. The desulfurization trait is expressed at uniform levels during the mid-exponential phase, reaches a maximum during idiophase, and then declines in stationary-phase cells. Desulfurization rates for dibenzothiophene (DBT) range from 8 to 15 {mu}M of DBT/10{sup 12} cells/hour. Mixtures of genetically marked Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8 and an organisms incapable of cleaning carbon-sulfur bonds in relevant test compounds, Enterobacter cloacae, were prepared in ratios that varied over six orders of magnitude. Growth studies revealed that Enterobacter cloacae was able to gain access to sulfur liberated from organosulfur compounds by IGTS8; however, cell-to-cell contact was required. These data also indicate that the desulfurization activity of IGTS8 cells in mixed cultures may be as much as 200-fold higher than in axenic cultures.

  5. Identification and cloning of genes involved in specific desulfurization dibenzothiophene by Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8

    SciTech Connect

    Denome, S.A.; Young, K.D.; Olson, E.S. )

    1993-09-01

    The presence of sulfur in coal and petroleum contributes to corrosion of production and refining equipment and burning these high-sulfur products emits sulfur oxides to the atmosphere. Microorganisms that can enzymatically release organically bound sulfur from organic components of coal or petroleum or from dibenzothiophene (DBT) could reduce the sulfur content of high sulfur fuels without depleting their British thermal unit value. Two major pathways for microbial metabolism of DBT have been proposed. Some of the genes for the DPT degradative pathway have been isolated and characterized. However, no genes for the desulfurization pathway have been identified. This paper reports the isolation from Rhodoccus sp. strain IGTS8 pf a set of genes that confer a specific desulfurization phenotype to mutants and to a related organism, R. fascians D188-5, that is normally unable to desulfurize DBT. 38 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. CISUS: an integrated 3D ultrasound system for IGT using a modular tracking API

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boctor, Emad M.; Viswanathan, Anand; Pieper, Steve; Choti, Michael A.; Taylor, Russell H.; Kikinis, Ron; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2004-05-01

    Ultrasound has become popular in clinical/surgical applications, both as the primary image guidance modality and also in conjunction with other modalities like CT or MRI. Three dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) systems have also demonstrated usefulness in image-guided therapy (IGT). At the same time, however, current lack of open-source and open-architecture multi-modal medical visualization systems prevents 3DUS from fulfilling its potential. Several stand-alone 3DUS systems, like Stradx or In-Vivo exist today. Although these systems have been found to be useful in real clinical setting, it is difficult to augment their functionality and integrate them in versatile IGT systems. To address these limitations, a robotic/freehand 3DUS open environment (CISUS) is being integrated into the 3D Slicer, an open-source research tool developed for medical image analysis and surgical planning. In addition, the system capitalizes on generic application programming interfaces (APIs) for tracking devices and robotic control. The resulting platform-independent open-source system may serve as a valuable tool to the image guided surgery community. Other researchers could straightforwardly integrate the generic CISUS system along with other functionalities (i.e. dual view visualization, registration, real-time tracking, segmentation, etc) to rapidly create their medical/surgical applications. Our current driving clinical application is robotically assisted and freehand 3DUS-guided liver ablation, which is fully being integrated under the CISUS-3D Slicer. Initial functionality and pre-clinical feasibility are demonstrated on phantom and ex-vivo animal models.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and modeling structures of isatin-3-Girard T (IGT) and P (IGP) hydrazone complexes.

    PubMed

    Salah, Sabah; El-Wahab, Zeinab H Abd; Farag, Rabei S; Mostafa, Mohsen M

    2014-04-24

    The reactions of isatin Girard's T hydrazone, N,N,N-trimethyl-2-oxo-2[(2z)-2-(2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-3H-indole-3-ylidene)hydrazino]ethan ammonium chloride (IGT) and isatin Girard's P hydrazone, 1-{2-oxo-2-[(2z)(2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-3H-indole-3-ylidene)hydrazine]ethyl} pyridinium chloride (IGP), with Fe(3+), Al(3+), Sb(3+) and Sn(2+) salts afford different types of complexes. The isolated solid complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, spectral (IR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, mass), magnetic moment and thermal measurements. The results suggest that all the complexes are conducting in polar solvents (EtOH, H2O and DMF). The IR spectral data suggest that the ligands coordinate in a tridentate manner via the two carbonyl of both isatin and Girard's and the azomethine (C=N) groups. The amounts of solvents inside and outside the coordination sphere were determined using thermal data (TGA) and weight loss method. The octahedral geometry of the complexes is confirmed using DFT method from DMOL(3) calculations. The ligands and their metal complexes were tested against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermostabilization of desulfurization enzymes from Rhodococcos sp. IGTS8. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    John J. Kilbane II

    2000-12-15

    The objective of this project was to develop thermophilic cultures capable of expressing the desulfurization (dsz) operon of Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8. The approaches taken in this project included the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors that function well in Thermus thermophilus, the cloning of Rhodococcus dsz genes in Thermus expression vectors, and the isolation of bacterial cultures that express the dsz operon at thermophilic temperatures. This project has resulted in the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for use in T. thermophilus. The dsz genes have been expressed at moderately thermophilic temperatures (52 C) in Mycobacterium phlei and at temperatures as high as 72 C in T. thermophilus. The tools and methods developed in this project will be generally useful for the expression of heterologous genes in Thermus. Key developments in the project have been the isolation of a Mycobacterium phlei culture capable of expressing the desulfurization operon at 52 C, development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for Thermus thermophilus, and the development of a host-vector system based on the malate dehydrogenase gene that allows plasmids to be stably maintained in T. thermophilus and provides a convenient reporter gene for the accurate quantification of gene expression. Publications have been prepared regarding each of these topics; these preprints are included.

  9. Characterization of the organic-sulfur-degrading enzymes. [IGTS8: a derivative of Rhodococcus rhodochrous

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, N.W.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to first characterize the enzymes involved in degrading organic sulfur in coal from some of the well-characterized organic sulfur-degrading strains. After the enzymes have been successfully purified, the genes encoding these enzymes will be cloned and the suitability of these microorganisms for recombinant manipulation will also be studied. Initially, the enzymes involved in the removal of organic sulfur from coal and from model compounds in two particular strains, IGTS8 and K3B, will be characterized and analyzed. The scope of the proposed study covers the following: (1) Characterization, purification, and partial sequence analysis of the enzymes involved in the removal of organic sulfur from coal. (2) Cloning of the genes encoding the organic sulfur-degrading enzymes from these two selected species in E. coli. (3) Sequence analysis of the cloned genes. (4) Attempting to clone and overexpress the organic sulfur degrading genes in their parent hosts as well as in other hosts.

  10. Differential Modulation of IgT and IgM upon Parasitic, Bacterial, Viral, and Dietary Challenges in a Perciform Fish.

    PubMed

    Piazzon, Maria C; Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; Pereiro, Patricia; Estensoro, Itziar; Calduch-Giner, Josep A; Gómez-Casado, Eduardo; Novoa, Beatriz; Mulero, Victoriano; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Three different immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes can be found in teleost fish, IgM, IgD, and the teleost-specific IgT. IgM is considered to have a systemic activity, and IgT is attributed a mucosal role, similar to mammalian IgA. In this study, the complete sequence of gilthead sea bream IgM and IgT in their membrane (m) and soluble (s) forms are described for the first time in a perciform fish. Their constitutive gene expression is analyzed in different tissues, and their regulation upon viral, bacterial, parasitic, mucosal vaccination and dietary challenges are studied. GCB IgM and IgT have the prototypical structure when compared to other fish Igs. The constitutive expression of sIgM was the highest overall in all tissues, whereas mIgT expression was highest in mucosal tissues, such as gills and intestine. IgM and IgT were differentially regulated upon infection. IgT was highly upregulated locally upon infection with the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei or systemically after Nodavirus infection. Long-term intestinal parasitic infections increased the serum titer of both isotypes. Mucosal vaccination against Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida finely regulated the Ig response inducing a systemic increase of IgM titers in serum and a local IgT response in skin mucus when animals were exposed to the pathogen by bath challenge. Interestingly, plant-based diets inhibit IgT upregulation upon intestinal parasitic challenge, which was related to a worse disease outcome. All these results corroborate the mucosal role of IgT and emphasize the importance of a finely tuned regulation of Ig isotypes upon infection, which could be of special interest in vaccination studies.

  11. Differential Modulation of IgT and IgM upon Parasitic, Bacterial, Viral, and Dietary Challenges in a Perciform Fish

    PubMed Central

    Piazzon, Maria C.; Galindo-Villegas, Jorge; Pereiro, Patricia; Estensoro, Itziar; Calduch-Giner, Josep A.; Gómez-Casado, Eduardo; Novoa, Beatriz; Mulero, Victoriano; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Three different immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes can be found in teleost fish, IgM, IgD, and the teleost-specific IgT. IgM is considered to have a systemic activity, and IgT is attributed a mucosal role, similar to mammalian IgA. In this study, the complete sequence of gilthead sea bream IgM and IgT in their membrane (m) and soluble (s) forms are described for the first time in a perciform fish. Their constitutive gene expression is analyzed in different tissues, and their regulation upon viral, bacterial, parasitic, mucosal vaccination and dietary challenges are studied. GCB IgM and IgT have the prototypical structure when compared to other fish Igs. The constitutive expression of sIgM was the highest overall in all tissues, whereas mIgT expression was highest in mucosal tissues, such as gills and intestine. IgM and IgT were differentially regulated upon infection. IgT was highly upregulated locally upon infection with the intestinal parasite Enteromyxum leei or systemically after Nodavirus infection. Long-term intestinal parasitic infections increased the serum titer of both isotypes. Mucosal vaccination against Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida finely regulated the Ig response inducing a systemic increase of IgM titers in serum and a local IgT response in skin mucus when animals were exposed to the pathogen by bath challenge. Interestingly, plant-based diets inhibit IgT upregulation upon intestinal parasitic challenge, which was related to a worse disease outcome. All these results corroborate the mucosal role of IgT and emphasize the importance of a finely tuned regulation of Ig isotypes upon infection, which could be of special interest in vaccination studies. PMID:28082977

  12. Anodal Stimulation of the Left DLPFC Increases IGT Scores and Decreases Delay Discounting Rate in Healthy Males

    PubMed Central

    He, Qinghua; Chen, Mei; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui; Feng, Tingyong; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Previous correlational imaging studies have implicated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in decision making. Using High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS), the present study directly investigated the causal role of the DLPFC in performing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Inter-Temporal Choice (ITC) task. Three experiments were conducted: Experiment 1 (N = 41) to study the left DLPFC, Experiment 2 (N = 49) to study the right DLPFC, and Experiment 3 (N = 20, a subset of those in Experiment 1) to switch the experimental and control conditions. All participants were healthy male college students. For Experiments 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to either the HD-tDCS or the sham stimulation condition. For Experiment 3, participants were assigned to the condition they were not in during Experiment 1. Results showed that HD-tDCS over the left DLPFC increased IGT score, decreased the recency parameter in IGT, and lowered delay discounting rate (k) in the ITC task. We discussed the potential roles of impulse control and time perception in mediating the effect of tDCS stimulation of left DLPFC on decision making. Our results have clinical implications for the treatment of disorders involving poor decision-making, such as addictions. PMID:27703440

  13. Identification and Cloning of Genes Involved in Specific Desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene by Rhodococcus sp. Strain IGTS8.

    PubMed

    Denome, S A; Olson, E S; Young, K D

    1993-09-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8 is able to remove sulfur from certain aromatic compounds without breaking carbon-carbon bonds. In particular, sulfur is removed from dibenzothiophene (DBT) to give the final product, 2-hydroxybiphenyl. A genomic library of IGTS8 was constructed in the cosmid vector pLAFR5, but no desulfurization phenotype was imparted to Escherichia coli. Therefore, IGTS8 was mutagenized, and a new strain (UV1) was selected that had lost the ability to desulfurize DBT. The genomic library was transferred into UV1, and several colonies that had regained the desulfurization phenotype were isolated, though free plasmid could not be isolated. Instead, vector DNA had integrated into either the chromosome or a large resident plasmid. DNA on either side of the inserted vector sequences was cloned and used to probe the original genomic library in E. coli. This procedure identified individual cosmid clones that, when electroporated into strain UV1, restored desulfurization. When the origin of replication from a Rhodococcus plasmid was inserted, the efficiency with which these clones transformed UV1 increased 20- to 50-fold and they could be retrieved as free plasmids. Restriction mapping and subcloning indicated that the desulfurization genes reside on a 4.0-kb DNA fragment. Finally, the phenotype was transferred to Rhodococcus fascians D188-5, a species normally incapable of desulfurizing DBT. The mutant strain, UV1, and R. fascians produced 2-hydroxybiphenyl from DBT when they contained appropriate clones, indicating that the genes for the entire pathway have been isolated.

  14. Sequence and molecular characterization of a DNA region encoding the dibenzothiophene desulfurization operon of Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8.

    PubMed

    Piddington, C S; Kovacevich, B R; Rambosek, J

    1995-02-01

    Dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model compound for sulfur-containing organic molecules found in fossil fuels, can be desulfurized to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) by Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8. Complementation of a desulfurization (dsz) mutant provided the genes from Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8 responsible for desulfurization. A 6.7-kb TaqI fragment cloned in Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle vector pRR-6 was found to both complement this mutation and confer desulfurization to Rhodococcus fascians, which normally is not able to desulfurize DBT. Expression of this fragment in E. coli also conferred the ability to desulfurize DBT. A molecular analysis of the cloned fragment revealed a single operon containing three open reading frames involved in the conversion of DBT to 2-HBP. The three genes were designated dszA, dszB, and dszC. Neither the nucleotide sequences nor the deduced amino acid sequences of the enzymes exhibited significant similarity to sequences obtained from the GenBank, EMBL, and Swiss-Prot databases, indicating that these enzymes are novel enzymes. Subclone analyses revealed that the gene product of dszC converts DBT directly to DBT-sulfone and that the gene products of dszA and dszB act in concert to convert DBT-sulfone to 2-HBP.

  15. Comparative studies of phenotypic and genetic characteristics between two desulfurizing isolates of Rhodococcus erythropolis and the well-characterized R. erythropolis strain IGTS8.

    PubMed

    Santos, Silvia C C; Alviano, Daniela S; Alviano, Celuta S; Goulart, Fátima R V; de Pádula, Marcelo; Leitão, Alvaro C; Martins, Orlando B; Ribeiro, Claudia M S; Sassaki, Mônica Y M; Matta, Carla P S; Bevilaqua, Juliana; Sebastián, Gina V; Seldin, Lucy

    2007-06-01

    Two Rhodococcus erythropolis isolates, named A66 and A69, together with the well-characterized R. erythropolis strain IGTS8 were compared biochemically and genetically. Both isolates, like strain IGTS8, desulfurized DBT to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP), following the 4S pathway of desulfurization. Strain IGTS8 showed the highest (81.5%) desulfurization activity in a medium containing DBT at 30 degrees C. Strain A66 showed approximately the same desulfurization activity either when incubated at 30 degrees C or at 37 degrees C, while strain A69 showed an increase of desulfurization efficiency (up to 79%) when incubated at 37 degrees C. Strains A66 and A69 were also able to grow using various organosulfur or organonitrogen-compounds as the sole sulfur or nitrogen sources. The biological responses of A66, A69 and IGTS8 strains to a series of mutagens and environmental agents were evaluated, trying to mimic actual circumstances involved in exposure/handling of microorganisms during petroleum biorefining. The results showed that strains A69 and IGTS8 were much more resistant to UVC treatment than A66. The three desulfurization genes (dszA, dszB and dszC) present in strains A66 and A69 were partially characterized. They seem to be located on a plasmid, not only in the strain IGTS8, but also in A66 and A69. PCR amplification was observed using specific primers for dsz genes in all the strains tested; however, no amplification product was observed using primers for carbazole (car) or quinoline (qor) metabolisms. All this information contributes to broaden our knowledge concerning both the desulfurization of DBT and the degradation of organonitrogen compounds within the R. erythropolis species.

  16. Desulfurization activity and reusability of magnetite nanoparticle-coated Rhodococcus erythropolis FMF and R. erythropolis IGTS8 bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Bardania, Hassan; Raheb, Jamshid; Mohammad-Beigi, Hossein; Rasekh, Behnam; Arpanaei, Ayyoob

    2013-01-01

    The application of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles to the separation of desulfurizing bacterial cells and their influence on the desulfurization activity and reusability of the two bacterial strains Rhodococcus erythropolis FMF and R. erythropolis IGTS8 were investigated. Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized via the reverse coprecipitation method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the magnetite nanoparticles had sizes of 5.35 ± 1.13 (F1 nanoparticles) and 8.74 ± 1.18 nm (F2 nanoparticles) when glycine was added during the synthesis of nanoparticles and when it was absent from the reaction mixture, respectively. Glycine was added after the synthesis of both F1 and F2 nanoparticles to stabilize the nanoparticle dispersion. TEM images of cells treated with magnetite nanoparticles indicated that F1 nanoparticles were immobilized on the surface of bacterial cells more evenly than the F2 nanoparticles. Desulfurization activities of the F1 magnetite nanoparticle-coated R. erythropolis FMF and R. erythropolis IGTS8 cells (with sulfur-removal percentage values of 70 ± 4 and 73 ± 3, respectively), as examined with the spectrophotometric Gibbs assay (based on dibenzothiophene degradation and sulfur-removal percentage), were not significantly different from those for the free bacterial cells (67 ± 3 and 69 ± 4, respectively). These results indicate that magnetite nanoparticles cannot affect the desulfurization activity of cells examined in this work. Isolation of bacterial cells from the suspension using a magnet and evaluation of desulfurization activity of separated cells showed that Fe3 O4 nanoparticles can provide a high-efficiency recovery of bacterial cells from a suspension, with the reused magnetite nanoparticle-coated bacterial cells being able to maintain their desulfurization activity efficiently. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Discovery of a unique Ig heavy-chain (IgT) in rainbow trout: Implications for a distinctive B cell developmental pathway in teleost fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, J.D.; Landis, E.D.; Phillips, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    During the analysis of Ig superfamily members within the available rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) EST gene index, we identified a unique Ig heavy-chain (IgH) isotype. cDNAs encoding this isotype are composed of a typical IgH leader sequence and a VDJ rearranged segment followed by four Ig superfamily C-1 domains represented as either membrane-bound or secretory versions. Because teleost fish were previously thought to encode and express only two IgH isotypes (IgM and IgD) for their humoral immune repertoire, we isolated all three cDNA isotypes from a single homozygous trout (OSU-142) to confirm that all three are indeed independent isotypes. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis indicates that this previously undescribed divergent isotype is restricted to bony fish, thus we have named this isotype "IgT" (??) for teleost fish. Genomic sequence analysis of an OSU-142 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone positive for all three IgH isotypes revealed that IgT utilizes the standard rainbow trout VH families, but surprisingly, the IgT isotype possesses its own exclusive set of DH and JH elements for the generation of diversity. The IgT D and J segments and ?? constant (C) region genes are located upstream of the D and J elements for IgM, representing a genomic IgH architecture that has not been observed in any other vertebrate class. All three isotypes are primarily expressed in the spleen and pronephros (bone marrow equivalent), and ontogenically, expression of IgT is present 4 d before hatching in developing embryos. ?? 2005 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  18. The pyloric caeca area is a major site for IgM(+) and IgT(+) B cell recruitment in response to oral vaccination in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Natalia A; Castro, Rosario; Abos, Beatriz; Rodríguez Saint-Jean, Sylvia S; Pérez-Prieto, Sara I; Tafalla, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have characterized some aspects of the immune response of the teleost gut in response to diverse pathogens or stimuli, most studies have focused on the posterior segments exclusively. However, there are still many details of how teleost intestinal immunity is regulated that remain unsolved, including the location of IgM(+) and IgT(+) B cells along the digestive tract and their role during the course of a local stimulus. Thus, in the current work, we have studied the B cell response in five different segments of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) digestive tract in both naïve fish and fish orally vaccinated with an alginate-encapsulated DNA vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). IgM(+) and IgT(+) cells were identified all along the tract with the exception of the stomach in naïve fish. While IgM(+) cells were mostly located in the lamina propria (LP), IgT(+) cells were primarily localized as intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). Scattered IgM(+) IELs were only detected in the pyloric caeca. In response to oral vaccination, the pyloric caeca region was the area of the digestive tract in which a major recruitment of B cells was demonstrated through both real time PCR and immunohistochemistry, observing a significant increase in the number of both IgM(+) and IgT(+) IELs. Our findings demonstrate that both IgM(+) and IgT(+) respond to oral stimulation and challenge the paradigm that teleost IELs are exclusively T cells. Unexpectedly, we have also detected B cells in the fat tissue associated to the digestive tract that respond to vaccination, suggesting that these cells surrounded by adipocytes also play a role in mucosal defense.

  19. The Pyloric Caeca Area Is a Major Site for IgM+ and IgT+ B Cell Recruitment in Response to Oral Vaccination in Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Natalia A.; Castro, Rosario; Abos, Beatriz; Rodríguez Saint-Jean, Sylvia S.; Pérez-Prieto, Sara I.; Tafalla, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Although previous studies have characterized some aspects of the immune response of the teleost gut in response to diverse pathogens or stimuli, most studies have focused on the posterior segments exclusively. However, there are still many details of how teleost intestinal immunity is regulated that remain unsolved, including the location of IgM+ and IgT+ B cells along the digestive tract and their role during the course of a local stimulus. Thus, in the current work, we have studied the B cell response in five different segments of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) digestive tract in both naïve fish and fish orally vaccinated with an alginate-encapsulated DNA vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). IgM+ and IgT+ cells were identified all along the tract with the exception of the stomach in naïve fish. While IgM+ cells were mostly located in the lamina propria (LP), IgT+ cells were primarily localized as intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). Scattered IgM+ IELs were only detected in the pyloric caeca. In response to oral vaccination, the pyloric caeca region was the area of the digestive tract in which a major recruitment of B cells was demonstrated through both real time PCR and immunohistochemistry, observing a significant increase in the number of both IgM+ and IgT+ IELs. Our findings demonstrate that both IgM+ and IgT+ respond to oral stimulation and challenge the paradigm that teleost IELs are exclusively T cells. Unexpectedly, we have also detected B cells in the fat tissue associated to the digestive tract that respond to vaccination, suggesting that these cells surrounded by adipocytes also play a role in mucosal defense. PMID:23785475

  20. Discovery of a unique Ig heavy-chain isotype (IgT) in rainbow trout: Implications for a distinctive B cell developmental pathway in teleost fish

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, John D.; Landis, Eric D.; Phillips, Ruth B.

    2005-01-01

    During the analysis of Ig superfamily members within the available rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) EST gene index, we identified a unique Ig heavy-chain (IgH) isotype. cDNAs encoding this isotype are composed of a typical IgH leader sequence and a VDJ rearranged segment followed by four Ig superfamily C-1 domains represented as either membrane-bound or secretory versions. Because teleost fish were previously thought to encode and express only two IgH isotypes (IgM and IgD) for their humoral immune repertoire, we isolated all three cDNA isotypes from a single homozygous trout (OSU-142) to confirm that all three are indeed independent isotypes. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis indicates that this previously undescribed divergent isotype is restricted to bony fish, thus we have named this isotype “IgT” (τ) for teleost fish. Genomic sequence analysis of an OSU-142 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone positive for all three IgH isotypes revealed that IgT utilizes the standard rainbow trout VH families, but surprisingly, the IgT isotype possesses its own exclusive set of DH and JH elements for the generation of diversity. The IgT D and J segments and τ constant (C) region genes are located upstream of the D and J elements for IgM, representing a genomic IgH architecture that has not been observed in any other vertebrate class. All three isotypes are primarily expressed in the spleen and pronephros (bone marrow equivalent), and ontogenically, expression of IgT is present 4 d before hatching in developing embryos. PMID:15863615

  1. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  2. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  3. Novel approach to coal gasification using chemically incorporated catalysts (Phase II). Appendix A-F. Final report, May 1978-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, H.F.; Conkle, H.N.; Appelbaum, H.R.; Chauhan, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains six appendices: experimental apparatus, test conditions, and results of catalytic coal treatment; direct hydrogasification; summary of test runs for hydrogasification of BTC; summary of test runs for hydrogasification of char; summary of steam/O/sub 2/ gasification runs; and process analysis. Forty tables and nine figures are also included.

  4. Gene overexpression, purification, and identification of a desulfurization enzyme from Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8 as a sulfide/sulfoxide monooxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Lei, B; Tu, S C

    1996-01-01

    The oxidation of dibenzothiophene to dibenzothiophene sulfone has been linked to the enzyme encoded by the sox/dszC gene from Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8 (S. A. Denome, C. Oldfield, L. J. Nash, and K. D. Young, J. Bacteriol. 176:6707-6717, 1994; C. S. Piddington, B. R. Kovacevich, and J. Rambosek, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:468-475, 1995). However, this enzyme has not been characterized, and the type of its catalytic activity remains unclassified. In this work, the sox/dszC gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, a procedure for the purification of the expressed enzyme was developed, and the properties of and the reactions catalyzed by the purified enzyme were characterized. This enzyme binds one flavin mononucleotide (Kd, 7 micrometers) or reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2) (Kd < 10(-8) M) per 90,200-Da homodimer, and FMNH2 is an essential cosubstrate for its activity. Patterns of product formation were examined under different FMNH2 availabilities, and results indicate that this enzyme catalyzes a stepwise conversion of dibenzothiophene to the corresponding sulfoxide and subsequently to the sulfone. On the basis of isotope labeling patterns with H2(18)O and 18O2, dibenzothiophene sulfoxide and sulfone obtained their oxygen atom(s) from molecular oxygen rather than water in their formation from dibenzothiophene. The enzyme also utilizes benzyl sulfide and benzyl sulfoxide as substrates. Hence, it is identified as a sulfide/sulfoxide monooxygenase. This monooxygenase is similar to the microsomal flavin-containing monooxygenase but is unique among microbial flavomonooxygenases in its ability to catalyze two consecutive monooxygenation reactions. PMID:8824615

  5. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 2, Task 3, Testing of process improvement concepts: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This final report, Volume 2, on ``Process Improvement Concepts`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). Results of work on electroseparation of shale oil and fines conducted by IIT is included in this report, as well as work conducted by IGT to evaluate the restricted pipe discharge system. The work was conducted as part of the overall program on ``Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales.``

  6. Similar Processes Despite Divergent Behavior in Two Commonly Used Measures of Risky Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    BISHARA, ANTHONY J.; PLESKAC, TIMOTHY J.; FRIDBERG, DANIEL J.; YECHIAM, ELDAD; LUCAS, JESOLYN; BUSEMEYER, JEROME R.; FINN, PETER R.; STOUT, JULIE C.

    2011-01-01

    Performance on complex decision-making tasks may depend on a multitude of processes. Two such tasks, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), are of particular interest because they are associated with real world risky behavior, including illegal drug use. We used cognitive models to disentangle underlying processes in both tasks. Whereas behavioral measures from the IGT and BART were uncorrelated, cognitive models revealed two reliable cross-task associations. Results suggest that the tasks similarly measure loss aversion and decision-consistency processes, but not necessarily the same learning process. Additionally, substance-using individuals (and especially stimulant users) performed worse on the IGT than healthy controls did, and this pattern could be explained by reduced decision consistency. PMID:21836771

  7. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  8. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  9. Gasoline from natural gas by sulfur processing. Quarterly report No. 8, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Erekson, E.J.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the work performed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) during the eighth program quarter from April 1 to June 30, 1995, under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC22-93PC92114. This program has coordinated funding for Task 1 from IGT`s Sustaining Membership Program (SMP), while DOE is funding Tasks 2 through 8. Progress in all tasks is reported here. The overall objective of this research project is to develop a catalytic process to convert natural gas to liquid transportation fuels. The process consists of two steps that each use catalysts and sulfur-containing intermediates: (1) converting natural gas to CS{sub 2} and (2) converting CS{sub 2} to gasoline-range liquids. Experimental data will be generated to demonstrate the potential of catalysts and the overall process. During this quarter, progress in the following areas has been made: (1) Short duration activity. test on catalyst IGT-MS-103 showed that no deactivation over a 10 hour period. (2) A preliminary economic estimate for the application of the HSM process technology in a refinery showed potential for profitable commercialization. Engineers at oil companies have requested further information. (3) Tests with equimolar amounts of H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} in the feed showed that CS{sub 2} yield decrease with the addition of CO{sub 2}.

  10. The cognitive processes underlying affective decision-making predicting adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C. Anderson; Bechara, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population. PMID:24101911

  11. Decision-making Processes as Predictors of Relapse and Subsequent Use in Stimulant Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Adinoff, Bryon; Carmody, Thomas J.; Walker, Robrina; Donovan, Dennis M.; Brigham, Gregory S.; Winhusen, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Background Decision-making processes have been posited to affect treatment outcome in addicted patients. Objective The present multi-site study assessed whether two measures of decision-making predicted relapse and subsequent use in stimulant-dependent patients. Methods 160 methamphetamine- or cocaine-dependent patients participating in a multi-site clinical trial evaluating a modified 12-step facilitation intervention for stimulant-dependent patients (STAGE-12) were assessed. Decision-making processes of risk and delay [Iowa Gambling Task (IGT)] and response reversal [Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST)] were obtained shortly after treatment admission followed by assessment of stimulant use over the next six months. The relationships of the IGT and WCST (Perseverative Errors) with relapse (yes/no) and days of stimulant use during the 6-month period following post-randomization were evaluated. Results Performance on the IGT and WCST did not significantly predict relapse status or time to relapse. Unexpectedly, better performance on the IGT was associated with a fewer number of stimulant use days (p = 0.001). In contrast, worse performance on the WCST (more perseverative errors) was associated with a greater number of stimulant use days (p = 0.0003). The predictive effects of perseverative errors on subsequent use were confined to methamphetamine-dependent and Minority participants. Conclusions Decision-making processes, as measured in the current study, do not uniformly predict relapse or subsequent use. A decrease in the salience attribution of nondrug reinforcers may explain the positive relationship between IGT performance and post-relapse use. More comprehensive and global measures of impulsiveness may better assess relapse risk and use. PMID:26743586

  12. The use of non-fossil derived hydrogen in coal conversion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, J. S.; Merrick, D.; Smith, M.; Rasmussen, G.

    The National Coal Board, UK, carried out a technical and economic study of the use of non-fossil derived (NFD) hydrogen on three coal conversion processes: methanol synthesis, solid phase hydrogenation (hydrogasification) for substitute natural gas production, and liquid phase hydrogenation (liquifaction) for the manufacture of liquid fuels. Use of NFD hydrogen generally resulted in an increase in the conversion efficiency and carbon utilization, and a reduction in the number of component stages of the process. It was also shown that market conditions could exist in which the use of NFD hydrogen in coal conversion would be preferable to both conventional coal conversion and the direct use of hydrogen, irrespective of the coal price. Substitute natural gas production from synthesis gas (methanation) and the production of liquid fuels from synthesis gas by a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis route were also evaluated and showed similar technical and economic results. Preliminary results of the overall costs of using NFD hydrogen from a nuclear power/electrolysis plant showed that at present fuel prices, coal conversion processes using NFD hydrogen are not competitive with conventional processes, but would be if the price of coal were to double.

  13. Scale-up of mild gasification to be a process development unit mildgas 24 ton/day PDU design report. Final report, November 1991--July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    From November 1991 to April 1996, Kerr McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal) led a project to develop the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) Mild Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program were to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scale-up; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team for the PDU development program consisted of: K-M Coal, IGT, Bechtel Corporation, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC), General Motors (GM), Pellet Technology Corporation (PTC), LTV Steel, Armco Steel, Reilly Industries, and Auto Research.

  14. Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit. [MILDGAS Process

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

    1992-01-01

    The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

  15. Dissociable processes underlying decisions in the Iowa Gambling Task: a new integrative framework

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Andrea; Fum, Danilo; Napoli, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a common paradigm used to study the interactions between emotions and decision making, yet little consensus exists on the cognitive process determining participants' decisions, what affects them, and how these processes interact with each other. A novel conceptual framework is proposed according to which behavior in the IGT reflects a balance between two dissociable processes; a cognitively demanding process that tracks each option's long-term payoff, and a lower-level, automatic process that is primarily sensitive to loss frequency and magnitude. Methods A behavioral experiment was carried out with a modified version of IGT. In this modified version, participants went through an additional phase of interaction, designed to measure performance without further learning, in which no feedback on individual decisions was given. A secondary distractor task was presented in either the first or the second phase of the experiment. Behavioral measures of performance tracking both payoff and frequency sensitivity in choices were collected throughout the experiment. Results Consistent with our framework, the results confirmed that: (a) the two competing cognitive processes can be dissociated; (b) that learning from decision outcomes requires central cognitive resources to estimate long-term payoff; and (c) that the decision phase itself can be carried out during an interfering task once learning has occurred. Conclusion The experimental results support our novel description of the cognitive processes underlying performance in the Iowa Gambling Task. They also suggest that patients' impairments in this and other gambling paradigms can originate from a number of different causes, including a failure in allocating resources among cognitive strategies. This latter interpretation might be particularly useful in explaining the impairments of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesions and, by extension, the contribution of this

  16. BIOGAS Process development

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Mensinger, M.C.; Sajjad, A.; Henry, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate and commercialize the IGT two-phase BIOGAS Process for optimized methane production from, and simultaneous stabilization of, municipal solid waste (MSW). The specific objective of the current program is to conduct a laboratory-scale investigation of simple, cost-effective feed pretreatment techniques and selected digestion reactor designs to optimize methane production from MSW-sludge blends, and to select the best pretreatment and digestion conditions for testing during the subsequent program for process development unit (PDU) operation. A significant portion of the program efforts to date has been directed at evaluating and/or developing feeding, mixing and discharging systems for handling high concentration, large particle size RDF slurries for anaerobic digestion processes. The performance of such processes depends significantly on the operational success of these subsystems. The results of the subsystem testing have been implemented in the design and operation of the 10-L, 20-L, and 125-L digesters. These results will also be utilized to design the CSTR and the upflow digesters of a large two-phase system. Data collected during the initial phase of this research showed in general that methane production from RDF decreased as the loading rate was increased. Thermophilic digestion did not appear to be significantly better than mesophlic digestion. 9 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Hynol -- An economic process for methanol production from biomass and natural gas with reduced CO{sub 2} emission

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji

    1993-10-01

    The Hynol process is proposed to meet the demand for an economical process for methanol production with reduced CO{sub 2} emission. This new process consists of three reaction steps: (a) hydrogasification of biomass, (b) steam reforming of the produced gas with additional natural gas feedstock, and (c) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps. The H{sub 2}-rich gas remaining after methanol synthesis is recycled to gasify the biomass in an energy neutral reactor so that there is no need for an expensive oxygen plant as required by commercial steam gasifiers. Recycling gas allows the methanol synthesis reactor to perform at a relatively lower pressure than conventional while the plant still maintains high methanol yield. Energy recovery designed into the process minimizes heat loss and increases the process thermal efficiency. If the Hynol methanol is used as an alternative and more efficient automotive fuel, an overall 41% reduction in CO{sub 2} emission can be achieved compared to the use of conventional gasoline fuel. A preliminary economic estimate shows that the total capital investment for a Hynol plant is 40% lower than that for a conventional biomass gasification plant. The methanol production cost is $0.43/gal for a 1085 million gal/yr Hynol plant which is competitive with current U.S. methanol and equivalent gasoline prices. Process flowsheet and simulation data using biomass and natural gas as cofeedstocks are presented. The Hynol process can convert any condensed carbonaceous material, especially municipal solid waste (MSW), to produce methanol.

  18. Hynol: An economic process for methanol production from biomass and natural gas with reduced CO2 emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji

    1993-10-01

    The Hynol process is proposed to meet the demand for an economical process for methanol production with reduced CO2 emission. This new process consists of three reaction steps: (1) hydrogasification of biomass, (2) steam reforming of the produced gas with additional natural gas feedstock, and (3) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps. The H2-rich gas remaining after methanol synthesis is recycled to gasify the biomass in an energy neutral reactor so that there is no need for an expensive oxygen plant as required by commercial steam gasifiers. Recycling gas allows the methanol synthesis reactor to perform at a relatively lower pressure than conventional while the plant still maintains high methanol yield. Energy recovery designed into the process minimizes heat loss and increases the process thermal efficiency. If the Hynol methanol is used as an alternative and more efficient automotive fuel, an overall 41% reduction in CO2 emission can be achieved compared to the use of conventional gasoline fuel. A preliminary economic estimate shows that the total capital investment for a Hynol plant is 40% lower than that for a conventional biomass gasification plant. The methanol production cost is $0.43/gal for a 1085 million gal/yr Hynol plant which is competitive with current U.S. methanol and equivalent gasoline prices. Process flowsheet and simulation data using biomass and natural gas as cofeedstocks are presented. The Hynol process can convert any condensed carbonaceous material, especially municipal solid waste (MSW), to produce methanol.

  19. Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

    1992-11-01

    The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

  20. Conceptual design study of an Improved Gas Turbine (IGT) powertrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Design concepts for an improved automotive gas turbine powertrain are discussed. Twenty percent fuel economy improvement (over 1976), competitive costs (initial and life cycle), high reliability/life, low emissions, and noise/safety compliance were among the factors considered. The powertrain selected consists of a two shaft gas turbine engine with variable geometry aerodynamic components and a single disk rotating regenerator. The regenerator disk, gasifier turbine rotor, and several hot section flowpath parts are ceramic. The powertrain utilizes a conventional automatic transmission. The closest competitor was a single shaft turbine engine matched to a continuously variable transmission (CVT). Both candidate powertrain systems were found to be similar in many respects; however, the CVT represented a significant increase in development cost, technical risk, and production start-up costs over the conventional automatic transmission. Installation of the gas turbine powertrain was investigated for a transverse mounted, front wheel drive vehicle.

  1. Economic comparison of five process concepts for using eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W.J.; Phillips, T.T.; Barnes, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    This study compared costs of retorting eastern oil shales using western shale retorting technologies that need no more development with the cost of processing the same shales using technologies designed specifically for eastern shales. The eastern shale technologies need more development. The study was designed to answer the question: Does process development work need to be done for eastern oil shale or will the existing western techniques suffice. A calculation for a power plant that burned eastern oil shale to produce electricity was included in the study. The authors studied the following processes: the Institute of Gas Technology's (IGT) HYTORT (eastern shale process), the Paraho C-H (combination heated) (eastern shale process), the Paraho D-H (direct heated) (western shale process), the TOSCO II (western shale process), and power plant.

  2. Theory of mind and decision-making processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Xi, Chunhua; Zhu, Youling; Mu, Yanfang; Chen, Bing; Dong, Bin; Cheng, Huaidong; Hu, Panpan; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Kai

    2015-02-15

    Prefrontal cortex plays a vital role in the theory of mind (ToM) and decision making, as shown in functional brain imaging and lesion studies. Considering the primary neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the frontal lobe system, patients with PD are expected to exhibit deficits in ToM and social decision making. The aim of this study was to investigate affective ToM and decision making in patients with PD and healthy controls (HC) in a task assessing affective ToM (Reading the Mind in the Eyes, RME) and two decision-making tasks (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT; Game of Dice Task, GDT). Consistent with previous findings, patients with PD were impaired in the affective ToM task, and when making decisions under ambiguity and in risk situations. The score of emotion recognition in the RME task was negatively correlated with the severity of the disease and positively correlated with the total number of advantageous cards chosen in the IGT. However, the final capital in the GDT was correlated with memory impairment. The present study implies that affective ToM and decision making under ambiguity may share similar neural mechanisms, while decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk may involve processing within different neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of high-efficiency gas liquid contactors for natural gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Palla, N.; Lee, A.L.

    1995-06-01

    The objectives of this program are to develop and evaluate advanced processing technologies that can reduce the cost of upgrading sub quality natural gas to pipeline standards. The successful application of cost-effective, new technologies will facilitate the production of sub quality natural gas that otherwise would be too expensive to produce. The overall program is focused on the following activities: evaluation of the potential of structured packing for the removal of acid gases from natural gases, and expansion of the currently available database of the fluid dynamics of rotating gas liquid contactors. The natural gas sweetening, structured packing field tests are scheduled to be conducted in calendar year 1995. Design, procurement and construction of the field test unit. Expansion of the available data base on the hydraulic characteristics of a rotating gas-liquid contactor is being pursued through a series of laboratory experiments. A 100 GPM, low pressure rotary contactor system has been assembled at IGT`s Energy Development Center to examine the fluid dynamic behavior of this type of contactor. The studies are determining the effects of liquid viscosity, liquid surface tension and operating conditions on liquid residence times and flooding limits.

  4. An integrated biodesulfurization process, including inoculum preparation, desulfurization and sulfate removal in a single step, for removing sulfur from oils.

    SciTech Connect

    Tangaromsuk, Jantana; Borole, Abhijeet P; Kruatrachue, Maleeya; Pokethitiyook, Prayad

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A single-stage reactor, in which the growth of bacterial culture, induction of desulfurizing enzymes, and desulfurization reaction are carried out in a single step, was adopted to investigate desulfurization of DBT at high cell densities. IGTS8 was used as the biocatalyst. Optimal condition for the bacterial growth and DBT desulfurization were also investigated. RESULTS: Optimization of fermentation conditions was necessary to obtain high cell densities including controlling accumulation of acetate. Under optimal operating conditions, the maximum OD600 was measured to be 26.6 at 118 h of cultivation. When biodesulfurization of DBT in model oil with a high cell density culture of IGTS8 was investigated, accumulation of sulfate was found to limit the extent of desulfurization. A sulfate removal step was added to obtain a single-stage integrated biodesulfurization process. Sulfate removal was achieved via an aqueous bleed stream and use of a separation unit to recycle the organic phase. CONCLUSION : A proof of principle of a complete system capable of biocatalyst growth, induction, desulfurization and by-product separation was demonstrated. This system enables simplification of the biodesulfurization process and has potential to lower the operating cost of the bioprocess.

  5. Scaleup of mild gasification to be a process development. Quarterly report, February 1995--May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, E.P.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

    1995-06-01

    The work performed during the Fourteenth quarterly reporting period (February 21 through May 20, 1995) on the research program, {open_quotes}Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit{close_quotes} is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The project team that is performing the initial phases of the PDU development are: Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation (K-M Coal), the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel), and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC). The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300{degrees}F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter, the formal HAZOP review was completed and a report detailing action items for resolution by the parties responsible was prepared.

  6. The assessment of risky decision making: a factor analysis of performance on the Iowa Gambling Task, Balloon Analogue Risk Task, and Columbia Card Task.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Melissa T; Blaine, Amber L

    2015-09-01

    Researchers and clinicians frequently use behavioral measures to assess decision making. The most common task that is marketed to clinicians is the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), thought to assess risky decision making. How does performance on the IGT relate to performance on other common measures of decision making? The present study sought to examine relationships between the IGT, the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), and the Columbia Card Task (CCT). Participants were 390 undergraduate students who completed the IGT, BART, and either the "hot" or "cold" CCT. Principal components factor analysis on the IGT, BART, and CCT-cold (n = 112) indicated that the IGT measures a different component of decision making than the BART, and the CCT-cold weakly correlated with early IGT trials. Results of the exploratory factor analysis on the IGT, BART, and CCT-hot (n = 108) revealed a similar picture: the IGT and BART assessed different types of decision making, and the BART and CCT-hot were weakly correlated. A confirmatory factor analysis (n = 170) indicated that a 3-factor model without the CCT-cold (Factor 1: later IGT trials; Factor 2: BART; and Factor 3: early IGT trials) was a better fitting model than one that included the CCT-cold and early IGT trials on the same factor. Collectively, the present results suggest that the IGT, BART, and CCT all measure unique, nonoverlapping decision making processes. Further research is needed to more fully understand the neuropsychological construct of decision making.

  7. Continuous bench-scale tests to assess METHOXYCOAL process performance. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Carty, R.H.

    1992-08-01

    Laboratory-scale research conducted at Southern Illinois University of Carbondale (SIUC) has shown that coal pyrolysis in the presence of CH{sub 4} and small quantities of O{sub 2} (the METHOXYCOAL process) can produce high yields of liquids and valuable chemicals compared to conventional pyrolysis. The addition of MgO, coal ash, and clays have been shown to further enhance coal conversion. The goal of this two-year project is to build upon that laboratory research by conducting continuous benchscale tests at IGT. Tests are being conducted with IBC-101 coal under CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} blends with and without added coal ash, MgO, and/or clays, at temperatures and pressures up to 1000{degrees}F and 200 psig. These tests will provide data to select preferred operating conditions for production of targeted chemicals (phenol, cresols, naphthalene, C{sub 1}-naphthalenes) from high-sulfur Illinois coals.

  8. SELPhOx process for remediation of contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Ekhtera, M.R.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rehmat, A.; Deville, B.

    1996-10-01

    The SELPhOx process is being developed as a highly flexible means of remediating and destroying both high and low concentrations of light aliphatic to heavy aromatic contaminants from solid and soil matrices. The process employs two distinct technologies: extraction of organic contaminants with supercritical carbon dioxide and wet air oxidation (WAO) destruction of the extracted contaminants. A separation step links the two process stages. IGT has conducted supercritical extraction tests over wide ranges of temperature, pressure, and CO{sub 2}/contaminant ratios with soils from a wood treatment plant and two manufacturing gas plant sites. The addition of methanol as an extraction modifier was also explored. At comparable CO{sub 2}-to-contaminant ratios and extraction conditions of 48{degrees}C and 137 atm, the total PAHs removed from the three soils ranged from 76.9 to 97.9 percent with CO{sub 2} alone and from 88.4 to 98.6 percent with methanol added. Results of these tests are presented.

  9. Hydrogen from coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Hydrogen production from coal by hydrogasification is described. The process involves the solubilization of coal to form coal liquids, which are hydrogasified to produce synthetic pipeline gas; steam reforming this synthetic gas by a nuclear heat source produces hydrogen. A description is given of the hydrogen plant, its performance, and its effect on the environment.

  10. Economic comparison of five process concepts for using eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, W.J.; Phillips, T.T.; Barnes, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    This study compared costs of retorting eastern oil shales using western shale retorting technologies that need no more development with the cost of processing the same shales using technologies designed specifically for eastern shales. The eastern shale technologies need more development. The study was designed to answer the question: does process development work need to be done for eastern oil shale or will the existing western techniques suffice. A calculation for a power plant that burned eastern oil shale to produce electricity was included in the study. We studied the following processes: the Institute of Gas Technology's (IGT) HYTORT (eastern shale process), the Paraho C-H (combination heated) (eastern shale process), the Paraho D-H (direct heated) (western shale process), the TOSCO II (western shale process), and power plant. It was concluded that, without further development, western shale retorting processes are not adequate for use with eastern shale. The HYTORT process produces oil at a cost nearly competitive with oil from western shale however.

  11. Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Foster, H.

    1992-06-01

    The work performed during the second quarterly reporting period (February 21 through May 20, 1992) on the research program, Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit'' is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup. (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation. (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit. (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300[degrees]F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The PDU to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of char, coal liquids, and gases; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; and a hot briquetting unit for the production of form coke and smokeless fuel briquettes. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste.

  12. Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Progress report, February 21, 1992--May 20, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Foster, H.

    1992-06-01

    The work performed during the second quarterly reporting period (February 21 through May 20, 1992) on the research program, ``Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit`` is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup. (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation. (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit. (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300{degrees}F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The PDU to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of char, coal liquids, and gases; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; and a hot briquetting unit for the production of form coke and smokeless fuel briquettes. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste.

  13. Assessment of Cognitive Components of Decision Making with Military Versions of the IGT and WCST

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-29

    military versions of two standard cognitive assessments, the Iowa Gambling Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, while their eye movements were...Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Decision making , wargames, Iowa Gambling Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11...versions of two standard cognitive assessments, the Iowa Gambling Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, while their eye movements were tracked

  14. The neural basis of decision-making and reward processing in adults with euthymic bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Ibanez, Agustin; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Petroni, Agustin; Urquina, Hugo; Baez, Sandra; Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Kamienkowski, Juan Esteban; Torralva, Teresa; Torrente, Fernando; Strejilevich, Sergio; Teitelbaum, Julia; Hurtado, Esteban; Guex, Raphael; Melloni, Margherita; Lischinsky, Alicia; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo

    2012-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) share DSM-IV criteria in adults and cause problems in decision-making. Nevertheless, no previous report has assessed a decision-making task that includes the examination of the neural correlates of reward and gambling in adults with ADHD and those with BD. We used the Iowa gambling task (IGT), a task of rational decision-making under risk (RDMUR) and a rapid-decision gambling task (RDGT) which elicits behavioral measures as well as event-related potentials (ERPs: fERN and P3) in connection to the motivational impact of events. We did not observe between-group differences for decision-making under risk or ambiguity (RDMUR and IGT); however, there were significant differences for the ERP-assessed RDGT. Compared to controls, the ADHD group showed a pattern of impaired learning by feedback (fERN) and insensitivity to reward magnitude (P3). This ERP pattern (fERN and P3) was associated with impulsivity, hyperactivity, executive function and working memory. Compared to controls, the BD group showed fERN- and P3-enhanced responses to reward magnitude regardless of valence. This ERP pattern (fERN and P3) was associated with mood and inhibitory control. Consistent with the ERP findings, an analysis of source location revealed reduced responses of the cingulate cortex to the valence and magnitude of rewards in patients with ADHD and BD. Our data suggest that neurophysiological (ERPs) paradigms such as the RDGT are well suited to assess subclinical decision-making processes in patients with ADHD and BD as well as for linking the cingulate cortex with action monitoring systems.

  15. Coal gasification pilot plant support studies. Subtask 1-3. Application of availability analysis in assessing the efficiency of coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The methodology for availability analysis to assess thermodynamic efficiency in coal gasification processes has been established. The methodology includes the following: procedures for estimating chemical, thermal, and mechanical contributions to enthalpy, entropy, and availability transformations in various steps of coal gasification processes; and definition of parameters for a quantitative assessment of process thermodynamic efficiency. The methodology of availability analysis, including the procedures and definitions (mentioned above), has been used to develop computer programs for assessing the thermodynamic efficiency of coal gasification processes. These programs are written in FORTRAN IV for use in the IGT computer facilities. The data input to these programs include the temperatures, pressures, and flow rates of chemical species entering and leaving the processes or process steps being analyzed. The thermodynamic analyses provided by the computer programs include: verification of material and heat balances; and computation of availability balances and process thermodynamic efficiency parameters. Availability analyses have been conducted for the major process steps in proposed designs of HYGAS and Lurgi processes for producing SNG from Eastern coals. For each design, process steps with potential for improved thermodynamic efficiencies have been identified, and recommendations were made for improving process efficiencies. The proposed HYGAS and Lurgi designs were compared, and differing design features were contrasted and analyzed.

  16. Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Progress report for August 21--November 20, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, E.P.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

    1995-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter work included clearing, grubbing, grading and backfilling of the site, installation of culverts and fencing, placing of the main structure foundation and truck pad, and installation of gravel on the areas that will later be blacktopped. Also this quarter, a contract for the emissions and control package was awarded to Calidus Technologies. In addition, agreement with Central Illinois Power Service on the electrical supply scope and the natural gas delivery pressure was made and the FAA waived any requirement for aircraft warning devices on the top of the structure.

  17. METHANE de-NOX process as a NO{sub x} reduction technology for stoker boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Rabovitser, I.; Roberts, M.; Chan, I.; Loviska, T.; Morrow, R.; Bonner, T.; Hall, D.

    1996-12-31

    The most common NO{sub x} control technology utilized in stokers is selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) systems. The natural gas industry has developed the patented METHANE de-NOX reburning process for stokers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to the levels set by current EPA regulations without increasing the levels of other undesirable emissions. In contrast to conventional reburning, where the reburn fuel is injected above the combustion zone to create a fuel-rich reburn zone, with METHANE de-NOX, natural gas is injected directly into the combustion zone above the grate; this results in a reduction of NO{sub x} formed in the coal bed and also limits its formation through decomposition of the NO{sub x} precursors to form molecular nitrogen rather than nitrogen oxides. The METHANE de-NOX process was field tested at the Olmsted County waste-to-energy facility in Rochester, Minnesota, and at an incineration plant in Japan. Compared to baseline levels, about 60% NO{sub x} reduction and an increase in boiler efficiency were achieved. IGT, Detroit Stoker Company, and Cogentrix are presently demonstrating the METHANE de-NOX technology on a coal-fired 390 MM Btu/h stoker boiler at a 240 MW cogeneration plant in Richmond, Virginia. Baseline tests were conducted which indicated that 50 to 60% NO{sub x} can be reduced by utilization of METHANE de-NOX.

  18. Effect of the natural winemaking process applied at industrial level on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of wine.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Ciro; Francesca, Nicola; Corona, Onofrio; Settanni, Luca; Cruciata, Margherita; Moschetti, Giancarlo

    2013-09-01

    The composition of yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) communities and the chemical evolution of the large-scale commercial vinification of Catarratto IGT Sicilia, carried out under the biological regime, was followed from grape harvest until bottling. Simultaneously to the maximum growth of yeasts, LAB counts reached high level of concentration (6-7 log CFU mL(-1)) during the first steps of the alcoholic fermentation. Yeast identification was determined applying different molecular methods. The highest species biodiversity was observed on grape and must samples taken soon after pressing. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was detected at dominant concentrations during the entire winemaking process. LAB cultures were grouped and identified by a combined phenotypic and genotypic approach. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus hilgardii and Lactobacillus plantarum species were identified; the last was the main LAB recognized during vinification. The winemaking process was also chemically monitored. The alcoholic content was approximately 12.67% (v v(-1)) at bottling; pH, volatile acidity and total acidity showed a moderate increase during vinification. Tartaric, citric and malic acids decreased until bottling, while lactic acid showed a rapid increase at the end of maceration and bottling. Trans-caffeil tartaric acid was the most abundant phenolic compound and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were mainly represented by isoamylic alcohol, isobutanol, ethyl acetate and octanoic acid. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of procedural learning on Iowa Gambling Task performance among HIV+ individuals with history of substance dependence.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul; Wardle, Margaret; Jacobus, Joanna; Vassileva, Jasmin; Martin-Thormeyer, Eileen M

    2010-02-01

    HIV+ individuals have been shown to demonstrate deficits on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a complex measure of "decision-making." Little remains known about what other neurocognitive processes may account for variability in IGT performance among HIV+ samples or the role of procedural learning (PL) in IGT performance. A sample of 49 HIV+ individuals with a history of substance use disorders was examined to explore the relationship between IGT performance and three measures of PL: The Rotary Pursuit, Mirror Star Tracing, and Weather Prediction tasks. We found no statistically significant relationships between IGT performance and any of the PL tasks, despite finding significant correlations among the PL tasks. This pattern of results persisted when analyzing IGT performance in various ways (e.g., performance on earlier trial blocks or impairment classifications). Although other nondeclarative processes (e.g., somatic markers) may be important for IGT performance, these findings do not support PL as an important component neurocognitive process for the IGT. Similarly, these results suggest that differences in PL performance does not account for the decision-making deficits or variability in performances observed on the IGT among HIV+ individuals with a history of substance dependence.

  20. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.; Kline, S.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P. ); Duthie, R.G. )

    1990-04-01

    A project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, Inc., and Bechtel National, Inc., is developing a mild gasification process that uses a fluidized/entrained-bed reactor. This reactor is designed to process caking bituminous coals over a wide range of particle sizes without oxidative pretreatment, and also without the use of oxygen or air as reactants. The co-product streams, consisting of char, fuel gas, water, and condensables, would be separated by conventional means such as cyclone, staged condensers, and recycle-oil scrubbers. An isothermal process research unit (PRU) has been built at IGT, consisting of an 8-inch-I.D., 8-foot-long fluidized-bed section and a 4-inch-I.D., 13-foot-long entrained flow section, externally heated by electrical heaters. This quarter, eleven mild gasification tests were conducted in the PRU. Illinois No. 6 coal was used in nine of the tests and a West Virginia metallurgical grade of coal was used in the last two tests. The tests conducted in the PRU this quarter were operated with feed rates about three times higher than those used in the last quarter. Results show the effect of process temperature on the shields of char, oils/tars, and gases. Various compositional effects on the oils/tars were also discovered. Char upgrading studies were completed for the char co-product options of smokeless fuel and adsorbent char. A total condensate collection system was designed for the PRU system. 18 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit. Quarterly report, May--August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Foster, H.

    1994-03-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup; obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation; prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit; and develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300 F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The 1 ton/hr PDU facility that is to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of gases, coal liquids, and char; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; a three-stage condensation train to condense and store the liquid products; and coal feeding and char handling equipment. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste. This quarter, the authors completed preparation of the draft of the permitting documentation that will be required by the Illinois EPA for the permit to construct the PDU and it is planned to submit it to the State of Illinois early in the next quarter. Also this quarter, a presentation of the project aims and status were presented during a site visit on August 11, 1993 by DOE personnel and Robert Kripowicz, the Staff Assistant, Subcommittee on the Interior, of the US House Committee on Appropriations.

  2. Budgeting Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Shaughnessy, John

    1973-01-01

    Attempts to describe the budgeting process in school districts. Discusses general budget calendars and explains the process of constructing a Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) chart of the budgeting process. Presents a detailed list of activities to be included in the budgeting process and a PERT chart indicating how these activities…

  3. Meat Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  4. Science Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Fred N.

    1983-01-01

    Reports an investigation of the epistomologic foundations of Gagne's conception of science processes. Results indicate that a commitment to inductive empiricism pervades the presently held view of science processes. Implications for science education are considered. (Author/JN)

  5. A Comparison of Reinforcement Learning Models for the Iowa Gambling Task Using Parameter Space Partitioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steingroever, Helen; Wetzels, Ruud; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2013-01-01

    The Iowa gambling task (IGT) is one of the most popular tasks used to study decision-making deficits in clinical populations. In order to decompose performance on the IGT in its constituent psychological processes, several cognitive models have been proposed (e.g., the Expectancy Valence (EV) and Prospect Valence Learning (PVL) models). Here we…

  6. Intelligence, but Not Emotional Intelligence, Predicts Iowa Gambling Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaree, Heath A.; Burns, Kevin J.; DeDonno, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a famous and frequently-used neuropsychological task that is thought to reflect real-world decision-making. There has been some debate, however, about the degree to which the IGT involves cold (cognitive) versus hot (emotional) processing. The present study incorporated 68 healthy individuals and used measures of…

  7. Shuttle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guodace, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation details shuttle processing flow which starts with wheel stop and ends with launching. The flow is from landing the orbiter is rolled into the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), where processing is performed, it is then rolled over to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where it is mated with the propellant tanks, and payloads are installed. A different flow is detailed if the weather at Kennedy Space Center requires a landing at Dryden.

  8. ASCOT process

    SciTech Connect

    Bonilla, J.A.

    1985-12-01

    Foster Wheeler is developing the ASCOT (Asphalt Coking Technology) process which combines a modified solvent deasphalting (SDA) unit, using heavy solvents, with a delayed coking (DC) unit for the upgrade of heavy oils into intermediate products suitable for processing in conventional refinery units, to produce high quality distillate products. This paper presents a description of the ASCOT process and its application to the upgrade of San Joaquin vacuum residue. The ASCOT process is then compared to the independent applications of DC and SDA. 6 references.

  9. Peat Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Humics, Inc. already had patented their process for separating wet peat into components and processing it when they consulted NERAC regarding possible applications. The NERAC search revealed numerous uses for humic acid extracted from peat. The product improves seed germination, stimulates root development, and improves crop yields. There are also potential applications in sewage disposal and horticultural peat, etc.

  10. Recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Apffel, F.

    1989-06-13

    This patent describes a process for manufacturing char and hydrocarbons from discarded used tires. The process consists of: introducing the substantially whole tires into a reactor; pyrolyzing the substantially whole tires in a reaction chamber continuously at a temperature and pressure and for a reaction time sufficient to cause the tires to dissociate into a vapor and a solid phase; the pyrolyzing step including directly heating the tires with a radiant heat source at temperatures of 1000{sup 0} to 3000{sup 0}F; producing char from the solid phase; and processing the vapor phase to produce hydrocarbons.

  11. Processible Polyazomethines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Processibility enhanced by incorporating trifluoromethylbenzene units into molecules. Results of two unexpected properties: high solubility in common organic solvents and lack of crystallinity. Properties coupled with ability of this class of polymers to undergo exchange reactions at elevated temperatures allow these materials to moderate their molecular weights during processing, which affects resulting mechanical properties after processing. Fluorinated polyazomethines form amorphous films that have excellent mechanical properties. Used in moisture-free environments as electronic semiconducting films and adhesives, and as matrix resins for advanced structural composites.

  12. Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Describes the kinds of computer equipment needed for a personal word processing system. The characteristics and capabilities of specific devices, including keyboards, printers, and disk drives, are discussed. (JL)

  13. Manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennet, Jay; Brower, David; Levine, Stan; Walker, Ray; Wooten, John

    1991-01-01

    The following issues are covered: process development frequently lags behind material development, high fabrication costs, flex joints (bellows) - a continuing program, SRM fabrication-induced defects, and in-space assembly will require simplified design.

  14. Grants Process

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Grants Process provides an overview of the end-to-end lifecycle of grant funding. Learn about the types of funding available and the basics for application, review, award, and on-going administration within the NCI.

  15. Anodizing Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This anodizing process traces its origin to the 1960's when Reynolds Metals Company, under contract with Goddard Space Flight Center, developed a multipurpose anodizing electrolyte (MAE) process to produce a hard protective finish for spacecraft aluminum. MAE produces a high-density, abrasion-resistant film prior to the coloring step, in which the pores of the film are impregnated with a metallic form of salt. Tru-Color product applications include building fronts, railing, curtain walls, doors and windows.

  16. Multifractal Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Processes 1 Introduction and Summary Fractal processes have been instrumental in a variety of fields ranging from the theory of fully developed...formalism in a stochastic setting . Thereby, the importance of higher order statistics will become evident. It might be especially appealing to the...rates occur in multifractal ‘trading time’ [68, 69]. With the theory developed in this paper, it be- comes an easy task to explore B1/2(M(t)) from the

  17. Power processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, F. C.

    1971-01-01

    Processing of electric power has been presented as a discipline that draws on almost every field of electrical engineering, including system and control theory, communications theory, electronic network design, and power component technology. The cost of power processing equipment, which often equals that of expensive, sophisticated, and unconventional sources of electrical energy, such as solar batteries, is a significant consideration in the choice of electric power systems.

  18. Organosolv Processes.

    PubMed

    Brosse, Nicolas; Hussin, Mohd Hazwan; Rahim, Afidah Abdul

    2017-03-10

    Biofuels and chemicals can be produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks using biotechnological processes. The effective utilization of carbohydrates from biomass for the production of biofuels necessitates the development of pretreatment technologies to enhance their enzymatic digestibility. Among all the various pretreatment methods currently studied and developed, the organosolv processes, in which organic solvents or aqueous organic solvent mixtures are used as the pretreatment medium, appear to be specially promising in the context of the biorefinery because (1) they produce cellulosic pulp with a good enzymatic digestibility for monomeric glucose production and (2) they allow a clean fractionation of the major biomass components (cellulose, lignin, and hemicelluloses) into three process streams. In this chapter we give an updated overview of organosolv methods using conventional solvents and ionic liquids which have recently gained considerable interest as solvents for lignocellulosic biomass and pretreatment.

  19. Process Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The ChemScan UV-6100 is a spectrometry system originally developed by Biotronics Technologies, Inc. under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. It is marketed to the water and wastewater treatment industries, replacing "grab sampling" with on-line data collection. It analyzes the light absorbance characteristics of a water sample, simultaneously detects hundreds of individual wavelengths absorbed by chemical substances in a process solution, and quantifies the information. Spectral data is then processed by ChemScan analyzer and compared with calibration files in the system's memory in order to calculate concentrations of chemical substances that cause UV light absorbance in specific patterns. Monitored substances can be analyzed for quality and quantity. Applications include detection of a variety of substances, and the information provided enables an operator to control a process more efficiently.

  20. Reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsche, R.T.; Pope, G.N.

    1981-01-06

    A process for reforming a naphtha feedstock is disclosed. The reforming process is effected at reforming conditions in contact with a catalyst comprising a platinum group metal component and a group iv-a metal component composited with an alumina support wherein said support is prepared by admixing an alpha alumina monohydrate with an aqueous ammoniacal solution having a ph of at least about 7.5 to form a stable suspension. A salt of a strong acid, e.g., aluminum nitrate, is commingled with the suspension to form an extrudable paste or dough. On extrusion, the extrudate is dried and calcined to form said alumina support.

  1. FLUORINATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    McMillan, T.S.

    1957-10-29

    A process for the fluorination of uranium metal is described. It is known that uranium will react with liquid chlorine trifluoride but the reaction proceeds at a slow rate. However, a mixture of a halogen trifluoride together with hydrogen fluoride reacts with uranium at a significantly faster rate than does a halogen trifluoride alone. Bromine trifluoride is suitable for use in the process, but chlorine trifluoride is preferred. Particularly suitable is a mixture of ClF/sub 3/ and HF having a mole ratio (moles

  2. Point Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    ClaSIfication , 0.1102F 2304 Point processes____________ 12. PERSONAL AUTHORIS) Serfozo, R.F. 13AL TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED I4. DATE OF REPORT...the Laplace functional of M is as in Lemma 1.12. Keep in mind that a typical representation of a marked point process is o V 4 =. 1 6XnZ where N = 2 6...special case, for f: A - R . is X E[f(NO)] = E[JO f(O N)dt]. 0 Keep in mind that the expectation on the left is with respect to the probability for N

  3. Kinetics and mechanisms of hydroliquefaction and hydrogasification of lignite. [Cellulose, wood, manure, municipal waste, coal of various ranks, fuel oil and natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.H.; Kranich, W.L.; Geureuz, K.

    1981-01-01

    A high pressure, continuous, stirred-tank reactor system has been constructed for the study of the catalytic liquefaction of North Dakota lignite slurried in anthracene oil. The conversion of lignite using a cobalt-molybdenum on alumina catalyst and the distribution of products as preasphaltenes, asphaltenes, oils and gases has been studied at the following conditions: temperature, 375 to 440/sup 0/C; pressure, 1000 to 1600 psig; agitator speed, 800 to 1500 rpm; catalyst concentration, 0 to 10% (based on lignite); initial lignite concentration, 5 to 30%; and space time, 16 to 52 minutes. At reactor pressures above 1500 psig and agitator speeds above 1000 rpm, reaction rate was essentially independent of pressure. At catalyst concentrations above 1% (based on lignite), the conversion of lignite was essentially independent of catalyst concentration. Experiments were conducted above these limits to find the effect on lignite conversion rate, of initial lignite concentration, and space time, or degree of conversion. The results at constant temperature were correlated by an equation which is given in the report. The relationship between the rate constant, K, and temperature, and between the maximum conversion and temperature was established. The effect of reaction conditions on the distribution of products was studied. In the presence of catalyst, the oil yield was increased, even under conditions where the catalyst did not affect overall lignite conversion. Under the most favorable conditions the oil yield was a little better than that obtained by Cronauer in the uncatalyzed hydroliquefaction of subbituminous coal at similar temperature and pressure.

  4. Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Images are prepared from data acquired by the multispectral scanner aboard Landsat, which views Earth in four ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, two visible bands and two infrared. Scanner picks up radiation from ground objects and converts the radiation signatures to digital signals, which are relayed to Earth and recorded on tape. Each tape contains "pixels" or picture elements covering a ground area; computerized equipment processes the tapes and plots each pixel, line be line to produce the basic image. Image can be further processed to correct sensor errors, to heighten contrast for feature emphasis or to enhance the end product in other ways. Key factor in conversion of digital data to visual form is precision of processing equipment. Jet Propulsion Laboratory prepared a digital mosaic that was plotted and enhanced by Optronics International, Inc. by use of the company's C-4300 Colorwrite, a high precision, high speed system which manipulates and analyzes digital data and presents it in visual form on film. Optronics manufactures a complete family of image enhancement processing systems to meet all users' needs. Enhanced imagery is useful to geologists, hydrologists, land use planners, agricultural specialists geographers and others.

  5. Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Carol Ann; McDonald, Sandy

    This publication contains instructional materials for teacher and student use for a course in information processing. The materials are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 10 units. Each instructional unit contains some or all of the basic components of a unit of instruction: performance…

  6. Budgeting Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Shaughnessy, John

    1973-01-01

    Discusses steps three and four in a budgeting process that uses Program Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT). Step three involves developing time estimates and scheduling each of the activities in the PERT chart. Step four involves responsibility identification and coordination. (Author/JF)

  7. Image Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    blurs the processed image. Blurring is the primary limitation of low-pass filtering. Figure (10) shows a photo of the famous Taj -Hahal, one of the...Original Histo(p"am FILENAME.APP=41 06FG 1 O.PSD APPLICATION: ADOBE PHOTOSHOP VERSION 4.0 Figure (10) Photo ofTaj- Mahal with arbitrarily noise

  8. SEPARATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Stoughton, R.W.

    1961-10-24

    A process for separating tetravalent plutonium from aqueous solutions and from niobium and zirconium by precipitation on lanthanum oxalate is described. The oxalate ions of the precipitate may be decomposed by heating in the presence of an oxidizing agent, forming a plutonium compound readily soluble in acid. (AEC)

  9. Fragmentation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Colm T.

    2012-12-01

    Preface; 1. Direct and resonant double-photoionization: from atoms to solids L. Avaldi and G. Stefani; 2. The application of propagation exterior complex scaling to atomic collisions P. L. Bartlett and A. T. Stelbovics; 3. Fragmentation of molecular-ion beams in intense ultra-short laser pulses I. Ben-Itzhak; 4. Atoms with one and two active electrons in strong laser fields I. A. Ivanov and A. S. Kheifets; 5. Experimental aspects of ionization studies by positron and positronium impact G. Laricchia, D. A. Cooke, Á. Kövér and S. J. Brawley; 6. (e,2e) spectroscopy using fragmentation processes J. Lower, M. Yamazaki and M. Takahashi; 7. A coupled pseudostate approach to the calculation of ion-atom fragmentation processes M. McGovern, H. R. J. Walters and C. T. Whelan; 8. Electron Impact Ionization using (e,2e) coincidence techniques from threshold to intermediate energies A. J. Murray; 9. (e,2e) processes on atomic inner shells C. T. Whelan; 10. Spin resolved atomic (e,2e) processes J. Lower and C. T. Whelan; Index.

  10. Processing Determinism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William

    2015-01-01

    I propose that the course of development in first and second language acquisition is shaped by two types of processing pressures--internal efficiency-related factors relevant to easing the burden on working memory and external input-related factors such as frequency of occurrence. In an attempt to document the role of internal factors, I consider…

  11. On Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxler, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Claims that the product approach to business writing prescribes a way of operating similar to imitation and creates an illusion of a static world when, in reality, the business environment is constantly in flux. Argues that the process approach to writing instruction should be used in business communication classes. (JD)

  12. Restoration Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  13. Process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickler, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is given of seven process development activities which were presented at this session. Pulsed excimer laser processing of photovoltaic cells was presented. A different pulsed excimer laser annealing was described using a 50 w laser. Diffusion barrier research focused on lowering the chemical reactivity of amorphous thin film on silicon. In another effort adherent and conductive films were successfully achieved. Other efforts were aimed at achieving a simultaneous front and back junction. Microwave enhanced plasma deposition experiments were performed. An updated version of the Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) was presented, along with a life cycle cost analysis of high efficiency cells. The last presentation was on the evaluation of the ethyl vinyl acetate encapsulating system.

  14. Fermentation process

    SciTech Connect

    Lutzen, N.W.

    1982-02-23

    Fermentation process consists essentially of fermenting a 10-45% w/w aqueous slurry of granular starch for the production of ethanol with an ethanol-producing microorganism in the presence of alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, the conduct of said fermentation being characterized by low levels of dextrin and fermentable sugars in solution in the fermentation broth throughout the fermentation, and thereafter recovering enzymes from the fermentation broth for use anew in fermentation of granular starch.

  15. Optical Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    general applications with average performance and certain numer- ical applications with very high per- formance. MIMD computers Support general ...Optical Processing I% FINAL REPORT June 1986 Heriot-Watt University University of Dayton Research Institute Subcontract Order No. RI-43109 ONR Main...apart, or a decoupled geometry in which the bias beamlet array, generated by the HOEs, is imaged by an intermediate, longer focal-length, high N.A. lens

  16. Veggie Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    Charles Spern, at right, project manager on the Engineering Services Contract (ESC), and Glenn Washington, ESC quality assurance specialist, perform final inspections of the Veggie Series 1 plant experiment inside a laboratory in the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The Series 1 experiment is being readied for flight aboard Orbital ATK's Cygnus module on its seventh (OA-7) Commercial Resupply Services mission to the International Space Station. The Veggie system is on the space station.

  17. Hydropyrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Ullman, Alan Z.; Silverman, Jacob; Friedman, Joseph

    1986-01-01

    An improved process for producing a methane-enriched gas wherein a hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrogen-containing pyrolysis gas at an elevated temperature and pressure to produce a product gas mixture including methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The improvement comprises passing the product gas mixture sequentially through a water-gas shift reaction zone and a gas separation zone to provide separate gas streams of methane and of a recycle gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane for recycle to the process. A controlled amount of steam also is provided which when combined with the recycle gas provides a pyrolysis gas for treatment of additional hydrogen-deficient carbonaceous material. The amount of steam used and the conditions within the water-gas shift reaction zone and gas separation zone are controlled to obtain a steady-state composition of pyrolysis gas which will comprise hydrogen as the principal constituent and a minor amount of carbon monoxide, steam and methane so that no external source of hydrogen is needed to supply the hydrogen requirements of the process. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment, conditions are controlled such that there also is produced a significant quantity of benzene as a valuable coproduct.

  18. Ceramic Processing

    SciTech Connect

    EWSUK,KEVIN G.

    1999-11-24

    Ceramics represent a unique class of materials that are distinguished from common metals and plastics by their: (1) high hardness, stiffness, and good wear properties (i.e., abrasion resistance); (2) ability to withstand high temperatures (i.e., refractoriness); (3) chemical durability; and (4) electrical properties that allow them to be electrical insulators, semiconductors, or ionic conductors. Ceramics can be broken down into two general categories, traditional and advanced ceramics. Traditional ceramics include common household products such as clay pots, tiles, pipe, and bricks, porcelain china, sinks, and electrical insulators, and thermally insulating refractory bricks for ovens and fireplaces. Advanced ceramics, also referred to as ''high-tech'' ceramics, include products such as spark plug bodies, piston rings, catalyst supports, and water pump seals for automobiles, thermally insulating tiles for the space shuttle, sodium vapor lamp tubes in streetlights, and the capacitors, resistors, transducers, and varistors in the solid-state electronics we use daily. The major differences between traditional and advanced ceramics are in the processing tolerances and cost. Traditional ceramics are manufactured with inexpensive raw materials, are relatively tolerant of minor process deviations, and are relatively inexpensive. Advanced ceramics are typically made with more refined raw materials and processing to optimize a given property or combination of properties (e.g., mechanical, electrical, dielectric, optical, thermal, physical, and/or magnetic) for a given application. Advanced ceramics generally have improved performance and reliability over traditional ceramics, but are typically more expensive. Additionally, advanced ceramics are typically more sensitive to the chemical and physical defects present in the starting raw materials, or those that are introduced during manufacturing.

  19. Speech Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    airborne environment. The SEU’s ability to remove narrowband types of noises automatically and in real-time by as much as forty (40) d& decibels would...cepstral process that can improve the signal-to-noise ratio of noisy communication channels as much as 12 to 14 decibels . An improvement of this amount in...and Forgie, C.A., 1959, "Results Obtained from a Vowel Recognition Computer Program", J. Acoust Soc. Am 31(11) 8. Vicens, P. 1969, "Aspects of

  20. RF processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1982-06-01

    The Loran-C radio frequency processing is discussed. A diagram which generally illustrates the automatic gain control is presented. The augmented differentiator for pulse envelopes adapts conventional communications receiver with wideband AM capability to detect pulse signals such as Loran-C. The circuit enhances reception for surveillance and observation of HF over-the-horizon radar signals or others where time difference estimates between pulse returns are of interest. The high resolution VLF spectrum which receives weak VLF signals by using an HP 3581A wave analyzer detecting signals with a very narrow bandwidth of only 3 Hz is also presented.

  1. Nonequilibrium processes.

    PubMed

    Polanyi, J C

    1971-08-01

    Nonequilibrium phenomena have been studied for over half a century, particularly as a means to understanding the mechanism of energy transfer. Application of the insights and techniques of molecular physics to chemistry has resulted in a view of chemistry as constituting an aspect of the study of strong collisions, and chemical reaction as a special type of energy transfer. Increasing use has been made in experimental work of nonequilibrium environments for the study of chemical processes. The nature and purpose of such experiments are reviewed here, very briefly, and an attempt is made to point to areas that appear ripe for development over the coming decade.

  2. Veggie Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    Charles Spern, at right, project manager on the Engineering Services Contract (ESC), and Glenn Washington, ESC quality assurance specialist, perform final inspections of the Veggie Series 1 plant experiment inside a laboratory in the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. At far left is Dena Richmond, ESC configuration management. The Series 1 experiment is being readied for flight aboard Orbital ATK's Cygnus module on its seventh (OA-7) Commercial Resupply Services mission to the International Space Station. The Veggie system is on the space station.

  3. Signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, David M.

    The application of signal processing technology to conventional weapons systems can lower operator workloads and enhance kill probabilities, while automating wide-area surveillance, target search and classification, target tracking, and aimpoint selection. Immediate opportunities exist for automatic target cueing in underwater and over-the-horizon targeting, as well as for airborne multiple-target fire control. By embedding the transit/receive electronics into conformal aircraft sensor arrays, a 'smart' skin can be created. Electronically scanned phased arrays can be used to yield accurate azimuthal and elevation positions while nullifying EW threats. Attention is given to major development thrusts in algorithm design.

  4. Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    ORGANIZATION Univ of Minnesota (f*fto U. S. Army Research Office 6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (Wiy Stat, and ZIP Code...Minneapolis, MN 55455 P. 0. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Sa. NAME Of FUNDING ISPONSORING Sb. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT...PROJECT ITASK jWORK UNIT Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 EMNTO.I NO NO CESOIO 11. TITLE (Incudt Security Classifiratio") Signal Processing of, he auth

  5. Optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, S. C.

    1985-12-01

    The technical contributions were as follows: (1) Optical parallel 2-D neighborhood processor and optical processor assessment technique; (2) High accuracy with moderately accurate components and optical fredkin gate architectures; (3) Integrated optical threshold computing, pipelined polynomial processor, and all optical analog/digital converter; (4) Adaptive optical associative memory model with attention; (5) Effectiveness of parallelism and connectivity in optical computers; (6) Optical systolic array processing using an integrated acoustooptic module; (7) Optical threshold elements and networks, holographic threshold processors, adaptive matched spatial filtering, and coherence theory in optical computing; (8) Time-varying optical processing for sub-pixel targets, optical Kalman filtering, and adaptive matched filtering; (9) Optical degrees of freedom, ultra short optical pulses, number representations, content-addressable-memory processors, and integrated optical Givens rotation devices; (10) Optical J-K flip flop analysis and interfacing for optical computers; (11) Matrix multiplication algorithms and limits of incoherent optical computers; (12) Architecture for machine vision with sensor fusion, pattern recognition functions, and neural net implementations; (13) Optical computing algorithms, architectures, and components; and (14) Dynamic optical interconnections, advantages and architectures.

  6. Lithospheric processes

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, W.S.; Wohletz, K.; Fehler, M.C.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main objective was to improve understanding of the origin and evolution of the Earth`s lithosphere by studying selected processes, such as deformation and magmatic intrusion during crustal extension, formation and extraction of mantle melts, fluid transport of heat and mass, and surface processes that respond to deep-seated events. Additional objectives were to promote and develop innovative techniques and to support relevant educational endeavors. Seismic studies suggest that underplating of crust by mantle melts is an important crustal-growth mechanism, that low-angle faults can be seismogenic, and that shear deformation creates mantle anisotropy near plate boundaries. Results of geochemical work determined that magmas from oceanic intraplate islands are derived from a uniform depth in the upper mantle, whereas melts erupted at mid-ocean ridges are mixed from a range of depths. The authors have determined the extent and style of fluid infiltration and trace-element distribution in natural magmatic systems, and, finally, investigated {sup 21}Ne as a tool for dating of surficial materials.

  7. Physicochemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, M.R.; Jensen, J.N.; McGinley, P.M.; Reed, B.E.

    1993-06-01

    A variety of waste water treatment processes are reported. Destruction of free and organically bound cyanides by alkaline hydrolysis in a pipeline reactor was studied. A bench-scale pilot system combining coagulation, sedimentation, and ultrafiltration to study treatment of animal wastewater was developed. A pilot limestone contactor was evaluated for its ability to treat a low pH, low alkalinity surface water supply for corrosion control, and as a conditioning step for flocculation. Experiments were conducted with a falling film reactor to determine the potential of freeze concentration to treat municipal wastewater for reuse. The effects of reductants and alkali on the sludge quantity from chromium(VI) wastes and the leachability and physical properties of solidified chromium sludge were investigated. Development and experience with a pilot-scale surfactant washing-flushing system to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated soils was reported.

  8. Lithospheric processes

    SciTech Connect

    Baldridge, W.

    2000-12-01

    The authors used geophysical, geochemical, and numerical modeling to study selected problems related to Earth's lithosphere. We interpreted seismic waves to better characterize the thickness and properties of the crust and lithosphere. In the southwestern US and Tien Shari, crust of high elevation is dynamically supported above buoyant mantle. In California, mineral fabric in the mantle correlate with regional strain history. Although plumes of buoyant mantle may explain surface deformation and magmatism, our geochemical work does not support this mechanism for Iberia. Generation and ascent of magmas remains puzzling. Our work in Hawaii constrains the residence of magma beneath Hualalai to be a few hundred to about 1000 years. In the crust, heat drives fluid and mass transport. Numerical modeling yielded robust and accurate predictions of these processes. This work is important fundamental science, and applies to mitigation of volcanic and earthquake hazards, Test Ban Treaties, nuclear waste storage, environmental remediation, and hydrothermal energy.

  9. Polymerization process

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, R.J.

    1987-03-03

    An improved process is described for preparing a hydrocarbon fluid friction reducing composition comprising mixing two or more alpha-monoolefins having 2 to about 30 carbon atoms in a diluent or an organic solvent and copolymerizing the alpha-monoolefins in the presence of a catalyst. The catalyst is comprised of a reducible or reduced titanium halide and an organo metal catalyst activator consisting of, per each 100 total moles of activator, about 1 to 20 moles of at least one trialkylaluminium compound, each alkyl group of which has 1 to 10 carbon atoms and about 99 to 80 moles of at least one dialkylaluminium halide compound, each alkyl group of which has 1 to about 10 carbon atoms. The mole ratio of activator to catalyst in the reaction mixture is in the range of about 0.001:1 to 50:1.

  10. Oligomerization process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1991-03-26

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figures.

  11. Process Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Axiomatics Corporation developed a shunting Dielectric Sensor to determine the nutrient level and analyze plant nutrient solutions in the CELSS, NASA's space life support program. (CELSS is an experimental facility investigating closed-cycle plant growth and food processing for long duration manned missions.) The DiComp system incorporates a shunt electrode and is especially sensitive to changes in dielectric property changes in materials at measurements much lower than conventional sensors. The analyzer has exceptional capabilities for predicting composition of liquid streams or reactions. It measures concentrations and solids content up to 100 percent in applications like agricultural products, petrochemicals, food and beverages. The sensor is easily installed; maintenance is low, and it can be calibrated on line. The software automates data collection and analysis.

  12. Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageScale Plus software, developed through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Kennedy Space Flight Center for use on space shuttle Orbiter in 1991, enables astronauts to conduct image processing, prepare electronic still camera images in orbit, display them and downlink images to ground based scientists for evaluation. Electronic Imagery, Inc.'s ImageCount, a spin-off product of ImageScale Plus, is used to count trees in Florida orange groves. Other applications include x-ray and MRI imagery, textile designs and special effects for movies. As of 1/28/98, company could not be located, therefore contact/product information is no longer valid.

  13. WELDING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Zambrow, J.; Hausner, H.

    1957-09-24

    A method of joining metal parts for the preparation of relatively long, thin fuel element cores of uranium or alloys thereof for nuclear reactors is described. The process includes the steps of cleaning the surfaces to be jointed, placing the sunfaces together, and providing between and in contact with them, a layer of a compound in finely divided form that is decomposable to metal by heat. The fuel element members are then heated at the contact zone and maintained under pressure during the heating to decompose the compound to metal and sinter the members and reduced metal together producing a weld. The preferred class of decomposable compounds are the metal hydrides such as uranium hydride, which release hydrogen thus providing a reducing atmosphere in the vicinity of the welding operation.

  14. Etherification process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1990-08-21

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled. 2 figs.

  15. Retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.

    1984-06-19

    Fines in the overhead vapors from an oil shale retort process in which fresh shale together with hot recycle combusted shale from a combustor are fed to a retort and at least partly fluidized by a countercurrent stripping gas stream are handled by removing a portion of the fines in a vapor-solid separation optionally subjecting the portion of fines to additional retorting in a fines retort condensing the partially dedusted gas separating the condensate into a substantially finesfree liquid oil and a wet solids and recycling at least a portion of the wet solids to the retort, fines retort, and/or combustor whereby the liquid on the wet solids is recovered and/or burned and the wet solids are dried.

  16. Crystallization process

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  17. Oligomerization process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  18. Etherification process

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  19. Differential impairments underlying decision making in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: a cognitive modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Trista Wai Sze; Ahn, Woo-Young; Bates, John E; Busemeyer, Jerome R; Guillaume, Sebastien; Redgrave, Graham W; Danner, Unna N; Courtet, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the underlying processes of decision-making impairments in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). We deconstructed their performance on the widely used decision task, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) into cognitive, motivational, and response processes using cognitive modeling analysis. We hypothesized that IGT performance would be characterized by impaired memory functions and heightened punishment sensitivity in AN, and by elevated sensitivity to reward as opposed to punishment in BN. We analyzed trial-by-trial data of IGT obtained from 224 individuals: 94 individuals with AN, 63 with BN, and 67 healthy comparison individuals (HC). The prospect valence learning model was used to assess cognitive, motivational, and response processes underlying IGT performance. Individuals with AN showed marginally impaired IGT performance compared to HC. Their performance was characterized by impairments in memory functions. Individuals with BN showed significantly impaired IGT performance compared to HC. They showed greater relative sensitivity to gains as opposed to losses than HC. Memory functions in AN were positively correlated with body mass index. This study identified differential impairments underlying IGT performance in AN and BN. Findings suggest that impaired decision making in AN might involve impaired memory functions. Impaired decision making in BN might involve altered reward and punishment sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Dairy processing.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kenneth W

    2003-07-01

    The United States dairy processing sector is dynamic and adaptive to new changes in the market place. Changes in consumer preferences and manufacturing technologies are resulting in new challenges to the processing sector. Consumers want a wider array of quality dairy products. Fluid processors are adapting to changing consumer demands for beverage products by introducing new flavors, providing ultrapasteurization, and using creative packaging. In addition, United States food manufacturers are requesting dairy processors to provide new dairy fractions such as MPC for new nutrition products. United States dairy policy is attempting to adapt to these changes. Federal order reform has resulted in new market-oriented signals for dairy farmers to produce what the market wants; namely, quality milk components. US dairy farmers, however, also wants to maintain programs such as the DPSP that have had the unfortunate consequence of spurring demand for protein imports (i.e., MPCs, casein, and caseinates) and also resulted in a disincentive to produce these new innovative protein products here in the United States. Surplus skim milk solids are now moving into US Government warehouses rather than into commercial markets. The future of the United States dairy industry will clearly be toward producing innovative products that the market wants. There is a strong market for dairy products not only here in the United States but also overseas, which will mean learning to compete on a global scale. The challenge is to modernize our United States milk pricing programs to provide dairy farmers and processors proper price signals while providing a minimum level of support to dairy farmers. The benefit of a greater orientation toward the market place will be stronger rates of growth for United States-produced dairy products.

  1. Publication process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Reiff, P. H.

    Those who have contributed to the research literature are quite familiar with the workings of the publication process, even though they may not have seen it explicitly set down as is done in the accompanying flow chart. However, for the benefit of students, who are thought to read Eos, if only for the classified ads, and editors, who may have lost sight of the forest for the trees, we have requested that AGU publish this diagram. T h e flow chart is self-explanatory. We note that ΔtA,ΔtE, and ΔtR are time delays introduced by the author, the editor, and the referee. Since the editor gets to handle the paper twice each iteration (the number of which is counted by the index, I) he is responsible for a time delay of 2 ΔtE. The number NJ is journal dependent, ranging from 0 for some conference proceedings and forprofit journals, to 2 (or greater) for some AGU journals. (For example, this is our third submittal of this forum.) We would particularly like to thank G.C. Reid and S. Solomon and the many others who have had a hand in codifying this flow chart over the years and Eos editor, L.J. Lanzerotti, for his assistance in the further refinement of various details.

  2. Microbial strain improvement for organosulfur removal from coal. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II

    1993-12-31

    IGT has developed a microbial culture of Rhodococcus rhodochrous, designated as IGTS8, that is capable of specifically cleaving carbon-sulfur bonds in a range of organosulfur model compounds and is capable of removing organic sulfur from coal and petroleum without significantly sacrificing the calorific value of the fuel. Although IGTS8 possesses the ability to specifically remove organic sulfur from coal, a major research need is to develop improved strains of microorganisms that possess higher levels of desulfurization activity and therefore will permit more favorable biodesulfurization process conditions: faster rates, more complete removal, and smaller reactor size. Strain improvement is the single most important aspect to the development of a practical coal biodesulfurization process and accordingly is the focus of research in this project. During the past year, significant progress was made toward improving the biodesulfurization capabilities of Rhodococcus Rhodochrous IGTS8. The main objective was to identify and characterize strong promoters of IGTS8. The DNA sequencing of the promoter region and chloramphenicol resistance gene of pRF2, as well as six mutant promoters, was determined. The 16S structural gene of IGTS8 was isolated and used to identify the putative promoter of this gene. Four promoter probe vectors were constructed and are currently being used to analyze the strength of Rhodococcus promoters: from the IGTS8 genome, mutants of promoters from the chloramphenicol resistance gene of pRF2, the promoter from the 16S RNA gene, and various strong inducible promoters.

  3. Dynamic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingshirn, C.

    . Phys. Lett. 92:211105, 2008). For this point, recall Figs. 6.16 and 6.33. Since the polarisation amplitude is gone in any case after the recombination process, there is an upper limit for T 2 given by T 2 ≤ 2 T1. The factor of two comes from the fact that T 2 describes the decay of an amplitude and T 1 the decay of a population, which is proportional to the amplitude squared. Sometimes T 2 is subdivided in a term due to recombination described by T 1 and another called 'pure dephasing' called T 2 ∗ with the relation 1 / T 2 = 1 / 2 T 1 + 1 / T2 ∗. The quantity T 2 ∗ can considerably exceed 2 T 1. In the part on relaxation processes that is on processes contributing to T 3, we give also examples for the capture of excitons into bound, localized, or deep states. For more details on dynamics in semiconductors in general see for example, the (text-) books [Klingshirn, Semiconductor Optics, 3rd edn. (Springer, Berlin, 2006); Haug and Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors, 4th edn. (World Scientific, Singapore, 2004); Haug and Jauho, Quantum Kinetics in Transport and Optics of Semiconductors, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 123 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and of Semiconductor Nanostructures, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences vol. 115 (Springer, Berlin, 1996); Schafer and Wegener, Semiconductor Optics and Transport Phenomena (Springer, Berlin, 2002)]. We present selected data for free, bound and localized excitons, biexcitons and electron-hole pairs in an EHP and examples for bulk materials, epilayers, quantum wells, nano rods and nano crystals with the restriction that - to the knowledge of the author - data are not available for all these systems, density ranges and temperatures. Therefore, we subdivide the topic below only according to the three time constants T 2, T 3 and T 1.

  4. Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grangeat, P.

    A new area of biology has been opened up by nanoscale exploration of the living world. This has been made possible by technological progress, which has provided the tools needed to make devices that can measure things on such length and time scales. In a sense, this is a new window upon the living world, so rich and so diverse. Many of the investigative methods described in this book seek to obtain complementary physical, chemical, and biological data to understand the way it works and the way it is organised. At these length and time scales, only dedicated instrumentation could apprehend the relevant phenomena. There is no way for our senses to observe these things directly. One important field of application is molecular medicine, which aims to explain the mechanisms of life and disease by the presence and quantification of specific molecular entities. This involves combining information about genes, proteins, cells, and organs. This in turn requires the association of instruments for molecular diagnosis, either in vitro, e.g., the microarray or the lab-on-a-chip, or in vivo, e.g., probes for molecular biopsy, and tools for molecular imaging, used to localise molecular information in living organisms in a non-invasive way. These considerations concern both preclinical research for drug design and human medical applications. With the development of DNA and RNA chips [1], genomics has revolutionised investigative methods for cells and cell processes [2,3]. By sequencing the human genome, new ways have been found for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of life [4]. A revolution is currently under way with the analysis of the proteome [5-8], i.e., the complete set of proteins that can be found in some given biological medium, such as the blood plasma. The goal is to characterise certain diseases by recognisable signatures in the proteomic profile, as determined from a blood sample or a biopsy, for example [9-13]. What is at stake is the early detection of

  5. Information Processing - Administrative Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubenko, Janis

    A three semester, 60-credit course package in the topic of Administrative Data Processing (ADP), offered in 1966 at Stockholm University (SU) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) is described. The package had an information systems engineering orientation. The first semester focused on datalogical topics, while the second semester focused on the infological topics. The third semester aimed to deepen the students’ knowledge in different parts of ADP and at writing a bachelor thesis. The concluding section of this paper discusses various aspects of the department’s first course effort. The course package led to a concretisation of our discipline and gave our discipline an identity. Our education seemed modern, “just in time”, and well adapted to practical needs. The course package formed the first concrete activity of a group of young teachers and researchers. In a forty-year perspective, these people have further developed the department and the topic to an internationally well-reputed body of knowledge and research. The department has produced more than thirty professors and more than one hundred doctoral degrees.

  6. Hydrothermal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; von Damm, K. L.

    2003-12-01

    What is Hydrothermal Circulation?Hydrothermal circulation occurs when seawater percolates downward through fractured ocean crust along the volcanic mid-ocean ridge (MOR) system. The seawater is first heated and then undergoes chemical modification through reaction with the host rock as it continues downward, reaching maximum temperatures that can exceed 400 °C. At these temperatures the fluids become extremely buoyant and rise rapidly back to the seafloor where they are expelled into the overlying water column. Seafloor hydrothermal circulation plays a significant role in the cycling of energy and mass between the solid earth and the oceans; the first identification of submarine hydrothermal venting and their accompanying chemosynthetically based communities in the late 1970s remains one of the most exciting discoveries in modern science. The existence of some form of hydrothermal circulation had been predicted almost as soon as the significance of ridges themselves was first recognized, with the emergence of plate tectonic theory. Magma wells up from the Earth's interior along "spreading centers" or "MORs" to produce fresh ocean crust at a rate of ˜20 km3 yr-1, forming new seafloor at a rate of ˜3.3 km2 yr-1 (Parsons, 1981; White et al., 1992). The young oceanic lithosphere formed in this way cools as it moves away from the ridge crest. Although much of this cooling occurs by upward conduction of heat through the lithosphere, early heat-flow studies quickly established that a significant proportion of the total heat flux must also occur via some additional convective process (Figure 1), i.e., through circulation of cold seawater within the upper ocean crust (Anderson and Silbeck, 1981). (2K)Figure 1. Oceanic heat flow versus age of ocean crust. Data from the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans, averaged over 2 Ma intervals (circles) depart from the theoretical cooling curve (solid line) indicating convective cooling of young ocean crust by circulating seawater

  7. Synthetic fuels from US oil shales: a technical and economic verification of the HYTORT Process. Project 61040 quarterly report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    Progress is reported on the HYTORT Process development work conducted from April 1 through June 30, 1980. Thermobalance tests have been conducted on samples of shale from each large multiton sample prior to large-scale tests and these test results have been fit with specific kinetic expressions. Approximately 80% of the instrumentation for the laboratory-scale reactor has been received. Fabrication of the reactor, feed hopper, and residue receiver is about 95% complete. Two successful moving-bed tests were conducted in the bench-scale reactor during this quarter. A large, 50-ton sample of the Lower Huron member of the Ohio Shale was mined and readied for shipment to IGT. Modification of the bench-scale steam-oxygen unit was completed. Spent shale from PDU tests was prepared for use in these tests. A set of five screening runs on New Albany shale oil and a set of four screening runs on Sunbury shale oil were conducted during this quarter. The nitrogen content of these oils was reduced to the 0.16 to 0.30 weight percent range in the bench-scale hydrotreating unit. Design of the laboratory test system for mist-size control studies was completed. Methods are being studied for measuring mist particle size. Shakedown and initial testing of the liquid-sealed lockhopper were performed during this quarter. Two runs were made in the PDU with Kentucky shales using a sample of the Cleveland member of the Ohio shale and a sample of New Albany shale. Samples for environmental analysis were taken during the PDU runs discussed above. On-line sampling equipment was installed prior to the PDU run with New Albany shale and samples were taken of the Stage 2 raw product gases.

  8. Electrotechnologies to process foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Electrical energy is being used to process foods. In conventional food processing plants, electricity drives mechanical devices and controls the degree of process. In recent years, several processing technologies are being developed to process foods directly with electricity. Electrotechnologies use...

  9. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  10. Hydrocarbon Processing`s process design and optimization `96

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This paper compiles information on hydrocarbon processes, describing the application, objective, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Processes include: alkylation, ammonia, catalytic reformer, crude fractionator, crude unit, vacuum unit, dehydration, delayed coker, distillation, ethylene furnace, FCCU, polymerization, gas sweetening, hydrocracking, hydrogen, hydrotreating (naphtha, distillate, and resid desulfurization), natural gas processing, olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, refinery, styrene, sulfur recovery, and VCM furnace.

  11. Extensible packet processing architecture

    DOEpatents

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  12. The MITK image guided therapy toolkit and its application for augmented reality in laparoscopic prostate surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumhauer, Matthias; Neuhaus, Jochen; Fritzsche, Klaus; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2010-02-01

    Image Guided Therapy (IGT) faces researchers with high demands and efforts in system design, prototype implementation, and evaluation. The lack of standardized software tools, like algorithm implementations, tracking device and tool setups, and data processing methods escalate the labor for system development and sustainable system evaluation. In this paper, a new toolkit component of the Medical Imaging and Interaction Toolkit (MITK), the MITK-IGT, and its exemplary application for computer-assisted prostate surgery are presented. MITK-IGT aims at integrating software tools, algorithms and tracking device interfaces into the MITK toolkit to provide a comprehensive software framework for computer aided diagnosis support, therapy planning, treatment support, and radiological follow-up. An exemplary application of the MITK-IGT framework is introduced with a surgical navigation system for laparos-copic prostate surgery. It illustrates the broad range of application possibilities provided by the framework, as well as its simple extensibility with custom algorithms and other software modules.

  13. Physicochemical treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, D.; Morico, K.; Kock, N.; Flood, K.; Armstrong, R. ); Walters, R. ); Ellis, G. ); Chin, Yuping )

    1990-06-01

    This article discussed work done and accomplishments made in various methods and processes for physicochemical wastewater treatment. Processes discussed include general, precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, sedimentation/flotation, filtration, adsorption, ion exchange, membrane processes, mass transfer processes, phtotlytic processes, and oxidation/reduction processes.

  14. The role of cognitive versus emotional intelligence in Iowa Gambling Task performance: What’s emotion got to do with it?

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Christian A.; DelDonno, Sophie; Killgore, William D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Debate persists regarding the relative role of cognitive versus emotional processes in driving successful performance on the widely used Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). From the time of its initial development, patterns of IGT performance were commonly interpreted as primarily reflecting implicit, emotion-based processes. Surprisingly, little research has tried to directly compare the extent to which measures tapping relevant cognitive versus emotional competencies predict IGT performance in the same study. The current investigation attempts to address this question by comparing patterns of associations between IGT performance, cognitive intelligence (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; WASI) and three commonly employed measures of emotional intelligence (EI; Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, MSCEIT; Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, EQ-i; Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale, SREIS). Results indicated that IGT performance was more strongly associated with cognitive, than emotional, intelligence. To the extent that the IGT indeed mimics “real-world” decision-making, our findings, coupled with the results of existing research, may highlight the role of deliberate, cognitive capacities over implicit, emotional processes in contributing to at least some domains of decision-making relevant to everyday life. PMID:25635149

  15. The role of cognitive versus emotional intelligence in Iowa Gambling Task performance: What's emotion got to do with it?

    PubMed

    Webb, Christian A; DelDonno, Sophie; Killgore, William D S

    2014-01-01

    Debate persists regarding the relative role of cognitive versus emotional processes in driving successful performance on the widely used Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). From the time of its initial development, patterns of IGT performance were commonly interpreted as primarily reflecting implicit, emotion-based processes. Surprisingly, little research has tried to directly compare the extent to which measures tapping relevant cognitive versus emotional competencies predict IGT performance in the same study. The current investigation attempts to address this question by comparing patterns of associations between IGT performance, cognitive intelligence (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence; WASI) and three commonly employed measures of emotional intelligence (EI; Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, MSCEIT; Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, EQ-i; Self-Rated Emotional Intelligence Scale, SREIS). Results indicated that IGT performance was more strongly associated with cognitive, than emotional, intelligence. To the extent that the IGT indeed mimics "real-world" decision-making, our findings, coupled with the results of existing research, may highlight the role of deliberate, cognitive capacities over implicit, emotional processes in contributing to at least some domains of decision-making relevant to everyday life.

  16. Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.; Kang, Dohee

    1984-01-01

    In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

  17. A Distributed Processing Approach to Word Processing/Data Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Robert D.; Magnuson, Jerry R.

    1980-01-01

    A word processing system developed at the University of Kansas is described. A cost-benefit analysis of the system v standard typewriter, mag-card, and other advanced word processing systems is developed. Intangible benefits such as worker satisfaction and reduced training and editing needs are discussed, and possible uses outlined. (MSE)

  18. Environmental and Cold Tests on Model 04045B03 Generator Set Serial Number 0000003 with IGT 404-4 Engine Serial Number T000003.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-09

    ILL zoAQD DUMp -~ Ale L-A o 64.o L Or * Pr "e 7-.IeA7r"r V - oo*D~gO Y𔃻t.,-dqau edroaer 7-.qAdSdr,4.,r Re. -MAX -,’X - Prx 9MPt-i-OC v0E U4,im4...U C NOV 79 N E GASTON DA70-7G-C-0124UNCLASSIFIED DDA79D87 4.. J I 11111ŕ.0-IIII140 12. MCROCOPY RESOLUTIO TESI CHART NAI IONAt 11RI Ail I SI ANDARDS

  19. Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality Over a 23-Year Period Among Chinese With Newly Diagnosed Diabetes in the Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    An, Yali; Wang, Jinping; Gong, Qiuhong; Gregg, Edward W.; Yang, Wenying; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bo; Shuai, Ying; Chen, Yanyan; Engelgau, Michael M.; Cheng, Yiling; Hu, Yinghua; Bennett, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite its growing prevalence in China, the extent to which diabetes leads to excess cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality is unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We compared death rates and causes of death among 630 people with newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD) and 519 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) who, in 1986, were identified as a result of screening 110,660 adults aged 25–74 years for diabetes in Da Qing, China. RESULTS During 23 years of follow-up, 338 (56.5%) participants with NDD and 100 (20.3%) with NGT died. CVD was the predominant cause of death in those with diabetes (47.5% in men and 49.7% in women), almost half of which was due to stroke (52.3% in men and 42.3% in women). The age-standardized incidence of all-cause death was three times as high in those with NDD as in those with NGT with incidences (per 1,000 person-years) of 36.9 (95% CI 31.5–42.3) vs. 13.3 (10.2–16.5) in men (P < 0.0001) and 27.1 (22.9–31.4) vs. 9.2 (7.8–10.6) in women (P < 0.0001). The incidence of CVD deaths in men and women with NDD (17.5 [13.8–21.2] vs. 13.5 [10.5–16.5]) did not differ significantly. Significantly higher death rates attributable to renal disease and infection were also found in the NDD group. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes is associated with a substantially increased risk of death in Chinese adults, especially from CVD, almost half of which is due to stroke. PMID:25887356

  20. Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality Over a 23-Year Period Among Chinese With Newly Diagnosed Diabetes in the Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study.

    PubMed

    An, Yali; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Jinping; Gong, Qiuhong; Gregg, Edward W; Yang, Wenying; Li, Hui; Zhang, Bo; Shuai, Ying; Chen, Yanyan; Engelgau, Michael M; Cheng, Yiling; Hu, Yinghua; Bennett, Peter H; Li, Guangwei

    2015-07-01

    Despite its growing prevalence in China, the extent to which diabetes leads to excess cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality is unclear. We compared death rates and causes of death among 630 people with newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD) and 519 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) who, in 1986, were identified as a result of screening 110,660 adults aged 25-74 years for diabetes in Da Qing, China. During 23 years of follow-up, 338 (56.5%) participants with NDD and 100 (20.3%) with NGT died. CVD was the predominant cause of death in those with diabetes (47.5% in men and 49.7% in women), almost half of which was due to stroke (52.3% in men and 42.3% in women). The age-standardized incidence of all-cause death was three times as high in those with NDD as in those with NGT with incidences (per 1,000 person-years) of 36.9 (95% CI 31.5-42.3) vs. 13.3 (10.2-16.5) in men (P < 0.0001) and 27.1 (22.9-31.4) vs. 9.2 (7.8-10.6) in women (P < 0.0001). The incidence of CVD deaths in men and women with NDD (17.5 [13.8-21.2] vs. 13.5 [10.5-16.5]) did not differ significantly. Significantly higher death rates attributable to renal disease and infection were also found in the NDD group. Diabetes is associated with a substantially increased risk of death in Chinese adults, especially from CVD, almost half of which is due to stroke. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  1. Bayesian techniques for analyzing group differences in the Iowa Gambling Task: A case study of intuitive and deliberate decision-makers.

    PubMed

    Steingroever, Helen; Pachur, Thorsten; Šmíra, Martin; Lee, Michael D

    2017-07-06

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is one of the most popular experimental paradigms for comparing complex decision-making across groups. Most commonly, IGT behavior is analyzed using frequentist tests to compare performance across groups, and to compare inferred parameters of cognitive models developed for the IGT. Here, we present a Bayesian alternative based on Bayesian repeated-measures ANOVA for comparing performance, and a suite of three complementary model-based methods for assessing the cognitive processes underlying IGT performance. The three model-based methods involve Bayesian hierarchical parameter estimation, Bayes factor model comparison, and Bayesian latent-mixture modeling. We illustrate these Bayesian methods by applying them to test the extent to which differences in intuitive versus deliberate decision style are associated with differences in IGT performance. The results show that intuitive and deliberate decision-makers behave similarly on the IGT, and the modeling analyses consistently suggest that both groups of decision-makers rely on similar cognitive processes. Our results challenge the notion that individual differences in intuitive and deliberate decision styles have a broad impact on decision-making. They also highlight the advantages of Bayesian methods, especially their ability to quantify evidence in favor of the null hypothesis, and that they allow model-based analyses to incorporate hierarchical and latent-mixture structures.

  2. SAR processing using SHARC signal processing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huxtable, Barton D.; Jackson, Christopher R.; Skaron, Steve A.

    1998-09-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is uniquely suited to help solve the Search and Rescue problem since it can be utilized either day or night and through both dense fog or thick cloud cover. Other papers in this session, and in this session in 1997, describe the various SAR image processing algorithms that are being developed and evaluated within the Search and Rescue Program. All of these approaches to using SAR data require substantial amounts of digital signal processing: for the SAR image formation, and possibly for the subsequent image processing. In recognition of the demanding processing that will be required for an operational Search and Rescue Data Processing System (SARDPS), NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and NASA/Stennis Space Center are conducting a technology demonstration utilizing SHARC multi-chip modules from Boeing to perform SAR image formation processing.

  3. Desalination processes and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, L. J.

    1995-06-01

    Different desalination processes are evaluated for feed, capacity, performance, energy requirements, and cost. These include distillation, reverse osmosis, or electrodialysis. Detailed information is given on distillation processes and membrane processes.

  4. Special parallel processing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This report contains viewgraphs from the Special Parallel Processing Workshop. These viewgraphs deal with topics such as parallel processing performance, message passing, queue structure, and other basic concept detailing with parallel processing.

  5. Graph-Theoretical Study of Functional Changes Associated with the Iowa Gambling Task

    PubMed Central

    Bolt, Taylor; Laurienti, Paul J.; Lyday, Robert; Morgan, Ashley; Dagenbach, Dale

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine changes in functional brain network organization from rest to the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) using a graph-theoretical approach. Although many functional neuroimaging studies have examined task-based activations in complex-decision making tasks, changes in functional network organization during this task remain unexplored. This study used a repeated-measures approach to examine changes in functional network organization across multiple sessions of resting-state and IGT scans. The results revealed that global network organization shifted from a local, clustered organization at rest to a more global, integrated organization during the IGT. In addition, network organization was stable across sessions of rest and the IGT. Regional analyses of the Default Mode Network (DMN) and Fronto-Parietal Network (FPN) revealed differential patterns of change in regional network organization from rest to the IGT. The results of this study reveal that global and regional network organization is significantly modulated across states and fairly stable over time, and that network changes in the FPN are particularly important in the decision-making processes necessary for successful IGT performance. PMID:27445754

  6. Hyperspectral processing in graphical processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Michael E.; Winter, Edwin M.

    2011-06-01

    With the advent of the commercial 3D video card in the mid 1990s, we have seen an order of magnitude performance increase with each generation of new video cards. While these cards were designed primarily for visualization and video games, it became apparent after a short while that they could be used for scientific purposes. These Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) are rapidly being incorporated into data processing tasks usually reserved for general purpose computers. It has been found that many image processing problems scale well to modern GPU systems. We have implemented four popular hyperspectral processing algorithms (N-FINDR, linear unmixing, Principal Components, and the RX anomaly detection algorithm). These algorithms show an across the board speedup of at least a factor of 10, with some special cases showing extreme speedups of a hundred times or more.

  7. Thermochemical water decomposition processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermochemical processes which lead to the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water without the consumption of any other material have a number of advantages when compared to other processes such as water electrolysis. It is possible to operate a sequence of chemical steps with net work requirements equal to zero at temperatures well below the temperature required for water dissociation in a single step. Various types of procedures are discussed, giving attention to halide processes, reverse Deacon processes, iron oxide and carbon oxide processes, and metal and alkali metal processes. Economical questions are also considered.

  8. Thermochemical water decomposition processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermochemical processes which lead to the production of hydrogen and oxygen from water without the consumption of any other material have a number of advantages when compared to other processes such as water electrolysis. It is possible to operate a sequence of chemical steps with net work requirements equal to zero at temperatures well below the temperature required for water dissociation in a single step. Various types of procedures are discussed, giving attention to halide processes, reverse Deacon processes, iron oxide and carbon oxide processes, and metal and alkali metal processes. Economical questions are also considered.

  9. Digital image processing.

    PubMed

    Seeram, Euclid

    2004-01-01

    Digital image processing is now commonplace in radiology, nuclear medicine and sonography. This article outlines underlying principles and concepts of digital image processing. After completing this article, readers should be able to: List the limitations of film-based imaging. Identify major components of a digital imaging system. Describe the history and application areas of digital image processing. Discuss image representation and the fundamentals of digital image processing. Outline digital image processing techniques and processing operations used in selected imaging modalities. Explain the basic concepts and visualization tools used in 3-D and virtual reality imaging. Recognize medical imaging informatics as a new area of specialization for radiologic technologists.

  10. Acoustic signal processing toolbox for array processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Tien; Whipps, Gene T.

    2003-08-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed an acoustic signal processing toolbox (ASPT) for acoustic sensor array processing. The intent of this document is to describe the toolbox and its uses. The ASPT is a GUI-based software that is developed and runs under MATLAB. The current version, ASPT 3.0, requires MATLAB 6.0 and above. ASPT contains a variety of narrowband (NB) and incoherent and coherent wideband (WB) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation and beamforming algorithms that have been researched and developed at ARL. Currently, ASPT contains 16 DOA and beamforming algorithms. It contains several different NB and WB versions of the MVDR, MUSIC and ESPRIT algorithms. In addition, there are a variety of pre-processing, simulation and analysis tools available in the toolbox. The user can perform simulation or real data analysis for all algorithms with user-defined signal model parameters and array geometries.

  11. GREENSCOPE: Sustainable Process Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA researchers are responding to environmental problems by incorporating sustainability into process design and evaluation. EPA researchers are also developing a tool that allows users to assess modifications to existing and new chemical processes to determine whether changes in...

  12. Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  13. Test processing system (SEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaulene, P.

    1986-01-01

    The SEE data processing system, developed in 1985, manages and process test results. General information is provided on the SEE system: objectives, characteristics, basic principles, general organization, and operation. Full documentation is accessible by computer using the HELP SEE command.

  14. Process evaluation distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffatt, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The distributed system includes a database server, an administration module, a process evaluation module, and a data display module. The administration module is in communication with the database server for providing observation criteria information to the database server. The process evaluation module is in communication with the database server for obtaining the observation criteria information from the database server and collecting process data based on the observation criteria information. The process evaluation module utilizes a personal digital assistant (PDA). A data display module in communication with the database server, including a website for viewing collected process data in a desired metrics form, the data display module also for providing desired editing and modification of the collected process data. The connectivity established by the database server to the administration module, the process evaluation module, and the data display module, minimizes the requirement for manual input of the collected process data.

  15. News: Process intensification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conservation of materials and energy is a major objective to the philosophy of sustainability. Where production processes can be intensified to assist these objectives, significant advances have been developed to assist conservation as well as cost. Process intensification (PI) h...

  16. Polyamines in tea processing.

    PubMed

    Palavan-Unsal, Narcin; Arisan, Elif Damla; Terzioglu, Salih

    2007-06-01

    The distribution of dietary polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, was determined during processing of Camellia sinensis. Black tea manufacture is carried by a series of processes on fresh tea leaves involving withering, rolling, fermentation, drying and sieving. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of tea processing on the polyamine content in relation with antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase. Before processing, the spermine content was much higher than the putrescine and spermidine content in green tea leaves. Spermine was significantly decreased during processing while the putrescine and spermine contents increased during withered and rolling and decreased in the following stages. The superoxide dismutase activity increased at the withering stage and declined during processing. The transcript level of the polyamine biosynthesis-responsible enzyme ornithine decarboxylase was reduced during each processing step. This study reveals the importance of protection of nutritional compounds that are essential for health during the manufacturing process.

  17. GREENSCOPE: Sustainable Process Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA researchers are responding to environmental problems by incorporating sustainability into process design and evaluation. EPA researchers are also developing a tool that allows users to assess modifications to existing and new chemical processes to determine whether changes in...

  18. News: Process intensification

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conservation of materials and energy is a major objective to the philosophy of sustainability. Where production processes can be intensified to assist these objectives, significant advances have been developed to assist conservation as well as cost. Process intensification (PI) h...

  19. Spacelab Data Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The capabilities of the Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SPDPF) are highlighted. The capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of vital Spacelab data to various user facilities around the world are described.

  20. Probabilistic Declarative Process Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellodi, Elena; Riguzzi, Fabrizio; Lamma, Evelina

    The management of business processes is receiving much attention, since it can support significant efficiency improvements in organizations. One of the most interesting problems is the representation of process models in a language that allows to perform reasoning on it.

  1. Natural Language Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Gobinda G.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to natural language processing, including theoretical developments; natural language understanding; tools and techniques; natural language text processing systems; abstracting; information extraction; information retrieval; interfaces; software; Internet, Web, and digital library applications; machine translation for…

  2. Infrared processing of foods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infrared (IR) processing of foods has been gaining popularity over conventional processing in several unit operations, including drying, peeling, baking, roasting, blanching, pasteurization, sterilization, disinfection, disinfestation, cooking, and popping . It has shown advantages over conventional...

  3. Materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and possible advantages of processing materials in a nongravitational field are considered. Areas of investigation include biomedical applications, the processing of inorganic materials, and flight programs and funding.

  4. The requirements discovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Dean, F.F.

    1997-02-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

  5. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOEpatents

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  6. MITRE Adaptive Processing Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    gathering, Funded Research and Development transfer, processing , and interpretation of Center (FFRDC) under the primary data are provided. A strong state-of...1988: Unisys Reston Technology Center, Reston, VA Dr. Bronez was a Member of the Technical Staff. He performed research on signal processing and... processing , mathematical research , and sensor array processing . He was Project Leader and Principal Investigator for projects in adaptive beamforming

  7. Digital image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, R.; Ferneyhough, D. G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Federal Systems Division of IBM has developed an image processing facility to experimentally process, view, and record digital image data. This facility has been used to support LANDSAT digital image processing investigations and advanced image processing research and development. A brief description of the facility is presented, some techniques that have been developed to correct the image data are discussed, and some results obtained by users of the facility are described.

  8. Metallurgical processing: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The items in this compilation, all relating to metallurgical processing, are presented in two sections. The first section includes processes which are general in scope and applicable to a variety of metals or alloys. The second describes the processes that concern specific metals and their alloys.

  9. Processes for metal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowersox, David F.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the processing of plutonium at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and operation illustrating concepts that may be applicable to the processing of lunar materials. The toxic nature of plutonium requires a highly closed system for processing lunar surface materials.

  10. Handbook of Petroleum Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, David S. J.; Pujado, Peter P.

    This handbook describes and discusses the features that make up the petroleum refining industry. It begins with a description of the crude oils and their nature, and continues with the saleable products from the refining processes, with a review of the environmental impact. There is a complete overview of the processes that make up the refinery with a brief history of those processes.

  11. Current Duplicating Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groneman, Nancy

    1978-01-01

    While business instructors are still teaching spirit and stencil duplicating processes, most businesses now use copiers or offset printing processes. The article discusses offset and copier skills needed by office workers, pointing out that the processes being taught should be compatible with those used in business. (MF)

  12. Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Apelian,Diran

    2002-01-10

    Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

  13. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  14. How yogurt is processed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This month’s Processing column on the theme of “How Is It Processed?” focuses on yogurt. Yogurt is known for its health-promoting properties. This column will provide a brief overview of the history of yogurt and the current market. It will also unveil both traditional and modern yogurt processing t...

  15. Comprehension Processes in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balota, D. A., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on the process of reading comprehension, this book contains chapters on some central topics relevant to understanding the processes associated with comprehending text. The articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Comprehension Processes: Introduction" (K. Rayner); (2) "The Role of Meaning in Word Recognition"…

  16. The Natural Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Teacher-educator and researcher Daniel L. Kohut suggests in "Musical Performance: Learning Theory and Pedagogy" that there are many problems that result from the way music teachers often teach. Most teachers focus on the process, not the goal. The Natural Learning Process that Kohut advocates is the same process that young children use when they…

  17. The Constitutional Amendment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chism, Kahlil

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the constitutional amendment process. Although the process is not described in great detail, Article V of the United States Constitution allows for and provides instruction on amending the Constitution. While the amendment process currently consists of six steps, the Constitution is nevertheless quite difficult to change.…

  18. Image-Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Apple Image-Processing Educator (AIPE) explores ability of microcomputers to provide personalized computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in digital image processing of remotely sensed images. AIPE is "proof-of-concept" system, not polished production system. User-friendly prompts provide access to explanations of common features of digital image processing and of sample programs that implement these features.

  19. Change Processes in Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on change processes in organizations. "Mid-stream Corrections: Decisions Leaders Make during Organizational Change Processes" (David W. Frantz) analyzes three organizational leaders to determine whether and how they take corrective actions or adapt their decision-making processes when…

  20. Image processing in astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Richard

    1994-04-01

    Today's personal computers are more powerful than the mainframes that processed images during the early days of space exploration. We have entered an age in which anyone can do image processing. Topics covering the following aspects of image processing are discussed: digital-imaging basics, image calibration, image analysis, scaling, spatial enhancements, and compositing.

  1. How tofu is processed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This month’s Processing column will continue the theme of “How Is It Processed?” The column will focus on tofu, which is sometimes called “the cheese of Asia.” It is a nutritious, protein-rich bean curd made by coagulating soy milk. There are many different types of tofu, and they are processed in a...

  2. Chemical Process Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siirola, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Process synthesis is the specification of chemical and physical operations and the selection and interconnection of equipment to implement these operations to effect desired chemical processing transformations. Optimization and evolutionary and systematic generation process synthesis approaches are described. (Author/SK)

  3. The Natural Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criss, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Teacher-educator and researcher Daniel L. Kohut suggests in "Musical Performance: Learning Theory and Pedagogy" that there are many problems that result from the way music teachers often teach. Most teachers focus on the process, not the goal. The Natural Learning Process that Kohut advocates is the same process that young children use when they…

  4. Change Processes in Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on change processes in organizations. "Mid-stream Corrections: Decisions Leaders Make during Organizational Change Processes" (David W. Frantz) analyzes three organizational leaders to determine whether and how they take corrective actions or adapt their decision-making processes when…

  5. Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

    2012-01-01

    The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

  6. Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

    2012-01-01

    The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

  7. Statistical Process Control for KSC Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Roger G.; Delgado, Hector; Tilley, Randy

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) served as the basis for a research effort into statistical process control for KSC processing. The effort entailed several tasks and goals. The first was to develop a customized statistical process control (SPC) course for the Safety and Mission Assurance Trends Analysis Group. The actual teaching of this course took place over several weeks. In addition, an Internet version of the same course complete with animation and video excerpts from the course when it was taught at KSC was developed. The application of SPC to shuttle processing took up the rest of the summer research project. This effort entailed the evaluation of SPC use at KSC, both present and potential, due to the change in roles for NASA and the Single Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC). Individual consulting on SPC use was accomplished as well as an evaluation of SPC software for KSC use in the future. A final accomplishment of the orientation of the author to NASA changes, terminology, data format, and new NASA task definitions will allow future consultation when the needs arise.

  8. Process mapping: A user-friendly tool for process improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, M. L.; Levine, L. O.

    1993-09-01

    Process maps aid administrative process improvement efforts by documenting processes in a rigorous yet understandable way. Icons, graphics, and text support process documentation, analysis, and improvement.

  9. Biomass process handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Descriptions are given of 42 processes which use biomass to produce chemical products. Marketing and economic background, process description, flow sheets, costs, major equipment, and availability of technology are given for each of the 42 processes. Some of the chemicals discussed are: ethanol, ethylene, acetaldehyde, butanol, butadiene, acetone, citric acid, gluconates, itaconic acid, lactic acid, xanthan gum, sorbitol, starch polymers, fatty acids, fatty alcohols, glycerol, soap, azelaic acid, perlargonic acid, nylon-11, jojoba oil, furfural, furfural alcohol, tetrahydrofuran, cellulose polymers, products from pulping wastes, and methane. Processes include acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation, Purox process, and anaerobic digestion.

  10. An improved plating process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, John C.

    1994-01-01

    An alternative to the immersion process for the electrodeposition of chromium from aqueous solutions on the inside diameter (ID) of long tubes is described. The Vessel Plating Process eliminates the need for deep processing tanks, large volumes of solutions, and associated safety and environmental concerns. Vessel Plating allows the process to be monitored and controlled by computer thus increasing reliability, flexibility and quality. Elimination of the trivalent chromium accumulation normally associated with ID plating is intrinsic to the Vessel Plating Process. The construction and operation of a prototype Vessel Plating Facility with emphasis on materials of construction, engineered and operational safety and a unique system for rinse water recovery are described.

  11. Containerless processing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oran, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review of containerless processing activities sponsored by NASA's Microgravity Science Division is presented. Attention is given to ground based systems such as shot tower processing of molten materials, single axis levitation and flight processing concepts including BeO processing aboard the Space Shuttle, a medium temperature three-axis acoustic positioning system and a high temperature single axis acoustic positioning system. In the future, more sophisticated experiments will be conducted using improved measurement techniques which will quantitatively define the advantages of containerless processing, as well as improve the understanding of nuclear kinetics and of the thermophysical properties of materials at high temperatures.

  12. Evaluation of steelmaking processes

    SciTech Connect

    Fruehan, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Objective of the AISI Direct Steelmaking Program is to develop a process for producing steel directly from ore and coal; the process should be less capital intensive, consume less energy, and have higher productivity. A task force was formed to examine available processes: trough, posthearth, IRSID, Electric Arc Furnace, energy optimizing furnace. It is concluded that there is insufficient incentive to replace a working BOF with any of these processes to refine hot metal; however, if new steelmaking capacity is required, IRSID and EOF should be considered. A fully continuous process should not be considered until direct ironmaking and continuous refining are perfected.

  13. Process-based costing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Robert H; Bott, Marjorie J; Forbes, Sarah; Redford, Linda; Swagerty, Daniel L; Taunton, Roma Lee

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how quality improvement affects costs is important. Unfortunately, low-cost, reliable ways of measuring direct costs are scarce. This article builds on the principles of process improvement to develop a costing strategy that meets both criteria. Process-based costing has 4 steps: developing a flowchart, estimating resource use, valuing resources, and calculating direct costs. To illustrate the technique, this article uses it to cost the care planning process in 3 long-term care facilities. We conclude that process-based costing is easy to implement; generates reliable, valid data; and allows nursing managers to assess the costs of new or modified processes.

  14. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses involving the preliminary process design of a plant (1,000 metric tons/year capacity) to produce silicon via the technology under consideration were accomplished. Major activities in the chemical engineering analyses included base case conditions, reaction chemistry, process flowsheet, material balance, energy balance, property data, equipment design, major equipment list, production labor and forward for economic analysis. The process design package provided detailed data for raw materials, utilities, major process equipment and production labor requirements necessary for polysilicon production in each process.

  15. Nonaqueous processing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Coops, M.S.; Bowersox, D.F.

    1984-09-01

    A high-temperature process utilizing molten salt extraction from molten metal alloys has been developed for purification of spent power reactor fuels. Experiments with laboratory-scale processing operations show that purification and throughput parameters comparable to the Barnwell Purex process can be achieved by pyrochemical processing in equipment one-tenth the size, with all wastes being discharged as stable metal alloys at greatly reduced volume and disposal cost. This basic technology can be developed for large-scale processing of spent reactor fuels. 13 references, 4 figures.

  16. Gas processing handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Brief details are given of processes including: BGC-Lurgi slagging gasification, COGAS, Exxon catalytic coal gasification, FW-Stoic 2-stage, GI two stage, HYGAS, Koppers-Totzek, Lurgi pressure gasification, Saarberg-Otto, Shell, Texaco, U-Gas, W-D.IGI, Wellman-Galusha, Westinghouse, and Winkler coal gasification processes; the Rectisol process; the Catacarb and the Benfield processes for removing CO/SUB/2, H/SUB/2s and COS from gases produced by the partial oxidation of coal; the selectamine DD, Selexol solvent, and Sulfinol gas cleaning processes; the sulphur-tolerant shift (SSK) process; and the Super-meth process for the production of high-Btu gas from synthesis gas.

  17. Hydrogen production from coal using a nuclear heat source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quade, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    A strong candidate for hydrogen production in the intermediate time frame of 1985 to 1995 is a coal-based process using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as a heat source. Expected process efficiencies in the range of 60 to 70% are considerably higher than all other hydrogen production processes except steam reforming of a natural gas. The process involves the preparation of a coal liquid, hydrogasification of that liquid, and steam reforming of the resulting gaseous or light liquid product. A study showing process efficiency and cost of hydrogen vs nuclear reactor core outlet temperature has been completed, and shows diminishing returns at process temperatures above about 1500 F. A possible scenario combining the relatively abundant and low-cost Western coal deposits with the Gulf Coast hydrogen users is presented which provides high-energy density transportation utilizing coal liquids and uranium.

  18. Future Steelmaking Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. R. J. Fruehan

    2004-09-20

    There is an increasing demand for an ironmaking process with lower capital cost, energy consumption and emissions than a blast furnace. It is the hypothesis of the present work that an optimized combination of two reasonable proven technologies will greatly enhance the overall process. An example is a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) linked to a smelter (e.g., AISI, HIsmelt). The objective of this research is to select promising process combinations, develop energy, materials balance and productivity models for the individual processes, conduct a limited amount of basic research on the processes and evaluate the process combinations. Three process combinations were selected with input from the industrial partners. The energy-materials and productivity models for the RHF, smelter, submerged arc furnace and CIRCOFER were developed. Since utilization of volatiles in coal is critical for energy and CO{sub 2} emission reduction, basic research on this topic was also conducted. The process models developed are a major product developed in this research. These models can be used for process evaluation by the industry. The process combinations of an RHF-Smelter and a simplified CIRCOFER-Smelter appear to be promising. Energy consumption is reduced and productivity increased. Work on this project is continuing using funds from other sources.

  19. Processes and process development in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noda, T.

    1986-01-01

    The commercialization of solar power generation necessitates the development of low cost manufacturing method of silicon suitable for solar cells. The manufacturing methods of semiconductor grade silicon (SEG-Si) and the development of solar grade silicon (SOG-Si) in foreign countries was investigated. It was concluded that the most efficient method of developing such materials was the hydrogen reduction process of trichlorosilane (TCS), using a fluidized bed reactor. The low cost reduction of polysilicon requires cost reductions of raw materials, energy, labor, and capital. These conditions were carefully reviewed. The overall conclusion was that a development program should be based on the TCS-FBR process and that the experimental program should be conducted in test facilities capable of producing 10 tons of silicon granules per year.

  20. Rumor Processes on and Discrete Renewal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Sandro; Garcia, Nancy L.; Junior, Valdivino Vargas; Rodríguez, Pablo M.

    2014-05-01

    We study two rumor processes on , the dynamics of which are related to an SI epidemic model with long range transmission. Both models start with one spreader at site and ignorants at all the other sites of , but differ by the transmission mechanism. In one model, the spreaders transmit the information within a random distance on their right, and in the other the ignorants take the information from a spreader within a random distance on their left. We obtain the probability of survival, information on the distribution of the range of the rumor and limit theorems for the proportion of spreaders. The key step of our proofs is to show that, in each model, the position of the spreaders on can be related to a suitably chosen discrete renewal process.

  1. Universal Heliophysical Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk

    2011-01-01

    The physical processes in the heliospace are a direct consequence of the Sun s mass and electromagnetic emissions. There has been enormous progress in studying these processes since the dawn of the space age half a century ago. The heliospace serves as a great laboratory to study numerous physical processes, using the vast array of ground and spacebased measurements of various physical quantities. The observational capabilities collectively form the Great Observatory to make scientific investigations not envisioned by individual instrument teams. The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program has been promoting scientific investigations on the universality of physical processes such as shocks, particle acceleration, dynamo, magnetic reconnection, magnetic flux ropes, plasma-neutral matter interactions, turbulence, and several other topics. This chapter highlights scientific deliberations on these and related topics that took place during the IAGA session on "Universal Heliophysical Processes" in Sopron, Hungary. The session featured several invited and contributed papers that focused on observations, theory and modeling of the universal heliophysical processes.

  2. Pultrusion process characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, James G.; Hackett, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Pultrusion is a process through which high-modulus, lightweight composite structural members such as beams, truss components, stiffeners, etc., are manufactured. The pultrusion process, though a well-developed processing art, lacks a fundamental scientific understanding. The objective here was to determine, both experimentally and analytically, the process parameters most important in characterizing and optimizing the pultrusion of uniaxial fibers. The effects of process parameter interactions were experimentally examined as a function of the pultruded product properties. A numerical description based on these experimental results was developed. An analytical model of the pultrusion process was also developed. The objective of the modeling effort was the formulation of a two-dimensional heat transfer model and development of solutions for the governing differential equations using the finite element method.

  3. Badge Office Process Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Haurykiewicz, John Paul; Dinehart, Timothy Grant; Parker, Robert Young

    2016-05-12

    The purpose of this process analysis was to analyze the Badge Offices’ current processes from a systems perspective and consider ways of pursuing objectives set forth by SEC-PS, namely increased customer flow (throughput) and reduced customer wait times. Information for the analysis was gathered for the project primarily through Badge Office Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and in-person observation of prevailing processes. Using the information gathered, a process simulation model was constructed to represent current operations and allow assessment of potential process changes relative to factors mentioned previously. The overall purpose of the analysis was to provide SEC-PS management with information and recommendations to serve as a basis for additional focused study and areas for potential process improvements in the future.

  4. Spitzer Telemetry Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice; Martinez, Elmain M.; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real-time continuous service that can go quiescent after periods of inactivity. The software can process 2 GB of telemetry and deliver Level 0 science products to the end user in four hours. It provides analysis tools so the operator can manage the system and troubleshoot problems. It automates telemetry processing in order to reduce staffing costs.

  5. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The chemical engineering analysis of the preliminary process design of a process for producing solar cell grade silicon from dichlorosilane is presented. A plant to produce 1,000 MT/yr of silicon is analyzed. Progress and status for the plant design are reported for the primary activities of base case conditions (60 percent), reaction chemistry (50 percent), process flow diagram (35 percent), energy balance (10 percent), property data (10 percent) and equipment design (5 percent).

  6. The process audit.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Michael

    2007-04-01

    Few executives question the idea that by redesigning business processes--work that runs from end to end across an enterprise--they can achieve extraordinary improvements in cost, quality, speed, profitability, and other key areas Yet in spite of their intentions and investments, many executives flounder, unsure about what exactly needs to be changed, by how much, and when. As a result, many organizations make little progress--if any at all--in their attempts to transform business processes. Michael Hammer has spent the past five years working with a group of leading companies to develop the Process and Enterprise Maturity Model (PEMM), a new framework that helps executives comprehend, formulate, and assess process-based transformation efforts. He has identified two distinct groups of characteristics that are needed for business processes to perform exceptionally well over a long period of time. Process enablers, which affect individual processes, determine how well a process is able to function. They are mutually interdependent--if any are missing, the others will be ineffective. However, enablers are not enough to develop high-performance processes; they only provide the potential to deliver high performance. A company must also possess or establish organizational capabilities that allow the business to offer a supportive environment. Together, the enablers and the capabilities provide an effective way for companies to plan and evaluate process-based transformations. PEMM is different from other frameworks, such as Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), because it applies to all industries and all processes. The author describes how several companies--including Michelin, CSAA, Tetra Pak, Shell, Clorox, and Schneider National--have successfully used PEMM in various ways and at different stages to evaluate the progress of their process-based transformation efforts.

  7. Image Processing Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-30

    Processing Institute University of Southern California University Park Los Angeles, California 90007 Sponsored by Advanced Research Projects Agency...Image Processing Institute University of Southern California University Park Los Angeles, California 90007 Accession For "mis GRA&l DTIC... Park Los Angeles, California 90007 ’«.’J. He »-’OH r ircuHiTr CLASJIUCATION UNCLASSIFIED 2ö. chouc 3 NEPOH f TITLE IMAGE PROCESSING

  8. Materials processing in space

    SciTech Connect

    Oran, W.A.

    1982-11-01

    A brief overview of the current Materials Processing in Space Program is given, including a tentative schedule of flight experiments. Some recent results of processing materials (e.g., polymers and eutectic materials) in a microgravity environment are given, along with a discussion on additional proposed flight experiments. Ground-based results and the rationale for flight experimentation will be presented for other materials processes, including crystal growth.

  9. Fjords: Processes and products

    SciTech Connect

    Syvitski, J.P.M.; Burrell, D.C.; Skei, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Fjords are a major feature of coasts and provide geologists and oceanographers with an excellent environment for studying and modeling coastal processes and products. This book brings together and integrates an enormous amount of information on fjords and provides the reader with a thorough, interdisciplinary account of current research with emphasis on sedimentary processes. The processes demonstrated in fjords are often relevant to the estuarine or open ocean environment.

  10. Multiphoton processes: conference proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Lambropoulos, P.; Smith, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The chapters of this volume represent the invited papers delivered at the conference. They are arranged according to thermatic proximity beginning with atoms and continuing with molecules and surfaces. Section headings include multiphoton processes in atoms, field fluctuations and collisions in multiphoton process, and multiphoton processes in molecules and surfaces. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  11. TEP process flow diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Wilms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan; Coons, James; Kubic, William

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  12. Digital signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, A. V.; Baggeroer, A. B.; Lim, J. S.; Musicus, B. R.; Mook, D. R.; Duckworth, G. L.; Bordley, T. E.; Curtis, S. R.; Deadrick, D. S.; Dove, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    Signal and image processing research projects are described. Topics include: (1) modeling underwater acoustic propagation; (2) image restoration; (3) signal reconstruction; (4) speech enhancement; (5) pitch detection; (6) spectral analysis; (7) speech synthesis; (8) speech enhancement; (9) autoregressive spectral estimation; (10) knowledge based array processing; (11) speech analysis; (12) estimating the degree of coronary stenosis with image processing; (13) automatic target detection; and (14) video conferencing.

  13. GPS Decision Analysis Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-23

    712 A/B: GPS Decision Analysis Process Revised title:___________________________________________________________________ Presented in (input and Bold...JUN 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GPS Decision Analysis Process 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 GPS Decision Analysis Process Nisha Shah The Boeing Company 73rd MORS Symposium US Military Academy – West Point 21-23

  14. Containerless processing technology analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Research on acoustic levitation, air-jet levitation, and heat transfer from molten samples is reported. The goal was to obtain a better understanding and improving the quality of containerless processing systems. These systems are applied to the processing of materials in situations in which contact with a container must be avoided, and have potential application in both ground based and orbiting laboratories. Containerless processing is reviewed. The development of glasses from materials which normally crystallize upon cooling, are studied.

  15. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  16. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  17. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  18. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  19. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  20. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  1. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  2. Central waste processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    A new concept for processing spacecraft type wastes has been evaluated. The feasibility of reacting various waste materials with steam at temperatures of 538 - 760 C in both a continuous and batch reactor with residence times from 3 to 60 seconds has been established. Essentially complete gasification is achieved. Product gases are primarily hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide. Water soluble synthetic wastes are readily processed in a continuous tubular reactor at concentrations up to 20 weight percent. The batch reactor is able to process wet and dry wastes at steam to waste weight ratios from 2 to 20. Feces, urine, and synthetic wastes have been successfully processed in the batch reactor.

  3. JSME scatterometer data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A software system was developed which processes digitized scatterometer data from the 13.3 GHz, 1.6 GHz and 400 MHz scatterometer systems. In addition to this, the hardware capability has been developed to recover the raw analog radar signals and the aircraft parameters from an ADAS data stream in a digital format for processing by the software package. Software for the preparation of data reports and chart presentation of scattering coefficients time histories has also been developed. This report documents the development of the software, describes key components of the processing system and presents examples of the processed data and procedure for software operation.

  4. RNA Processing and Export

    PubMed Central

    Hocine, Sami; Singer, Robert H.; Grünwald, David

    2010-01-01

    Messenger RNAs undergo 5' capping, splicing, 3'-end processing, and export before translation in the cytoplasm. It has become clear that these mRNA processing events are tightly coupled and have a profound effect on the fate of the resulting transcript. This processing is represented by modifications of the pre-mRNA and loading of various protein factors. The sum of protein factors that stay with the mRNA as a result of processing is modified over the life of the transcript, conferring significant regulation to its expression. PMID:20961978

  5. Powder towpreg process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    1991-01-01

    The process for dry powder impregnation of carbon fiber tows being developed at LaRC overcomes many of the difficulties associated with melt, solution, and slurry prepregging. In the process, fluidized powder is deposited on spread tow bundles and fused to the fibers by radiant heating. Impregnated tows have been produced for preform, weaving, and composite materials applications. Design and operating data correlations were developed for scale up of the process to commercial operation. Bench scale single tow experiments at tow speeds up to 50 cm/sec have demonstrated that the process can be controlled to produce weavable towpreg. Samples were woven and molded into preform material of good quality.

  6. Biased predecision processing.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Aaron L

    2003-07-01

    Decision makers conduct biased predecision processing when they restructure their mental representation of the decision environment to favor one alternative before making their choice. The question of whether biased predecision processing occurs has been controversial since L. Festinger (1957) maintained that it does not occur. The author reviews relevant research in sections on theories of cognitive dissonance, decision conflict, choice certainty, action control, action phases, dominance structuring, differentiation and consolidation, constructive processing, motivated reasoning, and groupthink. Some studies did not find evidence of biased predecision processing, but many did. In the Discussion section, the moderators are summarized and used to assess the theories.

  7. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  8. Lyophilization process design space.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sajal Manubhai; Pikal, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    The application of key elements of quality by design (QbD), such as risk assessment, process analytical technology, and design space, is discussed widely as it relates to freeze-drying process design and development. However, this commentary focuses on constructing the Design and Control Space, particularly for the primary drying step of the freeze-drying process. Also, practical applications and considerations of claiming a process Design Space under the QbD paradigm have been discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  9. Mineral Processing Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  10. Acoustic Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William M.; Candy, James V.

    Signal processing refers to the acquisition, storage, display, and generation of signals - also to the extraction of information from signals and the re-encoding of information. As such, signal processing in some form is an essential element in the practice of all aspects of acoustics. Signal processing algorithms enable acousticians to separate signals from noise, to perform automatic speech recognition, or to compress information for more efficient storage or transmission. Signal processing concepts are the building blocks used to construct models of speech and hearing. Now, in the 21st century, all signal processing is effectively digital signal processing. Widespread access to high-speed processing, massive memory, and inexpensive software make signal processing procedures of enormous sophistication and power available to anyone who wants to use them. Because advanced signal processing is now accessible to everybody, there is a need for primers that introduce basic mathematical concepts that underlie the digital algorithms. The present handbook chapter is intended to serve such a purpose.

  11. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  12. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

    1998-06-09

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

  13. Future integrated design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The design process is one of the sources used to produce requirements for a computer system to integrate and manage product design data, program management information, and technical computation and engineering data management activities of the aerospace design process. Design activities were grouped chronologically and explored for activity type, activity interface, data quantity, and data flow. The work was based on analysis of the design process of several typical aerospace products, including both conventional and supersonic airplanes and a hydrofoil design. Activities examined included research, preliminary design, detail design, manufacturing interface, product verification, and product support. The design process was then described in an IPAD environment--the future.

  14. Ultrasonics in food processing.

    PubMed

    Chandrapala, Jayani; Oliver, Christine; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, the physical and chemical effects of ultrasound in liquid and solid media have been extensively used in food processing applications. Harnessing the physical forces generated by ultrasound, in the absence and presence of cavitation, for specific food processing applications such as emulsification, filtration, tenderisation and functionality modification have been highlighted. While some applications, such as filtration and emulsification are "mature" industrial processes, other applications, such as functionality modification, are still in their early stages of development. However, various investigations discussed suggest that ultrasonic processing of food and dairy ingredients is a potential and viable technology that will be used by many food industries in the near future.

  15. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization. Quarterly technical report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II

    1993-12-31

    IGT has developed a microbial culture of Rhodococcus rhodochrous, designated as IGTS8, that is capable of specifically cleaving carbon-sulfur bonds in a range of organosulfur model compounds and is capable of removing organic sulfur from coal and petroleum without significantly sacrificing the calorific value of the fuel. Although IGTS8 possesses the ability to specifically remove organic sulfur from coal, a major research need is to develop improved strains of microorganisms that possess higher levels of desulfurization activity and therefore will permit more favorable biodesulfurization process conditions: faster rates, more complete removal, and smaller reactor size. strain improvement is the single most important aspect to the development of a practical coal biodesulfurization process and accordingly is the focus of research in this project. During this quarter the promoter probe vectors that were constructed last quarter were found to be unstable in E. coli. Fragments of R. rhodochrous IGTS8 chromosomal DNA were cloned into pRCAT3 and pRCM1 (previously described in final ICCI report 1993). Many derivatives of pRCM1 and pRCAT3 receiving inserts that regulated the expression of chloramphenicol resistance in Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8 proved to be unstable in E. coli frequently yielding plasmids containing deletions. Stable inserts have been observed ranging from 100 bp to 2.0 kb that regulated expression in Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8. Subtractive hybridization studies continue, several candidates have been isolated and are being confirmed for inducible promoters. Primer extension analysis of the Rhodococcus rhodochrous IGTS8 16S RNA promoter region was initiated this quarter.

  16. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  17. EARSEC SAR processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protheroe, Mark; Sloggett, David R.; Sieber, Alois J.

    1994-12-01

    Traditionally, the production of high quality Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery has been an area where a potential user would have to expend large amounts of money in either the bespoke development of a processing chain dedicated to his requirements or in the purchase of a dedicated hardware platform adapted using accelerator boards and enhanced memory management. Whichever option the user adopted there were limitations based on the desire for a realistic throughput in data load and time. The user had a choice, made early in the purchase, for either a system that adopted innovative algorithmic manipulation, to limit the processing time of the purchase of expensive hardware. The former limits the quality of the product, while the latter excludes the user from any visibility into the processing chain. Clearly there was a need for a SAR processing architecture that gave the user a choice into the methodology to be adopted for a particular processing sequence, allowing him to decide on either a quick (lower quality) product or a detailed slower (high quality) product, without having to change the algorithmic base of his processor or the hardware platform. The European Commission, through the Advanced Techniques unit of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Institute for Remote Sensing at Ispra in Italy, realizing the limitations on current processing abilities, initiated its own program to build airborne SAR and Electro-Optical (EO) sensor systems. This program is called the European Airborne Remote Sensing Capabilities (EARSEC) program. This paper describes the processing system developed for the airborne SAR sensor system. The paper considers the requirements for the system and the design of the EARSEC Airborne SAR Processing System. It highlights the development of an open SAR processing architecture where users have full access to intermediate products that arise from each of the major processing stages. It also describes the main processing stages in the overall

  18. Food processing and allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Vissers, Yvonne M; Baumert, Joseph L; Faludi, Roland; Feys, Marcel; Flanagan, Simon; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Holzhauser, Thomas; Shimojo, Ryo; van der Bolt, Nieke; Wichers, Harry; Kimber, Ian

    2015-06-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat treatment) on the allergenic potential of proteins, and on the antigenic (IgG-binding) and allergenic (IgE-binding) properties of proteins has been considered. A variety of allergenic foods (peanuts, tree nuts, cows' milk, hens' eggs, soy, wheat and mustard) have been reviewed. The overall conclusion drawn is that processing does not completely abolish the allergenic potential of allergens. Currently, only fermentation and hydrolysis may have potential to reduce allergenicity to such an extent that symptoms will not be elicited, while other methods might be promising but need more data. Literature on the effect of processing on allergenic potential and the ability to induce sensitisation is scarce. This is an important issue since processing may impact on the ability of proteins to cause the acquisition of allergic sensitisation, and the subject should be a focus of future research. Also, there remains a need to develop robust and integrated methods for the risk assessment of food allergenicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  20. Process for preparing radiopharmaceuticals

    DOEpatents

    Barak, Morton; Winchell, Harry S.

    1977-01-04

    A process for the preparation of technetium-99m labeled pharmaceuticals is disclosed. The process comprises initially isolating technetium-99m pertechnetate by adsorption upon an adsorbent packing in a chromatographic column. The technetium-99m is then eluted from the packing with a biological compound to form a radiopharmaceutical.

  1. ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TONDOW, MURRAY

    EDUCATION HAS BEEN SLOW IN FULLY UTILIZING ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING EQUIPMENT (EDP). EDUCATOR CONFIDENCE IN THE EDP HAS GROWN, HOWEVER, AS A RESULT OF THE SUCCESS OF ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING IN SCIENCE, INDUSTRY, AND OTHER PROFESSIONS. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID STATE TRANSISTORIZED COMPUTERS HAS MADE POWERFUL DESK-SIZE COMPUTERS A REALITY AND…

  2. HEPA filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1994-02-22

    A process is described for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal. 4 figures.

  3. Hepa filter dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Brewer, Ken N.; Murphy, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  4. Hyperspectral image processing methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  5. The Educational Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Coll. of Education, Carlton, Victoria.

    This book consists of 18 selected papers that focus on the broad topic of the educational process. All the papers were originally presented at the Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Australian College of Education, which was held in May 1973. Titles of the papers include "The Educational Process: The Raw Material,""Towards a…

  6. Building Successful Cleaning Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to build a successful cleaning process in order to most effectively maintain school facilities, explaining that the cleaning processes used plays a critical role in productivity. Focuses on: developing a standardized system; making sure that employees have the right tools for the work they perform; training employees; tracking and…

  7. Image processing mini manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Christine G.; Posenau, Mary-Anne; Leonard, Desiree M.; Avis, Elizabeth L.; Debure, Kelly R.; Stacy, Kathryn; Vonofenheim, Bill

    1992-01-01

    The intent is to provide an introduction to the image processing capabilities available at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Central Scientific Computing Complex (CSCC). Various image processing software components are described. Information is given concerning the use of these components in the Data Visualization and Animation Laboratory at LaRC.

  8. Hybrid quantum information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Furusawa, Akira

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  9. Building Successful Cleaning Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to build a successful cleaning process in order to most effectively maintain school facilities, explaining that the cleaning processes used plays a critical role in productivity. Focuses on: developing a standardized system; making sure that employees have the right tools for the work they perform; training employees; tracking and…

  10. Monitoring Process Effectiveness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatment of municipal sludges to produce biosolids which meet federal and/or state requirements for land application requires process monitoring. The goal of process monitoring is to produce biosolids of consistent and reliable quality. In its simplest form, for Class B treatme...

  11. METAL PLATING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Walker, D.E.; Noland, R.A.

    1958-08-12

    A process ts described for obtaining a closely bonded coating of steel or iron on uranium. The process consists of providing, between the steel and uramium. a layer of silver. amd then pressure rolling tbe assembly at about 600 deg C until a reduction of from l0 to 50% has been obtained.

  12. Patterns in neural processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engineer, Sunu

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we propose a model for neural processing that addresses both the evolutionary and functional aspects of neural systems that are observed in nature, from the simplest neural collections to dense large scale associations such as human brains. We propose both an architecture and a process in which these components interact to create the emergent behavior that we define as the 'mind'.

  13. Process Writing with Hawthorne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lita R.

    Teachers can use the process writing format for many assignments to teach and refine more skills than are often incorporated in older methods, and this is exemplified by a teaching unit comparing two short stories by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Peer conferences and peer editing in the revision stages, which are features of the process model, can lead to…

  14. On Cognizing Cognitive Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimoldi, H. J. A.

    In this report on cognitive processes, a discussion of the rationale and assumptions used by investigators explains the experimental procedures. To determine actual cognitive problem-solving processes, (rather than inferring them from results), subjects in these studies were presented with a problem and allowed to ask a sequence of questions which…

  15. Space processing applications bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This special bibliography lists 724 articles, papers, and reports which discuss various aspects of the use of the space environment for materials science research or for commercial enterprise. The potentialities of space processing and the improved materials processes that are made possible by the unique aspects of the space environment are emphasized. References identified in April, 1978 are cited.

  16. Process Writing with Hawthorne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lita R.

    Teachers can use the process writing format for many assignments to teach and refine more skills than are often incorporated in older methods, and this is exemplified by a teaching unit comparing two short stories by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Peer conferences and peer editing in the revision stages, which are features of the process model, can lead to…

  17. Clean, Agile Processing Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Research ltr dtd 10 Jun 98 THIS PAGE IS UNCLASSIFIED FINAL REPORT CLEAN, AGILE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Contract # N00014-96-C-0139 PI: S. W . Sinton...Agile Processing Technology . T UNCLAS I N Sinton, S. W.IN S REQUIRED FOR (Explain needin detaiO E C This document is requested by the Canadian Department

  18. Polarization Radar Processing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Oi"C FILE ( J qII RADC-TR-89-144 In-House Report October 1989 AD-A215 242 POLARIZATION RADAR PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Kenneth C. Stiefvater, Russell D...NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 62702F 4506 11 58 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) POLARIZATION RADAR PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  19. Kuhlthau's Information Search Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Explains Kuhlthau's Information Search Process (ISP) model which is based on a constructivist view of learning and provides a framework for school library media specialists for the design of information services and instruction. Highlights include a shift from library skills to information skills; attitudes; process approach; and an interview with…

  20. Monitoring Process Effectiveness

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatment of municipal sludges to produce biosolids which meet federal and/or state requirements for land application requires process monitoring. The goal of process monitoring is to produce biosolids of consistent and reliable quality. In its simplest form, for Class B treatme...

  1. Processing of plastics

    PubMed Central

    Spaak, Albert

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the processing of plastic materials from the handling of polymers in the pellet and powder form to manufacturing of a plastic fabricated product. Various types of equipment used and melt processing ranges of various polymer formulations to make the myriad of plastic products that are commercially available are discussed. PMID:1175556

  2. Sentences as Biological Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, David

    A study of the speech process was conducted. The process is described as one closely linked to the one involved in the problem of the serial order in behavior. It is pointed out that in the speech of young children the grammatical relations that are properties of elementary underlying sentences appear in the grammatical meanings. Six examples of…

  3. Electron-attachment processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophorou, L. G.; McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.

    Topics covered include: modes of production of negative ions, techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, dissociative electron attachment to ground state molecules, dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), molecular parent negative ions, and negative ions formed by ion pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms.

  4. Integrated Optical Information Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    dimensional processing to be performed with inherently one-dimensional signal processing devices. This permits the monolithic or hybrid integration of...effective time delays; 5. Selective partial waveguide outcoupling of channelized light from an integrated optical chip; 6. Potential monolithic ... integrated optical chip; 6. Potential monolithic integration of optical waveguides with two-dimensional opto- electronic detector technology. The integrated

  5. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  6. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  7. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    Recent work in the areas of microwave processing and joining of ceramics is briefly reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of microwave processing as well as some of the current issues in the field are discussed. Current state and potential for future commercialization of this technology is also addressed.

  8. Interception processes during snowstorms

    Treesearch

    David H. Miller

    1964-01-01

    Four processes are identified as determining the initial interception of falling snow by forest during storms: delivery of snow particles from the airstream to the forest; true throughfall of particles to the forest floor; impaction and adhesion of particles to foliage and branches; and cohesion of particles into masses of snow. Delivery and impaction processes seem...

  9. Microsystem process networks

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2007-09-18

    Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of Microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  10. Microsystem process networks

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2006-10-24

    Various aspects and applications of microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having exergetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  11. Microsystem process networks

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S [Richland, WA; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Whyatt, Greg A [West Richland, WA

    2010-01-26

    Various aspects and applications or microsystem process networks are described. The design of many types of microsystems can be improved by ortho-cascading mass, heat, or other unit process operations. Microsystems having energetically efficient microchannel heat exchangers are also described. Detailed descriptions of numerous design features in microcomponent systems are also provided.

  12. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  13. HEPA filter dissolution process

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, K.N.; Murphy, J.A.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a process for dissolution of spent high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and then combining the complexed filter solution with other radioactive wastes prior to calcining the mixed and blended waste feed. The process is an alternate to a prior method of acid leaching the spent filters which is an inefficient method of treating spent HEPA filters for disposal.

  14. How hummus is processed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This month’s column will continue the theme of “How Is It Processed?” The food to be discussed this month is hummus. Hummus is known for its healthfulness. This column will provide a brief overview of the history of hummus and the current market. It will also unveil hummus processing techniques....

  15. A Textbook Selection Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Daniel R.; Bondavalli, Bonnie J.

    In response to the problem facing college faculties of choosing textbooks that are both "readable" by students and adequate in content coverage, a text selection process has been developed that can be used with or without the aid of a reading specialist. The first step in the process, a preliminary check, examines each proposed text's publication…

  16. Basic Data Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalice, John J.

    This study guide in data processing is designed to make the subject accessible to the secondary student. It contains the following units: Historical Developments, Understanding the Computer, Careers in Data Processing, The Tabulating Card, Keypunching, Interpreting, Sorting, The 514 Reproducer, The 85 Collator, and The 402 Accounting Machine. The…

  17. Cognitive Processes and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Dennis; Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    For a group of 165 fourth- and fifth-grade students, four achievement test scores were correlated with success on nine tests designed to measure three cognitive functions: sustained attention, successive processing, and simultaneous processing. This experiment was designed in accordance with Luria's model of the three functional units of the…

  18. Food-Processing Wastes.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Val S; Cummings, Gregg A; Maillacheruvu, K Y; Tang, Walter Z

    2016-10-01

    Literature published in 2015 and early 2016 related to food processing wastes treatment for industrial applications are reviewed. This review is a subsection of the Treatment Systems section of the annual Water Environment Federation literature review and covers the following food processing industries and applications: general, meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, dairy and beverage, and miscellaneous treatment of food wastes.

  19. Shell Higher Olefins Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    Shows how olefin isomerization and the exotic olefin metathesis reaction can be harnessed in industrial processes. Indicates that the Shell Higher Olefins Process makes use of organometallic catalysts to manufacture alpha-olefins and internal carbon-11 through carbon-14 alkenes in a flexible fashion that can be adjusted to market needs. (JN)

  20. In Situ Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, T. F.; Schechter, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes research on in situ processing to develop necessary theory and understanding of the underground process to facilitate commercialization of a wide range of mineral deposits. Goal is to produce laboratory and computer-based tools to allow site evaluation based on field and laboratory measurements of mineral and associated overburdens.…

  1. Streamlining the EIS Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1977-01-01

    A new publication service abstracts, indexes, and prepares microfiche of environmental impact statements (EIS). This new service is designed to streamline the EIS process by reducing the cost and time of preparation, by eliminating redundancy of similar statements, and by working with the government to standardize the preparation process. (MA)

  2. Mineral Processing Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-09-01

    This document represents the roadmap for Processing Technology Research in the US Mining Industry. It was developed based on the results of a Processing Technology Roadmap Workshop sponsored by the National Mining Association in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. The Workshop was held January 24 - 25, 2000.

  3. Associative list processing unit

    DOEpatents

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  4. Process, Product, and Playmaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Maisha T.; Purcell, Susie Spear; May, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This article examines relationships among process, product, and playmaking in a southeastern playwriting and performance program for teen girls, Playmaking for Girls (PFG). The authors have chosen to focus on tensions between process and product. Such tensions are present in the challenges teachers experience when privileging student-centered…

  5. A Textbook Selection Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Daniel R.; Bondavalli, Bonnie J.

    In response to the problem facing college faculties of choosing textbooks that are both "readable" by students and adequate in content coverage, a text selection process has been developed that can be used with or without the aid of a reading specialist. The first step in the process, a preliminary check, examines each proposed text's publication…

  6. Processes in Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Grayce A.

    This examination of the processes in reading comprehension is divided into seven categories. "Theoretical Foundations" reviews some of the research conducted by Bruner, Piaget, and Bloom in the areas of cognition or comprehension processes of young children. "Development of a Spiraling Reading Curriculum" examines a spiraling taxonomy of reading…

  7. Relational Processing Following Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Glenda; Halford, Graeme S.; Shum, David; Maujean, Annick; Chappell, Mark; Birney, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The research examined relational processing following stroke. Stroke patients (14 with frontal, 30 with non-frontal lesions) and 41 matched controls completed four relational processing tasks: sentence comprehension, Latin square matrix completion, modified Dimensional Change Card Sorting, and n-back. Each task included items at two or three…

  8. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) for producing silicon from dichlorosilane in a 1,000 MT/yr plant was continued. Progress and status for the chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process are reported for the primary process design engineering activities: base case conditions (85%), reaction chemistry (85%), process flow diagram (60%), material balance (60%), energy balance (30%), property data (30%), equipment design (20%) and major equipment list (10%). Engineering design of the initial distillation column (D-01, stripper column) in the process was initiated. The function of the distillation column is to remove volatile gases (such as hydrogen and nitrogen) which are dissolved in liquid chlorosilanes. Initial specifications and results for the distillation column design are reported including the variation of tray requirements (equilibrium stages) with reflux ratio for the distillation.

  9. Economics of polysilicon processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaws, C. L.; Li, K. Y.; Chou, S. M.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques are being developed to provide lower cost polysilicon material for solar cells. Existing technology which normally provides semiconductor industry polysilicon material is undergoing changes and also being used to provide polysilicon material for solar cells. Economics of new and existing technologies are presented for producing polysilicon. The economics are primarily based on the preliminary process design of a plant producing 1,000 metric tons/year of silicon. The polysilicon processes include: Siemen's process (hydrogen reduction of trichlorosilane); Union Carbide process (silane decomposition); and Hemlock Semiconductor process (hydrogen reduction of dichlorosilane). The economics include cost estimates of capital investment and product cost to produce polysilicon via the technology. Sensitivity analysis results are also presented to disclose the effect of major paramentes such as utilities, labor, raw materials and capital investment.

  10. Formed HIP Can Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Kester Diederik

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  11. Spacelab Data Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SDPF) processes, monitors, and accounts for the payload data from Spacelab and other Shuttle missions and forwards relevant data to various user facilities worldwide. The SLDPF is divided into the Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS). The SIPS division demultiplexes, synchronizes, time tags, quality checks, accounts for the data, and formats the data onto tapes. The SOPS division further edits, blocks, formats, and records the data on tape for shipment to users. User experiments must conform to the Spacelab's onboard High Rate Multiplexer (HRM) format for maximum process ability. Audio, analog, instrumentation, high density, experiment data, input/output data, quality control and accounting, and experimental channel tapes along with a variety of spacelab ancillary tapes are provided to the user by SLDPF.

  12. Materials processing in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, R. D.; Criswell, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Processing-refining of raw materials from extraterrestrial sources is detailed for a space materials handling facility. The discussion is constrained to those steps necessary to separate desired components from raw or altered input ores, semi-purified feedstocks, or process scrap and convert the material into elements, alloys, and consumables. The materials are regarded as originating from dead satellites and boosters, lunar materials, and asteroids. Strong attention will be given to recycling reagent substances to avoid the necessity of transporting replacements. It is assumed that since no aqueous processes exist on the moon, the distribution of minerals will be homogeneous. The processing-refining scenario will include hydrochemical, pyrochemical, electrochemical, and physical techniques selected for the output mass rate/unit plant mass ratio. Flow charts of the various materials processing operations which could be performed with lunar materials are provided, noting the necessity of delivering several alloying elements from the earth due to scarcities on the moon.

  13. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Hu, Zhicheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO.sub.2 -containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO.sub.2 to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO.sub.2 in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst.

  14. Elemental sulfur recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

    1993-09-07

    An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

  15. Optical signal processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses several optical configurations used for signal processing. Electronic-to-optical transducers are outlined, noting fixed window transducers and moving window acousto-optic transducers. Folded spectrum techniques are considered, with reference to wideband RF signal analysis, fetal electroencephalogram analysis, engine vibration analysis, signal buried in noise, and spatial filtering. Various methods for radar signal processing are described, such as phased-array antennas, the optical processing of phased-array data, pulsed Doppler and FM radar systems, a multichannel one-dimensional optical correlator, correlations with long coded waveforms, and Doppler signal processing. Means for noncoherent optical signal processing are noted, including an optical correlator for speech recognition and a noncoherent optical correlator.

  16. Business Process Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendling, Jan

    The recent progress of Business Process Management (BPM) is reflected by the figures of the related industry. Wintergreen Research estimates that the international market for BPM-related software and services accounted for more than USD 1 billion in 2005 with a tendency towards rapid growth in the subsequent couple of years [457]. The relevance of business process modeling to general management initiatives has been previously studied in the 1990s [28]. Today, Gartner finds that organizations that had the best results in implementing business process management spent more than 40 percent of the total project time on discovery and construction of their initial process model [265]. As a consequence, Gartner considers Business Process Modeling to be among the Top 10 Strategic Technologies for 2008.

  17. Integrated Energy System with Beneficial Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Use - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy T

    2011-04-29

    This report presents an integrated energy system that combines the production of substitute natural gas through coal hydrogasification with an algae process for beneficial carbon dioxide (CO2) use and biofuel production (funded under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FE0001099). The project planned to develop, test, operate and evaluate a 2 ton-per-day coal hydrogasification plant and 25-acre algae farm at the Arizona Public Service (APS) 1000 Megawatt (MW) Cholla coal-fired power plant in Joseph City, Arizona. Conceptual design of the integrated system was undertaken with APS partners Air Liquide (AL) and Parsons. The process engineering was separated into five major areas: flue gas preparation and CO2 delivery, algae farming, water management, hydrogasification, and biofuel production. The process flow diagrams, energy and material balances, and preliminary major equipment needs for each major area were prepared to reflect integrated process considerations and site infrastructure design basis. The total project also included research and development on a bench-scale hydrogasifier, one-dimensional (1-D) kinetic-model simulation, extensive algae stressing, oil extraction, lipid analysis and a half-acre algae farm demonstration at APS?s Redhawk testing facility. During the project, a two-acre algae testing facility with a half-acre algae cultivation area was built at the APS Redhawk 1000 MW natural gas combined cycle power plant located 55 miles west of Phoenix. The test site integrated flue gas delivery, CO2 capture and distribution, algae cultivation, algae nursery, algae harvesting, dewatering and onsite storage as well as water treatment. The site environmental, engineering, and biological parameters for the cultivators were monitored remotely. Direct biodiesel production from biomass through an acid-catalyzed transesterification reaction and a supercritical methanol transesterification reaction were evaluated. The highest oil-to-biodiesel conversion of 79

  18. EDITORIAL: Industrial Process Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton Johansen, Geir; Wang, Mi

    2008-09-01

    There has been tremendous development within measurement science and technology over the past couple of decades. New sensor technologies and compact versatile signal recovery electronics are continuously expanding the limits of what can be measured and the accuracy with which this can be done. Miniaturization of sensors and the use of nanotechnology push these limits further. Also, thanks to powerful and cost-effective computer systems, sophisticated measurement and reconstruction algorithms previously only accessible in advanced laboratories are now available for in situ online measurement systems. The process industries increasingly require more process-related information, motivated by key issues such as improved process control, process utilization and process yields, ultimately driven by cost-effectiveness, quality assurance, environmental and safety demands. Industrial process tomography methods have taken advantage of the general progress in measurement science, and aim at providing more information, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on multiphase systems and their dynamics. The typical approach for such systems has been to carry out one local or bulk measurement and assume that this is representative of the whole system. In some cases, this is sufficient. However, there are many complex systems where the component distribution varies continuously and often unpredictably in space and time. The foundation of industrial tomography is to conduct several measurements around the periphery of a multiphase process, and use these measurements to unravel the cross-sectional distribution of the process components in time and space. This information is used in the design and optimization of industrial processes and process equipment, and also to improve the accuracy of multiphase system measurements in general. In this issue we are proud to present a selection of the 145 papers presented at the 5th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography in Bergen

  19. Radiology interpretation process modeling.

    PubMed

    Noumeir, Rita

    2006-04-01

    Information and communication technology in healthcare promises optimized patient care while ensuring efficiency and cost-effectiveness. However, the promised results are not yet achieved; the healthcare process requires analysis and radical redesign to achieve improvements in care quality and productivity. Healthcare process reengineering is thus necessary and involves modeling its workflow. Even though the healthcare process is very large and not very well modeled yet, its sub-processes can be modeled individually, providing fundamental pieces of the whole model. In this paper, we are interested in modeling the radiology interpretation process that results in generating a diagnostic radiology report. This radiology report is an important clinical element of the patient healthcare record and assists in healthcare decisions. We present the radiology interpretation process by identifying its boundaries and by positioning it on the large healthcare process map. Moreover, we discuss an information data model and identify roles, tasks and several information flows. Furthermore, we describe standard frameworks to enable radiology interpretation workflow implementations between heterogeneous systems.

  20. Process measurement assurance program

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, R.B.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for determining, improving, and controlling the measurement process errors (or measurement uncertainty) of a measurement system used to monitor product as it is manufactured. The method is called the Process Measurement Assurance Program (PMAP). It integrates metrology early into the product realization process and is a step beyond statistical process control (SPC), which monitors only the product. In this method, a control standard is used to continuously monitor the status of the measurement system. Analysis of the control standard data allow the determination of the measurement error inherent in the product data and allow one to separate the variability in the manufacturing process from variability in the measurement process. These errors can be then associated with either the measurement equipment, variability of the measurement process, operator bias, or local environmental effects. Another goal of PMAP is to determine appropriate re-calibration intervals for the measurement system, which may be significantly longer or shorter than the interval typically assigned by the calibration organization.

  1. CCD gate definition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluzer

    1986-02-01

    The present invention utilizes a double masking step in a CCD gate definition process to eliminate the re-entrant oxide by using a thin film layer other than photoresist to define the polysilicon gates used by defining the thin film layer with a double masking process before any of the polysilicon gate layer is etched. It is one object of the present invention, therefore, to provide an improved process for CCD gate definition. It is another object of the invention to provide an improved CCD gate definition process wherein a profiled oxide layer is produced over a polysilicon layer without re-entrant oxide regions. It is another object of the invention to provide an improved CCD gate definition process wherein a thin film layer is utilized to define the polysilicon gate layers. It is another object of the invention to provide an improved CCD gate definition process wherein the thin film layer is defined by a double masking process before any polysilicon layer is etched.

  2. Processes in Lingua Cosmica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollongren, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    In a sequence of papers on the topic of message construction for interstellar communication by means of a cosmic language, representations of various kinds of concepts of reality in a Lingua Cosmica system [1]. Those studied were logic relations of a static character. The present contribution contains an important, fundamental extension: groundwork is done for the purpose of interpreting (dynamic) proc esses of various sorts in the linguistic system. Individual processes are abstracted in a logic sense and provided with basic properties as termination and communication functions. They can be combined into kinds of processes: sequential and parallel ones represented by only one inductive definition in logic. Based on concepts from the so-called process algebra, processes are provided with channel s mapping them to their states. State vectors are introduced to represent states of conglomerates of processes. Communication between processes (locally or globally) is effectuated by means of state transitions. Together with a programmed arb itration function, state vectors play a crucial role in representing communication. With these ingredients possibilities for general interpretations of a wide range of processes in the Lingua Cosmica system come in view.

  3. Advanced Hydrogen Liquefaction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Kromer, Brian; Neu, Ben; Jankowiak, Jerome; Barrett, Philip; Drnevich, Raymond

    2011-09-28

    The project identified and quantified ways to reduce the cost of hydrogen liquefaction, and reduce the cost of hydrogen distribution. The goal was to reduce the power consumption by 20% and then to reduce the capital cost. Optimizing the process, improving process equipment, and improving ortho-para conversion significantly reduced the power consumption of liquefaction, but by less than 20%. Because the efficiency improvement was less than the target, the program was stopped before the capital cost was addressed. These efficiency improvements could provide a benefit to the public to improve the design of future hydrogen liquefiers. The project increased the understanding of hydrogen liquefaction by modeling different processes and thoroughly examining ortho-para separation and conversion. The process modeling provided a benefit to the public because the project incorporated para hydrogen into the process modeling software, so liquefaction processes can be modeled more accurately than using only normal hydrogen. Adding catalyst to the first heat exchanger, a simple method to reduce liquefaction power, was identified, analyzed, and quantified. The demonstrated performance of ortho-para separation is sufficient for at least one identified process concept to show reduced power cost when compared to hydrogen liquefaction processes using conventional ortho-para conversion. The impact of improved ortho-para conversion can be significant because ortho para conversion uses about 20-25% of the total liquefaction power, but performance improvement is necessary to realize a substantial benefit. Most of the energy used in liquefaction is for gas compression. Improvements in hydrogen compression will have a significant impact on overall liquefier efficiency. Improvements to turbines, heat exchangers, and other process equipment will have less impact.

  4. The VISAR Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David; Meyer, Paul; Templeton, Gary F.

    2003-01-01

    The Video Image Stabilization And Registration (VISAR) process is an award winning video image processing software developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. VISAR has a wide variety of application areas where the refinement of digital video is needed. It is used to correct jitter, rotation, and zoom effects by registering and processing on individual image captures that are a part of normal video capturing. Its most prominent uses were the 1996 Olympic Bombing case and in identifying Saddam Hussein during the Iraq war. Based on first-hand knowledge, this paper describes the VISAR process, which consists of several steps designed to refine digital video using VISAR software. The process determines the differences between two video images so that one, or both, of the images can be changed in ways that make them match as well as possible. Corrections include changes in position (horizontal and vertical image shifts), changes in orientation (image rotation), and changes in magnification (image zoom). While much of the VISAR process is automated, in its current embodiment it requires the user to initially identify the area of interest and to reset a threshold parameter if the default gives unacceptable results. The basic process that is used is an old tried and true method that determines how well the two images match. This process is called cross-correlation. It gives a single number, the correlation coefficient, that is equal to 1.0 if the images are perfectly matched, is equal to 0.0 if the images have nothing in common, and is equal to -1.0 if one image is the negative of the other. This basic process is used by many image stabilization methods. With VISAR we use it in a manner that provides statistical information needed to best determine orientation and magnification.

  5. The VISAR Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David; Meyer, Paul; Templeton, Gary F.

    2003-01-01

    The Video Image Stabilization And Registration (VISAR) process is an award winning video image processing software developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. VISAR has a wide variety of application areas where the refinement of digital video is needed. It is used to correct jitter, rotation, and zoom effects by registering and processing on individual image captures that are a part of normal video capturing. Its most prominent uses were the 1996 Olympic Bombing case and in identifying Saddam Hussein during the Iraq war. Based on first-hand knowledge, this paper describes the VISAR process, which consists of several steps designed to refine digital video using VISAR software. The process determines the differences between two video images so that one, or both, of the images can be changed in ways that make them match as well as possible. Corrections include changes in position (horizontal and vertical image shifts), changes in orientation (image rotation), and changes in magnification (image zoom). While much of the VISAR process is automated, in its current embodiment it requires the user to initially identify the area of interest and to reset a threshold parameter if the default gives unacceptable results. The basic process that is used is an old tried and true method that determines how well the two images match. This process is called cross-correlation. It gives a single number, the correlation coefficient, that is equal to 1.0 if the images are perfectly matched, is equal to 0.0 if the images have nothing in common, and is equal to -1.0 if one image is the negative of the other. This basic process is used by many image stabilization methods. With VISAR we use it in a manner that provides statistical information needed to best determine orientation and magnification.

  6. A potential role of reward and punishment in the facilitation of the emotion-cognition dichotomy in the Iowa Gambling Task.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is based on the assumption that a decision maker is equally motivated to seek reward and avoid punishment, and that decision making is governed solely by the intertemporal attribute (i.e., preference for an option that produces an immediate outcome instead of one that yields a delayed outcome is believed to reflect risky decision making and is considered a deficit). It was assumed in the present study that the emotion- and cognition-based processing dichotomy manifests in the IGT as reward and punishment frequency and the intertemporal attribute. It was further proposed that the delineation of emotion- and cognition-based processing is contingent upon reward and punishment as manifested in the frame of the task (variant type) and task motivation (instruction type). The effects of IGT variant type (reward vs. punishment) and instruction type (task motivation induced by instruction types: reward, punishment, reward and punishment, or no hint) on the intertemporal and frequency attributes of IGT decision-making were analyzed. Decision making in the reward variant was equally governed by both attributes, and significantly affected by instruction type, while decision making in the punishment variant was differentially affected by the two attributes and not significantly impacted by instruction type. These results suggest that reward and punishment manifested via task frame as well as the task motivation may facilitate the differentiation of emotion- and cognition-based processing in the IGT.

  7. Membrane separation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rautenbach, R.; Albrecht, R.

    1989-01-01

    The success of two membrane processes, reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, has helped make membrane processes a central technique in solving separation problems for fluid systems. This book discusses the various applications and developments in membrane technology and shows how accurate membrane processes can be designed. Starting with the local transport phenomena, the behavior of individual elements such as tube or plate membrane and the behavior of the technical unit - the module - are discussed in detail. The book goes on to demonstrate the most effective ways of arranging modules for forming an optimal plant.

  8. Information processing during phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, David M.; Goodridge, Helen S.

    2017-01-01

    Phagocytosis, the process by which macrophages, dendritic cells and other myeloid phagocytes internalize diverse particulate targets, is a key mechanism of innate immunity. The molecular and cellular events underlying the binding and engulfment of targets in phagosomes have been extensively studied. More recent data suggest that the process of phagocytosis itself provides information to myeloid phagocytes about the nature of the targets they are eating and that this helps tailor inflammatory responses. In this Review, we discuss how such information is acquired during phagocytosis, and how it is processed to coordinate an immune response. PMID:22699831

  9. Neural Analog Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht-Nielsen, Robert

    1982-07-01

    Neural Analog Information Processing (NAIP) is an effort to develop general purpose pattern classification architectures based upon biological information processing principles. This paper gives an overview of NAIP and its relationship to the previous work in neural modeling from which its fundamental principles are derived. It also presents a theorem concerning the stability of response of a slab (a two dimensional array of identical simple processing units) to time-invariant (spatial) patterns. An experiment (via computer emulation) demonstrating classification of a spatial pattern by a simple, but complete NAIP architecture is described. A concept for hardware implementation of NAIP architectures is briefly discussed.

  10. Mechanical processes in biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Carlos; Chemla, Yann R; Forde, Nancy R; Izhaky, David

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical processes are involved in nearly every facet of the cell cycle. Mechanical forces are generated in the cell during processes as diverse as chromosomal segregation, replication, transcription, translation, translocation of proteins across membranes, cell locomotion, and catalyzed protein and nucleic acid folding and unfolding, among others. Because force is a product of all these reactions, biochemists are beginning to directly apply external forces to these processes to alter the extent or even the fate of these reactions hoping to reveal their underlying molecular mechanisms. This review provides the conceptual framework to understand the role of mechanical force in biochemistry.

  11. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  12. Chemical Processing Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyerle, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    Chemical processes presented in this document include cleaning, pickling, surface finishes, chemical milling, plating, dry film lubricants, and polishing. All types of chemical processes applicable to aluminum, for example, are to be found in the aluminum alloy section. There is a separate section for each category of metallic alloy plus a section for non-metals, such as plastics. The refractories, super-alloys and titanium, are prime candidates for the space shuttle, therefore, the chemical processes applicable to these alloys are contained in individual sections of this manual.

  13. Troubleshooting refinery processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    A reference guide that is designed to help petroleum refinery process engineers to locate and solve refinery problems is presented. At the end of each chapter a troubleshooting guide is presented, outlining possible causes of the problem and solutions. The contents include: crude unit; delayed coking cycles; delayed coking process; amine regeneration and scrubbing; sulfur recovery; alkylation; saving energy at reduced feed rates; refrigeration systems; centrifugal pumps; distillation towers; vacuum towers; treating liquid hydrocarbons; process heaters; water coolers; alarms and trips; unstable gas plant operations; fouled trays; dehydrating light ends towers; vapor-liquid separation; refinery metallurgy; unusual noises and vibrations; planning performance tests; and control board instruments. (JMT)

  14. Carbon wastewater treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; Simmons, G. M.; Dowler, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    A new powdered-carbon treatment process is being developed for the elimination of the present problems, associated with the disposal of biologically active sewage waste solids, and with water reuse. This counter-current flow process produces an activated carbon, which is obtained from the pyrolysis of the sewage solids, and utilizes this material to remove the adulterating materials from the water. Additional advantages of the process are the elimination of odors, the removal of heavy metals, and the potential for energy conservation.

  15. Municipal waste processing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Mayberry, J.L.

    1988-04-13

    This invention relates to apparatus for processing municipal waste, and more particularly to vibrating mesh screen conveyor systems for removing grit, glass, and other noncombustible materials from dry municipal waste. Municipal waste must be properly processed and disposed of so that it does not create health risks to the community. Generally, municipal waste, which may be collected in garbage trucks, dumpsters, or the like, is deposited in processing areas such as landfills. Land and environmental controls imposed on landfill operators by governmental bodies have increased in recent years, however, making landfill disposal of solid waste materials more expensive. 6 figs.

  16. Advances in metals processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, T. T.; Royster, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Research on metals processing being conducted to develop improved forming and joining methods with the potential of reducing the weight and cost of future aerospace structures is discussed. The approach followed is to assess the state of the art for fabricating a given structural system, define candidate methods for improving processing, evaluate the merits of each, fabricate and test subelement components, and then scale up the process to demonstrate validity. The development and the state of the art of weldbrazing, superplastic forming (SPF), superplastic forming and codiffusion bonding and superplastic forming and weldbrazing for titanium and the SPF of aluminum is discussed.

  17. Robot welding process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romine, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    This final report documents the development and installation of software and hardware for Robotic Welding Process Control. Primary emphasis is on serial communications between the CYRO 750 robotic welder, Heurikon minicomputer running Hunter & Ready VRTX, and an IBM PC/AT, for offline programming and control and closed-loop welding control. The requirements for completion of the implementation of the Rocketdyne weld tracking control are discussed. The procedure for downloading programs from the Intergraph, over the network, is discussed. Conclusions are made on the results of this task, and recommendations are made for efficient implementation of communications, weld process control development, and advanced process control procedures using the Heurikon.

  18. Precision Heating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A heat sealing process was developed by SEBRA based on technology that originated in work with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The project involved connecting and transferring blood and fluids between sterile plastic containers while maintaining a closed system. SEBRA markets the PIRF Process to manufacturers of medical catheters. It is a precisely controlled method of heating thermoplastic materials in a mold to form or weld catheters and other products. The process offers advantages in fast, precise welding or shape forming of catheters as well as applications in a variety of other industries.

  19. Carbon wastewater treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.; Simmons, G. M.; Dowler, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    A new powdered-carbon treatment process is being developed for the elimination of the present problems, associated with the disposal of biologically active sewage waste solids, and with water reuse. This counter-current flow process produces an activated carbon, which is obtained from the pyrolysis of the sewage solids, and utilizes this material to remove the adulterating materials from the water. Additional advantages of the process are the elimination of odors, the removal of heavy metals, and the potential for energy conservation.

  20. Lubricant Coating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    "Peen Plating," a NASA developed process for applying molybdenum disulfide, is the key element of Techniblast Co.'s SURFGUARD process for applying high strength solid lubricants. The process requires two machines -- one for cleaning and one for coating. The cleaning step allows the coating to be bonded directly to the substrate to provide a better "anchor." The coating machine applies a half a micron thick coating. Then, a blast gun, using various pressures to vary peening intensities for different applications, fires high velocity "media" -- peening hammers -- ranging from plastic pellets to steel shot. Techniblast was assisted by Rural Enterprises, Inc. Coating service can be performed at either Techniblast's or a customer's facility.

  1. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

  2. Metal finishing and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Enzminger, J.D. )

    1990-06-01

    This article reviews the finishing and processing of metal wastes for land disposal. Topics of discussion include regulatory aspects, heavy metal treatment, cyanide treatment, waste minimization programs and techniques, and sludge treatment.

  3. Log processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bowlin, W.P.; Kneer, M.P.; Ballance, J.D.

    1989-11-07

    This patent describes an improvement in a computer controlled processing system for lumber production. It comprises: a computer, a sequence of processing stations for processing a log segment including; an excess material removing station for generating opposed flat side surfaces on the log segment. The flat side surfaces determined by the computer to become sides of boards to be severed from the log segments; a profiling station for forming profiled edges above and below the flat side surfaces to become the side edges of the boards to be severed from the log segment, and a severing station for severing the boards from the log segments, a conveyance means establishing a path of conveyance and having continuous control of the log segment on conveying the log segment along the path and through the above defined sequence of processing stations.

  4. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Quantum Stochastic Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Spring, William Joseph

    2009-04-13

    We consider quantum analogues of n-parameter stochastic processes, associated integrals and martingale properties extending classical results obtained in [1, 2, 3], and quantum results in [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10].

  6. [The irradiation process].

    PubMed

    Barillot, I; Chauvet, B; Hannoun Lévi, J M; Lisbona, A; Leroy, T; Mahé, M A

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the regulatory framework of the radiotherapy practice in France, the external irradiation and brachytherapy process and the guidelines for patient follow-up.

  7. Processing composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    The fabrication of several composite structural articles including DC-10 upper aft rudders, L-1011 vertical fins and composite biomedical appliances are discussed. Innovative composite processing methods are included.

  8. George: Gaussian Process regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    George is a fast and flexible library, implemented in C++ with Python bindings, for Gaussian Process regression useful for accounting for correlated noise in astronomical datasets, including those for transiting exoplanet discovery and characterization and stellar population modeling.

  9. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Qingyou

    2015-08-01

    Irradiation of high-energy ultrasonic vibration in metals and alloys generates oscillating strain and stress fields in solids, and introduces nonlinear effects such as cavitation, acoustic streaming, and radiation pressure in molten materials. These nonlinear effects can be utilized to assist conventional material processing processes. This article describes recent research at Oak Ridge National Labs and Purdue University on using high-intensity ultrasonic vibrations for degassing molten aluminum, processing particulate-reinforced metal matrix composites, refining metals and alloys during solidification process and welding, and producing bulk nanostructures in solid metals and alloys. Research results suggest that high-intensity ultrasonic vibration is capable of degassing and dispersing small particles in molten alloys, reducing grain size during alloy solidification, and inducing nanostructures in solid metals.

  10. Cooperative processing data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  11. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    DOEpatents

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  12. Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)

  13. Associative list processing unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  14. Microwave processing of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on microwave processing of ceramics: Microwave-material interactions; anticipated advantage of microwave sintering; ceramic sintering; and ceramic joining. 24 refs., 4 figs. (LSP)

  15. Space processing economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bredt, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Two types of space processing operations may be considered economically justified; they are manufacturing operations that make profits and experiment operations that provide needed applied research results at lower costs than those of alternative methods. Some examples from the Skylab experiments suggest that applied research should become cost effective soon after the space shuttle and Spacelab become operational. In space manufacturing, the total cost of space operations required to process materials must be repaid by the value added to the materials by the processing. Accurate estimates of profitability are not yet possible because shuttle operational costs are not firmly established and the markets for future products are difficult to estimate. However, approximate calculations show that semiconductor products and biological preparations may be processed on a scale consistent with market requirements and at costs that are at least compatible with profitability using the Shuttle/Spacelab system.

  16. Superfund Site Assessment Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about the site assessment process used by the federal Superfund program to evaluate releases of hazardous substances that may pose a threat to human health or the environment and select an appropriate program for sites needing cleanup.

  17. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  18. CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

  19. Coal Liquefaction Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at the University of Southern California on coal liquefaction processes. Lecture topics and course requirements are discussed. A 64-item bibliography of papers used in place of a textbook is included. (BT)

  20. Direct coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.

    1993-10-26

    An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300 C to 400 C for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

  1. Coal Liquefaction Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at the University of Southern California on coal liquefaction processes. Lecture topics and course requirements are discussed. A 64-item bibliography of papers used in place of a textbook is included. (BT)

  2. Direct coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Rindt, John R.; Hetland, Melanie D.

    1993-01-01

    An improved multistep liquefaction process for organic carbonaceous mater which produces a virtually completely solvent-soluble carbonaceous liquid product. The solubilized product may be more amenable to further processing than liquid products produced by current methods. In the initial processing step, the finely divided organic carbonaceous material is treated with a hydrocarbonaceous pasting solvent containing from 10% and 100% by weight process-derived phenolic species at a temperature within the range of 300.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for typically from 2 minutes to 120 minutes in the presence of a carbon monoxide reductant and an optional hydrogen sulfide reaction promoter in an amount ranging from 0 to 10% by weight of the moisture- and ash-free organic carbonaceous material fed to the system. As a result, hydrogen is generated via the water/gas shift reaction at a rate necessary to prevent condensation reactions. In a second step, the reaction product of the first step is hydrogenated.

  3. CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

  4. Petroleum Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the petroleum processing wastes, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as the use of activated carbon in petroleum and petrochemical waste treatment. A list of 15 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Shaping process makes fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Tabak, S.A.; Krambeck, F.J.

    1985-09-01

    The Mobil Olefin to Gasoline and Distillate (MOGD) process is described in which light olefinic compunds can be converted to high quality gasoline and distillate. This process, now ready for commercialization is based on a unique synthetic zeolite catalyst, the shape of which selectively oligomerizes light olefins to higher molecular weight iso-olefins. The highly flexible process can be designed to produce distillate/gasoline ratios of 0/100 to 90/10 for a commercial plant, depending on market requirements. MOGD is applicable to a wide range of feed streams ranging from ethylene to 400 degrees F end point olefinic naphtha. The process has been tested using commercially produced catalyst in refinery-scale equipment.

  6. Process for preparing hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Breuker, J.H.; De H.H.; Kwant, P.B.

    1980-01-15

    A process for preparing light distillate fractions and medicinal oil from heavy hydrocarbon oils comprises two-stage hydrocracking, fractionation distillation and catalytic hydrotreatment of at least part of the fractionation residue.

  7. Lesson 6: Submission Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Checklist items 8 through 12 are grouped under the Submission Process, and represent the CROMERR requirements that must be satisfied as the report or document is transferred to the system during a formal submission.

  8. Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)

  9. Advances in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Advances in electronics and computer science have enabled industries (pulp/paper, iron/steel, petroleum/chemical) to attain better control of their processes with resulting increases in quality, productivity, profitability, and compliance with government regulations. (JN)

  10. Image Processing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Ames digital image velocimetry technology has been incorporated in a commercially available image processing software package that allows motion measurement of images on a PC alone. The software, manufactured by Werner Frei Associates, is IMAGELAB FFT. IMAGELAB FFT is a general purpose image processing system with a variety of other applications, among them image enhancement of fingerprints and use by banks and law enforcement agencies for analysis of videos run during robberies.

  11. Near Shore Wave Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    given the offshore wave conditions . OBJECTIVES We hypothesize that the wave-induced kinematic, sediment and morphologic processes are nonlinearly... WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School,Department of Oceanography,Monterey,CA,93943 8...basis of our process modeling and analysis work . In addition, the comprehensive Delft3D morphology model was acquired from the Dutch and is being assessed

  12. Materials Processing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A report describes investigations of materials processing in low-gravity environment. Ultimately, research could lead to new commercially-applicable materials and processes and to an understanding of constraints imposed by gravity. NASA-supported work is carried out in 46 academic, industrial, and Government laboratories, and covers a number of areas. An overview is given of objective and current state of development for over 100 tasks.

  13. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Muenchausen, Ross E.

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  14. Bank Record Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  15. Research in Stochastic Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    appear. G. Kallianpur, Finitely additive approach to nonlinear filtering, Proc. Bernoulli Soc. Conf. on Stochastic Processes, T. Hida , ed., Springer, to...Nov. 85, in Proc. Bernoulli Soc. Conf. on Stochastic Processes, T. Hida , ed., Springer, to appear. i. Preparation T. Hsing, Extreme value theory for...1507 Carroll, R.J., Spiegelman, C.H., Lan, K.K.G., Bailey , K.T. and Abbott, R.D., Errors in-variables for binary regression models, Aug.82. 1508

  16. Solution Processing - Rodlike Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    side it necessary and identify by block number) Para-ordered Polymers High Modulus Fibers and Films Polybenzobisoxazoles Polybenzobisthiazoles 20...considerations important in solution processing are considered, with special emphasis on the dry-jet wet spinning process used to form fibers . Pertinent...Company, Summit, N.J. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ................ .......................... .. 1 2. REMARKS ON DRY-JET WET SPUN FIBER

  17. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Jr., Clarence

    1977-04-19

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided which enables conversion of a coal-oil slurry to a synthetic crude refinable to produce larger yields of gasoline and diesel oil. The process is characterized by a two-step operation applied to the slurry prior to catalytic desulfurization and hydrogenation in which the slurry undergoes partial hydrogenation to crack and hydrogenate asphaltenes and the partially hydrogenated slurry is filtered to remove minerals prior to subsequent catalytic hydrogenation.

  18. Business Development Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-31

    entity’s real estate situation and condition for use by 17 customers including (but not limited to) the business entity. 18 Information is processed to...the score to provide a well- 3 rounded picture of a particular real estate situation. 4 Stratmann discloses a method for assisting an individual in...identify a potential 9 flaw in the opportunity analysis . These criteria include whether 10 the process is dealing with a real customer, if it is

  19. Retrofitting heavy oil processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, G.L.; Fitzgerald, M.; D'Amico, V.

    1986-01-01

    Refiners, faced with the need to process the bottom end of the heavy high sulfur crude oil barrel in today's uncertain economic environment, are reluctant to commit large amounts of money to expensive upgrading processes. In order to conserve scarce capital while improving operating margins, additional valuable products can be produced by retrofits such as conversion of an idle crude unit to visbreaking, delayed coking or deasphalting service, or conversion of hydrodesulfurizers to mild hydrocracking.

  20. Qualitative Process Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    AD-A148 987 QUALITATIVE PROCESS THEORY(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF 1/2 TEEH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB K D FORBUS JUL 84 RI-TR-789 N88814-80...NATIONAL BUREAU Of STAN ARDS IJ% A 4 I .7 Technical Report 789 Q[-----Qualitative• Process M° Theory . Kenneth Dale Forbus MIT Artificial Intelligence ...PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Artificial Intelligence Laboratory AREA& WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 iI

  1. Hydrogen recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.; He, Zhenjie; Pinnau, Ingo

    2000-01-01

    A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

  2. Laser Processed Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The Laser Processed Heat Exchanger project will investigate the use of laser processed surfaces to reduce mass and volume in liquid/liquid heat exchangers as well as the replacement of the harmful and problematic coatings of the Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHX). For this project, two scale unit test articles will be designed, manufactured, and tested. These two units are a high efficiency liquid/liquid HX and a high reliability CHX.

  3. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  4. Electrochemical Atomic Layer Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-25

    where an atomic layer of an element is deposited , or removed, in a surface limited reaction. The potentials used are referred to as underpotentials in...the electrochemical literature. The atomic layer deposition process is referred to as underpotential deposition (UPD). 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15, NUMBER OF...reaction. The potentials used are referred to as underpotentials in the electrochemical literature. The atomic layer deposition process is referred to as

  5. Image Processing Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    To convert raw data into environmental products, the National Weather Service and other organizations use the Global 9000 image processing system marketed by Global Imaging, Inc. The company's GAE software package is an enhanced version of the TAE, developed by Goddard Space Flight Center to support remote sensing and image processing applications. The system can be operated in three modes and is combined with HP Apollo workstation hardware.

  6. Spherical nitroguanidine process

    DOEpatents

    Sanchez, John A.; Roemer, Edward L.; Stretz, Lawrence A.

    1990-01-01

    A process of preparing spherical high bulk density nitroguanidine by dissing low bulk density nitroguanidine in N-methyl pyrrolidone at elevated temperatures and then cooling the solution to lower temperatures as a liquid characterized as a nonsolvent for the nitroguanidine is provided. The process is enhanced by inclusion in the solution of from about 1 ppm up to about 250 ppm of a metal salt such as nickel nitrate, zinc nitrate or chromium nitrate, preferably from about 20 to about 50 ppm.

  7. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  8. Dawn Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-10

    In Astrotech's Payload Processing Facility, technicians help secure the Dawn spacecraft onto a moveable stand. Dawn will be moved into clean room C for unbagging and further processing. Dawn's mission is to explore two of the asteroid belt's most intriguing and dissimilar occupants: asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. The Dawn mission is managed by JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington, D.C.

  9. Unconventional olefin processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y.C.

    1983-05-01

    The conversion of syngas into olefins is based on the Fischer-Tropsch technology. The FT modified process for olefins includes: upgraded liquids for olefins and aromatics, and catcracking of methanol. Because of the number of catalysts for olefins, data is not yet possible. Economic projections suggest that methanol cracking for olefins will be feasible in 1990. Olefin demand will grow, and C/sub 1/ chemistry research will increase, so that some unconventional olefin processes can be commercialized by then.

  10. Textile composite processing science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loos, Alfred C.; Hammond, Vincent H.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Hasko, Gregory H.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-dimensional model of the Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) process was developed for the prediction of the infiltration behavior of a resin into an anisotropic fiber preform. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing (FDEMS) was developed for in-situ monitoring of the RTM process. Flow visualization and mold filling experiments were conducted to verify sensor measurements and model predictions. Test results indicated good agreement between model predictions, sensor readings, and experimental data.

  11. Welding processes and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Koellhoffer, L.; Manz, A.F.; Hornberger, G.

    1987-01-01

    Each section begins with basic process theory and moves on to practical exercises that become increasingly more difficult. Among the many processes and practices covered are: the materials and mechanical factors, basic positions and joints, oxyfuel gas welding, oxyacetylene welding of carbon steel, shielded metal arc welding, flux-colored arc welding, and gas tungsten arc welding. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of welding, and presents trouble-shooting techniques.

  12. Worldwide gas processing

    SciTech Connect

    Radler, M.

    1998-06-08

    Tables are presented on capacity and production in natural gas processing plants by country (by province or by state when appropriate), and by company within each country. Production figures are presented separately for ethane, propane, isobutane, butane, LP-gas mixtures, raw NGL mixtures, debutanized natural gasoline, an other. Another table gives world sulfur production by company within each country. The sulfur production table gives the source of the sulfur, type of process used, and figures for design capacity and production.

  13. Transparent materials processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetherington, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    A zero gravity processing furnace system was designed that will allow acquisition of photographic or other visual information while the sample is being processed. A low temperature (30 to 400 C) test model with a flat specimen heated by quartz-halide lamps was constructed. A high temperature (400 to 1000 C) test model heated by resistance heaters, utilizing a cylindrical specimen and optics, was also built. Each of the test models is discussed in detail. Recommendations are given.

  14. Processing Of Binary Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  15. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  16. Studsvik Processing Facility Update

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J. B.; Oliver, T. W.; Hill, G. M.; Davin, P. F.; Ping, M. R.

    2003-02-25

    Studsvik has completed over four years of operation at its Erwin, TN facility. During this time period Studsvik processed over 3.3 million pounds (1.5 million kgs) of radioactive ion exchange bead resin, powdered filter media, and activated carbon, which comprised a cumulative total activity of 18,852.5 Ci (6.98E+08 MBq). To date, the highest radiation level for an incoming resin container has been 395 R/hr (3.95 Sv/h). The Studsvik Processing Facility (SPF) has the capability to safely and efficiently receive and process a wide variety of solid and liquid Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) streams including: Ion Exchange Resins (IER), activated carbon (charcoal), graphite, oils, solvents, and cleaning solutions with contact radiation levels of up to 400 R/hr (4.0 Sv/h). The licensed and heavily shielded SPF can receive and process liquid and solid LLRWs with high water and/or organic content. This paper provides an overview of the last four years of commercial operations processing radioactive LLRW from commercial nuclear power plants. Process improvements and lessons learned will be discussed.

  17. Soviet gas processing expands

    SciTech Connect

    Sagers, M.J.

    1987-09-01

    The Soviet gas processing industry expanded with the recent completion of two new gas processing plants, the Krasnoleninskiy and Noyabr'sk plants, both located in West Siberia. Both process associated gas from nearby oil fields to remove valuable liquid hydrocarbons before putting the dry gas into pipelines; previously the gas was flared or vented. These plants represent part of a major program, ongoing since the 1970s, to increase the level of utilization of the tremendous amount of valuable associated gas now being produced in West Siberia. Another major effort to develop gas processing is under way in western Kazakhstan at the Tengiz and Zhanazhol' fields. At Zhanazhol', a small gas recovery plant went into operation in late 1984 in conjunction with a separation plant with a processing capacity of 1 million tons of oil per year. A much larger enterprise to refine oil and process associated gas is under construction at the Tengiz field. This enterprise is different from the major petrochemical operation planned to use feedstocks from Tengiz; the petrochemical operation will be constructed at Kulsary, 120 kilometers from Tengiz, and produce polyethylene, polypropylene, and other plastics.

  18. Clinical process cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Marrin, C A; Johnson, L C; Beggs, V L; Batalden, P B

    1997-09-01

    New systems of reimbursement are exerting enormous pressure on clinicians and hospitals to reduce costs. Using cheaper supplies or reducing the length of stay may be a satisfactory short-term solution, but the best strategy for long-term success is radical reduction of costs by reengineering the processes of care. However, few clinicians or institutions know the actual costs of medical care; nor do they understand, in detail, the activities involved in the delivery of care. Finally, there is no accepted method for linking the two. Clinical process cost analysis begins with the construction of a detailed flow diagram incorporating each activity in the process of care. The cost of each activity is then calculated, and the two are linked. This technique was applied to Diagnosis Related Group 75 to analyze the real costs of the operative treatment of lung cancer at one institution. Total costs varied between $6,400 and $7,700. The major driver of costs was personnel time, which accounted for 55% of the total. Forty percent of the total cost was incurred in the operating room. The cost of care decreased progressively during hospitalization. Clinical process cost analysis provides detailed information about the costs and processes of care. The insights thus obtained may be used to reduce costs by reengineering the process.

  19. Helium process cycle

    DOEpatents

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2007-10-09

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  20. Helium process cycle

    DOEpatents

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2008-08-12

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  1. Polycrystalline semiconductor processing

    DOEpatents

    Glaeser, A.M.; Haggerty, J.S.; Danforth, S.C.

    1983-04-05

    A process is described for forming large-grain polycrystalline films from amorphous films for use as photovoltaic devices. The process operates on the amorphous film and uses the driving force inherent to the transition from the amorphous state to the crystalline state as the force which drives the grain growth process. The resultant polycrystalline film is characterized by a grain size that is greater than the thickness of the film. A thin amorphous film is deposited on a substrate. The formation of a plurality of crystalline embryos is induced in the amorphous film at predetermined spaced apart locations and nucleation is inhibited elsewhere in the film. The crystalline embryos are caused to grow in the amorphous film, without further nucleation occurring in the film, until the growth of the embryos is halted by impingement on adjacently growing embryos. The process is applicable to both batch and continuous processing techniques. In either type of process, the thin amorphous film is sequentially doped with p and n type dopants. Doping is effected either before or after the formation and growth of the crystalline embryos in the amorphous film, or during a continuously proceeding crystallization step. 10 figs.

  2. Polycrystalline semiconductor processing

    DOEpatents

    Glaeser, Andreas M.; Haggerty, John S.; Danforth, Stephen C.

    1983-01-01

    A process for forming large-grain polycrystalline films from amorphous films for use as photovoltaic devices. The process operates on the amorphous film and uses the driving force inherent to the transition from the amorphous state to the crystalline state as the force which drives the grain growth process. The resultant polycrystalline film is characterized by a grain size that is greater than the thickness of the film. A thin amorphous film is deposited on a substrate. The formation of a plurality of crystalline embryos is induced in the amorphous film at predetermined spaced apart locations and nucleation is inhibited elsewhere in the film. The crystalline embryos are caused to grow in the amorphous film, without further nucleation occurring in the film, until the growth of the embryos is halted by imgingement on adjacently growing embryos. The process is applicable to both batch and continuous processing techniques. In either type of process, the thin amorphous film is sequentially doped with p and n type dopants. Doping is effected either before or after the formation and growth of the crystalline embryos in the amorphous film, or during a continuously proceeding crystallization step.

  3. Synroc processing options

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsa, R.B.; Hoenig, C.L.

    1981-09-01

    Synroc is a titanate-based ceramic material currently being developed for immobilizing high-level nuclear reactor wastes in solid form. Synroc D is a unique variation of Synroc. It can contain the high-level defense wastes, particularly those in storage at the Savannah River Plant. In this report, we review the early development of the initial Synroc process, discuss modification and other options that simplify it overall, and recommend the future direction of research and development in the processing area. A reference Synroc process is described briefly and contrasted with the Savannah River Laboratory glass-based reference case. Preliminary engineering layouts show Synroc to be a more complex processing operation and, thus, more expensive than the glass-based process. However, we believe that simplifications, which will significantly reduce the cost difference, are possible. Further research and development will continue in the areas of slurry processing, fluidized bed calcination, and mineralization. This last will use sintering, hot uniaxial pressing, or hot isostatic pressing.

  4. PALSAR ground data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Heinrich; Palsetia, Marzban; Carande, Richard; Curlander, James C.

    2002-02-01

    The upcoming launches of new satellites like ALOS, Envisat, Radarsat2 and ECHO will pose a significant challenge for many ground stations, namely to integrate new SAR processing software into their existing systems. Vexcel Corporation in Boulder, Colorado, has built a SAR processing system, named APEX -Suite, for spaceborne SAR satellites that can easily be expanded for the next generation of SAR satellites. APEX-Suite includes an auto-satellite-detecting Level 0 Processor that includes bit-error correction, data quality characterization, and as a unique feature, a sophisticated and very accurate Doppler centroid estimator. The Level 1 processing is divided into the strip mode processor FOCUST, based on the well-proven range-Doppler algorithm, and the SWATHT ScanSAR processor that uses the Chirp Z Trans-form algorithm. A high-accuracy ortho-rectification processor produces systematic and precision corrected Level 2 SAR image pro ducts. The PALSAR instrument is an L-band SAR with multiple fine and standard resolution beams in strip mode, and several wide-swath ScanSAR modes. We will address the adaptation process of Vexcel's APEX-Suite processing system for the PALSAR sensor and discuss image quality characteristics based on processed simulated point target phase history data.

  5. Process energy management

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    In many facilities, energy management is simply a matter of managing the energy required for lighting and space conditioning. In many others, however, energy management is much more complex and involves large motors and controls, industrial insulation, complex combustion monitoring, unique steam distribution problems, significant amounts of waste heat, etc. Typical facilities offering large energy management opportunities include industrial facilities, large office and commercial operations, government institutions such as schools, hospitals and prisons. Such facilities generally have specialized industrial, commercial or institutional processes that incorporate many of the concepts covered in other chapters. These processes require thorough analytical evaluations to determine the appropriate energy-saving measures. This chapter provides some examples. In this chapter the authors present a suggested procedure for process energy improvement. Then, motors and controls are discussed since they form an integral part of most processes. Next, some sample case studies of process energy management opportunities are provided. Finally, the authors outline some common process activities where better energy management can be practiced. Air compressors are also discussed.

  6. Fluvial processes in geomorphology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Wolman, M. Gordon; Miller, John P.

    1964-01-01

    This excellent text is a pioneering work in the study of landform development under processes associated with running water. Its primary emphasis is on subjects that were the focus of the authors' studies in both field and laboratory. Part I deals with the process of change in the evolving landscape. Part II explores process and form, and Part III, the effects of time.In Part I, the relation of geomorphology to field problems is analyzed in studies of a mountain block in a semiarid climate, a meandering river cut into bedrock, and benches along a sea coast. Part Two contains studies of weathering, climate, and such denudational processes as flooding and erosion. Here, too, are examinations of the drainage basin as a geomorphic unit, water and sediment in channels, channel form and process, and hillslope characteristics and processes.In Part III, the authors cover geochronology, drainage pattern evolution, channel changes with time, and the evolution of hillslopes. Two appendixes will help readers convert units and equivalents, and identify symbols and nomenclature.

  7. CustusX: an open-source research platform for image-guided therapy.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Christian; Solberg, Ole Vegard; Bakeng, Janne Beate Lervik; Reinertsen, Ingerid; Tangen, Geir Arne; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Iversen, Daniel Høyer; Våpenstad, Cecilie; Selbekk, Tormod; Langø, Thomas; Hernes, Toril A Nagelhus; Olav Leira, Håkon; Unsgård, Geirmund; Lindseth, Frank

    2016-04-01

    CustusX is an image-guided therapy (IGT) research platform dedicated to intraoperative navigation and ultrasound imaging. In this paper, we present CustusX as a robust, accurate, and extensible platform with full access to data and algorithms and show examples of application in technological and clinical IGT research. CustusX has been developed continuously for more than 15 years based on requirements from clinical and technological researchers within the framework of a well-defined software quality process. The platform was designed as a layered architecture with plugins based on the CTK/OSGi framework, a superbuild that manages dependencies and features supporting the IGT workflow. We describe the use of the system in several different clinical settings and characterize major aspects of the system such as accuracy, frame rate, and latency. The validation experiments show a navigation system accuracy of [Formula: see text]1.1 mm, a frame rate of 20 fps, and latency of 285 ms for a typical setup. The current platform is extensible, user-friendly and has a streamlined architecture and quality process. CustusX has successfully been used for IGT research in neurosurgery, laparoscopic surgery, vascular surgery, and bronchoscopy. CustusX is now a mature research platform for intraoperative navigation and ultrasound imaging and is ready for use by the IGT research community. CustusX is open-source and freely available at http://www.custusx.org.

  8. 21 CFR 1271.220 - Processing and process controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processing and process controls. 1271.220 Section... process controls. (a) General. If you are an establishment that processes HCT/Ps, you must process each... mixed in a single receptacle) during manufacturing. (c) In-process control and testing. You must...

  9. Microwave sintering process model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hu; Tinga, W R; Sundararaj, U; Eadie, R L

    2003-01-01

    In order to simulate and optimize the microwave sintering of a silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt toolbits process, a microwave sintering process model has been built. A cylindrical sintering furnace was used containing a heat insulating layer, a susceptor layer, and an alumina tube containing the green toolbit parts between parallel, electrically conductive, graphite plates. Dielectric and absorption properties of the silicon nitride green parts, the tungsten carbide/cobalt green parts, and an oxidizable susceptor material were measured using perturbation and waveguide transmission methods. Microwave absorption data were measured over a temperature range from 20 degrees C to 800 degrees C. These data were then used in the microwave process model which assumed plane wave propagation along the radial direction and included the microwave reflection at each interface between the materials and the microwave absorption in the bulk materials. Heat transfer between the components inside the cylindrical sintering furnace was also included in the model. The simulated heating process data for both silicon nitride and tungsten carbide/cobalt samples closely follow the experimental data. By varying the physical parameters of the sintering furnace model, such as the thickness of the susceptor layer, the thickness of the allumina tube wall, the sample load volume and the graphite plate mass, the model data predicts their effects which are helpful in optimizing those parameters in the industrial sintering process.

  10. Range Process Simulation Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Dave; Haas, William; Barth, Tim; Benjamin, Perakath; Graul, Michael; Bagatourova, Olga

    2005-01-01

    Range Process Simulation Tool (RPST) is a computer program that assists managers in rapidly predicting and quantitatively assessing the operational effects of proposed technological additions to, and/or upgrades of, complex facilities and engineering systems such as the Eastern Test Range. Originally designed for application to space transportation systems, RPST is also suitable for assessing effects of proposed changes in industrial facilities and large organizations. RPST follows a model-based approach that includes finite-capacity schedule analysis and discrete-event process simulation. A component-based, scalable, open architecture makes RPST easily and rapidly tailorable for diverse applications. Specific RPST functions include: (1) definition of analysis objectives and performance metrics; (2) selection of process templates from a processtemplate library; (3) configuration of process models for detailed simulation and schedule analysis; (4) design of operations- analysis experiments; (5) schedule and simulation-based process analysis; and (6) optimization of performance by use of genetic algorithms and simulated annealing. The main benefits afforded by RPST are provision of information that can be used to reduce costs of operation and maintenance, and the capability for affordable, accurate, and reliable prediction and exploration of the consequences of many alternative proposed decisions.

  11. Optical signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorey, J.

    The theoretical principles, design, and application of optical signal-processing devices are examined in a general review and illustrated with diagrams, with an emphasis on their use in radar, sonar, and lidar systems. Topics discussed include Fourier and Fresnel transforms, coherent-light computer techniques (film, electrooptical acoustooptical, and hybrid recording methods; processing of SLAR data; the convolution theorem in coherent optics; and the use of spatial or temporal integration in acoustooptic components), and incoherent-light techniques (the Mertz setup, mask correlation, elimination of spurious components, localization and imaging of EM or IR sources by a mobile-mask technique, and processing of vectors and matrices). The need to compress the output data of high-speed optical processors by detection, thresholding, or (possibly nonlinear) block-recognition functions related to extraction and decision-making processes is stressed, since otherwise digital processing of the output causes a bottleneck effect which negates the speed advantages of optical systems over all-digital solutions.

  12. Thermal spray processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, H.; Berndt, C. C.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal spray processing has been used for a number of years to cost-effecticely apply TBC's for a wide range of heat engine applications. In particular, bond coats are applied by plasma spray and HVOF techniques and partially-stabilized zirconia top coats are applied by plasma spray methods. Thermal spray involves melting and rapid transport of the molten particles to the substrate, where high-rate solidification and coating build-up occur. It is the very nature of this melt processing that leads to the unique layered microstructure, as well as the apparent imperfections, so readily identified with thermal spray. Modeling the process, process-induced residual stresses, and thermal conductivity will be discussed in light of a new understanding of porosity and its anisotropy. Microcracking can be understood using new approaches, allowing a fuller view of the processing-performance connection. Detailed electron microscopic, novel neutron diffraction and fracture analysis of the deposits can lead to a better understanding of how overall microstructure can be controlled to influence critical properties of the deposited TBC system.

  13. Due process traditionalism.

    PubMed

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2008-06-01

    In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges.

  14. Coal processing plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitterlich, W.; Bohn, T.; Eickhoff, H. G.; Geldmacher, H.; Mengis, W.; Oomatia, H.; Stroppel, K. G.

    1980-08-01

    The efficient design of processing plants which combine various coal based technologies in order to maximize the effectiveness of coal utilization is considered. The technical, economical and ecological virtues which compound plants for coal conversion offer are assayed. Twenty-two typical processes of coal conversion and product refinement are selected and described by a standardized method of characterization. An analysis of product market and a qualitative assessment of plant design support six different compound plant propositions. The incorporation of such coal conversion schemes into future energy supply systems was simulated by model calculations. The analysis shows that byproducts and nonconverted materials from individual processes can be processed in a compound plant in a profitable manner. This leads to an improvement in efficiencies. The product spectrum can be adapted to a certain degree to demand variations. Furthermore, the integration of fluidized bed combustion can provide an efficient method of desulfurization. Compound plants are expected to become economic in the 1990's. A necessary condition to compound technologies is high reliability in the functioning of all individual processes.

  15. NEPTUNIUM OXIDE PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, J; Watkins, R; Hensel, S

    2009-05-27

    The Savannah River Site's HB-Line Facility completed a campaign in which fifty nine cans of neptunium oxide were produced and shipped to the Idaho National Laboratory in the 9975 shipping container. The neptunium campaign was divided into two parts: Part 1 which consisted of oxide made from H-Canyon neptunium solution which did not require any processing prior to conversion into an oxide, and Part 2 which consisted of oxide made from additional H-Canyon neptunium solutions which required processing to purify the solution prior to conversion into an oxide. The neptunium was received as a nitrate solution and converted to oxide through ion-exchange column extraction, precipitation, and calcination. Numerous processing challenges were encountered in order make a final neptunium oxide product that could be shipped in a 9975 shipping container. Among the challenges overcome was the issue of scale: translating lab scale production into full facility production. The balance between processing efficiency and product quality assurance was addressed during this campaign. Lessons learned from these challenges are applicable to other processing projects.

  16. Silicon production process evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Engineering design of the third distillation column in the process was accomplished. The initial design is based on a 94.35% recovery of dichlorosilane in the distillate and a 99.9% recovery of trichlorosilane in the bottoms. The specified separation is achieved at a reflux ratio of 15 with 20 trays (equilibrium stages). Additional specifications and results are reported including equipment size, temperatures and pressure. Specific raw material requirements necessary to produce the silicon in the process are presented. The primary raw materials include metallurgical grade silicon, silicon tetrachloride, hydrogen, copper (catalyst) and lime (waste treatment). Hydrogen chloride is produced as by product in the silicon deposition. Cost analysis of the process was initiated during this reporting period.

  17. Acoustic Levitation Containerless Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whymark, R. R.; Rey, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    This research program consists of the development of acoustic containerless processing systems with applications in the areas of research in material sciences, as well as the production of new materials, solid forms with novel and unusual microstructures, fusion target spheres, and improved optical fibers. Efforts have been focused on the containerless processing at high temperatures for producing new kinds of glasses. Also, some development has occurred in the areas of containerlessly supporting liquids at room temperature, with applications in studies of fluid dynamics, potential undercooling of liquids, etc. The high temperature area holds the greatest promise for producing new kinds of glasses and ceramics, new alloys, and possibly unusual structural shapes, such as very uniform hollow glass shells for fusion target applications. High temperature acoustic levitation required for containerless processing has been demonstrated in low-g environments as well as in ground-based experiments. Future activities include continued development of the signals axis acoustic levitator.

  18. Exclusion processes with avalanches.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Uttam; Krapivsky, P L

    2014-07-01

    In an exclusion process with avalanches, when a particle hops to a neighboring empty site which is adjacent to an island the particle on the other end of the island immediately hops, and if it joins another island this triggers another hop. There are no restrictions on the length of the islands and the duration of the avalanche. This process is well defined in the low-density region ρ < 1/2. We describe the nature of steady states (on a ring) and determine all correlation functions. For the asymmetric version of the process, we compute the steady state current, and we describe shock and rarefaction waves which arise in the evolution of the step-function initial profile. For the symmetric version, we determine the diffusion coefficient and examine the evolution of a tagged particle.

  19. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, John D.

    1988-01-01

    (1) A process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder.

  20. Improving Metal Casting Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

  1. Empathy and error processing.

    PubMed

    Larson, Michael J; Fair, Joseph E; Good, Daniel A; Baldwin, Scott A

    2010-05-01

    Recent research suggests a relationship between empathy and error processing. Error processing is an evaluative control function that can be measured using post-error response time slowing and the error-related negativity (ERN) and post-error positivity (Pe) components of the event-related potential (ERP). Thirty healthy participants completed two measures of empathy, the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Empathy Quotient (EQ), and a modified Stroop task. Post-error slowing was associated with increased empathic personal distress on the IRI. ERN amplitude was related to overall empathy score on the EQ and the fantasy subscale of the IRI. The Pe and measures of empathy were not related. Results remained consistent when negative affect was controlled via partial correlation, with an additional relationship between ERN amplitude and empathic concern on the IRI. Findings support a connection between empathy and error processing mechanisms.

  2. Isothermal separation processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, C.

    1982-01-01

    The isothermal processes of membrane separation, supercritical extraction and chromatography were examined using availability analysis. The general approach was to derive equations that identified where energy is consumed in these processes and how they compare with conventional separation methods. These separation methods are characterized by pure work inputs, chiefly in the form of a pressure drop which supplies the required energy. Equations were derived for the energy requirement in terms of regular solution theory. This approach is believed to accurately predict the work of separation in terms of the heat of solution and the entropy of mixing. It can form the basis of a convenient calculation method for optimizing membrane and solvent properties for particular applications. Calculations were made on the energy requirements for a membrane process separating air into its components.

  3. Powder treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Weyand, J.D.

    1988-02-09

    Disclosed are: (1) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the slurry containing a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, while reducing the tendency for oxidation of the constituent by including as a liquid constituent of the slurry an organic liquid; (2) a process comprising spray drying a powder-containing slurry, the powder having been pretreated to reduce content of a powder constituent susceptible of oxidizing under the temperature conditions of the spray drying, the pretreating comprising heating the powder to react the constituent; and (3) a process comprising reacting ceramic powder, grinding the reacted powder, slurrying the ground powder, spray drying the slurried powder, and blending the dried powder with metal powder. 2 figs.

  4. Advanced Containerless Processing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.

    1985-01-01

    Breadboards for high temperature containerless processing systems are to be developed, the principles of operation are to be studied, the performance is to be characterized, the limitations identified, and the influence of the acoustic field on the samples established. The subjects to be addressed are experimental and theoretical studies of: (1) acoustic positioning and manipulation capabilities in a high temperature gradient environment (from 26 C to 990 C); (2) acoustic waveforms, harmonic contents, power transfer, sample transport and stability associated with high temperature gradient system; (3) high temperature ground based levitation systems which will allow melting, processing, and solidifying samples without crucibles in the laboratory, (4) KC-135 and laboratory tests of various acoustic geometries which may have spherical applications in the Materials Processing in Space Program; and (5) provide technical information to Acoustics Containerless Experimental System (ACES) engineering team and establish the operation conditions for ACES.

  5. Containerless processing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oran, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    A partial description of the technology, hardware, and facilities developed by NASA in support of space-based containerless processing experiments in the early 1970s is presented, along with recent results. Supercooling was necessary, at a rate of 500 K over a 400 ft span, in early drop tower and molten sample experiments. Placing an electromagnetic levitation coil/chamber at the top of the tube avoided contamination of the sample by guide wires. Recent tests have been performed in attempts to produce metastable bulk A-15 Nb3Ge. The use of copper coils for levitation is suspected to have induced stirring motions in samples. Aerodynamic levitation, needed for nonconducting materials, has been employed to process glass beads at temperatures over 1000 K. An electromagnetic levitation device used to process a gram of BeO on a sounding rocket flight will be carried on a Shuttle flight, as will an acoustic suspension system.

  6. Quartz resonator processing system

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Roswell D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a single chamber ultra-high vacuum processing system for the oduction of hermetically sealed quartz resonators wherein electrode metallization and sealing are carried out along with cleaning and bake-out without any air exposure between the processing steps. The system includes a common vacuum chamber in which is located a rotatable wheel-like member which is adapted to move a plurality of individual component sets of a flat pack resonator unit past discretely located processing stations in said chamber whereupon electrode deposition takes place followed by the placement of ceramic covers over a frame containing a resonator element and then to a sealing stage where a pair of hydraulic rams including heating elements effect a metallized bonding of the covers to the frame.

  7. URANIUM PRECIPITATION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Smith, H.W.; Simard, R.

    1957-12-01

    A method for the recovery of uranium from sulfuric acid solutions is described. In the present process, sulfuric acid is added to the uranium bearing solution to bring the pH to between 1 and 1.8, preferably to about 1.4, and aluminum metal is then used as a reducing agent to convert hexavalent uranium to the tetravalent state. As the reaction proceeds, the pH rises amd a selective precipitation of uranium occurs resulting in a high grade precipitate. This process is an improvement over the process using metallic iron, in that metallic aluminum reacts less readily than metallic iron with sulfuric acid, thus avoiding consumption of the reducing agent and a raising of the pH without accomplishing the desired reduction of the hexavalent uranium in the solution. Another disadvantage to the use of iron is that positive ferric ions will precipitate with negative phosphate and arsenate ions at the pH range employed.

  8. Image processing in planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulchignoni, M.; Picchiotti, A.

    The authors summarize the state of art in the field of planetary image processing in terms of available data, required procedures and possible improvements. More than a technical description of the adopted algorithms, that are considered as the normal background of any research activity dealing with interpretation of planetary data, the authors outline the advances in planetology achieved as a consequence of the availability of better data and more sophisticated hardware. An overview of the available data base and of the organizational efforts to make the data accessible and updated constitutes a valuable reference for those people interested in getting information. A short description of the processing sequence, illustrated by an example which shows the quality of the obtained products and the improvement in each successive step of the processing procedure gives an idea of the possible use of this kind of information.

  9. Process of timbral composing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withrow, Sam

    In this paper, I discuss the techniques and processes of timbral organization I developed while writing my chamber work, Afterimage. I compare my techniques with illustrative examples by other composers to place my work in historical context. I examine three elements of my composition process. The first is the process of indexing and cataloging basic sonic materials. The second consists of the techniques and mechanics of manipulating and assembling these collections into larger scale phrases, textures, and overall form in a musical work. The third element is the more elusive, and often extra-musical, source of inspiration and motivation. The evocative power of tone color is both immediately evident yet difficult to explain. What is timbre? This question cannot be answered solely in scientific terms; subjective factors affect our perception of it.

  10. Cantilever epitaxial process

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I.; Follstaedt, David M.; Mitchell, Christine C.; Han, Jung

    2003-07-29

    A process of growing a material on a substrate, particularly growing a Group II-VI or Group III-V material, by a vapor-phase growth technique where the growth process eliminates the need for utilization of a mask or removal of the substrate from the reactor at any time during the processing. A nucleation layer is first grown upon which a middle layer is grown to provide surfaces for subsequent lateral cantilever growth. The lateral growth rate is controlled by altering the reactor temperature, pressure, reactant concentrations or reactant flow rates. Semiconductor materials, such as GaN, can be produced with dislocation densities less than 10.sup.7 /cm.sup.2.

  11. Improving Metal Casting Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Don Sirois, an Auburn University research associate, and Bruce Strom, a mechanical engineering Co-Op Student, are evaluating the dimensional characteristics of an aluminum automobile engine casting. More accurate metal casting processes may reduce the weight of some cast metal products used in automobiles, such as engines. Research in low gravity has taken an important first step toward making metal products used in homes, automobiles, and aircraft less expensive, safer, and more durable. Auburn University and industry are partnering with NASA to develop one of the first accurate computer model predictions of molten metals and molding materials used in a manufacturing process called casting. Ford Motor Company's casting plant in Cleveland, Ohio is using NASA-sponsored computer modeling information to improve the casting process of automobile and light-truck engine blocks.

  12. A complementary MOS process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    The complete sequence used to manufacture complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits is described. The fixed-gate array concept is presented as a means of obtaining CMOS integrated circuits in a fast and reliable fashion. Examples of CMOS circuits fabricated by both the conventional method and the fixed-gate array method are included. The electrical parameter specifications and characteristics are given along with typical values used to produce CMOS circuits. Temperature-bias stressing data illustrating the thermal stability of devices manufactured by this process are presented. Results of a preliminary study on the radiation sensitivity of circuits manufactured by this process are discussed. Some process modifications are given which have improved the radiation hardness of our CMOS devices. A formula description of the chemicals and gases along with the gas flow rates is also included.

  13. COTS software selection process.

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, William M. (Strike Wire Technologies, Louisville, CO); Lin, Han Wei; McClelland, Kelly (U.S. Security Associates, Livermore, CA); Ullrich, Rebecca Ann; Khanjenoori, Soheil; Dalton, Karen; Lai, Anh Tri; Kuca, Michal; Pacheco, Sandra; Shaffer-Gant, Jessica

    2006-05-01

    Today's need for rapid software development has generated a great interest in employing Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products as a way of managing cost, developing time, and effort. With an abundance of COTS software packages to choose from, the problem now is how to systematically evaluate, rank, and select a COTS product that best meets the software project requirements and at the same time can leverage off the current corporate information technology architectural environment. This paper describes a systematic process for decision support in evaluating and ranking COTS software. Performed right after the requirements analysis, this process provides the evaluators with more concise, structural, and step-by-step activities for determining the best COTS software product with manageable risk. In addition, the process is presented in phases that are flexible to allow for customization or tailoring to meet various projects' requirements.

  14. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    DOEpatents

    Allemann, R.T.; Johnson, B.M. Jr.

    1961-10-31

    A process for concentrating fission-product-containing waste solutions from fuel element processing is described. The process comprises the addition of sugar to the solution, preferably after it is made alkaline; spraying the solution into a heated space whereby a dry powder is formed; heating the powder to at least 220 deg C in the presence of oxygen whereby the powder ignites, the sugar is converted to carbon, and the salts are decomposed by the carbon; melting the powder at between 800 and 900 deg C; and cooling the melt. (AEC) antidiuretic hormone from the blood by the liver. Data are summarized from the following: tracer studies on cardiovascular functions; the determination of serum protein-bound iodine; urinary estrogen excretion in patients with arvanced metastatic mammary carcinoma; the relationship between alheroclerosis aad lipoproteins; the physical chemistry of lipoproteins; and factors that modify the effects of densely ionizing radia

  15. Magnetic Particle Process Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, R.R.

    2002-08-13

    The magnetic particle testing process is performed to find linear, surface and near surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic test materials. A wet fluorescent method is used at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). This method employs a liquid carrier mixed with iron oxide particles in suspension, and the particles used in the method are coated with a fluorescent dye to make them visible under a black light. The process in its current state employs the use of a tank of liquid solution of a mineral oil carrier with iron oxide particles in suspension. The change to the use of an aerosol delivery system with the same material reduces the amount of waste involved in the process while preserving the sensitivity of the testing, shortens the flowtime for the test, and saves labor and material costs.

  16. Kennedy Space Center Payload Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Ronnie; Engler, Tom; Colloredo, Scott; Zide, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the payload processing functions at Kennedy Space Center. It details some of the payloads processed at KSC, the typical processing tasks, the facilities available for processing payloads, and the capabilities and customer services that are available.

  17. NTP comparison process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corban, Robert

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  18. AERONET Version 3 processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holben, B. N.; Slutsker, I.; Giles, D. M.; Eck, T. F.; Smirnov, A.; Sinyuk, A.; Schafer, J.; Rodriguez, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) database has evolved in measurement accuracy, data quality products, availability to the scientific community over the course of 21 years with the support of NASA, PHOTONS and all federated partners. This evolution is periodically manifested as a new data version release by carefully reprocessing the entire database with the most current algorithms that fundamentally change the database and ultimately the data products used by the community. The newest processing, Version 3, will be released in 2015 after the entire database is reprocessed and real-time data processing becomes operational. All V 3 algorithms have been developed, individually vetted and represent four main categories: aerosol optical depth (AOD) processing, inversion processing, database management and new products. The primary trigger for release of V 3 lies with cloud screening of the direct sun observations and computation of AOD that will fundamentally change all data available for analysis and all subsequent retrieval products. This presentation will illustrate the innovative approach used for cloud screening and assesses the elements of V3 AOD relative to the current version. We will also present the advances in the inversion product processing with emphasis on the random and systematic uncertainty estimates. This processing will be applied to the new hybrid measurement scenario intended to provide inversion retrievals for all solar zenith angles. We will introduce automatic quality assurance criteria that will allow near real time quality assured aerosol products necessary for real time satellite and model validation and assimilation. Last we will introduce the new management structure that will improve access to the data database. The current version 2 will be supported for at least two years after the initial release of V3 to maintain continuity for on going investigations.

  19. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  20. NTP comparison process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corban, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  1. Biomass Processing Photolibrary

    DOE Data Explorer

    Research related to bioenergy is a major focus in the U.S. as science agencies, universities, and commercial labs seek to create new energy-efficient fuels. The Biomass Processing Project is one of the funded projects of the joint USDA-DOE Biomass Research and Development Initiative. The Biomass Processing Photolibrary has numerous images, but there are no accompanying abstracts to explain what you are seeing. The project website, however, makes available the full text of presentations and publications and also includes an exhaustive biomass glossary that is being developed into an ASAE Standard.

  2. Disposables in downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Disposable equipment has been used for many years in the downstream processing industry, but mainly for filtration and buffer/media storage. Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in the use of disposable concepts for chromatography, replacing steel and glass fixed systems with disposable plastic modules that can be discarded once exhausted, fouled or contaminated. These modules save on cleaning and validation costs, and their reduce footprints reduce buffer consumption, water for injection, labor and facility space, contributing to an overall reduction in expenditure that lowers the cost of goods. This chapter examines the practical and economic benefits of disposable modules in downstream processing.

  3. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.M.; Larson, C.E.

    1958-10-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from calutron deposits. The process consists in treating such deposits to produce an oxidlzed acidic solution containing uranium together with the following imparities: Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn. The uranium is recovered from such an impurity-bearing solution by adjusting the pH of the solution to the range 1.5 to 3.0 and then treating the solution with hydrogen peroxide. This results in the precipitation of uranium peroxide which is substantially free of the metal impurities in the solution. The peroxide precipitate is then separated from the solution, washed, and calcined to produce uranium trioxide.

  4. Silicon web process development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Skutch, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.; Hopkins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    The silicon web process takes advantage of natural crystallographic stabilizing forces to grow long, thin single crystal ribbons directly from liquid silicon. The ribbon, or web, is formed by the solidification of a liquid film supported by surface tension between two silicon filaments, called dendrites, which border the edges of the growing strip. The ribbon can be propagated indefinitely by replenishing the liquid silicon as it is transformed to crystal. The dendritic web process has several advantages for achieving low cost, high efficiency solar cells. These advantages are discussed.

  5. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOEpatents

    Bowser, John

    2004-04-13

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In one of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the other part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. Ambient air is charged to the membrane separation unit during the latter part of the cycle.

  6. Cyclic membrane separation process

    DOEpatents

    Nemser, Stuart M.

    2005-05-03

    A cyclic process for controlling environmental emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from vapor recovery in storage and dispensing operations of liquids maintains a vacuum in the storage tank ullage. In the first part of a two-part cyclic process ullage vapor is discharged through a vapor recovery system in which VOC are stripped from vented gas with a selectively gas permeable membrane. In the second part, the membrane is inoperative while gas pressure rises in the ullage. In one aspect of this invention, a vacuum is drawn in the membrane separation unit thus reducing overall VOC emissions.

  7. Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

    2007-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

  8. Research Planning Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofton, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes the process used to collect, review, integrate, and assess research requirements desired to be a part of research and payload activities conducted on the ISS. The presentation provides a description of: where the requirements originate, to whom they are submitted, how they are integrated into a requirements plan, and how that integrated plan is formulated and approved. It is hoped that from completing the review of this presentation, one will get an understanding of the planning process that formulates payload requirements into an integrated plan used for specifying research activities to take place on the ISS.

  9. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  10. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  11. Thermal stir welding process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A welding method is provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  12. Image Processing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) is using a digital image processing system which employs NASA-developed technology. MIR's computer system is the largest radiology system in the world. It is used in diagnostic imaging. Blood vessels are injected with x-ray dye, and the images which are produced indicate whether arteries are hardened or blocked. A computer program developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory known as Mini-VICAR/IBIS was supplied to MIR by COSMIC. The program provides the basis for developing the computer imaging routines for data processing, contrast enhancement and picture display.

  13. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Yeager, J.H.

    1958-08-12

    In the prior art processing of uranium ores, the ore is flrst digested with nitric acid and filtered, and the uranium values are then extracted tom the filtrate by contacting with an organic solvent. The insoluble residue has been processed separately in order to recover any uranium which it might contain. The improvement consists in contacting a slurry, composed of both solution and residue, with the organic solvent prior to filtration. Tbe result is that uranium values contained in the residue are extracted along with the uranium values contained th the solution in one step.

  14. Proofs, Programs, Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Ulrich; Seisenberger, Monika

    We study a realisability interpretation for inductive and coinductive definitions and discuss its application to program extraction from proofs. A speciality of this interpretation is that realisers are given by terms that correspond directly to programs in a lazy functional programming language such as Haskell. Programs extracted from proofs using coinduction can be understood as perpetual processes producing infinite streams of data. Typical applications of such processes are computations in exact real arithmetic. As an example we show how to extract a program computing the average of two real numbers w.r.t. to the binary signed digit representation.

  15. Coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Billimoria, Rustom M.; Tao, Frank F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  16. Sequential elution process

    DOEpatents

    Kingsley, I.S.

    1987-01-06

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for the separation of complex mixtures of carbonaceous material by sequential elution with successively stronger solvents. In the process, a column containing glass beads is maintained in a fluidized state by a rapidly flowing stream of a weak solvent, and the sample is injected into this flowing stream such that a portion of the sample is dissolved therein and the remainder of the sample is precipitated therein and collected as a uniform deposit on the glass beads. Successively stronger solvents are then passed through the column to sequentially elute less soluble materials. 1 fig.

  17. Stochastic Process Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparza, Javier

    In many areas of computer science entities can “reproduce”, “replicate”, or “create new instances”. Paramount examples are threads in multithreaded programs, processes in operating systems, and computer viruses, but many others exist: procedure calls create new incarnations of the callees, web crawlers discover new pages to be explored (and so “create” new tasks), divide-and-conquer procedures split a problem into subproblems, and leaves of tree-based data structures become internal nodes with children. For lack of a better name, I use the generic term systems with process creation to refer to all these entities.

  18. Jupiter's Auroras Acceleration Processes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-06

    This image, created with data from Juno's Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (UVS), marks the path of Juno's readings of Jupiter's auroras, highlighting the electron measurements that show the discovery of the so-called discrete auroral acceleration processes indicated by the "inverted Vs" in the lower panel (Figure 1). This signature points to powerful magnetic-field-aligned electric potentials that accelerate electrons toward the atmosphere to energies that are far greater than what drive the most intense aurora at Earth. Scientists are looking into why the same processes are not the main factor in Jupiter's most powerful auroras. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21937

  19. Modularity of music processing.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Isabelle; Coltheart, Max

    2003-07-01

    The music faculty is not a monolithic entity that a person either has or does not. Rather, it comprises a set of neurally isolable processing components, each having the potential to be specialized for music. Here we propose a functional architecture for music processing that captures the typical properties of modular organization. The model rests essentially on the analysis of music-related deficits in neurologically impaired individuals, but provides useful guidelines for exploring the music faculty in normal people, using methods such as neuroimaging.

  20. Process Centerless Recess Grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malík, Andrej; Görög, Augustín

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with special centerless grinding using various methods, particularly the centerless grinding recess methods. The results of measuring the surface roughness of frontal and cylindrical areas of a workpiece, as well as the roundness of the cylindrical surface of the workpiece are presented in the paper. Qualitative parameters of the machined surfaces are supplemented by the course of the grinding process. The change in the shape of the workpiece in the process of grinding causes also the change of position of the workpiece in the work zone.

  1. Reversible brazing process

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, J.D.; Stephens, J.J.; Walker, C.A.

    1999-09-14

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together is disclosed. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  2. Catalytic cracking process

    SciTech Connect

    Aufdembrink, B.A.; Degnan, T.F.; Kresge, C.T.

    1990-01-23

    This patent describes a process for catalytically cracking a petroleum fraction to lighter hydrocarbons. The process comprises providing a feedstock containing a petroleum fraction and then contacting the feedstock with a catalyst under catalytic cracking conditions. The catalyst composition includes a titanometallate layered metal oxide material comprising a layered metal oxide material comprising a layered metal oxide and pillars of a chalcogenide of at least one element selected from Groups IB, IIB, IIIA, IIIB, IVB, VA, VB, VIA, VIIA and VIIIA of the Periodic Table of Elements separating the layers of the metal oxides.

  3. Dawn Spacecraft Processing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-04-10

    In clean room C of Astrotech's Payload Processing Facility, a worker wearing a "bunny suit," or clean-room attire, looks over the Dawn spacecraft after removing the protective cover, at bottom right. In the clean room, the spacecraft will undergo further processing. Dawn's mission is to explore two of the asteroid belt's most intriguing and dissimilar occupants: asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. The Dawn mission is managed by JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington, D.C.

  4. Actinide metal processing

    DOEpatents

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  5. Actinide metal processing

    DOEpatents

    Sauer, Nancy N.; Watkin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  6. Planetary geological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Solomonidou, Anezina

    2014-11-01

    In this introduction to planetary geology, we review the major geologic processes affecting the solid bodies of the solar system, namely volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion. We illustrate the interplay of these processes in different worlds, briefly reviewing how they affect the surfaces of the Earth's Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars, then focusing on two very different worlds: Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active object in the solar system, and Saturn's moon Titan, where the interaction between a dense atmosphere and the surface make for remarkably earth-like landscapes despite the great differences in surface temperature and composition.

  7. Accelerated stochastic diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbaczewski, Piotr

    1990-07-01

    We give a purely probabilistic demonstration that all effects of non-random (external, conservative) forces on the diffusion process can be encoded in the Nelson ansatz for the second Newton law. Each random path of the process together with a probabilistic weight carries a phase accumulation (complex valued) weight. Random path summation (integration) of these weights leads to the transition probability density and transition amplitude respectively between two spatial points in a given time interval. The Bohm-Vigier, Fenyes-Nelson-Guerra and Feynman descriptions of the quantum particle behaviours are in fact equivalent.

  8. Array signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Haykin, S.; Justice, J.H.; Owsley, N.L.; Yen, J.L.; Kak, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    This is the first book to be devoted completely to array signal processing, a subject that has become increasingly important in recent years. The book consists of six chapters. Chapter 1, which is introductory, reviews some basic concepts in wave propagation. The remaining five chapters deal with the theory and applications of array signal processing in (a) exploration seismology, (b) passive sonar, (c) radar, (d) radio astronomy, and (e) tomographic imaging. The various chapters of the book are self-contained. The book is written by a team of five active researchers, who are specialists in the individual fields covered by the pertinent chapters.

  9. Solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  10. Reversible brazing process

    DOEpatents

    Pierce, Jim D.; Stephens, John J.; Walker, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  11. Statecharts Via Process Algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttgen, Gerald; vonderBeeck, Michael; Cleaveland, Rance

    1999-01-01

    Statecharts is a visual language for specifying the behavior of reactive systems. The Language extends finite-state machines with concepts of hierarchy, concurrency, and priority. Despite its popularity as a design notation for embedded system, precisely defining its semantics has proved extremely challenging. In this paper, a simple process algebra, called Statecharts Process Language (SPL), is presented, which is expressive enough for encoding Statecharts in a structure-preserving and semantic preserving manner. It is establish that the behavioral relation bisimulation, when applied to SPL, preserves Statecharts semantics

  12. A grieving process illustrated?

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Rory

    2016-06-10

    The sudden death of Pablo Picasso's closest friend Carlos Casagemas in 1901 came as a great shock to the young Picasso. From a young age, Picasso had ruminated on life and death; however, this was his first experience of bereavement. Following the death of Casagemas, Picasso's paintings can be seen as a diary of his grieving process and clearly illustrate the five stages of the grieving process as outlined by Kubler-Ross in 'On Death and Dying' (1969). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Examinations of the new direct smelting processes for iron and steelmaking. [ELRED process, INRED process, SKF Plasmasmelt process, McDowell-Wellman process, the direct converter smelting process

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    This paper discusses the need for a radical technological change in the production of iron and steel and suggests the salient features that should be addressed. Five new direct smelting steelmaking systems have been compared with blast furnace/basic oxygen furnace route. These are the ELRED process the INRED process, the SKF Plasmasmelt process, the McDowell-Wellman process, and a converter smelting process. 20 refs.

  14. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Norman L.; Moon, William G.; Prudich, Michael E.

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  15. Software process assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon E.; Tucker, George T.; Verducci, Anthony J., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Software process assessments (SPA's) are part of an ongoing program of continuous quality improvements in AT&T. Their use was found to be very beneficial by software development organizations in identifying the issues facing the organization and the actions required to increase both quality and productivity in the organization.

  16. Catalytic coal hydroliquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal in a hydrogen donor solvent in the presence of hydrogen and a co-catalyst combination of iron and a Group VI or Group VIII non-ferrous metal or compounds of the catalysts.

  17. Pervaporation process and assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wynn, Nicholas P.; Huang, Yu; Aldajani, Tiem; Fulton, Donald A.

    2010-07-20

    The invention is a pervaporation process and pervaporation equipment, using a series of membrane modules, and including inter-module reheating of the feed solution under treatment. The inter-module heating is achieved within the tube or vessel in which the modules are housed, thereby avoiding the need to repeatedly extract the feed solution from the membrane module train.

  18. Image-Processing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Hull, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    IMAGEP manipulates digital image data to effect various processing, analysis, and enhancement functions. It is keyboard-driven program organized into nine subroutines. Within subroutines are sub-subroutines also selected via keyboard. Algorithm has possible scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications in study of flows in materials, analysis of steels and ores, and pathology, respectively.

  19. Optical Data Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    advancing a , useful for visually coneying results. However, they are misleading final decision. since they bias one to favor a feature extractor that yields...34. , 18. University of Maryland - "Optical Processing for Autonomous Land Vehicle Navigation". % January 1985 ° . 26 19. Fairchild Weston - Long Island

  20. Language Processing and Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Juan

    Three aspects of language behavior--linguistic independence, linguistic interference, and code-switching, are an integral part of the language processing experiences of the bilingual person. Complex cerebral mechanisms function in a coordinated effort to analyze and synthesize the various components of linguistic codes, store them in semantic…